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Sample records for incisionless fundoplication tif

  1. Transoral incisionless fundoplication: current status

    PubMed Central

    Sami Trad, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) performed with the EsophyX device (Redmond, Washington, USA) is a totally endoscopic procedure with the objectives to mechanically repair a defective gastroesophageal valve and to reduce small hiatal hernias. The recent publication of randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up data offers the opportunity to reevaluate this treatment modality and its role in the management of patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Recent findings Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the ability of TIF to eliminate troublesome GERD symptoms, heal esophagitis, and improve distal esophageal acid exposure in appropriately selected patient populations. These studies establish TIF's superiority to conventional medical therapy, especially in clinical scenarios where proton-pump inhibitors fail to provide complete symptom relief across the spectrum of classic and atypical GERD manifestations, including regurgitation and laryngopharyngeal reflux. Long-term data indicate sustained positive outcomes and durability up to 6 years after procedure. These results were achieved with a low rate of serious adverse events and usually without introducing troublesome dysphagia, gas bloat, or flatulence. Summary Based on the most recent data, TIF appears to be a valuable treatment alternative for the management of appropriately selected patients with moderate to severe chronic GERD symptoms. PMID:27023164

  2. Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication for Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepanshu; Singhal, Shashideep

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic, progressive, and costly medical condition affecting a substantial proportion of the world population, predominantly the Western population. The available treatment options for patients with refractory GERD symptoms are limited to either laparoscopic surgery with significant sequelae or potentially lifelong, high-dose proton pump inhibitor therapy. The restoration of the antireflux competence of the gastroesophageal junction at the anatomic and physiologic levels is critical for the effective long-term treatment of GERD. Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) surgery is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment that has yielded significant symptomatic improvement in patients with medically refractory GERD symptoms. In this review article, we have summarized case series and reports describing the role of TIF for patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. The reported indications, techniques, complications, and success rates are also discussed. PMID:26878326

  3. Transoral incisionless fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Techniques and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Pier Alberto; Mazzoleni, Giorgia; Testoni, Sabrina Gloria Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disorder that results primarily from the loss of an effective antireflux barrier, which forms a mechanical obstacle to the retrograde movement of gastric content. GERD can be currently treated by medical therapy, surgical or endoscopic transoral intervention. Medical therapy is the most common approach, though concerns have been increasingly raised in recent years about the potential side effects of continuous long-term medication, drug intolerance or unresponsiveness, and the need for high dosages for long periods to treat symptoms or prevent recurrences. Surgery too may in some cases have consequences such as long-lasting dysphagia, flatulence, inability to belch or vomit, diarrhea, or functional dyspepsia related to delayed gastric emptying. In the last few years, transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) has proved an effective and promising therapeutic option as an alternative to medical and surgical therapy. This review describes the steps of the TIF technique, using the EsophyX® device and the MUSETM system. Complications and their management are described in detail, and the recent literature regarding the outcomes is reviewed. TIF reconfigures the tissue to obtain a full-thickness gastro-esophageal valve from inside the stomach, by serosa-to-serosa plications which include the muscle layers. To date the procedure has achieved lasting improvement of GERD symptoms (up to six years), cessation or reduction of proton pump inhibitor medication in about 75% of patients, and improvement of functional findings, measured by either pH or impedance monitoring. PMID:27158533

  4. Transoral incisionless fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Pier Alberto; Mazzoleni, Giorgia; Testoni, Sabrina Gloria Giulia

    2016-05-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disorder that results primarily from the loss of an effective antireflux barrier, which forms a mechanical obstacle to the retrograde movement of gastric content. GERD can be currently treated by medical therapy, surgical or endoscopic transoral intervention. Medical therapy is the most common approach, though concerns have been increasingly raised in recent years about the potential side effects of continuous long-term medication, drug intolerance or unresponsiveness, and the need for high dosages for long periods to treat symptoms or prevent recurrences. Surgery too may in some cases have consequences such as long-lasting dysphagia, flatulence, inability to belch or vomit, diarrhea, or functional dyspepsia related to delayed gastric emptying. In the last few years, transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) has proved an effective and promising therapeutic option as an alternative to medical and surgical therapy. This review describes the steps of the TIF technique, using the EsophyX(®) device and the MUSE(TM) system. Complications and their management are described in detail, and the recent literature regarding the outcomes is reviewed. TIF reconfigures the tissue to obtain a full-thickness gastro-esophageal valve from inside the stomach, by serosa-to-serosa plications which include the muscle layers. To date the procedure has achieved lasting improvement of GERD symptoms (up to six years), cessation or reduction of proton pump inhibitor medication in about 75% of patients, and improvement of functional findings, measured by either pH or impedance monitoring.

  5. Does Measurement of Esophagogastric Junction Distensibility by EndoFLIP Predict Therapy-responsiveness to Endoluminal Fundoplication in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Fabiënne G M; Keszthelyi, Daniel; Bouvy, Nicole D; Masclee, Ad A M; Conchillo, José M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), an increased esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility has been described. Assessment of EGJ distensibility with the endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP) technique might identify patients responsive to transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF), whereas postoperative measurement of EGJ distensibility might provide insight into the antireflux mechanism of TIF. Therefore, we investigated the value of the EndoFLIP technique in GERD patients treated by TIF. Methods Forty-two GERD patients underwent EGJ distensibility measurement before TIF using the EndoFLIP technique. In a subgroup of 25 patients, EndoFLIP measurement was repeated both postoperative and at 6 months follow-up. Treatment outcome was assessed according to esophageal acid exposure time (AET; objective outcome) and symptom scores (clinical outcome) 6 months after TIF. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative EGJ distensibility (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03–0.78; P = 0.023) and preoperative AET (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42–0.90; P = 0.013) were independent predictors for objective treatment outcome but not for clinical outcome after TIF. The best cut-off value for objective outcome was 2.3 mm2/mmHg for preoperative EGJ distensibility and 11% for preoperative AET. EGJ distensibility decreased direct postoperative from 2.0 (1.2–3.3) to 1.4 (1.0–2.2) mm2/mmHg (P = 0.014), but increased to 2.2 (1.5–3.0) at 6 months follow-up (P = 0.925, compared to preoperative). Conclusions Preoperative EGJ distensibility and preoperative AET were independent predictors for objective treatment outcome but not for clinical outcome after TIF. According to our data, the EndoFLIP technique has no added value either in the preoperative diagnostic work-up or in the post-procedure evaluation of endoluminal antireflux therapy. PMID:25742904

  6. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, G G; Watson, D I; Britten-Jones, R; Mitchell, P C; Anvari, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors laparoscopic approach for a Nissen fundoplication is presented. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The technique has been undertaken in 155 patients over 29 months, with 137 patients having been observed for more than 3 months. METHODS: Three hundred sixty degree fundoplication was undertaken using three or four sutures to secure the wrap. Short gastric vessels were not divided, and the anterior wall of the stomach was used to construct the wrap around the esophagus with a large bougie in position. RESULTS: The operation was not completed laparoscopically in 19 patients because a satisfactory wrap could not be achieved. Ten patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication underwent a subsequent operation related to the laparoscopic procedure within 6 months, and there was one postoperative death. Seven other patients were readmitted to the hospital several days subsequent to their discharge, four because of pulmonary emboli. Of 137 patients who have been observed for more than 3 months, 133 patients are well and currently are free from reflux symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In uncomplicated cases, laparoscopic fundoplication has similar advantages to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In spite of the fact that it has not yet achieved the overall usefulness of open fundoplication, it seems likely that laparoscopic fundoplication will be used increasingly in the treatment of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Images Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:8053735

  7. Single-Site Nissen Fundoplication Versus Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Nicole E.; Vassaur, John

    2014-01-01

    Background: Advances in minimally invasive surgery have led to the emergence of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of SILS Nissen fundoplication and compare its outcomes with traditional laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 33 patients who underwent Nissen fundoplication between January 2009 and September 2010. Results: There were 15 SILS and 18 traditional laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedures performed. The mean operative time was 129 and 182 minutes in the traditional laparoscopic and single-incision groups, respectively (P = .019). There were no conversions in the traditional laparoscopic group, whereas 6 of the 15 patients in the SILS group required conversion by insertion of 2 to 4 additional ports (P = .0004). At short-term follow-up, recurrence rates were similar between both groups. To date, there have been no reoperations. Conclusions: SILS Nissen fundoplication is both safe and feasible. Short-term outcomes are comparable with standard laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Challenges related to the single-incision Nissen fundoplication include overcoming the lengthy learning curve and decreasing the need for additional trocars. PMID:25392613

  8. Laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Frazzoni, Marzio; Piccoli, Micaela; Conigliaro, Rita; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Melotti, Gianluigi

    2014-10-21

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus leads to troublesome symptoms and/or complications. Heartburn is the cardinal symptom, often associated with regurgitation. In patients with endoscopy-negative heartburn refractory to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and when the diagnosis of GERD is in question, direct reflux testing by impedance-pH monitoring is warranted. Laparoscopic fundoplication is the standard surgical treatment for GERD. It is highly effective in curing GERD with a 80% success rate at 20-year follow-up. The Nissen fundoplication, consisting of a total (360°) wrap, is the most commonly performed antireflux operation. To reduce postoperative dysphagia and gas bloating, partial fundoplications are also used, including the posterior (Toupet) fundoplication, and the anterior (Dor) fundoplication. Currently, there is consensus to advise laparoscopic fundoplication in PPI-responsive GERD only for those patients who develop untoward side-effects or complications from PPI therapy. PPI resistance is the real challenge in GERD. There is consensus that carefully selected GERD patients refractory to PPI therapy are eligible for laparoscopic fundoplication, provided that objective evidence of reflux as the cause of ongoing symptoms has been obtained. For this purpose, impedance-pH monitoring is regarded as the diagnostic gold standard.

  9. Chylous cyst formation following laparoscopic fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Wykypiel, Heinz F; Margreiter, Raimund

    2007-01-01

    Formation of an abdominal chylous cyst is a rare event, predominantly occurring after spinal, vascular or urologic retroperitoneal surgery. As far as we know, the presented case is the first report in the literature of chylous cyst formation after laparoscopic fundoplication. A 57-year-old man with a history of a conservatively treated spinal compression fracture (T11/12) underwent laparoscopic fundoplication in 1996 for recurrent heartburn with insufficient response to treatment with PPI. His reflux symptoms disappeared but over the following years he developed intermittent abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Gastroscopy in 2002 revealed a slight compression of the distal esophagus. CT scan revealed a cystic formation next to the distal esophagus which was initially interpreted to be part of the fundoplicate itself. Aggravation of symptoms and weight loss was noted in 2006. A further CT scan revealed a 7 cm cyst along the fundoplicate and the lesser curvature of the stomach. The cyst was subsequently drained laparoscopically. Cholesterol (351 mg/d), LDL-cholesterol (263 mg/dl), triglycerides (334 mg/dl) and chylomicrons led to the diagnosis chylous cyst and the patient was put on a medium-chain triglyceride diet. After 12 weeks the discharge stopped and the drain was removed. The patient remained symptom-free for seven months but then presented again with the same complaints. This time an even larger cyst was diagnosed, extending from the lesser curvature of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus up to the right atrium. A Roux-en-Y chylous cystojejunostomy was then performed and has solved the problem up to the present. A chylous cyst may develop after laparoscopic fundoplication. If simple drainage fails, a cystojejunostomy can solve this problem.

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux disease treatment: side effects and complications of fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E

    2013-05-01

    Even skilled surgeons will have complications after antireflux surgery. Fortunately, the mortality is low (<1%) with laparoscopic surgery, immediate postoperative morbidity is uncommon (5%-20%), and conversion to an open operation is <2.5%. Common late postoperative complications include gas-bloat syndrome (up to 85%), dysphagia (10%-50%), diarrhea (18%-33%), and recurrent heartburn (10%-62%). Most of these complications improve during the 3-6 months after surgery. Dietary modifications, pharmacologic therapies, and esophageal dilation may be helpful. Failures after antireflux surgery usually occur within the first 2 years after the initial operation. They fall into 5 patterns: herniation of the fundoplication into the chest, slipped fundoplication, tight fundoplication, paraesophageal hernia, and malposition of the fundoplication. Reoperation rates range from 0%-15% and should be performed by experienced foregut surgeons.

  11. Medium-term outcome of fundoplication after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Burton, P R; Button, B; Brown, W; Lee, M; Roberts, S; Hassen, S; Bailey, M; Smith, A; Snell, G

    2009-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in lung transplant recipients has gained increasing attention as a factor in allograft failure. There are few data on the impact of fundoplication on survival or lung function, and less on its effect on symptoms or quality of life. Patients undergoing fundoplication following lung transplantation from 1999 to 2005 were included in the study. Patient satisfaction, changes in GERD symptoms, and the presence of known side effects were assessed. The effect on lung function, body mass index, and rate of progression to the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) were recorded. Twenty-one patients (13 males), in whom reflux was confirmed on objective criteria, were included, with a mean age of 43 years (range 20-68). Time between transplantation and fundoplication was 768 days (range 145-1524). The indication for fundoplication was suspected microaspiration in 13 and symptoms of GERD in 8. There was one perioperative death, at day 17. There were three other late deaths. Fundoplication did not appear to affect progression to BOS stage 1, although it may have slowed progression to stage 2 and 3. Forced expiratory volume-1% predicted was 72.9 (20.9), 6 months prior to fundoplication and 70.4 (26.8), six months post-fundoplication, P= 0.33. Body mass index decreased significantly in the 6 months following fundoplication (23 kg/m(2) vs. 21 kg/m(2), P= 0.05). Patients were satisfied with the outcome of the fundoplication (mean satisfaction score 8.8 out of 10). Prevalence of GERD symptoms decreased significantly following surgery (11 of 14 vs. 4 of 17, P= 0.002). Fundoplication does not reverse any decline in lung function when performed at a late stage post-lung transplantation in patients with objectively confirmed GERD. It may, however, slow progression to the more advanced stages of BOS. Reflux symptoms are well controlled and patients are highly satisfied. Whether performing fundoplication early post-lung transplant in selected

  12. Gastric manometric abnormalities in patients with dyspeptic symptoms after fundoplication.

    PubMed Central

    Stanghellini, V; Malagelada, J R

    1983-01-01

    We describe six patients in whom severe dyspeptic symptoms developed after fundoplication. The symptoms began immediately after operation (three patients) or shortly thereafter (three and eight months). There were no other known predisposing factors to gastroparesis. Seven, age-matched, healthy volunteers served as controls. Pressure activity from antrum (two sites), duodenum (two sites), and jejunum (one site) was recorded by a low compliance perfusion system connected to external strain gauge transducers. Activity was recorded for three hours during fasting and for two hours after the ingestion of a solid and a liquid meal. To determine whether an inadvertent vagotomy had been performed, basal acid output and the response to insulin (Hollander's test) were measured on a separate day. Manometric studies revealed postprandial hypomotility in these patients, whereas fasting antral and intestinal activities were normal. Acid output increased in all patients during insulin induced hypoglycaemia. In three patients, an antrectomy was subsequently performed, and they were relieved of their symptoms. We conclude that, after fundoplication, symptoms associated with postprandial antral hypomotility may develop in some patients. The pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown, but a positive acid response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia does not support the occurrence of incidental vagotomy. We do not know the prevalence of this motor abnormality among asymptomatic patients with prior fundoplication. A favourable symptomatic response to antrectomy in several of our patients, however, suggests that the symptoms were related to antral motor dysfunction. PMID:6350114

  13. Gastro-bronchial fistula after laparoscopic nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Walid; Khalifeh, Mohamad; Soweid, Asaad; Habli, Nader; Selmo, Francesca; Priest, Oliver; Jamali, Faek R

    2007-10-01

    Gastro-bronchial fistula (GBF) is an unusual complication of Nissen fundoplication, particularly when performed via a transabdominal approach. The mechanism of such fistula is thought to be related to a previously untreated ulcer in the mucosa of the wall of the gastric wrap or to a subclinical injury to the gastric wall during the process of division of the short gastric vessels and gastric mobilization. This process is greatly aided by herniation of the wrap into the chest in the postoperative period, placing the stomach in intimate contact with the bronchial tree. The diagnosis of GBF is often difficult to establish and requires a high index of suspicion. Most investigative studies tend to be unrevealing. Historically, an upper gastrointestinal series was the recommended study of choice in the literature. Newer reports, however, highlight the value and importance of upper endoscopy as a diagnostic tool in this condition. The majority of GBF were reported in the era of transthoracic Nissen fundoplication. The incidence of this complication seems to have markedly decreased after the widespread adoption of the transabdominal approach to the treatment of GERD. We are reporting the second case in the literature of a GBF developing after a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in a 28-year-old male patient. This case report should serve to increase awareness of this uncommon complication that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with recurrent pneumonia or refractory hemoptysis after major upper gastrointestinal surgical procedures.

  14. Feasibility of esophagogastric junction distensibility measurement during Nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Ilczyszyn, A; Botha, A J

    2014-01-01

    Increased esophagogastric junction distensibility has been implicated in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Previous authors have demonstrated a reduction in distensibility following anti-reflux surgery, but the changes during the operation are not clear. Our study aimed to ascertain the feasibility of measuring intraoperative distensibility changes and to assess if this would have potential to modify the operation. Seventeen patients with GERD were managed in a standardized manner consisting of preoperative assessment with symptom scoring, endoscopy, 24 hours pH studies, and manometry. Patients then underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with intraoperative distensibility measurement using an EndoFLIP EF-325 functional luminal imaging probe (Crospon Ltd, Galway, Ireland). This device utilizes impedance planimetry technology to measure cross-sectional area and distensibility within a balloon-tipped catheter. This is inflated at the esophagogastric junction to fixed distension volumes. Thirty-second median cross-sectional area and intraballoon pressure measurements were recorded at 30 and 40 mL balloon distensions. Measurement time points were initially after induction of anesthesia, after pneumoperitoneum, after hiatal mobilization, after hiatal repair, after fundoplication, and finally pre-extubation. Postoperatively, patients continued on protocol and were discharged after a two-night stay tolerating a sloppy diet. Patients with a hiatus hernia on high-resolution manometry had a significantly higher initial esophagogastric junction distensibility index (DI) than those without. Hiatus repair and fundoplication resulted in a significant overall reduction in the median DI from the initial to final recordings (30 mL balloon distension reduction of 3.26 mm(2) /mmHg (P = 0.0087), 40 mL balloon distension reduction of 2.39 mm(2) /mmHg [P = 0.0039]). There was also a significant reduction in the DI after pneumoperitoneum, hiatus

  15. [Endoluminal fundoplication (ELF) with EsophyX2 for gastroesophageal reflux desease (GERD)].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, A E; Lobonţiu, A; Constantinescu, G

    2009-01-01

    GERD is a frequent, evolving, life quality-impairing disease. In addition to medication and laparoscopic fundoplication we have recently added endoluminal fundoplication (ELF). The EsophyX2 is currently the most efficient device for endoluminal fundoplication. This device produces a partial, anterior valve, redesigning the antireflux barrier and the Hiss angle geometry, thus improving the activity of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). This paper presents the operative technique, the patient selection criteria and published results. It has been shown that this technique is both secure, reproductible and effective in patients followed for 12-24 months: life-quality improvement, decreased acid exposure, suppression of antiacids, reduced hospitalization and recovery. Compared to antiacid therapy, ELF is far more effective and less invasive than laparoscopic fundoplication. For the moment we have no long-term results. ELF with EsophyX2 is a minimally invasive and efficient therapy for GERD that requires further evaluation. PMID:19886043

  16. Short-term symptom and quality-of-life comparison between laparoscopic Nissen and Toupet fundoplications.

    PubMed

    Radajewski, R; Hazebroek, E J; Berry, H; Leibman, S; Smith, G S

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic antireflux surgery is an established method of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluates the efficacy of Nissen versus Toupet fundoplication in alleviating the symptoms of GERD and compares the two techniques for the development of post-fundoplication symptoms and quality of life (QOL) at 12 months post-surgery. In this prospective consecutive cohort study, 94 patients presenting for laparoscopic antireflux surgery underwent either laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LN) (n = 51) from February 2002 to February 2004 or a laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LT) (n = 43) from March 2004 to March 2006, performed by a single surgeon (G. S. S.). Symptom assessment, a QOL scoring instrument, and dysphagia questionnaires were applied pre- and postoperatively. At 12 months post-surgery, patient satisfaction levels in both groups were high and similar (LT: 98%, LN: 90%; P = 0.21). The proportion of patients reporting improvement in their reflux symptoms was similar in both groups (LT: 95%, LN: 92%; P = 0.68), as were post-fundoplication symptoms (LT: 30%, LN: 37%; P = 0.52). Six patients in the Nissen group required dilatation for dysphagia compared with one in the Toupet group (LT: 2%, LN: 12%; P = 0.12). One patient in the Nissen group required conversion to Toupet for persistent dysphagia (P = 0.54). In this series, overall symptom improvement, QOL, and patient satisfaction were equivalent 12 months following laparoscopic Nissen or Toupet fundoplication. There was no difference in post-fundoplication symptoms between the two groups, although there was a trend toward a higher dilatation requirement and reoperation after Nissen fundoplication.

  17. Is single port incisionless-intracorporeal conventional equipment-endoscopic surgery feasible in patients with retrocecal acute appendicitis?

    PubMed Central

    Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Koku, Naim; Ertaskin, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Since laparoscopic appendectomy was first described, various modifications, such as single port incisionless-intracorporeal conventional equipment-endoscopic surgery (SPICES), have been described for reducing pain and improving cosmetic results. In the retrocecal and retrocolic positions, attachments to the lateral peritoneum and cecum may lead to difficulties during SPICES, which is performed with only one port. Here, we present the effects of variations in the position of the vermiform appendix in treating acute appendicitis with SPICES. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 52 children who underwent SPICES for acute appendicitis between March 2010 and November 2011 in our institution. One group (group A) consisted of 30 patients (mean age, 10.5 ± 2.5 years) with retrocecal appendix, while the other group (group B) included 22 patients (mean age, 10.9 ± 2.3 years) with the appendix lying free in the peritoneal cavity. Results There were no significant differences between groups in terms of patient age, gender, success rate of SPICES, mean operating time, mean follow-up period, overall complication rates or mean postoperative hospitalization period. Conclusion These results suggest that SPICES is a safe and feasible approach even in patients with retrocecal acute appendicitis. PMID:23908965

  18. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with gastrostomy preservation in neurologically impaired children.

    PubMed

    Margaron, Franklin C; Oiticica, Claudio; Lanning, David A

    2010-06-01

    Robotic fundoplication has equivalent safety profiles, hospital stay, and time to alimentation, compared to laparoscopic fundoplication, but is not indicated for routine repair due to higher cost, decreased availability, and longer procedure time. Robotic surgery does offer key advantages over standard laparoscopy by employing internally articulating arms, a stable camera platform, and three dimensional imaging. Children presenting for initial or redo fundoplication after feeding gastrostomy are a subset of patients that may benefit from the robotic approach. Minimal dissection of the phrenoesophageal ligament, in combination with four anchoring sutures from the esophagus to the crura, has been shown to lead to less wrap herniation in children. This technique is particularly difficult in standard laparoscopy without dislodgement of the gastrostomy, particularly if there are abundant adhesions or a replaced left hepatic artery to preserve. In this article, we present 15 children with neurologic impairment and previous gastrostomy who underwent Nissen fundoplication, using the da Vinci surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). All patients underwent a floppy Nissen fundoplication after crural closure and placement of four anchoring stitches to the crura. Six patients (40%) had redo Nissens and 5 (33.3%) had replaced left hepatic or accessory arteries that were preserved. Seven patients underwent repair of a hiatal hernia and 2 had biologic mesh placed. There were no conversions to open or intraoperative complications. One child had a revision of the gastrostomy site, because the prior percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy had been placed through the transverse mesocolon. There were only a few minor postoperative complications. All children were doing well at latest follow-up (average, 32 months). The da Vinci surgical robot can be used to safely perform fundoplications in patients with gastrostomy tubes. The articulating instruments allow for the

  19. Teacher Leader Programs: Structure and Staffing in Four TIF Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyatigorsky, Mikhail; Heneman, Herb; Steele, Clarissa; Finster, Matthew; Milanowski, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Some Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grantees are experimenting with the design and operation of teacher leader (TL) programs as part of their performance-based compensation systems (PBCS). Much of the impetus for this is the U.S Department of Education TIF 4 requirement that grantees' PBCS should provide for "additional responsibilities and…

  20. Nissen fundoplication in children with profound neurologic disability. High risks and unmet goals.

    PubMed

    Smith, C D; Othersen, H B; Gogan, N J; Walker, J D

    1992-06-01

    Anti-reflux procedures have been advocated in children with profound neurologic disability referred for feeding gastrostomy when gastroesophageal reflux is present. Facilitation of care, reduction in pneumonia and vomiting, and improvement in the general health and survival of these children have been major goals of fundoplication and gastrostomy. In large pediatric series, these procedures have been reported to have low risk and negligible mortality rates. Recent reports, however, document an increased incidence of sequelae of fundoplication in children with profound neurologic disability. This paper retrospectively reviews a series of 35 nonverbal, nonambulatory pediatric patients undergoing a total of 39 fundoplications (37 Nissen, 1 Thal, and 1 Belsey) over an 11-year period. Neurologic impairment of 17 (49%) patients was acquired, 13 (37%) congenital, and 5 (14%) due to a syndrome. Perioperative complications occurred in six (17%). Three additional complications led to early postoperative death. A fourth early death was unexplained. Fourteen (40%) had recurrent pneumonia, 11 (31%) recurrent vomiting, 8 (23%) choking-gagging-retching complex, and 3 (9%) bowel obstruction requiring laparotomy. Recurrent gastroesophageal reflux was documented in seven (20%) patients. A second ARP was performed in six (17%). There were 14 (40%) late deaths. Although the major goals of anti-reflux procedure are clearly achieved in many severely impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux, the use of Nissen fundoplication to resolve the complications of swallowing disorders and improve outcome with an acceptably low risk in this complex set of patients does not appear to be established.

  1. Derepression of colicin E1 synthesis in the constitutive tif mutant strain (spr tif sfi) and in a tif sfi mutant strain of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Tessman, E S; Gritzmacher, C A; Peterson, P K

    1978-01-01

    We show here that expression of the colicin gene of the ColE1 plasmid is greatly derepressed in Escherichia coli K-12 strain DM1187 spr tif sfi, which is a constitutive tif mutant, altered in the lexA gene, and which shows constitutive expression of various pathways of the recA-dependent, lexA-blocked (SOS) repair system. In this strain colicin E1 synthesis is at least 100-fold greater than that observed in uninduced control strains (spr+ tif sfi and spr+ tif+ sfi). This result confirms the regulatory role of the lexA product in colicin E1 synthesis. Colicin yields by the uninduced strain DM1187 are as high as the maximum yields from mitomycin-induced control strains and often are several-fold higher. When the nonconstitutive tif sfi strain GC467 is raised to 43 degrees C to induce the SOS system, a low level of colicin synthesis is observed which is less than one-tenth of the yield obtained by induction with mitomycin C. Addition of adenine at the time of shift-up can increase the colicin yield of tif sfi to about one-third of the yield obtained with mitomycin C. We have also found that colicin overproduction can be detected by altered colony appearance in an overlay assay with colicin-sensitive bacteria. In addition, the lethality of the process of colicin synthesis is observed here without the use of bacteriostatic inducing agents. Images PMID:353034

  2. Adenovirus E4-ORF3-dependent relocalization of TIF1{alpha} and TIF1{gamma} relies on access to the Coiled-Coil motif

    SciTech Connect

    Vink, Elizabeth I.; Yondola, Mark A.; Wu, Kai; Hearing, Patrick

    2012-01-20

    The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein promotes viral replication by relocalizing cellular proteins into nuclear track structures, interfering with potential anti-viral activities. E4-ORF3 targets transcriptional intermediary factor 1 alpha (TIF1{alpha}), but not homologous TIF1{beta}. Here, we introduce TIF1{gamma} as a novel E4-ORF3-interacting partner. E4-ORF3 relocalizes endogenous TIF1{gamma} in virus-infected cells in vivo and binds to TIF1{gamma} in vitro. We used the homologous nature, yet differing binding capabilities, of these proteins to study how E4-ORF3 targets proteins for track localization. We mapped the ability of E4-ORF3 to interact with specific TIF1 subdomains, demonstrating that E4-ORF3 interacts with the Coiled-Coil domains of TIF1{alpha}, TIF1{beta}, and TIF1{gamma}, and that the C-terminal half of TIF1{beta} interferes with this interaction. The results of E4-ORF3-directed TIF1 protein relocalization assays performed in vivo were verified using coimmunoprecipitation assays in vitro. These results suggest that E4-ORF3 targets proteins for relocalization through a loosely homologous sequence dependent on accessibility.

  3. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  4. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue. PMID:27665563

  5. Asymptomatic Partial Splenic Infarction In Laparoscopic Floppy Nissen Fundoplication And Brief Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Arslan, Cem; Gunay, Emre; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    Short gastric vessels are divided during the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication resulting in splenic infarct in some cases. We report a case of laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication with splenic infarct that was recognized during the procedure and provide a brief literature review. The patient underwent a laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication. We observed a partial infarction of the spleen. She reported no pain. A follow-up computed tomography scan showed an infarct, and a 3-month abdominal ultrasound showed complete resolution. Peripheral splenic arterial branches have very little collateral circulation. When these vessels are occluded or injured, an area of infarction will occur immediately. Management strategies included a trial of conservative management and splenectomy for persistent symptoms or complications resulting from splenic infarct. In conclusion, we believe that the real incidence is probably much higher because many cases of SI may have gone undiagnosed during or following an operation, because some patients are asymptomatic. We propose to check spleen carefully for the possibility of splenic infarct. PMID:24833155

  6. LATE EVALUATION OF PATIENTS OPERATED FOR GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE BY NISSEN FUNDOPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Maxwel Capsy Boga; de ARAÚJO, Amanda Bueno; TERRA-JÚNIOR, Juverson Alves; CREMA, Eduardo; ANDREOLLO, Nelson Adami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Surgical treatment of GERD by Nissen fundoplication is effective and safe, providing good results in the control of the disease. However, some authors have questioned the efficacy of this procedure and few studies on the long-term outcomes are available in the literature, especially in Brazil. Aim: To evaluate patients operated for gastro-esophageal reflux disease, for at least 10 years, by Nissen fundoplication. Methods: Thirty-two patients were interviewed and underwent upper digestive endoscopy, esophageal manometry, 24 h pH monitoring and barium esophagogram, before and after Nissen fundoplication. Results: Most patients were asymptomatic, satisfied with the result of surgery (87.5%) 10 years after operation, due to better symptom control compared with preoperative and, would do it again (84.38%). However, 62.5% were in use of some type of anti-reflux drugs. The manometry revealed lower esophageal sphincter with a mean pressure of 11.7 cm H2O and an average length of 2.85 cm. The average DeMeester index in pH monitoring was 11.47. The endoscopy revealed that most patients had a normal result (58.06%) or mild esophagitis (35.48%). Barium swallow revealed mild esophageal dilatation in 25,80% and hiatal hernia in 12.9% of cases. Conclusion: After at least a decade, most patients were satisfied with the operation, asymptomatic or had milder symptoms of GERD, being better and with easier control, compared to the preoperative period. Nevertheless, a considerable percentage still employed anti-reflux medications. PMID:27759771

  7. Imbalanced expression of Tif1γ inhibits pancreatic ductal epithelial cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Ligr, Martin; Wu, Xinyu; Daniels, Garrett; Zhang, David; Wang, Huamin; Hajdu, Cristina; Wang, Jinhua; Pan, Ruimin; Pei, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lanjing; Melis, Marcovalerio; Pincus, Matthew R; Saunders, John K; Lee, Peng; Xu, Ruliang

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma (Tif1γ) (Ectodermin/PTC7/RFG7/TRIM33) is a transcriptional cofactor with an important role in the regulation of the TGFβ pathway. It has been suggested that it competes with Smad2/Smad3 for binding to Smad4, or alternatively that it may target Smad4 for degradation, although its role in carcinogenesis is unclear. In this study, we showed that Tif1γ interacts with Smad1/Smad4 complex in vivo, using both yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays. We demonstrated that Tif1γ inhibits transcriptional activity of the Smad1/Smad4 complex through its PHD domain or bromo-domainin pancreatic cells by luciferase assay. Additionally, there is a dynamic inverse relationship between the levels of Tif1γ and Smad4 in benign and malignant pancreatic cell lines. Overexpression of Tif1γ resulted in decreased level of Smad4. Both overexpression and knockdown of Tif1γ resulted in growth inhibition in both benign and cancerous pancreatic cell lines, attributable to a G2-phase cell cycle arrest, but only knockdown of Tif1γ reduces tumor cell invasiveness in vitro. Our study demonstrated that imbalanced expression of Tif1γ results in inhibition of pancreatic ductal epithelial cell growth. In addition, knockdown of Tif1γ may inhibit tumor invasion. These data suggest that Tif1γ might serve as a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24959375

  8. Robotic heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication for achalasia in a woman with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Bedirli, Abdulkadir; Dogan, Ibrahim; Kozan, Ramazan

    2012-12-01

    Achalasia is a relatively rare condition with a prevalence estimated at less than 0.001 %. Laparoscopic or robotic Heller myotomy is an effective surgical treatment for achalasia. We present the first published case of a morbidly obese achalasia patient treated with robotic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication. The operative time was 175 min, with an estimated blood loss of 110 ml. The patient had a normal bowel transit on postoperative day 2, and he was discharged on postoperative day 4 on a liquid diet. A follow-up at 2 months showed significant resolved symptoms of achalasia. PMID:27628481

  9. Pure SILS Floppy Nissen Fundoplication with Hiatal Repair: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Barbaros, Umut; Demirel, Tugrul; Sumer, Aziz; Deveci, Ugur; Tukenmez, Mustafa; Cansunar, Mehmet Ibrahim; Kalayci, Murat; Dınccag, Ahmet; Seven, Ridvan; Mercan, Selcuk

    2011-01-01

    Background. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery has recently became popular on behalf of inventing less invasive procedures. In this paper, we present a case of Pure SILS Nissen Fundoplication. Patient and Methods. In February 2010 a 29-year old male patient with a 4 cm sliding hiatus hernia presenting with reflux symptoms had undergone a standard floppy Nissen Fundoplication with a hiatus repair via single 2 cm incision in umbilicus. Results. The procedure had obeyed the standard natural orifice surgery rules, and no needlescopic assistance for any stage of the operation was used so to be a pure single-incision procedure. The operation lasted for 120 minutes without any need of conversion, and the patient was discharged the following day of operation. Conclusion. In the recent time, hybrid single incision laparoscopy techniques have been defined with the use of extra-abdominal supplements for retraction of liver or stomach for Nissen procedure. In addition the main issue in single-incision upper GI and/or hiatus surgery is still the retraction of liver. We succeeded to retract the left lobe of liver through the incision and completed the operation without any need for supplemental access besides the umbilical incision till the end. SILS Hiatus Surgery can be safely and effectively done but the issue needs further clinical studies to state the efficacy when compared to standard laparoscopy. PMID:21991503

  10. TIFS/FL5 - 2nd Asheville deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    TIFS/FL5 - 2nd Asheville deployment. People in photograph include: Charlie Peacock, Randy Bailey, Paul Deppe, Mike Reagan, Mike Norman, Rob Rivera, Paul Schifferle, Russ Parrish, Trey Auther, Lou Glaab, Dave McLuer, Mike Parrag, and Lynda Kramer.

  11. A study for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Daughaday, H.; Andrisani, D., II; Till, R. D.; Weingarten, N. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study and preliminary design for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft are documented. Active control functions which can be demonstrated on the TIFS aircraft and the cost of preparing, equipping, and operating the TIFS aircraft for active control technology development are determined. It is shown that the TIFS aircraft is as a suitable test bed for inflight research and validation of many ACT concepts.

  12. Expression of the Dermatomyositis Autoantigen TIF1γ in Regenerating Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mohassel, Payam; Rosen, Paul; Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Pak, Katherine; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autoantibodies against TIF1γ are found in many patients with dermatomyositis (DM). Although TIF1γ is known to play a role in the differentiation of other tissues, its functional role in muscle regeneration has not been elucidated. This study was undertaken to explore the regulation and functional role of this protein during muscle differentiation and regeneration. Methods TIF1γ expression was analyzed in human muscle biopsy specimens using immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting analyses were used to study TIF1γ expression in a mouse model of muscle injury and repair. The effect of premature TIF1γ silencing on muscle differentiation was studied in cultured mouse myoblasts. Results In muscle biopsy specimens from DM patients, TIF1γ was expressed at low levels in the nuclei of histologically normal muscle cells but at high levels in the centralized nuclei of atrophic, perifascicular myofibers expressing markers of regeneration. TIF1γ levels were also increased in regenerating myonuclei following muscle injury in mice. Premature silencing of TIF1γ in vitro using siRNA did not accelerate the expression of myogenin, a transcription factor that plays a central role in regulating relatively early stages of muscle differentiation. However, premature silencing of TIF1γ did accelerate myotube fusion and the expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), a later marker of muscle differentiation. Conclusion The DM autoantigen TIF1γ is markedly upregulated during muscle regeneration in human and mouse muscle cells. Premature silencing of this protein in cultured myoblasts accelerates MyHC expression and myoblast fusion. However, TIF1γ may function independently of, or downstream from myogenin. PMID:25186009

  13. On-line Technology Information System (OTIS): Solid Waste Management Technology Information Form (SWM TIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hogan, John A.; Rodriguez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: What is OTIS? OTIS use. Proposed implementation method. Development history of the Solid Waste Management (SWM) Technology Information Form (TIF) and OTIS. Current development state of the SWM TIF and OTIS. Data collection approach. Information categories. Critiques/questions/feedback.

  14. Early myotomy and fundoplication in achalasia in childhood: a single-centre experience for 22 years.

    PubMed

    Erginel, Basak; Gun Soysal, Feryal; Keskin, Erbug; Celik, Alaaddin; Salman, Tansu

    2016-02-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to review a single institution's experience with surgical interventions in children with achalasia and to determine treatment strategies for this rare disorder. Patients and methods This study is a retrospective analysis of 22 cases of childhood achalasia from 1991 to 2013. The patients were evaluated in terms of age, symptoms, interventions, intraoperative complications, and recurrent dysphagia. Results There were 13 boys and nine girls (7 months to 17 years old). The clinical symptoms were vomiting (68%), dysphagia (36%), wheezing (18%), coughing (13%), and weight-loss (13%). The mean duration of symptoms was 2.4 years (1 month to 6 years). A barium contrast X-ray study was performed in all of the patients. Oesophageal manometry was performed in eight patients. Six patients underwent multiple oesophageal dilatations (ED) as a first intervention. A Heller myotomy (HM) and fundoplication were performed in all the patients except two patients who recovered with dilatation. In the long term, one patient had a stricture due to the operation and had to undergo a reoperation. Of the Heller myotomy patients, one had a recurrent stricture that responded to dilatation. No other complications were present. All the patients are now asymptomatic. Conclusion Early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment is important to prevent growth impairment in childhood achalasia cases. A Heller myotomy followed by a partial anti-reflux procedure is an effective treatment for achalasia in children. Based on our experience, it is superior to oesophageal dilatation therapy. PMID:27385135

  15. Surgical treatment of GERD. Comperative study of WTP vs. Toupet fundoplication – results of 151 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Nowosad, Małgorzata; Krawczyk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is recognized as one of the most common disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The best choice of management for advanced GERD is laparoscopic surgery. Aim To compare and evaluate the results of surgical treatment of GERD patients operated on using two different techniques. Material and methods Between 2001 and 2012, 353 patients (211 female and 142 male), aged 17–76 years (mean 44), underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery. The study included patients who underwent a Toupet fundoplication or Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure (WTP). Results The mean age of the group was 47.77 years (17–80 years). Forty-nine (32.45%) patients had severe symptoms, 93 (61.58%) had mild symptoms and 9 (5.96%) had a single mild but intolerable sign of GERD. Eighty-six (56.95%) patients had a Toupet fundoplication and 65 (43.04%) had a WTP. The follow-up period was 18–144 months. The average operating time for Toupet fundoplication and the WTP procedure was 164 min (90–300 min) and 147 min (90–210 min), respectively. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.66%. The average post-operative hospitalization period was 5.4 days (2–16 post-operative days (POD) = Toupet) vs. 4.7 days (2–9 POD = WTP). No reoperations were performed. No major surgical complications were identified. Conclusions Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure due to a low percentage of post-operative complications, good quality of life of patients and a zero recurrence rate of hiatal hernia should be a method of choice. PMID:27458484

  16. Cloning, genomic organization, and expression analysis of zebrafish nuclear receptor coactivator, TIF2.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jee-Hian; Quek, Sue-Ing; Chan, Woon-Khiong

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are involved in numerous diverse biological processes such as growth and differentiation, thermogenesis, neurulation, homeostasis, and metamorphosis. In zebrafish, TRbeta1 has been implicated to be involved in the obligatory embryonic-to-larval transitory phase. In order to understand if nuclear receptor coactivators could modulate the transcriptional activities of TRs during this transitory phase, the transcriptionary intermediary factor 2 (TIF2), a member of the p160 coactivator, was isolated from zebrafish. The zebrafish tif2 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 1,505 amino acids. The tif2 gene is made up of 23 exons with the AUG and stop codon located in Exon IV and XXIII, respectively. The overall genomic organization of human and zebrafish tif2 genes are very similar. Four tif2 isoforms were identified by RT-PCR. The N-terminus mRNA variants are generated as a result of multiple initiation start sites located upstream of the noncoding Exon I and Exon II. The C-terminus isoforms, E20a and E20b, resulted from the alternative splicing of Exon XX. Although E20a and E20b isoforms were ubiquitously expressed, they were very highly expressed in reproductive tissues. The availability of TIF2 cDNA will allow the analysis of its functional roles in mediating the actions of TRs in various aspects of zebrafish developmental biology.

  17. Prospective, Randomized Ex Vivo Trial to Assess the Ideal Stapling Site for Endoscopic Fundoplication with Medigus Ultrasonic Surgical Endostapler

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Endoscopic fundoplication is an emerging technique for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this study is to determine the ideal position of the staples in relation to gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Methods. Ten endoscopic fundoplication procedures were performed in each group using fresh ex vivo porcine stomachs: Group A: 2 staples each at 3 cm above the GEJ and 180° apart; Group B: 2 staples at 3 cm and 90° apart; Group C: 2 staples at 4 cm and 180° apart; Group D: 3 staples at 3 cm with 90° between each staple (180° total). After the procedure, the stomach was gradually filled with water. Gastric yield pressure (GYP) was determined by detection of reflux of the water in esophagus or by rupture of staples. Results. Mean increase of GYPs (±SD) after the procedure was as follows: Group A: 16.9 ± 8.7; Group B: 8.1 ± 7.9; Group C: 12.2 ± 9.4; Group D: 22.7 ± 13.3. GYP in Group A and Group D was higher than Group B (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, resp.). Conclusions. We recommend the placement of 3 staples at 3 cm distance from the GEJ, which resulted in the highest increase of GYP. PMID:27547219

  18. Trypanosoma brucei TIF2 and TRF Suppress VSG Switching Using Overlapping and Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jehi, Sanaa E; Nanavaty, Vishal; Li, Bibo

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei causes debilitating human African trypanosomiasis and evades the host's immune response by regularly switching its major surface antigen, VSG, which is expressed exclusively from subtelomeric loci. We previously showed that two interacting telomere proteins, TbTRF and TbTIF2, are essential for cell proliferation and suppress VSG switching by inhibiting DNA recombination events involving the whole active VSG expression site. We now find that TbTIF2 stabilizes TbTRF protein levels by inhibiting their degradation by the 26S proteasome, indicating that decreased TbTRF protein levels in TbTIF2-depleted cells contribute to more frequent VSG switching and eventual cell growth arrest. Surprisingly, although TbTIF2 depletion leads to more subtelomeric DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that are both potent VSG switching inducers and detrimental to cell viability, TbTRF depletion does not increase the amount of DSBs inside subtelomeric VSG expression sites. Furthermore, expressing an ectopic allele of F2H-TbTRF in TbTIF2 RNAi cells allowed cells to maintain normal TbTRF protein levels for a longer frame of time. This resulted in a mildly better cell growth and partially suppressed the phenotype of increased VSG switching frequency but did not suppress the phenotype of more subtelomeric DSBs in TbTIF2-depleted cells. Therefore, TbTIF2 depletion has two parallel effects: decreased TbTRF protein levels and increased subtelomeric DSBs, both resulting in an acute increased VSG switching frequency and eventual cell growth arrest. PMID:27258069

  19. Trypanosoma brucei TIF2 and TRF Suppress VSG Switching Using Overlapping and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jehi, Sanaa E.; Nanavaty, Vishal; Li, Bibo

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei causes debilitating human African trypanosomiasis and evades the host’s immune response by regularly switching its major surface antigen, VSG, which is expressed exclusively from subtelomeric loci. We previously showed that two interacting telomere proteins, TbTRF and TbTIF2, are essential for cell proliferation and suppress VSG switching by inhibiting DNA recombination events involving the whole active VSG expression site. We now find that TbTIF2 stabilizes TbTRF protein levels by inhibiting their degradation by the 26S proteasome, indicating that decreased TbTRF protein levels in TbTIF2-depleted cells contribute to more frequent VSG switching and eventual cell growth arrest. Surprisingly, although TbTIF2 depletion leads to more subtelomeric DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that are both potent VSG switching inducers and detrimental to cell viability, TbTRF depletion does not increase the amount of DSBs inside subtelomeric VSG expression sites. Furthermore, expressing an ectopic allele of F2H-TbTRF in TbTIF2 RNAi cells allowed cells to maintain normal TbTRF protein levels for a longer frame of time. This resulted in a mildly better cell growth and partially suppressed the phenotype of increased VSG switching frequency but did not suppress the phenotype of more subtelomeric DSBs in TbTIF2-depleted cells. Therefore, TbTIF2 depletion has two parallel effects: decreased TbTRF protein levels and increased subtelomeric DSBs, both resulting in an acute increased VSG switching frequency and eventual cell growth arrest. PMID:27258069

  20. Interaction of TIF-90 and filamin A in the regulation of rRNA synthesis in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Xuan Truong; Chan, Steven M; Ngo, Tri Duc; Raval, Aparna; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Majeti, Ravindra; Mitchell, Beverly S

    2014-07-24

    The transcription initiation factor I (TIF-IA) is an important regulator of the synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) through its facilitation of the recruitment of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) to the ribosomal DNA promoter. Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, which occurs commonly in acute myelogenous leukemia, enhances rRNA synthesis through TIF-IA stabilization and phosphorylation. We have discovered that TIF-IA coexists with a splicing isoform, TIF-90, which is expressed preferentially in the nucleolus and at higher levels in proliferating and transformed hematopoietic cells. TIF-90 interacts directly with Pol I to increase rRNA synthesis as a consequence of Akt activation. Furthermore, TIF-90 binds preferentially to a 90-kDa cleavage product of the actin binding protein filamin A (FLNA) that inhibits rRNA synthesis. Increased expression of TIF-90 overcomes the inhibitory effect of this cleavage product and stimulates rRNA synthesis. Because activated Akt also reduces FLNA cleavage, these results indicate that activated Akt and TIF-90 function in parallel to increase rRNA synthesis and, as a consequence, cell proliferation in leukemic cells. These results provide evidence that the direct targeting of Akt would be an effective therapy in acute leukemias in which Akt is activated.

  1. Development of TIF based figuring algorithm for deterministic pitch tool polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hyun-Su; Kim, Sug-Whan; Yang, Ho-Soon; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2007-12-01

    Pitch is perhaps the oldest material used for optical polishing, leaving superior surface texture, and has been used widely in the optics shop floor. However, for its unpredictable controllability of removal characteristics, the pitch tool polishing has been rarely analysed quantitatively and many optics shops rely heavily on optician's "feel" even today. In order to bring a degree of process controllability to the pitch tool polishing, we added motorized tool motions to the conventional Draper type polishing machine and modelled the tool path in the absolute machine coordinate. We then produced a number of Tool Influence Function (TIF) both from an analytical model and a series of experimental polishing runs using the pitch tool. The theoretical TIFs agreed well with the experimental TIFs to the profile accuracy of 79 % in terms of its shape. The surface figuring algorithm was then developed in-house utilizing both theoretical and experimental TIFs. We are currently undertaking a series of trial figuring experiments to prove the performance of the polishing algorithm, and the early results indicate that the highly deterministic material removal control with the pitch tool can be achieved to a certain level of form error. The machine renovation, TIF theory and experimental confirmation, figuring simulation results are reported together with implications to deterministic polishing.

