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Sample records for incinerator hamilton microform

  1. Bibliographic Control of Microforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichmann, Felix; Tharpe, Josephine M.

    There are two major parts to this book. The first is a study of bibliographic control of microforms, and the second is an extensive annotated bibliography of microforms. The study included a survey of 190 libraries and showed that local bibliographic control of microforms is often so inadequate that usefulness of the microform collection is…

  2. Microform and the Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the microform publication of primary source material focuses on the area of British history between 1450 and 1750. The efforts of University Microfilms International and Harvester Press Microforms Ltd. are reviewed, and a possible microform series of material from this period is suggested. Four references are listed. (MES)

  3. Microforms in Information Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, B. J. S.

    In an attempt to identify some of the factors which influence the utility of microforms as a medium for information handling, this report first traces some of the landmarks in the evolution of microforms since their invention in 1893. It next provides a factual account of current microform media and formats. The last section of the report contains…

  4. Microform Developments Related to Acquisitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Focuses on significant developments of the recent past in acquisition and control of library microforms. Highlights include reference works essential to acquisition of microforms and microform equipment, microform utilization in libraries, bibliographic control, computer output microfilm (COM) and the Copyright Law, technological developments,…

  5. Microform Developments Related to Acquisitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Focuses on significant developments of the recent past in acquisition and control of library microforms. Highlights include reference works essential to acquisition of microforms and microform equipment, microform utilization in libraries, bibliographic control, computer output microfilm (COM) and the Copyright Law, technological developments,…

  6. Special Microform Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, R. C.; Byrnes, Margaret

    Focusing on the major collections in the microform reading room at the University of Michigan Library, this guide lists only those collections for which there are indexes or guides in the microform reference collection. Materials described include personal family and presidential papers, early American newspapers, bibliographies of books and…

  7. Microform Publications: Hardware and Suppliers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folcarelli, Ralph J.; Ferragamo, Ralph C.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of microforms as library media, the status of the micropublishing industry as it relates to libraries, developments in micropublishing and micrographics with impact on future library services, microform selection, and major sources. (Author/LS)

  8. Microforms Policy and Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichhorn, Sara, Comp.

    This manual formulates guidelines and serves as a policy document for microforms service at the Microforms Desk of the Government Publications and Microforms Department of the University of California, Irvine. Introductory materials include a description of the nature of the service and statements of its objectives and policies for dealing with…

  9. Microforms as Library Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avedon, Don M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes various microforms (any form, either film or paper, which contains microimages), indicating the advantages and disadvantages of roll film, aperture cards, microfiche, jackets, and micro-opaques. Phases and benefits of micropublishing, seven types of microfilm, safety film, processed microfilm, and storage are noted. Ten references are…

  10. The ARL Microform Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    In 1980, a study was conducted for the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) by Information Systems Consultants (ISCI) which led to the establishment of the ARL Microform Project. Based on a three-part survey, to which a total of 848 academic, government, public, and special libraries responded, the ISCI study covered: (1) general microform…

  11. Microform Reader Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hal W.; Michaels, George H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes experiences in organizing a program of microform reader and reader/printer maintenance at Texas A & M's Sterling C. Evans Library and offers guidelines for regular machine maintenance and repair. Guidelines discussed relate to maintenance philosophy, general machine cleaning, troubleshooting, service contracts, supplies,…

  12. Microform Developments Related to Acquisitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Libraries are spending an increasing amount of money on acquisitions and an expanding portion of these expenditures is for microforms. It behooves the acquisitions librarian to be aware of changes and developments in microforms and to interpret what effect they will have on acquisitions. (50 references) (Author/SJ)

  13. Microform Systems. A Handbook for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Thomas Graham

    Microform systems are utilized by educational institutions for administrative, library, and instructional purposes. This booklet examines specific examples of all three types of microform usage. The basic components of a microform system-input devices, storage devices, retrieval methods, and output devices--are described and illustrated. Ten…

  14. Automation in Microforms: An Academic Microform Publisher's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Linda K.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes current status of and concerns about automation in the academic microform publishing industry in two areas: automation of film production (computer-aided design, computer-assisted retrieval, computer-output microfilm) and automation of bibliographic control information (order-management systems, production of printed indexes,…

  15. Microforms and the Library: A Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreitzer, Francis F.

    1979-01-01

    This review of "Microform Librarianship" (a nontechnical guide) and "Computer-Output Microfilm: Its Library Applications" (a concise introduction to COM) points out that the vision of how the microform medium could be developed more imaginatively to better serve the user is missing from both books. (CWM)

  16. Microforms in a Medical Library Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Victor A.; Kapadia, Sushila

    A microform program is proposed based on the availability of the microforms and the literature requirements of a growing health science community. The program concentrates on miniaturized serials, government-sponsored research reports, and micrographic catalogues. It considers their acquisitions, format, and organization; itemizes the hardware…

  17. Hamilton College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Julia

    1989-01-01

    A description of Hamilton College's campus computing environment looks at the planning and management of information technology, computing services, the telephone network, faculty and student computing, and computer applications in the library. (MSE)

  18. Current Developments in Colour Microform Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses some lingering problems with production and use of color microforms, e.g., reliable microfilm emulsion, color temperature, and image fading; and reports on recent advances in color stability and accuracy and international efforts to standardize production. (MBR)

  19. Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Matthijs; Allen, Benjamin; Hoffman, Moshe; Simon, Burton; Veller, Carl

    2017-02-07

    This paper reviews and addresses a variety of issues relating to inclusive fitness. The main question is: are there limits to the generality of inclusive fitness, and if so, what are the perimeters of the domain within which inclusive fitness works? This question is addressed using two well-known tools from evolutionary theory: the replicator dynamics, and adaptive dynamics. Both are combined with population structure. How generally Hamilton's rule applies depends on how costs and benefits are defined. We therefore consider costs and benefits following from Karlin and Matessi's (1983) "counterfactual method", and costs and benefits as defined by the "regression method" (Gardner et al., 2011). With the latter definition of costs and benefits, Hamilton's rule always indicates the direction of selection correctly, and with the former it does not. How these two definitions can meaningfully be interpreted is also discussed. We also consider cases where the qualitative claim that relatedness fosters cooperation holds, even if Hamilton's rule as a quantitative prediction does not. We furthermore find out what the relation is between Hamilton's rule and Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. We also consider cancellation effects - which is the most important deepening of our understanding of when altruism is selected for. Finally we also explore the remarkable (im)possibilities for empirical testing with either definition of costs and benefits in Hamilton's rule.

  20. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  1. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  2. Incinerator apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.P.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an incinerator apparatus. It comprises: a primary incinerator chamber; a secondary incinerator chamber coupled to the primary incinerator chamber by a passageway; a primary air input into the incinerator chamber; a secondary air input into the secondary incinerator chamber; a plurality of flame detector ports opening into the secondary incinerator chamber and each flame detector port being spaced in a predetermined relationship to each other; and a plurality of ultraviolet flame detectors.

  3. Cooperative Microform Publishing: The Law Library Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the Hawaii-based Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC), a nonprofit interlibrary cooperative microfiche project involving several hundred American and foreign law libraries, outlines LLMC's history, organizational structure, operations, publishing record, marketing efforts, and prospects for the future. (EJS)

  4. Cooperative Microform Publishing: The Law Library Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the Hawaii-based Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC), a nonprofit interlibrary cooperative microfiche project involving several hundred American and foreign law libraries, outlines LLMC's history, organizational structure, operations, publishing record, marketing efforts, and prospects for the future. (EJS)

  5. Five Decades of Microforms at the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history of the microform collections at the Library of Congress (LC), highlighting the exchange of microfilmed newspapers between LC and the Biblioteca Nacional, Brazil. Recent developments in preservation microfilming, LC's acquisition of microforms, and the activities of the LC Preservation Microfilming Office are described. (3…

  6. Five Decades of Microforms at the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history of the microform collections at the Library of Congress (LC), highlighting the exchange of microfilmed newspapers between LC and the Biblioteca Nacional, Brazil. Recent developments in preservation microfilming, LC's acquisition of microforms, and the activities of the LC Preservation Microfilming Office are described. (3…

  7. Microform Catalogs: A Viable Alternative for Texas Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn, M.; Juergens, Bonnie

    This project proposed to develop and test the use of microform catalogs produced from computer-generated magnetic tape records in both fiche and film formats. The Computer Output Microform (COM) catalog developed for this purpose is a union list of titles from the five participating libraries--Houston and Dallas Public Libraries, Texas State…

  8. Microform Catalogs: A Viable Alternative for Texas Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn, M.; Juergens, Bonnie

    This project proposed to develop and test the use of microform catalogs produced from computer-generated magnetic tape records in both fiche and film formats. The Computer Output Microform (COM) catalog developed for this purpose is a union list of titles from the five participating libraries--Houston and Dallas Public Libraries, Texas State…

  9. 36 CFR 1238.26 - What are the restrictions on use for permanent and unscheduled microform records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... permanent and unscheduled microform records? (a) Agencies must not use the silver gelatin master microform or duplicate silver gelatin microform of permanent or unscheduled records created in accordance with...

  10. 36 CFR 1238.26 - What are the restrictions on use for permanent and unscheduled microform records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... permanent and unscheduled microform records? (a) Agencies must not use the silver gelatin master microform or duplicate silver gelatin microform of permanent or unscheduled records created in accordance with...

  11. 36 CFR § 1238.26 - What are the restrictions on use for permanent and unscheduled microform records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... permanent and unscheduled microform records? (a) Agencies must not use the silver gelatin master microform or duplicate silver gelatin microform of permanent or unscheduled records created in accordance with...

  12. 36 CFR 1238.26 - What are the restrictions on use for permanent and unscheduled microform records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permanent and unscheduled microform records? (a) Agencies must not use the silver gelatin master microform or duplicate silver gelatin microform of permanent or unscheduled records created in accordance with...

  13. 36 CFR 1238.26 - What are the restrictions on use for permanent and unscheduled microform records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permanent and unscheduled microform records? (a) Agencies must not use the silver gelatin master microform or duplicate silver gelatin microform of permanent or unscheduled records created in accordance with...

  14. Microform Market Place 1974/1975. An International Directory of Micropublishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaner, Allen B., Ed.; Meckler, Alan M., Ed.

    The information for this international buyer's guide for the microform purchaser was gathered from questionnaires to the publishers themselves. The guide is divided into eight sections: directory of micropublishers, mergers and acquisitions, bibliography of first sources for the microform library, microform jobbers, organizations, a geographical…

  15. Microform Market Place 1974/1975. An International Directory of Micropublishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaner, Allen B., Ed.; Meckler, Alan M., Ed.

    The information for this international buyer's guide for the microform purchaser was gathered from questionnaires to the publishers themselves. The guide is divided into eight sections: directory of micropublishers, mergers and acquisitions, bibliography of first sources for the microform library, microform jobbers, organizations, a geographical…

  16. Virginia Hamilton: Majestic Storyteller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Virginia Hamilton's accomplishments as a writer and storyteller for young people. Suggests activities related to Hamilton's books, including reading aloud, watching a biographical videotape, displaying her books in the library or classroom, and visiting children's and young adult author web sites. Provides an annotated bibliography of 20…

  17. Incineration and incinerator ash processing

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Measurement of material mechanical properties in microforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Wang; Xu, Zhenying; Hui, Huang; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2006-02-01

    As the rapid market need of micro-electro-mechanical systems engineering gives it the wide development and application ranging from mobile phones to medical apparatus, the need of metal micro-parts is increasing gradually. Microforming technology challenges the plastic processing technology. The findings have shown that if the grain size of the specimen remains constant, the flow stress changes with the increasing miniaturization, and also the necking elongation and the uniform elongation etc. It is impossible to get the specimen material properties in conventional tensile test machine, especially in the high precision demand. Therefore, one new measurement method for getting the specimen material-mechanical property with high precision is initiated. With this method, coupled with the high speed of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera and high precision of Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), the elongation and tensile strain in the gauge length are obtained. The elongation, yield stress and other mechanical properties can be calculated from the relationship between the images and CCD camera movement. This measuring method can be extended into other experiments, such as the alignment of the tool and specimen, micro-drawing process.

  19. Landmarks of Science: Microforms Cataloging Project, September 1981-December 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Richard

    To improve bibliographic access to the individual works contained in "Landmarks of Science" and "Landmarks II," two comprehensive microform collections of materials related to the history of science, the staff of the University of Utah Libraries cataloged the individual titles. Staff members with backgrounds in Renaissance…

  20. The European Register of Microform Masters--Supporting International Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Werner

    With almost every country in the world doing costly microfilming to preserve the world's printed heritage, it is essential to find a way by which these vast stores of information are not knowingly duplicated. A significant contribution to this effort has been the establishment of the European Register of Microform Masters (EROMM), a shared…

  1. The GPO Reduced to Size: Microforms and Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies format-specific problems which depository and other government publications librarians frequently face as a result of the Government Printing Office's (GPO) micropublishing program. Program preparation and underpinnings, GPO microform storage in libraries, government publications librarians, and the independence of documents collections…

  2. The European Register of Microform Masters--Supporting International Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Werner

    With almost every country in the world doing costly microfilming to preserve the world's printed heritage, it is essential to find a way by which these vast stores of information are not knowingly duplicated. A significant contribution to this effort has been the establishment of the European Register of Microform Masters (EROMM), a shared…

  3. Sabbatical Report: Results of a Survey of Library Microforms Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Melinda C.

    1987-01-01

    Highlights findings on the status of academic library microforms facilities in the United States and Canada based on visits to 11 libraries. Topics covered include administration, personnel, collection access and storage, classification, acquisition, circulation, indexes, hours, facilities, signage, equipment, photocopying, cleanliness, vandalism,…

  4. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  5. Elizabeth Hamilton: Enlightenment Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Rosalind

    1986-01-01

    Elizabeth Hamilton, an eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scottish writer on education, was one of the first to advocate the application of educational psychology to teaching. She introduced Pestalozzi's method to the English-reading public and argued for equal education for all children of both sexes and all social backgrounds. (LFL)

  6. 36 CFR 1238.30 - What must agencies do when transferring permanent microform records to the National Archives of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in § 1232.14(c) of this subchapter. (c) Transfer the silver gelatin original (or duplicate silver gelatin microform created in accordance with § 1238.14) plus one microform copy. (d) Ensure that the... separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as...

  7. 36 CFR 1238.30 - What must agencies do when transferring permanent microform records to the National Archives of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in § 1232.14(c) of this subchapter. (c) Transfer the silver gelatin original (or duplicate silver gelatin microform created in accordance with § 1238.14) plus one microform copy. (d) Ensure that the... separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as...

  8. 36 CFR 1238.30 - What must agencies do when transferring permanent microform records to the National Archives of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in § 1232.14(c) of this subchapter. (c) Transfer the silver gelatin original (or duplicate silver gelatin microform created in accordance with § 1238.14) plus one microform copy. (d) Ensure that the... separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as...

  9. 36 CFR 1238.30 - What must agencies do when transferring permanent microform records to the National Archives of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in § 1232.14(c) of this subchapter. (c) Transfer the silver gelatin original (or duplicate silver gelatin microform created in accordance with § 1238.14) plus one microform copy. (d) Ensure that the... separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as...

  10. 36 CFR 1238.30 - What must agencies do when transferring permanent microform records to the National Archives of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in § 1232.14(c) of this subchapter. (c) Transfer the silver gelatin original (or duplicate silver gelatin microform created in accordance with § 1238.14) plus one microform copy. (d) Ensure that the... separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as...

  11. 36 CFR 1238.24 - What are NARA inspection requirements for temporary microform records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are NARA inspection requirements for temporary microform records? 1238.24 Section 1238.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MICROFORMS RECORDS MANAGEMENT Storage, Use...

  12. Studying All Those "Tiny Little Tea Leaves": The Future of Microforms in a Complex Technological Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerburgh, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the future of microforms by surveying the history of their use in libraries; reviewing the literature about them; and comparing them with electronic databases, full text delivery, and laser disks. It is concluded that microforms will continue to be the primary providers of significant but rarely used retrospective materials. (EM)

  13. Auxiliary incinerator apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.P.

    1987-08-11

    An auxiliary incinerator apparatus is described for an incinerator comprising: a main incinerator having primary and secondary chambers formed with a plurality of refractory walls, the main incinerator having a main door into the primary chamber, and the main incinerator having an outer framework and walls spaced from the refractory walls, and one refractory wall having an opening therethrough; a refractory passageway extending from the opening in the main incinerator wall to the outer wall and having an opening through the outer wall; an auxiliary incinerator attached to one side of the main incinerator adjacent to the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall, the auxiliary incinerator having an incineration chamber formed therein with an opening thereinto; and auxiliary door means for opening and closing over the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall and for opening and closing over the opening into the auxiliary incinerator, whereby partially incinerated materials can be moved from the main incinerator to the auxiliary incinerator for further combustion.

  14. Incinerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmell, R.K.

    1986-10-07

    An incineration system is described which consists of: combustion chamber structure having an inlet, an outlet, and burner structure in the combustion chamber, heat exchanger structure defining a chamber, divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber, an array of tubes extending through the heat exchanger chamber to the inlet of the combustion chamber at the divider structure. The heat exchanger chamber has an inlet coupled to the outlet of the combustion chamber for flow of the combustion products discharged from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger chamber over the tubes in heat exchange relation, and an outlet for discharge of products from the heat exchanger chamber, aspirator sleeve structure secured to the divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber. Each aspirator sleeve receives the outlet end of a heat exchanger tube in slip fit relation so that the heat exchanger tubes are free to thermally expand longitudinally within the aspirator sleeves, and means for flowing vapor through the heat exchanger tubes into the combustion chamber at sufficiently high velocity to produce a reduced pressure effect in the aspirator sleeves in the heat exchanger chamber to draw a minor fraction of combustion products through the aspirator sleeves into the combustion chamber for reincineration.

  15. Thermoplastic Micro-Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Wen; Liu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic alloys with an isotropic amorphous structure that is rapidly quenched from liquid melts. The absence of a crystalline micro-structure endows them with a portfolio of properties such as high strength, high elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance. Whereas the limited plasticity and hence poor workability at ambient temperature impede the structural application of bulk metallic glasses, the unique superplasticity within the supercooled liquid region opens an alternative window of so-called thermoplastic forming, which allows precise and versatile net-shaping of complex geometries on length scales ranging from nanometers to centimeters that were previously unachievable with conventional crystalline metal processing. Thermoplastic forming not only breaks through the bottleneck of the manufacture of bulk metallic glasses at ambient temperature but also offers an alluring prospect in micro-engineering applications. This paper comprehensively reviews some pivotal aspects of bulk metallic glasses during thermoplastic micro-forming, including an in-depth understanding of the crystallization kinetics of bulk metallic glasses and the thermoplastic processing time window, the thermoplastic forming map that clarifies the relationship between the flow characteristics and the formability, the interfacial friction in micro-forming and novel forming methods to improve the formability, and the potential applications of the hot-embossed micro-patterns/components.

  16. Adaptive laser shock micro-forming for MEMS device applications.

    PubMed

    Zou, R; Wang, M; Wang, S L; Li, S; Zhang, C; Deng, L; Lu, Y F; Chen, K P

    2017-02-20

    Laser shock micro-forming is a non-thermal laser forming method that uses laser-induced shockwave to modify surface properties and to adjust shapes and geometry of work pieces. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the laser-induced shockwaves depend on the energy profiles of the laser beam focused on sample surfaces. In this paper, we present an adaptive optical technique to engineer spatial profiles of laser beams to control the shapes, sizes, and locations of the laser-induced shockwaves and the resulting forming features. Using a spatial light modulator, this adaptive laser beam forming tool was used to process free-standing MEMS structures in aluminum, which has led to highly uniform forming features. Shockwave simultaneously excited by multiple laser beams generated by the spatial light modulator and its effects on the micro-forming process were also studied. The results presented in this paper show that the adaptive optics laser beam forming is an effective and flexible method to generate shockwave with various shapes and sizes of wavefront and at multiple locations for laser processing at microscales.

  17. 36 CFR 1238.20 - How must microform records be stored?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... relative humidity of the storage area must be a constant 35 percent RH, plus or minus 5 percent. Non-silver copies of microforms must be maintained in a different storage area than are silver gelatin originals...