  2. The effect of an experimental 4% Tif4 varnish compared to NaF varnishes and 4% TiF4 solution on dental erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, A C; Kato, M T; Rios, D; Wiegand, A; Attin, T; Buzalaf, M A R

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study assessed the effect of an experimental 4% TiF(4) varnish compared to commercial NaF and NaF/CaF(2) varnishes and 4% TiF(4) solution on enamel erosion. For this, 72 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to the following treatments: NaF varnish(2.26% F), NaF/CaF(2) varnish (5.63% F), 4% TiF(4) varnish (2.45% F), F-free placebo varnish, 4% TiF(4 )solution (2.45% F) and control (not treated). The varnishes were applied in a thin layer and removed after 6 h. The solution was applied to the enamel surface for 1 min. Then, the specimens were alternately de- and remineralized (6 times/day) in an artificial mouth for 5 days at 37 degrees C. Demineralization was performed with the beverage Sprite (1 min, 3 ml/min) and remineralization with artificial saliva (day: 59 min, 0.5 ml/min; during the night: 0.1 ml/min). The mean daily increment of erosion and the cumulative erosion data were tested using ANOVA and ANCOVA, respectively, followed by Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). The mean daily erosion increments and cumulative erosion (micrometers) were significantly less for the TiF(4) varnish (0.30 +/- 0.11/0.65 +/- 0.75) than for the NaF varnish (0.58 +/- 0.11/1.47 +/- 1.07) or the NaF/CaF(2) varnish (0.62 +/- 0.10/1.68 +/- 1.17), which in turn showed significantly less erosion than the placebo varnish (0.78 +/- 0.12/2.05 +/- 1.43), TiF(4) solution (0.86 +/- 0.11/ 2.05 +/- 1.49) and control (0.77 +/- 0.16/2.06 +/- 1.49). In conclusion, the TiF(4) varnish seems to be a promising treatment to reduce enamel loss under mild erosive conditions. PMID:18523386

  3. In vitro reduction of dental erosion by low-concentration TiF4 solutions.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A M; Ruben, J L; Bronkhorst, E M; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare daily versus single applications of low-concentration TiF(4) solutions for reduction of enamel erosion and to evaluate the enamel surface loss due to application of these solutions. Sixty bovine enamel samples were randomly divided into 2 groups: single versus daily treatment with TiF(4) solution (ST vs. DT), which were subdivided into 5 subgroups (n = 6): 0% (control); 0.1, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% TiF(4) concentration. Fluoride treatment was performed by immersing specimens in 10 ml of the TiF(4) solutions for 5 min and rinsing them with tap water for 30 s. ST specimens were treated once only, DT specimens were treated before each erosion cycle. All specimens were subjected to 4 erosion cycles: 6 immersions of 2 min in Sprite, tap water rinse for 1 min and storage in artificial saliva for 1.5 h. Erosive enamel loss was measured using light profilometry, after each fluoride treatment and each erosive cycle. The values of surface loss/gain at application of the TiF(4) solutions did not significantly differ from zero. At the end of the 4 erosion cycles, 0.5% showed the least (ST: 3.45 ± 0.27 μm, DT: 1.08 ± 1.69 μm) and 1% showed the most surface loss (ST: 4.87 ± 1.13 μm, DT: 6.56 ± 1.49 μm). A significant reduction of surface loss was found only for 0.5% DT (p = 0.009). Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it was concluded that multiple applications of a 0.5% TiF(4) solution significantly reduced enamel erosion in vitro and caused no enamel loss at application. PMID:21454977

  4. Autoantibodies to transcription intermediary factor (TIF)1β associated with dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Myositis specific autoantibodies are associated with unique clinical subsets and are useful biomarkers in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). A 120 kD protein recognized by certain patients with DM was identified and clinical features of patients with this specificity were characterized. Methods The 120 kD protein recognized by a prototype serum was purified and identified by mass spectrometry and immunological methods. Autoantibody to this 120 kD protein was screened in sera from 2,356 patients with various diagnoses from four countries, including 254 PM/DM, by immunoprecipitation of 35S-methionine labeled K562 cell extracts. Clinical information of patients with this specificity was collected. Results The 120 kD protein, which exactly comigrated with PL-12, was identified as transcription intermediary factor TIF1β (TRIM28) by mass spectrometry and validated by immunoassays. By immunofluorescence, anti-TIF1β positivity showed a fine-speckled nuclear staining pattern. Four cases of anti-TIF1β were identified; all are women, one each in a Japanese, African American, Caucasian, and Mexican individual. Three had a diagnosis of DM and one case was classified as having an undifferentiated connective tissue disease with an elevated CPK but without significant muscle symptoms. This individual also had a history of colon cancer, cervical squamous metaplasia and fibroid tumors of the uterus. Myopathy was mild in all cases and resolved without treatment in one case. The anti-TIF1β specificity was not found in other conditions. Conclusions Anti-TIF1β is a new DM autoantibody associated with a mild form of myopathy. Whether it has an association with malignancy, as in the case of anti-TIF1γ, or other unique features will need to be evaluated in future studies. PMID:22513056

  5. The transcriptional co-regulators TIF2 and SRC-1 regulate energy homeostasis by modulating mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Duteil, Delphine; Chambon, Céline; Ali, Faisal; Malivindi, Rocco; Zoll, Joffrey; Kato, Shigeaki; Geny, Bernard; Chambon, Pierre; Metzger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Summary The two p160 transcriptional co-regulator family members SRC-1 and TIF2 have important metabolic functions in white and brown adipose tissues, as well as in the liver. To analyze TIF2 cell-autonomous functions in skeletal muscles, we generated TIF2(i)skm-/- mice, in which TIF2 was selectively ablated in skeletal muscle myofibers at adulthood. We found that increased mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle myocytes protected these mice from decreased muscle oxidative capacities induced by sedentariness, delayed the development of type 2 diabetes and attenuated high caloric diet-induced obesity. Moreover, our results demonstrate that SRC-1 and TIF2 can modulate the expression of the uncoupling protein UCP3 in an antagonistic manner, and that enhanced SRC-1 levels in TIF2-deficient myofibers are critically involved in the metabolic changes of TIF2(i)skm-/- mice. Thus, modulation of the expression and/or activity of these co-regulators represents an attractive way to prevent or treat metabolic disorders. PMID:21035760

  6. Development and Implementation Costs of Student Learning Objectives: Considerations for TIF Grantees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fermanich, Mark; Carl, Brad; Finster, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This brief explores the costs of developing and implementing Student Learning Objectives (SLOs) in order to help Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grantees interested in adopting SLOs anticipate and understand the costs of implementing them in a district or school. The brief focuses on the costs involved with the initial design and implementation of an…

  7. Expression of the MOZ-TIF2 oncoprotein in mice represses senescence

    PubMed Central

    Largeot, Anne; Perez-Campo, Flor Maria; Marinopoulou, Elli; Lie-a-Ling, Michael; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2016-01-01

    The MOZ-TIF2 translocation, which fuses monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) with the nuclear co-activator TIF2, is associated with the development of acute myeloid leukemia. We recently found that in the absence of MOZ HAT activity, p16INK4a transcriptional levels are significantly increased, triggering an early entrance into replicative senescence. Because oncogenic fusion proteins must bypass cellular safeguard mechanisms, such as senescence and apoptosis, to induce leukemia, we hypothesized that this repressive activity of MOZ over p16INK4a transcription could be preserved, or even reinforced, in MOZ leukemogenic fusion proteins, such as MOZ-TIF2. We describe here that, indeed, MOZ-TIF2 silences expression of the CDKN2A locus (p16INK4a and p19ARF), inhibits the triggering of senescence and enhances proliferation, providing conditions favorable to the development of leukemia. Furthermore, we describe that abolishing the MOZ HAT activity of the fusion protein leads to a significant increase in expression of the CDKN2A locus and the number of hematopoietic progenitors undergoing senescence. Finally, we report that inhibition of senescence by MOZ-TIF2 is associated with increased apoptosis, suggesting a role for the fusion protein in p53 apoptosis-versus-senescence balance. Our results underscore the importance of the HAT activity of MOZ, preserved in the fusion protein, for repression of the CDKN2A locus transcription and the subsequent block of senescence, a necessary step for the survival of leukemic cells. PMID:26854485

  8. Esophagogastric disconnection following failed fundoplication for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children with severe neurological impairment.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Silvia; Kamenwa, Rose; Dohil, Ranjan; Collins, David; Lavine, Joel E

    2004-10-01

    This report describes our experience with esophagogastric disconnection and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in seven neurologically impaired children as a second antireflux operation following failed Nissen fundoplication. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, three children (43%) were completely or almost completely symptom-free and had improved nutritional status. Early complications occurred in three patients (43%): small bowel obstruction, wound infection, and necrosis of the Roux-en-Y loop. Three patients (43%) presented long-term complications: jejunoesophageal bile reflux and bile reflux with gastric irritation. Two patients required reoperation (28%), and two deaths occurred in the postoperative period (28%). In three previous reports in the surgical literature, severe postoperative complications occurred in 0-44%, requiring reoperation in 0-22% of the patients, and the mortality rate was 0-11%. Esophagogastric disconnection for the treatment of GERD in neurologically impaired children is associated with major complications and should be considered after more conservative procedures fail.

  9. Protective effect of experimental mouthrinses containing NaF and TiF4 on dentin erosive loss in vitro

    PubMed Central

    de CASTILHO, Aline Rogéria Freire; SALOMÃO, Priscila Maria Aranda; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study assessed the anti-erosive effect of experimental mouthrinses containing TiF4 and NaF on dentin erosive loss. Material and Methods Bovine dentin specimens were randomly allocated into the groups (n=15): 1) SnCl2/NaF/AmF (Erosion Protection®/GABA, pH 4.5, positive control); 2) experimental solution with 0.0815% TiF4 (pH 2.5); 3) 0.105% NaF (pH 4.5); 4) 0.042% NaF+0.049% TiF4 (pH 4.4); 5) 0.063% NaF+0.036% TiF4 (pH 4.5); 6) no treatment (negative control). Each specimen was cyclically demineralized (Sprite Zero, pH 2.6, 4x90 s/day) and exposed to artificial saliva between the erosive challenges for 7 days. The treatment with the fluoride solutions was done 2x60 s/day, immediately after the first and the last erosive challenges of the day. Dentin erosive loss was measured by profilometry (μm). The data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis/Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results Mouthrinses containing TiF4 or Sn/F were able to show some protective effect against dentin erosive loss compared to negative control. The best anti-erosive effect was found for experimental solution containing 0.0815% TiF4 (100% reduction in dentin loss), followed by 0.042% NaF+0.049% TiF4 (58.3%), SnCl2/NaF/AmF (52%) and 0.063% NaF+0.036% TiF4 (40%). NaF solution (13.3%) did not significantly differ from control. Conclusion The daily application of experimental mouthrinse containing TiF4 and NaF has the ability to reduce dentin erosion, as well as Erosion Protection® and TiF4 alone. PMID:26537719

  10. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the human ribosomal RNA transcription initiation factor-IA.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Jhingan, Gagan Deep

    2016-03-01

    Initiation of rDNA transcription requires the assembly of a specific multi-protein complex at the rDNA promoter containing the RNA Pol I with auxiliary factors. One of these factors is known as Rrn3P in yeast and Transcription Initiation Factor IA (TIF-IA) in mammals. Rrn3p/TIF-IA serves as a bridge between RNA Pol I and the pre-initiation complex at the promoter. It is phosphorylated at multiple sites and is involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in a growth-dependent manner. In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, the rRNA genes are present exclusively on circular extra chromosomal plasmids. The protein factors involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in E. histolytica are not known. We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within the database and was further cloned and expressed. Immuno-localization studies showed that EhTIF-IA co-localized partially with fibrillarin in the peripherally localized nucleolus. EhTIF-IA was shown to interact with the RNA Pol I-specific subunit RPA12 both in vivo and in vitro. Mass spectroscopy data identified RNA Pol I-specific subunits and other nucleolar proteins to be the interacting partners of EhTIF-IA. Our study demonstrates for the first time a conserved putative RNA Pol I transcription factor TIF-IA in E. histolytica.

  11. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the human ribosomal RNA transcription initiation factor-IA.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Jhingan, Gagan Deep

    2016-03-01

    Initiation of rDNA transcription requires the assembly of a specific multi-protein complex at the rDNA promoter containing the RNA Pol I with auxiliary factors. One of these factors is known as Rrn3P in yeast and Transcription Initiation Factor IA (TIF-IA) in mammals. Rrn3p/TIF-IA serves as a bridge between RNA Pol I and the pre-initiation complex at the promoter. It is phosphorylated at multiple sites and is involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in a growth-dependent manner. In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, the rRNA genes are present exclusively on circular extra chromosomal plasmids. The protein factors involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in E. histolytica are not known. We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within the database and was further cloned and expressed. Immuno-localization studies showed that EhTIF-IA co-localized partially with fibrillarin in the peripherally localized nucleolus. EhTIF-IA was shown to interact with the RNA Pol I-specific subunit RPA12 both in vivo and in vitro. Mass spectroscopy data identified RNA Pol I-specific subunits and other nucleolar proteins to be the interacting partners of EhTIF-IA. Our study demonstrates for the first time a conserved putative RNA Pol I transcription factor TIF-IA in E. histolytica. PMID:26949087

  12. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fakeng; Jin, Rui; Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-19

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells.

  13. Thickness and nanomechanical properties of protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish on enamel after erosion.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Maria Isabel Dantas de; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Lacerda-Santos, Rogério; Lima, Bruno Alessandro Guedes de; Souza, Frederico Barbosa de; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de

    2016-05-31

    The layer formed by fluoride compounds on tooth surface is important to protect the underlying enamel from erosion. However, there is no investigation into the properties of protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on eroded enamel. This study aimed to evaluate the thickness, topography, nanohardness, and elastic modulus of the protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on enamel after erosion using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human enamel specimens were sorted into control, NaF, and TiF4 varnish groups (n = 10). The initial nanohardness and elastic modulus values were obtained and varnishes were applied to the enamel and submitted to erosive challenge (10 cycles: 5 s cola drink/5 s artificial saliva). Thereafter, nanohardness and elastic modulus were measured. Both topography and thickness were evaluated by AFM. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test and Student's t test (α = 0.05). After erosion, TiF4 showed a thicker protective layer compared to the NaF group and nanohardness and elastic modulus values were significantly lower than those of the control group. It was not possible to measure nanohardness and elastic modulus in the NaF group due to the thin protective layer formed. AFM showed globular deposits, which completely covered the eroded surface in the TiF4 group. After erosive challenge, the protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish showed significant properties and it was thicker than the layer formed by NaF varnish. PMID:27253145

  14. Coactivator TIF1β Interacts with Transcription Factor C/EBPβ and Glucocorticoid Receptor To Induce α1-Acid Glycoprotein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Jin; Chen, Ya-Ling; Lee, Sheng-Chung

    1998-01-01

    The transcription of the α1-acid glycoprotein gene is induced by inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids. C/EBPβ is a major transcription factor involved in the induction of the agp gene by some cytokines. In this report, we have identified a novel transcriptional intermediary factor, TIF1β, which could enhance the transcription of the agp gene by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and C/EBPβ. TIF1β belongs to a subgroup of RING (really interesting new gene) finger proteins that contain a RING finger preceding two B box-type fingers and a putative coiled-coil domain (RBCC domain). Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the interaction between GR and TIF1β is ligand independent. The overexpression of the TIF1β gene enhances GR-regulated expression in a ligand- and glucocorticoid-responsive element (GRE)-dependent manner. TIF1β can also augment C/EBPβ-mediated activity on wild-type and GRE-mutated agp genes, but this augmentation is diminished when all three C/EBPβ-binding elements are mutated. Functional and biochemical characterizations indicated that the bZIP domain of C/EBPβ and the RBCC domain, plant homeodomain finger, and bromodomain of TIF1β are crucial for the interactions of these proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that TIF1β serves as a converging mediator of signal transduction pathways of glucocorticoids and some inflammatory cytokines. PMID:9742105

  15. Comparison of Stretta procedure and toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease-related extra-esophageal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao; Liang, Wei-Tao; Wang, Zhong-Gao; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ji-Min; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Mei-Ping

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the outcomes between the Stretta procedure and laparoscopic toupet fundoplication (LTF) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related extra-esophageal symptoms. METHODS: From January 2011 to February 2012, a total of 98 patients diagnosed with GERD-related extra-esophageal symptoms who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. All patients who either underwent the Stretta procedure or LTF treatment have now completed the 3-year follow-up. Primary outcome measures, including frequency and severity of extra-esophageal symptoms, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, satisfaction, and postoperative complications, were assessed. The results of the Stretta procedure and LTF therapy were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: There were 47 patients in the Stretta group and 51 patients in the LTF group. Ninety patients were available at the 3-year follow-up. The total of the frequency and severity scores for every symptom improved in both groups (P < 0.05). Improvement in symptom scores of cough, sputum, and wheezing did not achieve statistical significance between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, the score for globus hysterics was different between the Stretta group and the LTF group (4.9 ± 2.24 vs 3.2 ± 2.63, P < 0.05). After the Stretta procedure and LTF treatment, 29 and 33 patients in each group achieved PPI therapy independence (61.7% vs 64.7%, P = 0.835). The patients in the LTF group were more satisfied with their quality of life than those in the Stretta procedure group (P < 0.05). Most complications resolved without intervention within two weeks; however, two patients in the LTF group still suffered from severe dysphagia 2 wk after the operation, and it improved after bougie dilation treatment in both patients. CONCLUSION: The Stretta procedure and LTF were both safe and effective for the control of GERD-related extra-esophageal symptoms and the reduction of PPI use. PMID:26668513

  16. Clinical characteristics of patients with anti-TIF1-γ antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kulczycka, Julia; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Inflammatory myopathies are a group of idiopathic, heterogeneous systemic diseases affecting predominantly skeletal muscles, though they can also involve the skin and internal organs. The association between cancer and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, particularly dermatomyositis, which is termed cancer-associated myositis (CAM), has been reported in the medical literature. A newly described autoantibody to a 155-kDa nuclear protein, identified as transcription intermediary factor 1-gamma (TIF1-γ), has proven useful for cancer screening in patients with dermatomyositis. Material and methods Based on our database of laboratory results, between November 2014 and January 2016, we found 80 patients with a positive autoimmune inflammatory myopathy immunoblot profile. Results Eleven of 80 patients revealed the presence of anti-TIF1-γ antibodies: 8 women and 3 men with average age 54.2 years. Dermatomyositis (DM) was diagnosed in 6 cases, polymyositis in 1 case, myositis limited to ocular muscles and rhabdomyolysis in 1 case each, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease in 2 cases. Neoplasm was found in 4 cases. All of those patients had DM. The average time between DM and diagnosis of neoplasm was 7.5 months (from 1 to 18 months). Conclusions The association between cancer and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, particularly DM, is well known, and cancer screening should be obligatory in such patients. So far there is no consensus as to the method or frequency with which patients with an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy should be tested to rule out neoplasm. Detection of anti-TIF1-γ antibodies in patients with DM gives the clinicians the very important suggestion of CAM. It seems reasonable that these patients should have more detailed and often repeated differential diagnostics. PMID:27407271

  17. [Architectonics of gastric arterial bed in norm, after Nissen fundoplication, and its different combination with splenectomy and left gastric artery ligation].

    PubMed

    Alekseyev, V S; Gaivoronskiy, I V; Kotiv, B N; Kuz'min, A A; Nichiporuk, G I

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the effect of the combination of Nissen fundoplication, different variants of splenectomy ligation of left gastric artery on stomach wall arterial bed blood fillability was carried out on 40 human corpses in 6 research series. The red lead paint suspension was used for the injection of arterial bed. It was shown that combination of Nissen operation andligation of stomach short arteries during splenectomy and left gastric artery trunk in its intraligamental part resulted in the impairment of the stomach wall blood supply. In the gastric fundus area avascular zones measuring from 2.5 x 3.0 to 5.0 x 10.0 cm and larger, were detected. The stomach wall of the given areas is potentially prone to necrosis. Avascular zones in the stomach wall were not observed when short gastric arteries were preserved.

  18. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C.; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells. PMID:26506235

  19. Longitudinal comparison of quality of life in patients undergoing laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication versus magnetic sphincter augmentation: Observational cohort study with propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonitta, Gianluca; Lovece, Andrea; Lazzari, Veronica; Bonavina, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    Only a minority of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) are offered a surgical option. This is mostly due to the fear of potential side effects, the variable success rate, and the extreme alteration of gastric anatomy with the current gold standard, the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. It has been reported that laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and laparoscopic sphincter augmentation using a magnetic device (LINX) can treat reflux more physiologically and with a lower incidence of side-effects and reoperation rate. We present the first comparing quality of life in patients undergoing LTF versus LINX.Observational cohort study. Consecutive patients undergoing LTF or LINX over the same time period were compared by using the propensity score full matching method and generalized estimating equation. Criteria of exclusion were >3 cm hiatal hernia, grade C-D esophagitis, ineffective esophageal motility, body mass index >35, and previous upper abdominal surgery. The primary study outcome was quality of life measured with the Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease-Health Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use, presence of gas-related symptoms or dysphagia, and reoperation-free probability.Between March 2007 and July 2014, 238 patients with GERD met the criteria of inclusion in the study. Of these, 103 underwent an LTF and 135 a LINX procedure. All patients had a minimum 1-year follow-up. Over time, patients in both groups had similar GERD-HRQL scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.27; P = 0.578), PPI use (OR 1.18, CI 0.81-1.70; P = 0.388), gas-related symptoms (OR 0.69, CI 0.21-2.28; P = 0.542), dysphagia (OR 0.62, CI 0.26-1.30; P = 0.241), and reoperation-free probability (stratified log-rank test = 0.556).In 2 concurrent cohorts of patients with early stage GERD undergoing LTF or LINX and matched by propensity score analysis, health

  20. Aircraft motion and passenger comfort response data from TIFS ride-quality flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft motion data and passenger comfort response data obtained during ride-quality flight experiments using the USAD Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) are given. During each of 40 test flights, 10 passenger subjects individually assessed the ride comfort of various types of aircraft motions. The 115 individuals who served as passenger subjects were selected to be representative of air travelers in general. Aircraft motions tested consisted of both random and sinusoidal oscillations in various combinations of five degrees of freedom (transverse, normal, roll, pitch, and yaw), as well as of terminal-area flight maneuvers. The data are sufficiently detailed to allow analysis of passenger reactions to flight environments, evaluation of the use of a portable environment measuring/recording system and comparison of the in-flight simulator responses with input commands.

  1. University of Virginia acquisition of passenger ride quality data aboard the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclurken, E. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The subjective response of passengers to vehicle motions was investigated on the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft. Prerecorded signals were converted into controlled aircraft motion for evaluation by ten subjects on a seven-point rating scale. Eighteen test flights were flown on August and September 1974, the results of which are to be used in validation studies on ground based simulators at NASA/Langley Research Center and to extend passenger response models.

  2. Germ cell expression of the transcriptional co-repressor TIF1beta is required for the maintenance of spermatogenesis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Weber, Philipp; Cammas, Florence; Gerard, Christelle; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Losson, Régine; Mark, Manuel

    2002-05-01

    The gene for transcriptional intermediary factor 1beta (TIF1beta) encodes a transcriptional co-repressor known to play essential roles in chromatin remodeling as well as in early embryonic development. During spermatogenesis, TIF1beta is preferentially associated with heterochromatin structures of Sertoli cells and round spermatids, as well as with meiotic chromosomes. Its expression is tightly regulated within spermatocyte and spermatid populations, and it is undetectable in spermatogonia. Spatiotemporally controlled ablation of TIF1beta by using a germ cell lineage-specific CreER(T)/loxP system leads to testicular degeneration. This degeneration is not due to impairment of chromatin remodeling processes during meiosis and spermiogenesis, as TIF1beta-deficient spermatocytes are able to complete their differentiation into spermatozoa. It rather occurs as a consequence of shedding of immature germ cells (spermatocytes and spermatids), and disappearance of stem spermatogonia. These results indicate that TIF1beta has important functions in the homeostasis of the seminiferous epithelium, and probably plays a crucial role in the network of paracrine interactions between germ cell subpopulations and/or Sertoli cells. PMID:11973266

  3. TIF-IA-dependent regulation of ribosome synthesis in drosophila muscle is required to maintain systemic insulin signaling and larval growth.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Rideout, Elizabeth J; Grewal, Savraj S

    2014-10-01

    The conserved TOR kinase signaling network links nutrient availability to cell, tissue and body growth in animals. One important growth-regulatory target of TOR signaling is ribosome biogenesis. Studies in yeast and mammalian cell culture have described how TOR controls rRNA synthesis-a limiting step in ribosome biogenesis-via the RNA Polymerase I transcription factor TIF-IA. However, the contribution of TOR-dependent ribosome synthesis to tissue and body growth in animals is less clear. Here we show in Drosophila larvae that ribosome synthesis in muscle is required non-autonomously to maintain normal body growth and development. We find that amino acid starvation and TOR inhibition lead to reduced levels of TIF-IA, and decreased rRNA synthesis in larval muscle. When we mimic this decrease in muscle ribosome synthesis using RNAi-mediated knockdown of TIF-IA, we observe delayed larval development and reduced body growth. This reduction in growth is caused by lowered systemic insulin signaling via two endocrine responses: reduced expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (dILPs) from the brain and increased expression of Imp-L2-a secreted factor that binds and inhibits dILP activity-from muscle. We also observed that maintaining TIF-IA levels in muscle could partially reverse the starvation-mediated suppression of systemic insulin signaling. Finally, we show that activation of TOR specifically in muscle can increase overall body size and this effect requires TIF-IA function. These data suggest that muscle ribosome synthesis functions as a nutrient-dependent checkpoint for overall body growth: in nutrient rich conditions, TOR is required to maintain levels of TIF-IA and ribosome synthesis to promote high levels of systemic insulin, but under conditions of starvation stress, reduced muscle ribosome synthesis triggers an endocrine response that limits systemic insulin signaling to restrict growth and maintain homeostasis.

  4. Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance: The 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) Grantees after Two Years. NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2015-4022

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  5. Resolving Some Issues in Using Value-Added Measures of Productivity for School and Teacher Incentives: Ideas from Technical Assistance and TIF Grantee Experience. The Harvesting Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers and policy analysts (e.g., Harris, Glazerman et al., 2011; 2010) consider value-added to be the state of the art in school and teacher productivity measurement, only a minority of Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) Round 1 and 2 grantees used value-added as a measure of school or teacher performance. Fourteen of the 34 grantees…

  6. Effect of NaF, SnF(2), and TiF(4) Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel and Dentin Erosion-Abrasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Comar, Lívia Picchi; Gomes, Marina Franciscon; Ito, Naiana; Salomão, Priscila Aranda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercília; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing TiF(4), NaF, and SnF(2) on tooth erosion-abrasion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were distributed into 10 groups (n = 12): experimental placebo toothpaste (no F); NaF (1450 ppm F); TiF(4) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); TiF(4) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); commercial toothpaste Pro-Health (SnF(2)-1100 ppm F + NaF-350 ppm F, Oral B); commercial toothpaste Crest (NaF-1.500 ppm F, Procter & Gamble); abrasion without toothpaste and only erosion. The erosion was performed 4 × 90 s/day (Sprite Zero). The toothpastes' slurries were applied and the specimens abraded using an electric toothbrush 2 × 15 s/day. Between the erosive and abrasive challenges, the specimens remained in artificial saliva. After 7 days, the tooth wear was evaluated using contact profilometry (μm). The experimental toothpastes with NaF, TiF(4), SnF(2), and Pro-Health showed a significant reduction in enamel wear (between 42% and 54%). Pro-Health also significantly reduced the dentin wear. The toothpastes with SnF(2)/NaF and TiF(4)/NaF showed the best results in the reduction of enamel wear (62-70%) as well as TiF(4), SnF(2), SnF(2)/NaF, and TiF(4)/NaF for dentin wear (64-79%) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the experimental toothpastes containing both conventional and metal fluoride seem to be promising in reducing tooth wear. PMID:23258978

  7. Effect of NaF, SnF(2), and TiF(4) Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel and Dentin Erosion-Abrasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Comar, Lívia Picchi; Gomes, Marina Franciscon; Ito, Naiana; Salomão, Priscila Aranda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercília; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing TiF(4), NaF, and SnF(2) on tooth erosion-abrasion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were distributed into 10 groups (n = 12): experimental placebo toothpaste (no F); NaF (1450 ppm F); TiF(4) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); TiF(4) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); commercial toothpaste Pro-Health (SnF(2)-1100 ppm F + NaF-350 ppm F, Oral B); commercial toothpaste Crest (NaF-1.500 ppm F, Procter & Gamble); abrasion without toothpaste and only erosion. The erosion was performed 4 × 90 s/day (Sprite Zero). The toothpastes' slurries were applied and the specimens abraded using an electric toothbrush 2 × 15 s/day. Between the erosive and abrasive challenges, the specimens remained in artificial saliva. After 7 days, the tooth wear was evaluated using contact profilometry (μm). The experimental toothpastes with NaF, TiF(4), SnF(2), and Pro-Health showed a significant reduction in enamel wear (between 42% and 54%). Pro-Health also significantly reduced the dentin wear. The toothpastes with SnF(2)/NaF and TiF(4)/NaF showed the best results in the reduction of enamel wear (62-70%) as well as TiF(4), SnF(2), SnF(2)/NaF, and TiF(4)/NaF for dentin wear (64-79%) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the experimental toothpastes containing both conventional and metal fluoride seem to be promising in reducing tooth wear.

  8. Effect of NaF, SnF2, and TiF4 Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel and Dentin Erosion-Abrasion In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Comar, Lívia Picchi; Gomes, Marina Franciscon; Ito, Naiana; Salomão, Priscila Aranda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercília; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing TiF4, NaF, and SnF2 on tooth erosion-abrasion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were distributed into 10 groups (n = 12): experimental placebo toothpaste (no F); NaF (1450 ppm F); TiF4 (1450 ppm F); SnF2 (1450 ppm F); SnF2 (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); TiF4 (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); commercial toothpaste Pro-Health (SnF2—1100 ppm F + NaF—350 ppm F, Oral B); commercial toothpaste Crest (NaF—1.500 ppm F, Procter & Gamble); abrasion without toothpaste and only erosion. The erosion was performed 4 × 90 s/day (Sprite Zero). The toothpastes' slurries were applied and the specimens abraded using an electric toothbrush 2 × 15 s/day. Between the erosive and abrasive challenges, the specimens remained in artificial saliva. After 7 days, the tooth wear was evaluated using contact profilometry (μm). The experimental toothpastes with NaF, TiF4, SnF2, and Pro-Health showed a significant reduction in enamel wear (between 42% and 54%). Pro-Health also significantly reduced the dentin wear. The toothpastes with SnF2/NaF and TiF4/NaF showed the best results in the reduction of enamel wear (62–70%) as well as TiF4, SnF2, SnF2/NaF, and TiF4/NaF for dentin wear (64–79%) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the experimental toothpastes containing both conventional and metal fluoride seem to be promising in reducing tooth wear. PMID:23258978

  9. The N-terminal part of TIF1, a putative mediator of the ligand-dependent activation function (AF-2) of nuclear receptors, is fused to B-raf in the oncogenic protein T18.

    PubMed Central

    Le Douarin, B; Zechel, C; Garnier, J M; Lutz, Y; Tora, L; Pierrat, P; Heery, D; Gronemeyer, H; Chambon, P; Losson, R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) bound to response elements mediate the effects of cognate ligands on gene expression. Their ligand-dependent activation function, AF-2, presumably acts on the basal transcription machinery through intermediary proteins/mediators. We have isolated a mouse nuclear protein, TIF1, which enhances RXR and RAR AF-2 in yeast and interacts in a ligand-dependent manner with several NRs in yeast and mammalian cells, as well as in vitro. Remarkably, these interactions require the amino acids constituting the AF-2 activating domain conserved in all active NRs. Moreover, the oestrogen receptor (ER) AF-2 antagonist hydroxytamoxifen cannot promote ER-TIF1 interaction. We propose that TIF1, which contains several conserved domains found in transcriptional regulatory proteins, is a mediator of ligand-dependent AF-2. Interestingly, the TIF1 N-terminal moiety is fused to B-raf in the mouse oncoprotein T18. Images PMID:7744009

  10. New gene evolution in the bonus-TIF1-γ/TRIM33 family impacted the architecture of the vertebrate dorsal-ventral patterning network.

    PubMed

    Wisotzkey, Robert G; Quijano, Janine C; Stinchfield, Michael J; Newfeld, Stuart J

    2014-09-01

    Uncovering how a new gene acquires its function and understanding how the function of a new gene influences existing genetic networks are important topics in evolutionary biology. Here, we demonstrate nonconservation for the embryonic functions of Drosophila Bonus and its newest vertebrate relative TIF1-γ/TRIM33. We showed previously that TIF1-γ/TRIM33 functions as an ubiquitin ligase for the Smad4 signal transducer and antagonizes the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling network underlying vertebrate dorsal-ventral axis formation. Here, we show that Bonus functions as an agonist of the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling network underlying dorsal-ventral axis formation in flies. The absence of conservation for the roles of Bonus and TIF1-γ/TRIM33 reveals a shift in the dorsal-ventral patterning networks of flies and mice, systems that were previously considered wholly conserved. The shift occurred when the new gene TIF1-γ/TRIM33 replaced the function of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L in the lineage leading to vertebrates. Evidence of this replacement is our demonstration that Nedd4 performs the function of TIF1-γ/TRIM33 in flies during dorsal-ventral axis formation. The replacement allowed vertebrate Nedd4L to acquire novel functions as a ubiquitin ligase of vertebrate-specific Smad proteins. Overall our data reveal that the architecture of the Dpp/BMP dorsal-ventral patterning network continued to evolve in the vertebrate lineage, after separation from flies, via the incorporation of new genes.

  11. The Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aerodynamics and systems: Description and analysis. [maneuver control and gust alleviators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.

  12. PU.1-mediated upregulation of CSF1R is crucial for leukemia stem cell potential induced by MOZ-TIF2.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Yukiko; Katsumoto, Takuo; Zhang, Pu; Shima, Haruko; Shino, Mika; Terui, Kiminori; Ito, Etsuro; Ohno, Hiroaki; Stanley, E Richard; Singh, Harinder; Tenen, Daniel G; Kitabayashi, Issay

    2010-05-01

    Leukemias and other cancers possess self-renewing stem cells that help to maintain the cancer. Cancer stem cell eradication is thought to be crucial for successful anticancer therapy. Using an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model induced by the leukemia-associated monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ)-TIF2 fusion protein, we show here that AML can be cured by the ablation of leukemia stem cells. The MOZ fusion proteins MOZ-TIF2 and MOZ-CBP interacted with the transcription factor PU.1 to stimulate the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (CSF1R, also known as M-CSFR, c-FMS or CD115). Studies using PU.1-deficient mice showed that PU.1 is essential for the ability of MOZ-TIF2 to establish and maintain AML stem cells. Cells expressing high amounts of CSF1R (CSF1R(high) cells), but not those expressing low amounts of CSF1R (CSF1R(low) cells), showed potent leukemia-initiating activity. Using transgenic mice expressing a drug-inducible suicide gene controlled by the CSF1R promoter, we cured AML by ablation of CSF1R(high) cells. Moreover, induction of AML was suppressed in CSF1R-deficient mice and CSF1R inhibitors slowed the progression of MOZ-TIF2-induced leukemia. Thus, in this subtype of AML, leukemia stem cells are contained within the CSF1R(high) cell population, and we suggest that targeting of PU.1-mediated upregulation of CSF1R expression might be a useful therapeutic approach.

  13. TiF4 and NaF varnishes as anti-erosive agents on enamel and dentin erosion progression in vitro

    PubMed Central

    COMAR, Livia Picchi; CARDOSO, Cristiane de Almeida Baldini; CHARONE, Senda; GRIZZO, Larissa Tercilia; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the effect of fluoride varnishes on the progression of tooth erosion in vitro. Material and Methods: Forty-eight enamel and 60 root dentin samples were previously demineralized (0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, 30 min), leading to a baseline and erosive wear of 12.9 and 11.4 µm, respectively. The samples were randomly treated (6 h) with a 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45%F-, pH 1.0), a 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45%F-, pH 5.0), a placebo varnish and no varnish (control). The samples were then subjected to erosive pH cycles (4x90 s/day in 0.1% citric acid, intercalated with artificial saliva) for 5 days. The increment of the erosive tooth wear was calculated. In the case of dentin, this final measurement was done with and without the demineralized organic matrix (DOM). Enamel and dentin data were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey’s and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests, respectively (p<0.05). Results The TiF4 (mean±s.d: 1.5±1.1 µm) and NaF (2.1±1.7 µm) varnishes significantly reduced enamel wear progression compared to the placebo varnish (3.9±1.1 µm) and control (4.5±0.9 µm). The same differences were found for dentin in the presence and absence of the DOM, respectively: TiF4 (average: 0.97/1.87 µm), NaF (1.03/2.13 µm), placebo varnish (3.53/4.47 µm) and control (3.53/4.36 µm). Conclusion The TiF4 and NaF varnishes were equally effective in reducing the progression of tooth erosion in vitro. PMID:25760263

  14. Effects of Inboard Horizontal Field of View Display Limitations on Pilot Path Control During Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.; Lavell, Jeffrey S.

    1999-01-01

    A flight test was conducted aboard Calspan's Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft by researchers within the External Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research program. The purpose was to investigate the effects of inboard horizontal field of view (FOV) display limitations on pilot path control and to learn about the TIFS capabilities and limitations for possible use in future XVS flight tests. The TIFS cockpit windows were masked to represent the front XVS display area and the High-Speed Civil Transport side windows, as viewed by the pilot. Masking limited the forward FOV to 40 deg. horizontal and 50 deg. vertical for the basic flight condition, With an increase of 10 deg. horizontal in the inboard direction for the increased FOV flight condition. Two right-hand approach tasks (base-downwind-final) with a left crosswind on final were performed by three pilots using visual flight rules at Niagara Falls Airport. Each of the two tasks had three replicates for both horizontal FOV conditions, resulting in twelve approaches per test subject. Limited objective data showed that an increase of inboard FOV had no effect (deficiences in objective data measurement capabilities were noted). However, subjective results showed that a 50 deg. FOV was preferred over the 40 deg. FOV.

  15. Hydrogenation thermodynamics of melt-spun magnesium rich Mg-Ni nanocrystalline alloys with the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and TiF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaojiang; Hu, Rui; Zhang, Tiebang; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan

    2016-02-01

    Based on the complexity of hydrogen absorption/desorption process and from the perspective of overall control, the as-cast Mg-10wt%Ni (Mg10Ni) alloy has been successively optimized by melt-spinning and surface catalyzed to realize the internal refinement as well as surface modification. The isothermal hydrogenation behavior of modified Mg-rich alloys has been investigated in this work. The results indicate that melt-spun Mg10Ni catalyzed by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coupling with TiF3 possesses superior activation properties and can absorb 6.23 wt% at 250 °C under 2.5 MPa. It is worth mentioning that the hydrogenation capacities of Mg10Ni-MWCNTs-TiF3 are 5.93 wt% and 5.99 wt% within the initial 1 min and 5 min, respectively. Meanwhile, the catalytic effect of MWCNTs and TiF3 has been discussed. The improved activation performance as well as the thermodynamics properties of Mg10Ni catalyzed by MWCNTs and TiF3 is attributed to the synergistic effect on dissociation of H2 molecules, diffusion of H-atoms and heterogeneous nucleation of hydrides.

  16. Four dermatomyositis-specific autoantibodies-anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2, anti-SAE and anti-MDA5-in adult and juvenile patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in a Hungarian cohort.

    PubMed

    Bodoki, Levente; Nagy-Vincze, Melinda; Griger, Zoltán; Betteridge, Zoe; Szöllősi, Lászlóné; Dankó, Katalin

    2014-12-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are chronic systemic autoimmune diseases characterised by symmetrical, proximal muscle weakness. Dermatomyositis represents one subset of IIMs, in which skin rashes are present in addition to muscle weakness. Myositis-specific antibodies can only be detected in myositis, and they are directed against specific proteins found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of cells. With this case-based article, we introduce the recently detected anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2, anti-SAE and anti-MDA5 antibodies that form various clinical groups. These antibodies could be detected in patients with dermatomyositis. The myositis-specific autoantibodies of three hundred and thirty-seven Hungarian patients with IIM were detected. Retrospective analysis of the clinical findings has also been introduced by revision of the medical history. We had twelve patients with anti-TIF1γ positivity, four patients with anti-NXP2 positivity and four patients with anti-SAE positivity. We did not have any positive anti-MDA5 patients. The most relevant clinical findings were similar to those seen in previously published reports. Eleven of the twelve patients with anti-TIF1γ positivity had classical dermatomyositis. Three of the twelve anti-TIF1γ patients had cancer during the disease progression. This was two out of four for the anti-NXP2 subgroup and one in four for the anti-SAE subgroup. In two juvenile dermatomyositis cases, typical ulceration was seen in patients with anti-TIF1γ positivity. The frequency of pulmonary fibrosis during the disease progression was 2/12, 1/4 and 1/4 in anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2 and anti-SAE, respectively. Other extra-muscular manifestations, such as arthralgia, dysphagia, dysphonia and dyspnoea, were also detectable. The myositis subgroups determined by these myositis-specific autoantibodies differ from each other in their symptoms, prognosis and therapy responsiveness. Their detection is helpful for the preparation of an adequate

  17. Heat shock represses rRNA synthesis by inactivation of TIF-IA and lncRNA-dependent changes in nucleosome positioning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongliang; Dammert, Marcel A; Hoppe, Sven; Bierhoff, Holger; Grummt, Ingrid

    2016-09-30

    Attenuation of ribosome biogenesis in suboptimal growth environments is crucial for cellular homeostasis and genetic integrity. Here, we show that shutdown of rRNA synthesis in response to elevated temperature is brought about by mechanisms that target both the RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription machinery and the epigenetic signature of the rDNA promoter. Upon heat shock, the basal transcription factor TIF-IA is inactivated by inhibition of CK2-dependent phosphorylations at Ser170/172. Attenuation of pre-rRNA synthesis in response to heat stress is accompanied by upregulation of PAPAS, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that is transcribed in antisense orientation to pre-rRNA. PAPAS interacts with CHD4, the adenosine triphosphatase subunit of NuRD, leading to deacetylation of histones and movement of the promoter-bound nucleosome into a position that is refractory to transcription initiation. The results exemplify how stress-induced inactivation of TIF-IA and lncRNA-dependent changes of chromatin structure ensure repression of rRNA synthesis in response to thermo-stress.

  18. Anti-reflux surgery - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...

  19. β-Catenin Binds to the Activation Function 2 Region of the Androgen Receptor and Modulates the Effects of the N-Terminal Domain and TIF2 on Ligand-Dependent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liang-Nian; Herrell, Roger; Byers, Stephen; Shah, Salimuddin; Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Gelmann, Edward P.

    2003-01-01

    β-Catenin is a multifunctional molecule that is activated by signaling through WNT receptors. β-Catenin can also enhance the transcriptional activity of some steroid hormone receptors such as the androgen receptor and retinoic acid receptor α. Androgens can affect nuclear translocation of β-catenin and influence its subcellular distribution. Using mammalian two-hybrid binding assays, analysis of reporter gene transcription, and coimmunoprecipitation, we now show that β-catenin binds to the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (LBD) and modulates the transcriptional effects of TIF2 and the androgen receptor N-terminal domain (NTD). In functional assays, β-catenin bound to androgen receptor only in the presence of ligand agonists, not antagonists. β-Catenin binding to the androgen receptor LBD was independent of and cooperative with the androgen receptor NTD and the p160 coactivator TIF2, both of which bind to the activation function 2 (AF-2) region of the androgen receptor. Different mutations of androgen receptor helix 3 amino acids disrupted binding of androgen receptor NTD and β-catenin. β-Catenin, androgen receptor NTD, and TIF2 binding to the androgen receptor LBD were affected similarly by a subset of helix 12 mutations, but disruption of two sites on helix 12 affected only binding of β-catenin and not of TIF2 or the androgen receptor NTD. Mutational disruption of each of five LXXLL peptide motifs in the β-catenin armadillo repeats did not disrupt either binding to androgen receptor or transcriptional coactivation. ICAT, an inhibitor of T-cell factor 4 (TCF-4), and E-cadherin binding to β-catenin also blocked binding of the androgen receptor LBD. We also demonstrated cross talk between the WNT and androgen receptor signaling pathways because excess androgen receptor could interfere with WNT signaling and excess TCF-4 inhibited the interaction of β-catenin and androgen receptor. Taken together, the data show that β-catenin can bind to the

  20. Factor recruitment and TIF2/GRIP1 corepressor activity at a collagenase-3 response element that mediates regulation by phorbol esters and hormones

    PubMed Central

    Rogatsky, Inez; Zarember, Kol A.; Yamamoto, Keith R.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate determinants of specific transcriptional regulation, we measured factor occupancy and function at a response element, col3A, associated with the collagenase-3 gene in human U2OS osteosarcoma cells; col3A confers activation by phorbol esters, and repression by glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones. The subunit composition and activity of AP-1, which binds col3A, paralleled the intracellular level of cFos, which is modulated by phorbol esters and glucocorticoids. In contrast, a similar AP-1 site at the collagenase-1 gene, not inducible in U2OS cells, was not bound by AP-1. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) associated with col3A through protein–protein interactions with AP-1, regardless of AP-1 subunit composition, and repressed transcription. TIF2/GRIP1, reportedly a coactivator for GR and the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), was recruited to col3A and potentiated GR-mediated repression in the presence of a GR agonist but not antagonist. GRIP1 mutants deficient in GR binding and coactivator functions were also defective for corepression, and a GRIP1 fragment containing the GR-interacting region functioned as a dominant-negative for repression. In contrast, repression by TR was unaffected by GRIP1. Thus, the composition of regulatory complexes, and the biological activities of the bound factors, are dynamic and dependent on cell and response element contexts. Cofactors such as GRIP1 probably contain distinct surfaces for activation and repression that function in a context-dependent manner. PMID:11689447

  1. Factor recruitment and TIF2/GRIP1 corepressor activity at a collagenase-3 response element that mediates regulation by phorbol esters and hormones.

    PubMed

    Rogatsky, I; Zarember, K A; Yamamoto, K R

    2001-11-01

    To investigate determinants of specific transcriptional regulation, we measured factor occupancy and function at a response element, col3A, associated with the collagenase-3 gene in human U2OS osteosarcoma cells; col3A confers activation by phorbol esters, and repression by glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones. The subunit composition and activity of AP-1, which binds col3A, paralleled the intracellular level of cFos, which is modulated by phorbol esters and glucocorticoids. In contrast, a similar AP-1 site at the collagenase-1 gene, not inducible in U2OS cells, was not bound by AP-1. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) associated with col3A through protein-protein interactions with AP-1, regardless of AP-1 subunit composition, and repressed transcription. TIF2/GRIP1, reportedly a coactivator for GR and the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), was recruited to col3A and potentiated GR-mediated repression in the presence of a GR agonist but not antagonist. GRIP1 mutants deficient in GR binding and coactivator functions were also defective for corepression, and a GRIP1 fragment containing the GR-interacting region functioned as a dominant-negative for repression. In contrast, repression by TR was unaffected by GRIP1. Thus, the composition of regulatory complexes, and the biological activities of the bound factors, are dynamic and dependent on cell and response element contexts. Cofactors such as GRIP1 probably contain distinct surfaces for activation and repression that function in a context-dependent manner. PMID:11689447

  2. Comparative Study of Multiplet Structures of Mn4+ in K2SiF6, K2GeF6, and K2TiF6 Based on First-Principles Configuration-Interaction Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novita, Mega; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi

    2012-02-01

    We performed first-principles configuration-interaction calculations of multiplet energies for Mn4+ in K2SiF6, K2GeF6, and K2TiF6 crystals. The results indicate that corrections based on a single-electron calculation are effective for the prediction of 4A2 → 4T2 and 4A2 → 4T1a transition energies, while such corrections are not necessary for the prediction of the 4A2 → 2E transition energy. The cluster size dependence of the multiplet energies is small. However, the 4A2 → 2E transition energy is slightly improved by using larger clusters including K ions. The theoretical multiplet energies are improved further by considering the lattice relaxation effect. As a result, the characteristic multiplet energy shifts depending on the host crystal are well reproduced without using any empirical parameters. Although K2GeF6 and K2TiF6 have lower symmetry than K2SiF6, the results indicate that the variation of the multiplet energy is mainly determined by the Mn-F bond length.

  3. T-cell-intrinsic Tif1α/Trim24 regulates IL-1R expression on TH2 cells and TH2 cell-mediated airway allergy.

    PubMed

    Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Okoye, Isobel S; Guidi, Riccardo; Kannan, Yashaswini; Coomes, Stephanie M; Czieso, Stephanie; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin; Wilson, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    There is a paucity of new therapeutic targets to control allergic reactions and forestall the rising trend of allergic diseases. Although a variety of immune cells contribute to allergy, cytokine-secreting αβ(+)CD4(+) T-helper 2 (TH2) cells orchestrate the type-2-driven immune response in a large proportion of atopic asthmatics. To identify previously unidentified putative targets in pathogenic TH2 cells, we performed in silico analyses of recently published transcriptional data from a wide variety of pathogenic TH cells [Okoye IS, et al. (2014) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(30):E3081-E3090] and identified that transcription intermediary factor 1 regulator-alpha (Tif1α)/tripartite motif-containing 24 (Trim24) was predicted to be active in house dust mite (HDM)- and helminth-elicited Il4(gfp+)αβ(+)CD4(+) TH2 cells but not in TH1, TH17, or Treg cells. Testing this prediction, we restricted Trim24 deficiency to T cells by using a mixed bone marrow chimera system and found that T-cell-intrinsic Trim24 is essential for HDM-mediated airway allergy and antihelminth immunity. Mechanistically, HDM-elicited Trim24(-/-) T cells have reduced expression of many TH2 cytokines and chemokines and were predicted to have compromised IL-1-regulated signaling. Following this prediction, we found that Trim24(-/-) T cells have reduced IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) expression, are refractory to IL-1β-mediated activation in vitro and in vivo, and fail to respond to IL-1β-exacerbated airway allergy. Collectively, these data identify a previously unappreciated Trim24-dependent requirement for IL-1R expression on TH2 cells and an important nonredundant role for T-cell-intrinsic Trim24 in TH2-mediated allergy and antihelminth immunity. PMID:26787865

  4. T-cell–intrinsic Tif1α/Trim24 regulates IL-1R expression on TH2 cells and TH2 cell-mediated airway allergy

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Okoye, Isobel S.; Guidi, Riccardo; Kannan, Yashaswini; Coomes, Stephanie M.; Czieso, Stephanie; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin; Wilson, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of new therapeutic targets to control allergic reactions and forestall the rising trend of allergic diseases. Although a variety of immune cells contribute to allergy, cytokine-secreting αβ+CD4+ T-helper 2 (TH2) cells orchestrate the type-2–driven immune response in a large proportion of atopic asthmatics. To identify previously unidentified putative targets in pathogenic TH2 cells, we performed in silico analyses of recently published transcriptional data from a wide variety of pathogenic TH cells [Okoye IS, et al. (2014) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(30):E3081–E3090] and identified that transcription intermediary factor 1 regulator-alpha (Tif1α)/tripartite motif-containing 24 (Trim24) was predicted to be active in house dust mite (HDM)- and helminth-elicited Il4gfp+αβ+CD4+ TH2 cells but not in TH1, TH17, or Treg cells. Testing this prediction, we restricted Trim24 deficiency to T cells by using a mixed bone marrow chimera system and found that T-cell–intrinsic Trim24 is essential for HDM-mediated airway allergy and antihelminth immunity. Mechanistically, HDM-elicited Trim24−/− T cells have reduced expression of many TH2 cytokines and chemokines and were predicted to have compromised IL-1–regulated signaling. Following this prediction, we found that Trim24−/− T cells have reduced IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) expression, are refractory to IL-1β–mediated activation in vitro and in vivo, and fail to respond to IL-1β–exacerbated airway allergy. Collectively, these data identify a previously unappreciated Trim24-dependent requirement for IL-1R expression on TH2 cells and an important nonredundant role for T-cell–intrinsic Trim24 in TH2-mediated allergy and antihelminth immunity. PMID:26787865

  5. A comparative study of laparoscopic and open Nissen fundoplication for GERD in Georgia.

    PubMed

    A Kiladze, Merab; T Giuashvili, Shalva; M Kiladze, Merab; V Elgandashvili, David

    2014-01-01

    Lo studio paragona ed analizza l’efficacia ed i risultati della fundoplicatio di Nissen in laparotomia secondo la modifica di Chernousov (CMNF) e la fundoplicatio totale laparoscopica eseguite in Georgia per la malattia da reflusso gastroesofageo (GERD), prendendo in considerazione la tecnica operatoria, le complicanze postoperatorie, i vantaggi per la sintomatologia, le recidive e la necessità di successivi reinterventi. Si tratta di uno studio prospettico randomizzato eseguito su 243 pazienti: 123 sottoposti alla procedura laparotomica CMNF e 120 pazienti trattati con la fundoplicatio totale laparoscopica. Gli esami pre- e postoperatori comprendono l’endoscopia, lo studio radiologico, un questionario da sottoporre al paziente (secondo lo schema GERD-HQRL) e lo studio clinico. Tutti i paziente sono stati controllati per un follow-up di 10 anni. Questo trial prospettico randomizzato ha mostrato risultati a lungo termine rispettivamente buoni ed eccellenti dopo chirurgia laparotomica e laparoscopica per GERD (92,7% vs 88,5% rispettivamente) (p=0,03). Dopo CMNF laparotomica si sono verificati tre casi di laparocele e 9 casi di modica disfagia. In nessun caso di è registrata una recidiva. Dopo approccio laparoscopico si sono osservati 7 casi di disfagia transitoria per i solidi, 3 casi di stenosi grave a livello cardiaco in rapporto alla plicatura. Vi sono stati due casi di recidiva, 3 casi di reflusso ed 1 caso di ernia epigastrica a livello del foro del trocar. Come nel resto del mondo, attualmente in Georgia la fundoplicatio totale per via laparoscopica rappresenta il metodo preferito di scelta per il trattamento della GERD. Esso presenta i migliori risultati estetici, il minor dolore ed i minori problemi a livello delle ferite, un più breve ricovero e un più precoce ritorno all’attività. Anche la procedura CMNF laparotomica è efficace e sicura. In essa si previene la sindrome da scivolamento ed è caratterizzata da un migliore controllo del reflusso ed una minore incidenza delle recidive, e garantisce dei risultati funzionali lievemente migliori a lungo termine.

  6. Using TIF tarp and reduced fumigation rates for almond replanting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond replanting still relies on pre-plant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests and diseases in order to establish productive and healthy trees. With the environmental constraints on fumigant use, fumigation methods for high pest control efficiency and low emissions are needed greatly. In l...

  7. TIF film, substrates and nonfumigant soil disinfestation maintain fruit yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 5-year project to facilitate the adoption of strawberry production systems that do not use methyl bromide initially focused on fumigant alternatives and resulted in increased use of barrier films that reduce fumigant emissions. The focus shifted in year 3 to evaluating and demonstrating nonfumigan...

  8. E-TIF: An Electronic Terminology Interchange Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of terminology in an age of machine-based translation systems. Discusses differences between lexicography and terminology. Concludes with an argument for a new system based on the Text Encoding Initiative-based notions of elements and attributes. (CFR)

  9. Anti-reflux surgery - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toupet fundoplication - children; Thal fundoplication - children; Hiatal hernia repair - children; Endoluminal fundoplication - children ... surgery may be done several ways, including: Open repair: The surgeon will make a large cut in ...

  10. Pattern of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration in patients with achalasia and response to Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Cools-Lartigue, J; Chang, S-Y; Mckendy, K; Mayrand, S; Marcus, V; Fried, G M; Ferri, L E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is now recognized as a common cause of dysphagia. Eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus has also been associated with other conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the incidence, pattern, and clinical significance of eosinophilic infiltration in achalasia are poorly documented. We sought to characterize this histological finding in patients undergoing Heller myotomy (HM) for achalasia. Ninety-six patients undergoing laparoscopic HM for primary achalasia between 1999 and 2008 were identified from a prospective database. Serial mid and distal per-endoscopic esophageal biopsies taken from patients before and after surgery were assessed for the presence of elevated intraepithelial eosinophils (EIEs). Slides from patients with reports suggestive of EIE were reviewed independently by two pathologists, and the highest eosinophil count/high-power field (eos/hpf) was recorded. Dysphagia scores (0 = none to 5 = severe dysphagia), GERD health-related quality of life scores (0 = best to 45 = worst), and 24-hour pH results were compared before and 3 months after surgery. We related the highest eos to the symptoms and response to HM. Data are presented as median (range). Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test determined significance, *P < 0.05. Of 96 patients with achalasia, 50 had undergone pre-HM biopsies revealing EIE in 17/50 (34%), with a median of 3 eos/hpf (1-21). Two patients were found to have superimposed esophageal candidiasis. One patient met the pathologic criteria for EoE. Twenty-five of 50 (50%) postoperative biopsies demonstrated a median of 5 eos/hpf (1-62) for a total of 28/50 patients (56%) with EIE in either the preoperative or postoperative period. Four patients (8%) met the pathologic criteria for EoE, and two demonstrated persistent esophageal candidiasis. A decrease in eosinophils was found in 6/28 patients (21%) from 3/hpf (1-21) to 0.5/hpf (0-4). Increase in eosinophils was found in 22/28 patients (79%) from 0.5/hpf (0-8) to 5/hpf (1-62). Preoperative and postoperative dysphagia scores were available in 23 patients. Dysphagia scores improved in 22/23 patients. (3 [0-5] to 0 [0-2])*. Preoperative and postoperative GERD scores were available in 21 patients. GERD scores improved in 20/21 patients (10 [3-38] to 2 [2-14])*. Four of 13 patients (30.7%) demonstrated significant reflux in the postoperative period. No difference in clinical response to HM was detected between patients with preoperative EIE compared with patients with no EIE. No correlation between postoperative esophageal pH and eos was observed. A significant number of patients with achalasia demonstrate esophageal eosinophilic infiltration even at numbers demonstrable in patients with EoE (8% 4/50). While the interaction between achalasia and esophageal eosinophilic infiltration needs further investigation, this does not represent a distinct clinical entity. Thus, the presence of esophageal eosinophils in patients presenting with dysphagia should not preclude further work-up for other etiologies, including achalasia. PMID:22891632

  11. [Acute gastric volvulus: late complication of Nissen fundoplication. Report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Zamorano, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el vólvulo gástrico puede clasificarse por su etiología en primario o secundario, por su anatomía en órgano axial o mesentérico axial y por su presentación en crónico o agudo. El tratamiento del vólvulo gástrico secundario agudo siempre debe ser quirúrgico y la elección del procedimiento basarse en la etiología y en los casos asociados con cirugía previa será importante la lisis de adherencias y el retiro de cuerpos extraños (material de sutura, mallas, banda gástrica). La funduplicatura Nissen es un procedimiento seguro y efectivo que rara vez puede tener complicaciones tardías severas entre las que se encuentran el vólvulo gástrico. Objetivo: comunicar 2 casos y revisar la bibliografía médica. Casos clínicos: se describen 2 casos de vólvulo gástrico agudo secundarios a funduplicatura tipo Nissen laparoscópica, con síntomas de dolor epigástrico y vómito no productivo, ambos tratados por laparoscopia. Se revisan los síntomas de presentación, incidencia, diagnóstico, tratamiento y los factores predisponentes de vólvulo gástrico postfunduplicatura. Conclusión: el vólvulo gástrico rara vez puede ser una complicación de una funduplicatura Nissen con incidencia similar a la de otras de sus complicaciones tardías. Los mecanismos descritos que lo originan se relacionan con adherencias postquirúrgicas, material de sutura (poliéster), mallas, tubos de gastrostomía, gastropexia y por herniación gástrica interna a través del túnel "transfunduplicatura." En pacientes con síntomas de obstrucción gástrica dentro del primer año posterior a una funduplicatura Nissen laparoscópica se requiere un alto índice de sospecha. El tratamiento quirúrgico laparoscópico es seguro con o sin gastropexia para corregir los mecanismos que lo originan.

  12. 77 FR 35757 - Final Priorities, Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria-Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... (77 FR 12257) (NPP). The NPP contained background information and our reasons for proposing the... defined in this notice) with regular instructional responsibilities consistent with paragraph (2)(ii) of... growth, in significant part, when evaluating teachers with regular instructional responsibilities...

  13. Time to Pay Up: Analyzing the Motivational Potential of Financial Awards in a TIF Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King; Malen, Betty; Jackson, Cara; Hoyer, Kathleen Mulvaney

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of educator incentive programs rests on the assumption that the potential rewards for participants will motivate them to behave in certain ways (e.g., choose certain jobs, expend greater effort, engage in capacity-building professional development). Some researchers have examined the impact of financial incentives on teacher…

  14. Materials Data on Li3TiF6 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Effect of TiN coating on microstructure of Tif/Al composite.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Z Y; Chen, G Q; Wang, M; Hussain, Murid

    2013-02-01

    In the present work, Ti fibre reinforced Al matrix composites (Ti(f)/Al) were fabricated by pressure infiltration method. In order to suppress the severe Ti-Al reaction and reduce the formation of brittle TiAl(3) phase, a TiN layer was coated on Ti fibres by an arc ion plating method before composite preparation. A thin TiN layer was coated on the Ti fibre surface, and the maximum and minimum thickness values of layer were about 3.5 and 1μm, respectively. Prefer orientation of TiN on (111) and (200) was found by XRD analysis. A thin and uniform TiAl(3) layer was observed in Ti(f)/Al composite. However, after coated with TiN layer, no significant reaction layer was found in (Ti(f)+TiN)/Al composite. Segregation of Mg element was found in Ti(f)/Al composite, and the presence of TiN layer showed little effect on this behaviour. Due to the large CTE difference between Ti fibre and Al matrix, high density dislocations were observed in the Al matrix. Meanwhile, fine dispersed Mg(2)Al(3) phases were also found in Al matrix. Ti fibre is mainly composed of α- and β-Ti. Small discontinuous needle-like TiAl(3) phases were detected at TiN/Al interface, which implies that the presence of TiN layer between the Ti fibre and Al matrix could effectively hinder the formation of TiAl(3) phases. PMID:23201227

  16. Characterization of ti Catalyst in NaAlH4 Doped with TiF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijssenbeek, Job T.; Gao, Yan; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Jensen, Craig M.; Hanson, Jonathan; Wang, Xianqin

    2004-03-01

    The discovery that the dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation of NaAlH4 can be catalyzed by addition of titanium-based compounds has catapulted complex hydrides such as NaAlH4 to the forefront of hydride research. However, the nature of the titanium catalyst has remained controversial as only circumstantial evidence of its oxidation state, bonding environment and catalytic mechanism have been reported thus far. Results of detailed in-situ powder x-ray diffraction experiments on both the dehydrogenation and the rehydrogenation reactions of NaAlH4 will be presented. These novel data prove that both reactions occur in a stepwise fashion and agree well with pressure-composition isotherms of the same material. Furthermore, peak width analysis yields information about some surprising changes in the particle size of the constituent phases during the reaction and with cycling. X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XANES/EXAFS) at the temperatures of interest reveals the oxidation state of the titanium species after synthesis and upon cycling. The local coordination environment of the titanium yields clues regarding possible catalytic mechanisms.

  17. Role of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) in conservative dentistry: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wahengbam, Pragya; Tikku, A P; Lee, Wahengbam Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The role of fluoride to reduce demineralization and enhance remineralization of dental hard tissue has been well documented. Different forms of fluoride solutions have been topically used in dentistry as prophylactic agents against tooth decay. In the recent past, metal fluorides, especially titanium tetrafluoride, have become popular in the fraternity of dental research due to their unique interaction with dental hard tissue. Many studies on titanium tetrafluoride, with positive and negative conclusions, have been published in many research journals. This gives the reader a plethora of inconclusive results with one study neutralizing the outcome of other, which confuses us regarding the present status of titanium tetrafluoride in the field of dentistry. This is an endeavor to organize and present the various studies of this unique compound, to provide us with a lucid overall review of its versatile potential application in dentistry, along with its fallacy/drawbacks. We have discussed its role as a cariostatic agent, pit and fissure sealant, tooth desensitizer, against dental erosion, as a root canal irrigant and others. PMID:21814345

  18. Acid Reflux (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sphincter. The most common surgical treatment is the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. This procedure involves wrapping the upper ... Ovaska JT. Comparison of long-term outcome of laparoscopic and conventional nissen fundoplication: a prospective randomized study ...

  19. The Persistent Problems and Confounding Challenges of Educator Incentives: The Case of TIF in Prince George's County, Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King; Malen, Betty; Baumann, Paul; Chen, Elke; Dougherty, Amy; Hyde, Laura; Jackson, Cara; Jacobson, Reuben; McKithen, Clarissa

    2012-01-01

    While education accountability systems emphasize teacher quality as a prerequisite for student learning, education administrators have struggled to staff low-performing schools with effective teachers. Fueled in part by the federal Teacher Incentive Fund, compensation reforms have gained center stage status among strategies aimed at improving…

  20. Meeting the Challenges of Stakeholder Engagement and Communication: Lessons from Teacher Incentive Fund Grantees. The Harvesting Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2010-01-01

    As of August 2010, a total of 33 states, school districts, charter school coalitions, and other education organizations had received Teacher Incentive Funds (TIF) to redesign compensation programs for teachers and principals. The U.S. Department of Education named a new cohort of TIF grantees on September 23, 2010. TIF grantees have faced a number…

  1. Teacher Incentive Fund; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010; Rule and Notice. Federal Register, Part III. Department of Education, 34 CFR Subtitle B, Chapter II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez de Santa Ana, Thelma

    2010-01-01

    The Secretary of Education (Secretary) establishes priorities, requirements, definitions, and selection criteria under the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) program. These priorities, requirements, definitions, and selection criteria will be used in two separate and distinct TIF grant competitions: The Main TIF competition, which will provide TIF…

  2. Peer Evaluation of Teachers in Maricopa County's Teacher Incentive Fund Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony; Heneman, Herbert G., III; Finster, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This case study describes the peer evaluation system the Maricopa County Educational Services Agency (MCESA) is using in the districts participating in its Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) 3 and 4 grants. Maricopa County's TIF districts cover much of the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area. Including both TIF 3 and 4 cohorts, 12 districts with a total…

  3. Laparoscopic Surgical Treatment of Severe Obesity Combined with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Pilot Randomized Two-Arm Controlled Clinical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ospanov, Oral B.; Orekeshova, Akzhunis M.; Fursov, Roman A.; Yelemesov, Aset A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are serious medical, social, and economic problems of modern society. A pilot randomized two-arm controlled clinical study was conducted to compare laparoscopic plication of the greater gastric curvature combined with Nissen fundoplication (LFN+LGP) versus only Nissen fundoplication (LFN). The…

  4. [Endoscopic surgery for benign esophageal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Soji

    2006-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal achalasia are common benign esophageal diseases. Today minimally invasive surgery is recommended to treat these diseases. Surgical indications for GERD are failure of medical management, medical complications attributable to a large hiatal hernia, 'atypical' symptoms (asthma, hoarseness, cough, chest pain, aspiration), etc. according to the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) guidelines. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication has emerged as the most widely accepted procedure for GERD patients with normal esophageal motility. Partial fundoplication (e.g., Toupet fundoplication) is also considered to decrease the possibility of postoperative dysphagia. Although pneumatic dilatation has been the first line treatment for esophageal achalasia, laparoscopic Heller myotomy and partial fundoplication (e.g., Dor fundoplication) to prevent reflux is preferred by most gastroenterologists and surgeons as the primary treatment modality. Laparoscopic surgery for GERD and esophageal achalasia are effective in most patients and safe in all patients. Finally, laparoscopic surgery should be performed only by skilled surgeons.

  5. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, V; Rajkumar, S; Murugesh, S; Darchen, A

    2012-07-30

    Tamarindus indica fruit shells (TIFSs) are naturally calcium rich compounds. They were impregnated with ammonium carbonate and then carbonized, leading to ammonium carbonate activated ACA-TIFS carbon. The resulting materials and carbon arising from virgin fruit shells V-TIFS were characterized and assayed as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride anions from groundwater. The fluoride scavenging ability of TIFS carbons was due to naturally dispersed calcium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that TIFS carbon contained a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. Batch studies on the fluoride removal efficiency of TIFS carbons with respect to contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, and co-ion interference were conducted. Applicability of various kinetic models (viz., pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich) and sorption isotherms were tested for batch techniques. The fluoride removal capacity of TIFS carbons was found to be 91% and 83% at a pH of 7.05 for V-TIFS and ACA-TIFS carbons, respectively. The practical applicability of TIFS carbons using groundwater samples was approved. The fluoride removal was greater in groundwater without hydrogen carbonate ions than those containing these ions. The characterizations of fluoride unloaded and loaded TIFS carbons were done by SEM and XRD studies.

  6. Management Information Reporting 2000-01 Data Analysis for Special Education, English as a Second Language (ESL), Early Literacy Initiative (ELI), and Technology Integration Funding (TIF).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This report is intended to stimulate inquiry into the achievement of special groups of students in Alberta schools and model reporting to the public on these students, a traditionally weak area of school board Annual Education Results reports. The data in the report provide provincial level comparisons to data that may be compiled by school…

  7. Opioid-induced suppression of rat testicular function.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Sewing, B; Forman, J B; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1993-07-01

    The effects of opioids on testicular function were assessed in the rat through measurements of serum testosterone levels, testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) formation and TIF testosterone levels after morphine and opioid antagonist (naloxone, naltrexone) treatment. Serum and TIF levels of testosterone were significantly decreased 1 to 6 h after morphine (10 mg/kg) injection, and TIF volumes were decreased 2-3 h after injection morphine. Each of these decreases was dose-related. In contrast to the effects of morphine, the opioid antagonist naloxone increased TIF testosterone but did not alter TIF volumes. Moreover, the opioid antagonist naltrexone totally blocked morphine's effects on both testosterone secretion and TIF volume, suggesting that morphine's testicular effects were mediated by naltrexone-sensitive opioid receptors in the testes. The possible role of morphine-induced reductions in gonadotropin secretion in morphine's testicular effects was also examined. Morphine suppressed testosterone secretion and TIF volumes after pretreatment with human chorionic gonadotropin, which reverses morphine's suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH). Our results, therefore, indicate that morphine exerts effects on testicular function that are independent of its effects on LH. They furthermore support the hypothesis that both endogenous and exogenous opioids disrupt two major aspects of testicular function: Testosterone secretion and TIF formation. Because of the role of TIF in maintaining testicular function, our results suggest that opioid-induced changes in testosterone secretion into TIF and TIF formation may, at least in part, explain the well-established effects of opioids on reproductive endocrinology and function in the male. PMID:8392556

  8. 49 CFR 599.302 - Dealer application for reimbursement-submission, contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS AND... supporting documentation in electronic format (pdf, tif, jpeg) in the following order: (i) Proof of title....

  9. Protein and DNA elements involved in transactivation of the promoter of the bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1 IE-1 transcription unit by the BHV alpha gene trans-inducing factor.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, V; Bratanich, A C; Carpenter, D; O'Hare, P

    1994-01-01

    In herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, the transcription of immediate-early (alpha) genes is regulated by a virion component, the alpha gene trans-inducing factor (alpha TIF). This protein forms a complex with cellular factors and TAATGARAT motifs present in one or more copies in the promoters of all alpha genes. We have characterized the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) homolog of this protein. Like its HSV counterpart, the BHV alpha TIF was synthesized in the later stages of infection and could be demonstrated to be a component of purified virions. In transient expression assays, BHV alpha TIF was a strong transactivator and stimulated the activity of IE-1, the major BHV-1 alpha gene promoter, with an efficiency comparable to that of HSV alpha TIF. This stimulation was largely dependent on a TAATGAGCT sequence present in a single copy in IE-1, and BHV alpha TIF, in conjunction with cellular factors, formed a complex with oligonucleotides containing this sequence. Despite these similarities between the two alpha TIFs, our preliminary observations suggest that the proteins may activate transcription by different mechanisms. Although BHV alpha TIF strongly transactivated IE-1, it differed from its HSV counterpart in that the carboxyl terminus of BHV alpha TIF, when fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4, was a relatively poor stimulator of a promoter containing GAL4-binding sites. Also unlike HSV alpha TIF, removal of the carboxyl terminus of BHV alpha TIF reduced but did not eliminate the ability of the protein to transactivate IE-1. These results are discussed in view of the structural similarities and differences among the alpha TIFs of alphaherpes-viruses. Images PMID:8035488

  10. Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of the EndoLift Liver Retractor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-03

    Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedure; Laparoscopic Gastric Banding; Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass; Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy; Laparoscopic Fundoplication Procedure; Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy; Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hernia Repair; Laparoscopic Gastric Resection

  11. Epidural anaesthesia and familial dysautonomia (the Riley Day syndrome). Three case reports.

    PubMed

    Challands, J F; Facer, E K

    1998-01-01

    Epidural anaesthesia in Familial Dysautonomia (FD) or the Riley Day syndrome has not previously been reported. Three children with FD presenting for redo Nissen fundoplication were managed with epidural anaesthesia. Cases 1 and 2 had had their original Nissen fundoplication without epidural anaesthesia. In Case 3, FD had not yet been diagnosed when she had her first operation, and it was performed with epidural anaesthesia. The anaesthetic management of these cases with and without epidural anaesthesia is described and discussed.

  12. Diaphragmatic rupture resulting from gastrointestinal barotrauma in a scuba diver.

    PubMed

    Hayden, J D; Davies, J B; Martin, I G

    1998-03-01

    A fit young man sustained a ruptured diaphragm during a recreational scuba dive three months after undergoing an uncomplicated laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. It is proposed that this rare occurrence was attributable to gastrointestinal barotrauma. The injury was treated by laparotomy, mobilisation of herniated abdominal viscera back into the abdomen, repair of the crura and gastropexy. He made a full postoperative recovery. It is concluded that scuba diving should be avoided in patients who have undergone fundoplication.

  13. Panel Design Variations in the Multistage Test Using the Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Park, Ryoungsun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared various panel designs of the multistage test (MST) using mixed-format tests in the context of classification testing. Simulations varied the design of the first-stage module. The first stage was constructed according to three levels of test information functions (TIFs) with three different TIF centers. Additional computerized…

  14. Software for goniometer control in the Triple Ion Implantation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, W.R.

    1994-02-01

    A computer program is described tat controls the goniometer employed in the ion scattering chamber of the Triple Ion Implantation Facility (TIF) in the Metals and Ceramics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Details of goniometer operation and its incorporation into the ion scattering setup specific to the TIF are also discussed.

  15. Designing and Implementing Human Capital Management Systems in Educator Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Sara; Milanowski, Anthony; Scott, Jenna; Adrien, Richard; Fairbairn, Shane; Bourn, Ronda; Hill, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Education's Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) 4 program represents a programmatic shift away from educator compensation reform as the primary lever of change for teacher performance and student learning. The TIF 4 program is designed to encourage the use of educator effectiveness measures to support the strategic instructional vision…

  16. Increasing Educator Effectiveness: Lessons Learned from Teacher Incentive Fund Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Created by the U.S. Congress in 2006, the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) represents the first federal initiative targeted directly at state and district efforts to introduce performance measures into educator compensation. TIF responds to a growing body of evidence that existing pay structures do not respond to labor force realities or adequately…

  17. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Partial Basin and Range Heat and Zones of Critical Stress Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Interpolated maps of heat flow, temperature gradient, and quartz geothermometers are included as TIF files. Zones of critical stress map is also included as a TIF file. The zones are given a 5km diameter buffer. The study area is only a part of the Basin and Range, but it does includes the Tularosa Basin.

  18. Tax Increment Financing and Education Expenditures: The Case of Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to directly examine the relationship between tax increment financing (TIF) and education expenditures, using the state of Iowa as a case study. I find that greater use of TIF is associated with reduced education expenditures. I also find little evidence to support the commonly held proposition that school spending increases…

  19. 75 FR 37765 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... will also seek to analyze TIF's relationship to increasing student achievement. This evaluation of the... and Policy Development Type of Review: Revision. Title of Collection: Evaluation of the Teacher... 2006, the U.S. Department of Education launched the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF), which...

  20. The Effect of Local Limitations on General State Aid in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Study to determine if a substantive relationship exits between the progression of a federal Tax Increment Financing (TIF) district, the long-term effects of the state Property Tax Extension Limitation Law (PTELL), and the General State Aid funding of school districts in Illinois. Finds that both TIF and PTELL lead to an increase in General State…

  1. Investigation of contact pressure and influence function model for soft wheel polishing.

    PubMed

    Rao, Zhimin; Guo, Bing; Zhao, Qingliang

    2015-09-20

    The tool influence function (TIF) is critical for calculating the dwell-time map to improve form accuracy. We present the TIF for the process of computer-controlled polishing with a soft polishing wheel. In this paper, the static TIF was developed based on the Preston equation. The pressure distribution was verified by the real removal spot section profiles. According to the experiment measurements, the pressure distribution simulated by Hertz contact theory was much larger than the real contact pressure. The simulated pressure distribution, which was modeled by the Winkler elastic foundation for a soft polishing wheel, matched the real contact pressure. A series of experiments was conducted to obtain the removal spot statistical properties for validating the relationship between material removal and processing time and contact pressure and relative velocity, along with calculating the fitted parameters to establish the TIF. The developed TIF predicted the removal character for the studied soft wheel polishing. PMID:26406510

  2. In Vitro Effects of 2.5% Titanium Tetrafluoride on Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus Casei in Dentin Followed by Self-Etching Adhesive Systems.

    PubMed

    Bridi, Enrico Coser; Amaral Flávia Lucisano Botelho; França Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Turssi Cecilia Pedroso; Florio, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of a 2.5% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution followed by self-etching adhesives against Streptococcus mutans/Sm and Lactobacillus casei/Lc. Four cylindrical-shaped cavities were performed on each dentin surface of 40 third molars and contaminated with Sm or Lc. Each one of the four cavities received one of the following treatments (n = 10): 1) control; 2) TiF4; 3) Clearfil SE Bond/CSE or Adper EasyOne/AEO; 4) TiF4 followed by CSE or AED. ANOVA was applied to data. The TiF4 solution showed an antimicrobial effect, although the TiF4 used for dentin pretreatment before CSE or AEO showed no influence on antimicrobial effect. PMID:26767239

  3. [Two Cases of Emergency Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in Children Suffering from Tracheo-innominate Artery Fistula].

    PubMed

    Ideno, Satoshi; Shinto, Atsushi; Matsuoka, Taku; Miyazawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula (TIF) is a relatively rare life-threating complication of long-term tracheostomy. Two patients with TIF were successfully resuscitated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support along with advanced cardiovascular life support. The first patient was a 16-year-old boy undergoing long-term tracheostomy because of cerebral palsy, and the other patient was a previously healthy 11-year-old girl who had undergone primary tracheal tumor resection. In both cases, the onset of TIF was sudden, and the patients were immediately transferred to the operating room for emergency thoracotomy under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Innominate artery division was performed under ECMO support. Adequate fluid replacement and hemorrhage control are primary treatment options for resuscitating a patient with TIF. However, hemorrhagic shock in patients with TIF is different from that in other patients, because bleeding into the trachea causes severe respiratory failure and poor oxygenation, which may worsen the resuscitation rate. Thus, ECMO can be used as an option for maintaining oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF. Anesthesiologists should pay attention to the increased risk of bleeding due to anticoagulation during ECMO initiation. In conclusion, the results of these cases demonstrate the effectiveness of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF patients.

  4. Imidazoles suppress rat testosterone secretion and testicular interstitial fluid formation In vivo.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1998-08-01

    The aim of these studies was to examine the effects of imidazoles on testosterone secretion and testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) formation through measurement of serum LH, serum testosterone, TIF testosterone, and TIF volumes. Imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole (4-MI), and ketoconazole, an oral imidazole antifungal agent, caused dose-dependent decreases in testosterone secretion and TIF formation. Imidazole, 2-methylimidazole, and 4-MI decreased LH secretion. 4-MI decreased testosterone secretion 1-6 h after injection, increased testosterone at 8-16 h, decreased LH secretion at 4 h, decreased TIF volumes at 1-8 h, and slightly increased TIF volumes at 24 h. 4-MI blocked the stimulatory effects of hCG on testosterone secretion and prevented an expected increase in LH secretion after the 4-MI-induced decrease in testosterone secretion. 4-MI also reversed the effects of three other stimulants of testosterone secretion that presumably act through three different testicular regulatory systems: N-methyl-D,L-aspartate, an excitatory amino acid; NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; and naltrexone, an opioid antagonist. These results support the hypothesis that imidazoles inhibit testicular function and male reproductive function through inhibition of testosterone secretion, TIF formation, and LH secretion regulatory systems. PMID:9687292

  5. [Two Cases of Emergency Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in Children Suffering from Tracheo-innominate Artery Fistula].

    PubMed

    Ideno, Satoshi; Shinto, Atsushi; Matsuoka, Taku; Miyazawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula (TIF) is a relatively rare life-threating complication of long-term tracheostomy. Two patients with TIF were successfully resuscitated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support along with advanced cardiovascular life support. The first patient was a 16-year-old boy undergoing long-term tracheostomy because of cerebral palsy, and the other patient was a previously healthy 11-year-old girl who had undergone primary tracheal tumor resection. In both cases, the onset of TIF was sudden, and the patients were immediately transferred to the operating room for emergency thoracotomy under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Innominate artery division was performed under ECMO support. Adequate fluid replacement and hemorrhage control are primary treatment options for resuscitating a patient with TIF. However, hemorrhagic shock in patients with TIF is different from that in other patients, because bleeding into the trachea causes severe respiratory failure and poor oxygenation, which may worsen the resuscitation rate. Thus, ECMO can be used as an option for maintaining oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF. Anesthesiologists should pay attention to the increased risk of bleeding due to anticoagulation during ECMO initiation. In conclusion, the results of these cases demonstrate the effectiveness of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF patients. PMID:27017768

  6. Sinus Meridiani: uncontrolled Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbital Camera (MOC): digital context photomosaic (250 megapixel resolution)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noreen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    These images were processed from a raw format using Integrated Software for Images and Spectrometers (ISIS) to perform radiometric corrections and projection. All the images were projected in sinusoidal using a center longitude of 0 degrees. There are two versions of the mosaic, one unfiltered (sinusmos.tif), and one produced with all images processed through a box filter with an averaged pixel tone of 7.5 (sinusmosflt.tif). Both mosaics are ArcView-ArcInfo(2) ready in TIF format with associated world files (*.tfw).

  7. Central Valles Marineris: uncontrolled Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) digital context photomosaic (250 megapixel resolution)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noreen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    These images were processed from a raw format using Integrated Software for Images and Spectrometers (ISIS) to perform radiometric corrections and projection. All the images were projected in sinusoidal using a center longitude of 70 degrees. There are two versions of the mosaic, one unfiltered (vallesmos.tif), and one produced with all images processed through a box filter with an averaged pixel tone of 7.699 (vallesmosflt.tif). Both mosaics are ArcView-ArcInfo ready in TIF format with associated world files (*.tfw).

  8. Events during eucaryotic rRNA transcription initiation and elongation: Conversion from the closed to the open promoter complex requires nucleotide substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, E.; Paule, M.R.

    1988-05-01

    Chemical footprinting and topological analysis were carried out on the Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA transcription initiation factor (TIF) and RNA polymerase I complexes with DNA during transcription initiation and elongation. The results show that the binding of TIF and polymerase to the promoter does not alter the supercoiling of the DNA template and the template does not become sensitive to modification by diethylpyro-carbonate, which can identify melted DNA regions. Thus, in contrast to bacterial RNA polymerase, the eucaryotic RNA polymerase I-promoter complex is in a closed configuration preceding addition of nucleotides in vitro. Initiation and 3'-O-methyl CTP-limited translocation by RNA polymerase I results in separation of the polymerase-TIF footprints, leaving the TIF footprint unaltered. In contrast, initiation and translocation result in a significant change in the conformation of the polymerase-DNA complex, culminating in an unwound DNA region of at least 10 base pairs.

  9. Effects of single-base substitutions within the acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA promoter on transcription and on binding of transcription initiation factor and RNA polymerase I

    SciTech Connect

    Kownin, P.; Bateman, E.; Paule, M.R.

    1988-02-01

    Single-point mutations were introduced into the promoter region of the Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA gene by chemical mutagen treatment of a single-stranded clone in vitro, followed by reverse transcription and cloning of the altered fragment. The promoter mutants were tested for transcription initiation factor (TIF) binding by a template commitment assay plus DNase I footprinting and for transcription by an in vitro runoff assay. Point mutations within the previously identified TIF interaction region (between -20 and -47, motifs A and B) indicated that TIF interacts most strongly with a sequence centered at -29 and less tightly with sequences upstream and downstream. Some alterations of the base sequence closer to the transcription start site (and outside the TIF-protected site) also significantly decrease specific RNA synthesis in vitro. These were within the region which is protected from DNAse I digestion by polymerase I, but these mutations did not detectably affect the binding of polymerase to the promoter.

  10. Key theoretical frameworks for intervention: understanding and promoting behavior change in parent-infant feeding choices in a low-income population.

    PubMed

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Silk, Kami; Horodynski, Mildred A; Mercer, Laura; Olson, Beth

    2009-03-01

    The early introduction of solids to infants is a risk factor associated with later health problems including allergies, overweight, and diabetes. The Infant Feeding Series (TIFS), a newly designed curriculum that promotes the appropriate transition to solids through parenting education and behavior change among low-income mothers, used the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Transtheoretical Model of Change to develop TIFS curricular foci and activities. Using a pre-post design, pilot study results indicate that after exposure to the TIFS curriculum, mothers had significantly increased knowledge about appropriate infant feeding, could more accurately identify developmental indicators of infants' readiness for solids, and reported greater feelings of self efficacy about initiating and maintaining healthy feeding practices. Editors' Strategic Implications: replication is necessary, but TIFS appears to be a promising prevention program based on short-term knowledge and long-term behavioral outcomes (i.e., healthy feeding practices). PMID:19283484

  11. Effect of the inflated-pressure to the tool influence function for polishing using SR bonnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunjin; Yang, Xu; Zhong, Bo; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Yinbiao; Xu, Qiao

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the inner pressure to the tool influence function (TIF) for polishing using a semi-rigid (SR) bonnet tool. The simulation model of a Semi-rigid (SR) bonnet polishing tool polishing BK7 is demonstrated and the pressure distribution data under different inflated-pressures in the contact area has been extracted. It's observed that the inflated-pressure has few effects to the polishing pressure, and their shapes are also Gaussian-like. Hence, we made a hypothesis that the effect of inflated-pressure to the TIF is rather small. To verify this hypothesis, a group of experiments to generate TIFs under different inflated-pressure are conducted, and the hypothesis has been proved to be correct through comparing these TIFs.

  12. Laparoscopic repair of hiatal hernia with mesenterioaxial volvulus of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kazuki; Sakurai, Yoichi; Isogaki, Jun; Komori, Yoshiyuki; Uyama, Ichiro

    2011-04-21

    Although mesenterioaxial gastric volvulus is an uncommon entity characterized by rotation at the transverse axis of the stomach, laparoscopic repair procedures have still been controversial. We reported a case of mesenterioaxial intrathoracic gastric volvulus, which was successfully treated with laparoscopic repair of the diaphragmatic hiatal defect using a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh associated with Toupet fundoplication. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of upper abdominal pain. An upper gastrointestinal series revealed an incarcerated intrathoracic mesenterioaxial volvulus of the distal portion of the stomach and the duodenum. The complete laparoscopic approach was used to repair the volvulus. The laparoscopic procedures involved the repair of the hiatal hernia using polytetrafluoroethylene mesh and Toupet fundoplication. This case highlights the feasibility and effectiveness of the laparoscopic procedure, and laparoscopic repair of the hiatal defect using a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh associated with Toupet fundoplication may be useful for preventing postoperative recurrence of hiatal hernia, volvulus, and gastroesophageal reflux.

  13. Rapid depletion of mutant eukaryotic initiation factor 5A at restrictive temperature reveals connections to actin cytoskeleton and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Gross, Stephane R; Kinzy, Terri Goss; Chen, Kuang Yu

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only protein in nature that contains hypusine, an unusual amino acid derived from the modification of lysine by spermidine. Two genes, TIF51A and TIF51B, encode eIF5A in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to understand the structure-function relationship of eIF5A, we have generated yeast mutants by introducing plasmid-borne tif51A into a double null strain where both TIF51A and TIF51B have been disrupted. One of the mutants, tsL102A strain (tif51A L102A tif51aDelta tif51bDelta) exhibits a strong temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. At the restrictive temperature, tsL102A strain also exhibits a cell shape change, a lack of volume change in response to temperature increase and becomes more sensitive to ethanol, a hallmark of defects in the PKC/WSC cell wall integrity pathway. In addition, a striking change in actin dynamics and a complete cell cycle arrest at G1 phase occur in tsL102A cells at restrictive temperature. The temperature-sensitivity of tsL102A strain is due to a rapid loss of mutant eIF5A with the half-life reduced from 6 h at permissive temperature to 20 min at restrictive temperature. Phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride (PMSF), an irreversible inhibitor of serine protease, inhibited the degradation of mutant eIF5A and suppressed the temperature-sensitive growth arrest. Sorbitol, an osmotic stabilizer that complement defects in PKC/WSC pathways, stabilizes the mutant eIF5A and suppresses all the observed temperature-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:16408210

  14. Production of Tuber-Inducing Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Yorio, Neil C.

    2006-01-01

    A process for making a substance that regulates the growth of potatoes and some other economically important plants has been developed. The process also yields an economically important by-product: potatoes. The particular growth-regulating substance, denoted tuber-inducing factor (TIF), is made naturally by, and acts naturally on, potato plants. The primary effects of TIF on potato plants are reducing the lengths of the main shoots, reducing the numbers of nodes on the main stems, reducing the total biomass, accelerating the initiation of potatoes, and increasing the edible fraction (potatoes) of the overall biomass. To some extent, these effects of TIF can override environmental effects that typically inhibit the formation of tubers. TIF can be used in the potato industry to reduce growth time and increase harvest efficiency. Other plants that have been observed to be affected by TIF include tomatoes, peppers, radishes, eggplants, marigolds, and morning glories. In the present process, potatoes are grown with their roots and stolons immersed in a nutrient solution in a recirculating hydroponic system. From time to time, a nutrient replenishment solution is added to the recirculating nutrient solution to maintain the required nutrient concentration, water is added to replace water lost from the recirculating solution through transpiration, and an acid or base is added, as needed, to maintain the recirculating solution at a desired pH level. The growing potato plants secrete TIF into the recirculating solution. The concentration of TIF in the solution gradually increases to a range in which the TIF regulates the growth of the plants.

  15. The C-terminal region of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) promotes mRNA recruitment, scanning, and, together with eIF3j and the eIF3b RNA recognition motif, selection of AUG start codons.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wen-Ling; Wagner, Susan; Herrmannová, Anna; Burela, Laxminarayana; Zhang, Fan; Saini, Adesh K; Valásek, Leos; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2010-09-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the a/Tif32 subunit of budding yeast eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) interacts with eIF3 subunits j/Hcr1 and b/Prt1 and can bind helices 16 to 18 of 18S rRNA, suggesting proximity to the mRNA entry channel of the 40S subunit. We have identified substitutions in the conserved Lys-Glu-Arg-Arg (KERR) motif and in residues of the nearby box6 element of the a/Tif32 CTD that impair mRNA recruitment by 43S preinitiation complexes (PICs) and confer phenotypes indicating defects in scanning and start codon recognition. The normally dispensable CTD of j/Hcr1 is required for its binding to a/Tif32 and to mitigate the growth defects of these a/Tif32 mutants, indicating physical and functional interactions between these two domains. The a/Tif32 CTD and the j/Hcr1 N-terminal domain (NTD) also interact with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) in b/Prt1, and mutations in both subunits that disrupt their interactions with the RRM increase leaky scanning of an AUG codon. These results, and our demonstration that the extreme CTD of a/Tif32 binds to Rps2 and Rps3, lead us to propose that the a/Tif32 CTD directly stabilizes 43S subunit-mRNA interaction and that the b/Prt1-RRM-j/Hcr1-a/Tif32-CTD module binds near the mRNA entry channel and regulates the transition between scanning-conducive and initiation-competent conformations of the PIC.

  16. Prevalence of gallstones in 1,229 patients submitted to surgical laparoscopic treatment of GERD and esophageal achalasia: associated cholecystectomy was a safe procedure

    PubMed Central

    SALLUM, Rubens Antonio Aissar; PADRÃO, Eduardo Messias Hirano; SZACHNOWICZ, Sergio; SEGURO, Francisco C. B. C.; BIANCHI, Edno Tales; CECCONELLO, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between esophageal achalasia/ gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cholelithiasis is not clear. Epidemiological data are controversial due to different methodologies applied, the regional differences and the number of patients involved. Results of concomitant cholecistectomy associated to surgical treatment of both diseases regarding safety is poorly understood. Aim To analyze the prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with esophageal achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux submitted to cardiomyotomy or fundoplication. Also, to evaluate the safety of concomitant cholecistectomy. Methods Retrospective analysis of 1410 patients operated from 2000 to 2013. They were divided into two groups: patients with GERD submitted to laparocopic hiatoplasty plus Nissen fundoplication and patients with esophageal achalasia to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy plus partial fundoplication. It was collected epidemiological data, specific diagnosis and subgroups, the presence or absence of gallstones, surgical procedure, operative and clinical complications and mortality. All groups/subgroups were compared. Results From 1,229 patients with GERD or esophageal achalasia, submitted to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy or fundoplication, 138 (11.43%) had cholelitiasis, occurring more in females (2.38:1) with mean age of 50,27 years old. In 604 patients with GERD, 79 (13,08%) had cholelitiasis. Lower prevalence occurred in Barrett's esophagus patients 7/105 (6.67%) (p=0.037). In 625 with esophageal achalasia, 59 (9.44%) had cholelitiasis, with no difference between chagasic and idiopathic forms (p=0.677). Complications of patients with or without cholecystectomy were similar in fundoplication and cardiomyotomy (p=0.78 and p=1.00).There was no mortality or complications related to cholecystectomy in this series. Conclusions Prevalence of cholelithiasis was higher in patients submitted to fundoplication (GERD). Patients with chagasic or idiopatic forms of achalasia had the

  17. The Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway regulates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjeong; Kim, Wan-Young; Hur, Jeongmi; Kim, Hanbyul; Nam, Sun Ah; Choi, Arum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Park, Sang Hee; Chung, Chaeuk; Kim, Jin; Min, Soohong; Myung, Seung-Jae; Lim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-08-23

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the final pathway of various renal injuries that result in chronic kidney disease. The mammalian Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell death, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in disease development in patients with TIF and in a mouse model of TIF. Mice with tubular epithelial cell (TEC)-specific deletions of Sav1 (Salvador homolog 1) exhibited aggravated renal TIF, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic changes, apoptosis, and proliferation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Moreover, Sav1 depletion in TECs increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and activated β-catenin expression after UUO, which likely accounts for the abovementioned enhanced TEC fibrotic phenotype. In addition, TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), a major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, was significantly activated in Sav1-knockout mice in vivo. An in vitro study showed that TAZ directly regulates TGF-β and TGF-β receptor II expression. Collectively, our data indicate that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of TIF and that regulating this pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for reducing TIF.

  18. The Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway regulates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Eunjeong; Kim, Wan-Young; Hur, Jeongmi; Kim, Hanbyul; Nam, Sun Ah; Choi, Arum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Park, Sang Hee; Chung, Chaeuk; Kim, Jin; Min, Soohong; Myung, Seung-Jae; Lim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the final pathway of various renal injuries that result in chronic kidney disease. The mammalian Hippo-Salvador signaling pathway has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell death, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in disease development in patients with TIF and in a mouse model of TIF. Mice with tubular epithelial cell (TEC)-specific deletions of Sav1 (Salvador homolog 1) exhibited aggravated renal TIF, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic changes, apoptosis, and proliferation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Moreover, Sav1 depletion in TECs increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and activated β-catenin expression after UUO, which likely accounts for the abovementioned enhanced TEC fibrotic phenotype. In addition, TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), a major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, was significantly activated in Sav1-knockout mice in vivo. An in vitro study showed that TAZ directly regulates TGF-β and TGF-β receptor II expression. Collectively, our data indicate that the Hippo-Salvador pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of TIF and that regulating this pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for reducing TIF. PMID:27550469

  19. André Toupet: Surgeon Technician Par Excellence

    PubMed Central

    Katkhouda, Namir; Khalil, Michael R.; Manhas, Sharan; Grant, Steven; Velmahos, George C.; Umbach, Thomas W.; Kaiser, Andreas M.

    2002-01-01

    André Toupet is best known for the posterior fundoplication that bears his name, currently used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or completing Heller’s myotomy and subject today to intense discussions. This was not different in 1963, when Toupet proposed his technique at a time when the Nissen fundoplication was emerging as the treatment of choice for GERD. Behind the procedure, we discover a man with great surgical talent and meticulous attention to technical details who opposed criticism with hard work and strong family values. PMID:11923617

  20. High-content positional biosensor screening assay for compounds to prevent or disrupt androgen receptor and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    The androgen receptor-transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) set

  1. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active

  2. Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery might help you. How does surgery for GERD work? In a fundoplication, the top part of your ... how well endoscopic treatments (EndoCinch™, Stretta®, and EsophyX™) work to control the symptoms of GERD. What are the side effects of endoscopic treatments? ...

  3. Achalasia cardia in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Shettihalli, Naveen; Venugopalan, Vikranth; Ives, Nicholas Kevin; Lakhoo, Kokila

    2010-11-05

    Achalasia cardia is defined as a neuromuscular disorder of the oesophagus with abnormal motility and failure of relaxation of the distal oesophagus. It is an uncommon but well-recognised entity in infants and children. However, achalasia in a preterm baby has not been previously described. We report the condition in a premature infant with unusual presentation, treated successfully with Heller's oesophagomyotomy and fundoplication.

  4. [Impaired lung function and anemia from large hiatal hernia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Suppa, Marianna; Colzi, Marina; Magnanelli, Elisa; Migliozzi, Elisa; Negri, Silvia; Millarelli, Federica; Coppola, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    We present the clinical case of a 54 years old man who accessed for dyspnea and severe anemia. After being transfused, he underwent to gastroscopy, which showed an erosive gastritis with large hiatal hernia. The hernia was surgically reduced with laparoscopic hiatoplastic and Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication. In conclusion, dyspnea is not merely a medical competence but also a surgical one.

  5. A new method for determining the throughfall fraction and throughfall depth in vegetation canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, David

    2010-05-01

    SummaryA new method for quantifying throughfall fractions and depths under vegetation canopies is introduced and evaluated. The method employs the progressive loss of weight of tablets of calcium sulphate hemihydrate ('Plaster of Paris') set out beneath conventional throughfall collecting funnels to form 'throughfall integrating funnels' (TIFs). The tablets are temporarily removed for weighing after any desired sampling period, and can continue to integrate throughfall depths for extended periods (>1 year). The throughfall fraction TF f can be found directly in 'uncalibrated TIF mode' by comparing the weight loss of matched open-field and sub-canopy TIFs, because sub-canopy TIFs lose less weight than open-field TIFs. The diminution in weight loss is in direct proportion to the reduction in throughfall in comparison with open-field rainfall. No other field apparatus is required, and no rainfall measurements are necessary. Alternatively, weight loss can be calibrated in g/mm using a pluviograph record, and throughfall depth TF d found using 'calibrated TIF mode'. Estimates of throughfall made using TIFs are compared with measurements made with 16 conventional throughfall troughs, from an 8-month trial in sub-alpine snowgum woodland and closed shrub heath communities in Victoria, Australia. For the plaster tablets used, the mean open-field weight loss was 0.0096 g/mm for tablets that weighed ˜30 g initially. Average TF d estimates across eight measurement periods from the two independent method differed by <1% (91.6 mm from trough data and 91.9 mm from TIFs). Average TF f was 0.84 using trough data and 0.82 using TIFs, a difference of 2%. These very close agreements, after 871.1 mm of rain, falling in events of varying depth, duration, and rain rate, confirm that TIFs yield results consistent with those from conventional instrumental measurement of throughfall. Under a low and dense shrub heath canopy, where conventional throughfall collectors could not be installed

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p < 0.05) and 288 down-regulated proteins (ratio ≤ -1.3, p < 0.05) in tumor TIF were identified. Interestingly, proteins in S100 family were found remarkably up-regulated in tumor TIF. One dramatically up-regulated protein S100A9 (ratio = 19) was further validated by ELISA in sera from liver cirrhosis (LC, HCC high risk population) and HCC patients (n = 47 for each group). The level of this protein was significantly elevated in HCC sera compared with LC (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve of this protein to distinguish HCC from LC was 0.83, with sensitivity of 91% (higher than AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  7. In situ effect of titanium tetrafluoride and sodium fluoride on artificially decayed human enamel.

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Paula Cristina da Costa; Alexandria, Adilis Kalina; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-01-01

    This study compared in situ the application of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution and 2% sodium fluoride (NaF) gel on artificial white-spot lesions in human enamel. A crossover, double-blind study using in situ caries models was carried out. Eleven volunteers used an intraoral appliance containing five demineralized human enamel blocks. The blocks (n=170) were randomly divided according to treatment into the following groups: TiF4 (n=55), NaF (n=55), positive control (n=55). A negative control group was composed of demineralized specimens (n=5). The microhardness test was performed using a Knoop penetrator. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used to analyze the concentration of titanium, calcium, phosphate and oxygen. The enamel microhardness at different depths for TiF4, NaF and positive control samples was not statistically different (p>0.05). The samples from these three groups had statistically higher microhardness values than the negative control samples (p<0.05). EDS analysis did not provide conclusive results about the penetration of titanium in the TiF4 samples. While in some fragments it had substantial penetration, in other fragments it only had superficial penetration. It was possible to conclude that, under in situ conditions, 4% TiF4 solution and 2% NaF gel were able to remineralize artificial white-spot lesions in human enamel. However, the magnitude of the remineralization did not differ between groups.