  18. Virginia Hamilton: Continuing the Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelsen, Nina

    1995-01-01

    Relates the latest installment of a continuing conversation between the author and Virginia Hamilton. Discusses ethnicity and identity, environmental issues, the creative process, and the way heritage, history, and family storytelling affect a writer's work. (RS)

  19. Laser shock microforming of aluminum foil with fs laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yunxia; Feng, Yayun; Xuan, Ting; Hua, Xijun; Hua, Yinqun

    2014-12-01

    Laser shock microforming of Aluminum(Al) foil through fs laser has been researched in this paper. The influences of confining layer, clamping method and impact times on induced dent depths were investigated experimentally. Microstructure of fs laser shock forming Al foil was observed through Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under the condition of tightly clamping, the dent depths increase with impact times and finally tend to saturating. Another new confining layer, the main component of which is polypropylene, was applied and the confining effect of it is better because of its higher impedance. TEM results show that dislocation is one of the main deformation mechanisms of fs laser shock forming Al foil. Specially, most of dislocations exist in the form of short and discrete dislocation lines. Parallel straight dislocation slip line also were observed. We analyzed that these unique dislocation arrangements are due to fs laser-induced ultra high strain rate.

  20. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas.

  1. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  2. 36 CFR 1238.32 - Do agencies need to request NARA approval for the disposition of all microform and source records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MICROFORMS RECORDS MANAGEMENT Storage, Use, and Disposition of Microform Records § 1238.32 Do agencies need to... unscheduled records. Agencies must schedule both source documents (originals) and microforms. NARA must...

  3. Peeps at William Edwin Hamilton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayman, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    William Edwin Hamilton, 1834-1902, (WEH) was the elder son of Sir William Rowan Hamilton and Helen Hamilton and he inherited many of the characteristics of his famous father. One property that he did not inherit, however, was his father's genius. While the outline of the life of WEH was given by Hankins in his 1980 biography of Sir William, a copy of ``Peeps at My Life'' written by WEH during the last months of his life was not available until recently. A few years ago a copy was sent to me by Herman Berg of Detroit and in this article, the principal items in ``Peeps'' that are relevant to Ireland, and some other facets of the character of WEH, are included as they give an unusual viewpoint of a by-gone age.

  4. INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cincinnati-based Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA operates the Incineration Research Facility *IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas. This facility's pilot-scale experimental incineration systems include a Rotary Kiln System and a Liquid Injection System. Each syste...

  5. INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cincinnati-based Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA operates the Incineration Research Facility *IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas. This facility's pilot-scale experimental incineration systems include a Rotary Kiln System and a Liquid Injection System. Each syste...

  6. Ohio incinerator battle continues

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, M.

    1993-05-01

    Waste Technologies Industries (WTI; East Liverpool, Ohio) is trying to wing what it hopes will be its final battle in a 13-year, $160 million war with the government, and community and environmental groups. The company since 1980 has sought EPA approval to operate a hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, Ohio. WTI late last year conducted a pre-test burn, or shakedown, during which the incinerator burned certain types of hazardous waste. The test demonstrates the incinerator's performance under normal operating conditions, Regulatory authorities, including EPA and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA), monitored activity during the shakedown, which was limited to 720 hours of operation. In accordance with RCRA requirements, the company in March conducted a trial burn to demonstrate that the incinerator meets permit standards. WTI's permit specifies three performance parameters the incinerator must meet -- particulate and hydrogen chloride emissions limits, and destruction removal efficiencies (DREs).

  7. Noggin null allele mice exhibit a microform of holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Lana-Elola, Eva; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Takatalo, Maarit; Alakurtti, Kirsi; Veistinen, Lotta; Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Graf, Daniel; Rice, Ritva; Luyten, Frank P; Rice, David P

    2011-10-15

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a heterogeneous craniofacial and neural developmental anomaly characterized in its most severe form by the failure of the forebrain to divide. In humans, HPE is associated with disruption of Sonic hedgehog and Nodal signaling pathways, but the role of other signaling pathways has not yet been determined. In this study, we analyzed mice which, due to the lack of the Bmp antagonist Noggin, exhibit elevated Bmp signaling. Noggin(-/-) mice exhibited a solitary median maxillary incisor that developed from a single dental placode, early midfacial narrowing as well as abnormalities in the developing hyoid bone, pituitary gland and vomeronasal organ. In Noggin(-/-) mice, the expression domains of Shh, as well as the Shh target genes Ptch1 and Gli1, were reduced in the frontonasal region at key stages of early facial development. Using E10.5 facial cultures, we show that excessive BMP4 results in reduced Fgf8 and Ptch1 expression. These data suggest that increased Bmp signaling in Noggin(-/-) mice results in downregulation of the hedgehog pathway at a critical stage when the midline craniofacial structures are developing, which leads to a phenotype consistent with a microform of HPE.

  8. Strain gradient polycrystal plasticity for micro-forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçinkaya, Tuncay; Simonovski, Igor; Özdemir, Izzet

    2016-10-01

    The developments in the micro-device industry has produced a substantial demand for the miniaturized metallic components with ultra-thin sheet materials that have thickness dimensions on the order of 50-500 µm which are produced through micro-forming processes. It is essential to have predictive tools to simulate the constitutive behavior of the materials at this length scale taking into account the physical and statistical size effect. Recent studies have shown that on the scale of several micrometers and below, crystalline materials behave differently from their bulk equivalent due to micro-structural effects (e.g. grain size, lattice defects and impurities), gradient effects (e.g. lattice curvature due to a non-uniform deformation field) and surface constraints (e.g. hard coatings or free interfaces). These effects could lead to stronger or weaker material response depending on the size and unique micro-structural features of the material. In this paper a plastic slip based strain gradient crystal plasticity model is used to address the effect of microstructural features (e.g. grain size, orientation and the number of grains) on the macroscopic constitutive response and the local behavior of polycrystalline materials.

  9. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  10. Incineration: Tested and true

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.E. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Hazardous-waste incineration has gotten a bad name over the years--so much so that its preferred euphemism today is thermal oxidation. Bad reputation aside, this technology confers many benefits on operators of on-site incinerators, such as requiring small land area, providing heat and product recovery, and eliminating waste-transport risk. Best of all, waste is gone forever. The main disadvantages, beyond difficulties in getting a permit from the state, and public misunderstanding, are high capital and operating costs. Incineration contributes but a small portion of the total emissions to the atmosphere, compared with recycling programs, which often use tanks--the number-one emission culprit. In addition, incinerators are low on the list for emitting carcinogens. Unfortunately the US government seems decidedly anti-incineration. Recently the US EPA approved a major oil company`s plans for landfarming toxic organic waste that otherwise would have been incinerated. This landfarm emitted over 100 lb of benzene annually--more than all the US incinerators produce in one year.

  11. Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

    PubMed

    Roncadelli, Marco; Schulman, L S

    2007-10-26

    Quantum canonical transformations have attracted interest since the beginning of quantum theory. Based on their classical analogues, one would expect them to provide a powerful quantum tool. However, the difficulty of solving a nonlinear operator partial differential equation such as the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) has hindered progress along this otherwise promising avenue. We overcome this difficulty. We show that solutions to the QHJE can be constructed by a simple prescription starting from the propagator of the associated Schrödinger equation. Our result opens the possibility of practical use of quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory. As an application, we develop a surprising relation between operator ordering and the density of paths around a semiclassical trajectory.

  12. Microform-related community patterns of methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs are site specific.

    PubMed

    Juottonen, Heli; Kotiaho, Mirkka; Robinson, Devin; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2015-09-01

    Vegetation and water table are important regulators of methane emission in peatlands. Microform variation encompasses these factors in small-scale topographic gradients of dry hummocks, intermediate lawns and wet hollows. We examined methane production and oxidization among microforms in four boreal bogs that showed more variation of vegetation within a bog with microform than between the bogs. Potential methane production was low and differed among bogs but not consistently with microform. Methane oxidation followed water table position with microform, showing higher rates closer to surface in lawns and hollows than in hummocks. Methanogen community, analysed by mcrA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and dominated by Methanoregulaceae or 'Methanoflorentaceae', varied strongly with bog. The extent of microform-related variation of methanogens depended on the bog. Methanotrophs identified as Methylocystis spp. in pmoA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly showed effect of bog, and microform patterns were stronger within individual bogs. Our results suggest that methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs with seemingly uniform environmental conditions may show strong site-dependent variation. The bog-intrinsic factor may be related to carbon availability but contrary to expectations appears to be unrelated to current surface vegetation, calling attention to the origin of carbon substrates for microbes in bogs. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. New Support for the Research Process: Desktop Delivery of Microform Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weare, William H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    While trying to access microform content, patrons at the Christopher Center for Library and Information Resources at Valparaiso University were often hampered by unfamiliar equipment, temperamental software, and a puzzling file management system. In an effort to address these problems, the Access Services Department launched a pilot program for…

  14. Preparing a Union List of Microforms on the Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance Periods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henneman, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project of the Association of College and Research Libraries to compile a union list of microforms dealing with the classical, medieval, and Renaissance periods. Goals of the project, questionnaire development, survey response, and questions raised by the project are discussed. The union list, including 101 titles and 45 libraries, is…

  15. Microform Collections in New Orleans Academic and Public Libraries: A Union List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Gregory P., Comp.

    This union list identifies 455 microform collections held by 8 public and academic libraries in New Orleans. It is noted that newspapers, periodicals, Government Printing Office (GPO) depository microfiche, and individual monograph titles were excluded from the list unless they are a part of a publisher's series, archival project, or manuscript…

  16. 36 CFR 1238.22 - What are the inspection requirements for permanent and unscheduled microform records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the inspection... Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MICROFORMS RECORDS... reference, see § 1238.5); (2) A rereading of resolution targets; (3) A remeasurement of density; and (4)...

  17. 36 CFR 1238.22 - What are the inspection requirements for permanent and unscheduled microform records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... following elements: (1) An inspection for aging blemishes following ANSI/AIIM MS45 (incorporated by...); (ii) The date of inspection; (iii) The elements of inspection (see paragraph (d) of this section); (iv... microform is deteriorating, the agency must make a silver duplicate in accordance with § 1238.14 to replace...

  18. University of New Mexico General Libraries Guide to the Microform Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Linda K.

    The contents--sets of archives, books, documents, manuscripts, music, periodicals, plays and scores--and indexing of the university collection of microforms are described in this guide. When available, the following information has been included: call number, card catalog entry, description, format, indexes, publisher, and review. Arranged…

  19. The Mellon Microform Master Project at the New York Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Gail

    1984-01-01

    Goals of micropreservation project at New York Public Library are twofold: to improve in-house processing and control of microforms (updating bibliograhic information, adding records to Research Libraries Information Network database, inspecting archival master negatives) and to participate in national preservation effort (supplementing…

  20. Primary Sources in History: A Guide to Microform Collections at Arizona State University. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palais, Elliot S., Comp.

    This guide describes history source materials available at Arizona State University (Tempe), as well as a selection of microforms located at other universities in Arizona and the Center for Research Libraries. Its purpose is to promote the use of sets and collections that, because of their publication in microformat, are relatively neglected. A…

  1. Determination of an Effective System of Bibliographic Control of Microform Publications. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichmann, Felix; Tharpe, Josephine M.

    This interim report provides some guidelines for the bibliographic control of microforms which at the present time is either inadequate or non-existent on a local level within a given library. A literature search and direct inquiry of librarians revealed that adherence to cataloging rules is inconsistent, there is wide variation in microform…

  2. Hamilton׳s Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter

    2016-05-21

    Much debate has appeared in the literature over the generality of the inclusive fitness approach in the modeling of evolutionary behavior. Here I focus on the capacity of the inclusive fitness approach to effectively handle non-additive or synergistic interactions. I work with a binary interaction with the matrix game [abcd] and I restrict attention to transitive (homogeneous) populations with weak selective effects. First of all I observe that the construction of "higher-order" relatedness coefficients permits these synergistic interactions to be analyzed with an inclusive fitness analysis. These coefficients are an immediate generalization of Hamilton׳s original coefficient and can be calculated with exactly the same type of recursive equations. Secondly I observe that for models in which the population is not too large and local genetic renewal is rare (e,g, rare mutation), these higher order coefficients are not needed even with non-additive interactions; in fact the synergistic interaction is entirely equivalent to a closely-related additive one. The overall conclusion is that in the study of synergistic binary social interactions (2-player games) in a finite homogeneous population with weak selection and rare genetic renewal, a standard inclusive-fitness analysis is able to predict the direction of allele-frequency change. I apply this result to analyze a recent model of Allen and Nowak (2015).

  3. Special roundup feature report on incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Peacy, J.

    1984-04-01

    The document reviews incineration as a means of destroying hazardous and industrial wastes. The designs of several different incinerators are discussed including modular-type incinerators, rotary kilns, fluidized bed incinerators, grate systems, and multiple hearth incinerators. Environmental controls, recovery, ancillary equipment, utilities and services and financing are among the other incineration-related issues discussed.

  4. Hamilton's principle as inequality for inelastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Lv, Q. C.; Liu, Y. R.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies with conservative external forces. Inelasticity is described by internal variable theory by Rice (J Mech Phys Solids 19:433-455, 1971), and the influence of strain change on the temperature field is ignored. Unlike Hamilton's principle for elastic bodies which has an explicit Lagrangian, Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies generally has no an explicit Lagrangian. Based on the entropy inequality, a quasi Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies is established in the form of inequality and with an explicit Lagrangian, which is just the Lagrangian for elastic bodies by replacing the strain energy with free energy. The quasi Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies states that the actual motion is distinguished by making the action an maximum. The evolution equations of internal variables can not be recovered from the quasi Hamilton's principle.

  5. Hamilton's principle as inequality for inelastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Lv, Q. C.; Liu, Y. R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies with conservative external forces. Inelasticity is described by internal variable theory by Rice (J Mech Phys Solids 19:433-455, 1971), and the influence of strain change on the temperature field is ignored. Unlike Hamilton's principle for elastic bodies which has an explicit Lagrangian, Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies generally has no an explicit Lagrangian. Based on the entropy inequality, a quasi Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies is established in the form of inequality and with an explicit Lagrangian, which is just the Lagrangian for elastic bodies by replacing the strain energy with free energy. The quasi Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies states that the actual motion is distinguished by making the action an maximum. The evolution equations of internal variables can not be recovered from the quasi Hamilton's principle.

  6. Summary of DOE Incineration Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, M.

    1998-07-01

    This document summarizes and compares operating capacities, waste acceptance criteria, and permits pertaining to the U.S. Department of Energy's three mixed waste incinerators. The information will assist Department evaluation of the incinerators.

  7. Electrochemical membrane incinerator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

    2001-03-20

    Electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 .mu.g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called "supporting electrolyte" was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

  8. Electrochemical Membrane Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

    1998-12-08

    Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 {micro}g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called ''supporting electrolyte'' was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

  9. An extended Hamilton — Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery V.

    2012-11-01

    We develop a new method for solving Hamilton's canonical differential equations. The method is based on the search for invariant vortex manifolds of special type. In the case of Lagrangian (potential) manifolds, we arrive at the classical Hamilton — Jacobi method.

  10. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  11. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  12. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  13. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  14. Cleaning soil without incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1994-05-01

    This article addresses the clean up of contaminated soil without burning. The topics of the article include the problems associated with incineration at depths requiring excavation, a description of the contaminated site, pilot testing of the remediation soil washing process, full-scale cleanup, a description of the soil separation and washing process.

  15. Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon, Michele

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational

  16. Microform Film Stock: A Hobson's Choice. Are Librarians Getting the Worst of Both Worlds? (and) Microfilm Types: There Really Is a Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Jerry; Dodson, Suzanne Cates

    1986-01-01

    Two articles summarize qualities of medium being used in production of microforms: silver halide film, diazo film, and vesicular film. Highlights include policy of Law Library Microform Consortium, a nonprofit library cooperative and major supplier of legal materials on microfiche; archival storage and preservation; and recent recommendations.…

  17. Incineration: health and environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M

    1995-10-01

    Incineration is considered one of the four primary ways to manage solid wastes, in conjunction with source reduction and reuse, recycling-composting, and landfilling. Incineration is currently used to destroy household and institutional solid waste, hazardous chemical waste, and medical and biological waste by reducing volume and destroying some harmful constituents. The process of incineration induces chemical changes that may produce harmful products that can escape through the stack, causing air pollution, or that can remain in the bottom ash, eventually finding a way into landfills. Although sound engineering design and operation can theoretically eliminate most harmful pollutants, strong institutional controls are required to assure that incinerators are maintained and operated according to specifications. Incineration is often viewed as a "cop-out," avoiding the socioeconomically complex changes required to reduce the generation of solid waste. Incineration should be incorporated on a limited basis into a context of comprehensive approaches to source reduction, recycling, and reuse.

  18. Closure of Building 624 incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, M.N.; Hallisey, M.L.; Terusaki, S.; Steverson, M.

    1992-06-01

    The Building 624 incinerator was a Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) mixed waste incinerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This incinerator was in operation from 1978 to 1989. The incinerator was to be closed as a mixed waste incinerator, but was to continue burning classified nonhazardous solid waste. The decision was later made to discontinue all use of the incinerator. Closure activities were performed from June 15 to December 15, 1991, when a clean closure was completed. The main part of the closure was the characterization, which included 393 samples and 30 blanks. From these 393 samples, approximately 13 samples indicated the need for further investigation, such as an isotopic scan; however, none of the samples was concluded to be hazardous or radioactive.

  19. Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

  20. 41. BUILDINGS 2215, 2216, AND 2217, INCINERATORS. INCINERATORS AS MODIFIED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BUILDINGS 2215, 2216, AND 2217, INCINERATORS. INCINERATORS AS MODIFIED WITH ENCLOSURES TO PREVENT GARBAGE FROM BEING BLOWN OFF THE PLATFORM WHEN UNLOADED, AND STEPS TO THE PLATFORM. Fort McCoy photograph, #57-13, October 1943. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  1. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Z.; Mcintosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. Temperature of the incinerator, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC) besides carbon monoxide in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene, and is very sensitive to combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyle to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

  2. 78 FR 30795 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... 14RF, 14SF, 247F, and 568F series propellers. This proposed AD was prompted by the amount of corrosion... corrosion that could result in propeller failure and loss of airplane control. DATES: We must receive... corrosion detected during MIs of Hamilton Standard Division model 6/5500/F and 24PF and Hamilton...

  3. 78 FR 49660 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... and the public interest require adopting this AD as proposed except for minor editorial changes. We... applicable Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation models/ manuals 14RF-9/P5186, revision 12, January 20, 2012; 14RF.../manuals 6/5500/F/P5190 and 24PF/61-12-01, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation models/manuals...

  4. Effect of Viscosity on the Microformability of Bulk Amorphous Alloy in Supercooled Liquid Region

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Ming; Zhang Shihong; Wang Ruixue

    2010-06-15

    Previously published results have shown that viscosity greatly influences on the deformation behavior of the bulk amorphous alloy in supercooled liquid region during microforming process. And viscosity is proved to be a component of the evaluation index which indicating microformability. Based on the fluid flow theory and assumptions, bulk amorphous alloy can be regarded as the viscous materials with a certain viscosity. It is helpful to understand how the viscosity plays an important role in viscous materials with various viscosities by numerical simulation on the process. Analysis is carried out by linear state equation in FEM with other three materials, water, lubricant oil and polymer melt, whose viscosities are different obviously. The depths of the materials flow into the U-shaped groove during the microimprinting process are compared in this paper. The result shows that the deformation is quite different when surface tension effect is not considered in the case. With the lowest viscosity, water can reach the bottom of micro groove in a very short time. Lubricant oil and polymer melt slower than it. Moreover bulk amorphous alloys in supercooled liquid state just flow into the groove slightly. Among the alloys of different systems including Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based alloy, Pd-based alloy ranks largest in the depth. Mg-based alloy is the second. And Zr-based alloy is the third. Further more the rank order of the viscosities of the alloys is Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based. It agrees well with the results of calculation. Therefore viscosity plays an important role in the microforming of the bulk amorphous alloy in the supercooled liquid state.

  5. Structural aspects of Hamilton-Jacobi theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, J. F.; Gràcia, X.; Marmo, G.; Martínez, E.; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.; Román-Roy, N.

    2016-12-01

    In our previous papers [J. F. Cariñena, X. Gràcia, G. Marmo, E. Martínez, M. C. Muñoz-Lecanda and N. Román-Roy, Geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory, Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 3 (2006) 1417-1458; Geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for nonholonomic dynamical systems, Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 7 (2010) 431-454] we showed that the Hamilton-Jacobi problem can be regarded as a way to describe a given dynamics on a phase space manifold in terms of a family of dynamics on a lower-dimensional manifold. We also showed how constants of the motion help to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Here we want to delve into this interpretation by considering the most general case: a dynamical system on a manifold that is described in terms of a family of dynamics (slicing vector fields) on lower-dimensional manifolds. We identify the relevant geometric structures that lead from this decomposition of the dynamics to the classical Hamilton-Jacobi theory, by considering special cases like fibered manifolds and Hamiltonian dynamics, in the symplectic framework and the Poisson one. We also show how a set of functions on a tangent bundle can determine a second-order dynamics for which they are constants of the motion.

  6. Application of Hamilton's law of varying action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The law of varying action enunciated by Hamilton in 1834-1835 permits the direct analytical solution of the problems of mechanics, both stationary and nonstationary, without consideration of force equilibrium and the theory of differential equations associated therewith. It has not been possible to obtain direct analytical solutions to nonstationary systems through the use of energy theory, which has been limited for 140 years to the principle of least action and to Hamilton's principle. It is shown here that Hamilton's law permits the direct analytical solution to nonstationary, initial value systems in the mechanics of solids without any knowledge or use of the theory of differential equations. Solutions are demonstrated for nonconservative, nonstationary particle motion, both linear and nonlinear.

  7. Application of Hamilton's law of varying action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The law of varying action enunciated by Hamilton in 1834-1835 permits the direct analytical solution of the problems of mechanics, both stationary and nonstationary, without consideration of force equilibrium and the theory of differential equations associated therewith. It has not been possible to obtain direct analytical solutions to nonstationary systems through the use of energy theory, which has been limited for 140 years to the principle of least action and to Hamilton's principle. It is shown here that Hamilton's law permits the direct analytical solution to nonstationary, initial value systems in the mechanics of solids without any knowledge or use of the theory of differential equations. Solutions are demonstrated for nonconservative, nonstationary particle motion, both linear and nonlinear.

  8. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incinerators. 65.148 Section 65.148....148 Incinerators. (a) Incinerator equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume...

  9. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incinerators. 65.148 Section 65.148....148 Incinerators. (a) Incinerator equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume...

  10. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incinerators. 65.148 Section 65.148....148 Incinerators. (a) Incinerator equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume...

  11. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators. 65.148 Section 65.148....148 Incinerators. (a) Incinerator equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume...

  12. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  17. Determination of the Environmental Conditions Required in a Library for the Effective Utilization of Microforms. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Donald C.

    This report contains recommended guidelines for selected aspects of the environment affecting the use of microforms. Environmental factors discussed include those related to the convenience and comfort of the readers and the custodianship of the material. The recommendations focus on daily routine problems faced by librarians and readers when…

  18. 36 CFR 1238.28 - What must agencies do when sending permanent microform records to a records storage facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1232 of this chapter and the additional requirements in this section. (b) Package non-silver copies separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as non-silver copies. (c) Include the following information on the transmittal (SF 135 for NARA Federal...

  19. 36 CFR 1238.28 - What must agencies do when sending permanent microform records to a records storage facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1232 of this chapter and the additional requirements in this section. (b) Package non-silver copies separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as non-silver copies. (c) Include the following information on the transmittal (SF 135 for NARA Federal...

  20. 36 CFR 1238.28 - What must agencies do when sending permanent microform records to a records storage facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1232 of this chapter and the additional requirements in this section. (b) Package non-silver copies separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as non-silver copies. (c) Include the following information on the transmittal (SF 135 for NARA Federal...

  1. 36 CFR 1238.28 - What must agencies do when sending permanent microform records to a records storage facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1232 of this chapter and the additional requirements in this section. (b) Package non-silver copies separately from the silver gelatin original or silver duplicate microform copy and clearly label them as non-silver copies. (c) Include the following information on the transmittal (SF 135 for NARA Federal Records...

  2. High Intellectual Function in Individuals with Mutation-Positive Microform Holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Solomon, B D; Pineda-Alvarez, D E; Gropman, A L; Willis, M J; Hadley, D W; Muenke, M

    2012-09-01

    Holoprosencephaly is the most common malformation of the forebrain and typically results in severe neurocognitive impairment with accompanying midline facial anomalies. Holoprosencephaly is heterogeneous and may be caused by chromosome aberrations or environmental factors, occur in the context of a syndrome or be due to heterozygous mutations in over 10 identified genes. The presence of these mutations may result in an extremely wide spectrum of severity, ranging from brain malformations incompatible with life to individuals with normal brain findings and subtle midline facial differences. Typically, clinicians regard intellectual disability as a sign that a parent or relative of a severely affected patient may be a mildly affected mutation 'carrier' with what is termed microform holoprosencephaly. Here we present 5 patients with clear phenotypic signs of microform holoprosencephaly, all of whom have evidence of above-average intellectual function. In 4 of these 5 individuals, the molecular cause of holoprosencephaly has been identified and includes mutations affecting SHH, SIX3, GLI2, and FGF8. This report expands the phenotypic spectrum of holoprosencephaly and is important in the counseling of patient and affected families.

  3. Macroform and microform-induced change in redox-sensitive chemistries of river channel surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P.; Zhang, H.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Binley, A.; Ullah, S.; Kaeser, D.; Heppell, C. M.; Lansdown, K.; Trimmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    In-stream geomorphological features such as riffle-pool sequences (macroforms) can produce steep hydraulic gradients which induce flow in and out of the riverbed - hyporheic exchange flow (HEF). The acceleration of flow over channel obstacles such as large cobbles and boulders (microforms) can create variation in surface-subsurface pressure gradients and generation of HEF. HEF in shallow surface sediments affect the transformation of redox-sensitive chemical forms and, therefore, the attenuation or release of nutrients in river systems. Here, we examine the relationship between stream geomorphological environment (microform and macroform) and concentration profiles of redox-sensitive species (nitrate, sulphate, iron, manganese) in shallow (15cm) subsurface sediments. In-situ passive samplers (diffusive equilibrium in thin films - DET) are used to obtain biogeochemical data from armoured environments at fine scale (cm) depth resolution where there is strong upwelling. The probes were deployed in a 50m reach of the River Eden, Cumbria, UK, during baseflow conditions. The experimental setup allowed for the assessment of differences in redox-sensitive chemistries between a riffle and pool environment and between smooth and rough bed surfaces in the pool. The passive sensing basis of the DET methodology provided a means for investigating how HEF systems generated at two different geomorphological scales influence the concentration and spatial patterns of redox-sensitive species. DET's capability of measuring at high spatial resolution allowed the extent of hyporheic mixing to be targeted, even though it is often limited to the top few centimetres of sediment.

  4. Experimental Study of Local Micro-forming for Bi-HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Pan; Lu Yongjin; Lei Liping; Qu Timing; Fang Gang

    2010-06-15

    The Bi-HTS (BSCCO high temperature superconductor) tape now has become the product in an industrial way, which has been available to apply in electric and electron fields. The main way to manufacture Bi-HTS tape is to use the technique of oxide powder in silver tube (OPIT), which involves the multi-step drawing and rolling with plastic deformation, which obviously belongs to a type of the micro-forming in macro-scale processing. There are two main characteristics founded: (a) contact and friction between silver and BSCCO surfaces, (b) interface between two materials. A series of micro-tensile experiments of silver foil with thicknesses of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.1 mm are designed to investigate the behaviors of silver with various scale of sizes. And the surface topography measurements have been carried out to analyze the changes in surface topography. Based upon experiments, some topics are researched which are referred to inhomogeneous, local effect, size effect, grain and micro-structure affecting, surface roughness, long-distance sausage phenomenon. Further the local breakdown of silver by Bi-HTS powder during process is analyzed through failure criterion. The results of this work will bring out an important exploration value to the theory and computation of micro-forming.

  5. Unbiased sampling of lattice Hamilton path ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Marc L.

    2006-10-01

    Hamilton paths, or Hamiltonian paths, are walks on a lattice which visit each site exactly once. They have been proposed as models of globular proteins and of compact polymers. A previously published algorithm [Mansfield, Macromolecules 27, 5924 (1994)] for sampling Hamilton paths on simple square and simple cubic lattices is tested for bias and for efficiency. Because the algorithm is a Metropolis Monte Carlo technique obviously satisfying detailed balance, we need only demonstrate ergodicity to ensure unbiased sampling. Two different tests for ergodicity (exact enumeration on small lattices, nonexhaustive enumeration on larger lattices) demonstrate ergodicity unequivocally for small lattices and provide strong support for ergodicity on larger lattices. Two other sampling algorithms [Ramakrishnan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7592 (1995); Lua et al., Polymer 45, 717 (2004)] are both known to produce biases on both 2×2×2 and 3×3×3 lattices, but it is shown here that the current algorithm gives unbiased sampling on these same lattices. Successive Hamilton paths are strongly correlated, so that many iterations are required between statistically independent samples. Rules for estimating the number of iterations needed to dissipate these correlations are given. However, the iteration time is so fast that the efficiency is still very good except on extremely large lattices. For example, even on lattices of total size 10×10×10 we are able to generate tens of thousands of uncorrelated Hamilton paths per hour of CPU time.

  6. Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harned, Catherine

    Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…

  7. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  8. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  9. Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.

  10. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  11. Incinerator technology overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1991-04-01

    In the 1960's, much effort was expended on cleaning up the air and water. Air Quality and Water Quality Acts were written and inpleinented in many states and coninunities. New products such as unleaded gasoline and water base paints were developed to aid in minimizing pollution. Conversion from oil fired combustion systems to natural gas fired for comfort and industrial heating was the normal practice. In 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed. There was concern on how to safely dispose of hazardous wastes. Indiscriminate dumping of chemical process wastes had been the practice since the birth of the chemical industry in the USA. Land dumping, inadequate landfills, and river-ocean dumping were the most economical ways to dispose of chemical wastes. Processes that would have reduced or eliminated wastes were disregarded as being too costly. Many of the major chemical companies who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  12. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREW HOUSE, STEAM ENGINE READS: HAMILTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF BREW HOUSE, STEAM ENGINE- READS: HAMILTON CORLISS ENGINES, THE HOOVEN, OWENS & RENTSCHLER CO., BUILDERS, HAMILTON, OHIO, U.S.A. - August Schell Brewing Company, Twentieth Street South, New Ulm, Brown County, MN

  13. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  14. An unusual ophthalmic finding in Lane-Hamilton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Victor M; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Lam, Byron L; McKeown, Craig A; Berrocal, Audina M

    2014-12-01

    Lane-Hamilton syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease. We report the case of an 18-month-old girl with Lane-Hamilton syndrome who had unilateral pigmentary retinopathy.

  15. 65. HAMILTON APPROACH LOOKING TOWARD BRIDGE, SHOWING TRANSFER OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. HAMILTON APPROACH LOOKING TOWARD BRIDGE, SHOWING TRANSFER OF THE HIGHWAY APPROACH TO THE BRIDGE STRUCTURE. PHOTOGRAPHER: ROBERT A. RYAN - Keokuk & Hamilton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River, Keokuk, Lee County, IA

  16. Conformal invariance and Hamilton Jacobi theory for dissipative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    For certain dissipative systems, a comparison can be made between the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the conformal invariance of action theory. The two concepts are not identical, but the conformal action theory covers the Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

  17. Conformal invariance and Hamilton Jacobi theory for dissipative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    For certain dissipative systems, a comparison can be made between the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the conformal invariance of action theory. The two concepts are not identical, but the conformal action theory covers the Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

  18. Hamilton Jacobi method for solving ordinary differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Feng-Xiang; Wu, Hui-Bin; Zhang, Yong-Fa

    2006-08-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method for solving ordinary differential equations is presented in this paper. A system of ordinary differential equations of first order or second order can be expressed as a Hamilton system under certain conditions. Then the Hamilton-Jacobi method is used in the integration of the Hamilton system and the solution of the original ordinary differential equations can be found. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  19. Water resources of Hamilton County, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lobmeyer, David H.; Sauer, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    According to records of the National Weather Service (formerly the U.S. Weather Bureau) for a station near Syracuse, the average annual precipitation in Hamilton County is about 16 inches. Of this amount, 83 percent occurs during the growing season (March 15 to October 15). A part of the precipitation runs off as surface flow, part is evaporated, part is used by vegetation, and a small part percolates downward to recharge the ground-water reservoir. The average recharge from precipitation for Hamilton County is estimated to be 0.1 inch per year. Owing to the limited supply of water in most of the upland area of the county, dryland farming and grazing are the predominant land uses.

  20. Microform holoprosencephaly with bilateral congenital elbow dislocation; increasing the phenotypic spectrum of Steinfeld syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gabriela E; Robertson, Lisa; Maniyar, Amit; Shammas, Christos; Phelan, Marie M; Vasudevan, Pradeep C; Tanteles, George A

    2016-03-01

    Steinfeld syndrome (MIM #184705) was first reported in 1982. It is characterised by holoprosencephaly and limb defects, however other anomalies may also be present. Following the initial description, three further cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a 23-year-old girl, with features of microform holoprosencephaly and bilateral congenital elbow dislocation in association with hypoplastic radial heads. She was identified to have a variant in the CDON gene inherited from her father who had ocular hypotelorism, but no other clinical features. We discuss the clinical features of Steinfeld syndrome, and broaden the phenotypic spectrum of this condition. Structural analysis suggests that this variant could lead to destabilisation of binding of CDON with hedgehog proteins. Further work needs to be done to confirm whether mutations in the CDON gene are the cause of Steinfeld syndrome.

  1. Adaptive laser beam forming for laser shock micro-forming for 3D MEMS devices fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ran; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Mohan; Li, Shuo; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Yankun; Chen, Kevin P.

    2016-07-01

    Laser shock micro-forming is a non-thermal laser forming method that use laser-induced shockwave to modify surface properties and to adjust shapes and geometry of work pieces. In this paper, we present an adaptive optical technique to engineer spatial profiles of the laser beam to exert precision control on the laser shock forming process for free-standing MEMS structures. Using a spatial light modulator, on-target laser energy profiles are engineered to control shape, size, and deformation magnitude, which has led to significant improvement of the laser shock processing outcome at micrometer scales. The results presented in this paper show that the adaptive-optics laser beam forming is an effective method to improve both quality and throughput of the laser forming process at micrometer scales.

  2. Coburning in institutional incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Prine, G.; Yost, R.; Green, B.; Williams, D.; Schwartz, J.; Wagner, J.; Clauson, D.; Proctor, B.; Feinberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our program, initiated in 1980, originally sought to replace imported oil by coburning coal and natural gas in oil designed boilers. Success came in 1986 with the co-combustion of coal water slurries (CWS) and natural gas (G) in a 20 MMBtu/hr watertube oil designed boiler. We achieved stable flames over broad load levels, good boiler efficiencies, low emissions, benign ash and--by increasing the G/CWS ratio--full power rating. Our biomass-waste co-combustion experiments will utilize a two chamber ram fed incinerator. Advanced analytical techniques will be used to measure available energy and stack emissions from various waste-biomass-fossil fuel combinations. Heating values, H/C ratios, percent moisture, emissions, prices and tipping fees are discussed. Locally grown annual dry biomass yields of napiergrass and leucaena, energetically equivalent to 30-50 barrels of oil per acre, are reported. Abundant local sources of waste biomass are identified. Together community waste and cultivated and waste biomass constitute a substantial source of renewable energy of use in forested and agricultural regions. Modular waste to energy systems are available in the 10-100 ton per day range. With aggressive recycling and hazardous waste reduction measures and good combustion management and emission controls, emissions should be maintained at low levels. The results from our system, a small modular waste-biomass to energy system, should be applicable to many institutions and small communities. 41 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Review: mercury in waste incineration.

    PubMed

    van Veizen, Daniel; Langenkamp, Heinrich; Herb, Georg

    2002-12-01

    The paper investigates the sources of mercury (Hg) in municipal/industrial waste and the consequences of the presence of this pollutant for the incineration of this waste. About 1990 the average mercury concentration of the feed stream to incinerators was about 4 mg kg(-1). The concentration decreased considerably during the last decade thanks to a considerable reduction of the application of mercury and to the introduction of effective battery return systems. Presently the mercury concentration in municipal SOLID waste is approximately 2 mg kg(-1). During incineration mercury passes practically for 100% in the flue gas. The techniques for mercury removal from flue gases are discussed at the hand of practical examples. It is concluded that there are a number of processes which guarantee mercury concentrations of <50 microg Nm(-3) in the clean gas, the present emission limit concentration. All mercury control processes produce a new solid or liquid waste stream that contains the mercury removed from the flue gas. This stream has to be disposed of as hazardous waste in a qualified landfill. The flue gas from waste incinerators undergoes very rapid dispersion and dilution after leaving the incinerator stack. It follows that the maximum mercury concentration in the ambient air will remain at least five to six orders of magnitude below the lowest MAC value (=Maximum Admissible Concentration in work spaces) and that public health will not be threatened.

  4. Dioxin danger from garbage incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Karasek, F.W.; Hutzinger, O.

    1986-05-01

    Incineration, an alternative to burying for the disposal of urban garbage, is practiced throughout the world. Given the limited number of landfill sites and the future hazard to the environment that such sites may pose, it is now obvious that the number of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) facilities must be increased. The major obstacle to construction of new MSWI facilities is that incineration produces several hundred stable and toxic compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). These compounds are always present at parts-per-million concentrations in all MSWI units, both in the fly ash formed during combustion and in the stack emissions. Because MSWI facilities are the major contributors of dioxins to the environment today, many studies of the MSWI process have been carried out since dioxins were first discovered in MSWI fly ash in 1977. In view of the importance of incineration, the MSWI process was a major topic discussed by 500 experts gathered at the University of Bayreuth in Germany last September for the Fifth International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins. This status report is a consensus of the studies presented about incineration; the full text of all symposium papers will appear in a special issue of Chemosphere in June. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Truncating loss-of-function mutations of DISP1 contribute to holoprosencephaly-like microform features in humans

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Erich; Ma, Yong; Ouspenskaia, Maia V.; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Bendavid, Claude; Dubourg, Christèle; Beachy, Philip A.; Muenke, Maximilian

    2009-01-01

    Defective function of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is the most frequent alteration underlying holoprosencephaly (HPE) or its various clinical microforms. We performed an extensive mutational analysis of the entire human DISP1 gene, required for secretion of all hedgehog ligand(s) and which maps to the HPE 10 locus of human chromosome 1q41, as a HPE candidate gene. Here, we describe two independent families with truncating mutations in human DISP1 that resemble the cardinal craniofacial and neuro-developmental features of a recently described microdeletion syndrome that includes this gene; therefore, we suggest that DISP1 function contributes substantially to both of these signs in humans. While these clinical features are consistent with common HPE microforms, especially those linked to defective signaling by Sonic Hedgehog, we have insufficient evidence so far that functionally abnormal DISP1 alleles will commonly contribute to the more severe features of typical HPE. PMID:19184110

  6. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incinerators. 63.25-9 Section 63.25-9 Shipping COAST... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a) General. Incinerators installed on or after March 26, 1998, must meet the requirements of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  7. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incinerators. 63.25-9 Section 63.25-9 Shipping COAST... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a) General. Incinerators installed on or after March 26, 1998, must meet the requirements of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incinerators. 63.25-9 Section 63.25-9 Shipping COAST... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a) General. Incinerators installed on or after March 26, 1998, must meet the requirements of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incinerators. 63.25-9 Section 63.25-9 Shipping COAST... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a) General. Incinerators installed on or after March 26, 1998, must meet the requirements of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  10. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  11. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  12. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  13. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, J. O. M.; Bhardwaj, R. C.; Tennakoon, C. L. K.

    1993-01-01

    There is an increasing concern regarding the disposal of human wastes in space vehicles. It is of utmost importance to convert such wastes into harmless products which can be recycled into an Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), which incorporates the growth of plants (e.g. wheat) and algae to supplement the diet of the astronauts. Chemical treatments have proven relatively unsatisfactory and tend to be increasingly so with increase of the mission duration. Similarly, the use of heat to destroy wastes and convert them to CO2 by the use of air or oxygen has the disadvantage and difficulty of dissipating heat in a space environment and to the inevitable presence of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide in the effluent gases. In particular, electrochemical techniques offer several advantages including low temperatures which may be used and the absence of any NO and CO in the evolved gases. Successful research has been carried out in the electrochemical oxidation of wastes over the last several years. The major task for 1992 was to conduct parametric studies in preparation for the building of a breadboard system, i.e., an actual practical device to consume the daily waste output of one astronaut in 24 hours, electrochemical incineration of human wastes in space vehicles. One of the main objectives was to decide on the type of three dimensional or other electrode system that would suit this purpose. The various types of electrode systems which were considered for this purpose included: rotating disc electrode, micro-electrode (an array), vibrating electrode, jet electrode, and packed bed electrode.

  14. Consolidated Incineration Facility model videotape

    SciTech Connect

    Krolewski, J F; Augsburger, S T

    1988-01-01

    A Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is in final design for construction at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. The CIF will detoxify and volume reduce combustible radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste. A study model was constructed during scope development for project authorization to assist with equipment layout and insure sufficient maintenance access. To facilitate the Department of Energy Validation process, a videotape of the model was developed. This ten minute videotape includes general information about the incineration process and a tour of the study model with a discussion of activities in each area. The videotape will be shown and the current status and schedule for the CIF presented.