  8. Tumor Interstitial Fluid Formation, Characterization, and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Marek; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase representing the tissue microenvironment. In the present review, we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of solid tumors, the tumor interstitial fluid (TIF), i.e., the fluid bathing the tumor and stroma cells, also including immune cells. This is a component of the internal milieu of a solid tumor that has attracted regained attention. Access to this space may provide important insight into tumor development and therapy response. TIF is formed by transcapillary filtration, and since this fluid is not readily available we discuss available techniques for TIF isolation, results from subsequent characterization and implications of recent findings with respect to fluid filtration and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. There appear to be local gradients in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma that may provide new understanding of tumor biology. The development of sensitive proteomic technologies has made TIF a valuable source for tumor specific proteins and biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally in high concentrations in tumors and may eventually be found diluted in the plasma. Access to TIF that reliably reflects the local tumor microenvironment enables identification of substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease. PMID:26075182

  9. In situ effect of titanium tetrafluoride and sodium fluoride on artificially decayed human enamel.

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Paula Cristina da Costa; Alexandria, Adilis Kalina; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-01-01

    This study compared in situ the application of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution and 2% sodium fluoride (NaF) gel on artificial white-spot lesions in human enamel. A crossover, double-blind study using in situ caries models was carried out. Eleven volunteers used an intraoral appliance containing five demineralized human enamel blocks. The blocks (n=170) were randomly divided according to treatment into the following groups: TiF4 (n=55), NaF (n=55), positive control (n=55). A negative control group was composed of demineralized specimens (n=5). The microhardness test was performed using a Knoop penetrator. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used to analyze the concentration of titanium, calcium, phosphate and oxygen. The enamel microhardness at different depths for TiF4, NaF and positive control samples was not statistically different (p>0.05). The samples from these three groups had statistically higher microhardness values than the negative control samples (p<0.05). EDS analysis did not provide conclusive results about the penetration of titanium in the TiF4 samples. While in some fragments it had substantial penetration, in other fragments it only had superficial penetration. It was possible to conclude that, under in situ conditions, 4% TiF4 solution and 2% NaF gel were able to remineralize artificial white-spot lesions in human enamel. However, the magnitude of the remineralization did not differ between groups. PMID:24789288

  10. Tumor Interstitial Fluid Formation, Characterization, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Marek; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase representing the tissue microenvironment. In the present review, we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of solid tumors, the tumor interstitial fluid (TIF), i.e., the fluid bathing the tumor and stroma cells, also including immune cells. This is a component of the internal milieu of a solid tumor that has attracted regained attention. Access to this space may provide important insight into tumor development and therapy response. TIF is formed by transcapillary filtration, and since this fluid is not readily available we discuss available techniques for TIF isolation, results from subsequent characterization and implications of recent findings with respect to fluid filtration and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. There appear to be local gradients in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma that may provide new understanding of tumor biology. The development of sensitive proteomic technologies has made TIF a valuable source for tumor specific proteins and biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally in high concentrations in tumors and may eventually be found diluted in the plasma. Access to TIF that reliably reflects the local tumor microenvironment enables identification of substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease. PMID:26075182

  11. The influence of fluoride ions on the equilibrium between titanium ions and titanium metal in fused alkali chloride melts.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianxun; Wang, Qiuyu; Wu, Jinyu; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2016-08-15

    KF is employed as a source of fluoride ions added to the melt to disclose the influence of fluoride on the disproportionation reactions of titanium ions, 3Ti(2+) = 2Ti(3+) + Ti, and 4Ti(3+) = 3Ti(4+) + Ti. The results reveal that the equilibrium transferred to the right direction for the first reaction and the apparent equilibrium constant increased sharply, mainly because of the formation of coordination compounds: TiFi(3-i). The accurate values of the equilibrium constants referring to the formation reactions of Ti(3+) + iF(-) = TiFi(3-i) (i = 1-6) in NaCl-KCl melt at 1023 K were evaluated with a best fit least squares method. It is also revealed that the stable states of the coordination compounds are TiF(2+), TiF2(+), TiF4(-) and TiF6(3-). Moreover, the Gibbs free energies for complex formation were estimated. Ti(2+) was undetectable when the concentration of fluoride ion was high enough. The equilibrium constant for the formation reaction, Ti(4-) + 6F(-) = TiF6(2-), was evaluated. The equilibrium constant, Kc2, for the disproportionation reaction 4Ti(3+) = 3Ti(4+) + Ti, in chloride melt was determined as 0.015.

  12. Estimating neurotransmitter kinetics with ntPET: a simulation study of temporal precision and effects of biased data.

    PubMed

    Normandin, Marc D; Morris, Evan D

    2008-02-01

    We recently introduced neurotransmitter PET (ntPET), an analysis technique that estimates the kinetics of stimulus-induced neurotransmitter (NT) release. Here, we evaluate two formulations of ntPET. The arterial (ART) approach measures the tracer input function (TIF) directly. The reference (REF) approach derives the TIF from reference region data. Arterial sampling is considered the gold standard in PET modeling but reference region approaches are preferred for reduced cost and complexity. If simulated PET data with unbiased TIFs were analyzed using ART or REF, temporal precision was better than 3 min provided NT concentration peaked less than 30 min into the scanning session. The consequences of biased TIFs or stimulus-induced changes in tracer delivery were also evaluated. ART TIFs were biased by the presence of uncorrected radiometabolites in the plasma whereas REF TIFs were biased by specific binding in the reference region. Simulated changes in tracer delivery emulated ethanol-induced blood flow alterations observed previously with PET. ART performance deteriorated significantly if metabolites amounted to 50% of plasma radioactivity by 60 min. The accuracy and precision of REF were preserved even if the reference region contained 40% of the receptor density of the target region. Both methods were insensitive to blood flow alterations (proportional changes in K(1) and k(2)). Our results suggest that PET data contain information--heretofore not extracted--about the timing of NT release. The REF formulation of ntPET proved to be robust to many plausible model violations and under most circumstances is an appropriate alternative to ART.

  13. A gas-tight Cu Kα x-ray transparent reaction chamber for high-temperature x-ray diffraction analyses of halide gas/solid reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shian, Samuel; Sandhage, Kenneth H.

    2009-11-01

    An externally heated, x-ray transparent reaction chamber has been developed to enable the dynamic high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) analysis of a gas/solid [TiF4(g)/SiO2(s)] reaction involving a halide gas reactant formed at elevated temperatures (up to 350 °C) from a condensed source (TiF4 powder) sealed within the chamber. The reaction chamber possessed x-ray transparent windows comprised of a thin (13 μm) internal layer of Al foil and a thicker (125 μm) external Kapton film. After sealing the SiO2 specimens (diatom frustules or Stöber spheres) above TiF4 powder within the reaction chamber, the chamber was heated to a temperature in the range of 160-350 °C to allow for internal generation of TiF4(g). The TiF4(g) underwent a metathetic reaction with the SiO2 specimen to yield a TiOF2(s) product. HTXRD analysis, using Cu Kα x rays passed through the Kapton/Al windows of the chamber, was used to track the extent of SiO2 consumption and/or TiOF2 formation with time. The Al foil inner layer of the windows protected the Kapton film from chemical attack by TiF4(g), whereas the thicker, more transparent Kapton film provided the mechanical strength needed to contain this gas. By selecting an appropriate combination of x-ray transparent materials to endow such composite windows with the required thermal, chemical, and mechanical performance, this inexpensive reaction chamber design may be applied to the HTXRD analyses of a variety of gas/solid reactions.

  14. Uniform alumina microspheres from temperature induced forming in a microfluidic T-junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, James; Wehking, Jonathan D.; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2013-11-01

    This Letter explores a method for the manufacture of solid microspheres of 30 μm, from liquid droplets with nanosuspensions of 20 nm alumina in a microfluidic T-junction. These droplets are heated downstream where solidification takes place due to Temperature Induced Forming (TIF). TIF occurs as temperature sensitive alumina solubility leads to weakening electrostatic double-layer dispersing forces resulting in the formation of a solid structure. Manipulation of the flow characteristics and material properties of the continuous and dispersed fluids provides control of droplet production over a range of conditions and allows for a robust manufacturing facility capable of producing particles of various sizes.

  15. Evidence for a factor required for transcriptional stimulation by the chimeric acidic activator GAL-VP16 in HeLa cell extracts.

    PubMed Central

    White, J H; Brou, C; Wu, J; Burton, N; Egly, J M; Chambon, P

    1991-01-01

    We provide biochemical evidence for the existence of a transcriptional intermediary factor (TIF) in HeLa whole-cell extracts (WCE) that is distinct from the basic transcription factors and that is required for transcriptional stimulation by the chimeric acidic activator GAL-VP16. We have fractionated HeLa WCE by heparin-agarose chromatography. Of transcriptionally active fractions eluting in a step between 0.24 and 0.6 M KCl, the initial fractions are refractory to GAL-VP16 stimulation, whereas subsequent fractions are strongly stimulated by the activator. Aliquots of GAL-VP16-responsive fractions efficiently complement refractory fractions for transcriptional stimulation. Aliquots of responsive fractions are also far more efficient than those of refractory fractions in overcoming transcriptional inhibition that is brought about by high concentrations of GAL-VP16. Experiments performed with heat-treated WCE support the idea that HeLa cells contain a TIF that is essential for GAL-VP16 stimulation, but that is not required for basal transcription. Addition of recombinant yeast or human transcription factor TFIID (rTFIIDY and rTFIIDH, respectively) to a WCE heated at 48 degrees C for 15 min restores basal transcription, but in neither case is the reconstituted system activated by GAL-VP16. However, a 45 degrees C heat-treated WCE reconstituted with either rTFIIDH or rTFIIDY is stimulated by GAL-VP16, suggesting that a HeLa TIF can be selectively inactivated by heating at 48 degrees C, but not at 45 degrees C. Interestingly, a TFIID fraction partially purified from HeLa cell extracts, but not rTFIIDH, efficiently relieves transcriptional inhibition by GAL-VP16, suggesting that there may be an association between TIF(s) and TFIID and, moreover, that TIF(s) may be the direct target of the acidic domain of GAL-VP16. In summary, our results support the existence of a TIF that is not essential for basal transcription but that is required to mediate the stimulatory activity

  16. Hand-held transendoscopic robotic manipulators: A transurethral laser prostate surgery case study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Richard J.; Mitchell, Christopher R.; Herrell, S. Duke; Webster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural orifice endoscopic surgery can enable incisionless approaches, but a major challenge is the lack of small and dexterous instrumentation. Surgical robots have the potential to meet this need yet often disrupt the clinical workflow. Hand-held robots that combine thin manipulators and endoscopes have the potential to address this by integrating seamlessly into the clinical workflow and enhancing dexterity. As a case study illustrating the potential of this approach, we describe a hand-held robotic system that passes two concentric tube manipulators through a 5 mm port in a rigid endoscope for transurethral laser prostate surgery. This system is intended to catalyze the use of a clinically superior, yet rarely attempted, procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia. This paper describes system design and experiments to evaluate the surgeon’s functional workspace and accuracy using the robot. Phantom and cadaver experiments demonstrate successful completion of the target procedure via prostate lobe resection. PMID:27570361

  17. [Natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery (notes)--a new era in general surgery].

    PubMed

    Elazary, Ram; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark A; Rivkind, Avraham I; Mintz, Yoav

    2008-10-01

    Four years ago, a new surgical technique was presented, the natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). This technique provides an incisionless operation. The surgical devices are inserted into the peritoneal cavity through the gastrointestinal or the urogenital tracts. Today, a cholecystectomy can be performed using an advanced endoscope inserted through the stomach or the vagina. The advantages of NOTES are: reduced post operative pain, no hernias, no surgical wounds infections and better cosmetic results. The disadvantages are: difficulties in achieving safe enterotomy closure or a leak proof anastomosis, it necessitates performing more operations compared to open or laparoscopic operations in order to obtain the skills for performing these operations, and difficulties of acquiring satisfactory endoscopic vision due to lack of advanced technology. Several NOTES operations have already been performed in humans. However, many other surgical procedures were tested in laboratory animals. Development and improvement of surgical devices may promote this surgical modality in the future.

  18. Achalasia 5 years following Roux-en-y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Torghabeh, Mehyar Hefazi; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Saif, Taha; Dakin, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Oesophageal achalasia is a rare, but serious condition in which the motility of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) is inhibited. This disorder of idiopathic aetiology complicates the peristaltic function and relaxation of the LES that may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, epigastric pain, and regurgitation of an obstructed food. The following case describes achalasia in a patient 5 years following a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The patient underwent a laparoscopic Heller myotomy without a fundoplication. Although achalasia seems to be a rare occurrence in obese patients, this is the third case documented in a patient who previously had an RYGB. The role of performing a fundoplication in these patients remains to be elucidated. PMID:26195880

  19. Surgical Approach After Failed Enteryx Injection for GERD

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, A.; Anvari, M.; Dallemagne, B.; Mutter, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We report on 3 patients who underwent laparoscopic antireflux procedures for persistent symptoms of GERD after biopolymer injection. Methods: Experienced laparoscopic surgeons completed all 3 procedures laparoscopically. In 2 patients, there was an extramural extravasation of the polymer outside and adherent to the esophageal wall. In these patients, a partial posterior fundoplication was used. The third patient, who had the polymer material deposits removed preoperatively by endoscopic mucosal resection, underwent a Nissen fundoplication. Results: Postoperative recovery was uneventful in all cases. At follow-up of 6 to 12 months, all patients were symptom free, off medical therapy, and experiencing no dysphagia. Conclusion: Surgical therapy for patients after failed biopolymer injection is safe and effective. The choice of surgery may depend on whether the polymer mass can be removed preoperatively. PMID:17651566

  20. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Bandera, Francesco; Secchi, Francesco; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach. PMID:26210719

  1. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Bandera, Francesco; Secchi, Francesco; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach. PMID:26210719

  2. Predictive factors for complications in children with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

    PubMed

    Shah, R; Varjavandi, V; Krishnan, U

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of complications in children with esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) at a tertiary pediatric hospital and to identify predictive factors for their occurrence. A retrospective chart review of 110 patients born in or transferred to Sydney Children's Hospital with EA/TEF between January 1999 and December 2010 was done. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for the occurrence of complications in these children. From univariate analysis, early esophageal stricture formation was more likely in children with 'long-gap' EA (odds ratio [OR] = 16.32). Patients with early strictures were more likely to develop chest infections (OR = 3.33). Patients with severe tracheomalacia were more likely to experience 'cyanotic/dying' (OR = 180) and undergo aortopexy (OR = 549). Patients who had gastroesophageal reflux disease were significantly more likely to require fundoplication (OR = 10.83) and undergo aortopexy (OR = 6.417). From multivariate analysis, 'long-gap' EA was a significant predictive factor for late esophageal stricture formation (P = 0.007) and for gastrostomy insertion (P = 0.001). Reflux was a significant predictive factor for requiring fundoplication (P = 0.007) and gastrostomy (P = 0.002). Gastrostomy insertion (P = 0.000) was a significant predictive factor for undergoing fundoplication. Having a prior fundoplication (P = 0.001) was a significant predictive factor for undergoing a subsequent aortopexy. Predictive factors for the occurrence of complications post EA/TEF repair were identified in this large single centre pediatric study.

  3. Laparoscopic diverticulectomy with the aid of intraoperative gastrointestinal endoscopy to treat epiphrenic diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Wu, Ji-xiang; Chen, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Yun-Feng; Ke, Ji

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most researchers believe that the presence of large epiphrenic diverticulum (ED) with severe symptoms should lead to the consideration of surgical options. The choice of minimally invasive techniques and whether Heller myotomy with antireflux fundoplication should be employed after diverticulectomy became points of debate. The aim of this study was to describe how to perform laparoscopic transhiatal diverticulectomy (LTD) and oesophagomyotomy with the aid of intraoperative gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and how to investigate whether the oesophagomyotomy should be performed routinely after LTD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2008 to 2013, 11 patients with ED underwent LTD with the aid of intraoperative GI endoscopy at our department. Before surgery, 4 patients successfully underwent oesophageal manometry: Oesophageal dysfunction and an increase of the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) were found in 2 patients. RESULTS: There were 2 cases of conversion to an open transthoracic procedure. Six patients underwent LTD, Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication; and 3 patients underwent only LTD. The dysphagia and regurgitation 11 patients experienced before surgery improved significantly. Motor function studies showed that there was no oesophageal peristalsis in 5 patients during follow-up, while 6 patients showed seemingly normal oesophageal motility. The LESP of 6 patients undergoing LTD, myotomy and Dor fundoplication was 16.7 ± 10.2 mmHg, while the LESPs of 3 patients undergoing only LTD were 26 mmHg, 18 mmHg and 21 mmHg, respectively. In 4 cases experiencing LTD, myotomy and Dor fundoplication, the gastro-oesophageal reflux occurred during the sleep stage. CONCLUSIONS: LTD constitutes a safe and valid approach for ED patients with severe symptoms. As not all patients with large ED have oesophageal disorders, according to manometric and endoscopic results, surgeons can categorise and decide whether or not myotomy and antireflux surgery after LTD will

  4. Postoperative Intussusception in a Neonate with Congenital Cutis Laxa and Huge Hiatal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Sadeghian; Aliraza, Mirshemirani; Ahmad, Khaleghnejad Tabari; Mohsen, Rouzrokh; Nahid, Jafari

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cutis laxa is a genetically heterogeneous condition presenting in the newborn with loose, redundant skin folds, decreased elasticity of the skin, and general connective tissue involvement. A 2-day-old full term neonate with congenital cutis laxa presented with respiratory distress. Investigations revealed huge hiatal hernia. Patient underwent loose Nissen’s fundoplication. In postoperative period patient developed intussusception which was manually reduced at re-surgery. PMID:24834384

  5. Selection of reference genes for analysis of stress-responsive genes after challenge with viruses and temperature changes in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhen; Jiang, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-04-01

    Viruses and high temperature (HT) are the primary threats to silkworms. Changes in the expression of stress-response genes can be measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to viruses or HT. However, appropriate reference genes (RGs) for qPCR data normalization have not been established in this organism. In this study, we summarized the RGs used in the previous silkworm studies after infection with Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), or B. mori densovirus (BmDNV) or after HT treatment. The expression levels of these RGs were extracted from silkworm transcriptome data to screen for candidate RGs that were unaffected by the experimental conditions. Actin-1 (A1), actin-3 (A3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and translation initiation factor 4a (TIF-4A) were selected for further qPCR verification. The results of RNA-seq and qPCR showed that GAPDH and TIF-4A were suitable RGs after BmNPV challenge or HT stress, whereas TIF-4A was an appropriate RG for BmCPV or BmDNV-Z challenge in silkworms. These results suggested that TIF-4A may be the most appropriate RG for gene expression analysis after challenge with viruses or HT in silkworms.

  6. Key Theoretical Frameworks for Intervention: Understanding and Promoting Behavior Change in Parent-Infant Feeding Choices in a Low-Income Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Silk, Kami; Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mercer, Laura; Olson, Beth

    2009-01-01

    The early introduction of solids to infants is a risk factor associated with later health problems including allergies, overweight, and diabetes. The Infant Feeding Series (TIFS), a newly designed curriculum that promotes the appropriate transition to solids through parenting education and behavior change among low-income mothers, used the Theory…

  7. Performance-Based Compensation: Linking Performance to Teacher Salaries. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen; Potemski, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the goal of attracting and retaining talented professionals in education, performance-based compensation systems (PBCS) must offer salaries that are both fair and sufficiently competitive at each point across an educator's career continuum. Although many states, especially with the support of the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants,…

  8. Interactive Voice Response Version of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng-Hang; Latham, Nancy K.; Friedman, Robert H.; Jette, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To develop an interactive voice response (IVR) version of the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument Computer Adaptive Test (LLFDI-CAT) and evaluate its reliability and acceptability among older adults. DESIGN The IVR system (IVRS) was embedded within the LLFDI-CAT program. To test the test-retest reliability and concordance of the IVR version of LLFDI-CAT with the telephone interviewer form (TIF), participants received the two versions of LLFDI-test at baseline, and at 1-week follow-up. SETTING Community PARTICIPANTS Community dwelling adults aged 65 and older (N=50) MEASUREMENTS The LLFDI is a patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure developed to assess function and disability in older adults. RESULTS The IVR administered version of the LLFDI-CAT showed acceptable overall test-retest reliability (ICC=0.79–0.80) and concordance with the TIF (ICC=0.74–0.97). Although most participants preferred the TIF, the majority did not find the IVR version more difficult to use. CONCLUSION The IVR version of LLFDI-CAT achieved reliability levels that were comparable with the TIF version. Future work is needed to improve the IVR design to better fit older adults’ needs and preferences. PMID:25900491

  9. Early Implementation Experiences of the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund Grantees. NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  10. 37 CFR 202.20 - Deposit of copies and phonorecords for copyright registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the following file formats are acceptable for registration: PDF; TXT; WPD; DOC; TIF; SVG; JPG; XML... useful article, and their variant forms, have the meanings given to them in 17 U.S.C. 101. (4) A secure... submitted rather than an actual copy or copies except under the conditions of paragraph (c)(2)(xi)(B)(4)...

  11. 37 CFR 202.20 - Deposit of copies and phonorecords for copyright registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the following file formats are acceptable for registration: PDF; TXT; WPD; DOC; TIF; SVG; JPG; XML... useful article, and their variant forms, have the meanings given to them in 17 U.S.C. 101. (4) A secure... submitted rather than an actual copy or copies except under the conditions of paragraph (c)(2)(xi)(B)(4)...

  12. 37 CFR 202.20 - Deposit of copies and phonorecords for copyright registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the following file formats are acceptable for registration: PDF; TXT; WPD; DOC; TIF; SVG; JPG; XML... useful article, and their variant forms, have the meanings given to them in 17 U.S.C. 101. (4) A secure... submitted rather than an actual copy or copies except under the conditions of paragraph (c)(2)(xi)(B)(4)...

  13. 37 CFR 202.20 - Deposit of copies and phonorecords for copyright registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the following file formats are acceptable for registration: PDF; TXT; WPD; DOC; TIF; SVG; JPG; XML... useful article, and their variant forms, have the meanings given to them in 17 U.S.C. 101. (4) A secure... submitted rather than an actual copy or copies except under the conditions of paragraph (c)(2)(xi)(B)(4)...

  14. 37 CFR 202.20 - Deposit of copies and phonorecords for copyright registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the following file formats are acceptable for registration: PDF; TXT; WPD; DOC; TIF; SVG; JPG; XML... useful article, and their variant forms, have the meanings given to them in 17 U.S.C. 101. (4) A secure... submitted rather than an actual copy or copies except under the conditions of paragraph (c)(2)(xi)(B)(4)...

  15. Improving School Leadership through Support, Evaluation, and Incentives: The Pittsburgh Principal Incentive Program. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Engberg, John; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Nelson, Catherine Awsumb; Yuan, Kun

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) received funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) program to implement the Pittsburgh Urban Leadership System for Excellence (PULSE), a set of reforms designed to improve the quality of school leadership throughout the district. A major component of PULSE is the…

  16. Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Implementation and Early Impacts of Pay-for-Performance after One Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey; Constantine, Jill; Wellington, Alison; Hallgren, Kristin; Glazerman, Steven; Chiang, Hanley; Speroni, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts to attract and retain effective educators and to improve teaching practices have focused on reforming evaluation and compensation systems for teachers and principals. In 2006, Congress established the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF), which provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in…

  17. Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Implementation and Early Impacts of Pay-for-Performance after One Year. Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey; Constantine, Jill; Wellington, Alison; Hallgren, Kristin; Glazerman, Steven; Chiang, Hanley; Speroni, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  18. Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Implementation and Early Impacts of Pay-for-Performance after One Year. NCEE 2014-4019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey; Constantine, Jill; Wellington, Alison; Hallgren, Kristin; Glazerman, Steven; Chiang, Hanley; Speroni, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  19. Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance after Two Years. Executive Summary. NCEE 2015-4021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hanley; Wellington, Alison; Hallgren, Kristin; Speroni, Cecilia; Herrmann, Mariesa; Glazerman, Steven; Constantine, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts to attract and retain effective educators and to improve teaching practices have focused on reforming evaluation and compensation systems for teachers and principals. In 2006, Congress established the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF), which provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in…

  20. Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance after Two Years. NCEE 2015-4020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hanley; Wellington, Alison; Hallgren, Kristin; Speroni, Cecilia; Herrmann, Mariesa; Glazerman, Steven; Constantine, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  1. 75 FR 70217 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... 17th Street, NW., Room 10222, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503, be faxed to (202... Review: Extension. Title of Collection: Teacher Incentive Fund Grant Program. OMB Control Number: 1810... Annual Burden Hours: 29,760. Abstract: The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) is a competitive grant...

  2. 77 FR 35795 - Applications for New Awards; Teacher Incentive Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... 1111(b)(3) of ESEA: alternative measures of student learning and performance such as student results on... purpose of the TIF program is to support the development and implementation of sustainable performance... notice contains five priorities, three of which are absolute priorities and two of which are...

  3. 77 FR 12257 - Proposed Priorities, Requirements, Definitions, And Selection Criteria; Teacher Incentive Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... results that are used to identify educators for a performance-based award could also reveal the need for a... competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and later years. We are taking this action so that TIF-funded performance... improve instruction by informing performance-based compensation and other key human capital...

  4. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Raster Datasets and Models

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes maps of the spatial distribution of basaltic, and felsic rocks in the Oregon Cascades. It also includes a final Play Fairway Analysis (PFA) model, with the heat and permeability composite risk segments (CRS) supplied separately. Metadata for each raster dataset can be found within the zip files, in the TIF images

  5. Effect of the tool influence function shape of the semirigid bonnet to the tool path ripple error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin; Wang, Chunjin; Ye, Hui; Yang, Wei; Guo, Yinbiao

    2015-11-01

    To suppress the medium-high spatial frequency, error on optical surfaces is still a challenging work to date, and the tool path ripple (TPR) error is the main reason for these errors. With this in view, the effect of the tool influence function (TIF) shape of the semirigid (SR) bonnet to the TPR error is analyzed. The SR bonnet is a recently developed bonnet tool for high efficiency polishing. This tool can generate three kinds of TIF including Gaussian-like shape, trapezoidal shape, and "M" shape. Experimental studies have been conducted to analyze their effect to the root mean square/peak-to-valley value of the TPR error, and discussions have been made on those results. It is found that different shapes of TIF can be implemented through controlling its inflated pressure. The Gaussian-like shape has the highest probability to generate lower TPR error than the trapezoidal shape and "M" shape TIFs, which have been proven by the verification experiments.

  6. An Evaluation of the Chicago Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP) after Four Years. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Seifullah, Allison

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began piloting its version of a schoolwide reform model called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP). Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and take on increased responsibilities through promotion (to mentor…

  7. Districts Abandon Grants Targeting Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Three big-city districts--Chicago, Milwaukee, and New York--have terminated federal grants aimed at promoting performance-based compensation plans and professional development for teachers and principals. Overall, the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants to the three districts would have provided an $88 million payout over five years--nearly 7…

  8. 2008 Principal/Vice Principal Survey Results for Evaluation of the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Duncan; Verghese, Shinu; Chiang, Hanley; Sonnenfeld, Kathy; Sullivan, Margaret; Kennen, Barbara; Knechtel, Virginia; Hall, John; Harris, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE) awarded Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants for the development of systems to compensate teachers and principals in part based on increases in student achievement. New Leaders for New Schools (NLNS) received five of these grants and is using them to implement its Effective Practice…

  9. Baseline Statistics for Evaluation of the Effective Practice Incentive Community. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Scott; Wellington, Alison; Sullivan, Margaret; Knechtel, Virginia; Chaplin, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Department of Education awarded Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants for the development of innovative strategies for teacher compensation. New Leaders for New Schools (NLNS), with five partner organizations--Memphis City Schools (MCS), the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), Denver Public Schools, Prince…

  10. Design of the Evaluation of the Effective Practice Incentive Community Initiative. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Scott; Wellington, Alison; Chaplin, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) awarded $478 million in grants from the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) to support the development of innovative teacher compensation strategies. New Leaders for New Schools (NLNS), together with five partners--Memphis City Schools (MCS), the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), Denver…

  11. Development and Impact of Vegetative Propagation in Warm-Season Forage and Turf Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, after years of research, development and promotion we enjoy the beauty of the high quality 'Tif' male and female sterile triploid hybrid turf bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis) on golf courses, athletic fields, and lawns and the high yielding and high quality vegetatively p...

  12. Creating IRT-Based Parallel Test Forms Using the Genetic Algorithm Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Koun-Tem; Chen, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Shu-Yen; Cheng, Chien-Fen

    2008-01-01

    In educational measurement, the construction of parallel test forms is often a combinatorial optimization problem that involves the time-consuming selection of items to construct tests having approximately the same test information functions (TIFs) and constraints. This article proposes a novel method, genetic algorithm (GA), to construct parallel…

  13. Implications of changing the amount of thickener in thickened infant formula for infants with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    September, Cindy; Nicholson, Timothy M; Cichero, Julie A Y

    2014-08-01

    When a dysphagic infant is prescribed thickened infant formula (TIF) as a treatment method, some clinicians determine their own addition rates of thickener to meet the specific needs of the infant rather than relying on the directions on the tin. In this study the rheological behaviour of a TIF at different addition levels of thickener was measured to determine whether there was a difference in full rheological response and in viscosity. In addition, the time taken for the TIF to reach a near-stable viscosity was also measured. One hundred grams of Karicare® infant formula was made up according to the manufacturer’s instructions and Karicare® feed thickener was added at levels of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 g, respectively. A strain-controlled rheometer (ARES) with Couette geometry was used to rheologically characterise the TIF at the different levels of thickener addition. There was a significant difference in viscosity between the low levels and the higher levels of addition thickener (p < 0.05). Also, the low levels of thickener addition showed Newtonian-like behaviour, whereas the higher levels of addition were shear-thinning. The time taken for the thickener to reach a near-stable viscosity was found to be 10 min. Guidelines for thickened infant formula need to take into account the different levels of thickener addition rates. PMID:24658846

  14. Simulation of fumigant transport and volatilization from tarped broadcast applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the ability of the HYDRUS 2D/3D model to simulate chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene fate, transport and volatilization. Three fields with similar soil conditions were broadcast fumigated under a totally impermeable film (TIF). One field was used to calibrate HYDRUS by adjusting fumig...

  15. Calibration and optimization of computer-controlled optical surfacing for large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Martin, Hubert M.; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    Precision optical surfaces can be efficiently manufactured using a computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) process. Most CCOS processes are based on control of the dwell time of a tool on the workpiece, according to the desired removal and the tool influence function (TIF), which is the material wear function of the tool. Several major topics were investigated to improve current CCOS processes and provide new solutions for the next generation of CCOS processes. A rigid conformal (RC) lap using a visco-elastic non-Newtonian medium was invented. It conforms to the aspheric surface shape, yet maintains stiffness on short time scales to provide natural smoothing. The smoothing removes mid- to high-frequency errors while controlled dwell time removes low-frequency errors. A parametric smoothing model was also introduced to predict the smoothing effects. A parametric edge TIF model to represent measured edge TIFs was developed and demonstrated. This model covers the removal behavior as the tool overhangs the edge of the workpiece. These new tools and models were applied in a new process optimization technique called nonsequential optimization. The non-sequential approach performs a comprehensive optimization of dwell time using multiple TIFs (multiple tools) simultaneously. An overview of these newly implemented CCOS features** is presented along with some actual CCOS results.

  16. Value-Added and Other Methods for Measuring School Performance. Working Paper 2008-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert H.; Christian, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges of designing and implementing a performance pay program is developing an approach for determining which schools, teachers, and administrators have performed well enough to have earned a bonus. The U.S. Department of Education's Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) program provides grantees substantial latitude to create…

  17. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Within this submission are multiple .tif images with accompanying metadata of magnetotelluric conductor occurrence, fault critical stress composite risk segment (CRS), permeability CRS, Quaternary mafic extrusions, Quaternary fault density, and Quaternary rhyolite maps. Each of these contributed to a final play fairway analysis (PFA) for the SE Great Basin study area.

  18. Alternative Compensation Terminology: Considerations for Education Stakeholders, Policymakers, and the Media. Emerging Issues. Report No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Cortney; Potemski, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Schools, districts, and states across the nation are changing the way educators are paid. Through the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and other publicly and independently funded programs, educators at every level are designing and implementing modified pay and reward structures for teachers and principals. Sometimes these initiatives are called…

  19. Activation of human papillomavirus type 18 gene expression by herpes simplex virus type 1 viral transactivators and a phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Gius, D.; Laimins, L.A.

    1989-02-01

    Several viral trans-activators and a tumor promoter were examined for the ability to activate human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) gene expression. A plasmid containing the HPV-18 noncoding region placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was cotransfected with different herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genes into several cell lines. Both HSV-1 TIF and ICPO activated HPV-18 expression; however, activation by TIF was observed only in epithelial cells, while ICPO stimulated expression in a wide variety of cells. The element activated by both TIF and ICOP was mapped to a 229-base-pair fragment which also contains an HPV-18 epithelial cell-preferred enhancer. The inclusion of a papillomavirus E2 trans-activator with TIF and ICOP further increased HPV-18 expression. In contrast, the HSV-1 ICP4 and ICP27 genes, as well as the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat genes, were found to have no effect on HPV-18 expression. In transient assays, the addition of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) also activated HPV-18 expression. The region of HPV-18 activated by TPA was localized to a sequence which is homologous to other TPA-responsive elements.

  20. Field evaluation of a new plastic film (vapor safe) to reduce fumigant emissions and improve distribution in soil.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Sullivan, David; Wang, Dong; Hanson, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    Preplant soil fumigation is an important pest management practice in coastal California strawberry production regions. Potential atmospheric emissions of fumigants from field treatment, however, have drawn intensive environmental and human health concerns; increasingly stringent regulations on fumigant use have spurred research on low-emission application techniques. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of a new low-permeability film, commonly known as totally impermeable film (TIF), on fumigant emissions and on fumigant distribution in soil. A 50/50 mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) was shank-applied at 314 kg ha in two location-separate field plots (0.4 ha each) in Ventura County, California, in fall 2009. One plot was surface-covered with standard polyethylene (PE) film, and the other was covered with TIF immediately after fumigant application. Data collection included emissions, soil-gas phase concentration profile, air concentration under the film, and soil residuals of the applied fumigants. Peak emission flux of 1,3-D and CP from the TIF field was substantially lower than from the PE field. Total through-film emission loss was 2% for 1,3-D and <1% for CP from the TIF field during a 6-d film covering period, compared with 43% for 1,3-D and 12% for CP from the PE field. However, on film-cutting, greater retention of 1,3-D in the TIF field resulted in a much higher emission surge compared with the PE field, while CP emissions were fairly low in both fields. Higher concentrations and a more uniform distribution in the soil profile for 1,3-D and CP were observed under the TIF compared with the PE film, suggesting that the TIF may allow growers to achieve satisfactory pest control with lower fumigant rates. The surging 1,3-D emissions after film-cutting could result in high exposure risks to workers and bystanders and must be addressed with additional mitigation measures.

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Douglas C

    2016-08-01

    Despite the frequency with which antireflux procedures are performed, decisions about gastroesophageal reflux disease treatment remain challenging. Several factors contribute to the difficulties in managing gastroesophageal reflux. First, the distinction between physiologic and pathologic gastroesophageal reflux (gastroesophageal reflux disease-GERD) is not always clear. Second, measures of the extent of gastroesophageal reflux often poorly correlate to symptoms or other complications attributed to reflux in infants and children. A third challenge is that the outcome of antireflux procedures, predominately fundoplications, are relatively poorly characterized. All of these factors contribute to difficulty in knowing when to recommend antireflux surgery. One of the manifestations of the uncertainties surrounding GERD is the high degree of variability in the utilization of pediatric antireflux procedures throughout the United States. Pediatric surgeons are frequently consulted for GERD and fundoplication, uncertainties notwithstanding. Although retrospective series and anecdotal observations support fundoplication in some patients, there are many important questions for which sufficient high-quality data to provide a clear answer is lacking. In spite of this, surgeons need to provide guidance to patients and families while awaiting the development of improved evidence to aid in these recommendations. The purpose of this article is to define what is known and what is uncertain, with an emphasis on the most recent evidence.

  2. Antireflux Surgery in Korea: A Nationwide Study from 2011 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Hyun; Park, Joong-Min; Han, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jin-Jo; Song, Kyo Young; Ryu, Seung Wan; Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Kim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Although laparoscopic fundoplication is a well-established therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Western countries, the mainstay of GERD treatment in Korea is long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nationwide data regarding antireflux surgery in Korea. Methods Data from 2011 to 2014 were collected from the Korean Antireflux Surgery Study Group and then analyzed. Results A total of 87 patients underwent laparoscopic fundoplication for the treatment of GERD. Preoperatively, typical symptoms were present in 81 patients (93%) and atypical symptoms were present in 51 patients (59%). Twenty-seven patients (31%) had poor PPI responses. The average surgical time and postoperative hospital stay were 116.3±42.3 minutes and 4.3±3.1 days, respectively. At 3 months after surgery, typical symptoms were completely controlled in 86.3% of patients and partially controlled in 11.7%, whereas atypical symptoms were completely controlled in 63.3% of patients and partially controlled in 23.3%. Conclusions This study showed that although atypical symptoms and PPI nonresponders are common, the complete control rates of typical and atypical symptoms were 86.3% and 63.3%, respectively. Laparoscopic fundoplication is an efficacious method of controlling the symptoms of GERD and has an acceptable rate of postoperative morbidity and adverse symptoms. PMID:27114420

  3. Tumor necrosis factor alpha transcription in macrophages is attenuated by an autocrine factor that preferentially induces NF-kappaB p50.

    PubMed

    Baer, M; Dillner, A; Schwartz, R C; Sedon, C; Nedospasov, S; Johnson, P F

    1998-10-01

    Macrophages are a major source of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which are expressed during conditions of inflammation, infection, or injury. We identified an activity secreted by a macrophage tumor cell line that negatively regulates bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of TNF-alpha. This activity, termed TNF-alpha-inhibiting factor (TIF), suppressed the induction of TNF-alpha expression in macrophages, whereas induction of three other proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) was accelerated or enhanced. A similar or identical inhibitory activity was secreted by IC-21 macrophages following LPS stimulation. Inhibition of TNF-alpha expression by macrophage conditioned medium was associated with selective induction of the NF-kappaB p50 subunit. Hyperinduction of p50 occurred with delayed kinetics in LPS-stimulated macrophages but not in fibroblasts. Overexpression of p50 blocked LPS-induced transcription from a TNF-alpha promoter reporter construct, showing that this transcription factor is an inhibitor of the TNF-alpha gene. Repression of the TNF-alpha promoter by TIF required a distal region that includes three NF-kappaB binding sites with preferential affinity for p50 homodimers. Thus, the selective repression of the TNF-alpha promoter by TIF may be explained by the specific binding of inhibitory p50 homodimers. We propose that TIF serves as a negative autocrine signal to attenuate TNF-alpha expression in activated macrophages. TIF is distinct from the known TNF-alpha-inhibiting factors IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta and may represent a novel cytokine. PMID:9742085

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Transcription in Macrophages Is Attenuated by an Autocrine Factor That Preferentially Induces NF-κB p50

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Mark; Dillner, Allan; Schwartz, Richard C.; Sedon, Constance; Nedospasov, Sergei; Johnson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    Macrophages are a major source of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which are expressed during conditions of inflammation, infection, or injury. We identified an activity secreted by a macrophage tumor cell line that negatively regulates bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of TNF-α. This activity, termed TNF-α-inhibiting factor (TIF), suppressed the induction of TNF-α expression in macrophages, whereas induction of three other proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) was accelerated or enhanced. A similar or identical inhibitory activity was secreted by IC-21 macrophages following LPS stimulation. Inhibition of TNF-α expression by macrophage conditioned medium was associated with selective induction of the NF-κB p50 subunit. Hyperinduction of p50 occurred with delayed kinetics in LPS-stimulated macrophages but not in fibroblasts. Overexpression of p50 blocked LPS-induced transcription from a TNF-α promoter reporter construct, showing that this transcription factor is an inhibitor of the TNF-α gene. Repression of the TNF-α promoter by TIF required a distal region that includes three NF-κB binding sites with preferential affinity for p50 homodimers. Thus, the selective repression of the TNF-α promoter by TIF may be explained by the specific binding of inhibitory p50 homodimers. We propose that TIF serves as a negative autocrine signal to attenuate TNF-α expression in activated macrophages. TIF is distinct from the known TNF-α-inhibiting factors IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β and may represent a novel cytokine. PMID:9742085

  5. Effects of alcohol on beta-endorphin and reproductive hormones in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Cicero, T J

    1991-08-01

    In an attempt to examine the relationship between alcohol-induced alterations in immunoreactive beta-endorphin (i-beta E) levels in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the synthesis and release of reproductive hormones, male rats were treated with either an acute intraperitoneal injection of alcohol or were chronically exposed to an alcohol-containing liquid diet. Hypothalamic, pituitary, serum, and testicular levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin (i-beta E) and serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were measured at various times after initiation of these treatments. Testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) volumes and levels of TIF i-beta E and testosterone were also measured 4 hr after acute treatment as an index of testicular release of these substances. Acute alcohol decreased pituitary levels of i-beta E and increased serum levels of the peptide for up to 1 hr after its injection, but did not alter hypothalamic or testicular levels. Acute alcohol markedly increased TIF i-beta E and decreased TIF testosterone and TIF volume. Sharp decreases in serum LH and testosterone were observed in association with these acute changes in i-beta E levels in the pituitary, blood, and testes. During chronic alcohol exposure serum testosterone levels were substantially depressed, but tolerance appeared to develop quickly to the chronic effects of alcohol on serum LH. Similarly, tolerance to alcohol's effects on i-beta E levels in the pituitary and serum also appeared to develop during chronic alcohol administration. However, hypothalamic and testicular i-beta E levels were markedly suppressed by chronic alcohol administration in contrast to the lack of effect observed after acute alcohol administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p < 0.05) and 288 down-regulated proteins (ratio ≤ −1.3, p < 0.05) in tumor TIF were identified. Interestingly, proteins in S100 family were found remarkably up-regulated in tumor TIF. One dramatically up-regulated protein S100A9 (ratio = 19) was further validated by ELISA in sera from liver cirrhosis (LC, HCC high risk population) and HCC patients (n = 47 for each group). The level of this protein was significantly elevated in HCC sera compared with LC (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve of this protein to distinguish HCC from LC was 0.83, with sensitivity of 91% (higher than AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  7. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Dermatomyositis: Associations with Clinical and Laboratory Features Including Autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mugii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Oohata, Sacihe; Okita, Hirokazu; Yahata, Tetsutarou; Someya, Fujiko; Inoue, Katsumi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dysphagia develops with low frequency in patients with dermatomyositis. Our objective was to determine the clinical and laboratory features that can estimate the development of dysphagia in dermatomyositis. Methods This study included 92 Japanese patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis. The associations between dysphagia and clinical and laboratory features including disease-specific autoantibodies determined by immunoprecipitation assays were analyzed. Results Videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) was performed for all patients with clinical dysphagia (n = 13, 14.1%) but not for patients without clinical dysphagia. Typical findings of dysphagia (pharyngeal pooling, n = 11 and/or nasal regurgitation, n = 4) was detected by VFSS in all patients with clinical dysphagia. Eleven patients with dysphagia (84.6%) had anti-transcription intermediary factor 1γ (TIF-1γ) antibody. By univariate analysis, the average age and the male to female ratio, internal malignancy, and anti-TIF-1γ antibody were significantly higher and the frequency of interstitial lung diseases and manual muscle testing (MMT) scores of sternomastoid and dertoid muscles were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia than in patients without dysphagia. Among patients with anti-TIF-1γ antibody, the mean age, the ratios of male to female and internal malignancy were significantly higher and mean MMT scores of sternomastoid muscle were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia compared with patients without dysphagia. By multivariable analysis, the risk of dysphagia was strongly associated with the existence of internal malignancy and ant-TIF-1γ antibody and was also associated with reduced scores of manual muscle test of sternomastoid muscle. Dysphagia was markedly improved after the treatment against myositis in all 13 patients. Conclusion These findings indicate that dysphagia can develop frequently in patients with internal malignancy, anti-TIF-1γ antibody, or severe muscle

  8. Structural control on crystal growth of titanate in aqueous system: Selective production of nanostructures of layered titanate and anatase-type titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezawa, Yoko; Imai, Hiroaki

    2007-10-01

    Layered titanate nanosheets and anatase-type titania nanospines were selectively grown from a molecular titanium precursor, TiF 4, by a reaction with various cationic species in an agar gel matrix. A layered structure of the titanate was fundamentally produced by the assembly of anionic titanate species with a certain amount of specific cations under a basic condition. Nanoscale flaky and rodlike forms were constructed from the titanate monolayers with sodium and ammonium ions, respectively. On the other hand, anatase-type crystalline titania was formed from TiF 4 under an acidic condition or in the absence of a sufficient amount of the cationic species. Especially, a spherical architecture of anatase nanospines was produced through a moderate reaction with ammonia provided by decomposition of urea. The role of the counter cations was essential for the selection of the crystal structures and the construction of the particular rodlike and flaky forms of the layered titanates.

  9. Pulsed laser-assisted focused electron-beam-induced etching of titanium with XeF2: enhanced reaction rate and precursor transport.

    PubMed

    Noh, J H; Fowlkes, J D; Timilsina, R; Stanford, M G; Lewis, B B; Rack, P D

    2015-02-25

    In order to enhance the etch rate of electron-beam-induced etching, we introduce a laser-assisted focused electron-beam-induced etching (LA-FEBIE) process which is a versatile, direct write nanofabrication method that allows nanoscale patterning and editing. The results demonstrate that the titanium electron stimulated etch rate via the XeF2 precursor can be enhanced up to a factor of 6 times with an intermittent pulsed laser assist. The evolution of the etching process is correlated to in situ stage current measurements and scanning electron micrographs as a function of time. The increased etch rate is attributed to photothermally enhanced Ti-F reaction and TiF4 desorption and in some regimes enhanced XeF2 surface diffusion to the reaction zone. PMID:25629708

  10. Pulsed laser-assisted focused electron-beam-induced etching of titanium with XeF2: enhanced reaction rate and precursor transport.

    PubMed

    Noh, J H; Fowlkes, J D; Timilsina, R; Stanford, M G; Lewis, B B; Rack, P D

    2015-02-25

    In order to enhance the etch rate of electron-beam-induced etching, we introduce a laser-assisted focused electron-beam-induced etching (LA-FEBIE) process which is a versatile, direct write nanofabrication method that allows nanoscale patterning and editing. The results demonstrate that the titanium electron stimulated etch rate via the XeF2 precursor can be enhanced up to a factor of 6 times with an intermittent pulsed laser assist. The evolution of the etching process is correlated to in situ stage current measurements and scanning electron micrographs as a function of time. The increased etch rate is attributed to photothermally enhanced Ti-F reaction and TiF4 desorption and in some regimes enhanced XeF2 surface diffusion to the reaction zone.

  11. The antagonism activity of bacteria isolated from potato cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Mezaache-Aichour, S; Sayah, N; Zerroug, M M; Guechi, A

    2012-01-01

    Soil-borne fungal and bacterial root pathogens can cause serious losses to agricultural crops. Resistant plant varieties are not available for several soil-borne pathogens and chemical control is often insufficiently effective in soil. The enhancement of disease suppressive properties of soils will limit disease development, thus, being of great importance for sustainable agriculture as well as organic farming systems. The aim of this research is to find and identify suppressive soils in the Sétif's areas (potato field located in different regions of Sétif); this allows the selection of the indigenous soil bacteria that are able to develop several mechanisms of action related to biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting potato crops. Among 50 bacterial strains only 14 showed a wide range of antifungal action against the tested phytopathogenic fungi. With a range of inhibition percent from 0 to 92.30% especially Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis with 92% inhibition.

  12. Facet-controlled anatase TiO2 nanoparticles through various fluorine sources for superior photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muk Lee, Seung; Park, Geun Chul; Seo, Tae Yang; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lee, Ju Ha; Dok Kim, Young; Choi, Dae Hyuk; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2016-09-01

    Reactive surface-exposed anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2) is highly desirable for applications requiring superior photocatalytic activity. In order to obtain a favorable surface, morphology control of the a-TiO2 using capping agents has been widely investigated. Herein, we systematically study the effects of different F sources (HF, TiF4, and NH4F) as the capping agent on the morphology control and photocatalytic activities of a-TiO2 in a hydrothermal process. When either HF or TiF4 was added, large truncated bipyramids formed with the photocatalytically active {001} facet, whereas the NH4F was not effective for facet control, yielding nanospheres similar to the pure a-TiO2. The morphology changes were related to the decomposition behaviors of the F sources in the solvent material: HF and TiF4 decomposed and supplied F- ions before a-TiO2 nucleation, which changed the nucleation rate and growth direction, leading to the resultant a-TiO2 morphology. On the other hand, NH4F supplied F- ions after a-TiO2 nucleation and could not change the growth behavior. In terms of the photocatalytic effect, the HF- and TiF4-treated a-TiO2 effectively decomposed ˜90% and ˜80% of methylene blue, respectively, in 1 h, while ˜60% was decomposed for the NH4F-treated a-TiO2. Note that pure a-TiO2 photocatalytically decomposed only ˜10% of methylene blue over the same time. These results pave the way to precise control of the facet of TiO2 through using different capping agents.

  13. Hydrogeochemical niches associated with hyporheic exchange beneath an acid mine drainage-contaminated stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Lance N.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Singha, Kamini; Gooseff, Michael N.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William

    2013-09-01

    Biological low-pH Fe(II)-oxidation creates terraced iron formations (TIFs) that remove Fe(III) from solution. TIFs can be used for remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD), however, as sediment depth increases, Fe(III)-reduction in anoxic subsurface areas may compromise treatment effectiveness. In this study we used near-surface electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and in situ pore-water samplers to spatially resolve bulk conductivity changes within a TIF formed in a stream emanating from a large abandoned deep clay mine in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, USA. Because of the high fluid electrical conductivity of the emergent AMD (1860 μS), fresh water (42 μS) was added as a dilution tracer to visualize the spatial and temporal extent of hyporheic exchange and to characterize subsurface flow paths. Distinct hydrogeochemical niches were identified in the shallow subsurface beneath the stream by overlaying relative groundwater velocities (derived from ERI) with pore-water chemistry profiles. Niches were classified based on relatively “fast” versus “slow” rates of hyporheic exchange and oxic versus anoxic conditions. Pore-water concentrations and speciation of iron, pH, and redox potential differed between subsurface flow regimes. The greatest extent of hyporheic exchange was beneath the center of the stream, where a shallower (<10 cm) Fe(II)-oxidizing zone was observed. Meanwhile, less hyporheic exchange was observed near the channel banks, concurrent with a more pronounced, deeper (>70 cm) Fe(II)-oxidizing zone. At these locations, relatively slower groundwater exchange may promote biotic Fe(II)-oxidation and improve the long-term stability of Fe sequestered in TIFs.