  15. New design incinerator being built

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A $14 million garbage-burning facility is being built by Reedy Creek Utilities Co. in cooperation with DOE at Lake Buena Vista, Fla., on the edge of Walt Disney World. The nation's first large-volume slagging pyrolysis incinerator will burn municipal waste in a more beneficial way and supply 15% of the amusement park's energy demands. By studying the new incinerators slag-producing capabilities, engineers hope to design similar facilities for isolating low-level nuclear wastes in inert, rocklike slag.

  16. Sludge incineration in a spinning fluidized bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Swithenbank, J.; Basire, S.; Wong, W.Y.; Lu, Y.; Nasserzadeh, V.

    1999-07-01

    At the present time, the sewage treatment plants in the UK produce about 25 million tonnes of sewage sludge each year at a concentration of 4% solids. New regulations forbid sea dumping and in the near future new incinerators will be required to dispose of about five million tonnes per year. Bubbling fluidized bed incinerators are widely used to burn sewage sludge at a typical consumption rate of about 0.02 kg(dry)/s/m{sup 2}, and it follows that over 300 conventional fluidized bed incinerators of 3 meters bed diameter could be required to cope with the increased demand. At Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) research work is being carried out to develop a novel spinning fluidized bed incinerator. The key factor to note is that when air flows up through a bed of near mono-sized particles, it fluidizes when the pressure drop across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed. Normally, the weight of the bed is determined by gravity. However, if the bed is contained by a cylindrical air distributor plate that is rotating rapidly about its axis, then the effective weight of the bed can be increased dramatically. The airflow passing through the bed can be increased proportionally to the g level produced by the rotation and it follows that the process has been intensified. In exploratory tests with a spinning fluidized bed the authors have achieved combustion intensities with coal combustion as high as 100 MW/m{sup 3}. A problem with burning coal is that it was difficult to remove the heat and rotating water seals had to be used to transfer cooling water into the bed. In the case of sewage and other sludges, this problem does not exist since the flue gases can remove the small amount of heat released. The rotating fluidized bed sludge incinerator is a novel device, which is very compact. It is able to solve the turndown problem encountered with conventional fluidized beds by simply changing the rotation speed. Bearing in mind that a centrifugal sludge

  17. Hamiltonization of Solids of Revolution Through Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balseiro, Paula

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between conserved quantities of nonholonomic systems and the hamiltonization problem employing the geometric methods of Balseiro (Arch Ration Mech Anal 214:453-501, 2014) and Balseiro and Garcia-Naranjo (Arch Ration Mech Anal 205(1):267-310, 2012). We illustrate the theory with classical examples describing the dynamics of solids of revolution rolling without sliding on a plane. In these cases, using the existence of two conserved quantities we obtain, by means of gauge transformations and symmetry reduction, genuine Poisson brackets describing the reduced dynamics.

  18. Hamilton-Jacobi Method and Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Criscienzo, R.; Vanzo, L.; Zerbini, S.

    Studying the behaviour of a quantum field in a classical, curved, spacetime is an extraordinary task which nobody is able to take on at present time. Independently by the fact that such problem is not likely to be solved soon, still we possess the instruments to perform exact predictions in special, highly symmetric, conditions. Aim of the present contribution is to show how it is possible to extract quantitative information about a variety of physical phenomena in very general situations by virtue of the so-called Hamilton-Jacobi method. In particular, we shall prove the agreement of such semi-classical method with exact results of quantum field theoretic calculations.

  19. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  20. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  1. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  2. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  3. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain...

  5. Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-04-01

    Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions.

  7. 78 FR 9001 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... using certain Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation auxiliary pumps and motors (auxiliary feathering pumps... Hamilton Sundstrand investigation revealed some of their auxiliary feathering pump motors had internal corrosion that may cause the stator magnets in the pump motor to fail and rotate into the path of...

  8. Detection of radioactive accumulations within an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Grossman, L.N.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes an incinerator for burning combustible material contaminated by radiation. This incinerator has a combustion chamber having containment walls of high density refractory brick provided with at least one window opening through the high density refractory brick containment walls. The window consists of a low density body of ceramic fibers. Any radiation from residual radioactive ash within the incinerator containment and inhibited by the high density refractory brick can penetrate outward through the window of low density fiber to beyond the incinerator containment walls. A radiation detector is mounted outside the incinerator containment walls adjacent to the window of low density ceramic fiber for measuring any radiation passing out from the combustion chamber through the low density window. The amount of retained radioactive ash accumulated in the incinerator combustion chamber is indicated on the detector.

  9. The early days of incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  10. 8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash canning hood to the left, combustion chamber in the middle, incinerator hood to the right. Looking west. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  11. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  12. Dental implant changes following incineration.

    PubMed

    Berketa, J; James, H; Marino, V

    2011-04-15

    Non-visual identification of victims utilizes DNA, fingerprint and dental comparison as primary scientific identifiers. In incidents where a victim has been incinerated, there may be loss of fingerprint detail and denaturing of DNA. Although extremely durable, tooth loss will also occur with extreme temperatures and the characteristics of recovered dental implants, if any, may be the only physical identifying data available. Currently, there are no experimental investigations to determine what changes occur to dental implants following high temperature exposure. A selection of dental implants was radiographed, utilizing purpose built apparatus to allow standard methodology. They were then heated in an INFI-TROL™ kiln to a maximum temperature of 1125°C and the radiographic procedure repeated. Image subtraction evaluation of the radiographs was recorded using Adobe(®) Photoshop(®). Both commercially pure titanium and titanium alloy dental implants survived the incineration and there was oxidation of the surface leading to minor alteration of the image. There was, however, no detectable sagging of the implants. The results of this research suggest that dental implants are still recognizable following incineration. In scenarios commonly seen by forensic odontologists, heat will destroy both teeth and conventional dental restorative materials. Implants, however, will resist these conditions and will also retain the features necessary to identify the type of implant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    There has been great concern about dioxins-polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-causing contamination in the environment because the adverse effects of these chemicals on human health have been known for many years. Possible dioxin-contamination has received much attention recently not only by environmental scientists but also by the public, because dioxins are known to be formed during the combustion of industrial and domestic wastes and to escape into the environment via exhaust gases from incinerators. Consequently, there is a pressing need to investigate the formation mechanisms or reaction pathways of these chlorinated chemicals to be able to devise ways to reduce their environmental contamination. A well-controlled small-scale incinerator was used for the experiments in the core references of this review. These articles report the investigation of dioxin formation from the combustion of various waste-simulated samples, including different kinds of paper, various kinds of wood, fallen leaves, food samples, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET), and various kinds of plastic products. These samples were also incinerated with inorganic chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CuCI2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, fly ash, and seawater) or organic chlorides (PVC, chlordane, and pentachlorophenol) to investigate the role of chlorine content and/or the presence of different metals in dioxin formation. Some samples, such as newspapers, were burned after they were impregnated with NaCl or PVC, as well as being cocombusted with chlorides. The roles of incineration conditions, including chamber temperatures, O2 concentrations, and CO concentrations, in dioxin formation were also investigated. Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar-PCBs) formed in the exhaust gases from a controlled small-scale incinerator, where experimental waste

  14. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  15. Recognizing the Presidents: Was Alexander Hamilton President?

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Studies over the past 40 years have shown that Americans can recall about half the U.S. presidents. Do people know the presidents even though they are unable to access them for recall? We investigated this question using the powerful cues of a recognition test. Specifically, we tested the ability of 326 online subjects to recognize U.S. presidents when presented with their full names among various types of lures. The hit rate for presidential recognition was .88, well above the proportion produced in free recall but far from perfect. Presidents Franklin Pierce and Chester Arthur were recognized less than 60% of the time. Interestingly, four nonpresidents were falsely recognized at relatively high rates, and Alexander Hamilton was more frequently identified as president than were several actual presidents. Even on a recognition test, knowledge of American presidents is imperfect and prone to error. The false alarm data support the theory that false fame can arise from contextual familiarity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. 75 FR 24938 - City of Hamilton, Ohio American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... February 26, 2010, City of Hamilton, Ohio (Hamilton) and American Municipal Power, Inc. (AMP) filed an... approval to transfer the license for the Meldahl Project from Hamilton to Hamilton and AMP. Applicants...

  17. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume outlet... incinerator to replace an existing recovery device that is used on a Group 2A process vent, the owner or... § 65.157(b)(1) or upon existing ranges or limits established under a referencing subpart....

  18. Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Korenberg, Jacob

    1990-01-01

    An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

  19. Counting Microfiche: The Utilization of the Microform Section of the ANSI Standard Z39.7-1983 "Library Statistics"; Microfiche Curl; and "Poly" or "Cell"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Wood, Naomi; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The first of three articles describes procedures for using ANSI statistical methods for estimating the number of pieces in large homogeneous collections of microfiche. The second discusses causes of curl, its control, and measurement, and the third compares the advantages and disadvantages of cellulose acetate and polyester base for microforms.…

  20. Counting Microfiche: The Utilization of the Microform Section of the ANSI Standard Z39.7-1983 "Library Statistics"; Microfiche Curl; and "Poly" or "Cell"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Wood, Naomi; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The first of three articles describes procedures for using ANSI statistical methods for estimating the number of pieces in large homogeneous collections of microfiche. The second discusses causes of curl, its control, and measurement, and the third compares the advantages and disadvantages of cellulose acetate and polyester base for microforms.…

  1. Alloy 45TM in waste incineration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.C.; Kloewer, J.; Grossmann, G.K.

    1997-08-01

    Industrial and municipal wastes produced in the western society are being increasingly destroyed and managed by controlled high temperature incineration. Depending on the chemical make-up of the waste stream and operational parameters of the incinerator, a variety of high temperature corrosive environments are generated. Typically most of the modern incineration systems consist of a high temperature incinerator chamber, a heat recovery system, a quench section to further reduce the temperature of the flue gas stream and a host of air pollution control equipment to scrub acidic gases and control the particulate emissions. This paper describes the development of a new nickel-base high chromium-high silicon alloy, which has shown good resistance to high temperature corrosion in incinerator environments. Some field test data are also presented.

  2. Biomedical waste management: incineration vs. environmental safety.

    PubMed

    Gautam, V; Thapar, R; Sharma, M

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  3. Fume incinerator with vacuum baffle

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.

    1994-01-04

    A single unit, shell and tube fume incinerator utilizes a vacuum baffle structure proximate a combustion zone to control the flow of combustion exhaust gas. The vacuum baffle is located slightly above the hot ends of a plurality of heat exchange tubes to deflect the hot exhaust gases from the combustion zone away from the ends of the tubes, and back to the outside of the tubes, thereby controlling the time at temperature'' for contaminants in the impure gas feed. A vacuum effect is created just below the baffle to draw cleansed exhaust below the baffle back up into the combustion zone to prevent the escape of impure gas. 3 figs.

  4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. VIEW OF GRIMES STREET, LOOKING ACROSS HAMILTON FIELD AT FACILITIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF GRIMES STREET, LOOKING ACROSS HAMILTON FIELD AT FACILITIES 737 THROUGH 740 (1918 CORNER-ENTRY SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSING TYPES), VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Wilikina Drive & Kunia Road, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. HAMILTON BUNGALOW (LEFT) AND BUNGALOW NO. 3 (RIGHT) FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAMILTON BUNGALOW (LEFT) AND BUNGALOW NO. 3 (RIGHT) FROM THE ROOF OF THE VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL. THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE IS VISIBLE IN THE REAR - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  8. Hamilton Jeffers and the Double Star Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Court reporter and amateur astronomer Shelburne Wesley Burnham (1838-1921) published a massive double star catalogue containing more than 13,000 systems in 1906. The next keeper of the double stars was Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken (1864-1951), who produced a much larger catalogue in 1932. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham’s records of observations on handwritten file cards, eventually turning them over to Lick Observatory astrometrist Hamilton Moore Jeffers (1893-1976). Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby (1921-2002), he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford (1905-2002) had the new 120-inch reflector, the world’s second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the U.S. Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley (1935-1997), and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,000,000 measures of more than 100,000 pairs.

  9. A possible generalization of the field-theoretical Hamilton's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Savchin, V.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The development of classical dynamics as well as many branches of physics shows that the solution or analysis of variety of problems can be greatly simplified if the basic equations admit an analytic representation in terms of Hamilton's equations. The author proposes a generalization of Hamilton's equations in field theory which is applicable to partial differential equations of physical relevance. It is shown that the equations constitute a conceivable basis for the generalization of the theory of contact transformations and of Poisson's method.

  10. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to cosmology with nonlinear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Richard; van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-05-01

    We start with a short introduction of the role that constraints and Lagrange multiplers play in variational calculus. After recalling briefly the properties of the nonlinear sigma model, we show how the Hamilton-Jacobi method can be applied to find its solutions. We discuss the importance of the Hamiltonian constraint in the standard cosmological model, and finally, apply the Hamilton-Jacobi method to the solution of coupled gravitational and sigma-field equations.

  11. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  12. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Robert C. W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  13. Information Roundup: A Continuing Education Session on Microforms and Data Processing in the Library and Information Center: Costs/Benefits/History/Trends. Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting (4th, Portland, Oregon, May 15-17, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spigai, Frances G., Ed.; And Others

    Sixteen papers are presented which focus on microforms and data processing in library and information centers. Articles include discussions of cost analysis, decision making and program planning, library automation, information retrieval, indexing, cataloging, and computer services for libraries. (CH)

  14. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for...

  17. Microforms in gravel bed rivers: Formation, disintegration, and effects on bedload transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strom, K.; Papanicolaou, A.N.; Evangelopoulos, N.; Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    This research aims to advance current knowledge on cluster formation and evolution by tackling some of the aspects associated with cluster microtopography and the effects of clusters on bedload transport. The specific objectives of the study are (1) to identify the bed shear stress range in which clusters form and disintegrate, (2) to quantitatively describe the spacing characteristics and orientation of clusters with respect to flow characteristics, (3) to quantify the effects clusters have on the mean bedload rate, and (4) to assess the effects of clusters on the pulsating nature of bedload. In order to meet the objectives of this study, two main experimental scenarios, namely, Test Series A and B (20 experiments overall) are considered in a laboratory flume under well-controlled conditions. Series A tests are performed to address objectives (1) and (2) while Series B is designed to meet objectives (3) and (4). Results show that cluster microforms develop in uniform sediment at 1.25 to 2 times the Shields parameter of an individual particle and start disintegrating at about 2.25 times the Shields parameter. It is found that during an unsteady flow event, effects of clusters on bedload transport rate can be classified in three different phases: a sink phase where clusters absorb incoming sediment, a neutral phase where clusters do not affect bedload, and a source phase where clusters release particles. Clusters also increase the magnitude of the fluctuations in bedload transport rate, showing that clusters amplify the unsteady nature of bedload transport. A fourth-order autoregressive, autoregressive integrated moving average model is employed to describe the time series of bedload and provide a predictive formula for predicting bedload at different periods. Finally, a change-point analysis enhanced with a binary segmentation procedure is performed to identify the abrupt changes in the bedload statistic characteristics due to the effects of clusters and detect the

  18. Hydrology of the Hamilton lakes and vicinity, Polk County, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Warren G.; Simonds, Edward P.

    1983-01-01

    The Hamilton lakes, headwaters of the eastern arm of the Peace River drainage system, consist of Lake Hamilton, Middle Lake Hamilton, and Little Lake Hamilton. The lakes, which are connected by canals that tend to equalize their levels, probably occupy coalesced sinkhole depressions. The drainage basin of Lake Hamilton contains several water-control structures which can alter the effective size of the area contributing water to the Hamilton lakes according to their gate settings. The chemical and biological conditions in the Hamilton lakes are such that the lakes are not sufficiently enriched to cause problems with excessive weed growth or algae blooms. (USGS)

  19. IOW refuse incinerator to warm prisoners

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, D.

    1981-09-22

    Talks are underway for the possible construction of an incinerator on the Isle of Wight that would serve the prisons with heat. Construction would start in January 1985 and after a six-month trial period, the incinerator would be in full operation by 1987. Annual saving in energy terms would be as much as 1 million gallons of oil a year if a local hospital would also be linked to the heating scheme. The estimated cost of processing refuse by the incinerator is 7 pounds/tonne as opposed to the present 6 pounds/tonne by landfill disposal.

  20. Changing from incineration to composting

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.C.; Brassman, J.J.; Polidon, A.J.

    1985-03-01

    The history of evaluation, design, construction, start-up and continued management of a sludge composting facility in Scranton, Pennsylvania is detailed. A wastewater solids management study reviewed various combinations of sludge disposal alternatives and recommended aerated static pile composting with product distribution, combined with incineration, the existing system, as back-up. Details of sludge management alternatives life cycle cost analysis and evaluation factors are given. A composting facility with an ultimate capacity to handle 93 wet tons of filter cake per day was designed on a three phase basis. The design is such that all composting activities take place on a paved asphalt surface. It incorporates a drying building and areas for screening, using a rotary trommel screen, finished compost storing and wood chip storage. Details of capacities and factors affecting selection of equipment are provided. Total first phase project cost was 2 million dollars and summaries of costs are provided as are outlines of staff training facilities and programmes.

  1. Waste incineration and heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.E.; Ting, A.P.

    1982-02-01

    A recent project includes the incineration of organic and aqueous waste streams. The waste streams represent a gross heating valyue of 26 million kcal/h (100 million Btu/h). A system designed to generate approximately 36,000 kg/h (79,366 lb/h) of 1138 kPa (165 psig) steam for plant use, would save $5.5 million a year if the steam produced is valued at $20/1000 kg ($9/1000 lb). The presence of certain components, such as inorganic salts, chlorinated and nitrogen-containing organic compounds, sulfur compounds, and phospho-organics, is critical to the design, and each deserves special considerations, as described in this paper.

  2. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests.

  3. Energy and mass balance calculations for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Calculation of energy and mass balance within an incinerator is a very important part of designing and/or evaluating the incineration process. This article describes a simple computer model used to calculate an energy and mass balance for a rotary kiln incinerator. The main purpose of the model is to assist US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permit writers in evaluating the adequacy of the data submitted by applicants seeking incinerator permits. The calculation is based on the assumption that a thermodynamic equilibrium condition exits within the combustion chamber. Key parameters that the model can calculate include theoretical combustion air, excess air needed for actual combustion cases, flue gas flow rate, and exit temperature.

  4. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  5. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  6. Respiratory function among waste incinerator workers.

    PubMed

    Charbotel, Barbara; Hours, Martine; Perdrix, Alain; Anzivino-Viricel, Lucie; Bergeret, Alain

    2005-02-01

    Whereas air pollutants have been measured in incinerator working areas, few studies have focused on the effects of these pollutants on the lung function of incinerator workers. In France, a study was performed among workers at two urban incinerators, aimed at identifying a link between exposure to different pollutants in incinerator plants and respiratory lung function impairments. A follow-up of lung function was carried out on 83 incinerator workers from two incinerator plants, comparing them with a group of 76 non-exposed workers recruited by the same occupational physician. Workers' lung functions were measured during their yearly occupational medical examination, for 3 years. The American Thoracic Society quality criteria were used to control the quality of the flow-volume curves. Base-line lung functions were lower among incinerator workers than among non-exposed workers. The few significant differences were indicative of obstructive symptoms. During the first year the differences observed between the two groups were close to the significant threshold value of 5% for FEF(75)/ PV and FEF(25-75)/PV. During the third year significant differences covered three parameters: FEF(50)/PV, FEF(25-75)/PV and FEF(25-75)/FVC. After smoking habits (pack-years), medical history of allergy or lung diseases and the examination centres had been taken into account in a linear regression, the reduction of FEF(75)/PV in the first year and FEF(25-75)/FVC in the third year was linked to exposure in incinerator plants. There was no significant association between exposure and the differences observed in the FEF(25-75)/PV in the first year or in the FEF(50)/PV and the FEF(25-75)/PV in the third year. This analysis of incinerator workers' lung functions has identified some lung impairments among workers exposed to incinerator air pollutants compared to non-exposed workers, thus indicating possible obstructive disorders among incinerator workers. However, these impairments are moderate

  7. Geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory on Nambu-Poisson manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, M.; Sardón, C.

    2017-03-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi theory is a formulation of classical mechanics equivalent to other formulations as Newtonian, Lagrangian, or Hamiltonian mechanics. The primordial observation of a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory is that if a Hamiltonian vector field XH can be projected into the configuration manifold by means of a 1-form dW, then the integral curves of the projected vector field XHd Wcan be transformed into integral curves of XH provided that W is a solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Our aim is to derive a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for physical systems that are compatible with a Nambu-Poisson structure. For it, we study Lagrangian submanifolds of a Nambu-Poisson manifold and obtain explicitly an expression for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation on such a manifold. We apply our results to two interesting examples in the physics literature: the third-order Kummer-Schwarz equations and a system of n copies of a first-order differential Riccati equation. From the first example, we retrieve the original Nambu bracket in three dimensions and from the second example, we retrieve Takhtajan's generalization of the Nambu bracket to n dimensions.

  8. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes.

  9. Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, Joel W; Wolf, Jason B; Brodie, Edmund D; Moore, Allen J

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing--with good reason--almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution.

  10. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Andrew F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934

  11. Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications

    PubMed Central

    McGlothlin, Joel W.; Wolf, Jason B.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Moore, Allen J.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing—with good reason—almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution. PMID:24686930

  12. Phosphate Bonded Solidification of Radioactive Incinerator Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B. W.

    1999-04-13

    The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. A technical look at the WTI incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    EPA has granted Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) temporary authorization to burn hazardous waste in its new incinerator in East Liverpool, Ohio. The approval is based on preliminary data showing that the incinerator was able to meet EPA`s emission standards for dioxins and furans in tests run this summer. WTI is allowed to continue burning waste pending final evaluation of its March 1993 performance tests. The action marks yet another hurdle cleared by WTI in its 11-year effort to construct and operate a commercial hazardous waste incinerator. The facility`s long-standing predicament as a target for environmental and public interest groups has made it the subject of numerous lawsuits and many legal reviews. In this article, however, we focus on the technical aspects of the system. The WTI incinerator is described in {open_quotes}Performance Testing of a Rotary Kiln Incinerator,{close_quotes} a paper by Alfred Sigg of Von Roll, Incorporated (Norcross, Georgia). The paper was presented at the 1993 Incineration Conference, which was held in Knoxville, Tennessee on May 3-7, 1993. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Incinerator system arrangement with dual scrubbing chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Domnitch, I.

    1987-01-13

    An incinerator arrangement is described comprising: an incinerator housing located near the lowest point in a building, the housing containing incinerator elements therein; a chute-flue having a first end in communication with the incinerator housing, a second end at the top of the building for evacuation of combustion gases to the atmosphere therethrough, and at least one intermediately located waste disposal opening through which waste is dropped into the incinerator housing; the incinerator elements including: a main combustion chamber, an opening between the main combustion chamber and the first end of the chute-flue and a flue-damper covering the opening. The flue-damper is biased in a closed position and being operable by the weight of waste to admit the waste into the combustion chamber; a scrubbing chamber located exteriorly along the top of the combustion chamber and having a first opening into the combustion chamber and a second opening into the chute-flue; and water spraying means in the scrubbing chamber for directing a water spray at the combustion gases to wash particulate matter from the gases before the gases enter the chute-flue whereby the water spraying means which are located adjacent the combustion chamber are protected against freezing and the elements.

  15. Energy recovery system for an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandsson, K.I.

    1984-12-04

    An energy recovery system for an incinerator. Hot flue gases from the incinerator are discharged into a vertical stack and the lower end of the stack is connected through an auxiliary conduit to a heat exchanger, such as a steam or hot water boiler. An induced draft fan draws the hot flue gases through the conduit and boiler to generate steam or hot water and a damper is located within the conduit. A fuel burner is connected in the conduit and operates to supply heat to the boiler during periods when the incinerator is not operating. A first flow sensing mechanism is located in the conduit upstream of the boiler, while a second flow sensing mechanism is positioned in the stack downstream of the connection of the stack and the conduit. In the incinerator mode of operation, the second flow sensing mechanism controls the damper in a manner to obtain a substantially zero flow of waste gas through the stack to the atmosphere to insure that all of the waste gas from the incinerator is directed through the conduit to the boiler. During periods when the incinerator is not operating, the burner mode of operation is established and the first flow sensing mechanism controls the damper to obtain substantially zero flow of gas upstream of the burner so that all of the heat from the burner will be directed to the boiler.

  16. Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi Cosmology and Classical-Quantum Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, M.; Jalalzadeh, S.

    2017-07-01

    How the time evolution which is typical for classical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology? The answer is not trivial because the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is time independent. A framework associating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi to the minisuperspace cosmological models has been introduced in Fathi et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 76, 527 2016). In this paper we show that time dependence and quantum-classical correspondence both arise naturally in the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism of quantum mechanics, applied to quantum cosmology. We study the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi cosmology of spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic early universe whose matter content is a perfect fluid. The classical cosmology emerge around one Planck time where its linear size is around a few millimeter, without needing any classical inflationary phase afterwards to make it grow to its present size.

  17. A generalization of Hamilton's rule--love others how much?

    PubMed

    Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2012-04-21

    According to Hamilton's (1964a, b) rule, a costly action will be undertaken if its fitness cost to the actor falls short of the discounted benefit to the recipient, where the discount factor is Wright's index of relatedness between the two. We propose a generalization of this rule, and show that if evolution operates at the level of behavior rules, rather than directly at the level of actions, evolution will select behavior rules that induce a degree of cooperation that may differ from that predicted by Hamilton's rule as applied to actions. In social dilemmas there will be less (more) cooperation than under Hamilton's rule if the actions are strategic substitutes (complements). Our approach is based on natural selection, defined in terms of personal (direct) fitness, and applies to a wide range of pairwise interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum Hamilton mechanics: Hamilton equations of quantum motion, origin of quantum operators, and proof of quantization axiom

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.-D. . E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-12-15

    This paper gives a thorough investigation on formulating and solving quantum problems by extended analytical mechanics that extends canonical variables to complex domain. With this complex extension, we show that quantum mechanics becomes a part of analytical mechanics and hence can be treated integrally with classical mechanics. Complex canonical variables are governed by Hamilton equations of motion, which can be derived naturally from Schroedinger equation. Using complex canonical variables, a formal proof of the quantization axiom p {sup {yields}} p = -ih{nabla}, which is the kernel in constructing quantum-mechanical systems, becomes a one-line corollary of Hamilton mechanics. The derivation of quantum operators from Hamilton mechanics is coordinate independent and thus allows us to derive quantum operators directly under any coordinate system without transforming back to Cartesian coordinates. Besides deriving quantum operators, we also show that the various prominent quantum effects, such as quantization, tunneling, atomic shell structure, Aharonov-Bohm effect, and spin, all have the root in Hamilton mechanics and can be described entirely by Hamilton equations of motion.

  19. Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

  20. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted.

  1. Kiln control for incinerating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Byerly, H.L.; Kuhn, B.R.; Matter, D.C.; Vassiliou, E.

    1993-07-20

    An incinerating kiln device is described capable of controlling the viscosity of molten slag contained within and discharged from the kiln, the device comprising a rotary kiln having a substantially cylindrical shape, an outside skin, a center axis, an inlet, and an outlet opposite the inlet, the kiln being inclined so that the slag exits from the outlet at a discharge position, and wherein the center axis and a line crossing the center axis and having the direction of gravity define a plane of zero position, the distance between the discharge position and the plane of zero position being an indirect measure of the angular viscosity of the slag, the higher said distance the higher the angular viscosity; first detection means at the outlet of the kiln for detecting the distance between the discharge position and the plane of zero position, thus determining the angular viscosity of the slag; and means for correcting the viscosity of the slag, if the distance between the plane of zero position and the discharge position deviates from a desired value, by feeding an additive to the inlet of the kiln.

  2. Incinerator for the high speed combustion of waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.F.

    1988-06-07

    A high speed burning furnace and incinerator, is described wherein the incinerator comprises a burner which includes a fuel tank, a mixer, and a controller for controlling the amount of the fuel and the air flow; a burner furnace, an incinerator means which includes mainly an outer pipe, an intermediate pipe, and an inner pipe which are all of transverse cylindrical shape. A neck portion on the right side of the inner pipe is of a truncated conical shape and is connected to the burning furnace; a preheating chamber located on the outer pipe of the incinerator means the incinerator being characterized in that the incinerator is provided with an endless ash conveyor with the incinerator, the ash conveyor to rotate the ash conveyor, the gears having as axis that is mounted within the incinerator and two partition plates inside the ash conveyor, the partition plates being located between the two transmitting gears.

  3. Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator smokestack (building 615) in right background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Building, 540 feet East-Northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Smokestack with incinerator building in background and unnumbered building lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Smokestack with incinerator building in background and unnumbered building lower right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Smokestack, 560 feet east-northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue, & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. South and east sides of building with incinerator smokestack in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and east sides of building with incinerator smokestack in left foreground - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Building, 540 feet East-Northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. 7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to the right. Filter boxes to the left. Looking south. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  7. 18. Process area room. Incinerator to the left. Filter boxes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Process area room. Incinerator to the left. Filter boxes on the right. Looking north towards change room. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  8. 1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Submerged Quench Incinerator, 3940 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 930 feet West of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. Smokestack with incinerator building (building 616) to right and unnumbered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Smokestack with incinerator building (building 616) to right and unnumbered building to right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Smokestack, 560 feet east-northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue, & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. OBSERVATIONS ON WASTE DESTRUCTION IN LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various factors affecting the performance of a subscale liquid injection incinerator simulator are discussed. The mechanisms by which waste escapes incineration within the spray flame are investigated for variations in atomization quality, flame stoichiometry. and the initial was...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION IN CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the collection of combustion emission characterization data from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) incineration. A bench scale test program to provide emission characterization data from CFC incineration was developed and performed, with emphasis on the format...

  12. 13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  13. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-12-22

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials.

  14. OBSERVATIONS ON WASTE DESTRUCTION IN LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various factors affecting the performance of a subscale liquid injection incinerator simulator are discussed. The mechanisms by which waste escapes incineration within the spray flame are investigated for variations in atomization quality, flame stoichiometry. and the initial was...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION IN CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the collection of combustion emission characterization data from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) incineration. A bench scale test program to provide emission characterization data from CFC incineration was developed and performed, with emphasis on the format...

  16. Environmental, health and safety issues: Incinerator filters nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Mark R.; Plata, Desiree L.

    2012-08-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles introduced into a full-scale incinerator are properly filtered and remain in ash residues, but other risks from nanoparticles generated or altered by incinerators should not be overlooked.

  17. Moving the Education Needle: A Conversation with Scott Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Scott Hamilton is the Forrest Gump of education reform, although with a lot more IQ points and fewer chocolates. He worked for Bill Bennett in the U.S. Department of Education and for Benno Schmidt at the Edison Project. He authorized charter schools in Massachusetts, co-founded the KIPP network, quadrupled the size of Teach For America (TFA), and…

  18. Imagined Community at Hamilton College and in the Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Ann

    The "Hamilton College community" (New York) is a term which appears to describe those who are students or staff of the college, who are bound by the close housing (set up on a hill, to be further separated), who share a common philosophy (wanting to learn or to teach), and who are familiar with many members of the "community."…

  19. On Hamilton-Jacobi equation in infinite dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Sritharan, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    A relationship between the notion of viscosity solution in the sense of Crandall and Lions and the generalized solution in the sense of Clarke for the infinite dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is established. This problem arises in optimal control of fluids.

  20. 78 FR 43838 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    .... The NPRM had applied to those propellers using certain Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation auxiliary pumps and motors (auxiliary feathering pumps). The proposed action would have required removal of certain serial numbers (S/Ns) of auxiliary feathering pumps from service. Since we issued the NPRM, we attended...

  1. Moving the Education Needle: A Conversation with Scott Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Scott Hamilton is the Forrest Gump of education reform, although with a lot more IQ points and fewer chocolates. He worked for Bill Bennett in the U.S. Department of Education and for Benno Schmidt at the Edison Project. He authorized charter schools in Massachusetts, co-founded the KIPP network, quadrupled the size of Teach For America (TFA), and…

  2. Numerical Solution of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations in High Dimension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-23

    high dimension FA9550-10-1-0029 Maurizio Falcone Dipartimento di Matematica SAPIENZA-Universita di Roma P. Aldo Moro, 2 00185 ROMA AH930...solution of Hamilton-Jacobi equations in high dimension AFOSR contract n. FA9550-10-1-0029 Maurizio Falcone Dipartimento di Matematica SAPIENZA

  3. INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND MARBLE SCULPTURE IN SOME OF THE HEMICYCLE NICHES. ONE OF THE NICHES HOUSED A “CANNON STOVE” FOR HEATING THE ROOM IN THE COLDER MONTHS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  5. Technology documentation for selected radwaste incineration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-12-01

    Several incineration systems have been developed and demonstrated on a production scale for combustion of radioactive waste from contractor operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Demonstrated operating information and engineered design information is documented in this report on four of these systems; the Cyclone Incinerator (CI), Fluidized Bed Incinerator (FBI), Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) and Electric Controlled Air Incinerator (ECAI). The CI, FBI and CAI have been demonstrated with actual contaminated plant waste and the ECAI has been demonstrated with simulated waste using dysprosium oxide as a stand-in for plutonium oxide. The weight and volume reduction that can be obtained by each system processing typical solid plant transuranic (TRU) waste has been presented. Where a given system has been tested for other applications, such as combustion of resins, TBP-solvent mixtures, organic liquids, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), resuts of these experiments have been included. This document is a compilation of reports prepared by the operating contractor personnel responsible for development of each of the systems. In addition, as a part of the program management responsibility, the Transuranic Waste System Office (TWSO) has provided an overview of the contractor supplied information.

  6. An investigation of the efficiency of plasma incineration for destruction of aromatics in incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect

    Retarides, C.J.; Chevis, E.A.; Busch, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma incineration is being investigated as a means for the vitrification of ash from a conventional incinerator. Incinerator ash, consisting of 20% bottom ash and 80% fly ash, is introduced into a plasma incinerator operated at a power of 100 kW. The sample is vitrified, leaving a glassy material that is more dense and therefore less voluminous than the ash, for disposal. Volume reduction by up to a factor of twenty may be achieved through this process. The resulting material can be used as concrete fill or can be disposed of in a landfill at a much lower cost than the original ash. Plasma incineration should also result in the nearly complete destruction of hazardous organic compounds. Plasma temperatures commonly reach more than 3000 Kelvin resulting in the thermal destruction of most organic compounds. The extent of the destruction of organic compounds found in incinerator ash has been investigated. Plasma incineration was completed at the Georgia Tech Research Institute Plasma Research Center (GTRI). All ash vitrified product samples were obtained from GTRI.

  7. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator.

  8. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  9. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  10. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  11. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  13. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  14. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  15. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  16. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of a...

  17. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered.

  18. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  19. Development of an incineration system for pulverized spent charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru; Kani, Koichi

    1995-12-31

    In the existing charcoal treatment system granular charcoal is charged directly into an incinerator together with other combustible waste. Since the combustion rate of the charcoal is slow in this system, there is a problem that unburnt charcoal accumulates at the bottom of the incinerator, when incineration is performed for an extended period of time. To prevent this difficulty, the combustion rate of the charcoal must be limited to 6 kg/h. To increase the incineration rate of charcoal, the authors have developed a system in which the charcoal is pulverized and incinerated while it is mixed with propane gas. The operational performance of this system was tested using an actual equipment.

  20. John C. Hamilton Greeted By Astronauts and MSFC Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Aiea, Hawaii high school student, John C. Hamilton, is greeted by (left to right): Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, and Owen K. Garriott; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Skylab Program Manager, Leland Belew; and MSFC Director of Administration and Technical Services, David Newby, during a tour of MSFC. Hamilton was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  1. Efficient solution for finding Hamilton cycles in undirected graphs.

    PubMed

    Alhalabi, Wadee; Kitanneh, Omar; Alharbi, Amira; Balfakih, Zain; Sarirete, Akila

    2016-01-01

    The Hamilton cycle problem is closely related to a series of famous problems and puzzles (traveling salesman problem, Icosian game) and, due to the fact that it is NP-complete, it was extensively studied with different algorithms to solve it. The most efficient algorithm is not known. In this paper, a necessary condition for an arbitrary un-directed graph to have Hamilton cycle is proposed. Based on this condition, a mathematical solution for this problem is developed and several proofs and an algorithmic approach are introduced. The algorithm is successfully implemented on many Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian graphs. This provides a new effective approach to solve a problem that is fundamental in graph theory and can influence the manner in which the existing applications are used and improved.

  2. Burial, incineration solve Alaskan PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, J.A. ); Young, D.T. )

    1989-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) remediation at Alaska's Swanson River has excavated more than 80,000 tons of PCB-contaminated soil and isolated it in bermed and lined stock-piles. In addition, incineration of other PCB-contaminated materials has been carried out safely. This article on the site reviews its history and part of its remediation approaches.

  3. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  4. Flow field simulation for a corncob incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.

    1999-02-01

    This article utilizes the standard k-{epsilon} turbulent model to simulate a corncob incinerator using the PISO algorithm with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow patterns of the incinerator equipped with secondary air inlets are predicted and compared for the various geometrical layouts. It is demonstrated that a wider recirculation zone can be found while the inclined angles of inlets increased, so a longer residence time and higher combustion efficiency will be expected. The longer distance between primary and secondary inlets will facilitate the formation of recirculation zone in this bigger space. The more the number of the secondary air inlets, the less the resident air in the top recirculation zone near the exit of the furnace. By using the CFD technique, the flow field of the incinerator can be understood more precisely, and it can serve as an excellent design tool. Furthermore, the computational program can be composed with FORTRAN and set up on a PC, and can easily be analyzed to get the flow field of the corncob incinerator.

  5. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  6. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DC 20593-7102. (b) Testing. Before type approval is granted, the manufacturer must have tests... to perform the inspections and tests required by this section; and (4) Not be owned or controlled by... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of this regulation; (ii) When an incinerator is first used for the disposal of PCBs after the...; (c) CO2; (d) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX); (e) Hydrochloric Acid (HCl); (f) Total Chlorinated Organic... continuous. The monitoring for CO2 shall be periodic, at a frequency specified by the Regional...

  8. CLOSURE OF A DIOXIN INCINERATION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mobile Incineration System, whihc was operated at the Denney Farm site in southwestern Miissouri between October 1985 and June 1989, treated almost six million kilograms of dioxin-contaminated wastes from eight area sites. At the conclusi...

  9. Consolidated Incineration Facility Tritium Emissions Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D. L.; Aggus, J.R.

    1995-03-29

    The Savannah River Technology Center, a research and development facility at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, provides environmental and regulatory compliance support to onsite operations. A new consolidated Incinerator Facility at SRS is being built to treat hazardous and a combination of hazardous and radioactive (mixed) wastes.

  10. Ultrahigh-resolution mapping of peatland microform using ground-based structure from motion with multiview stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Jason J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.

    2016-11-01

    Microform is important in understanding wetland functions and processes. But collecting imagery of and mapping the physical structure of peatlands is often expensive and requires specialized equipment. We assessed the utility of coupling computer vision-based structure from motion with multiview stereo photogrammetry (SfM-MVS) and ground-based photos to map peatland topography. The SfM-MVS technique was tested on an alpine peatland in Banff National Park, Canada, and guidance was provided on minimizing errors. We found that coupling SfM-MVS with ground-based photos taken with a point and shoot camera is a viable and competitive technique for generating ultrahigh-resolution elevations (i.e., <0.01 m, mean absolute error of 0.083 m). In evaluating 100+ viable SfM-MVS data collection and processing scenarios, vegetation was found to considerably influence accuracy. Vegetation class, when accounted for, reduced absolute error by as much as 50%. The logistic flexibility of ground-based SfM-MVS paired with its high resolution, low error, and low cost makes it a research area worth developing as well as a useful addition to the wetland scientists' toolkit.

  11. Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present new, efficient central schemes for multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These non-oscillatory, non-staggered schemes are first- and second-order accurate and are designed to scale well with an increasing dimension. Efficiency is obtained by carefully choosing the location of the evolution points and by using a one-dimensional projection step. First-and second-order accuracy is verified for a variety of multi-dimensional, convex and non-convex problems.

  12. Optical mechanical analogy and Hamiltonization of a nonholonomic system.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Alberto G; Bloch, Anthony M

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that there is an analogy between optics and mechanics that prompted much of the classical theory of mechanics and indeed extended it to the theory of quantum mechanics. We develop here an optical mechanical analogy for a prototypical nonholonomic mechanical system, a knife edge moving on a plane under the influence of a potential. We show that this approach is related to but different from the classical theory of Hamiltonization of nonholonomic systems.

  13. Existence of viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souganidis, Panagiotis E.

    Equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type arise in many areas of application, including the calculus of variations, control theory and differential games. Recently M. G. Crandall and P.-L. Lions ( Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.277 (1983), 1-42) introduced the class of "viscosity" solutions of these equations and proved uniqueness within this class. This paper discusses the existence of these solutions under assumptions closely related to the ones which guarantee the uniqueness.