  14. Interactions between alcohol- and opioid-induced suppression of rat testicular steroidogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1997-06-01

    To examine interactions between alcohol and endogenous opioids in their suppressive effects on rat testicular function, the opioid antagonist naltrexone or the opioid agonist morphine was administered to adult male rats alone or in combination with alcohol. Serum testosterone, testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) testosterone, and TIF volumes were measured to assess testicular function. Naltrexone induced dose-dependent increases in serum and TIF testosterone levels without changes in TIF volume. Alcohol (0.5 g/kg) inhibited naltrexone-induced stimulation of testosterone secretion and shifted the naltrexone dose-response curve to the right. Conversely, naltrexone (0.05 mg/kg) inhibited alcohol-induced suppression of testosterone secretion and shifted the alcohol dose-response curve to the right. Relatively high doses of naltrexone (5 to 30 mg/kg) were needed to stimulate testosterone secretion maximally in rats treated with a low dose of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) and to stimulate normal levels of testosterone secretion in rats treated with a high dose of alcohol (2 g/kg). In addition, combined treatment with 1 and 30 mg/kg of naltrexone and 0.5 to 2 g/kg of alcohol did not alter blood alcohol concentrations significantly, suggesting that the interactions between alcohol and naltrexone were unrelated to gross changes in alcohol metabolism or bioavailability factors. Simultaneous treatments with a low dose of alcohol (0.3 g/kg), near the threshold of efficacy, and low-moderate doses of morphine (0.3 to 3 mg/kg) were not additive in suppressing testosterone secretion, compared with either agent alone. These results support the hypothesis that opioid antagonists can reverse the suppressive effect of alcohol on testicular steroidogenesis, but the results also suggest that endogenous opioids do not exclusively mediate alcohol's effects on testosterone secretion. PMID:9194925

  15. Facet-controlled anatase TiO2 nanoparticles through various fluorine sources for superior photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Muk; Park, Geun Chul; Seo, Tae Yang; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lee, Ju Ha; Kim, Young Dok; Choi, Dae Hyuk; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2016-09-30

    Reactive surface-exposed anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2) is highly desirable for applications requiring superior photocatalytic activity. In order to obtain a favorable surface, morphology control of the a-TiO2 using capping agents has been widely investigated. Herein, we systematically study the effects of different F sources (HF, TiF4, and NH4F) as the capping agent on the morphology control and photocatalytic activities of a-TiO2 in a hydrothermal process. When either HF or TiF4 was added, large truncated bipyramids formed with the photocatalytically active {001} facet, whereas the NH4F was not effective for facet control, yielding nanospheres similar to the pure a-TiO2. The morphology changes were related to the decomposition behaviors of the F sources in the solvent material: HF and TiF4 decomposed and supplied F(-) ions before a-TiO2 nucleation, which changed the nucleation rate and growth direction, leading to the resultant a-TiO2 morphology. On the other hand, NH4F supplied F(-) ions after a-TiO2 nucleation and could not change the growth behavior. In terms of the photocatalytic effect, the HF- and TiF4-treated a-TiO2 effectively decomposed ∼90% and ∼80% of methylene blue, respectively, in 1 h, while ∼60% was decomposed for the NH4F-treated a-TiO2. Note that pure a-TiO2 photocatalytically decomposed only ∼10% of methylene blue over the same time. These results pave the way to precise control of the facet of TiO2 through using different capping agents. PMID:27560359

  16. Ab initio calculation of Ti NMR shieldings for titanium oxides and halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    Titanium NMR shielding constants have been calculated using ab initio coupled Hartree-Fock perturbation theory and polarized double-zeta basis sets for TiF 4, TiF 62-, TiCI 4, Ti(OH) 4, Ti(OH 2) 64+, Ti(OH) 4O, and Ti(OH) 3O -. In all cases the calculations were performed at Hartree-Fuck energy-optimized geometries. For Ti(OH) 4 a S4-symmetry geometry with nonlinear ∠ TiOH was employed. Relative shieldings are in reasonable agreement with experiment for TiF 62-, TiCI 4, and Ti(OR) 4, where R = H or alkyl. Ti(OH 2) 64+ is predicted to be more highly shielded than Ti(OH) 4 by about 340 ppm. The five-coordinate complex Ti(OH) 4O, whose calculated structure matches well that measured by extended X-ray absorption fine structure in K 2O · TiO 2 · SiO 2 glass, is actually deshielded compared to Ti(OH) 4 by about 40 ppm. X-ray absorption-near-edge spectral energies have also been calculated for TiF 4, TiCI 4, Ti(OH) 4, and Ti(OH) 4O using an equivalent ionic core virtual-orbital method and the observed reduction in term energy for the five-coordinate species compared to Ti(OH) 4 has been reproduced. Replacement of the H atoms in Ti(OH) 4 by point charges has only a slight effect upon σTi, suggesting a possible means of incorporating second-neighbor effects in NMR calculations for condensed phases.

  17. Stability against brushing abrasion and the erosion-protective effect of different fluoride compounds.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Schneider, S; Sener, B; Roos, M; Attin, T

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the impact of brushing on the protective effect of different fluoride solutions on enamel and dentin erosion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were rinsed once with TiF4, AmF, SnF2 (0.5 M F, 2 min) or water (control). Specimens were either left unbrushed or brushed with 10, 20, 50, 100 or 500 brushing strokes in an automatic brushing machine (2 N, non-fluoridated toothpaste slurry). Ten specimens per group were eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl) (pH 2.3) for 60 s, and calcium release into the acid was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, enamel and dentin surfaces were analysed by X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) (n = 6/group) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (n = 2/group) before brushing and after 500 brushing strokes. Statistical analysis (p < 0.05) was performed by three- and one-way ANOVA (calcium release) or repeated measures ANOVA (EDS). TiF4, AmF and SnF2 reduced the erosive calcium loss in unbrushed specimens to 58-67% (enamel) and 23-31% (dentin) of control. Calcium release increased with increasing brushing strokes prior to erosion and amounted to 70-88% (enamel) and 45-78% (dentin) of control after 500 brushing strokes. Brushing reduced the surface concentration of fluoride (AmF), tin (SnF2) and titanium (TiF4). SEM revealed that surface precipitates were affected by long-term brushing. Brushing reduced the protective potential of TiF4, AmF and SnF2 solutions. However, considering a small number of brushing strokes, the protective effect of fluoride solutions is only slightly affected by brushing abrasion.

  18. Facet-controlled anatase TiO2 nanoparticles through various fluorine sources for superior photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muk Lee, Seung; Park, Geun Chul; Seo, Tae Yang; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lee, Ju Ha; Dok Kim, Young; Choi, Dae Hyuk; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2016-09-01

    Reactive surface-exposed anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2) is highly desirable for applications requiring superior photocatalytic activity. In order to obtain a favorable surface, morphology control of the a-TiO2 using capping agents has been widely investigated. Herein, we systematically study the effects of different F sources (HF, TiF4, and NH4F) as the capping agent on the morphology control and photocatalytic activities of a-TiO2 in a hydrothermal process. When either HF or TiF4 was added, large truncated bipyramids formed with the photocatalytically active {001} facet, whereas the NH4F was not effective for facet control, yielding nanospheres similar to the pure a-TiO2. The morphology changes were related to the decomposition behaviors of the F sources in the solvent material: HF and TiF4 decomposed and supplied F‑ ions before a-TiO2 nucleation, which changed the nucleation rate and growth direction, leading to the resultant a-TiO2 morphology. On the other hand, NH4F supplied F‑ ions after a-TiO2 nucleation and could not change the growth behavior. In terms of the photocatalytic effect, the HF- and TiF4-treated a-TiO2 effectively decomposed ∼90% and ∼80% of methylene blue, respectively, in 1 h, while ∼60% was decomposed for the NH4F-treated a-TiO2. Note that pure a-TiO2 photocatalytically decomposed only ∼10% of methylene blue over the same time. These results pave the way to precise control of the facet of TiO2 through using different capping agents.

  19. Obtaining and processing Daymet data using Python and ArcGIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohms, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This set of scripts was developed to automate the process of downloading and mosaicking daily Daymet data to a user defined extent using ArcGIS and Python programming language. The three steps are downloading the needed Daymet tiles for the study area extent, converting the netcdf file to a tif raster format, and mosaicking those rasters to one file. The set of scripts is intended for all levels of experience with Python programming language and requires no scripting by the user.

  20. A Review of New Surgical and Endoscopic Therapies for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the United States today is binary, with the majority of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease being treated with antisecre-tory medications and a minority of patients, typically those with volume regurgitation, undergoing Nissen fundoplication. However, there has been increasing dissatisfaction with proton pump inhibitor therapy among a significant number of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease owing to cost, side effects, and refractory symptoms, and there has been a general reluctance to undergo surgical fundoplication due to its attendant side-effect profile. As a result, a therapy gap exists for many patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Alternative techniques are available for these gap patients, including 2 endoscopic fundoplication techniques, an endoscopic radiofrequency energy delivery technique, and 2 minimally invasive surgical procedures. These alternative techniques have been extensively evaluated; however, there are limitations to published studies, including arbitrary definitions of success, variable efficacy measurements, deficient reporting tools, inconsistent study designs, inconsistent lengths of follow-up postintervention, and lack of comparison data across techniques. Although all of the techniques appear to be safe, the endoscopic techniques lack demonstrable reflux control and show variable symptom improvement and variable decreases in proton pump inhibitor use. The surgical techniques are more robust, with evidence for adequate reflux control, symptom improvement, and decreased proton pump inhibitor use; however, these techniques are more difficult to perform and are more intrusive. Additionally, these alternative techniques have only been studied in patients with relatively normal anatomy. The field of gastroesophageal reflux disease treatment is in need of consistent definitions of efficacy, standardized study design and outcome measurements, and improved reporting

  1. Genetic interactions of yeast eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) reveal connections to poly(A)-binding protein and protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Sandro R; Casolari, Jason M; Oliveira, Carla C; Silver, Pamela A; McBride, Anne E

    2002-01-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been proposed to have various roles in the cell, from translation to mRNA decay to nuclear protein export. To further our understanding of this essential protein, three temperature-sensitive alleles of the yeast TIF51A gene have been characterized. Two mutant eIF5A proteins contain mutations in a proline residue at the junction between the two eIF5A domains and the third, strongest allele encodes a protein with a single mutation in each domain, both of which are required for the growth defect. The stronger tif51A alleles cause defects in degradation of short-lived mRNAs, supporting a role for this protein in mRNA decay. A multicopy suppressor screen revealed six genes, the overexpression of which allows growth of a tif51A-1 strain at high temperature; these genes include PAB1, PKC1, and PKC1 regulators WSC1, WSC2, and WSC3. Further results suggest that eIF5A may also be involved in ribosomal synthesis and the WSC/PKC1 signaling pathway for cell wall integrity or related processes. PMID:11861547

  2. A genetic mouse model for progressive ablation and regeneration of insulin producing beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Farnaz; Parlato, Rosanna; Collombat, Patrick; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The putative induction of adult β-cell regeneration represents a promising approach for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Toward this ultimate goal, it is essential to develop an inducible model mimicking the long-lasting disease progression. In the current study, we have established a novel β-cell ablation mouse model, in which the β-cell mass progressively declines, as seen in type 1 diabetes. The model is based on the β-cell specific genetic ablation of the transcription initiation factor 1A, TIF-IA, essential for RNA Polymerase I activity (TIF-IAΔ/Δ). Using this approach, we induced a slow apoptotic response that eventually leads to a protracted β-cell death. In this model, we observed β-cell regeneration that resulted in a complete recovery of the β-cell mass and normoglycemia. In addition, we showed that adaptive proliferation of remaining β-cells is the prominent mechanism acting to compensate for the massive β-cell loss in young but also aged mice. Interestingly, at any age, we also detected β-like cells expressing the glucagon hormone, suggesting a transition between α- and β-cell identities or vice versa. Taken together, the TIF-IAΔ/Δ mouse model can be used to investigate the potential therapeutic approaches for type 1 diabetes targeting β-cell regeneration. PMID:25558832

  3. Self-templated synthesis of TiO2 hierarchical structure photocatalyst with high efficiency and good sedimentation property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Xin; Liu, Baishan; Liu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The balance between highly efficient photocatalysis and a good emulsion/water extraction property is crucial for the practical application of TiO2 photocatalysts. The TiO2 hierarchical structure was synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment of H2Ti3O7 nanobelts with TiF4. The hydrolysis of TiF4 supplies the TiO2 nucleus, and HF, which is derived from the hydrolysis process, acts as a corrosive to etch the H2Ti3O7 nanobelt, resulting in a dynamic dissolution and precipitation process. The etching process resulted in self-generated TiF4 and initiated hydrolysis to generate new TiO2 primary particles. Induced by F etching process, Ti3+ defects were formed in the hierarchical structures, which was beneficial to the photocatalytic property. This hydrolysis-etching-hydrolysis process allows for template dissolution and self-assembly of anatase TiO2 nanobelts to form the TiO2 hierarchical structures. This process balances the nanominiaturization and sedimentation property requirements by the photocatalytic and emulsion/water extraction properties. This simple hydrolysis-etching-hydrolysis process can be applied to the synthesis of many other hierarchical structures.

  4. The role of the Thalassaemia International Federation in health professionals' education.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Androulla

    2004-12-01

    The Thalassaemia International Federation (TIF) was established in 1986. The Federation has two important objectives: 1. To promote the continued control of thalassaemia major in countries with existing policies aimed at control, and 2. To support the establishment of policies of control in every affected country of the world. Over the years TIF has: - Held workshops and seminars attended by over 7,000 from 35 countries - Organized 11 International Conferences attended by 5,150 from 62 countries - Organized field trips/delegation visits in 42 countries - Prepared, published and distributed 70,000 books to 96 countries - Trained physicians and scientists from medical centres in the UK, US, Italy, Greece and Cyprus - Initiated and co-ordinated projects and clinical studies overseen by international experts in over 50 countries. - Established a vast network of scientific collaborators from every corner of the world, and - Has promoted close and productive collaborations with major health organizations. One of the most important projects that TIF has conducted was a multi-centre study on endocrine complications in the different affected regions of the world. It is hopeful that through the analysis of data already obtained and expected, other projects related to blood transfusion therapy, iron chelation and chronic hepatitis could be organized.

  5. [New method of treating achalasia is now being tested. Minimally Invasive POEM has produced promising results so far].

    PubMed

    Håkanson, Bengt; Tsai, Jon; Kumagai, Koshi; Efendic, Enes; Lundell, Lars; Thorell, Anders

    Achalasia of the cardia is a motor disorder of the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter with dysphagia as the dominating symptom. The diagnosis is based on esophageal manometry and barium swallow. During work-up dysphagia of other origin should be excluded by endoscopy. Standard treatment of achalasia today is laparoscopic esophagogastromyotomy with partial fundoplication or pneumatic dilatation of the lower esophageal sphincter. POEM (PerOral Endoscopic Myotomy), a new minimally invasive technique, has recently been introduced in Sweden. So far, 45 patients have been treated. POEM is currently being compared with laparoscopic esophagogastromyotomy within a European randomized multicenter study. PMID:25386642

  6. PERIOPERATIVE CARE OF A CHILD WITH CRISPONI SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Mahmood; Almasry, Shadi; Abdulrahman, Anas; Al-Sohabani, Mazen; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    Crisponi syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intermittent episodes of muscular contraction of the facial muscles with trismus and excessive salivation simulating a tetanic spasm. These episodes occur in response to tactile stimulation or during crying. Associated physical and constitutional findings include characteristic facial anomalies, camptodactyly, intermittent hyperthermia, and feeding difficulties. We present a 15-month-old girl who required anesthetic care during laparoscopic fundoplication and gastric tube insertion. The perioperative implications of the disorder are reviewed and suggestions for anesthetic management provided. PMID:27487643

  7. Nuclear medicine and esophageal surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Taillefer, R.; Beauchamp, G.; Duranceau, A.C.; Lafontaine, E.

    1986-06-01

    The principal radionuclide procedures involved in the evaluation of esophageal disorders that are amenable to surgery are illustrated and briefly described. The role of the radionuclide esophagogram (RE) in the diagnosis and management of achalasia, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy and its complications, tracheoesophageal fistulae, pharyngeal and esophageal diverticulae, gastric transposition, and fundoplication is discussed. Detection of columnar-lined esophagus by Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging and of esophageal carcinoma by Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate studies also is presented. 37 references.

  8. Short esophagus.

    PubMed

    Kunio, Nicholas R; Dolan, James P; Hunter, John G

    2015-06-01

    In the presence of long-standing and severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, patients can develop various complications, including a shortened esophagus. Standard preoperative testing in these patients should include endoscopy, esophagography, and manometry, whereas the objective diagnosis of a short esophagus must be made intraoperatively following adequate mediastinal mobilization. If left untreated, it is a contributing factor to the high recurrence rate following fundoplications or repair of large hiatal hernias. A laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty combined with an antireflux procedure offers safe and effective therapy.

  9. Usage of Magnetic Resonance Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (mrgfus) in Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Yair

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive incision-less surgical approach which limits the tissue destruction to the targeted tumor. Acoustic energy penetrates through intact skin and through the tissues surrounding the tumor without causing any significant bio-effects. Energy deposition takes place mainly at the focal spot where heat induced thermal coagulation of the targeted tissue is accomplished. Real time targeting and image guidance is provided by MRI tumor margin definition and real time thermometry provides closed loop feedback control of energy deposition. The patient lies in the MRI scanner throughout the treatment planning and treatment, and the physician conducts the treatment from the MRgFUS workstation in the adjacent MR control room. The ExAblate system for MRgFUS is commercially available in many countries for treatment of uterine fibroids. The system has also received CE and KFDA approval for pain palliation of bone metastases, and research of other oncologic applications is underway.

  10. Endoscopic therapy for weight loss: Gastroplasty, duodenal sleeves, intragastric balloons, and aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease is developing. The global obesity epidemic continues to expand despite the availability of diet and lifestyle counseling, pharmacologic therapy, and weight loss surgery. Endoscopic procedures have the potential to bridge the gap between medical therapy and surgery. Current primary endoscopic bariatric therapies can be classified as restrictive, bypass, space-occupying, or aspiration therapy. Restrictive procedures include the USGI Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty using Apollo OverStitch, TransOral GAstroplasty, gastric volume reduction using the ACE stapler, and insertion of the TERIS restrictive device. Intestinal bypass has been reported using the EndoBarrier duodenal-jejunal bypass liner. A number of space-occupying devices have been studied or are in use, including intragastric balloons (Orbera, Reshape Duo, Heliosphere BAG, Obalon), Transpyloric Shuttle, and SatiSphere. The AspireAssist aspiration system has demonstrated efficacy. Finally, endoscopic revision of gastric bypass to address weight regain has been studied using Apollo OverStitch, the USGI Incisionless Operating Platform Revision Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, Stomaphyx, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. Endoscopic therapies for weight loss are potentially reversible, repeatable, less invasive, and lower cost than various medical and surgical alternatives. Given the variety of devices under development, in clinical trials, and currently in use, patients will have multiple endoscopic options with greater efficacy than medical therapy, and with lower invasiveness and greater accessibility than surgery. PMID:26240686

  11. Endoscopic therapy for weight loss: Gastroplasty, duodenal sleeves, intragastric balloons, and aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin

    2015-07-25

    A new paradigm in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease is developing. The global obesity epidemic continues to expand despite the availability of diet and lifestyle counseling, pharmacologic therapy, and weight loss surgery. Endoscopic procedures have the potential to bridge the gap between medical therapy and surgery. Current primary endoscopic bariatric therapies can be classified as restrictive, bypass, space-occupying, or aspiration therapy. Restrictive procedures include the USGI Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty using Apollo OverStitch, TransOral GAstroplasty, gastric volume reduction using the ACE stapler, and insertion of the TERIS restrictive device. Intestinal bypass has been reported using the EndoBarrier duodenal-jejunal bypass liner. A number of space-occupying devices have been studied or are in use, including intragastric balloons (Orbera, Reshape Duo, Heliosphere BAG, Obalon), Transpyloric Shuttle, and SatiSphere. The AspireAssist aspiration system has demonstrated efficacy. Finally, endoscopic revision of gastric bypass to address weight regain has been studied using Apollo OverStitch, the USGI Incisionless Operating Platform Revision Obesity Surgery Endolumenal procedure, Stomaphyx, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. Endoscopic therapies for weight loss are potentially reversible, repeatable, less invasive, and lower cost than various medical and surgical alternatives. Given the variety of devices under development, in clinical trials, and currently in use, patients will have multiple endoscopic options with greater efficacy than medical therapy, and with lower invasiveness and greater accessibility than surgery. PMID:26240686

  12. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holder-Murray, Jennifer; Marsicovetere, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease is a challenging endeavor given infectious and inflammatory complications, such as fistula, and abscess, complex often postoperative anatomy, including adhesive disease from previous open operations. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis also bring to the table the burden of their chronic illness with anemia, malnutrition, and immunosuppression, all common and contributing independently as risk factors for increased surgical morbidity in this high-risk population. However, to reduce the physical trauma of surgery, technologic advances and worldwide experience with minimally invasive surgery have allowed laparoscopic management of patients to become standard of care, with significant short- and long-term patient benefits compared with the open approach. In this review, we will describe the current state-of the-art for minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and the caveats inherent with this practice in this complex patient population. Also, we will review the applicability of current and future trends in minimally invasive surgical technique, such as laparoscopic “incisionless,” single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), robotic-assisted, and other techniques for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. There can be no doubt that minimally invasive surgery has been proven to decrease the short- and long-term burden of surgery of these chronic illnesses and represents high-value care for both patient and society. PMID:25989341

  13. Data analyses and perspectives on laparoscopic surgery for esophageal achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Kazuto; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se-Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Masuda, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    In general, the treatment methods for esophageal achalasia are largely classified into four groups, including drug therapy using nitrite or a calcium channel blocker, botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic therapy such as endoscopic balloon dilation, and surgery. Various studies have suggested that the most effective treatment of esophageal achalasia is surgical therapy. The basic concept of this surgical therapy has not changed since Heller proposed esophageal myotomy for the purpose of resolution of lower esophageal obstruction for the first time in 1913, but the most common approach has changed from open-chest surgery to laparoscopic surgery. Currently, the laparoscopic surgery has been the procedure of choice for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. During the process of the transition from open-chest surgery to laparotomy, to thoracoscopic surgery, and to laparoscopic surgery, the necessity of combining antireflux surgery has been recognized. There is some debate as to which type of antireflux surgery should be selected. The Toupet fundoplication may be the most effective in prevention of postoperative antireflux, but many medical institutions have selected the Dor fundoplication which covers the mucosal surface exposed by myotomy. Recently, a new endoscopic approach, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), has received attention. Future studies should examine the long-term outcomes and whether POEM becomes the gold standard for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. PMID:26478674

  14. Sandifer syndrome--a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Lehwald, N; Krausch, M; Franke, C; Assmann, B; Adam, R; Knoefel, W T

    2007-06-01

    Sandifer syndrome, named after the neurologist Paul Sandifer, was first reported by M. Kinsbourne in 1962 who noticed a disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract with neurological manifestations occurring in children and adolescents. Sandifer syndrome is a combination of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with spastic torticollis and dystonic body movements with or without hiatal hernia. It is hypothesised that the positioning of the head provides relief from abdominal discomfort caused by acid reflux. The true pathophysiological mechanisms of the condition are still unclear. We report the diagnosis of Sandifer syndrome in a 9-year-old boy with a history of chronic torticollis and dystonic episodes for 5 years associated with abdominal symptoms. The cause of the dystonic body movements had not been found, although multiple neuropsychiatric diseases were suspected. The patient had been seen by many different specialities including Paediatrics, Paediatric Neurology, Psychology, Orthopaedic Surgery and ENT but the reason for the torticollis remained elusive. Unclear abdominal discomfort was the indication for an endoscopy that revealed severe gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with oesophagitis III degrees and a hiatal hernia which led to the correct diagnosis of Sandifer syndrome. After medical treatment and laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication the symptoms nearly resolved 3 months after operation. Few reports of this syndrome exist, but Sandifer syndrome is probably underrecognised. Children with torticollis, dystonic episodes or atypical seizures should be evaluated for GERD and Sandifer syndrome. Early surgery, for example a laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication or a Toupet procedure, can resolve the symptoms. PMID:17638161

  15. Achalasia in a sixty-four-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Komisaruk, E A; Seymour, N E

    1998-01-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder characterized by increased lower esophageal sphincter pressure and absence of peristalsis in the lower esophagus. Patients typically present with complaints of progressive difficulty swallowing over a period of several years. Diagnosis is confirmed by esophageal manometry. Complications of achalasia include esophagitis, aspiration and possibly an increased risk of esophageal carcinoma. Medical treatment options include pneumatic dilatation, esophageal bougienage, nitrates, calcium channel blockers and botulinum toxin injections. The primary method of surgical treatment is the Heller myotomy, in which longitudinal incisions are made in the muscle fibers of the lower esophageal sphincter to reduce sphincter pressure. Frequently, a fundoplication is performed in addition to the myotomy to decrease the likelihood of development of gastroesophageal reflux. In recent years, the Heller myotomy has been performed both thoracoscopically and laparoscopically. An additional development has been the placement of an endoscope in the esophagus to provide transillumination during surgery; intraoperative endoscopy allows improved assessment of the depth of myotomy incisions and reduces the risk of esophageal perforation. The case report below describes a 64-year-old-man with achalasia who presented with persistent dysphagia despite multiple attempts at medical treatment. A laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Toupet fundoplication was performed with subsequent eradication of symptoms. A discussion of the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of achalasia follows the case report.

  16. [Diaphragmatic hernias, excluding hiatal hernias with gastroesophageal reflux].

    PubMed

    Ruer, V; Champault, G

    2007-01-01

    Large, mixed hiatal hernias are usually found between the ages of 60 and 70 years, with a female predominance (60%). The natural history is progression toward the appearance of symptoms, although 30%-40% of patients are initially asymptomatic. Symptoms develop quietly. The indication for surgical treatment of hiatal hernias amounts to considering the risks of leaving it in place. The literature reports a morbidity and mortality rate related to the complications of these hernias, leading to emergency interventions, which have an incidence of 1.16%.with a 27% mortality rate. Morbidity appears different depending on the approach used: laparoscopy or laparotomy (4.3% versus 16%). The debate continues on whether to monitor or treat these hernias, with a lack of consensus on the indications and the technique. However, the laparoscopic approach shows a gain in the length of the hospital stay, an easier approach to the hiatus in the diaphragm, and a lower morbidity and mortality rate. Fundoplication is advised, as well as placing prosthetic mesh if the orifice is larger than 8 cm. There is no indication for lengthening the esophagus (Collis-Nissen fundoplication).

  17. Electrical stimulation for gastroesophageal reflux disease: current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sharon E; Soffer, Edy

    2016-01-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who are not satisfied with acid suppression therapy can benefit primarily from fundoplication, a surgical intervention. Fundoplication has been the standard surgical procedure for GERD. It is effective but is associated with adverse effects, resulting in a declining number of interventions, creating a need for alternative interventions that are effective, yet have a better adverse effect profile. One such alternative involves the application of electrical stimulation to the lower esophageal sphincter. A number of animal studies showed that such stimulation can increase resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure. An acute human study confirmed this effect, and was followed by two open-label studies, with a follow-up of up to 3 years. Results thus far show that the therapy is associated with a significant improvement in symptoms, a significant reduction in esophageal acid exposure, and a very good safety profile. This review will describe the evolution of electrical stimulation therapy for GERD, as well as the safety and efficacy of this intervention. PMID:26834494

  18. Initial outcomes of laparoscopic paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair with mesh.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, Alana; Vu, Steven; Armstrong, Chris; Smith, Brian R; Nguyen, Ninh T

    2013-10-01

    The use of mesh in laparoscopic paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair (LHR) may reduce the risk of late hernia recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate initial outcomes and recurrence rate of 92 patients who underwent LHR reinforced with a synthetic bioabsorbable mesh. Surgical approaches included LHR and Nissen fundoplication (n = 64), LHR without fundoplication (n = 10), reoperative LHR (n = 9), LHR with a bariatric operation (n = 6), and emergent LHR (n = 3). The mean length of hospital stay was 2 ± 3 days (range, 1 to 30 days). There were no conversions to open laparotomy and no intraoperative complications. One of 92 patients (1.1%) required intensive care unit stay. The 90-day mortality was zero. Minor complications occurred in 3.3 per cent, major complications in 2.2 per cent, and late complications in 5.5 per cent of patients. There were no perforations or early hernia recurrence. The 30-day reoperation rate was 1.1 per cent. For patients with available 1-year follow-up, the overall recurrence rate was 18.5 per cent with a mean follow-up of 30 months (range, 12 to 51 months). LHR repair with mesh is associated with low perioperative morbidity and no mortality. The use of bioabsorbable mesh appears to be safe with no early hiatal hernia recurrence or late mesh erosion. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the long-term rate of hernia recurrence associated with LHR with mesh.

  19. Data analyses and perspectives on laparoscopic surgery for esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Kazuto; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se-Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Masuda, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-14

    In general, the treatment methods for esophageal achalasia are largely classified into four groups, including drug therapy using nitrite or a calcium channel blocker, botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic therapy such as endoscopic balloon dilation, and surgery. Various studies have suggested that the most effective treatment of esophageal achalasia is surgical therapy. The basic concept of this surgical therapy has not changed since Heller proposed esophageal myotomy for the purpose of resolution of lower esophageal obstruction for the first time in 1913, but the most common approach has changed from open-chest surgery to laparoscopic surgery. Currently, the laparoscopic surgery has been the procedure of choice for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. During the process of the transition from open-chest surgery to laparotomy, to thoracoscopic surgery, and to laparoscopic surgery, the necessity of combining antireflux surgery has been recognized. There is some debate as to which type of antireflux surgery should be selected. The Toupet fundoplication may be the most effective in prevention of postoperative antireflux, but many medical institutions have selected the Dor fundoplication which covers the mucosal surface exposed by myotomy. Recently, a new endoscopic approach, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), has received attention. Future studies should examine the long-term outcomes and whether POEM becomes the gold standard for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. PMID:26478674

  20. [Esophageal dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Thumshirn, M

    2007-04-01

    Dysphagia can be caused by a number of disorders such as benign or malignant obstruction of the esophagus, inflammatory alterations of the mucosa or primary esophageal motility disorders. Endoscopic evaluation is recommended for all patients to exclude malignancy and to establish or confirm a diagnosis. This article provides an overview of the most frequent inflammatory and functional esophageal disorders causing dysphagia. Clinical findings, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic management of primary esophageal motility disorders such as achalasia and diffuse esophageal spasm as well as of GERD and eosinophilic esophagitis are discussed. The diagnosis of achalasia is made by barium swallow with fluoroscopy and by manometry. Therapeutic options for achalasia are pneumatic dilatation of the esophagogastric junction, laparoscopic cardiomyotomy combined with fundoplication and botulinum toxin injection of the lower esophageal sphincter Diffuse esophageal spasm is manometrically characterized by normal peristalsis intermittently interrupted by simultaneous contractions. Potential medical therapies are PPIs for underlying GERD, smooth-muscle relaxants and antidepressant medications. GERD is a multifaceted disease caused by abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus leading to chronic symptoms or mucosal damage. Therapy includes lifestyle modifications, acid suppressive medications mainly by PPI and laparoscopic fundoplication in selected patients. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus diagnosed histologically. The main symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis is dysphagia for solid food with imminent risk of food impaction. Systemic or topical corticosteroids are the therapy of choice.

  1. Implementation of quality systems by Mexican exporters of processed meat.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Siman, E; Bernal-Alcántara, R; Cadena-Meneses, J A; Altamirano-Cárdenas, J R; Martinez-Hernández, P A

    2014-12-01

    Requirements of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) are becoming essential for international trade in food commodities as a safety assurance component. This research reports the level of the adoption of ISO 9000 and the HACCP system by Federal Inspection Type (TIF) pork-exporting enterprises. Implementation and operating costs are reported as well as the benefits involved in this food industry process. In Mexico, there are 97 companies classified as TIF enterprises, and 22 are registered as exporters of processed pork with the National Services for Safety and Quality and Animal Health of the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food. Surveys were administered to 22 companies, with a 95.2% response rate. Enterprise characteristics were evaluated, as well as their operating activities. Fieldwork consisted of administering structured questionnaires to TIF exporters. All the surveyed enterprises had implemented HACCP, whereas the ISO 9000 regulation was applied in only 30%. Of total production, 75% is exported to 13 countries, and 25% goes to the Mexican market niche. Results indicate that the main factors for adopting HACCP are related to accessibility to international markets, improving quality, and reducing product quality audits by customers. The results also indicated that staff training was the most important issue. Microbiological testing was the highest cost of the operation. The main benefits reported were related to better access to international markets and a considerable reduction in microbial counts. This study shows the willingness of Mexican pork processors to implement food safety protocols for producing safe and quality products to compete in the international food trade. PMID:25474065

  2. Structure of a 13-fold superhelix (almost) determined from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Guillaume A.; Sammito, Massimo; Millán, Claudia; Usón, Isabel; Rudolph, Markus G.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors are cytoplasm-based transcription factors that bind a ligand, translate to the nucleus and initiate gene transcription in complex with a co-activator such as TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor 2). For structural studies the co-activator is usually mimicked by a peptide of circa 13 residues, which for the largest part forms an α-helix when bound to the receptor. The aim was to co-crystallize the glucocorticoid receptor in complex with a ligand and the TIF2 co-activator peptide. The 1.82 Å resolution diffraction data obtained from the crystal could not be phased by molecular replacement using the known receptor structures. HPLC analysis of the crystals revealed the absence of the receptor and indicated that only the co-activator peptide was present. The self-rotation function displayed 13-fold rotational symmetry, which initiated an exhaustive but unsuccessful molecular-replacement approach using motifs of 13-fold symmetry such as α- and β-barrels in various geometries. The structure was ultimately determined by using a single α-helix and the software ARCIMBOLDO, which assembles fragments placed by PHASER before using them as seeds for density modification model building in SHELXE. Systematic variation of the helix length revealed upper and lower size limits for successful structure determination. A beautiful but unanticipated structure was obtained that forms superhelices with left-handed twist throughout the crystal, stabilized by ligand interactions. Together with the increasing diversity of structural elements in the Protein Data Bank the results from TIF2 confirm the potential of fragment-based molecular replacement to significantly accelerate the phasing step for native diffraction data at around 2 Å resolution. PMID:25866655

  3. Myositis-specific autoantibodies are specific for myositis compared to genetic muscle disease

    PubMed Central

    Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Lloyd, Thomas E.; Wagner, Kathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the specificity of myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) for autoimmune myopathy compared with inherited muscle diseases. Methods: Serum samples from 47 patients with genetically confirmed inherited muscle diseases were screened for the most common MSAs, including those recognizing TIF1γ, NXP2, Mi2, MDA5, Jo1, SRP, and HMGCR. We compared these results with the findings in a cohort of patients with dermatomyositis (DM) previously screened for anti-TIF1γ, -NXP2, -Mi2, -MDA5, and -Jo1. Results: Overall, the presence of anti-TIF1γ, -NXP2, -Mi2, -MDA5, or -Jo1 was 96% specific and 67% sensitive for DM compared to patients with genetic muscle diseases. No patients with inherited muscle disease had anti-SRP or anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. Only 2 patients with genetic muscle disease had a MSA. One patient with anti-Mi2 autoantibodies had both genetically confirmed facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and dermatomyositis based on a typical skin rash and partial response to immunosuppressive medications. A second patient with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies had both genetically defined limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (i.e., calpainopathy) and a systemic autoimmune process based on biopsy-confirmed lupus nephritis, sicca symptoms, and anti-Ro52 autoantibodies. Conclusions: The MSAs tested for in this study are highly specific for autoimmune muscle disease and are rarely, if ever, found in patients who only have genetic muscle disease. In patients with genetic muscle disease, the presence of a MSA should suggest the possibility of a coexisting autoimmune process. PMID:26668818

  4. Implementation of quality systems by Mexican exporters of processed meat.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Siman, E; Bernal-Alcántara, R; Cadena-Meneses, J A; Altamirano-Cárdenas, J R; Martinez-Hernández, P A

    2014-12-01

    Requirements of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) are becoming essential for international trade in food commodities as a safety assurance component. This research reports the level of the adoption of ISO 9000 and the HACCP system by Federal Inspection Type (TIF) pork-exporting enterprises. Implementation and operating costs are reported as well as the benefits involved in this food industry process. In Mexico, there are 97 companies classified as TIF enterprises, and 22 are registered as exporters of processed pork with the National Services for Safety and Quality and Animal Health of the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food. Surveys were administered to 22 companies, with a 95.2% response rate. Enterprise characteristics were evaluated, as well as their operating activities. Fieldwork consisted of administering structured questionnaires to TIF exporters. All the surveyed enterprises had implemented HACCP, whereas the ISO 9000 regulation was applied in only 30%. Of total production, 75% is exported to 13 countries, and 25% goes to the Mexican market niche. Results indicate that the main factors for adopting HACCP are related to accessibility to international markets, improving quality, and reducing product quality audits by customers. The results also indicated that staff training was the most important issue. Microbiological testing was the highest cost of the operation. The main benefits reported were related to better access to international markets and a considerable reduction in microbial counts. This study shows the willingness of Mexican pork processors to implement food safety protocols for producing safe and quality products to compete in the international food trade.

  5. Ligand- and coactivator-mediated transactivation function (AF2) of the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain is inhibited by the cognate hinge region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Lu, J; Yong, E L

    2001-03-01

    Transactivation functions (AF2) in the ligand-binding domains (LBD) of many steroid receptors are well characterized, but there is little evidence to support such a function for the LBD of the androgen receptor (AR). We report a mutant AR, with residues 628-646 in the hinge region deleted, which exhibited transactivation activity that was more than double that of the wild type (WT) AR. Although no androgen-dependent AF2 activity could be observed for the WT ARLBD fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, the mutant ARLBD(Delta628-646) was 30-40 times more active than the WT ARLBD. In the presence of the p160 coactivator TIF2, AR(Delta628-646) was significantly more active than similarly treated WT AR. Deletion of residues 628-646 also enhanced TIF2-ARLBD activity 8-fold, an effect not present when the LBD-interacting LXXLL motifs of TIF2 were mutated, suggesting that the negative modulatory activity of residues 628-646 were exerted via coactivator pathways. Although the AP-1 (c-Jun/c-Fos) system and NcoR have been reported to interact with and repress the activity of some steroid receptors, c-Jun, c-Fos, c-Jun/c-Fos, nor NcoR function was consistently affected by the absence or presence of residues 628-646, implying that the AR hinge region exerts its silencing effects in a manner independent of these corepressors. Our data provide evidence for the novel finding that strong androgen-dependent AF2 exists in the ARLBD and is the first report of a negative regulatory domain in the AR. Because mutations in this region are commonly associated with prostate cancer, it is important to characterize the mechanisms by which the hinge region exerts its repressor effect on ligand-activated and coactivator-mediated AF2 activity of the ARLBD.

  6. Insights on Glucocorticoid Receptor Activity Modulation through the Binding of Rigid Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Presman, Diego M.; Alvarez, Lautaro D.; Levi, Valeria; Eduardo, Silvina; Digman, Michelle A.; Martí, Marcelo A.; Veleiro, Adriana S.; Burton, Gerardo; Pecci, Adali

    2010-01-01

    Background The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in a ligand-dependent fashion. This modular protein is one of the major pharmacological targets due to its involvement in both cause and treatment of many human diseases. Intense efforts have been made to get information about the molecular basis of GR activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, the behavior of four GR-ligand complexes with different glucocorticoid and antiglucocorticoid properties were evaluated. The ability of GR-ligand complexes to oligomerize in vivo was analyzed by performing the novel Number and Brightness assay. Results showed that most of GR molecules form homodimers inside the nucleus upon ligand binding. Additionally, in vitro GR-DNA binding analyses suggest that ligand structure modulates GR-DNA interaction dynamics rather than the receptor's ability to bind DNA. On the other hand, by coimmunoprecipitation studies we evaluated the in vivo interaction between the transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (TIF2) coactivator and different GR-ligand complexes. No correlation was found between GR intranuclear distribution, cofactor recruitment and the homodimerization process. Finally, Molecular determinants that support the observed experimental GR LBD-ligand/TIF2 interaction were found by Molecular Dynamics simulation. Conclusions/Significance The data presented here sustain the idea that in vivo GR homodimerization inside the nucleus can be achieved in a DNA-independent fashion, without ruling out a dependent pathway as well. Moreover, since at least one GR-ligand complex is able to induce homodimer formation while preventing TIF2 coactivator interaction, results suggest that these two events might be independent from each other. Finally, 21-hydroxy-6,19-epoxyprogesterone arises as a selective glucocorticoid with potential pharmacological interest. Taking into account that GR homodimerization and cofactor recruitment are considered essential

  7. Method for the Synthesis of Dibenzo[g,p]Chrysenes: Domino Friedel-Crafts-Type Cyclization of Difluoroethenes Bearing Two Biaryl Groups.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naoto; Fujita, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Junji

    2015-10-16

    Dibenzo[g,p]chrysenes were readily synthesized via the superacid- or TiF4-mediated domino Friedel-Crafts-type cyclization of 1,1-difluoroethenes bearing two biaryl groups, which were easily prepared via the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of 1,1-difluoro-2,2-diiodoethene or 1-(biphenyl-2-yl)-1-bromo-2,2-difluoroethene. Using this approach, the activation of both vinylic and aromatic C-F bonds was successfully achieved to make new C-C bonds.

  8. The effect of daily fluoride mouth rinsing on enamel erosive/abrasive wear in situ.

    PubMed

    Stenhagen, K R; Hove, L H; Holme, B; Tveit, A B

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether application of fluoride agents on enamel results in lasting resistance to erosive/abrasive wear. We investigated if one daily mouth rinse with sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF(2)) or titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) solutions protected enamel against erosive/abrasive wear in situ (a paired, randomised and blind study). Sixteen molars were cut into 4 specimens, each with one amalgam filling (measurement reference surface). Two teeth (2 × 4 specimens) were mounted bilaterally (buccal aspects) on acrylic mandibular appliances and worn for 9 days by 8 volunteers. Every morning, the specimens were brushed manually with water (30 s) extra-orally. Then fluoride solutions (0.4% SnF(2) pH 2.5; 0.15% TiF(4) pH 2.1; 0.2% NaF pH 6.5, all 0.05 M F) were applied (2 min). Three of the specimens from each tooth got different treatment, and the fourth served as control. At midday, the specimens were etched for 2 min in 300 ml fresh 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and rinsed in tap water. This etch procedure was repeated in the afternoon. Topographic measurements were performed by a white-light interferometer. Mean surface loss (±SD) for 16 teeth after 9 days was: SnF(2) 1.8 ± 1.9 µm, TiF(4) 3.1 ± 4.8 µm, NaF 26.3 ± 4.7 µm, control 32.3 ± 4.4 µm. Daily rinse with SnF(2), TiF(4) and NaF resulted in 94, 90 and 18% reduction in enamel erosive/abrasive wear, respectively, compared with control (p < 0.05). The superior protective effect of daily rinse with either stannous or titanium tetrafluoride solutions on erosive/abrasive enamel wear is promising.

  9. Validation of the Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus (PRQA) for simulation of aircraft motions for ride-quality research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, W. B., II

    1977-01-01

    The NASA passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA), a ground based motion simulator, was compared to the total in flight simulator (TIFS). Tests were made on PRQA with varying stimuli: motions only; motions and noise; motions, noise, and visual; and motions and visual. Regression equations for the tests were obtained and subsequent t-testing of the slopes indicated that ground based simulator tests produced comfort change rates similar to actual flight data. It was recommended that PRQA be used in the ride quality program for aircraft and that it be validated for other transportation modes.

  10. A Descriptive in vitro Electron Microscopic Study of Acidic Fluoride-Treated Enamel: Potential Anti-Erosion Effects.

    PubMed

    Hjortsjö, Carl; Young, Alix; Kiesow, Andreas; Cismak, Andreas; Berthold, Lutz; Petzold, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface zones of acidic fluoride-treated enamel. Human teeth were each divided into three or four enamel specimens that were treated for 10 min with solutions of 0.2 and 0.4% HF (pH 3.09 and 2.94), 1.74% SnF2 (pH 2.9), 0.68% TiF4 (pH 1.6) and 0.84% NaF (pH 4.5). Untreated specimens functioned as negative controls. The microstructure and elemental composition of the surface zones were studied by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanospot-EDX following cross-sectional preparation using focused ion beam technology. TEM/EDX analyses of NaF-treated specimens showed a 500-nm-thick closed surface film containing 20-40 at% (atomic percent) F. HF-treated specimens had a distinct surface film 200-600 nm thick (dense, not globular) containing 45-47 at% F. TiF4-treated specimens had a surface film of 200-300 nm in thickness containing 8-11 at% Ti but no detectable fluoride. SnF2-treated specimens had a modified surface enamel layer varying in thickness from 200 to 800 nm with an inhomogeneous distribution of Sn. Local spots were detected with as high as 8 at% Sn (30 wt%, weight percent). The results suggest that the reaction mechanisms of SnF2 and TiF4 solutions with dental enamel differ from those occurring after enamel exposure to acidulated NaF and HF solutions. While the HF and NaF treatments resulted in the formation of CaF2-like material as shown by EDX, no significant surface fluoridation was found for SnF2 and TiF4 solutions within the TEM/EDX detection limits. These results suggest that the erosion-protective mechanisms of these latter compounds probably relate more to the formation of hardly soluble and acid-resistant reaction surface films and less to surface fluoride incorporation.

  11. Ride quality of terminal-area flight maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Complex terminal-area flight maneuvers being considered for airline operations may not be acceptable to passengers. To provide technology in this area, a series of flight experiments was conducted by NASA using the U. S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft to obtain subjective responses of a significant number of passenger test subjects to closely controlled and repeatable flight maneuvers. Regression analysis of the data produced a mathematical model which closely predicts mean passenger ride-comfort rating as a function of the rms six-degree-of-freedom aircraft motions during the maneuver. This ride-comfort model was exercised to examine various synthesized flight maneuvers.

  12. A Descriptive in vitro Electron Microscopic Study of Acidic Fluoride-Treated Enamel: Potential Anti-Erosion Effects.

    PubMed

    Hjortsjö, Carl; Young, Alix; Kiesow, Andreas; Cismak, Andreas; Berthold, Lutz; Petzold, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface zones of acidic fluoride-treated enamel. Human teeth were each divided into three or four enamel specimens that were treated for 10 min with solutions of 0.2 and 0.4% HF (pH 3.09 and 2.94), 1.74% SnF2 (pH 2.9), 0.68% TiF4 (pH 1.6) and 0.84% NaF (pH 4.5). Untreated specimens functioned as negative controls. The microstructure and elemental composition of the surface zones were studied by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanospot-EDX following cross-sectional preparation using focused ion beam technology. TEM/EDX analyses of NaF-treated specimens showed a 500-nm-thick closed surface film containing 20-40 at% (atomic percent) F. HF-treated specimens had a distinct surface film 200-600 nm thick (dense, not globular) containing 45-47 at% F. TiF4-treated specimens had a surface film of 200-300 nm in thickness containing 8-11 at% Ti but no detectable fluoride. SnF2-treated specimens had a modified surface enamel layer varying in thickness from 200 to 800 nm with an inhomogeneous distribution of Sn. Local spots were detected with as high as 8 at% Sn (30 wt%, weight percent). The results suggest that the reaction mechanisms of SnF2 and TiF4 solutions with dental enamel differ from those occurring after enamel exposure to acidulated NaF and HF solutions. While the HF and NaF treatments resulted in the formation of CaF2-like material as shown by EDX, no significant surface fluoridation was found for SnF2 and TiF4 solutions within the TEM/EDX detection limits. These results suggest that the erosion-protective mechanisms of these latter compounds probably relate more to the formation of hardly soluble and acid-resistant reaction surface films and less to surface fluoride incorporation. PMID:26536617

  13. Recent trends in the management of achalasia.

    PubMed

    Katada, Natsuya; Sakuramoto, Shinichi; Yamashita, Keishi; Shibata, Tomotaka; Moriya, Hiromitsu; Kikuchi, Shiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    Radical treatment for achalasia is currently unavailable. At present, most palliative procedures are designed improve the passage of food through the gastroesophageal junction and thereby alleviate symptoms. Drug therapy is of limited, transient effectiveness. Pneumatic dilation (PD) is considered superior to endoscopic botulinum toxin injection (EBTI). The mainstay of surgical treatment for achalasia is laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) with fundoplication, currently considered superior to PD. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), a "state-of-the-art" procedure for minimally invasive surgery, holds great promise for the future management of achalasia. Definitive conclusions regarding the benefits and risks of currently available treatments for achalasia must await the accumulation of evidence from well-designed clinical trials. PMID:23099422

  14. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Pescarus, Radu; Shlomovitz, Eran; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2014-01-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new minimally invasive endoscopic treatment for achalasia. Since the first modern human cases were published in 2008, around 2,000 cases have been performed worldwide. This technique requires advanced endoscopic skills and a learning curve of at least 20 cases. POEM is highly successful with over 90 % improvement in dysphagia while offering patients the advantage of a low impact endoscopic access. The main long-term complication is gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with an estimated incidence of 35 %, similar to the incidence of GER post-laparoscopic Heller with fundoplication. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of achalasia, more long-term data are clearly needed to further define its role in the treatment algorithm of this rare disease. PMID:24362953

  15. Novel surgical options for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Jenny; Soffer, Edy

    2015-07-01

    There are limited options to patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who are not satisfied with acid suppression therapy. Fundoplication, the standard surgical procedure for GERD, is effective but is associated with adverse side effects and has thus been performed less frequently, creating a need for alternative surgical interventions that are effective, yet less invasive and reversible. Lately, two such interventions were developed: the magnetic sphincter augmentation and electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Human studies describing safety and efficacy over a follow-up period of a number of years have been published, documenting efficacy and safety of these interventions. Future studies should clarify the role of these procedures in the spectrum of GERD therapy. PMID:25947638

  16. Laparoscopic repair of giant paraesophageal hernia with synthetic mesh: 45 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, George; Flessas, Ioannis I; Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros; Zagouri, Flora; Theodoropoulos, George; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Tsamis, Dimitrios; Spyropoulos, Basilios G; Zografos, George C

    2012-04-01

    Giant paraesophageal hernias (PEHs) are associated with progression of symptoms in up to 45 per cent of patients. Recently, many series have reported that laparoscopic repair of PEH is technically feasible, effective, and safe. A retrospective review of the University of Athens tertiary care hospitals patient database and the patient medical records identified 45 patients who underwent elective repair of a giant PEH between 2002 and 2009. Elective laparoscopic repair of a giant PEH was attempted in 45 patients who were treated with Gore-Tex dual mesh with or without Nissen fundoplication. They all had a mesh repair. Intraoperative complications included one pulmonary embolism and one recurrent hernia. The use of a mesh seems to be effective in the treatment of large hernias. It appears to offer the benefit of a shorter hospital stay and a quicker recovery.