  14. Hamilton-Dirac systems for charged particles in gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we use the Sternberg phase space (which may be considered as the classical phase space of particles in gauge fields) in order to explore the dynamics of such particles in the context of Hamilton-Dirac systems and their associated Hamilton-Pontryagin variational principles. For this, we develop an analogue of the Pontryagin bundle in the case of the Sternberg phase space. Moreover, we show the link of this new bundle to the so-called magnetized Tulczyjew triple, which is an analogue of the link between the Pontryagin bundle and the usual Tulczyjew triple. Taking advantage of the symplectic nature of the Sternberg space, we induce a Dirac structure on the Sternberg-Pontryagin bundle which leads to the Hamilton-Dirac structure that we are looking for. We also analyze the intrinsic and variational nature of the equations of motion of particles in gauge fields in regards of the defined new geometry. Lastly, we illustrate our theory through the case of a U(1) gauge group, leading to the paradigmatic example of an electrically charged particle in an electromagnetic field.

  15. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  19. Carbon monoxide formation and emissions during waste incineration in a grate-circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yanguo Zhang; Qinghai Li; Aihong Meng; Changhe Chen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of carbon monoxide (CO) formation and emissions in both grate drying bed incinerators and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerators to simulate the two key parts of a combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) incinerator in order to investigate pollutant emission control in municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion that occurs in a grate-CFB incinerator utilizing a patented technology. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, kitchen waste, paper, textile, etc. were chosen to simulate the MSW. The effects of temperature, air staging, and moisture on the CO formation and emissions were analysed for both the grate drying bed combustion and the CFB combustion. In the grate drying bed, the low temperatures increased the carbon to CO conversion rate which also increased slightly with the moisture content. Industrial field tests in a commercial grate-CFB incinerator showed that the CO concentration at the grate drying bed exit was very high and decreased along furnace height. The carbon to CO conversion rates were 0-20% for the grate drying bed which exceeded the range of 0.8-16% measured in a grate drying bed exit of the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests. In the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests, at excess air ratios ranging from 1.5-2.0 or more, the CO emissions decreased to a low and stable level, whose corresponding carbon to CO conversion rates were far lower than 0-10%. The low CO emission is one of the factors enabling the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran emissions to satisfy the Chinese national regulations.

  20. Mutagenicity of combustion emissions from a biomedical-waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, J.H.; Rogers, H.W.; Claxton, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Ames Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) assay was used to determine the mutagenicity of stack fly ash from a medical/pathological waste incinerator. Stack fly ash also collected from a boiler plant adjacent to the incinerator and ambient air particles (upwind and downwind of the incinerator and boiler facilities) were collected and bioassayed. Downwind particulate mutagenicity (revertants per cubic meter of air) was significantly greater than upwind particulate mutagenicity. Mutagenic emission-rate estimates (revertants per kilogram waste feed) for the incinerator and boiler were less than estimates for ash and downwind ambient-air particulate samples collected during incinerator auxiliary burner failure and demonstrated significant increase in mutagenicity compared to samples collected during routine incinerator operation.

  1. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents.

  2. Numerical simulation of synthesis gas incineration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, A. V.; Khaustov, S. A.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Belousova, Y. A.

    2016-04-01

    The authors have analysed the expediency of the suggested low-grade fuels application method. Thermal processing of solid raw materials in the gaseous fuel, called synthesis gas, is investigated. The technical challenges concerning the applicability of the existing gas equipment developed and extensively tested exclusively for natural gas were considered. For this purpose computer simulation of three-dimensional syngas-incinerating flame dynamics was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics engineering software. The subjects of studying were: a three-dimensional aerodynamic flame structure, heat-release and temperature fields, a set of combustion properties: a flare range and the concentration distribution of burnout reagents. The obtained results were presented in the form of a time-averaged pathlines with color indexing. The obtained results can be used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of complex multicomponent gas incineration singularities.

  3. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate volatilities (boiling points). The data in the Appendix contain: incinerator operating data, laboratory analyses, sampl...

  4. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate volatilities (boiling points). The data in the Appendix contain: incinerator operating data, laboratory analyses, sampl...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  6. Hamilton{close_quote}s principle for quasigeostrophic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.D.; Zeitlin, V.

    1998-04-01

    We show that the equation of quasigeostrophic (QG) potential vorticity conservation in geophysical fluid dynamics follows from Hamilton{close_quote}s principle for stationary variations of an action for geodesic motion in the f-plane case or its prolongation in the {beta}-plane case. This implies a new momentum equation and an associated Kelvin circulation theorem for QG motion. We treat the barotropic and two-layer baroclinic cases, as well as the continuously stratified case. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Approximation schemes for viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souganidis, Panagiotis E.

    Equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type arise in many areas of applications, including the calculus of variations, control theory and differential games. Recently M. G. Crandall and P.-L. Lions established the correct notion of generalized solutions for these equations. This article discusses the convergence of general approximation schemes to this solution and gives, under certain hypotheses, explicit error estimates. These results are then applied to obtain various representations as limits of solutions of general explicit and implicit finite difference schemes, with error estimates.

  8. Hamilton and the square root of minus one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Quaternions, objects consisting of a scalar and a vector, sound like a mysterious concept from the past. In the nineteenth century, the theory of quaternions was praised as one of the most brilliant achievements in mathematical physics. The originator of this theory, Hamilton, surely one of the greatest scientists in that area, spent about 18 years in discussing all kinds of algebraic and geometric properties of quaternions. His research was communicated to the Philosophical Magazine in three series of papers comprising a total of 29 contributions. In this commentary, these three series of papers are revisited concentrating primarily on the algebraic properties of quaternions.

  9. Hamilton and Hardy for the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Hardy’s Industrial Toxicology is now 80 years old, and the new sixth edition links us with a pioneer era. This is an impressive book, but the usefulness of the hardback version as a reference book is unfortunately limited by its poor index. There is now an ebook version, and for the practitioner on the move this has the great advantages of searchability and portability. However, Wiley ebooks can apparently only be downloaded when first purchased, so their lifetime is limited to that of the device. The Kindle edition should avoid this shortcoming.

  10. The Hamilton-Jacobi method and Hamiltonian maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaev, S. S.

    2002-03-01

    A method for constructing time-step-based symplectic maps for a generic Hamiltonian system subjected to perturbation is developed. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and Jacobi's theorem in finite periodic time intervals, the general form of the symplectic maps is established. The generating function of the map is found by the perturbation method in the finite time intervals. The accuracy of the maps is studied for fully integrable and partially chaotic Hamiltonian systems and compared to that of the symplectic integration method.

  11. Hamilton-Jacobi method for curved domain walls and cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.

    2006-12-01

    We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first-order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of AdS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.

  12. Multimodal electromechanical model of piezoelectric transformers by Hamilton's principle.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Clement; Pigache, Francois

    2009-11-01

    This work deals with a general energetic approach to establish an accurate electromechanical model of a piezoelectric transformer (PT). Hamilton's principle is used to obtain the equations of motion for free vibrations. The modal characteristics (mass, stiffness, primary and secondary electromechanical conversion factors) are also deduced. Then, to illustrate this general electromechanical method, the variational principle is applied to both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT models. A comparison of modal parameters, mechanical displacements, and electrical potentials are presented for both models. Finally, the validity of the electrodynamical model of nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT is confirmed by a numerical comparison based on a finite elements method and an experimental identification.

  13. On-Site Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Site Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...32 1 INTRODUCTION Incineration has been used as a remedy at more than 40 Superfund sites. Information on cost and

  14. Properties of solid waste incinerator fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Poran, C.J. ); Ahtchi-Ali, F. )

    1989-08-01

    Since the late 1950s solid waste incinerators have become widely used in the United States. The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash, which has been disposed of primarily by landfilling. However, as landfills become undesirable other disposal methods are being sought. An experimental research program is conducted to determine engineering properties of solid waste incinerator fly ash (SWIF) in order to evaluate the feasibility of using the material for compacted fill and road and subbase construction. Moisture-density relationship, permeability, shear strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) are investigated. The effects of densification on these engineering properties are also examined. In addition, the effectiveness of cement and lime stabilization is investigated using two common mix ratios. Test results of stabilized mixes are compared to the unstabilized material. Cement stabilization is found to be very effective in reducing permeability, and increasing shear strength and CBR values of the material. The results indicate that SWIF with cement stabilization may be used effectively for compacted fill and road subbase construction. Finally, some environmental aspects related to these applications are examined.

  15. Incinerator for the high speed combustion of waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.F.

    1986-12-30

    A high speed combustion incinerator is described comprising: a burner which includes a fuel tank, a mixer, and a controller for controlling the amount of the fuel and the air flow; a burner furnace; an incinerator means which includes mainly an outer pipe, an intermediate pipe, and an inner pipe which are all of transverse cylindrical shape. A neck portion on the right side of the inner pipe is of a truncated conical shape and is connected to the burning furnace; a preheating chamber located on the outer pipe of the incinerator means; and a conveyor located in the preheating chamber for conveying waste product to be burned into the incinerator means.

  16. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of emissions from medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Adel; Labib, Osama

    2003-01-01

    The emissions from medical waste incinerators might perform a threat to the environment and the Public Health, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the emissions of six medical waste incinerators in six hospitals in Alexandria, Namely; Gamal Abd El-Naser, Sharq El-Madina, Central Blood Bank, Fever, Medical Research Institute, and Al-Mo'asat, ordered serially from 1 to 6. Five air pollutants were sampled and analyzed in the emissions comprising smoke, lead, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results of the present study have revealed that all the average values of gases in the six incinerators were within the limits stated in Egyptian environmental law, where as carbonaceous particulate (smoke) averages of the six incinerators have exceeded the maximum allowable limit in the law. On the other hand, lead concentration in emissions were far below the maximum allowable limit in the law. Al-Mo'asat incinerator emissions have been significantly higher in CO, NO2, SO2 and smoke concentration than the other five incinerators P < 0.001, P < 0.0006, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.002 respectively. The main recommendations of the present work are to reassess the limits of emissions in the Egyptian law and to state specific limits for medical wast incinerators and to relocate the medical waste incinerators away from residential areas or to substitute them all by a central incinerator in a proper place out of the city.

  18. 78 FR 54766 - Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    .../Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or Before December 1, 2008, and Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Correction In...

  19. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY 13346...

  20. 76 FR 48178 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY 13346.... Jordan Kerber, Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate...

  1. Preliminary survey report: control technology for manual transfer of chemical powders at City of Hamilton Municipal Electric Plant, Hamilton, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.

    1984-08-01

    Health-hazard control methods, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manual transfer of chemical powders were surveyed at the City of Hamilton Municipal Electric Site, Hamilton, Ohio in May, 1984. The facility employed 48 workers involved in generating electricity. Soda ash, phosphates, and flake caustic soda were used in water-treatment operations. Water was used to produce steam which in turn was used to drive the electricity-generating rotors. The dry materials were manually removed from drums and sacks and dumped into 75 gallon water tanks. The mixture was manually stirred with a stick until the dry materials were in solution. The solution was then automatically pumped into one of three boiler drums. No ventilation was used in the water treatment area. Workers were encouraged to use good work practices, and were provided with safety glasses, respirators, and gloves. Employees received pre-employment physical examinations and training in first-aid procedures. The author does not recommend an in-depth study of control technologies at the facility since no unique state-of-the-art methods are used.

  2. 7. Interior detail, north to south, stoking floor, brick incinerator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior detail, north to south, stoking floor, brick incinerator housing reinforced with steel frame. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 8. Historic view, Incinerator (Building 203). View to southeast, c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic view, Incinerator (Building 203). View to southeast, c. 1950's Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  5. EXPERIENCE IN INCINERATION APPLICABLE TO SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document can be used as a reference tool for hazardous waste site remediation where incineration is used as a treatment alternative. It provides the user with information garnered from the experiences of others who use incineration. The document presents useful lessons in ev...

  6. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  7. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  8. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O; (ii) A boiler or process heater with a design heat... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  10. 9. Historic drawing, Incinerator (Building 203). Plant Expansion, 1942. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic drawing, Incinerator (Building 203). Plant Expansion, 1942. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    PubMed

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  12. Hazardous waste incineration: Emotional fears and technical reality

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    Although incinerators are not risk-free, they bear up well by comparison to other methods of hazardous waste disposal and other socially-accepted risks. The current level of suspicion and anxiety regarding incinerators can be reduced through the sharing of expert information about the need for, and process of, hazardous waste combustion, and early involvement of community and industry representatives, even before a particular incinerator site is chosen. The federal government`s role should not be one of asking whether a particular place wants a hazardous waste incinerator. Their approach should be one of consensus-building. A brief look at the facts can help the public understand that incineration is the best available treatment for hazardous wastes.

  13. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to warm inflationary scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayar, K.; Mohammadi, A.; Akhtari, L.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-01-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism as a powerful method is being utilized to reconsider the warm inflationary scenario, where the scalar field as the main component driving inflation interacts with other fields. Separating the context into strong and weak dissipative regimes, the goal is followed for two popular functions of Γ . Applying slow-rolling approximation, the required perturbation parameters are extracted and, by comparing to the latest Planck data, the free parameters are restricted. The possibility of producing an acceptable inflation is studied where the result shows that for all cases the model could successfully suggest the amplitude of scalar perturbation, scalar spectral index, its running, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  14. Quantum vortices within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-06-21

    Quantum vortices are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. A quantum vortex forms around a node in the wave function in the complex space, and the quantized circulation integral originates from the discontinuity in the real part of the complex action. Although the quantum momentum field displays hyperbolic flow around a node, the corresponding Polya vector field displays circular flow. It is shown that the Polya vector field of the quantum momentum function is parallel to contours of the probability density. A nonstationary state constructed from eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate the formation of a transient excited state quantum vortex, and the coupled harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate quantization of the circulation integral in the multidimensional complex space. This study not only analyzes the formation of quantum vortices but also demonstrates the local structures for the quantum momentum field and for the Polya vector field near a node of the wave function.

  15. Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with Hamilton receptors.

    PubMed

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-04-13

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles.

  16. Hamilton-Jacobi modelling of relative motion for formation flying.

    PubMed

    Kolemen, Egemen; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Gurfil, Pini

    2005-12-01

    A precise analytic model for the relative motion of a group of satellites in slightly elliptic orbits is introduced. With this aim, we describe the relative motion of an object relative to a circular or slightly elliptic reference orbit in the rotating Hill frame via a low-order Hamiltonian, and solve the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This results in a first-order solution to the relative motion identical to the Clohessy-Wiltshire approach; here, however, rather than using initial conditions as our constants of the motion, we utilize the canonical momenta and coordinates. This allows us to treat perturbations in an identical manner, as in the classical Delaunay formulation of the two-body problem. A precise analytical model for the base orbit is chosen with the included effect of zonal harmonics (J(2), J(3), J(4)). A Hamiltonian describing the real relative motion is formed and by differing this from the nominal Hamiltonian, the perturbing Hamiltonian is obtained. Using the Hamilton equations, the variational equations for the new constants are found. In a manner analogous to the center manifold reduction procedure, the non-periodic part of the motion is canceled through a magnitude analysis leading to simple boundedness conditions that cancel the drift terms due to the higher order perturbations. Using this condition, the variational equations are integrated to give periodic solutions that closely approximate the results from numerical integration (1 mm/per orbit for higher order and eccentricity perturbations and 30 cm/per orbit for zonal perturbations). This procedure provides a compact and insightful analytic description of the resulting relative motion.

  17. Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Ross, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters.

  18. Geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for higher-order autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; de León, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2014-06-01

    The geometric framework for the Hamilton-Jacobi theory is used to study this theory in the background of higher-order mechanical systems, in both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. Thus, we state the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equations in these formalisms and apply our results to analyze some particular physical examples.

  19. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) Report. Hamilton Army Airfield, Novato, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Hamilton Army Airfield, Ecology and Environment, Inc. 16. Remedial Action Plan, Hamilton Army Airfield, International Technology September 1990 USEPA...I Jul 40 37 *Ŗ LEGEND 19424 942 .. 943 ’V 9-43 EXCEPT FOlt THE SECIAL SYMBOLS SHOWN BELOW MAP - 94 SYMOLS ARE STANDARD! I4 ARMYMAP SRVICE _ , #e ,1

  20. Hamilton-Jacobi treatment of QED and Yang-Mills theory as constrained systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rabei, E.M.; Tawfiq, S.

    1997-06-01

    The QED and Yang-Mills theories are treated as constrained systems using the Hamilton-Jacobi approach. The set of Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equations of these theories is obtained. It is shown that their simultaneous solutions lead to the original action without introducing Lagrange multipliers.

  1. 77 FR 52135 - Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion...) approved the application of Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland to convert to the stock form of organization...

  2. Alexander Hamilton: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Alexander Hamilton was among the most intellectually gifted of the Founding Fathers and a brilliant political theorist, but he lacked practical political experience, and his major political contributions occurred only when his specific policies were adopted and carried forward by others with broader vision. This booklet on Hamilton is one in a…

  3. Unified formalism for the generalized kth-order Hamilton-Jacobi problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; de Léon, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2014-08-01

    The geometric formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory enables us to generalize it to systems of higher-order ordinary differential equations. In this work we introduce the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for the geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory on higher-order autonomous dynamical systems described by regular Lagrangian functions.

  4. Dynamic computer model for heat transfer and incineration in the Oak Ridge TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) hazardous waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator was designed to burn toxic wastes such as PCBs. During the course of certification, concern was expressed by the Environmental Protection Agency that unburned PCBs might not continue to be destructed if the ''burning'' in the incinerator ceased. For example, it is possible that the flow of auxiliary fuel could be interrupted during the course of incinerator operation. The situation could occur at the time when a fresh batch of waste was introduced into the incinerator which would be the worst time for normal incinerator operation to cease. In response to the question concerning the destruction of PCBs during such an accidental cooling period, a dynamic model was constructed to approximate the situation, and thus obtain an estimate of the time period that the exit gas would remain above the necessary temperature required to detoxify the undesirable substance.

  5. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain incinerator, submit the three items described...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain incinerator, submit the three items described...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After... for air curtain incinerators? After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  11. Transportable incineration services approved for Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    WESTON submitted two thermal technologies for review by EPA, both of which have been approved for use at Superfund sites. The technologies are: Transportable Incineration System (TIS) - a high temperature rotary kiln incineration system which was utilized to clean-up a PCB-contaminated site in Beardstown, IL, and is currently being mobilized to perform a $6 million clean up at the Paxton Avenue Lagoon site in Chicago, IL. Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT{sup 3}) - a patented process for removal of volatile organic compounds from soil which is currently involved in a $1.4 million clean up at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City, OK. In addition to the two EPA-approved technologies, WSI also has exclusive license to a new patented process called In situ Radio-Frequency (IRF) decontamination. This technology treats the soil in place with excavation using a process similar to the heating accomplished within a microwave oven. WSI will perform a full-scale clean up using the IRF technology at a US Air Force Base in Texas in early 1990.

  12. The World She Dreamed, Generations She Shared, Visions She Wrote: A Tribute to Virginia Hamilton 1936-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muse, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a tribute to Virginia Hamilton. Notes that at a time when Black people, especially girls, were seriously beginning to struggle with self-acceptance and self-worth, Hamilton's "bold and imaginative writing was nothing short of revolutionary." (SG)

  13. Novel findings of left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy, microform cleft lip and poor vision in patient with SMC1A-associated Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Tara L; Chow, Penny; Randle, Stephanie C; Rosen, Anna; Birgfeld, Craig; Wrede, Joanna; Javid, Patrick; King, Darcy; Manh, Vivian; Hing, Anne V; Albers, Erin

    2017-02-01

    Relatively few patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) due to SMC1A mutation have been reported, limiting understanding of the full extent of the phenotype. Compared to children with classic NIPBL-associated CdLS, patients with SMC1A-associated CdLS have a milder physical phenotype with prominent intellectual disability, high rate of cleft palate and absence of limb reductions. We present a patient with SMC1A-associated CdLS who had typical features including developmental delay, seizure disorder, feeding difficulties, hirsutism, and cleft palate. She also was found to have three novel features: (i) left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy; (ii) microform cleft lip; and (iii) severe hyperopia and astigmatism. These features have implications regarding potential insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder, screening, and medical management. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has previously been reported in SMC1A-associated CdLS, but to our knowledge this is the first reported child with LVNC. Previous reports have included children with isolated clefts of the palate without involvement of the lip. When cleft palate alone is associated with a disorder, the underlying pathophysiology for clefting is sometimes secondary due to mechanical blocking of the fusion of the palatal shelves with the developing tongue. The presence of microform cleft lip in this patient suggests that the pathophysiology of clefting in SMC1A is primary rather than secondary. Few studies report ophthalmologic findings specific to SMC1A. Based on these findings, LVNC cardiomyopathy and cleft lip should be considered features of SMC1A-associated CdLS. All patients should receive echocardiogram and undergo thorough ophthalmologic evaluation as part of routine CdLS care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. High temperature material considerations in chemical waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, H.; Lai, G.