  17. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic digestive surgery: Present and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanjuán, Juan C; Gómez-Ruiz, Marcos; Trugeda-Carrera, Soledad; Manuel-Palazuelos, Carlos; López-Useros, Antonio; Gómez-Fleitas, Manuel

    2016-02-14

    Laparoscopic surgery is applied today worldwide to most digestive procedures. In some of them, such as cholecystectomy, Nissen's fundoplication or obesity surgery, laparoscopy has become the standard in practice. In others, such as colon or gastric resection, the laparoscopic approach is frequently used and its usefulness is unquestionable. More complex procedures, such as esophageal, liver or pancreatic resections are, however, more infrequently performed, due to the high grade of skill necessary. As a result, there is less clinical evidence to support its implementation. In the recent years, robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery has been increasingly applied, again with little evidence for comparison with the conventional laparoscopic approach. This review will focus on the complex digestive procedures as well as those whose use in standard practice could be more controversial. Also novel robot-assisted procedures will be updated. PMID:26877605

  18. Antroduodenal motility in neurologically handicapped children with feeding intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Werlin, Steven L

    2004-01-01

    Background Dysphagia and feeding intolerance are common in neurologically handicapped children. The aim is to determine the etiologies of feeding intolerance in neurologically handicapped children who are intolerant of tube feedings. Methods Eighteen neurologically handicapped children, followed in the Tube Feeding Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin who were intolerant of gastrostomy feedings. The charts of these 18 patients were reviewed. Past medical history, diagnoses, history of fundoplication and results of various tests of gastrointestinal function including barium contrast radiography, endoscopy and antroduodenal manometry were documented. Results Five of 11 children had abnormal barium upper gastrointestinal series. Seven of 14 had abnormal liquid phase gastric emptying tests. Two of 16 had esophagitis on endoscopy. All 18 children had abnormal antroduodenal motility. Conclusions In neurologically handicapped children foregut dysmotility may be more common than is generally recognized and can explain many of the upper gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologically handicapped children. PMID:15341670

  19. [Differencial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease -- eosinophilic esophagitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Franzius, M; Stolte, M; Porschen, R

    2005-04-01

    We report on a 22-year-old man with dysphagia and repeated bolus impaction in the esophagus for 10 years. Bolus impactions were frequently mobilised using an endoscope. At endoscopy, esophagitis IV degrees was described. After treatment with omeprazol there was no improvement. The patient was submitted to our hospital for fundoplication. pH-metry demonstrated an increased reflux. At endoscopy of the esophagus, we found red stripes which did not show the typical appearance of erosions. Manometry and X-ray films of the esophagus did not reveal any pathological findings. In combination with anamnesis, symptoms, and endoscopy, the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was documented by histology. After administration of oral corticosteroids a rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms was observed. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis should be kept in mind in patients with chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux persisting despite medical therapy, pathological pH-metry and repeated bolus impactions.

  20. [Modern aspects of surgical treatment with gastroesophageal reflux desease: our experience and literature review].

    PubMed

    Kiladze, M; Giuashvili, Sh

    2011-10-01

    It is presented our experience and review of literature of pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnostics and surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux desease (GERD). A cohort of 104 patients (67 males and 37 females, median age - 42.5) who underwent "open" A. Chernousov modified Nissen fundoplication was evaluated for an follow-up period more than 10 years. In 23 cases with concomitant duodenal ulcer and gastric hypersecretion selective proximal vagotomy additionally was performed, 3 of them also underwent cholecistectomy and in 1 case - splenectomy because of spleen lymphoma. There were no mortality or major perioperative complication (1 case of iatrogenic splenectomy) in our series. Only 9 patients have transient episodes of mild dysphagia. Postoperative endoscopy an X-Ray revealed a good swallow and functional status of esophagus and stomach. The good and excellent results were achieved in more 90% of cases. No reinterventional surgery was needed. PMID:22155800

  1. Distal Esophageal Duplication Cyst with Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease: A Rare Association and a Management Challenge.

    PubMed

    Jan, Iftikhar Ahmad; Al Nuaimi, Asma; Al Hamoudi, Basma; Al Naqbi, Khalid; Bilal, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities of the foregut and may be associated with other conditions. Association of esophageal duplication with Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) has not been reported in children. We are reporting a case of a 16 months baby who had antenatal diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia. Postnatal CTchest, however, suggested a distal esophageal duplication cyst and a contrast esophagogram showed grade-IV GER. A thoracoscopy in another hospital excluded esophageal duplication at that time. Later, he presented with hematemesis in our department and was re-evaluated. Repeat CTconfirmed a persistent 2.5 x 1.3 cm cyst in distal esophagus. Upper GI endoscopy suggested grade-II esophagitis with a wide patent gastro-esophageal junction. The child was treated with left thoracotomy, excision of the duplication cyst and thoracic fundoplication. He had an uneventful post-operative recovery and is doing well at 6 months follow-up. PMID:26876405

  2. Noncompliance is an impact factor in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Gerson; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2014-09-01

    The basis of pharmacological treatment of the gastroesophageal reflux disease is the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) which provide effective gastric acid secretion blockade. However, PPI therapy failure may occur in up to 42% of patients. The main causes for therapeutic failure are non-acid or weakly acid reflux, genotypic differences, presence of comorbidities, wrong diagnosis and lack of treatment compliance. Noncompliance is an important issue and should be carefully observed. Several studies addressed patient compliance and 20-50% of patients may present lack of compliance to the PPI prescribed. When symptoms persist depite adherence has been confirmed, it is recommended to substitute the prescribed PPI to another of the same class or alternatively, prescription of a double dose of the same drug. When even so the symptoms persist, other causes of failure should be assigned. In particular cases of PPI failure, fundoplication surgery may be indicated.

  3. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Allum, William H.; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.; Parry, Kevin; Preston, Shaun R.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Schaheen, Lara W.; Tatum, Roger P.; Turkin, Igor N.; van der Horst, Sylvia; van der Peet, Donald L.; van der Sluis, Peter C.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wormald, Justin C.R.; Wu, Peter C.; Zonderhuis, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy. PMID:25266029

  4. The Optimal Approach to Symptomatic Paraesophageal Hernia Repair: Important Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Jessica A; Lidor, Anne O

    2016-10-01

    While the asymptomatic paraesophageal hernia (PEH) can be observed safely, surgery is indicated for symptomatic hernias. Laparoscopic repair is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality; however, it is associated with a higher rate of radiologic recurrence when compared with the open approach. Though a majority of patients experience good symptomatic relief from laparoscopic repair, strict adherence to good technique is critical to minimize recurrence. The fundamental steps of laparoscopic PEH repair include adequate mediastinal mobilization of the esophagus, tension-free approximation of the diaphragmatic crura, and gastric fundoplication. Collis gastroplasty, mesh reinforcement, use of relaxing incisions, and anterior gastropexy are just a few adjuncts to basic principles that can be utilized and have been widely studied in recent years. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of literature addressing key aspects and controversies regarding the optimal approach to repairing paraesophageal hernias laparoscopically. PMID:27595155

  5. The Outcome of Laparoscopic Surgery With and Without Short Gastric Vessel Division for Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Akutsu, Yasunori; Hanari, Naoyuki; Kono, Tsuguaki; Uesato, Masaya; Hoshino, Isamu; Murakami, Kentaro; Natsume, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Yuka; Akanuma, Naoki; Toyozumi, Takeshi; Suito, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2014-01-01

    Short gastric vessel division (SGVD) has been performed as a part of fundoplication for achalasia. However, whether or not SGVD is necessary is still unknown. Forty-six patients with achalasia who underwent a laparoscopic surgery with or without SGVD were analyzed. A questionnaire was administered to assess the postoperative improvement. Regarding improvement of dysphagia and postoperative reflux, there were no significant differences between SGVD (+) group and SGVD (−) group (P = 0.588 and P = 0.686, respectively). Nineteen patients (95%) in the SGVD (+) group and 24 (92%) in the SGVD (−) group answered that the surgery was satisfactory (P = 0.756). In the SGVD (+) group, the pre- and postsurgical body weight increase was +7.3%. In the SGVD (−) group, it was 8.2%. There was no significant difference of body weight increase between the 2 groups (P = 0.354). SGVD is not always required in laparoscopic surgery for achalasia. PMID:25437598

  6. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic digestive surgery: Present and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sanjuán, Juan C; Gómez-Ruiz, Marcos; Trugeda-Carrera, Soledad; Manuel-Palazuelos, Carlos; López-Useros, Antonio; Gómez-Fleitas, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is applied today worldwide to most digestive procedures. In some of them, such as cholecystectomy, Nissen’s fundoplication or obesity surgery, laparoscopy has become the standard in practice. In others, such as colon or gastric resection, the laparoscopic approach is frequently used and its usefulness is unquestionable. More complex procedures, such as esophageal, liver or pancreatic resections are, however, more infrequently performed, due to the high grade of skill necessary. As a result, there is less clinical evidence to support its implementation. In the recent years, robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery has been increasingly applied, again with little evidence for comparison with the conventional laparoscopic approach. This review will focus on the complex digestive procedures as well as those whose use in standard practice could be more controversial. Also novel robot-assisted procedures will be updated. PMID:26877605

  7. Gastrointestinal tract obstruction secondary to post-operative oedema: does dexamethasone administration help?

    PubMed Central

    Atie, M.; Khoma, O.; Dunn, G.; Falk, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Oedema can occur in handled tissues following upper gastrointestinal surgery with anastomosis formation. Obstruction of the lumen may result in delayed return of enteric function. Intravenous steroid use may be beneficial. Three cases of delayed emptying following fundoplication, gastro-enteric and entero-enteric anastomoses are reviewed. Conservative management with supportive measures failed. Dexamethasone was administered to treat the oedematous obstruction. A literature review in PubMed, Cochrane database and Medline for English language publications on the use of dexamethasone in the treatment of acute post surgical oedema of the upper gastrointestinal was conducted. Administration of dexamethasone led to resolution of symptoms and successful outcome. No reports on the use of steroids in this context were identified in the literature. The use of dexamethasone may effectively treat intestinal obstruction due to inflammatory or oedematous cause in the early post-operative period. PMID:27554826

  8. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic digestive surgery: Present and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanjuán, Juan C; Gómez-Ruiz, Marcos; Trugeda-Carrera, Soledad; Manuel-Palazuelos, Carlos; López-Useros, Antonio; Gómez-Fleitas, Manuel

    2016-02-14

    Laparoscopic surgery is applied today worldwide to most digestive procedures. In some of them, such as cholecystectomy, Nissen's fundoplication or obesity surgery, laparoscopy has become the standard in practice. In others, such as colon or gastric resection, the laparoscopic approach is frequently used and its usefulness is unquestionable. More complex procedures, such as esophageal, liver or pancreatic resections are, however, more infrequently performed, due to the high grade of skill necessary. As a result, there is less clinical evidence to support its implementation. In the recent years, robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery has been increasingly applied, again with little evidence for comparison with the conventional laparoscopic approach. This review will focus on the complex digestive procedures as well as those whose use in standard practice could be more controversial. Also novel robot-assisted procedures will be updated.

  9. Focused ultrasound as a non-invasive intervention for neurological disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Piper, Rory J; Hughes, Mark A; Moran, Carmel M; Kandasamy, Jothy

    2016-06-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) is an incision-less intervention that is a Food and Drug Association (FDA) approved surgical treatment for various pathologies including uterine fibroids and bone metastases. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging thermometry and ability to use FUS across the intact calvarium have re-opened interest in the use of FUS in the treatment of neurological diseases. FUS currently has a European CE mark for use in movement disorders. However, it shows potential in the treatment of other neuropathologies including tumours and as a lesional tool in epilepsy. FUS may exert its therapeutic effect through thermal or mechanical fragmentation of intracranial lesions, or by enhancing delivery of pharmaceutical agents across the blood-brain barrier. In this review, we summarise the mechanisms, clinical applications and potential future of FUS for the treatment of neurological disease. We have searched for and described the recently completed and on-going clinical trials investigating FUS for the treatment of neurological disorders. We identified phase one trials investigating utility of FUS in: movement disorders (including essential tremor and Parkinson's disease), chronic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder and cerebral tumours. Current literature also reports pre-clinical work exploring utility in epilepsy, neurodegenerative conditions (such as Alzheimer's disease) and thrombolysis. Safety and early efficacy data are now emerging, suggesting that transcalvarial FUS is a feasible and safe intervention. Further evidence is required to determine whether FUS is an effective alternative in comparison to current neurosurgical interventions. The cost of requisite hardware is currently a barrier to widespread uptake in UK neurosurgical centres. PMID:27101792

  10. Focused ultrasound as a non-invasive intervention for neurological disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Piper, Rory J; Hughes, Mark A; Moran, Carmel M; Kandasamy, Jothy

    2016-06-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) is an incision-less intervention that is a Food and Drug Association (FDA) approved surgical treatment for various pathologies including uterine fibroids and bone metastases. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging thermometry and ability to use FUS across the intact calvarium have re-opened interest in the use of FUS in the treatment of neurological diseases. FUS currently has a European CE mark for use in movement disorders. However, it shows potential in the treatment of other neuropathologies including tumours and as a lesional tool in epilepsy. FUS may exert its therapeutic effect through thermal or mechanical fragmentation of intracranial lesions, or by enhancing delivery of pharmaceutical agents across the blood-brain barrier. In this review, we summarise the mechanisms, clinical applications and potential future of FUS for the treatment of neurological disease. We have searched for and described the recently completed and on-going clinical trials investigating FUS for the treatment of neurological disorders. We identified phase one trials investigating utility of FUS in: movement disorders (including essential tremor and Parkinson's disease), chronic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder and cerebral tumours. Current literature also reports pre-clinical work exploring utility in epilepsy, neurodegenerative conditions (such as Alzheimer's disease) and thrombolysis. Safety and early efficacy data are now emerging, suggesting that transcalvarial FUS is a feasible and safe intervention. Further evidence is required to determine whether FUS is an effective alternative in comparison to current neurosurgical interventions. The cost of requisite hardware is currently a barrier to widespread uptake in UK neurosurgical centres.

  11. A new concept in the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed Central

    Samelson, S L; Weiser, H F; Bombeck, C T; Siewert, J R; Ludtke, F E; Hoelscher, A H; Abuabara, S F; Nyhus, L M

    1983-01-01

    Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux has been thought to depend on the construction of a valve mechanism at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Recently, a silicone prosthesis that does not construct a valve has been introduced, and in preliminary studies in the human, shown to be effective in the treatment of reflux. A precise mode of action has not been demonstrated for the prosthesis. This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanics of the prosthesis and determine its effectiveness in an animal model. Six canine gastroesophageal specimens were excised and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) simulated by a rubber band placed around the GEJ at a tension calibrated to give 25 mmHg "sphincter" pressure. Circumferential silk ligatures of varying length were then placed on the stomach 3.0 cm distal to the GEJ. With no ligature, the LES opening pressure (LESOP) was 8.0 mmHg, varying to 17.0 mmHg with an 8.0 cm ligature. Further, 24 adult mongrel dogs were randomly divided into four equal groups: controls, circular myomectomy of the LES alone, myomectomy combined with fundoplication, and myomectomy combined with implantation of the silicone antireflux prosthesis. Evaluation included manometry, endoscopy, and histology. Although only the normal sphincter and fundoplication responded physiologically, the prosthesis was just as effective in preventing reflux, as evidenced by reducing acid exposure time of myomectomized dogs from 35.4% to 1.8%, and by preventing endoscopic esophagitis. It was concluded that the silicone antireflux prosthesis acts in the same fashion as the ligature in the model, by interrupting distraction of the LES by gastric wall tension. This concept is an effective method for raising LESOP, treating experimental gastroesophageal reflux, and eliminating the sequelae of reflux. Long-term evaluations of the prosthesis are required. PMID:6830333

  12. Hiatal Hernia Repair with Novel Biological Graft Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Sasse, Kent C.; Ackerman, Ellen; Brandt, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hiatal hernias are repaired laparoscopically with increasing use of reinforcement material. Both synthetic and biologically derived materials reduce the recurrence rate compared to primary crural repair. Synthetic mesh introduces complications, such as mesh erosion, fibrosis, and infection. Urinary bladder matrix (UBM) represents a biologically derived material for use in hiatal hernia repair reinforcement with the potential to improve durability of repair without incurring the risks of other reinforcement materials. Methods: The 15 cases presented involved hiatal hernia repair with primary crural repair with UBM reinforcement and fundoplication. Patients were followed for an average of 3 years, and were assessed with upper gastrointestinal (GI) series, endoscopy, and assessments of subjective symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Results: Hernia diameters averaged 6 cm. Each repair was successful and completed laparoscopically. UBM exhibited favorable handling characteristics when placed as a horseshoe-type graft sutured to the crura. One patient underwent endoscopic balloon dilatation of a mild postoperative stenosis that resolved. No other complications occurred. In more than 3 years of follow-up, there have been no recurrences or long-term complications. GERD-health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores averaged 6 (range, 0–12, of a possible 50), indicating little reflux symptomatology. Follow-up upper GI series were obtained in 9 cases and showed intact repairs. An upper endoscopy was performed in 8 patients and showed no recurrences. Conclusion: Surgeons may safely use laparoscopic fundoplication with UBM reinforcement for successful repair of hiatal hernias. In this series, repairs with UBM grafts have been durable at 3 years of follow-up and may serve as an alternative to synthetic mesh reinforcement of hiatal hernia repairs. PMID:27186066

  13. Role of robotic-assisted surgery in benign esophageal diseases.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Shireesh; Unger, Eric; Grossman, Julie; Couto, Francisco; Singh, Namrata; Lind, David Scott; Panait, Lucian; Castellanos, Andres

    2014-06-01

    Laparoscopic treatment of benign esophageal conditions is technically complex with several inherent limitations. Robotic-assisted surgery provides technical improvement and helps to overcome some of these limitations. We therefore report a single surgeon's experience in management of benign esophageal diseases by robotic-assisted surgery. Over a period of 8 consecutive years, a retrospective chart review was performed of 105 patients who underwent robotic-assisted surgery for benign esophageal diseases by a single surgeon. Demographic data and outcome measures were studied. The robotic-assisted procedures included 85 Nissen fundoplications with and without mesh repair, 12 Heller myotomies and eight para-esophageal hernia repairs. The mean total operating time was lowest for the Nissen group (94 min) and highest for the para-esophageal group (183 min). Operating time decreased from a mean of 105 min in the first 20 cases to 84 min in the last 20 cases for the Nissen group (P = 0.014). The mean length of stay was 1.3, 1.6, 1.5 and 4.8 days for the groups, respectively. Persistent symptoms of dysphagia/reflux/dysphonia requiring further investigation were seen in nine (8 %) of these patients. Two of these patients required repeat Nissen fundoplication in the mesh group. Our complication rate, total operating time and length of stay for robotic-assisted benign esophageal surgery are comparable to those reported in the literature. When performed by an experienced surgeon, robotic-assisted surgery is safe and effective in the management of benign esophageal diseases.

  14. Durability of laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Edye, M B; Canin-Endres, J; Gattorno, F; Salky, B A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To define a method of primary repair that would minimize hernia recurrence and to report medium-term follow-up of patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia to verify durability of the repair and to assess the effect of inclusion of an antireflux procedure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Primary paraesophageal hernia repair was completed laparoscopically in 55 patients. There were five recurrences within 6 months when the sac was not excised (20%). After institution of a technique of total sac excision in 30 subsequent repairs, no early recurrences were observed. METHODS: Inclusion of an antireflux procedure, incidence of subsequent hernia recurrence, dysphagia, and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were recorded in clinical follow-up of patients who underwent a laparoscopic procedure. RESULTS: Mean length of follow-up was 29 months. Forty-nine patients were available for follow-up, and one patient had died of lung cancer. Mean age at surgery was 68 years. The surgical morbidity rate in elderly patients was no greater than in younger patients. Eleven patients (22%) had symptoms of mild to moderate reflux, and 15 were taking acid-reduction medication for a variety of dyspeptic complaints. All but 2 of these 15 had undergone 360 degrees fundoplication at initial repair. Two patients (4%) had late recurrent hernia, each small, demonstrated by esophagram or endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic repair in the medium term appeared durable. The incidence of postsurgical reflux symptoms was unrelated to inclusion of an antireflux procedure. In the absence of motility data, partial fundoplication was preferred, although dysphagia after floppy 360 degrees wrap was rare. With the low morbidity rate of this procedure, correction of symptomatic paraesophageal hernia appears indicated in patients regardless of age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9790342

  15. Early shutoff of host protein synthesis in cells infected with herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Matis, J; Kúdelová, M

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are capable of suppressing the host cell protein synthesis even without viral gene expression. This phenomenon is known as the early shutoff or as the virion-associated host shutoff (vhs) to emphasize that it is mediated by a component of infecting virions which is a product of the UL41 (vhs) gene. The UL41 encoded protein is a functional tegument protein also present in light (L) particles and is not essential for virus replication. The major product of UL41 gene is a 58 K phosphoprotein. At least two forms of UL41 protein differing in the extent of phosphorylation are present in HSV-1-infected cells. HSV-2 compared to HSV-1 strains display a stronger vhs phenotype. However, in superinfection experiments the less strong vhs phenotype is dominant. UL41 protein triggers disruption of polysomes and rapid degradation of all host and viral mRNAs and blocks a reporter gene expression without other HSVs proteins. The available evidence suggests that UL41 protein is either itself a ribonuclease (RNase) or a subunit of RNase that contains also one or more cellular subunits. UL41 protein is capable of interacting with a transactivator of an alpha-gene, the alpha-transinducing factor (alpha-TIF). Interaction of UL41 protein with alpha-TIF down regulates the UL41 (vhs) gene activity during lytic infection. The possible role of other viral proteins in the shutoff is discussed.

  16. In vivo model for microbial invasion of tooth root dentinal tubules

    PubMed Central

    BRITTAN, Jane L; SPRAGUE, Susan V; MACDONALD, Emma L; LOVE, Robert M; JENKINSON, Howard F; WEST, Nicola X

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Bacterial penetration of dentinal tubules via exposed dentine can lead to root caries and promote infections of the pulp and root canal system. The aim of this work was to develop a new experimental model for studying bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules within the human oral cavity. Material and Methods Sections of human root dentine were mounted into lower oral appliances that were worn by four human subjects for 15 d. Roots were then fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically for evidence of bacterial invasion. Levels of invasion were expressed as Tubule Invasion Factor (TIF). DNA was extracted from root samples, subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes, and invading bacteria were identified by comparison of sequences with GenBank database. Results All root dentine samples with patent tubules showed evidence of bacterial cell invasion (TIF value range from 5.7 to 9.0) to depths of 200 mm or more. A spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell morphotypes were visualized, and molecular typing identified species of Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas as dentinal tubule residents. Conclusion A novel in vivo model is described, which provides for human root dentine to be efficiently infected by oral microorganisms. A range of bacteria were able to initially invade dentinal tubules within exposed dentine. The model will be useful for testing the effectiveness of antiseptics, irrigants, and potential tubule occluding agents in preventing bacterial invasion of dentine. PMID:27119760

  17. [Detection of SOS response inhibitor with E. coli GW1104 and GW1107 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Qian, J; Jin, Z C

    1994-03-01

    E. coli GW1104 and GW1107 are temperature-sensitive strains carrying a fusion gene umu:: Mud(Ap,lac) with genotypes recA441 (tif-1) and recA441 (tif-1),lexA (Def) (spr), respectively. SOS response can be produced spontaneously at 32 degrees C in E. coli GW1107, and induced at 42 degrees C in both E. coli GW1107 and GW1104. To detect SOS response inhibitor and to study its mechanism, a quick-test-system was established based on their genetic characteristics of the two strains. It was found some kinds of Chinese herbal medicine, vegetables, and chemicals could inhibit SOS response in the strains to different extent with varied mechanisms. Shell of water chestnut could inhibit temperature-induced SOS response at 42 degrees C in E. coli GW1104, and spontaneously-produced one at 32 degrees C in E.coli GW1107. Chinese chives can only inhibit temperature-induced SOS response in E. coli GW1104. It suggested the former's inhibition effect on SOS response occurred at lexA gene or on the pathway of SOS response before lexA gene, and so did the latter's on the pathway after lexA gene.

  18. Augmenter of liver regeneration inhibits TGF-β1-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing TβR II expression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Guo-tao; Yan, Ru-yu; Sun, Hang; Guo, Hui; Liu, Qi

    2014-10-01

    Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in the progression of renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF), which subsequently leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We propose that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a member of the newly discovered ALR/Erv1 protein family shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, plays a similar protective role in renal tubular cells and has potential as a new treatment option for CKD. Here, we showed that recombinant human ALR (rhALR) inhibits EMT in renal tubular cells by antagonizing activation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that rhALR suppresses the expression of TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II) and significantly alleviates TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). No apparent adverse effects were observed upon the addition of rhALR alone to cells. These findings collectively suggest that ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT, supporting its potential utility as an effective antifibrotic strategy to reverse TIF in CKD. - Highlights: • ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal EMT in NRK-52E cells. • ALR suppresses the expression of TβRII and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and NF-κB. • ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT.

  19. Deducing the temporal order of cofactor function in ligand-regulated gene transcription: theory and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Edward J; Guo, Chunhua; Simons, S Stoney; Chow, Carson C

    2012-01-01

    Cofactors are intimately involved in steroid-regulated gene expression. Two critical questions are (1) the steps at which cofactors exert their biological activities and (2) the nature of that activity. Here we show that a new mathematical theory of steroid hormone action can be used to deduce the kinetic properties and reaction sequence position for the functioning of any two cofactors relative to a concentration limiting step (CLS) and to each other. The predictions of the theory, which can be applied using graphical methods similar to those of enzyme kinetics, are validated by obtaining internally consistent data for pair-wise analyses of three cofactors (TIF2, sSMRT, and NCoR) in U2OS cells. The analysis of TIF2 and sSMRT actions on GR-induction of an endogenous gene gave results identical to those with an exogenous reporter. Thus new tools to determine previously unobtainable information about the nature and position of cofactor action in any process displaying first-order Hill plot kinetics are now available.

  20. An approach to distribution short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Gaustad, K.L.

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports on the developments and findings of the Distribution Short-Term Load Forecaster (DSTLF) research activity. The objective of this research is to develop a distribution short-term load forecasting technology consisting of a forecasting method, development methodology, theories necessary to support required technical components, and the hardware and software tools required to perform the forecast The DSTLF consists of four major components: monitored endpoint load forecaster (MELF), nonmonitored endpoint load forecaster (NELF), topological integration forecaster (TIF), and a dynamic tuner. These components interact to provide short-term forecasts at various points in the, distribution system, eg., feeder, line section, and endpoint. This paper discusses the DSTLF methodology and MELF component MELF, based on artificial neural network technology, predicts distribution endpoint loads for an hour, a day, and a week in advance. Predictions are developed using time, calendar, historical load, and weather data. The overall DSTLF architecture and a prototype MELF module for retail endpoints have been developed. Future work will be focused on refining and extending MELF and developing NELF and TIF capabilities.

  1. Detection of particle flow patterns in tumor by directional spatial frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Stewart; Camara, Hawa; Shi, Lingyan; Hoopes, P. Jack; Kaufman, Peter; Pogue, Brian; Alfano, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is well known to be chaotic and limited, partly from dysfunctional vasculature, but also because of microscopic regional variations in composition. Modeling the of transport of nanoparticle therapeutics, therefore must include not only a description of vascular permeability, but also of the movement of the drug as suspended in tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) once it leaves the blood vessel. Understanding of this area is limited because we currently lack the tools and analytical methods to characterize it. We have previously shown that directional anisotropy of drug delivery can be detected using Directional Fourier Spatial Frequency (DFSF) Analysis. Here we extend this approach to generate flow line maps of nanoparticle transport in TIF relative to tumor ultrastructure, and show that features of tumor spatial heterogeneity can be identified that are directly related to local flow isometries. The identification of these regions of limited flow may be used as a metric for determining response to therapy, or for the optimization of adjuvant therapies such as radiation pre-treatment, or enzymatic degradation.

  2. Isolation and functional characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in translation initiation factor eIF5: an eIF5-dependent cell-free translation system.

    PubMed

    Maiti, T; Das, S; Maitra, U

    2000-02-22

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (eIF5) interacts with the 40S ribosomal initiation complex (40S.eIF3.AUG.Met-tRNA(f).eIF2.GTP) to promote the hydrolysis of bound GTP. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, eIF5, a protein of 45346Da, is encoded by a single-copy essential gene, TIF5. In this paper, we have isolated a temperature-sensitive S. cerevisiae strain, TMY5-1, by replacing the wild-type chromosomal copy of TIF5 with one mutagenized in vitro. The mutant yeast cells rapidly cease protein synthesis when grown under non-permissive conditions, lose polyribosomes and accumulate free 80S ribosomes. Further characterization of mutant eIF5 showed that the mutant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, is defective both in its interaction with eIF2 as well as in mediating the hydrolysis of GTP bound to the 40S initiation complex and consequently in the formation of the 80S initiation complex. Additionally, the availability of a yeast strain containing temperature-sensitive mutation in the eIF5 gene allowed us to construct a cell-free translation system that was dependent on exogenously added eIF5 for translation of mRNAs in vitro. PMID:10689193

  3. In vivo model for microbial invasion of tooth root dentinal tubules.

    PubMed

    Brittan, Jane L; Sprague, Susan V; Macdonald, Emma L; Love, Robert M; Jenkinson, Howard F; West, Nicola X

    2016-04-01

    Objective Bacterial penetration of dentinal tubules via exposed dentine can lead to root caries and promote infections of the pulp and root canal system. The aim of this work was to develop a new experimental model for studying bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules within the human oral cavity. Material and Methods Sections of human root dentine were mounted into lower oral appliances that were worn by four human subjects for 15 d. Roots were then fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically for evidence of bacterial invasion. Levels of invasion were expressed as Tubule Invasion Factor (TIF). DNA was extracted from root samples, subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes, and invading bacteria were identified by comparison of sequences with GenBank database. Results All root dentine samples with patent tubules showed evidence of bacterial cell invasion (TIF value range from 5.7 to 9.0) to depths of 200 mm or more. A spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell morphotypes were visualized, and molecular typing identified species of Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas as dentinal tubule residents. Conclusion A novel in vivo model is described, which provides for human root dentine to be efficiently infected by oral microorganisms. A range of bacteria were able to initially invade dentinal tubules within exposed dentine. The model will be useful for testing the effectiveness of antiseptics, irrigants, and potential tubule occluding agents in preventing bacterial invasion of dentine. PMID:27119760

  4. Thermal properties and phase transition in the fluoride, (NH4)3SnF7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashev, A. V.; Gorev, M. V.; Bogdanov, E. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Laptash, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Calorimetric, dilatometric and differential thermal analysis studies were performed on (NH4)3SnF7 for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Large entropy (δS0=22 J/mol K) and elastic deformation (δ(ΔV/V)0=0.89%) jumps have proven that the Pa-3↔Pm-3m phase transition is a strong first order structural transformation. A total entropy change of ΔS0=32.5 J/mol K is characteristic for the order-disorder phase transition, and is equal to the sum of entropy changes in the related material, (NH4)3TiF7, undergoing transformation between the two cubic phases through the intermediate phases. Hydrostatic pressure decreases the stability of the high temperature Pm-3m phase in (NH4)3SnF7, contrary to (NH4)3TiF7, characterised by a negative baric coefficient. The effect of experimental conditions on the chemical stability of (NH4)3SnF7 was observed.

  5. Apollo, an Artemis-related nuclease, interacts with TRF2 and protects human telomeres in S phase.

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Megan; de Lange, Titia

    2006-07-11

    Human chromosome ends are protected by shelterin, an abundant six-subunit protein complex that binds specifically to the telomeric-repeat sequences, regulates telomere length, and ensures that chromosome ends do not elicit a DNA-damage response (reviewed in). Using mass spectrometry of proteins associated with the shelterin component Rap1, we identified an SMN1/PSO2 nuclease family member that is closely related to Artemis. We refer to this protein as Apollo and report that Apollo has the ability to localize to telomeres through an interaction with the shelterin component TRF2. Although its low abundance at telomeres indicates that Apollo is not a core component of shelterin, Apollo knockdown with RNAi resulted in senescence and the activation of a DNA-damage signal at telomeres as evidenced by telomere-dysfunction-induced foci (TIFs). The TIFs occurred primarily in S phase, suggesting that Apollo contributes to a processing step associated with the replication of chromosome ends. Furthermore, some of the metaphase chromosomes showed two telomeric signals at single-chromatid ends, suggesting an aberrant telomere structure. We propose that the Artemis-like nuclease Apollo is a shelterin accessory factor required for the protection of telomeres during or after their replication.

  6. Increase in the Late Diastolic Filling Force is Associated With Impaired Transmitral Flow Efficiency in Acute Moderate Elevation of Left Ventricular Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Jiamsripong, Panupong; Calleja, Anna M.; Alharthi, Mohsen S.; Cho, Eun Joo; McMahon, Eileen M.; Heys, Jeffrey J.; Milano, Michele; Sengupta, Partho P.; Khandheria, Bijoy K.; Belohlavek, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Aims Analysis of intraventricular flow force and efficiency is a novel concept of quantitatively assessing left ventricular (LV) hemodynamic performance. We have parametrically characterized diastolic filling flow by early inflow force (EIF), late inflow force (LIF), and total inflow force (TIF) and by vortex formation time (VFT), a fundamental parameter of fluid transport efficiency. The purpose was to determine what changes in inflow forces characterize a decrease in diastolic blood transport efficiency in acute moderate elevation of LV afterload. Methods and Results In 8 open-chest pigs, the flow force and VFT parameters were calculated from conventional and flow Doppler echocardiography measurements at baseline and during brief (3-minute) moderate elevation in afterload induced by increasing systolic blood pressure to 130% of baseline value. Systolic LV function decreased significantly during elevated afterload. EIF did not significantly change, whereas LIF increased from 5,822.09 ± 1,656.50 to 13,948.25 ± 9,773.96 dyn (P = 0.0490) and TIF increased from 13,783.35 ± 4,816.58 to 21,836.67 ± 8,635.33 dyn (P = 0.0310). VFT decreased from 4.09 ± 0.29 to 2.79 ± 1.10 (P = 0.0068), confirming suboptimal flow transport efficiency. Conclusions Even a brief moderate increase of LV afterload causes a significant increase in the late diastolic filling force and impairs transmitral flow efficiency. PMID:19168767

  7. Dax-1 and steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) function as transcriptional coactivators for steroidogenic factor 1 in steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Wei-Hsiung; Gerin, Isabelle; Hu, Chang-Deng; Hammer, Gary D; Koenig, Ronald J

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is essential for adrenal development and steroidogenesis. The atypical orphan nuclear receptor Dax-1 binds to SF-1 and represses SF-1 target genes. Paradoxically, however, loss-of-function mutations of Dax-1 also cause adrenal hypoplasia, suggesting that Dax-1 may function as an SF-1 coactivator under some circumstances. Indeed, we found that Dax-1 can function as a dosage-dependent SF-1 coactivator. Both SF-1 and Dax-1 bind to steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), a coactivator that functions as an RNA. The coactivator TIF2 also associates with Dax-1 and synergistically coactivates SF-1 target gene transcription. A naturally occurring Dax-1 mutation inhibits this transactivation, and the mutant Dax-1-TIF2 complex mislocalizes in living cells. Coactivation by Dax-1 is abolished by SRA knockdown. The expression of the steroidogenic gene products steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and melanocortin 2 receptor is reduced in adrenal Y1 cells following the knockdown of endogenous SRA. Similarly, the knockdown of endogenous Dax-1 downregulates the expression of the steroidogenic gene products CYP11A1 and StAR in both H295R adrenal and MA-10 Leydig cells. These findings reveal novel functions of SRA and Dax-1 in steroidogenesis and adrenal biology. PMID:19188450

  8. Dax-1 and Steroid Receptor RNA Activator (SRA) Function as Transcriptional Coactivators for Steroidogenic Factor 1 in Steroidogenesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Wei-Hsiung; Gerin, Isabelle; Hu, Chang-Deng; Hammer, Gary D.; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is essential for adrenal development and steroidogenesis. The atypical orphan nuclear receptor Dax-1 binds to SF-1 and represses SF-1 target genes. Paradoxically, however, loss-of-function mutations of Dax-1 also cause adrenal hypoplasia, suggesting that Dax-1 may function as an SF-1 coactivator under some circumstances. Indeed, we found that Dax-1 can function as a dosage-dependent SF-1 coactivator. Both SF-1 and Dax-1 bind to steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), a coactivator that functions as an RNA. The coactivator TIF2 also associates with Dax-1 and synergistically coactivates SF-1 target gene transcription. A naturally occurring Dax-1 mutation inhibits this transactivation, and the mutant Dax-1-TIF2 complex mislocalizes in living cells. Coactivation by Dax-1 is abolished by SRA knockdown. The expression of the steroidogenic gene products steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and melanocortin 2 receptor is reduced in adrenal Y1 cells following the knockdown of endogenous SRA. Similarly, the knockdown of endogenous Dax-1 downregulates the expression of the steroidogenic gene products CYP11A1 and StAR in both H295R adrenal and MA-10 Leydig cells. These findings reveal novel functions of SRA and Dax-1 in steroidogenesis and adrenal biology. PMID:19188450

  9. Porphyrin Based neuton capture agents for cancer therapy

    DOEpatents

    Vicente, Maria Da; Shetty, Shankar Jayaram; Jaquinod, Laurent; Smith, Kevin M.

    2006-06-27

    The invention describes the synthesis of a panel of novel carbon-carbon linked carboranyl-containing 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrins bearing 25–44% boron by weight. In certain embodiments, a phenyl porphyrin compound has a carboranyl group attached to the phenyl group by a carbon-carbon linkage, wherein the phenyl group corresponds to the following formula TIF" alt="embedded image" img-content="chem" img-format="tif"/>
    where R7 through R11 are hydrogen, a carboranyl group, or are selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl, NMe3+, PMePh2+, PO(OH)2, SO3H, COOH, and NH2. In this embodiment, the carboranyl group is attached to the phenyl group by a carbon-carbon linkage, either one or two of R7 through R11 are other than hydrogen; and the phenyl porphyrin compound contains at least one phenyl group having at least one of said carboranyl groups.

  10. Steroid receptor coactivators, HER-2 and HER-3 expression is stimulated by tamoxifen treatment in DMBA-induced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) may modulate estrogen receptor (ER) activity and the response to endocrine treatment in breast cancer, in part through interaction with growth factor receptor signaling pathways. In the present study the effects of tamoxifen treatment on the expression of SRCs and human epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs) were examined in an animal model of ER positive breast cancer. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats with DMBA-induced breast cancer were randomized to 14 days of oral tamoxifen 40 mg/kg bodyweight/day or vehicle only (controls). Tumors were measured throughout the study period. Blood samples and tumor tissue were collected at sacrifice and tamoxifen and its main metabolites were quantified using LC-MS/MS. The gene expression in tumor of SRC-1, SRC-2/transcription intermediary factor-2 (TIF-2), SRC-3/amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1), ER, HER-1, -2, -3 and HER-4, as well as the transcription factor Ets-2, was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels were further assessed by Western blotting. Results Tamoxifen and its main metabolites were detected at high concentrations in serum and accumulated in tumor tissue in up to tenfolds the concentration in serum. Mean tumor volume/rat decreased in the tamoxifen treated group, but continued to increase in controls. The mRNA expression levels of SRC-1 (P = 0.035), SRC-2/TIF-2 (P = 0.002), HER-2 (P = 0.035) and HER-3 (P = 0.006) were significantly higher in tamoxifen treated tumors compared to controls, and the results were confirmed at the protein level using Western blotting. SRC-3/AIB1 protein was also higher in tamoxifen treated tumors. SRC-1 and SRC-2/TIF-2 mRNA levels were positively correlated with each other and with HER-2 (P ≤ 0.001), and the HER-2 mRNA expression correlated with the levels of the other three HER family members (P < 0.05). Furthermore, SRC-3/AIB1 and HER-4 were positively correlated with each other and Ets-2 (P < 0

  11. Mapping Isoflavone QTL with Main, Epistatic and QTL × Environment Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yongguang; Teng, Weili; Li, Dongmei; Zhan, Yong; Li, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) isoflavone is important for human health and plant defense system. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL underlying isoflavone content in soybean, F5:6, F5:7 and F5:8 populations of 130 recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from the cross of soybean cultivar ‘Zhong Dou 27′ (high isoflavone) and ‘Jiu Nong 20′ (low isoflavone), were analyzed with 95 new SSR markers. A new linkage map including 194 SSR markers and covering 2,312 cM with mean distance of about 12 cM between markers was constructed. Thirty four QTL for both individual and total seed isoflavone contents of soybean were identified. Six, seven, ten and eleven QTL were associated with daidzein (DZ), glycitein (GC), genistein (GT) and total isoflavone (TI), respectively. Of them 23 QTL were newly identified. The qTIF_1 between Satt423 and Satt569 shared the same marker Satt569 with qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2. The qGTD2_1 between Satt186 and Satt226 was detected in four environments and explained 3.41%-10.98% of the phenotypic variation. The qGTA2_1, overlapped with qGCA2_1 and detected in four environments, was close to the previously identified major QTL for GT, which were responsible for large a effects. QTL (qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2) between Satt144-Satt569 were either clustered or pleiotropic. The qGCM_1, qGTM_1 and qTIM_1 between Satt540-Sat_244 explained 2.02%–9.12% of the phenotypic variation over six environments. Moreover, the qGCE_1 overlapped with qGTE_1 and qTIE_1, the qTIH_2 overlapped with qGTH_1, qGCI_1 overlapped with qDZI_1, qTIL_1 overlapped with qGTL_1, and qTIO_1 overlapped with qGTO_1. In this study, some of unstable QTL were detected in different environments, which were due to weak expression of QTL, QTL by environment interaction in the opposite direction to a effects, and/or epistasis. The markers identified in multi-environments in this study could be applied in the selection of soybean cultivars for higher

  12. Emissions from soil fumigation in two raised bed production systems tarped with low permeability films.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Thomas, John E; Dickson, Donald W; Ajwa, Husein; Wang, Dong

    2013-10-01

    Raised beds are used to produce some high-value annual fruit and vegetable crops such as strawberry in California (CA) and tomato in Florida (FL), USA. Pre-plant soil fumigation is an important tool to control soil-borne pests in the raised beds. However, fumigant emissions have detrimental environmental consequences. Field trials were conducted to evaluate emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in two different production systems with raised beds covered by different tarps. In the CA trial, InLine (60.8% 1,3-D and 33.3% CP) was drip-applied at 340 kg ha(-1) to 5 cm deep in the beds (30 cm high and 107 cm wide) tarped with polyethylene (PE) or virtually impermeable film (VIF). In the FL trial, carbonated Telone C35 (63.4% 1,3-D and 34.7% CP) was shank-applied at 151 kg ha(-1) to 20 cm deep in the beds (22 cm high and 76 cm wide) tarped with totally impermeable film (TIF). Emissions from tarped beds relative to furrows were contrary between the two trials. For the CA trial, the emission was 47% of applied 1,3-D and 27% of applied CP from PE tarped beds and 31% of applied 1,3-D and 15% of applied CP from VIF tarped beds, while that from uncovered furrows was<0.4% for both chemicals in both fields. In the FL trial, only 0.1% 1,3-D was emitted from the TIF tarped beds, but 27% was measured from the uncovered furrows. Factors contributing to the differences in emissions were chiefly raised-bed configuration, tarp permeability, fumigant application method, soil properties, soil water content, and fumigant carbonation. The results indicate that strategies for emission reduction must consider the differences in agronomic production systems. Modifying raised bed configuration and fumigant application technique in coarse textured soils with TIF tarping can maximize fumigation efficiency and emission reduction.

  13. Motion simulator study of longitudinal stability requirements for large delta wing transport airplanes during approach and landing with stability augmentation systems failed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Fry, E. B.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Forrest, R. D.; Scott, B. C.; Benefield, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A ground-based simulator investigation was conducted in preparation for and correlation with an-flight simulator program. The objective of these studies was to define minimum acceptable levels of static longitudinal stability for landing approach following stability augmentation systems failures. The airworthiness authorities are presently attempting to establish the requirements for civil transports with only the backup flight control system operating. Using a baseline configuration representative of a large delta wing transport, 20 different configurations, many representing negative static margins, were assessed by three research test pilots in 33 hours of piloted operation. Verification of the baseline model to be used in the TIFS experiment was provided by computed and piloted comparisons with a well-validated reference airplane simulation. Pilot comments and ratings are included, as well as preliminary tracking performance and workload data.

  14. Studying the R-branch and the Q-branch emission spectral lines of diatomic molecules using improved analytical formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yonghong; Sun, Weiguo; Zhang, Yi; Fu, Jia; Fan, Qunchao; Li, Huidong; Feng, Hao

    2016-06-01

    The difference converging method (DCM) used to predict the R-branch and the Q-branch high-lying rotational lines for diatomic systems is improved in this study. The key analytical formulae of the DCM method are modified by adding a higher order spectral term Hυ, and adding a physical converging criterion to improve the accuracy of predictions. Applications of the improved DCM method to the R-branch of the TiF molecule and the Q-branch of the 193IrN molecule show that the accuracy of the R-branch and the Q-branch rotational lines is about one order of magnitude better than the results obtained using the previous formulae, which demonstrate the necessity of the added small term Hυ and the physical converging criterion. The DCM results are also shown to be better than the extrapolated rotational lines using the least-squares method.

  15. Positional Catalogues of Saturn's and Jupiter's Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhakevych, O.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.; Lukianchuk, V.; Shatokhina, S.

    In the framework of the UkrVO national project (http://ukr-vo.org/) we have started the processing of photographic observations of Saturn's (S1-S8) and Jupiter's (J6-J8) moons. Observations were conducted during 1961-1993 with three astrographs DLFA, DWA, DAZ and Z600 reflector. Plate images were digitized as tif-files with commercial scanners. Image processing was carried out by specific software package in the LINUX-MIDAS-ROMAFOT environment with Tycho2 as reference. The software was developed at the MAO NASU. Obtained positions of objects were compared with theoretically predicted ones in IMCCE (Paris) (www.imcce.fr/sat) online. Rms error of divergence between observed and calculated positions is of 0.20' - 0.35'.

  16. Targeting Aberrant Epigenetic Networks Mediated by PRMT1 and KDM4C in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ngai; Fung, Tsz Kan; Zeisig, Bernd B.; Holmes, Katie; Rane, Jayant K.; Mowen, Kerri A.; Finn, Michael G.; Lenhard, Boris; Chan, Li Chong; So, Chi Wai Eric

    2016-01-01

    Summary Transcriptional deregulation plays a major role in acute myeloid leukemia, and therefore identification of epigenetic modifying enzymes essential for the maintenance of oncogenic transcription programs holds the key to better understanding of the biology and designing effective therapeutic strategies for the disease. Here we provide experimental evidence for the functional involvement and therapeutic potential of targeting PRMT1, an H4R3 methyltransferase, in various MLL and non-MLL leukemias. PRMT1 is necessary but not sufficient for leukemic transformation, which requires co-recruitment of KDM4C, an H3K9 demethylase, by chimeric transcription factors to mediate epigenetic reprogramming. Pharmacological inhibition of KDM4C/PRMT1 suppresses transcription and transformation ability of MLL fusions and MOZ-TIF2, revealing a tractable aberrant epigenetic circuitry mediated by KDM4C and PRMT1 in acute leukemia. PMID:26766589

  17. Production of unstable proteins through the formation of stable core complexes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Nicolas; Eiler, Sylvia; Pradeau-Aubreton, Karine; Maillot, Benoit; Stricher, François; Ruff, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purification of proteins that participate in large transient complexes is impeded by low amounts, heterogeneity, instability and poor solubility. To circumvent these difficulties we set up a methodology that enables the production of stable complexes for structural and functional studies. This procedure is benchmarked and applied to two challenging protein families: the human steroid nuclear receptors (SNR) and the HIV-1 pre-integration complex. In the context of transcriptional regulation studies, we produce and characterize the ligand-binding domains of the glucocorticoid nuclear receptor and the oestrogen receptor beta in complex with a TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor 2) domain containing the three SNR-binding motifs. In the context of retroviral integration, we demonstrate the stabilization of the HIV-1 integrase by formation of complexes with partner proteins and DNA. This procedure provides a powerful research tool for structural and functional studies of proteins participating in non-covalent macromolecular complexes. PMID:26983699

  18. Engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanopore arrays by anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yong; Kou, Shengzhong; Yang, Hangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis was used to simulate the current density distributions in the TiO2 barrier layer formed at the initial stage of Ti anodization. The morphology modification of the barrier layer was found to induce current density distribution change. By starting the anodization with proper TiO2 barrier layer morphology, the current density distribution can be adjusted to favor the formation of either nanotube arrays or nanopore arrays of anodic TiO2. We also found that the addition of sodium acetate into the electrolyte suppressed both the field-assisted chemical dissolution of TiO2 and the TiF62- hydrolysis induced TiO2 deposition during anodization, and thus further favored the nanopore formation. Accordingly, highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanopore arrays, similar to anodic aluminum oxide nanopore arrays, were successfully prepared.

  19. Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2-production activity of CdS-loaded TiO2 microspheres with exposed (001) facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bifen; Yuan, Xia; Lu, Penghui; Lin, Bizhou; Chen, Yilin

    2015-12-01

    CdS-loaded TiO2 microspheres with highly exposed (001) facets were prepared by hydrothermal treatment of a TiF4-HCl-H2O mixed solution followed by a chemical bath deposition of CdS onto TiO2 microspheres. The crystal structure, surficial micro-structure and photo-absorption property of the samples were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, etc. The as-prepared samples exhibited superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2-production activity from lactic acid aqueous solution in comparison with CdS-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles, whose surface was dominated by (101) facets. Photoelectrochemical measurement confirmed that (001) facet is beneficial for the transfer of photo-generated electron from CdS to TiO2 microsphere, which led to the unexpected high photocatalytic activity of CdS-loaded TiO2 microspheres.