    1997-08-01

    The complex and corrosive nature of the incineration environment coupled with high temperatures can lead to premature failure of various metallic components in an incinerator. Specifying materials solely for service in non-corrosive, high-temperature environments is somewhat straight forward and well understood. However, the effects of corrosion on the alloy`s properties and its subsequent life expectancy is not well known and difficult to predict. The importance of appropriate material selection, failure analysis, fabrication technique and process control are illustrated by discussion of a case history involving an incinerator chute.

  15. Flashback from waste gas incinerator into air supply piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.E.; Dowell, A.M. III; Mynaugh, J.B. )

    1992-04-01

    A waste gas incinerator experienced a flashback with a pressure wave in the Suction Vent Gas (SVG) system. Extensive damage resulted to the SVG flame arrestor, SVG fan, SVG valves, and incinerator piping. There were no injuries. The primary cause of the incident is believed to have been a fuel rich SVG stream that was rapidly introduced into the incinerator creating a puff.' This puff' allowed flame from the natural gas ring burner to blow back into the windbox igniting the fuel rich SVG. The combustion of gas in the ducting then created a pressure wave that blew apart the flame arrestor and caused the remainder of the damage.

  16. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-12-31

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA`s permit envelope.

  17. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA's permit envelope.

  18. Electric controlled air incinerator for radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Warren, Jeffery H.; Hootman, Harry E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburner chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by a plurality of vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber.

  19. Transient phenomena in rotary-kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. EPA into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. (NOTE: The batch introduction of waste-filled drums or containers into practical rotary-kiln incinerators can lead to transient overcharging conditions which, for brevity, are here denoted as 'puffs.') The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73-kW laboratory rotary-kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes (plastic rods) and surrogate liquid wastes (on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers) were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (e.g., charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs.

  20. Deflagration transient study of the CIF incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-03

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) treats solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The transient responses of the CIF system to a deflagration, caused by an accidental charge of a modest quantity of solvent (e.g. toluene) into the rotary kiln, were a major safety concern. Using a dynamic computer model, a study was conducted to analyze the transient system responses to the rapid temperature and pressure surge in the kiln. The objective of the study was to determined the maximum pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate in each CIF component (rotary kiln, secondary combustion chamber, quencher, scrubber/cyclone, mist eliminator, reheaters, HEPAs, and ID fans). The resulting data provided a basis for the subsequent structural analysis. This paper will describe the CIF deflagration study in some detail, and present the results of the simulation scenarios.

  1. The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-06-04

    While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin.

  2. Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.

  3. An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle

    PubMed Central

    Drapaca, Corina S.

    2015-01-01

    Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin–Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin–Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented. PMID:26236195

  4. An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle.

    PubMed

    Drapaca, Corina S

    2015-01-01

    Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin-Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented.

  5. Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-09-28

    Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems.

  6. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  7. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  8. Continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon emissions from sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; Koch, P.D.; Chehaske, J.T.; Hagele, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water (OW) drafted risk-based sludge regulations (for incineration and a variety of other options) under Section 405d of the Clean Water Act. Under consideration for the final regulation is a provision for continuously monitoring total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions as a method of controlling organic emissions from sludge incineration. The monitoring would have to demonstrate that the THC stack emissions were not exceeding a concentration limit. Continuous analyzers for THC, CO, and oxygen (O2) were installed and operated at two facilities, both of which employed multiple-hearth furnaces (MHFs) to incinerate wastewater sludge. In addition, EPA requested an evaluation of the use of these monitors to assist with incinerator operation.

  9. CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study to determine the feasibility of utilizing realtime continuous exhaust measurements of combustion intermediates as a way to monitor incinerator performance. The key issue was to determine if a direct correlation exists between destruction efficiency (D...

  10. Performance history of the WERF (Waste Experimental Reduction Facility) incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.D.; Bohrer, H.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    As society's environmental conscience grows, diverse political, economical, and social contentions cloud the issue of proper waste management. However, experience at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) demonstrates clearly that incineration is an effective component in responsible, long-term waste management. Using a simple but safe design, the WERF incinerator has successfully reduced the volume of low-level beta/gamma waste. As of the end of March, 1988, this incinerator, a 180-kg/h (400-lb/h) controlled-air unit with a completely dry off-gas treatment system, has accumulated approximately 4500 hours of operation, processing over 4250 M/sup 3/ (150,000 ft/sup 3/) of waste, and achieving volume reduction ratios of approximately 300:1. This paper discusses some of the achievements and problems experienced during operation of the WERF incinerator. 1 ref., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, M G; Lewandowski, K E; Becker, G W

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant.

  12. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Organic emissions from pilot-scale incineration of CFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.V.; Lee, C.W.; Korn, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichloro-difluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international accord implemented to reduce the production and use of stratospheric ozone depleting substances, considerable quantities of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons may be accumulated and ultimately require disposal or destruction. Incineration is a potential destruction technology; however, little is known of the combustion emission characteristics from CFC incineration.) A 293-kW (1 million Btu/h) incinerator was made available to the EPA for the characterization, which focused on determining the destruction efficiencies (DEs) and major products of incomplete combustion (PICs) for each CFC evaluated.

  14. Improvement of operating conditions in waste incinerators using engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Yang, Won; Nam, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Sangmin

    2007-01-01

    Operation parameters such as waste feed rate, air supply, and temperature of the gas in incineration plants should be carefully determined for various situations, which include seasonal and annual changes in fuel characteristics, and performance change of the hardware. These changes may cause off-design point operation of the incinerators, which results in many problems in operation of the flue gas treatment system, low-oxygen in the combustion chamber, thermal damage of the incinerator wall, and so on. In this study, an engineering approach using computational tools along with field tests and observation is presented. For computational tools, a 0-dimensional model for heat and mass balance, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and a global prediction model for dioxin are employed. They play a key role in diagnosing incineration systems and evaluating changes in operating conditions. The typical results of each tool are reported, and examples of improvement in operating performance are described.

  15. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Emissions investigation for a novel medical waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong; Li, Wei-jie; Li, Jie; Wu, Bo-liang; Yi, Jia-qiang

    2009-07-15

    Medical waste constitutes one of the waste streams that should be dealt with special priority due to its potential negative impact on public health and on the environment. Incineration is a process that is widely used for the treatment of medical waste. However, self-supporting combustion of medical waste cannot avoid releasing many hazardous pollutants into our environment. The most favored solutions are firing additional fuels of high calorific value and direct purification by air pollution control devices (APCD). This process entails not only large first time investment but also an increase in the operation cost. A novel incinerator is proposed for better utilization of energy of the incineration process. Its originality is essentially due to combining a feeder, a rotary grate, a cylindrical gasifier and a "coaxial" secondary combustion chamber into a unique unit. The structure of the incinerator as well as the principle of the incineration process is presented in this paper. A full-scale trial of the novel incinerator with APCD was carried out from March to May 2008 to investigate how the distinct configuration influenced the incineration process. Data on PM, CO, NO(X), O(2) were recorded by a continuous emission monitoring system during the study period. Heavy metals and PCCD/Fs were also sampled and measured. Measuring results were compared with the China and U.S. EPA guidelines. The concentrations of contaminants were below their respective limits in emission control standards. Results from testing the novel medical waste incinerator confirmed that this technology has a good suitability for neutralization of medical wastes and purification of flue gases.

  17. Combustion Technology for Incinerating Wastes from Air Force Industrial Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Conservation and Recovery Act and are properly disposed at cost to the Air Force. Onsite incineration with heat recovery is being considered as a...the heat released during thermal processing could reduce the costs of waste incineration. 0 * Normally, relatively small amounts of individual wastes...wastes. Task 3: Combustion Analysis. Determine and quantify the essential combustion parameters of industrial process wastes with respect to heat

  18. Facsimile Transmission of Microforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-30

    acoustico-optic laser and precision lenses to scan microimages. Boticelli et al. (1975, 1976) of Epsco Labs summarize a parametric study which presents... Epsco Labs. Botticelli, R.A. at al. (1976). Accessing and Displaying Stored Microimage Information. Society for Information Display International

  19. Consolidated Incineration Facility waste burn test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.

    1995-01-11

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is Providing technical support for start-up and operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility. This support program includes a series of pilot incineration tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Incineration Research Facility (MF) using surrogate CIF mixed wastes. The objectives for this test program included measuring incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distributions as a function of several operating variables, characterizing kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates, determining heavy metal partition between the kiln bottom ash and incinerator stack gas, and measuring kiln organics emissions (particularly polychlorinated dioxins and furans). These tests were designed to investigate the effect of the following operating parameters: Incineration Temperature; Waste Feed Rate; Waste Density; Kiln Solids Residence Time; and Waste Composition. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three solid waste simulants were burned, two waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and PVC) with one containing spiked toxic organic and metal compounds, and one waste type containing only paper. Secondary Combustion Chamber (SCC) offgases were sampled for particulate loading and size distribution, organic compounds, polychlorinated dibenzo[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, and combustion products. Kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates were characterized to determine the principal elements and compounds comprising these secondary wastes.

  20. Incinerator Ash Management: Knowledge and information gaps to 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, A.; Bigelow, C.; Veneman, P.L.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Incinerator Ash Management Project at the University of Massachusetts was established in 1986 to gather written and numerical test data from existing literature and from persons knowledgeable about incinerator ash management. Information was solicited on sampling and testing methods; incinerator ash properties, and incinerator and fuel characteristics that may affect ash properties; the different components of ash management systems; and regulatory concerns. The principal data were collected on total metals, EP toxicity test results, dioxins and furans, and the composition of refuse. Cadmium and lead are apparently the most important elements affecting the ash toxicity. The values for total metals and values from the EP toxicity test are both extremely variable. Unfortunately, information about incinerator conditions at the time of sampling is often missing, which severely limits statistical interpretation of the data. The selection of an appropriate ash-management option depends on factors such as ash composition; availability, location, and nature of landfills; and the availability of alternative use or disposal techniques. Many states and the federal government are currently considering how to regulate incinerator ash management and are at various stages in this process.

  1. Real-time analysis of incinerator emissions: The missing link

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    1994-11-01

    Incineration has long been, and continues to be, one of the most cost-effective technologies for disposing of the world's growing volume of municipal and hazardous waste. Yet anyone who has been involved in an attempt to site an incinerator in recent years knows the political nightmare this process has become. The public has become extremely suspicious of the health and environmental impact of incinerators, and not without reason. Incinerators have been known to release unacceptably high levels of toxic substances into the air, including dioxins, furans, and other pollutants. Worse, there are no monitoring devices that can continuously measure trace gases in incinerator emissions to allow operators to know exactly what substances are being released and allow for quick corrective action. To address the problems, several teams of university scientists are developing techniques for real-time emissions monitoring that may simultaneously allow industry to operate incinerators in the most efficient manner and assure the public that their health is being protected.

  2. Air pollution from incinerators and reproductive outcomes: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Candela, Silvia; Ranzi, Andrea; Bonvicini, Laura; Baldacchini, Flavia; Marzaroli, Paolo; Evangelista, Andrea; Luberto, Ferdinando; Carretta, Elisa; Angelini, Paola; Sterrantino, Anna Freni; Broccoli, Serena; Cordioli, Michele; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    The few studies that have investigated the relationship between emissions from municipal solid-waste incinerators and adverse pregnancy outcomes have had conflicting results. We conducted a study to assess the effects of air emissions from the eight incinerators currently in operation in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy on reproductive outcomes (sex ratio, multiple births, preterm births, and small for gestational age [SGA] births). We considered all births (n = 21,517) to women residing within a 4-km radius of an incinerator at the time of delivery during the period 2003-2010 who were successfully linked to the Delivery Certificate database. This source also provided information on maternal characteristics and deliveries. Each newborn was georeferenced and characterized by a specific level of exposure to incinerator emissions, categorized in quintiles of PM10, and other sources of pollution (NOx quartiles), evaluated by means of ADMS-Urban system dispersion models. We ran logistic regression models for each outcome, adjusting for exposure to other pollution sources and maternal covariates. Incinerator pollution was not associated with sex ratio, multiple births, or frequency of SGA. Preterm delivery increased with increasing exposure (test for trend, P < 0.001); for the highest versus the lowest quintile exposure, the odds ratio was 1.30 (95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.57). A similar trend was observed for very preterm babies. Several sensitivity analyses did not alter these results. Maternal exposure to incinerator emissions, even at very low levels, was associated with preterm delivery.

  3. Organic carbon leaching behavior from incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, A L; Okuda, T; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2006-09-21

    The understanding of the leaching behavior of organic carbon from incinerator bottom ash is an important aspect for the control of organic carbon emissions from landfills in order to minimize their potential risk to the environment. The leaching behavior of organic carbon from incinerator bottom ash samples, obtained from two different solid waste sources, as well as the effects of calcium (Ca) on organic carbon (DOC) leaching associated with pH were therefore investigated in this paper. The effect of pH on the leaching of DOC and other major elements from bottom ash was ascertained through pH-stat leaching experiments. Column leaching experiments were carried out to evaluate the dependence of the leached amount of DOC on Ca leaching. It was found that the bottom ash produced by incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) was composed of two DOC fractions: DOC leached independent (fraction I) of Ca leaching, observed at alkaline-neutral pH, and DOC leached dependent (fraction II) on Ca leaching, observed at acid pH. However, the bottom ash produced by incineration of industrial solid waste (ISW) was composed of only DOC fraction I. The addition of calcium oxide during incineration and the differences in the paper to plastic ratio in the physical composition of the solid wastes incinerated would explain the distinct organic carbon leaching behaviors of bottom ash samples.

  4. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown.

  5. Exactly solvable systems and the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasinariu, Constantin; Dykla, John J.; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V.

    2005-05-01

    We connect quantum Hamilton Jacobi theory with supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM). We show that the shape invariance, which is an integrability condition of SUSYQM, translates into fractional linear relations among the quantum momentum functions.

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi method for classical mechanics in Grassmann algebra (in English)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabunshchyk, K. V.

    We present the Hamilton--Jacobi method for the classical mechanics with the constrains in Grassmann algebra. Within the framework of this method the solution for the classical system characterized by the SUSY Lagrangian is obtained.

  7. Some suggested approaches to solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation associated with constrained rigid body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Cochran, J. E.; Shaw, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Some methods of approaching a solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are outlined and examples are given to illustrate particular methods. These methods may be used for cases where the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is not separable and have been particularly useful in solving the rigid body motion of an earth satellite subjected to gravity torques. These general applications may also have usefulness in studying the motion of satellites with aerodynamic torque and in studying space vehicle motion where thrusting is involved.

  8. Yerkes, Hamilton and the experimental study of the ape mind: from evolutionary psychiatry to eugenic politics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marion

    2006-06-01

    Robert Yerkes is a pivotal figure in American psychology and primatology in the first half of the twentieth century. As is well known, Yerkes first studied ape intelligence in 1915, on a visit to the private California laboratory of the psychiatrist Gilbert Hamilton, a former student. Less widely appreciated is how far the work done at the Hamilton lab, in its aims and ambitions as well as its techniques, served as a template for much of Yerkes's research thereafter. This paper uses the Hamilton-Yerkes relationship to re-examine Yerkes's career and, more generally, that of American psychology in the early twentieth century. Three points especially are emphasized: first, the role of Freudian psychoanalysis as a spur to Hamilton's experimental studies of ape intelligence; second, the importance of Hamilton's laboratory, with its semi-wild population of monkeys and ape, as a model for Yerkes's efforts to create a laboratory of his own; and third, the influence on Yerkes of Hamilton's optimism about experimental psychological studies of nonhuman primates as a source of lessons beneficial to a troubled human world.

  9. Hamilton-Jacobi theorems for regular reducible Hamiltonian systems on a cotangent bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, some of formulations of Hamilton-Jacobi equations for Hamiltonian system and regular reduced Hamiltonian systems are given. At first, an important lemma is proved, and it is a modification for the corresponding result of Abraham and Marsden (1978), such that we can prove two types of geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theorem for a Hamiltonian system on the cotangent bundle of a configuration manifold, by using the symplectic form and dynamical vector field. Then these results are generalized to the regular reducible Hamiltonian system with symmetry and momentum map, by using the reduced symplectic form and the reduced dynamical vector field. The Hamilton-Jacobi theorems are proved and two types of Hamilton-Jacobi equations, for the regular point reduced Hamiltonian system and the regular orbit reduced Hamiltonian system, are obtained. As an application of the theoretical results, the regular point reducible Hamiltonian system on a Lie group is considered, and two types of Lie-Poisson Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the regular point reduced system are given. In particular, the Type I and Type II of Lie-Poisson Hamilton-Jacobi equations for the regular point reduced rigid body and heavy top systems are shown, respectively.

  10. Control of industrial VOC (volatile organic compound) emissions by catalytic incineration. volume 5. catalytic incinerator performance at industrial site c-3. Final report, May 1982-August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Blacksmith, J.R.; Randall, J.L.

    1984-07-01

    The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incineration for VOC control. Results included: (1) a review of current and developing catalytic incineration technology, (2) an assessment of the overall performance of catalytic incinerators, (3) a review of applications where catalytic incinerators are used, (4) a comparative analysis of catalytic incineration with other competing VOC controls, (5) an examination of available methods for emission testing catalytic incinerators, and (6) an assessment of the need for additional performance test data. Phase 2 was a test program designed to increase the catalytic incinerator performance data base. It resulted in reports documenting the performance of eight catalytic incinerators at six industrial sites. The incinerators were used to control VOC emissions from solvent evaporation processes at can coating, coil coating, magnet wire, and graphic arts printing plants. Performance was measured at several process conditions at each site. Incinerator performance was characterized in terms of destruction efficiency, outlet solvent concentration, and energy usage. Design and operating data were collected. This report preseents test resultls and data evaluation for the testing conducted at the third test site, which involved the testing of two catalytic incinerators at Plant C-3, a graphic arts printing establishment.

  11. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  12. Method of and apparatus for waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, D.; Meiler, L.; Rebholz, H.; Zapf, G.

    1981-04-21

    A method of and installation for incineration of solid and, if desired, liquid waste is disclosed. The installation comprises a pyrolysis chamber and connected directly therebelow a combustion chamber. Exhaust gas ducts which cover the outer walls of the pyrolysis chamber either partly or completely in such a way that the covered wall surfaces of the pyrolysis chamber serve as the inner walls of the exhaust gas ducts. One or more swivelling gate elements which when moved create passages of different crosssections through which solid and gaseous products from the pyrolysis process are discharged from the pyrolysis chamber into the combustion chamber. Combustion air supply inlets are arranged in flow direction behind the gate elements. The exhaust gas ducts are vertically subdivided on the outside walls of the pyrolysis chamber so that each of the individual partial ducts is provided with gas outlets which penetrate the outside walls of the pyrolysis chamber where they are covered bye chosen metal dihalide vapor is ionized by ; the total economic market potential is 64.4% of the technical potential, or 2072.4 MW, equivalent to 83,621 BPDE; and the lack of an operating history-detailing system reliability, safety, and operating costs-iment and test components; technology testing; analytmperature fatigue stren obtained.

  13. Glass ceramics for incinerator ash immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinina, G. A.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2011-09-01

    Calcined solid radioactive waste (incinerator slag) surrogate and either Na 2Si 2O 5 or Na 2B 4O 7 (borax) at various mass ratios were melted in silicon carbide crucibles in a resistive furnace at temperatures of up to 1775 K (slag without additives). Portions of the melts were poured onto a metal plate; the residues were slowly cooled in turned-off furnace. Both quenched and slowly cooled materials were composed of the same phases. At high slag contents in silicate-based materials nepheline and britholite were found to be major phases. Britholite formed at higher slag content (85 wt.%) became major phase in the vitrified slag. In the system with borax at low slag contents (25 and 50 wt.%) material are composed of predominant vitreous and minor calcium silicate larnite type phase Ca 2SiO 4 where Ca 2+ ions are replaced by different cations. The materials containing slag in amount of 75 wt.% and more are chemically durable. The changes in the structure of anionic motif of quenched samples depending on slag loading were studied by IR spectroscopy.

  14. Solid fuel boiler/incinerator fuel feeder

    SciTech Connect

    Galgana, R.J.; Mahoney, P.F.; Sutin, G.L.

    1988-04-26

    This patent describes an apparatus for feeding a metered flow of solid fuel to a boiler/incinerator operation comprising an upright pair of spaced apart walls constituting respective front and rear hopping defining boundaries, and a pair of belt conveyors each traversing an endless travel course and having upstanding flight members extending crosswise thereon. The upper straight run course of each conveyor travels from bottom to top in the hopper chamber and is operable to transport material from the bottom of a stock of solid waste contained in the chamber. Each conveyor transits a turnaround course at the top of the hopper and discharges the material transported thereby through an associated hopper discharge opening adjacent the turnaround course, and each conveyor has a lower straight run course and a lower turnaround course at the bottom of the hopper. Separate variable speed drive motors connected to each of the conveyors for separating and independently variably controlling the speed of each of the conveyors and correspondingly the rate at which solid waste is transported by a conveyor to its associated hopper discharge opening independently of the rate of which the other conveyor transports waste from the hopper.

  15. Use incineration to destroy toxic gases safely

    SciTech Connect

    Straitz, J.F. III

    1995-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are produced and released to the atmosphere during many operations that use toxic gases and liquids, or produce them as byproducts. VOCs and a wide range of objectionable gas and liquid waste streams can be destroyed in thermal oxidizers (also called incinerators, fume burners or flares). They offer a reliable, cost-effective approach, particularly in cases where the heat value of the waste is sufficient and the oxidizer can be operated without supplemental fuel. Where the heat value is not sufficient, an auxiliary fuel, such as gas, propane or fuel oil, is needed to sustain the needed destruction temperatures. Temperature is a key factor for efficient thermal oxidizer operation. A properly designed unit typically operates at a minimum temperature of 1,600 F. When the design provides adequate gas-air mixing and sufficient residence time, destruction efficiencies of 99.9% or better can be produced for most organic waste vapors and liquids. Certain compounds require higher temperatures. In some cases, thermal oxidation can be carried out at lower temperatures (to control operation expenses) with some tradeoff destruction efficiency.

  16. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    SciTech Connect

    Beylot, Antoine Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  17. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO2 ton(-1), 88 ± 36 g CH4 ton(-1), and 69 ± 16 g N2O ton(-1), while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH4 ton(-1) and 259.76 g N2O ton(-1), and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO2 ton(-1), 43.44 g CH4 ton(-1) and 401.21 g N2O ton(-1), respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO2-eq yr(-1) for A facility and 11,082 ton CO2-eq yr(-1) for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO2-eq yr(-1) for A facility and 32,916 ton CO2-eq yr(-1), indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO2-eq yr(-1), while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO2-eq yr(-1). The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and emission factors of CH4

  18. TRIAL BURN RESULTS AND FUTURE ACTIVITES OF THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Mobile Incinerator has demonstrated its ability to successfully destroy dioxin. A trial burn conducted in 1987 demonstrated the incinerator's ability to destroy a wide variety of compounds. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of carbon tetrachloride, hexachloro...

  19. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate.

  20. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What... percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent mixture of only wood waste, clean lumber...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... across an open, integrated combustion chamber (fire box) or open pit or trench (trench burner) in which... incinerators include both firebox and trench burner units. (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... across an open, integrated combustion chamber (fire box) or open pit or trench (trench burner) in which... incinerators include both firebox and trench burner units. (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  9. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate temperatures in decontaminating soils containing organic compounds with different volatilities (boiling points). The da...

  10. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

  11. TRIAL BURN RESULTS AND FUTURE ACTIVITES OF THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Mobile Incinerator has demonstrated its ability to successfully destroy dioxin. A trial burn conducted in 1987 demonstrated the incinerator's ability to destroy a wide variety of compounds. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of carbon tetrachloride, hexachloro...

  12. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  13. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

  14. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate temperatures in decontaminating soils containing organic compounds with different volatilities (boiling points). The da...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain... chamber or open pit in which combustion occurs. Incinerators of this type can be constructed above...

  16. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  17. Alternatives to incineration: There's more than one way to remediate

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, C.

    1994-10-01

    Hazardous waste is everywhere. It comes from paints, motor oil, hair spray, household cleaners, automotive chemicals, and all kinds of toxic medical, industrial and military products. Most industrial processes - from which come cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, computers and garden pesticides - generate wastes that the EPA, acting under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), says can harm human health or the environment if not properly managed. As a waste-disposal technology, incineration has been around for about 500,000 years - an interesting spinoff of that timely Homo erectus discovery, fire. For millennia, incineration looked like a pretty good way to turn big piles of hazardous waste into air emissions, smaller piles of ash, and sometimes energy. And it's still a good idea. The EPA, for one, calls high-temperature incineration the best available technology for disposing of most hazardous waste. But incineration has drawbacks. When hazardous waste goes into an incinerator, it comes out as potentially harmful air emissions, although these emissions are strictly controlled, and ash ash that's treated to meet EPA standards and then disposed of in an authorized landfill. It doesn't just vanish into thin air.

  18. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia.

  19. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management.

  20. Compliance Testing of Consumat and Fairchild Hiller Silver Reclamation Incinerators, Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    MAY 71, WHICH IS OBSO ETE. FEB !14 PRELIMINARY SURVEY DATA SHEET NO. 1 (Stack Geometry) BASE PLANT DATE I SAMPLING TEAM SOURCE TYPE AN. MAKE SOURCE...Personnel or4att, 23 State Regulations 27 InCinerator I Field Data 31 Incinerator 2 Field Data 45 Incinerator 3 Field Data 59 F Incinerator 4 Field Data 73 G...Calibration Data 87 H Acetone Blank Results and Particulate Emissions 105 Calculations I Hydrogen Chloride Emissions Calculations 117 j Example of

  1. Design and performance of a fluidized-bed incinerator for TRU combustible wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems encountered in the incineration of glovebox generated waste at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) led to the development of a fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) system for transuranic (TRU) combustible wastes. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the process preceded the installation of an 82-kg/h production demonstration incinerator at RFP. The FBI process is discussed, and the design of the demonstration incinerator is described. Operating experience and process performance for both the pilot and demonstration units are presented.

  2. Integrated pneumatic transporter-incinerator-afterburner subsystem development. [for spacecraft waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a prototype automatic transport system to move wastes to an incinerator onboard a spacecraft are described. The commode and debris collector, subsystems to treat noncondensible gases, oxygen supply to incinerator and afterburner, and removal and ash collection from the incinerator are considered, as well as a zero gravity condenser. In-depth performance testing of a totally integrated incineration system and autoclaving as a waste treatment method are included.

  3. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  4. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this part to determine...

  6. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Keep records of results of all initial and annual opacity...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  13. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  16. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  17. Solid waste incinerators. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents for the designs and applications of incinerators and incinerator components used for the destruction of municipal, industrial, and agricultural solid waste products. Materials handling devices and pollution control measures are discussed. Also included are patents for integrated incinerator/heating system equipment and portable units. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  2. Solid waste incinerators. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents for the designs and applications of incinerators and incinerator components used for the destruction of municipal, industrial, and agricultural solid waste products. Materials handling devices and pollution control measures are discussed. Also included are patents for integrated incinerator/heating system equipment and portable units. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  6. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain...

  8. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  11. Evaluation of rotary kiln incinerator operation at low-to-moderate temperature conditions. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Fournier, D.; King, C.; Venkatesh, S.; Goldman, C.

    1996-09-01

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate volatilities (boiling points). The data in the Appendix contain: incinerator operating data, laboratory analyses, sample train worksheets, and data analysis worksheets.

  12. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Keep records of results of all initial and annual opacity...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this part to determine...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Keep records of results of all initial and annual opacity...

  3. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 if they receive...

  4. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 if they receive...

  5. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 if they receive...

  6. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 if they receive...

  7. 40 CFR 265.352 - Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim status incinerators burning... incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes. (a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 if they receive...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1185 - How do I establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operating temperature of an incinerator? 63.1185 Section 63.1185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operating temperature of an incinerator? (a) During the performance test, you must establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator as follows: (1) Continuously measure the operating temperature of...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1185 - How do I establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operating temperature of an incinerator? 63.1185 Section 63.1185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operating temperature of an incinerator? (a) During the performance test, you must establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator as follows: (1) Continuously measure the operating temperature of...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1185 - How do I establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operating temperature of an incinerator? 63.1185 Section 63.1185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operating temperature of an incinerator? (a) During the performance test, you must establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator as follows: (1) Continuously measure the operating temperature of...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1185 - How do I establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operating temperature of an incinerator? 63.1185 Section 63.1185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operating temperature of an incinerator? (a) During the performance test, you must establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator as follows: (1) Continuously measure the operating temperature of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1185 - How do I establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operating temperature of an incinerator? 63.1185 Section 63.1185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operating temperature of an incinerator? (a) During the performance test, you must establish the average operating temperature of an incinerator as follows: (1) Continuously measure the operating temperature of...

  13. 78 FR 28051 - Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators; Final... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators AGENCY... federal plan and the new source performance standards for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators...

  14. Assessing potential effects of incinerating organic wastes at sea: Development and field testing of the Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Werme, C.; Boehm, P.; Cooke, M.; Oberacker, D.; Jackson, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and field-testing of the Marine Incineration Biological Assessment Sampler (MIBAS), used to assess potential effects of incinerating hazardous wastes at sea. In 1985, the U.S. EPA developed a strategy for the research necessary for measuring environmental and public health effects of incinerating hazardous wastes at sea. One area of the strategy addressed developing a way to sample incinerator emissions and introduce them into seawater for use as test media in toxicity tests. Responding to the strategy, EPA developed the MIBAS system, a system that samples incineration flue gas, cools the emissions, and collects them in seawater-filled impingers. Particulate matter and both semi-volatile and nonvolatile organic species are collected by the train. The system uses no materials that could in themselves prove toxic to marine organisms. A recent modification of the train permits collecting emissions in the first impinger without bubbling, mimicking the situation in nature, where emissions would settle onto the ocean surface. MIBAS tests have included spike recovery, using a gas-phase spiking system to spike compounds into the emissions and then measuring them in the components of the MIBAS train.

  15. A quantitative test of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruism.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Markus; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    The evolution of altruism is a fundamental and enduring puzzle in biology. In a seminal paper Hamilton showed that altruism can be selected for when rb - c > 0, where c is the fitness cost to the altruist, b is the fitness benefit to the beneficiary, and r is their genetic relatedness. While many studies have provided qualitative support for Hamilton's rule, quantitative tests have not yet been possible due to the difficulty of quantifying the costs and benefits of helping acts. Here we use a simulated system of foraging robots to experimentally manipulate the costs and benefits of helping and determine the conditions under which altruism evolves. By conducting experimental evolution over hundreds of generations of selection in populations with different c/b ratios, we show that Hamilton's rule always accurately predicts the minimum relatedness necessary for altruism to evolve. This high accuracy is remarkable given the presence of pleiotropic and epistatic effects as well as mutations with strong effects on behavior and fitness (effects not directly taken into account in Hamilton's original 1964 rule). In addition to providing the first quantitative test of Hamilton's rule in a system with a complex mapping between genotype and phenotype, these experiments demonstrate the wide applicability of kin selection theory.

  16. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M.; Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Dickerson, K. |

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  17. The application of probabilistic risk assessment to a LLW incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.K.; Huang, F.T.

    1993-12-31

    The 100 Kg/hr low-level radioactive waste (LLW) incinerator and the 1,500 ton supercompactor are two main vehicles in the Taiwan Power Company`s Volume Reduction Center. Since the hot test of the incinerator in mid 1990, various problems associated with the original design and operating procedures were encountered. During the early stages of putting an incinerator in service, the modification and fine-tuning of the system would help future reliable operations. The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method was introduced to evaluate the interaction between potential system failure and its environmental impact and further help diagnose the system defects initially. The draft Level 1 system analysis was completed and the event and fault trees were constructed. Qualitatively, this approach is useful for preventing the system failure from occurring. However, Levels 2 and 3 analysis can only be done when sufficient data become available in the future.

  18. Trial Burn Activities for a Mixed Waste Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, M.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is located on the Savannah River Site (SRS), owned by the U. S. Department of Energy and managed by BNFL, Inc. for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. SRS received permits from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region IV to construct and operate the CIF, a hazardous, radioactive mixed waste incinerator. This paper presents the results of the trial burn conducted on the CIF in April 1997 which is the initial demonstration of compliance with the permits. The incinerator is currently operating under approved post-trial burn conditions while the trial burn results are being evaluated. A final operating permit is expected the fall of 1998.

  19. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  20. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  1. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  2. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative `incineration` was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material.

  3. Evaluation of refractory materials for a nuclear waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Grotzky, V. K.; Kneale, P. A.; Teter, A. R.

    1980-07-21

    An experiment to find a suitable refractory lining for a nuclear waste incinerator has been completed. Eleven brick and six castable products were analyzed by optical and scanning microscopy. All the materials were fashioned into cup shapes and subjected to temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200/sup 0/C for as long as six weeks. Some of the cups were charged weekly with pellets made from ash materials that would contact an incinerator liner. Refractory products containing a high percentage of aluminum oxide had the greatest resistance to cracking and slag buildup. 35 figures.

  4. [Public health risk caused by emissions from refuse incinerators].

    PubMed

    Wassermann, O; Kruse, H

    1995-01-01

    An irresponsible "approval on request" in favour of waste incineration written by a consulting committee of the German Federal Board of Physicians has meanwhile been widely distributed both nationally and internationally. The aim of this politically motivated paper is to dramatically increase the present number of 49 waste incinerators in Germany. It is our duty to warn of this intention. Health problems are known to exist both in workers at waste incinerators and in humans living in their vicinity. Furthermore, in the long run negative impact also to ecosystems should be expected from the emissions. Health problems in patients living downwind of waste incinerators repeatedly have been reported on by physicians. "Lack of statistical significance", often used as counter-argument, is only due to absence of funding of comprehensive epidemiological studies in Germany. Analyses of soil samples reveal the pollution from waste incineration. Considering the pre-load of the region, additional emissions caused by waste incineration and other sources have to be assessed. The application of preventive limit values is imperative. The presently used "limit values", being about 100 times too high, bear an unacceptable risk. Therefore, reliable regional registers of emissions have to be established immediately. Limit values continuously have to be adjusted to the progress of scientific knowledge. In this respect it is imperative to consider that the actual composition of emissions is unknown; isolated risk assessment of single compounds underestimates the total risk; the negative impact, e.g. of dioxins, on both the immune and hormone systems occurs at concentrations 100 times lower than those causing carcinogenic effects; the assumption of "threshold values" is obsolete; a considerable lack of knowledge exists about accumulation in food webs and in ecosystems; the demand of preservation of natural, geogenic situations is indispensable in assessments of soil and water pollution

  5. Solvent vapors controlled by pre-concentration, incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Concentration of solvent vapors in ventilation air exhausted from the workplace often is too dilute for efficient destruction or recovery. Several techniques are being developed to pre-concentrate the vapors before treating them in a catalytic incinerator. Molnbacka Industri AB (Forshaga, Sweden) has developed a system to control volatile organic compound emissions by using activated carbon adsorbers to pre-concentrate the solvent vapors. The technology uses carbon adsorption and desorption to concentrate dilute solvent vapors to a much smaller air stream for efficient destruction in a catalytic incinerator.

  6. Characterization of Offgas Generated During Calcination of Incinerator Ash Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Wigent, H.L.; Vienna, J.D.; Darab, J.G.; Luey, J.K.; Autrey, T.S.

    1999-01-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC), developed a recommended flowsheet for the processing of plutonium-bearing incinerator ash stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) (Lucy et al. 1998). This flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step, the purpose of which is to remove carbonaceous material from the incinerator ash. Removal of this material reduced the probability of process upsets, improved product quality, and increases ash waste loading. As part of the continued development of the recommended flowsheet, PNNL performed a series of tests to characterize the offgas generated during the calcination process.

  7. On the Hamilton-Jacobi method in classical and quantum nonconservative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, A. de Souza; Correa, R. A. C.; Moraes, P. H. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we show how to complete some Hamilton-Jacobi solutions of linear, nonconservative classical oscillatory systems which appeared in the literature, and we extend these complete solutions to the quantum mechanical case. In addition, we obtain the solution of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for an electric charge in an oscillating pulsing magnetic field. We also argue that for the case where a charged particle is under the action of an oscillating magnetic field, one can apply nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in order to find experimental results regarding this problem. We obtain all results analytically, showing that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is a powerful tool to describe quantum mechanics.

  8. Computational method for the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation: one-dimensional scattering problems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2006-12-01

    One-dimensional scattering problems are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. First, the pole structure of the quantum momentum function for scattering wave functions is analyzed. The significant differences of the pole structure of this function between scattering wave functions and bound state wave functions are pointed out. An accurate computational method for the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for general one-dimensional scattering problems is presented to obtain the scattering wave function and the reflection and transmission coefficients. The computational approach is demonstrated by analysis of scattering from a one-dimensional potential barrier. We not only present an alternative approach to the numerical solution of the wave function and the reflection and transmission coefficients but also provide a computational aspect within the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The method proposed here should be useful for general one-dimensional scattering problems.

  9. Hamilton and Hardy: Mentoring and Friendship in the Service of Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne

    This article explores the mentoring relationship between Alice Hamilton and Harriet Hardy, two female physician-researchers who had a tremendous impact on the development of the field of occupational health in the United States during the 20th century. The article relies on letters the women wrote to each other. Hamilton, the elder, supported and furthered Hardy's career by asking her to coauthor the second edition of a seminal occupational health text. After beginning this intellectual collaboration, Hamilton remained a mentor to Hardy, and a decades-long friendship ensued. The article explores their relationship within the historical, political, and social context in which the women worked and made remarkable contributions to public health.

  10. A class of Hamilton-Jacobi equations with constraint: Uniqueness and constructive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirrahimi, Sepideh; Roquejoffre, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a class of time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equations, where an unknown function of time is intended to keep the maximum of the solution to the constant value 0. Our main result is that the full problem has a unique viscosity solution, which is in fact classical. The motivation is a selection-mutation model which, in the limit of small diffusion, exhibits concentration on the zero level set of the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Uniqueness is obtained by noticing that, as a consequence of the dynamic programming principle, the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is classical. It is then possible to write an ODE for the maximum of the solution, and treat the full problem as a nonstandard Cauchy problem.

  11. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  14. On-line emissions monitoring of chlorobenzene incineration using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhuoxiong; McIntosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Incineration of chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator was monitored by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with a heated long-path cell (LPC) to analyze and quantify flue gas emissions in near real time. The effects of operating conditions under stable and decreasing incineration temperatures on the destruction of chlorobenzene were studied. The results from the decreasing temperature experiments were found to be consistent with those from experiments at stable temperatures. This finding demonstrates that the FTIR/LPC, as a continuous emissions monitor, can effectively detect dynamic changes in the incinerator emissions and can contribute significantly to the safety of incinerators.

  15. On-line emissions monitoring of chlorobenzene incineration using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhuoxiong; McIntosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-06-01

    Incineration of chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator was monitored by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with a heated long-path cell (LPC) to analyze and quantify flue gas emissions in near real time. The effects of operating conditions under stable and decreasing incineration temperatures on the destruction of chlorobenzene were studied. The results from the decreasing temperature experiments were found to be consistent with those from experiments at stable temperatures. This finding demonstrates that the FTIR/LPC, as a continuous emissions monitor, can effectively detect dynamic changes in the incinerator emissions and can contribute significantly to the safety of incinerators.

  16. Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.

    2013-05-01

    Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black hole is investigated using Hamilton-Jacobi method. When the well-behaved Painleve coordinate system and Eddington coordinate are used, we get the correct result of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy before and after radiation but a direct computation will lead to a wrong result via Hamilton-Jacobi method. Our results show that the tunneling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal but it is consistent with underlying unitary theory.

  17. Hamilton-Jacobi equation and Poissonian gluing for an inhomogeneous autocatalytic reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, Bernard; Latrémolière, Daniel; Moreau, Michel

    2000-08-01

    The solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation which approximates the master equation of a nonlinear chemical system is, in general, impossible to obtain explicitly. In this work, we introduce a natural method for approximating the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, called "Poissonian gluing," which has a general range of application. We show on a specific two-dimensional example (autocatalytic reaction in two cells coupled by diffusion) that this new approximation leads to explicit analytic results which are in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  18. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  19. Full-scale incineration system trial burns at the Naval Battalion Construction Center, Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 4. Incinerator availability. Final report, Sep 86-Feb 89

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.A.

    1991-07-01

    This technical report is divided into eight volumes. This portion of the report comprises Volume V, Incinerator Availability. This volume describes the methods used to collect availability data. It presents an evaluation of the data collected, and discusses the items (components) that contributed to the availability of the incinerator. It provides a general background section, a brief description of the process equipment, the planning and implementation used to collect availability data, field operations and field data, an incinerator availability evaluation, and specific incinerator component inspection conclusions and recommendations.

  20. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-09-18

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (<1%). These results are significantly different from those obtained for the incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.