  20. RegiStax: Alignment, stacking and processing of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrevoets, Cor; DeClerq, Bart; George, Tony; Makolkin, Dmitry; Maxson, Paul; Pilz, Bob; Presnyakov, Pavel; Roel, Eric; Weiller, Sylvain

    2012-06-01

    RegiStax is software for alignment/stacking/processing of images; it was released over 10 years ago and continues to be developed and improved. The current version is RegiStax 6, which supports the following formats: AVI, SER, RFL (RegiStax Framelist), BMP, JPG, TIF, and FIT. This version has a shorter and simpler processing sequence than its predecessor, and optimizing isn't necessary anymore as a new image alignment method optimizes directly. The interface of RegiStax 6 has been simplified to look more uniform in appearance and functionality, and RegiStax 6 now uses Multi-core processing, allowing the user to have up to have multiple cores(recommended to use maximally 4) working simultaneous during alignment/stacking.

  1. LANL12-RS-107J PYTHON Radiography Analysis Tool (PyRAT). Mid-Year Deliverable Report for FY15

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Brian Allen; Armstrong, Jerawan Chudoung

    2015-04-14

    This document is a mid-year report on a deliverable for the PYTHON Radiography Analysis Tool (PyRAT) for project LANL12-RS-107J in FY15. The deliverable is deliverable number 2 in the work package and is titled “Add the ability to read in more types of image file formats in PyRAT”. Right now PyRAT can only read in uncompressed TIF files (tiff files). It is planned to expand the file formats that can be read by PyRAT, making it easier to use in more situations. A summary of the file formats added include jpeg, jpg, png and formatted ASCII files.

  2. Pulsed Laser-Assisted Focused Electron-Beam-Induced Etching of Titanium with XeF 2 : Enhanced Reaction Rate and Precursor Transport

    DOE PAGES

    Noh, J. H.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Timilsina, R.; Stanford, M. G.; Lewis, B. B.; Rack, P. D.

    2015-01-28

    We introduce a laser-assisted focused electron-beam-induced etching (LA-FEBIE) process which is a versatile, direct write nanofabrication method that allows nanoscale patterning and editing; we do this in order to enhance the etch rate of electron-beam-induced etching. The results demonstrate that the titanium electron stimulated etch rate via the XeF2 precursor can be enhanced up to a factor of 6 times with an intermittent pulsed laser assist. Moreover, the evolution of the etching process is correlated to in situ stage current measurements and scanning electron micrographs as a function of time. Finally, the increased etch rate is attributed to photothermally enhancedmore » Ti–F reaction and TiF4 desorption and in some regimes enhanced XeF2 surface diffusion to the reaction zone.« less

  3. Production of unstable proteins through the formation of stable core complexes

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Nicolas; Eiler, Sylvia; Pradeau-Aubreton, Karine; Maillot, Benoit; Stricher, François; Ruff, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purification of proteins that participate in large transient complexes is impeded by low amounts, heterogeneity, instability and poor solubility. To circumvent these difficulties we set up a methodology that enables the production of stable complexes for structural and functional studies. This procedure is benchmarked and applied to two challenging protein families: the human steroid nuclear receptors (SNR) and the HIV-1 pre-integration complex. In the context of transcriptional regulation studies, we produce and characterize the ligand-binding domains of the glucocorticoid nuclear receptor and the oestrogen receptor beta in complex with a TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor 2) domain containing the three SNR-binding motifs. In the context of retroviral integration, we demonstrate the stabilization of the HIV-1 integrase by formation of complexes with partner proteins and DNA. This procedure provides a powerful research tool for structural and functional studies of proteins participating in non-covalent macromolecular complexes. PMID:26983699

  4. Identification of flexible aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eulrich, B. J.; Rynaski, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency-domain method for the estimation of the aeroelastic equations of motion of an aircraft using discrete sinusoidal inputs to the control surface actuators. The theory of estimation of the signal inputs and outputs is described as well as the method of obtaining accurate transfer functions from the resulting Bode plots. Methods of quantifying the accuracy of the results from more than one control input are discussed along with ways to obtain state-space and reduced-order models from the transfer function estimates. Presented is a summary of the results obtained in using the technique to develop a model of the USAF Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft which includes five symmetrical elastic modes of motion of the aircraft.

  5. Pulsed Laser-Assisted Focused Electron-Beam-Induced Etching of Titanium with XeF 2 : Enhanced Reaction Rate and Precursor Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, J. H.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Timilsina, R.; Stanford, M. G.; Lewis, B. B.; Rack, P. D.

    2015-01-28

    We introduce a laser-assisted focused electron-beam-induced etching (LA-FEBIE) process which is a versatile, direct write nanofabrication method that allows nanoscale patterning and editing; we do this in order to enhance the etch rate of electron-beam-induced etching. The results demonstrate that the titanium electron stimulated etch rate via the XeF2 precursor can be enhanced up to a factor of 6 times with an intermittent pulsed laser assist. Moreover, the evolution of the etching process is correlated to in situ stage current measurements and scanning electron micrographs as a function of time. Finally, the increased etch rate is attributed to photothermally enhanced Ti–F reaction and TiF4 desorption and in some regimes enhanced XeF2 surface diffusion to the reaction zone.

  6. Influence of Hot forging on Tribological behavior of Al6061-TiB2 In-situ composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep kumar, G. S.; Keshavamurthy, R.; kuppahalli, Prabhakar; kumari, Prachi

    2016-09-01

    Al6061-TiB2 metal matrix composite was fabricated by stir casting technique via in-situ reaction, using mixture of Al6061 alloy, Potassium tetraflouroborate salt (KBF4) and tetraflourotitanate (K2TiF6). The cast composites were processed to hot forging, SEM studies; X- ray Diffraction studies (XRD), Microhardness and Dry friction and wear tests. Pin on disc type machine was used to perform tribological tests over a load range of 20-100N and sliding velocities of 0.314-1.57m/s. SEM and XRD studies confirms formation of fine in-situ TiB2 particles. Composites exhibit higher Microhardness, improved wear resistance and Lower COF with formation of TiB2 particles when compared with the unreinforced alloy. Compared to cast alloy and its Composites, forged alloy and its composites show superior Tribological behavior under similar test conditions.

  7. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  8. Synthesis of anhydrous K2TiOF4 via a mild hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, Justin B.; Yeon, Jeongho; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of anhydrous K2TiOF4 has been previously attempted by transforming precursor compounds, such as the peroxide (K2Ti(O2)F4), hydrate (K2TiOF4·H2O) and fluoride (K2TiF6). Due to the large structural differences between these precursors and the anhydrous oxyfluorides, however, these preparations have been unsuccessful. Therefore, a direct method of synthesis has been employed to grow single crystals of K2TiOF4 that were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. K2TiOF4 was found to be isostructural with the previously known K2VOF4.

  9. HSV-1 Remodels Host Telomeres To Facilitate Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhong; Kim, Eui Tae; Vladimirova, Olga; Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wang, Zhuo; Newhart, Alyshia; Liu, Dongmei; Myers, Jaclyn L.; Hensley, Scott E.; Moffat, Jennifer; Janicki, Susan M.; Fraser, Nigel W.; Knipe, David M.; Weitzman, Matthew D.; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Telomeres protect the ends of cellular chromosomes. We show here that infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) results in chromosomal structural aberrations at telomeres and the accumulation of telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage foci (TIFs). At the molecular level, HSV-1 induces transcription of telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), followed by the proteolytic degradation of the telomere protein TPP1, and loss of the telomere repeat DNA signal. The HSV-1 encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0 is required for TERRA transcription and facilitates TPP1 degradation. shRNA depletion of TPP1 increases viral replication, arguing that TPP1inhibits viral replication. Viral replication protein ICP8 forms foci that coincide with telomeric proteins and ICP8 null virus failed to degrade telomere DNA signal. These findings suggest that HSV-1 reorganizes telomeres to form ICP8-associated pre-replication foci and promotes viral genomic replication. PMID:25497088

  10. Isotope geology of the bakircay porphyry copper prospect, northern turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. P.

    1981-10-01

    Isotopic data for the Bakircay granodiorite porphyry, MediaObjects/126_2005_BF01798964_f1.tif give a Late Eocene age for the development of the porphyry copper system. They suggest a close temporal and genetic relationship between igneous and hydrothermal activity, and indicate that magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produced potassic alteration and that meteoric fluids enriched in radiogenic87Sr were responsible for propylitic alteration. The granodiorite porphyry is petrologically similar to porphyry copper-related intrusions from island arc and continental margin settings, which form a group with initial87Sr/86Sr ratios of less than 0. 7043, representing magmas produced in tectonic environments lacking any important component of old (i. e. Precambrian) continental material.

  11. Effects of Ti-Based Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of a L i B H 4 / C a H 2 Destabilized System

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Hongwei; Ibikunle, Adeola; Goudy, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Tmore » he hydrogen storage properties of a destabilized LiBH 4 / CaH 2 system ball-milled with TiCl 3 , TiF 3 , and TiO 2 additives have been investigated. It is found that the system with TiCl 3 additive has a lower dehydrogenation temperature than the ones with other additives. Further study shows that a higher amount of TiCl 3 is more effective in reducing the desorption temperature of the LiBH 4 / CaH 2 system, since it leads to a lower activation energy of dehydrogenation.he activations energies for mixtures containing 4, 10, and 25 mol% of TiCl 3 are 141, 126, and 110 kJ/mol, respectively. However, the benefits of higher amounts of TiCl 3 are offset by a larger reduction in hydrogen capacity of the mixtures.« less

  12. Analysis of the murine Dtk gene identifies conservation of genomic structure within a new receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Crosier, K.E.; Crosier, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Dtk/Tyro 3/Sky/rse/brt/tif is a member of a new subfamily of receptors that also includes Axl/Ufo/Ark and Eyk/Mer. These receptors are characterized by the presence of two immunoglobulin-like loops and two fibronectin type III repeats in their extracellular domains. The structure of the murine Dtk gene has been determined. The gene consists of 21 exons that are distributed over 21 kb of genomic DNA. An isoform of Dtk is generated by differential splicing of exons from the 5{prime} region of the gene. The overall genomic structure of Dtk is virtually identical to that determined for the human UFO gene. This particular genomic organization is likely to have been duplicated and closely maintained throughout evolution. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  14. Using a modified standard microscope to generate virtual slides.

    PubMed

    Romer, David J; Yearsley, Kurtis H; Ayers, Leona W

    2003-05-01

    A standard microscope was reconfigured as a virtual slide generator by adding a Prior Scientific H101 robotic stage with H29 controller and 0.1 microm linear scales and a Hitachi HV-C20 3CCD camera. Media Cybernetics Image Pro Plus version 4 (IP4) software controlled stage movement in the X-, Y-, and Z-axis, whereas a Media Cybernetics Pro-Series Capture Kit captured images at 640 x 480 pixels. Stage calibration, scanning algorithms, storage requirements, and viewing modes were standardized. IP4 was used to montage the captured images into a large virtual slide image that was subsequently saved in TIF or JPEG format. Virtual slides were viewed at the workstation using the IP4 viewer as well as Adobe Photoshop and Kodak Imaging. MGI Zoom Server delivered the virtual slides to the Internet, and MicroBrightField's Neuroinformatica viewing software provided a browser-based virtual microscope interface together with labeling tools for annotating virtual slides. The images were served from a Windows 2000 platform with 2 GB RAM, 500 GB of disk storage, and a 1.0 GHz P4 processor. To conserve disk space on the image server, TIF files were converted to the FlashPix (FPX) file format using a compression ratio of 10:1. By using 4x, 10x, 20x, and 40x objectives, very large gigapixel images of tissue whole-mounts and tissue arrays with high quality and morphologic detail are now being generated for teaching, publication, research, and morphometric analysis. Technical details and a demonstration of our system can be found on the Web at http://virtualmicroscope.osu.edu.

  15. Lead Exposure Induces Telomere Instability in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pottier, Géraldine; Viau, Muriel; Ricoul, Michelle; Shim, Grace; Bellamy, Marion; Cuceu, Corina; Hempel, William M.; Sabatier, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an important environmental contaminant due to its widespread use over many centuries. While it affects primarily every organ system of the body, the most pernicious effects of Pb are on the central nervous system leading to cognitive and behavioral modification. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for Pb toxicity remain poorly understood. Recent work has suggested that Pb exposure may have consequences on chromosomal integrity as it was shown that Pb exposure leads to the generation of γH2Ax foci, a well-established biomarker for DNA double stranded break (DSB formation). As the chromosomal localization of γH2Ax foci plays an important role in determining the molecular mechanism responsible for their formation, we examined the localization of Pb-induced foci with respect to telomeres. Indeed, short or dysfunctional telomeres (uncapped or damaged telomeres) may be recognized as DSB by the DNA repair machinery, leading to “telomere-Induced Foci” (TIFs). In the current study, we show that while Pb exposure did not increase intra-chromosomal foci, it significantly induced TIFs, leading in some cases, to chromosomal abnormalities including telomere loss. The evidence suggests that these chromosomal abnormalities are likely due to perturbation of telomere replication, in particular on the lagging DNA strand. We propose a mechanism by which Pb exposure leads to the loss of telomere maintenance. As numerous studies have demonstrated a role for telomere maintenance in brain development and tissue homeostasis, our results suggest a possible mechanism for lead-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:23840724

  16. Effects of fractionation and combinatorial evaluation of Tamarindus indica fractions for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U; Ngene, Augustine A; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-06-09

    Six fractions, named TiA - TiF, were obtained by fractionating the crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica using column chromatographic techniques. On TLC, fraction TiB showed five bands, TiC three bands, while TiD and TiE showed two bands each. TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent systems to yield two fractions each, while TiB yielded four. These subfractions were designated B1-B4; C1-C2; D1-D2 and E1-E2, respectively. Tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids, among other components, were detected, albeit in different proportions with respect to fractions and subfractions and were compartmentalized with respect to the solvent systems used. The in vitro antibacterial activity of fractions and subfractions was tested separately and in combinations using the agar well diffusion technique. The susceptibly of test strains (expressed as %) were: 83.3% (TiA and TiB), 75.0% (crude extract and TiC), 66.7% (TiD), 50.0% (TiE) and 16.7% (TiF) when used singly, whereas in combination, the corresponding susceptibilities were 100% (CE), 83.3% (DE), 66.7% (AB, AF, BC, BD, DE and EF), 50% (AC and CD), 33.3% (BE and BF) and 16.7% (AD) against Gram negative bacteria strains and 100% (EF), 80% (DE), 60% (AB, BC and CE), 40% (AC, BD, BF, CF and DF) and 20% (AE, AF, BE and CD) against Gram positive strains. Percentage susceptibility with combinatorial use of re-fractions ranged from 85.7-57.1% and 60-40% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiB subfractions), respectively, 100-85.7% and 40-0% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiC, TiD and TiE sub-fractions).

  17. Mechanism of the tissue-specific action of the selective androgen receptor modulator S-101479.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Ohyabu, Yuki; Morikyu, Teruyuki; Ishige, Hirohide; Albers, Michael; Endo, Yasuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) comprise a new class of molecules that induce anabolic effects with fewer side effects than those of other anabolic agents. We previously reported that the novel SARM S-101479 had a tissue-selective bone anabolic effect with diminished side effects in female animals. However, the mechanism of its tissue selectivity is not well known. In this report, we show that S-101479 increased alkaline phosphatase activity and androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity in osteoblastic cell lines in the same manner as the natural androgen ligand dihydrotestosterone (DHT); conversely, stimulation of AR dimerization was very low compared with that of DHT (34.4%). S-101479 increased bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats without promoting endometrial proliferation. Yeast two-hybrid interaction assays revealed that DHT promoted recruitment of numerous cofactors to AR such as TIF2, SRC1, β-catenin, NCoA3, gelsolin and PROX1 in a dose-dependent manner. SARMs induced recruitment of fewer cofactors than DHT; in particular, S-101479 failed to induce recruitment of canonical p160 coactivators such as SRC1, TIF2 and notably NCoA3 but only stimulated binding of AR to gelsolin and PROX1. The results suggest that a full capability of the AR to dimerize and to effectively and unselectively recruit all canonical cofactors is not a prerequisite for transcriptional activity in osteoblastic cells and resulting anabolic effects in bone tissues. Instead, few relevant cofactors might be sufficient to promote AR activity in these tissues.

  18. Curcumin inhibits transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT via PPARγ pathway, not Smad pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wang, Yunman; Liu, Yujun; Chen, Qijing; Fu, Wencheng; Wang, Hao; Cai, Hui; Peng, Wen; Zhang, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the final common pathway in the end-stage renal disease. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered a major contributor to the TIF by increasing the number of myofibroblasts. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from rhizomes of Curcuma, has been shown to possess potent anti-fibrotic properties but the mechanism remains elusive. We found that curcumin inhibited the EMT as assessed by reduced expression of α-SMA and PAI-1, and increased E-cadherin in TGF-β1 treated proximal tubular epithelial cell HK-2 cells. Both of the conventional TGF-β1/Smad pathway and non-Smad pathway were investigated. Curcumin reduced TGF-β receptor type I (TβR-I) and TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II), but had no effect on phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. On the other hand, in non-Smad pathway curcumin reduced TGF-β1-induced ERK phosphorylation and PPARγ phosphorylation, and promoted nuclear translocation of PPARγ. Further, the effect of curcumin on α-SMA, PAI-1, E-cadherin, TβR I and TβR II were reversed by ERK inhibitor U0126 or PPARγ inhibitor BADGE, or PPARγ shRNA. Blocking PPARγ signaling pathway by inhibitor BADGE or shRNA had no effect on the phosphorylation of ERK whereas the suppression of ERK signaling pathway inhibited the phosphorylation of PPARγ. We conclude that curcumin counteracted TGF-β1-induced EMT in renal tubular epithelial cells via ERK-dependent and then PPARγ-dependent pathway.

  19. Real-time dataflow and workflow with the CMS tracker data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippis, N. D.; Bagliesi, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Boccali, T.; Ciulli, V.; Giordano, D.; Hufnagel, D.; Mason, D.; Mirabito, L.; Noeding, C.; Palla, F.; Piedra, J.; Sarkar, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker detector took data with cosmics rays at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN. First on-line monitoring tasks were executed at the Tracker Analysis Centre (TAC) which is a dedicated Control Room at TIF with limited computing resources. A set of software agents were developed to perform the real-time data conversion in a standard format, to archive data on tape at CERN and to publish them in the official CMS data bookkeeping systems. According to the CMS computing and analysis model, most of the subsequent data processing has to be done in remote Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites, so data were automatically transferred from CERN to the sites interested to analyze them, currently Fermilab, Bari and Pisa. Official reconstruction in the distributed environment was triggered in real-time by using the tool currently used for the processing of simulated events. Automatic end-user analysis of data was performed in a distributed environment, in order to derive the distributions of important physics variables. The tracker data processing is currently migrating to the Tier-0 CERN as a prototype for the global data taking chain. Tracker data were also registered into the most recent version of the data bookkeeping system, DBS-2, by profiting from the new features to handle real data. A description of the dataflow/workflow and of the tools developed is given, together with the results about the performance of the real-time chain. Almost 7.2 million events were officially registered, moved, reconstructed and analyzed in remote sites by using the distributed environment.

  20. Material removal characteristics of orthogonal velocity polishing tool for efficient fabrication of CVD SiC mirror surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunju; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Sug-Whan; Seong, Sehyun; Yoon, Siyoung; Lee, Kyungmook; Lee, Haengbok

    2015-09-01

    Today, CVD SiC mirrors are readily available in the market. However, it is well known to the community that the key surface fabrication processes and, in particular, the material removal characteristics of the CVD SiC mirror surface varies sensitively depending on the shop floor polishing and figuring variables. We investigated the material removal characteristics of CVD SiC mirror surfaces using a new and patented polishing tool called orthogonal velocity tool (OVT) that employs two orthogonal velocity fields generated simultaneously during polishing and figuring machine runs. We built an in-house OVT machine and its operating principle allows for generation of pseudo Gaussian shapes of material removal from the target surface. The shapes are very similar to the tool influence functions (TIFs) of other polishing machine such as IRP series polishing machines from Zeeko. Using two CVD SiC mirrors of 150 mm in diameter and flat surface, we ran trial material removal experiments over the machine run parameter ranges from 12.901 to 25.867 psi in pressure, 0.086 m/sec to 0.147 m/sec in tool linear velocity, and 5 to 15 sec in dwell time. An in-house developed data analysis program was used to obtain a number of Gaussian shaped TIFs and the resulting material removal coefficient varies from 3.35 to 9.46 um/psi hour m/sec with the mean value to 5.90 ± 1.26(standard deviation). We report the technical details of the new OVT machine, of the data analysis program, of the experiments and the results together with the implications to the future development of the OVT machine and process for large CVD SiC mirror surfaces.

  1. Utilization Analysis in Low-Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin (GPFA-AB)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Teresa E. Jordan

    2015-09-30

    This submission of Utilization Analysis data to the Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) node of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is in support of Phase 1 Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin (project DE-EE0006726). The submission includes data pertinent to the methods and results of an analysis of the Surface Levelized Cost of Heat (SLCOH) for US Census Bureau ‘Places’ within the study area. This was calculated using a modification of a program called GEOPHIRES, available at http://koenraadbeckers.net/geophires/index.php. The MATLAB modules used in conjunction with GEOPHIRES, the MATLAB data input file, the GEOPHIRES output data file, and an explanation of the software components have been provided. Results of the SLCOH analysis appear on 4 .png image files as mapped ‘risk’ of heat utilization. For each of the 4 image (.png) files, there is an accompanying georeferenced TIF (.tif) file by the same name. In addition to calculating SLCOH, this Task 4 also identified many sites that may be prospects for use of a geothermal district heating system, based on their size and industry, rather than on the SLCOH. An industry sorted listing of the sites (.xlsx) and a map of these sites plotted as a layer onto different iterations of maps combining the three geological risk factors (Thermal Quality, Natural Reservoir Quality, and Risk of Seismicity) has been provided. In addition to the 6 image (.png) files of the maps in this series, a shape (.shp) file and 7 associated files are included as well. Finally, supporting files (.pdf) describing the utilization analysis methodology and summarizing the anticipated permitting for a deep district heating system are supplied.

  2. [Juvenile dermatomyositis and new autoantibodies: Cases and review].

    PubMed

    Guarella, M; Jurquet, A-L; Retornaz, K; Bardin, N; Chastang, M-C; Desjonquere, M; Fabien, N; Belot, A

    2015-12-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common inflammatory myopathy in children. Its diagnosis is usually made on a clinical basis following the criteria of Bohan and Peter (1975). Recently, the presence of myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) have started to be associated with specific outcome in adult patients; the diagnosis and prognosis value of these autoantibodies remains to be identified in children. We report four cases of JDM with MSAs focusing on clinical, biological, and radiological manifestations, and then we describe associated treatment. The cohort comprises four girls with an average age of 8.5 years. The time to diagnosis was 1 week to 4 months. For these patients, the immunologic study found one patient positive for the MDA5 antibody (or CADM 140), one positive for the TIF1γ antibody (or p155/140), and two patients positive for the NXP2 antibody (or p140/MJ). Each patient showed specific and characteristic cutaneous manifestations. For example, the girl positive for the TIF1γ antibody presented the most severe skin disease with urticaria, face edema, and vascularity of the neck and shoulders. However, regarding muscular features, proximal weakness was present in most of the cohort, except for the child positive for the MDA5 antibody, who presented no sign of muscular disease at the beginning with low CK levels. Importantly, acute pancreatitis also affected this patient. Concerning radiological indications, muscular MRI evidenced hyperinflammation, a sign of diffuse myositis, in all these patients. Treatments consisted in corticosteroids together with methotrexate or mycofenolate mofetil associated or not with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. This report highlights the importance of systematic detection and analysis of MSA in diagnosis and characterization of JDM, and describes a new approach that would allow more focused treatments and be a useful predictor of clinical complications and prognosis in JDM-affected subjects. PMID:26598044

  3. An On-Line Technology Information System (OTIS) for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hoganm John A.; Rodriquez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    An On-line Technology Information System (OTIS) is currently being developed for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. This paper describes the preliminary development of OTIS, which is a system designed to provide centralized collection and organization of technology information. The lack of thorough, reliable and easily understood technology information is a major obstacle in effective assessment of technology development progress, trade studies, metric calculations, and technology selection for integrated testing. OTIS will provide a formalized, well-organized protocol to communicate thorough, accurate, current and relevant technology information between the hands-on technology developer and the ALS Community. The need for this type of information transfer system within the Solid Waste Management (SWM) element was recently identified and addressed. A SWM Technology Information Form (TIF) was developed specifically for collecting detailed technology information in the area of SWM. In the TIF, information is requested from SWM technology developers, based upon the Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Basic information is requested for low-TRL technologies, and more detailed information is requested as the TRL of the technology increases. A comparable form is also being developed for the wastewater processing element. In the future, similar forms will also be developed for the ALS elements of air revitalization, food processing, biomass production and thermal control. These ALS element-specific forms will be implemented in OTIS via a web-accessible interface,with the data stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQLTM) located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center. With OTIS, ALS element leads and managers will be able to carry out informed research and development investment, thereby promoting technology through the TRL scale. OTIS will also allow analysts to make accurate evaluations of technology options. Additionally, the range

  4. GPFA-AB_Phase1UtilizationTask4DataUpload

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa E. Jordan

    2015-09-30

    This submission of Utilization Analysis data to the Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) node of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is in support of Phase 1 Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin (project DE-EE0006726). The submission includes data pertinent to the methods and results of an analysis of the Surface Levelized Cost of Heat (SLCOH) for US Census Bureau ‘Places’ within the study area. This was calculated using a modification of a program called GEOPHIRES, available at http://koenraadbeckers.net/geophires/index.php. The MATLAB modules used in conjunction with GEOPHIRES, the MATLAB data input file, the GEOPHIRES output data file, and an explanation of the software components have been provided. Results of the SLCOH analysis appear on 4 .png image files as mapped ‘risk’ of heat utilization. For each of the 4 image (.png) files, there is an accompanying georeferenced TIF (.tif) file by the same name. In addition to calculating SLCOH, this Task 4 also identified many sites that may be prospects for use of a geothermal district heating system, based on their size and industry, rather than on the SLCOH. An industry sorted listing of the sites (.xlsx) and a map of these sites plotted as a layer onto different iterations of maps combining the three geological risk factors (Thermal Quality, Natural Reservoir Quality, and Risk of Seismicity) has been provided. In addition to the 6 image (.png) files of the maps in this series, a shape (.shp) file and 7 associated files are included as well. Finally, supporting files (.pdf) describing the utilization analysis methodology and summarizing the anticipated permitting for a deep district heating system are supplied.

  5. Leishmania infantum LeIF protein is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and an eIF4A-like factor that inhibits translation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Mourad; Tanner, N K; Banroques, Josette; Linder, Patrick; Guizani, Ikram

    2006-11-01

    LeIF, a Leishmania protein similar to the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4A, which is a prototype of the DEAD box protein family, was originally described as a Th1-type natural adjuvant and as an antigen that induces an IL12-mediated Th1 response in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of leishmaniasis patients. This study aims to characterize this protein by comparative biochemical and genetic analysis with eIF4A in order to assess its potential as a target for drug development. We show that a His-tagged, recombinant, LeIF protein of Leishmania infantum, which was purified from Escherichia coli, is both an RNA-dependent ATPase and an ATP-dependent RNA helicase in vitro, as described previously for other members of the DEAD box helicase protein family. In vivo experiments show that the LeIF gene cannot complement the deletion of the essential TIF1 and TIF2 genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encode eIF4A. In contrast, expression of LeIF inhibits yeast growth when endogenous eIF4A is expressed off only one of its two encoding genes. Furthermore, in vitro binding assays show that LeIF interacts with yeast eIF4G. These results show an unproductive interaction of LeIF with translation initiation factors in yeast. Furthermore, the 25 amino terminal residues were shown to enhance the ability of LeIF to interfere with the translation machinery in yeast. PMID:17087726

  6. Electronic structure and anisotropic chemical bonding in TiNF from ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Matar, Samir F.

    2012-01-15

    Accounting for disorder in anatase titanium nitride fluoride TiNF is done through atoms re-distributions based on geometry optimizations using ultra soft pseudo potentials within density functional theory DFT. The fully geometry relaxed structures are found to keep the body centering of anatase (I4{sub 1}/amd No. 141). The new structural setups are identified with space groups I-4m2 No. 119 and Imm2 No. 44 which obey the 'group to subgroup' relationships with respect to anatase. In the ground state Imm2 structure identified from energy differences, TiNF is found semi-conducting with similar density of states features to anatase TiO{sub 2} and a chemical bonding differentiated between covalent like Ti-N versus ionic like Ti-F. Inter-anion N-F bonding is also identified. - Graphical Abstract: The geometry optimized ground state anatase derived TiNF structure with arrangement of open faceted TiN3F3 distorted octahedra. The insert shows the arrangement of octahedra in anatase TiO{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original approach of TiNF structure for addressing the electronic band structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on anatase, two different ordering scheme models with geometry optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New structures obeying the group{yields}subgroup relationships with Imm2 ground state from energy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the ground state TiNF is found semi-conducting with similar density of states to anatase TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical bonding differentiated between covalent like Ti-N and ionic Ti-F.

  7. Development of the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) Instrument: A Practical Survey of Patients' Experiences in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Stefan. G.; Pollio, David E.; Jones, Richard N.; Steward, Jocelyn; Stringfellow, Erin J.; Gordon, Adam J.; Johnson, Nancy K.; Kim, Theresa A.; Granstaff, Unita; Austin, Erika L.; Young, Alexander S.; Golden, Joya; Davis, Lori L.; Roth, David L.; Holt, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Homeless patients face unique challenges in obtaining primary care responsive to their needs and context. Patient experience questionnaires could permit assessment of patient-centered medical homes for this population, but standard instruments may not reflect homeless patients' priorities and concerns. Objectives This report describes (a) the content and psychometric properties of a new primary care questionnaire for homeless patients and (b) the methods utilized in its development. Methods Starting with quality-related constructs from the Institute of Medicine, we identified relevant themes by interviewing homeless patients and experts in their care. A multidisciplinary team drafted a preliminary set of 78 items. This was administered to homeless-experienced clients (n=563) across 3 VA facilities and 1 non-VA Health Care for the Homeless Program. Using Item Response Theory, we examined Test Information Function curves to eliminate less informative items and devise plausibly distinct subscales. Results The resulting 33-item instrument (Primary Care Quality-Homeless, PCQ-H) has four subscales: Patient-Clinician Relationship (15 items), Cooperation among Clinicians (3 items), Access/Coordination (11 items) and Homeless-Specific Needs (4 items). Evidence for divergent and convergent validity is provided. Test Information Function (TIF) graphs showed adequate informational value to permit inferences about groups for 3 subscales (Relationship, Cooperation and Access/Coordination). The 3-item Cooperation subscale had lower informational value (TIF<5) but had good internal consistency (alpha=0.75) and patients frequently reported problems in this aspect of care. Conclusions Systematic application of qualitative and quantitative methods supported the development of a brief patient-reported questionnaire focused on the primary care of homeless patients and offers guidance for future population-specific instrument development. PMID:25023918

  8. Plasma surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles: improved photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous m-xylene.

    PubMed

    Sumitsawan, Sulak; Cho, Jai; Sattler, Melanie L; Timmons, Richard B

    2011-08-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is a preferred catalyst for photocatalytic oxidation of many air pollutants. In an effort to enhance its photocatalytic activity, TiO(2) was modified by pulsed plasma treatment. In this work, TiO(2) nanoparticles, coated on a glass plate, were treated with a plasma discharge of hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) gas. By appropriate adjustment of discharge conditions, it was discovered that the TiO(2) particles can be either directly fluorinated (Ti-F) or coated with thin perfluorocarbon films (C-F). Specifically, under relatively high power input, the plasma deposition process favored direct surface fluorination. The extent of Ti-F formation increased with increasing power input. In contrast, at lower average power inputs, perfluorocarbon films are deposited on the surface of the TiO(2) particles. The plasma surface modified TiO(2) nanoparticles were subsequently employed as catalysts in the photocatalytic oxidation of m-xylene in air, as carried out inside a batch reactor with closed loop constant gas circulation. Both types of modified TiO(2) were significantly more catalytically active than that of the unmodified particles. For example, the rate constant of m-xylene degradation was increased from 0.012 min(-1) with untreated TiO(2) to 0.074 min(-1) with fluorinated TiO(2). Although it is not possible to provide unequivocal reasons for this increased photocatalytic activity, it is noted that the plasma surface treatment converted the TiO(2) from hydrophilic to highly hydrophobic, which would provide more facile catalyst adsorption of the xylene from the flowing air. Also, based on literature reports, the use of fluorinated TiO(2) reduces electron-hole recombination rates, thus increasing the photocatalytic activity. PMID:21761865

  9. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  10. Management of primary achalasia: The role of endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Suárez-Callol, Patricia; Monzó-Gallego, Ana; Bort-Pérez, Inmaculada; Plana-Campos, Lydia; Ferrer-Barceló, Luis; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Llinares-Lloret, María; Tuset-Ruiz, Juan Antonio; Sempere-Garcia-Argüelles, Javier; Canelles-Gamir, Pilar; Medina-Chuliá, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is an oesophageal motor disorder which leads to the functional obstruction of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) and is currently incurable. The main objective of all existing therapies is to achieve a reduction in the obstruction of the distal oesophagus in order to improve oesophageal transit, relieve the symptomatology, and prevent long-term complications. The most common treatments used are pneumatic dilation (PD) and laparoscopic Heller myotomy, which involves partial fundoplication with comparable short-term success rates. The most economic non-surgical therapy is PD, with botulinum toxin injections reserved for patients with a higher surgical risk for whom the former treatment option is unsuitable. A new technology is peroral endoscopic myotomy, postulated as a possible non-invasive alternative to surgical myotomy. Other endoluminal treatments subject to research more recently include injecting ethanolamine into the LES and using a temporary self-expanding metallic stent. At present, there is not enough evidence permitting a routine recommendation of any of these three novel methods. Patients must undergo follow-up after treatment to guarantee that their symptoms are under control and to prevent complications. Most experts are in favour of some form of endoscopic follow-up, however no established guidelines exist in this respect. The prognosis for patients with achalasia is good, although a recurrence after treatment using any method requires new treatment. PMID:26078828

  11. Pathologic aerophagia: a rare cause of chronic abdominal distension

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Cestari, Ana Beatriz C.S.S.; da Silva, Orli Carvalho; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Firme, Livia Honorato

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adolescent with pathologic aerophagia, a rare condition caused by excessive and inappropriate swallowing of air and to review its treatment and differential diagnoses. Case description: An 11-year-old mentally impaired blind girl presenting serious behavior problems and severe developmental delay with abdominal distension from the last 8 months. Her past history included a Nissen fundoplication. Abdominal CT and abdominal radiographs showed diffuse gas distension of the small bowel and colon. Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. The distention was minimal at the moment the child awoke and maximal at evening, and persisted after control of constipation. Audible repetitive and frequent movements of air swallowing were observed. The diagnosis of pathologic aerophagia associated to obsessive-compulsive disorder and developmental delay was made, but pharmacological treatment was unsuccessful. The patient was submitted to an endoscopic gastrostomy, permanently opened and elevated relative to the stomach. The distention was resolved, while maintaining oral nutrition. Comments: Pathologic aerophagia is a rare self-limiting condition in normal children exposed to high levels of stress and may be a persisting problem in children with psychiatric or neurologic disease. In this last group, the disease may cause serious complications. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments are ill-defined. Severe cases may demand surgical strategies, mainly decompressive gastrostomy. PMID:26100594

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux and chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Everett, C F; Morice, A H

    2004-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GOR) disease is one of the 3 commonest causes of chronic cough. It can be difficult to diagnose as the traditionally recognised symptoms of GOR, such as heartburn and acid regurgitation, are often absent. More subtle indicators of a link between the cough and the oesophagus should therefore be sought. These include cough which occurs in relation to eating or phonation, cough which settles at night and does not tend to wake the patient from sleep and symptoms suggestive of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Investigations such as oesophageal manometry and 24 hour pH monitoring can be useful in characterising any underlying oesophageal abnormality, but may underestimate the problem since non-acid reflux can precipitate cough. Empirical trials of treatment are therefore often employed, but should be continued for at least 2 months, as symptoms can be slow to improve due to plasticity of the cough reflex. Pharmacologic treatment options include proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, pro-motility agents and liquid alginate preparations. Surgical fundoplication can also be effective when performed in appropriately selected individuals.

  13. [Technical and tactical development in antireflux surgery. What is left for the surgeon?].

    PubMed

    Rossetti, M

    1989-01-01

    Clinical research, increasingly objective diagnoses, tactical and technical progress have eventually led to the modification and improvement of antireflux surgery, although this evolution has not been without errors due to misinterpretation, faulty indications and methods. Conservative management has changed to include a whole gamut of pharmacological treatments, which have consistently tended to reduce indications for surgery--often rightly so, but doggedly at times. The present paper presents a review of our methods since the first fundoplication was performed, in 1955. Further achievements and adaptation of our methods to the different types of functional and organic reflux are discussed. The efficacy of surgery with predictable risk, good results and few side effects, even in the long run, permit us to make a case for this indication in a series of situations, where surgery is the sole logical solution for a less distressing life, as well as for avoiding dangers linked with irreversible organic complications. Methods and casuistics (over 2,000 personal cases) are illustrated in the course of this presentation.

  14. Management of achalasia: surgery or pneumatic dilation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2011-06-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder of unknown cause, characterised by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and impaired lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Patients present at all ages, primarily with dysphagia for solids/liquids and bland regurgitation. The diagnosis is suggested by barium esophagram or endoscopy and confirmed by esophageal manometry. Achalasia cannot be cured. Instead, our goal is to relieve symptoms, improve esophageal emptying and prevent the development of megaesophagus. The most successful therapies are pneumatic dilation and surgical myotomy. The advantages of pneumatic dilation include an outpatient procedure, minimal pain, return to work the next day, mild if any GERD, and can be performed in any age group and even during pregnancy. Pneumatic dilation does not hinder future myotomy, and all cost analyses find it less expensive than Heller myotomy. Laparoscopic myotomy with a partial fundoplication has the advantage of being a single procedure, dysphagia relief is longer at the cost of more troubling heartburn, and a myotomy may be more effective treatment in adolescents and younger adults, especially men. Over a two year horizon, the clinical success of pneumatic dilation and laparoscopic myotomy are comparable in a recent large European randomised trial. The prognosis for achalasia patients to return to near-normal swallowing and good quality of life are excellent, but few are "cured" with a single treatment and intermittent "touch up" procedures may be required. PMID:21303915

  15. Incidence of Port-Site Incisional Hernia After Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rainville, Harvey; Ikedilo, Ojinika; Vemulapali, Pratibha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is gaining popularity among minimally invasive surgeons and is now being applied to a broad number of surgical procedures. Although this technique uses only 1 port, the diameter of the incision is larger than in standard laparoscopic surgery. The long-term incidence of port-site hernias after single-incision laparoscopic surgery has yet to be determined. Methods: All patients who underwent a single-incision laparoscopic surgical procedure from May 2008 through May 2009 were included in the study. Single-incision laparoscopic surgical operations were performed either by a multiport technique or with a 3-trocar single-incision laparoscopic surgery port. The patients were seen at 30 to 36 months' follow-up, at which time they were examined for any evidence of port-site incisional hernia. Patients found to have hernias on clinical examination underwent repairs with mesh. Results: A total of 211 patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The types of operations included were cholecystectomy, appendectomy, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, Nissen fundoplication, colectomy, and gastrojejunostomy. We found a port-site hernia rate of 2.9% at 30 to 36 months' follow-up. Conclusion: Port-site incisional hernia after single-incision laparoscopic surgical procedures remains a major setback for patients. The true incidence remains largely unknown because most patients are asymptomatic and therefore do not seek surgical aid. PMID:24960483

  16. Shortened OR time and decreased patient risk through use of a modular surgical instrument with artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Miller, David J; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2009-05-01

    With a limited number of access ports, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) often requires the complete removal of one tool and reinsertion of another. Modular or multifunctional tools can be used to avoid this step. In this study, soft computing techniques are used to optimally arrange a modular tool's functional tips, allowing surgeons to deliver treatment of improved quality in less time, decreasing overall cost. The investigators watched University Medical Center surgeons perform MIS procedures (e.g., cholecystectomy and Nissen fundoplication) and recorded the procedures to digital video. The video was then used to analyze the types of instruments used, the duration of each use, and the function of each instrument. These data were aggregated with fuzzy logic techniques using four membership functions to quantify the overall usefulness of each tool. This allowed subsequent optimization of the arrangement of functional tips within the modular tool to decrease overall time spent changing instruments during simulated surgical procedures based on the video recordings. Based on a prototype and a virtual model of a multifunction laparoscopic tool designed by the investigators that can interchange six different instrument tips through the tool's shaft, the range of tool change times is approximately 11-13 s. Using this figure, estimated time savings for the procedures analyzed ranged from 2.5 to over 32 min, and on average, total surgery time can be reduced by almost 17% by using the multifunction tool.

  17. [Transition to adult care for children with chronic neurological disorders; which is the best way to make it?].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic neurological disorders in children have significant effects on adult medical and social function. Transition from pediatric to adult services is a complex process. No objective data are available to inform physicians about the most effective approach. Nevertheless the most recommended approach is a joint pediatric/adult transition clinic. Malnutrition, either under or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Undernutrition is most prevalent, and its causes are diverse: insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism. Malnutrition is associated with significant morbidity, while nutritional rehabilitation improves overall health as well as quality of life. It is not easy to determine which the nutritional needs in these patients are. Besides, they often present difficulties for oral feeding, mainly due to oromotor dysfunction. Gastrointestinal symptoms, gastro esophageal reflux and constipation, as well as spasticity, scoliosis and joint deformities contribute to these difficulties. Because of that, an assessment of nutritional status should be performed periodically, and to assess efficacy and security of oral intake. If modifying oral diet we cannot confirm an adequate support, a nasogastric tube or a gastrostomy need to be considered. Often, a fundoplication is associated to the placement of a gastrostomy. Although the outcomes in a better nutritional status and quality of life are often obtained, it is not an easy decision for families. PMID:25077342

  18. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bowrey, David J.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; DeMeester, Tom R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To critique the English-language reports describing the effects of medical and surgical antireflux therapy on respiratory symptoms and function in patients with asthma. Methods The Medline computerized database (1959–1999) was searched, and all publications relating to both asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease were retrieved. Results Seven of nine trials of histamine-receptor antagonists showed a treatment-related improvement in asthma symptoms, with half of the patients benefiting. Only one study identified a beneficial effect on objective measures of pulmonary function. Three of six trials of proton pump inhibitors documented improvement in asthma symptoms with treatment; benefit was seen in 25% of patients. Half of the studies reported improvement in pulmonary function, but the effect occurred in fewer than 15% of patients. In the one study that used optimal antisecretory therapy, asthma symptoms were improved in 67% of patients and pulmonary function was improved in 20%. Combined data from 5 pediatric and 14 adult studies of antireflux surgery indicated that almost 90% of children and 70% of adults had improvement in respiratory symptoms, with approximately one third experiencing improvements in objective measures of pulmonary function. Conclusions Fundoplication has been consistently shown to ameliorate reflux-induced asthma; results are superior to the published results of antisecretory therapy. Optimal medical therapy may offer similar results, but large studies providing support for this assertion are lacking. PMID:10674606

  19. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with an intrathoracic stomach.

    PubMed

    Martinelo, Vanderlei; Mardiros Herbella, Fernando Augusto; Patti, Marco G

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare finding. The real value of the high-resolution manometry (HRM) in the preoperative evaluation of these patients has not yet being fully tested. This study aims to evaluate: 1) the HRM pattern of patients with an intrathoracic stomach; and 2) HRM findings as predictors for prosthetic reinforcement of the hiatus. We reviewed 33 patients (27 women, mean age 66 years) with an intrathoracic stomach who underwent HRM. Fifteen patients did the HRM as part of preoperative workup and were operated on in our institution. All patients were submitted to a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. HRM results show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was transposed in all patients. Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 21 (63%) patients. The length of the hernia was 4 ± 2 cm (range, 1 to 9 cm). LES oscillation was observed in 23 (69%) patients with a mean of 1 ± 0.4 cm (range, 0.4 to 2 cm). Hiatal mesh reinforcement was necessary in five (33%) of the operated patients. HRM findings did not predict hiatal mesh reinforcement. Our results show that: 1) HRM has a poor sensibility for hiatal hernia diagnosis; 2) half of the patients with an intrathoracic stomach have a normal HRM; and 3) HRM does not predict mesh hiatal hernia repair. PMID:25831180

  20. Collis-Nissen gastroplasty for short oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Sandro; Lugaresi, Marialuisa; Ruffato, Alberto; Daddi, Niccolò; Di Simone, Massimo Pierluigi; Perrone, Ottorino; Brusori, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Collis-Nissen procedure is performed for the surgical treatment of 'true short oesophagus'. When this condition is strongly suspected radiologically, the patient is placed in the 45° left lateral position on the operating table with the left chest and arm lifted to perform a thoracostomy in the V-VI space, posterior to the axillary line. The hiatus is opened and the distal oesophagus is widely mobilized. With intraoperative endoscopy, the position of the oesophago-gastric junction in relationship to the hiatus is determined and the measurement of the length of the intra-abdominal oesophagus is performed to decide either to carry out a standard anti-reflux procedure or to lengthen the oesophagus. If the oesophagus is irreversibly short ('true short oesophagus'), the short gastric vessels are divided and the gastric fundus is mobilized. An endostapler is introduced into the left chest. The left thoracoscopic approach is suitable to control effectively the otherwise blind passage of the endostapler into the mediastinum and upper abdomen (if a second optic is not used). The tip of the stapler is clearly visible while 'walking' on the left diaphragm. The Collis gastroplasty is performed over a 46 Maloney bougie. A floppy Nissen fundoplication and the hiatoplasty complete the procedure. PMID:26585969

  1. [Current Management of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia].

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Akiko; Matsufuji, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Three types of congenital diaphragmatic hernias( Bochdalek hernia, Morgagni hernia, and esophageal hiatus hernia) are described with case presentation. In the Bochdalek hernia, the most common type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, abdominal contents pass into the thorac bia diaphragmatic defect, limiting the space available for the developing lungs. Resulting lung hypoplasia, many infants experience severe respiratory distress within minutes of birth and may require resuscitation and stabilization of cardio-pulmonary function prior to surgery. The Morgagni hernia is rare and often incidentally diagnosed on routine chest x-ray in asymptomatic patients. Repair is still advisable due to risk of strangulated bowel and respiratory distress. Esophageal hiatal hernias usually produce symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux( GERD) and rarely result in incarceration of stomach or other organs. Surgical interventions for GERD, such as Nissen fundoplication, usually target neurologically impaired children in order to prevent aspiration pneumonia and improve quality of life. Laparoscopic surgery is beneficial for all types of diaphragmatic hernia, especially in older children, but careful consideration should be made based on individual patient background. PMID:26197915

  2. [Laparoscopic surgery for esophageal achalasia].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, S; Ando, N; Ohgami, M; Kitagawa, Y; Kitajima, M

    2000-04-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for esophageal achalasia was first reported by Shimi et al. in 1991. Subsequently the procedure has been performed all over the world and laparoscopic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication (Heller and Dor operation) is now thought to be the operation of first choice. It is indicated for patients who are resistant to medical therapy (calcium blocker etc.) or have pneumatic dilatation and those with frequent aspiration at night. As Csendes et al. reported that surgical treatment was better than pneumatic dilatation and as laparoscopic surgery is less invasive, the indications for the laparoscopic Heller and Dor operation can include all achalasia patients except those who respond to medical therapy, do not accept surgery, or cannot tolerate surgery. We successfully performed the laparoscopic Heller and Dor operation on 22 patients, all of whom had an uneventful postoperative course. Manometric evaluation, endoscopic examination, and 24-hour pH monitoring showed good results. There are six important technical points: 1) flexible laparoscopy; 2) pneumoperitoneum; 3) gauze in the abdominal cavity to absorb blood; 4) laparosonic coagulating shears; 5) extracorporeal knot-tying technique; and 6) intracorporeal knot-tying technique. If an experienced surgeon is in charge, the laparoscopic Heller and Dor operation is an ideal, minimally invasive treatment for esophageal achalasia.

  3. Achalasia with megaesophagus and tracheal compression in a young patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kaths, J. Moritz; Foltys, Daniel B.; Scheuermann, Uwe; Strempel, Mari; Niebisch, Stefan; Ebert, Maren; Jansen-Winkeln, Boris; Gockel, Ines; Lang, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Achalasia is one of the most common causes of dysphagia. Typical symptoms include difficulties in controlling the swallowing process, regurgitation, weight loss, and chest pain. A megaesophagus rarely causes tracheal compression with consecutive acute dyspnea or similar respiratory symptoms. Presentation of case A 23-year-old male patient presented with difficulties in swallowing, a consecutive massive weight loss over the past three years, and minor respiratory ailments. Further diagnostics revealed a megaesophagus caused by achalasia leading to a severe compression of the trachea. A laparoscopic Heller myotomy with anterior semi-fundoplication 180° according to Dor was performed. Discussion Acute dyspnea and similar respiratory symptoms are rarely observed in patients with achalasia, especially in young patients. Early diagnosis and timely, proper treatment are the hallmarks of restoring esophageal and tracheobronchial function and of successful prevention of severe long-lasting complications of the disease. When not treated properly, the disease may have progressed rapidly, leading to distinct respiratory symptoms such as stridor and acute dyspnea Conclusion This report emphasizes that physicians should be alert and consider airway obstruction and signs of dyspnea as severe and threatening symptoms in extensive cases of achalasia with megaesophagus. Early surgical treatment provides a therapeutic option to obviate the occurrence of acute respiratory distress and consecutive complications. In particular, difficulties in intubation prior to surgery must be considered. PMID:26209755

  4. Endoscopic Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Zaheer; Reddy, D. Nageshwar

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined by the presence of troublesome symptoms resulting from the reflux of gastric contents. The prevalence of GERD is increasing globally. An incompetent lower esophageal sphincter underlies the pathogenesis of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) form the core of GERD management. However, a substantial number of patients do not respond well to PPIs. The next option is anti-reflux surgery, which is efficacious, but it has its own limitations, such as gas bloating, inability to belch or vomit, and dysphagia. Laparoscopic placement of magnetic augmentation device is emerging as a useful alternative to conventional anti-reflux surgery. However, invasiveness of a surgical procedure remains a concern for the patients. The proportion of PPI non-responders or partial responders who do not wish for anti-reflux surgery defines the ‘treatment gap’ and needs to be addressed. The last decade has witnessed the fall and rise of many endoscopic devices for GERD. Major endoscopic strategies include radiofrequency ablation and endoscopic fundoplication devices. Current endoscopic devices score high on subjective improvement, but have been unimpressive in objective improvement like esophageal acid exposure. In this review, we discuss the current endoscopic anti-reflux therapies and available evidence for their role in the management of GERD. PMID:27744659

  5. The barrier-free trocar technique in three laparoscopic standard procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rückbeil, Oskar; Lewin, Andreas; Federlein, Matthias; Gellert, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous technical and surgical innovations took place in laparoscopic surgery in the recent past. It is debatable whether single-access surgery or natural orifice surgery (NOS) will establish for several standard procedures. Most of the NOS-procedures are controversial and single-access surgery still has to prove its equality in controlled trials. In the intention to reduce the ingress incisons and to facilitate instrumentation, we decided to test the barrier-free AirSeal®-trocar in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laparoscopically we performed a cholecystectomy, gastric wedge-resection and a fundoplication using the barrier-free AirSeal® 12-mm-trocar. This trocar works without any mechanical barrier so that via this trocar the use of two instruments is possible. RESULTS: All three operations were successful. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic standard procedures are feasible using this barrier-free trocar without a higher degree of difficulty. Because of the facilitated instrumentation, it is possible to work more efficiently and to maintain the focus on the surgical field. PMID:22303082

  6. Safety analysis of first 1000 patients treated with magnetic sphincter augmentation for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Lipham, J C; Taiganides, P A; Louie, B E; Ganz, R A; DeMeester, T R

    2015-01-01

    Antireflux surgery with a magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) restores the competency of the lower esophageal sphincter with a device rather than a tissue fundoplication. As a regulated device, safety information from the published clinical literature can be supplemented by tracking under the Safe Medical Devices Act. The aim of this study was to examine the safety profile of the MSAD in the first 1000 implanted patients. We compiled safety data from all available sources as of July 1, 2013. The analysis included intra/perioperative complications, hospital readmissions, procedure-related interventions, reoperations, and device malfunctions leading to injury or inability to complete the procedure. Over 1000 patients worldwide have been implanted with the MSAD at 82 institutions with median implant duration of 274 days. Event rates were 0.1% intra/perioperative complications, 1.3% hospital readmissions, 5.6% endoscopic dilations, and 3.4% reoperations. All reoperations were performed non-emergently for device removal, with no complications or conversion to laparotomy. The primary reason for device removal was dysphagia. No device migrations or malfunctions were reported. Erosion of the device occurred in one patient (0.1%). The safety analysis of the first 1000 patients treated with MSAD for gastroesophageal reflux disease confirms the safety of this device and the implantation technique. The overall event rates were low based on data from 82 institutions. The MSAD is a safe therapeutic option for patients with chronic, uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  7. Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Review of Medical and Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Gastroesophageal reflux disease currently accounts for the majority of esophageal pathologies. This study is an attempt to help us tackle the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of this disease. This study specifically focuses on patients in the urban Indian setup. Materials and Methods. This study was a prospective interventional study carried out at a teaching public hospital in Mumbai from May 2010 to September 2012. Fifty patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (confirmed by endoscopy and esophageal manometry) were chosen for the study. Results. Fifty patients were included in the study. Twenty patients showed symptomatic improvement after three months and were thus managed conservatively, while 30 patients did not show any improvement in symptoms and were eventually operated. Conclusion. We suggest that all patients diagnosed to have gastroesophageal reflux disease should be subjected to 3 months of conservative management. In case of no relief of symptoms, patients need to be subjected to surgery. Laparoscopic Toupet's fundoplication is an effective and feasible surgical treatment option for such patients, associated with minimal side effects. However, the long-term effects of this form of treatment still need to be evaluated further with a larger sample size and a longer followup. PMID:24693423

  8. The laparoscopic hiatoplasty with antireflux surgery is a safe and effective procedure to repair giant hiatal hernia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although minimally invasive repair of giant hiatal hernias is a very surgical challenge which requires advanced laparoscopic learning curve, several reports showed that is a safe and effective procedure, with lower morbidity than open approach. In the present study we show the outcomes of 13 patients who underwent a laparoscopic repair of giant hiatal hernia. Methods A total of 13 patients underwent laparoscopic posterior hiatoplasty and Nissen fundoplication. Follow-up evaluation was done clinically at intervals of 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery using the Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Health-Related Quality of Life scale, a barium swallow study, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, an oesophageal manometry, a combined ambulatory 24-h multichannel impedance pH and bilirubin monitoring. Anatomic recurrence was defined as any evidence of gastric herniation above the diaphragmatic edge. Results There were no intraoperative complications and no conversions to open technique. Symptomatic GORD-HQL outcomes demonstrated a statistical significant decrease of mean value equal to 3.2 compare to 37.4 of preoperative assessment (p < 0.0001). Combined 24-h multichannel impedance pH and bilirubin monitoring after 12 months did not show any evidence of pathological acid or non acid reflux. Conclusion All patients were satisfied of procedure and no hernia recurrence was recorded in the study group, treated respecting several crucial surgical principles, e.g., complete sac excision, appropriate crural closure, also with direct hiatal defect where possible, and routine use of antireflux procedure. PMID:24401085

  9. Non-gastric Gastrointestinal Xanthomas: Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Díaz Del Arco, Cristina; Álvarez Sánchez, Ángel; Fernández Aceñero, M Jesús

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal xanthomas are infrequent non-neoplastic lesions characterized by the accumulation of foam cells in the lamina propria. They are commonly seen in association with dyslipidemia, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and infections in immunosuppressed patients. However, no clear connection to hyperlipidemia has been found. They occur more frequently in the stomach, and are very rare in the small bowel and esophagus. We identified all cases of non-gastric xanthoma or xanthomatosis reported in the English literature by searching the PubMed database and retrospectively reviewed the clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features of the 11 cases of non-gastric gastrointestinal xanthomas diagnosed in our hospital. Nine lesions were located in the large bowel, one in the duodenum and one in the esophagus. All xanthomas were small (<5 mm) sessile polyps except the esophageal xanthoma, which measured 13 mm. Two cases in the large bowel and the case in the small bowel were multiple. Most patients with large bowel xanthomas had hypercholesterolemia, unlike esophageal and small bowel cases. The esophageal lesion occurred in a patient with a history of partial fundoplication due to gastroesophageal reflux disease and the small bowel case was associated to chronic atrophic gastritis with intense activity. In our search of the English literature, we found 19 cases of xanthoma or xanthomatosis in the esophagus, 13 cases in the small bowel and 61 cases in the large bowel. In conclusion, gastrointestinal xanthomas, other than the gastric ones, are rare, and are usually incidental findings. PMID:27689205

  10. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Methods Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Results Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. Conclusion The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA. PMID:27066445

  11. Tales from previous times: important eponyms in pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael; Muensterer, Oliver; Harmon, Carroll M

    2014-01-01

    The use of eponyms in medicine has a long and captivating tradition, which applies to pediatric surgery as well. Unfortunately, even though these eponyms are widely used, oftentimes the fascinating personalities and lives behind these names remain unrecognized or underappreciated, especially among residents, fellows and younger-generation pediatric surgeons. Therefore, in this article, we review 15 names that are frequently used as eponyms in modern pediatric surgery and hereby enlighten the personalities behind them. Given their particular frequency, we choose the following eponyms: Ramstedt pylorotomy, Nissen fundoplication, Murphy's sign and sequence, McBurney's sign and incision, Meckel's diverticulum, Kasai portoenterostomy, Ladd's procedure, Morgagni and Bochdalek hernia, Ravitch operation, Nuss procedure, Hirschsprung disease, Swenson pullthrough, Peña procedure and Wilms tumor. A detailed description of the historical importance of these personalities and their contribution to our field is given. Without the appropriate historical background, it is difficult for the current younger and next generation pediatric surgeons to grasp the full spectrum of the ongoing progress in our field. Therefore, our article conveys not only important insight into the past, but also provides young surgeons with an important historical perspective essential to understand the current and future developments in modern pediatric surgery. PMID:23955255

  12. [Underlying Mechanisms and Management of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South Korea has increased over the past 10 years. Patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) shows better response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) than those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). NERD is a heterogeneous condition, showing pathological gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal hypersensitivity to reflux contents. NERD patients with pathological gastroesophageal reflux or hypersensitivity to acid may respond to PPIs. However, many patients with esophageal hypersensitivity to nonacid or functional heartburn do not respond to PPIs. Therefore, careful history and investigations are required when managing patients with refractory GERD who show poor response to conventional dose PPIs. Combined pH-impedance studies and a PPI diagnostic trial are recommended to reveal underlying mechanisms of refractory symptoms. For those with ongoing reflux-related symptoms, split dose administration, change to long-acting PPIs or PPIs less influenced by CYP2C19 genotypes, increasing dose of PPIs, and the addition of alginate preparations, prokinetics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants can be considered. Pain modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are more likely to be effective for those with reflux-unrelated symptoms. Surgery or endoscopic per oral fundoplication may be effective in selected patients.

  13. Extra-esophageal gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma: understanding this interplay.

    PubMed

    Naik, Rishi D; Vaezi, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is reflux of stomach contents, which typically manifests as heartburn and regurgitation. These esophageal symptoms are well recognized; however, there are extra-esophageal manifestations of GERD, which include asthma, chronic cough, laryngitis and sinusitis. With the rising incidence of asthma, there is increasing interest in identifying how GERD impacts asthma development and therapy. Due to the poor sensitivity of endoscopy and pH monitoring, empiric therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is now considered the initial diagnostic step in patients suspected of having GERD-related symptoms. If unresponsive, diagnostic testing with pH monitoring off therapy and/or impedance/pH monitoring on therapy, may be reasonable in order to assess for baseline presence of reflux with the former and exclude continued acid or weakly acid reflux with the latter tests. PPI-unresponsive asthmatics, without overt regurgitation, usually have either no reflux or causes other than GERD. In this group, PPI therapy should be discontinued. In those with GERD as a contributing factor acid suppressive therapy should be continued as well as optimally treating other etiologies requiring concomitant treatment. Surgical fundoplication is rarely needed but in those with a large hiatal hernia, moderate-to-severe reflux by pH monitoring surgery might be helpful in eliminating the need for high-dose acid suppressive therapy.

  14. Evaluation of the esophagus with a marshmallow bolus: clarifying the cause of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ott, D J; Kelley, T F; Chen, M Y; Gelfand, D W

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed the radiographic examinations of the esophagus and medical records in 117 patients (55 women and 62 men; mean age, 52 years) in which a marshmallow bolus was also given. A one-third to one-half piece of a standard marshmallow was used with a mean size of 23 mm (+/- 4.5 mm SD) measured in vivo. In 62 patients with no intrinsic structural narrowing of the esophagus, impaction occurred in only seven (11%). Four of these patients had an esophageal motility disorder, and three had a previous Nissen fundoplication. The remaining 55 patients had lower esophageal mucosal rings (47) or peptic strictures (8). Marshmallow impaction was seen in 27 of 47 rings (57%) and was inversely related to ring size, and in six of eight strictures (75%). Also, impaction was related to the ratio of bolus size to ring caliber, and invariably occurred when this ratio was greater than 1.5. Dysphagia was the presenting complaint in 76 (65%) patients, but was found equally in those without intrinsic narrowing and in those with ring or stricture. However, dysphagia was reproduced by the marshmallow bolus only in patients with esophageal narrowing or abnormal motility.

  15. Establishment of the World's First Telerobotic Remote Surgical Service

    PubMed Central

    Anvari, Mehran; McKinley, Craig; Stein, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a telerobotic surgical service between a teaching hospital and a rural hospital for provision of telerobotic surgery and assistance to aid rural surgeons in providing a variety of advanced laparoscopic surgery to their community patients. Summary Background Data: The above service was established between St. Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton and North Bay General Hospital 400 km north of Hamilton on February 28, 2003. The service uses an IP-VPN (15 Mbps of bandwidth) commercially available network to connect the robotic console in Hamilton with 3 arms of the Zeus-TS surgical system in North Bay. Results: To date, 21 telerobotic laparoscopic surgeries have taken place between North Bay and Hamilton, including 13 fundoplications, 3 sigmoid resections, 2 right hemicolectomies, 1 anterior resection, and 2 inguinal hernia repairs. The 2 surgeons were able to operate together using the same surgical footprint and interchange roles seamlessly when desired. There have been no serious intraoperative complications and no cases have had to be converted to open surgeries. The mean hospital stays were equivalent to mean laparoscopic LOS in the tertiary institution. Conclusions: Telerobotic remote surgery is now in routine use, providing high-quality laparoscopic surgical services to patients in a rural community and providing a superior degree of collaboration between surgeons in teaching hospitals and rural hospitals. Further refinement of the robotic and telecommunication technology should ensure its wider application in the near future. PMID:15729068

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in the obese: Pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Nadaleto, Barbara F; Herbella, Fernando A M; Patti, Marco G

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a condition that has increased all over the world in the last 3 decades. Overweight and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are related. GERD may have different causative factors in the obese compared with lean individuals. This review focuses on the proper treatment for GERD in the obese based on its pathophysiology. Increased abdominal pressure may play a more significant role in obese subjects with GERD than the defective esophagogastric barrier usually found in nonobese individuals. A fundoplication may be used to treat GERD in these individuals; however, outcomes may be not as good as in nonobese patients and it does not act on the pathophysiology of the disease. All bariatric techniques may ameliorate GERD symptoms owing to a decrease in abdominal pressure secondary to weight loss. However, some operations may lead to a disruption of natural anatomic antireflux mechanisms or even lead to slow gastric emptying and/or esophageal clearance and thus be a refluxogenic procedure. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass decreases both acid and bile reflux from the stomach into the esophagus. On the other hand, gastric banding is a refluxogenic operation, and sleeve gastrectomy may show different outcomes based on the anatomy of the gastric tube.

  17. LINX(™) Reflux Management System: magnetic sphincter augmentation in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Bonavina, Luigi; DeMeester, Tom R; Ganz, Robert A

    2012-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), commonly manifested by heartburn or regurgitation, is a chronic, progressive condition in which failed sphincter function allows the contents of the stomach to reflux into the esophagus, the airways and the mouth. Chronic GERD affects 10% of Western society. The majority of patients receive adequate relief from proton pump inhibitors, but up to 40% have incomplete relief of symptoms that cannot be addressed by increasing the dose of medications. The laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the surgical gold standard; however, the level of technical difficulty and its side effects have limited its use to less than 1% of the GERD population. These factors have contributed to the propensity of patients to persist with medical therapy, even when inadequate to control symptoms and complications of the disease. Consequently, a significant gap in the treatment continuum for GERD remains evident in current clinical practice. The LINX(™) Reflux Management System (Torax Medical) is designed to provide a permanent solution to GERD by augmenting the physiologic function of the sphincter barrier with a simple and reproducible laparoscopic procedure that does not alter gastric anatomy and can be easily reversed if necessary.

  18. LINX(®) Reflux Management System in chronic gastroesophageal reflux: a novel effective technology for restoring the natural barrier to reflux.

    PubMed

    Bonavina, Luigi; Saino, Greta; Lipham, John C; Demeester, Tom R

    2013-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) results from incompetency of the lower esophageal sphincter that allows the contents of the stomach to reflux into the esophagus, the airways, and the mouth. The disease affects about 10% of the western population and has a profound negative impact on quality of life. The majority of patients are successfully treated with proton-pump inhibitors, but up to 40% have incomplete relief of symptoms even after dose adjustment. The laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication represents the surgical gold standard, but is largely underused because of the level of technical difficulty and the prevalence of side effects. These factors have contributed to the propensity of patients to continue with medical therapy despite inadequate symptom control and complications of the disease. As a consequence, a significant 'therapy gap' in the treatment of GERD remains evident in current clinical practice. The LINX(®) Reflux Management System (Torax Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) is designed to provide a permanent solution to GERD by augmenting the sphincter barrier with a standardized, reproducible laparoscopic procedure that does not alter gastric anatomy and is easily reversible. Two single-group trials confirmed that a magnetic device designed to augment the lower esophageal sphincter can be safely and effectively implanted using a standard laparoscopic approach. The device decreased esophageal acid exposure, improved reflux symptoms and quality of life, and allowed cessation of proton-pump inhibitors in the majority of patients.

  19. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with an intrathoracic stomach.

    PubMed

    Martinelo, Vanderlei; Mardiros Herbella, Fernando Augusto; Patti, Marco G

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare finding. The real value of the high-resolution manometry (HRM) in the preoperative evaluation of these patients has not yet being fully tested. This study aims to evaluate: 1) the HRM pattern of patients with an intrathoracic stomach; and 2) HRM findings as predictors for prosthetic reinforcement of the hiatus. We reviewed 33 patients (27 women, mean age 66 years) with an intrathoracic stomach who underwent HRM. Fifteen patients did the HRM as part of preoperative workup and were operated on in our institution. All patients were submitted to a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. HRM results show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was transposed in all patients. Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 21 (63%) patients. The length of the hernia was 4 ± 2 cm (range, 1 to 9 cm). LES oscillation was observed in 23 (69%) patients with a mean of 1 ± 0.4 cm (range, 0.4 to 2 cm). Hiatal mesh reinforcement was necessary in five (33%) of the operated patients. HRM findings did not predict hiatal mesh reinforcement. Our results show that: 1) HRM has a poor sensibility for hiatal hernia diagnosis; 2) half of the patients with an intrathoracic stomach have a normal HRM; and 3) HRM does not predict mesh hiatal hernia repair.

  20. Collis-Nissen gastroplasty for short oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Sandro; Lugaresi, Marialuisa; Ruffato, Alberto; Daddi, Niccolò; Di Simone, Massimo Pierluigi; Perrone, Ottorino; Brusori, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Collis-Nissen procedure is performed for the surgical treatment of 'true short oesophagus'. When this condition is strongly suspected radiologically, the patient is placed in the 45° left lateral position on the operating table with the left chest and arm lifted to perform a thoracostomy in the V-VI space, posterior to the axillary line. The hiatus is opened and the distal oesophagus is widely mobilized. With intraoperative endoscopy, the position of the oesophago-gastric junction in relationship to the hiatus is determined and the measurement of the length of the intra-abdominal oesophagus is performed to decide either to carry out a standard anti-reflux procedure or to lengthen the oesophagus. If the oesophagus is irreversibly short ('true short oesophagus'), the short gastric vessels are divided and the gastric fundus is mobilized. An endostapler is introduced into the left chest. The left thoracoscopic approach is suitable to control effectively the otherwise blind passage of the endostapler into the mediastinum and upper abdomen (if a second optic is not used). The tip of the stapler is clearly visible while 'walking' on the left diaphragm. The Collis gastroplasty is performed over a 46 Maloney bougie. A floppy Nissen fundoplication and the hiatoplasty complete the procedure.

  1. Conditional inactivation of Upstream Binding Factor reveals its epigenetic functions and the existence of a somatic nucleolar precursor body.

    PubMed

    Hamdane, Nourdine; Stefanovsky, Victor Y; Tremblay, Michel G; Németh, Attila; Paquet, Eric; Lessard, Frédéric; Sanij, Elaine; Hannan, Ross; Moss, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) is a unique multi-HMGB-box protein first identified as a co-factor in RNA polymerase I (RPI/PolI) transcription. However, its poor DNA sequence selectivity and its ability to generate nucleosome-like nucleoprotein complexes suggest a more generalized role in chromatin structure. We previously showed that extensive depletion of UBF reduced the number of actively transcribed ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, but had little effect on rRNA synthesis rates or cell proliferation, leaving open the question of its requirement for RPI transcription. Using gene deletion in mouse, we now show that UBF is essential for embryo development beyond morula. Conditional deletion in cell cultures reveals that UBF is also essential for transcription of the rRNA genes and that it defines the active chromatin conformation of both gene and enhancer sequences. Loss of UBF prevents formation of the SL1/TIF1B pre-initiation complex and recruitment of the RPI-Rrn3/TIF1A complex. It is also accompanied by recruitment of H3K9me3, canonical histone H1 and HP1α, but not by de novo DNA methylation. Further, genes retain penta-acetyl H4 and H2A.Z, suggesting that even in the absence of UBF the rRNA genes can maintain a potentially active state. In contrast to canonical histone H1, binding of H1.4 is dependent on UBF, strongly suggesting that it plays a positive role in gene activity. Unexpectedly, arrest of rRNA synthesis does not suppress transcription of the 5S, tRNA or snRNA genes, nor expression of the several hundred mRNA genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis. Thus, rRNA gene activity does not coordinate global gene expression for ribosome biogenesis. Loss of UBF also unexpectedly induced the formation in cells of a large sub-nuclear structure resembling the nucleolar precursor body (NPB) of oocytes and early embryos. These somatic NPBs contain rRNA synthesis and processing factors but do not associate with the rRNA gene loci (NORs).

  2. RNAs extracted from herpes simplex virus 1 virions: apparent selectivity of viral but not cellular RNAs packaged in virions.

    PubMed

    Sciortino, M T; Suzuki, M; Taddeo, B; Roizman, B

    2001-09-01

    Following the lead of recent studies on the presence of RNA in virions of human cytomegalovirus, we investigated the presence and identity of RNAs from purified virions of herpes simple virus 1. To facilitate these studies, we designed primers for all known open reading frames (ORFs) and also constructed cDNA arrays containing probes designed to detect all known transcripts. In the first series of experiments, labeled DNA made by reverse transcription of poly(A)(+) RNA extracted from infected HEp-2 or rabbit skin cells hybridized to all but two of the probes in the cDNA array. A similar analysis of the RNA extracted from purified extracellular virions derived from infected HEp-2 cells hybridized to probes representing 24 of the ORFs. In the second series of analyses, we reverse transcribed and amplified by PCR RNAs from purified intracellular or extracellular virions derived from infected HEp-2 or Vero cell lines. The positive RNAs were retested by PCR with and without prior reverse transcription to ensure that the samples tested were free of contaminating DNA. The results were as follows. (i) Only a fraction of viral ORF transcripts were represented in virion RNA, and only nine RNAs (U(L)10, U(L)34/U(L)35, U(L)36, U(L)42, U(L)48, U(L)51, U(S)1/U(S)1.5, U(S)8.5, and U(S)10/U(S)11) were positive in all RT PCR assays. Of these, seven were positive by hybridization to cDNA arrays. (ii) RNA extracted from cells infected with a mutant virus lacking the U(S)8 to U(S)12 genes yielded results similar to those described above, indicating that U(S)11, a known RNA binding protein, does not play a role in packaging RNA in virions. (iii) Cellular RNAs detected in virions were representative of the abundant cellular RNAs. Last, RNA extracted from virions was translated in vitro and the translation products were reacted with antibody to alphaTIF (VIP16). The immune precipitate contained a labeled protein with the apparent molecular weight of alphaTIF, indicating that at least one

  3. Distal esophageal spasm: an update.

    PubMed

    Achem, Sami R; Gerson, Lauren B

    2013-09-01

    Distal esophageal spasm (DES) is an esophageal motility disorder that presents clinically with chest pain and/or dysphagia and is defined manometrically as simultaneous contractions in the distal (smooth muscle) esophagus in ≥20% of wet swallows (and amplitude contraction of ≥30 mmHg) alternating with normal peristalsis. With the introduction of high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) in 2000, the definition of DES was modified. The Chicago classification proposed that the defining criteria for DES using EPT should be the presence of at least two premature contractions (distal latency<4.5 s) in a context of normal EGJ relaxation. The etiology of DES remains insufficiently understood, but evidence links nitric oxide (NO) deficiency as a culprit resulting in a disordered neural inhibition. GERD frequently coexists in DES, and its role in the pathogenesis of symptoms needs further evaluation. There is some evidence from small series that DES can progress to achalasia. Treatment remains challenging due in part to lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Current treatment agents include nitrates (both short and long acting), calcium-channel blockers, anticholinergic agents, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors, visceral analgesics (tricyclic agents or SSRI), and esophageal dilation. Acid suppression therapy is frequently used, but clinical outcome trials to support this approach are not available. Injection of botulinum toxin in the distal esophagus may be effective, but further data regarding the development of post-injection gastroesophageal reflux need to be assessed. Heller myotomy combined with fundoplication remains an alternative for the rare refractory patient. Preliminary studies suggest that the newly developed endoscopic technique of per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may also be an alternative treatment modality. PMID:23892829

  4. Endoscopic management of peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Laws, H L; McKernan, J B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the authors' experience with endoscopic management of duodenal ulcer and ulcers occurring after a previous drainage procedure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with complications of duodenal ulcer and ulcers occurring after a previous drainage procedure still require surgical management. Virtually all operations for duodenal ulcer include some form of vagotomy. American surgeons in academic centers prefer highly selective vagotomy in suitable candidates. Video-directed laparoscopic and thoracoscopic operations have been done for all complications of duodenal ulcer except for acute hemorrhage. METHODS: The authors have performed laparoscopic operation on eight patients with intractable chronic duodenal ulcer, seven patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease combined with duodenal ulcer, one patient with chronic duodenal ulcer and gastric outlet obstruction, and one patient with acute perforation. Operations performed included omentopexy, anterior seromyotomy plus post truncal vagotomy, and highly selective vagotomy. Seven patients had a simultaneous Nissen fundoplication; and the patient with obstruction underwent concomitant pyloroplasty and vagotomy. Six patients with intestinal ulcers occurring after a previous drainage procedure were treated with thoracoscopic vagotomy. Techniques used are shown. RESULTS: There has been one recurrent ulcer in the laparoscopic group after anterior seromyotomy plus posterior truncal vagotomy. The patient treated by omentopexy for duodenal perforation recovered gastrointestinal function promptly with no further difficulty, but eventually died of primary medical disease. Patients undergoing thoracoscopic vagotomy have all become asymptomatic. Postoperative hospital stay after highly selective vagotomy, anterior seromyotomy plus posterior truncal vagotomy, or thoracoscopic vagotomy was 1-5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic management of duodenal ulcers is feasible. Larger numbers of patients with

  5. Insult of gastroesophageal reflux on airway: clinical significance of pharyngeal nozzle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhonggao; Hu, Zhiwei; Wu, Jimin; Ji, Feng; Wang, Hongtao; Lai, Yungang; Gao, Xiang; Ning, Yachan; Zhang, Chengchao; Li, Zhitong; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-03-01

    At the very time of global paying the highest attention to the worst insults of smoking as well as haze on the airway, everybody knows both are exogenous and noticeable. However, people mostly, including many medical personnel, do not know how badly the gastroesophageal reflux (GER) insults on our own airway. Symptoms of GER are commonly seen as heartburn and regurgitation, which can be mostly tolerated. However, when the up going gastric content reversely passes the esophagus and then the distal pharynx, where it appears a beak like stricture, serving as a nozzle, so as to produce numerous micro-particles and reach the oro-nasal cavity and also the airway causing allergic rhinitis and asthmatic attacks, even pulmonary parenchyma lesions. It will reduce life quality or even jeopardize life. The point that the endogenous insult appears in the respiratory system, but originates from the digestive tract is not well known and often undiagnosed and not correctly treated. The GER induced airway challenge is a treatable and preventive entity, as soon as a diagnosis is made, a good relief could be expected by means of life style adjustment, medicine, or fixation of the patulous cardia through radiofrequency or fundoplication. The author Dr. Zhonggao Wang had suffered it for long and symptoms disappeared for 8 years after anti-reflux surgery. Here is a presentation of Dr. Zhonggao Wang and his team's work and would call attention to the public so as to recognize this relatively unknown entity - a treatable condition occurring from human itself, but not from outside surroundings as smoking or haze does. PMID:25034240

  6. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Kotsis, Lajos; Kostic, Szilárd; Agócs, László; Vadász, Pál

    2015-12-01

    Right-sided spontaneous oesophageal rupture developed two days after left pneumonectomy and vomiting. In this extremely rare emergency, we used a transhiatal approach for primary repair of the rupture, combined with right-sided pleural and mediastinal drainage, gastrostomy and feeding jejunostomy. The seven-day barium meal showed healing of the rupture. It was mandatory that contamination of the pneumonectomized left thoracic cavity during rupture closure as well as a contralateral thoracotomy with its respiratory consequences had to be avoided by all means. Reconstruction and reinforcement (with omentum) of the oesophageal wall was achieved without difficulties, but we did not mobilize the oesophagus to avoid rupture of the left-sided mediastinal pleura. After massive haematamesis, a 68-year-old man was admitted for a huge (8×5 cm) mass in the lower-posterior mediastinum at the right side of the vertebra, seen on CT scan. On the barium meal incarcerated hiatal hernia, secondary short oesophagus and intramediastinally penetrating high lesser curvature ulcer was discovered. To reduce the magnitude of intervention one-stage transhiatal approach was decided. Through enlarged hiatus, dissection of incarcerated and firmly adherent hiatal hernia and of the short oesophagus was done. The following step was the removal of an encapsulated, huge lipomatosus mass from the posterior mediastinum, extending high from behind the vertebra, arising from the lesser curvature of the stomach. The lesser curvature ulcer was excised - sutured and a Toupet type (270 posterior) fundoplication was finally carried out. The follow-up was free from recurrence. This experience suggests that for some particular lower posterior mediastinal or esophageal problems, transhiatal access seems to be a useful alternative of traditional mediastinal approaches. PMID:26654357

  7. The use of a sternothyroid muscle flap to prevent the re-recurrence of a recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula found 10 years after the primary repair.

    PubMed

    Takayasu, Hajime; Masumoto, Kouji; Ishikawa, Miki; Sasaki, Takato; Ono, Kentaro

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is still difficult to diagnose and repair. In almost all cases, recurrence appears relatively soon after the primary surgery. We herein describe a case of recurrent TEF that appeared 10 years after the primary repair. At 2 years of age, the patient suffered from mental retardation due to encephalitis and developed a hiatus hernia with gastro-esophageal reflux. He underwent the repair of a hiatus hernia and fundoplication at 3 years of age. However, the hiatus hernia recurred 6 months after the operation. The patient suffered from recurrent pneumonia for 6 years after the appearance of the recurrent hiatus hernia. At 9 years of age, he was hospitalized frequently due to recurrent severe pneumonia. After admission at 9 years of age, an endoscopic study under general anesthesia was performed and revealed subglottic stenosis and a dilated esophagus with a recurrent hiatus hernia. Tracheotomy or laryngotracheal separation was first planned in order to improve his upper airway and facilitate the safer repair of the recurrent hiatus hernia. After laryngotracheal separation, the patient still suffered from severe pneumonia. In addition, a small volume of nutritional supplement was aspirated from the tracheostomy. Thus, recurrent TEF was suspected. Tests using dye under both esophagoscopy and bronchoscopy confirmed recurrent TEF. The fistula recurred in the cervical area because of the elevation of the esophagus due to the recurrent hiatus hernia. The fistula was surgically closed, with a sternothyroid muscle flap to prevent re-recurrence. At 4 months after this operation, the recurrent hiatus hernia was repaired. Thereafter, the patient's respiratory symptoms showed a dramatic improvement. The patient is now doing well and free from further recurrences of TEF and hiatus hernia at 2 years after the final operation. PMID:27589983

  8. [Medium-term outcome, follow-up, and quality of life in children treated for type III esophageal atresia].

    PubMed

    Lepeytre, C; De Lagausie, P; Merrot, T; Baumstarck, K; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term outcome (health status, medical and surgical French National Health Authority-recommended follow-up, and quality of life) of children born with type III esophageal atresia (EA). Previous events (during the perinatal period, associated abnormalities, respiratory and digestive complications) of children treated for type III EA at the Marseille university hospitals between 1999 and 2009 were noted. Parents completed a standardized questionnaire concerning the health of their children during the previous year, and a quality-of-life questionnaire (PedsQL 4.0) was also completed by children aged more than 8 years. Among the 68 children treated, 44 responded to our solicitation (mean age, 7.6 years; range, 3-12.8 years). Previous important events were : pneumonia(s) (65%), asthma before the age of 3 years (66%), hospitalization for a respiratory event (45%), fundoplication (20%), and esophageal dilatation (45%). We noted current chronic cough (16%), asthma (30%), dysphagia (39%), and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (9%). National guidelines were not respected, except for the surgical indications in children aged less than 6 years. The quality-of-life scores (n=43 children) were similar to healthy controls but were negatively influenced by a gastrostomy procedure (P=0.020), pneumonia (P=0.013), and hospitalization due to a respiratory event (P=0.006) or a digestive event (P=0.010), and also by current asthma (P=0.004). In conclusion, despite recurrent respiratory or digestive symptoms and inadequate recommended follow-up, the quality of life of children treated for type III of EA is good.

  9. [Our experience with pharyngo-esophageal Zenker's diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Francescopaolo; Puglisi, Maria; Bottaro, Paola

    2003-01-01

    Zenker's diverticulum is the single most common diverticular event arising in the esophagus. Its physiopathology is universally recognized. Lack of coordination between the propulsive pharyngeal contractions and the release of the upper esophageal sphincter creates abnormally high pressure in the pharyngeal chamber, resulting in the collapse of the posterior wall of the hypopharynx, i.e., the Laimer-Killian triangle (or Killian's dehiscence). The mucosal hernia that develops constitutes the diverticulum, which grows in volume and above all in length and is compressed between two rigid structures, namely, the spine posteriorly and the trachea anteriorly. Swallowing progressively fills the diverticulum, which in turn leads to compression of the esophagus and hence to the characteristic symptom of "delayed dysphagia" or "dysphagia of the 3rd bite". These physiopathological considerations underpin the rationale for surgical treatment, namely upper esophageal sphincter myotomy and diverticulectomy, which is the standard approach used in the 44 cases presented here. A diverticulopexy was performed only once due to the patient's advanced age. Myotomy alone was performed in only one case, given the small size of the diverticulum. In two patients the standard procedure was carried out following emergency therapy for iatrogenic perforation of the diverticulum. The patient with cancer underwent chemo-radiotherapy after futile surgical attempts. Complications included transitory salivary leakage (1 case), and a transitory laryngeal nerve deficit (1 case). Gastroesophageal reflux disease was present in two-thirds of the patients. A Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication was performed one year after treatment of the diverticulum in 5 patients. The following important aspects emerged: i) the incidence of neoplasia on the diverticulum; ii) the association and possible pathogenetic relationship with gastro-esophageal reflux disease iii) the validity of myotomy plus diverticulectomy as a

  10. Neurogenic dysphagia resulting from Chiari malformations.

    PubMed

    Pollack, I F; Pang, D; Kocoshis, S; Putnam, P

    1992-05-01

    Between 1980 and 1989, 15 of 46 patients (11 children, 4 adults) who underwent suboccipital craniectomy and cervical laminectomy for symptomatic Chiari malformations presented with manifestations of neurogenic dysphagia. Each of these patients had normal swallowing function before the development of dysphagic symptoms. Dysphagia was progressive in all 15 and, in most cases, preceded the onset of other severe brain stem signs. The rate of symptom progression varied depending on the age of the patient. Whereas the six infants (all Chiari II) deteriorated rapidly after the onset of initial symptoms, the five older children (two Chiari I, three Chiari II) and four adults (all Chiari I) showed a more gradual deterioration. In 11 patients with severe dysphagia, barium video esophagograms, pharyngoesophageal motility studies, continuous esophageal pH monitoring, and appropriate scintigraphic studies were useful in defining the scope of the swallowing impairment and determining whether perioperative nasogastric or gastrostomy feedings, gastric fundoplication, and/or tracheostomy were needed to maintain adequate nutrition and avoid aspiration. These patients all had widespread dysfunction of the swallowing mechanism, with a combination of diffuse pharyngoesophageal dysmotility, cricopharyngeal achalasia, nasal regurgitation, tracheal aspiration, and gastroesophageal reflux. The pathophysiology of these swallowing impairments and their relation to the hindbrain malformation is discussed. Postoperative outcome with regard to swallowing function correlated with the severity of preoperative symptoms. The four patients with mild dysphagia showed rapid improvement in swallowing function after surgery. Seven patients with more severe impairment but without other signs of severe brain stem compromise, such as central apnea or complete bilateral vocal cord paralysis, also improved, albeit more slowly. In contrast, the outcome in the four patients who developed other signs of severe

  11. Three-dimensional imaging of the lower esophageal sphincter in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, H J; DeMeester, T R; Naspetti, R; Jamieson, J; Perry, R E

    1991-01-01

    The resistance of the lower esophageal sphincter to reflux of gastric juice is determined by the integrated effects of radial pressures exerted over the entire length of the sphincter. This can be quantitated by three-dimensional computerized imaging of sphincter pressures obtained by a pullback of radially oriented pressure transducers and by calculating the volume of this image, in other words, the sphincter pressure vector volume. Validation studies showed that sphincter imaging based on a stepwise pullback of a catheter with four or eight radial side holes is superior to a rapid motorized pullback. Compared with 50 healthy volunteers, the total and abdominal sphincter pressure vector volume was lower in 150 patients with increased esophageal acid exposure (p less than 0.001) and decreased with increasing esophageal mucosal damage (p less than 0.01). Calculation of the sphincter pressure vector volume was superior to standard techniques in identifying a mechanically defective sphincter as the cause of increased esophageal acid exposure, particularly in patients without mucosal damage. The Nissen and Belsey fundoplication increased the total and intra-abdominal sphincter pressure vector volume (p less than 0.001) and normalized the three-dimensional sphincter image. Failure to do so was associated with recurrent or persistent reflux. These data indicate that three-dimensional imaging of the lower esophageal sphincter improves the identification of patients who would benefit from an antireflux procedure. Analysis of the three-dimensional sphincter pressure profile should become the standard for evaluation of the lower esophageal sphincter. PMID:1953093

  12. Laparoscopic surgery: A qualified systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Buia, Alexander; Stockhausen, Florian; Hanisch, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review current applications of the laparoscopic surgery while highlighting the standard procedures across different fields. METHODS: A comprehensive search was undertaken using the PubMed Advanced Search Builder. A total of 321 articles were found in this search. The following criteria had to be met for the publication to be selected: Review article, randomized controlled trials, or meta-analyses discussing the subject of laparoscopic surgery. In addition, publications were hand-searched in the Cochrane database and the high-impact journals. A total of 82 of the findings were included according to matching the inclusion criteria. Overall, 403 full-text articles were reviewed. Of these, 218 were excluded due to not matching the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: A total of 185 relevant articles were identified matching the search criteria for an overview of the current literature on the laparoscopic surgery. Articles covered the period from the first laparoscopic application through its tremendous advancement over the last several years. Overall, the biggest advantage of the procedure has been minimizing trauma to the abdominal wall compared with open surgery. In the case of cholecystectomy, fundoplication, and adrenalectomy, the procedure has become the gold standard without being proven as a superior technique over the open surgery in randomized controlled trials. Faster recovery, reduced hospital stay, and a quicker return to normal activities are the most evident advantages of the laparoscopic surgery. Positive outcomes, efficiency, a lower rate of wound infections, and reduction in the perioperative morbidity of minimally invasive procedures have been shown in most indications. CONCLUSION: Improvements in surgical training and developments in instruments, imaging, and surgical techniques have greatly increased safety and feasibility of the laparoscopic surgical procedures. PMID:26713285

  13. Robotic Surgical Training in an Academic Institution

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, W. Randolph; Nifong, L. Wiley; Chapman, William H. H.; Felger, Jason E.; Bailey, B. Marcus; Ballint, Tara; Mendleson, Kim G.; Kim, Victor B.; Young, James A.; Albrecht, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To detail robotic procedure development and clinical applications for mitral valve, biliary, and gastric reflux operations, and to implement a multispecialty robotic surgery training curriculum for both surgeons and surgical teams. Summary Background Data Remote, accurate telemanipulation of intracavitary instruments by general and cardiac surgeons is now possible. Complex technologic advancements in surgical robotics require well-designed training programs. Moreover, efficient robotic surgical procedures must be developed methodically and safely implemented clinically. Methods Advanced training on robotic systems provides surgeon confidence when operating in tiny intracavitary spaces. Three-dimensional vision and articulated instrument control are essential. The authors’ two da Vinci robotic systems have been dedicated to procedure development, clinical surgery, and training of surgical specialists. Their center has been the first United States site to train surgeons formally in clinical robotics. Results Established surgeons and residents have been trained using a defined robotic surgical educational curriculum. Also, 30 multispecialty teams have been trained in robotic mechanics and electronics. Initially, robotic procedures were developed experimentally and are described. In the past year the authors have performed 52 robotic-assisted clinical operations: 18 mitral valve repairs, 20 cholecystectomies, and 14 Nissen fundoplications. These respective operations required 108, 28, and 73 minutes of robotic telemanipulation to complete. Procedure times for the last half of the abdominal operations decreased significantly, as did the knot-tying time in mitral operations. There have been no deaths and few complications. One mitral patient had postoperative bleeding. Conclusion Robotic surgery can be performed safely with excellent results. The authors have developed an effective curriculum for training teams in robotic surgery. After training, surgeons

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux disease: A review of surgical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Maureen; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Benhuri, Daniel; Antonacci, Caroline; Abelson, Jonathan; Zarnegar, Rasa

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disorder with increasing prevalence. It is estimated that up to 20%-25% of Americans experience symptoms of GERD weekly. Excessive reflux of acidic often with alkaline bile salt gastric and duodenal contents results in a multitude of symptoms for the patient including heartburn, regurgitation, cough, and dysphagia. There are also associated complications of GERD including erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, stricture and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. While first line treatments for GERD involve mainly lifestyle and non-surgical therapies, surgical interventions have proven to be effective in appropriate circumstances. Anti-reflux operations are aimed at creating an effective barrier to reflux at the gastroesophageal junction and thus attempt to improve physiologic and mechanical issues that may be involved in the pathogenesis of GERD. The decision for surgical intervention in the treatment of GERD, moreover, requires an objective confirmation of the diagnosis. Confirmation is achieved using various preoperative evaluations including: ambulatory pH monitoring, esophageal manometry, upper endoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) and barium swallow. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis and with appropriate patient criteria met, an anti-reflux operation is a good alternative to prolonged medical therapy. Currently, minimally invasive gastro-esophageal fundoplication is the gold standard for surgical intervention of GERD. Our review outlines the many factors that are involved in surgical decision-making. We will review the prominent features that reflect appropriate anti-reflux surgery and present suggestions that are pertinent to surgical practices, based on evidence-based studies. PMID:26843915

  15. Resorbable biosynthetic mesh for crural reinforcement during hiatal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Alicuben, Evan T; Worrell, Stephanie G; DeMeester, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    The use of mesh to reinforce crural closure during hiatal hernia repair is controversial. Although some studies suggest that using synthetic mesh can reduce recurrence, synthetic mesh can erode into the esophagus and in our opinion should be avoided. Studies with absorbable or biologic mesh have not proven to be of benefit for recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of hiatal hernia repair with modern resorbable biosynthetic mesh in combination with adjunct tension reduction techniques. We retrospectively analyzed all patients who had crural reinforcement during repair of a sliding or paraesophageal hiatal hernia with Gore BioA resorbable mesh. Objective follow-up was by videoesophagram and/or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. There were 114 patients. The majority of operations (72%) were laparoscopic primary repairs with all patients receiving a fundoplication. The crura were closed primarily in all patients and reinforced with a BioA mesh patch. Excessive tension prompted a crural relaxing incision in four per cent and a Collis gastroplasty in 39 per cent of patients. Perioperative morbidity was minor and unrelated to the mesh. Median objective follow-up was one year, but 18 patients have objective follow-up at two or more years. A recurrent hernia was found in one patient (0.9%) three years after repair. The use of crural relaxing incisions and Collis gastroplasty in combination with crural reinforcement with resorbable biosynthetic mesh is associated with a low early hernia recurrence rate and no mesh-related complications. Long-term follow-up will define the role of these techniques for hiatal hernia repair.

  16. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Novel Concepts of Proton Pump Inhibitors as Antifibrotic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ghebre, Yohannes T; Raghu, Ganesh

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of abnormal acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) than in matched control subjects. Several studies demonstrated that more than one-third of patients with IPF have abnormal esophageal acid exposures. In addition, many of these studies indicate that the majority of patients with IPF have silent reflux with no symptoms of GER. Findings of abnormal reflux persist in a large proportion of patients with IPF placed on antacid therapy such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). This seemingly paradoxical observation suggests that either patients with IPF are somehow resistant to PPI-based intervention or PPIs are inherently unable to suppress acid GER. By contrast, patients with IPF who undergo Nissen fundoplication surgery are effectively relieved from the complications of GER, and retrospective studies suggest improved lung function. Retrospective, anecdotal data suggest a beneficial role of PPIs in IPF including stabilization of lung function, reduction in episodes of acute exacerbation, and enhanced longevity. The recent evidence-based guidelines for treatment of IPF approved conditional recommendation of PPIs for all patients with IPF regardless of their GER status. Recently, we have reported that PPIs possess antiinflammatory and antifibrotic activities by directly suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, profibrotic proteins, and proliferation of lung fibroblasts. Our study provides an alternative explanation for the beneficial effect of PPIs in IPF. In this Perspective, we reviewed emerging progress on antifibrotic effect of PPIs using IPF as a disease model. In addition, we summarized surgical and pharmacological interventions for GER and their downstream effect on lung physiology. PMID:27110898

  17. The use of magnets with single-site umbilical laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Benjamin E; Dominguez, Guillermo; Millan, Carolina; Martinez-Ferro, Marcelo

    2011-11-01

    Single-site umbilical incision laparoscopic surgery (SSULS) is increasingly being used to treat a variety of childhood surgical diseases. Existing SSULS approaches have inefficient triangulation and poor ergonomics. In an effort to overcome these shortcomings, magnet-assisted laparoscopy was developed. Specialized magnetic graspers are introduced through a standard 12-mm port and are controlled by a powerful external magnet. This study is a retrospective analysis of all magnet-assisted laparoscopic operations performed at the Fundacion Hospitalaria Private Children's Hospital from September 2009 to January 2011. Outcomes include demographics, diagnosis, operative time, intraoperative complications, and conversion rates. Forty-four magnet-assisted laparoscopic operations were performed. The operations included 23 appendectomies, 8 cholecystectomies, 3 Nissen fundoplications, 2 gastrojejunostomies, 2 splenectomies, 2 ovarian tumor/cyst resections, 1 retroperitoneal lymphangioma resection, 1 left adrenalectomy, 1 total abdominal colectomy and 1 pulmonary wedge resection. The mean operative times for the most commonly performed operations were 61 minutes for appendectomy and 93 minutes for cholecystectomy. The operations were classified as follows: Group I, adjunct to conventional laparoscopy (5 operations); Group II, adjunct to multiple-access umbilical laparoscopy (11 operations); and Group III, true single-port laparoscopy (28 operations). Among Group II/III operations, 6 operations required 1 additional port outside the umbilicus. No operations required more that 1 additional port, and no operations were converted to the open technique. There were no intraoperative complications. Magnet-assisted laparoscopic surgery is safe and effective in children. The use of magnetic graspers improves triangulation and ergonomics while reducing the number and size of abdominal incisions.

  18. Paraesophageal Hernia Repair With Partial Longitudinal Gastrectomy in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, John; El-Hayek, Kevin; Brethauer, Stacy; Schauer, Philip; Zelisko, Andrea; Chand, Bipan; O'Rourke, Colin; Kroh, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with hiatal hernia in obese patients has proven difficult, as studies demonstrate poor symptom control and high failure rates in this patient population. Recent data have shown that incorporating weight loss procedures into the treatment of reflux may improve overall outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 28 obese and morbidly obese patients who presented from December 2007 through July 2013 with large or recurrent type 3 or 4 paraesophageal hernia. All of the patients underwent combined paraesophageal hernia repair and partial longitudinal gastrectomy. Charts were retrospectively reviewed, and the patients were contacted to determine symptomatic relief. Results: Mean preoperative body mass index was 38.1 ± 4.9 kg/m2. Anatomic failure of prior fundoplication occurred in 7 patients (25%). The remaining 21 had primary paraesophageal hernia, 3 of which were type 4. Postoperative complications included pulmonary embolism (n = 1), pulmonary decompensation (n = 2), and wound infection (n = 1). Mean hospital stay was 5 ± 3 days. Upper gastrointestinal esophagogram was performed in 21 patients with no immediate recurrence or staple line dehiscence. Mean excess weight loss was 44 ± 25%. All of the patients surveyed experienced near to total resolution of their preoperative symptoms within the first month. At 1 year, symptom scores decreased significantly. At 27 months, however, there was a mild increase in the scores. Return of severe symptoms occurred in 2 patients, both of whom underwent conversion to gastric bypass. Conclusions: Combined laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair with longitudinal partial gastrectomy offers a safe, feasible approach to the management of large or recurrent paraesophageal hernia in well-selected obese and morbidly obese patients. Short-term results were promising; however, intermediate results showed increasing rates of reflux symptoms that required

  19. Map Showing Inventory and Regional Susceptibility for Holocene Debris Flows, and Related Fast-Moving Landslides in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Best, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Debris flows, debris avalanches, mud flows and lahars are fast-moving landslides that occur in a wide variety of environments throughout the world. They are particularly dangerous to life and property because they move quickly, destroy objects in their paths, and often strike without warning. This map represents a significant effort to compile the locations of known debris flows in United Stated and predict where future flows might occur. The files 'dfipoint.e00' and 'dfipoly.e00' contain the locations of over 6600 debris flows from published and unpublished sources. The locations are referenced by numbers that correspond to entries in a bibliography, which is part of the pamphlet 'mf2329pamphlet.pdf'. The areas of possible future debris flows are shown in the file 'susceptibility.tif', which is a georeferenced TIFF file that can be opened in an image editing program or imported into a GIS system like ARC/INFO. All other databases are in ARC/INFO export (.e00) format.

  20. IODC98 optical design problem: method of progressing from an ahromatic to an apochromatic design

    SciTech Connect

    Seppala, L.G.

    1998-07-20

    A general method of designing an apochromatic lens by using a triplet of special glasses, in which the buried surfaces concept is used, can be outlined. First, one initially chooses a starting point which is already achromatic. Second, a thick plate or shell is added to the design, where the plate or shell has an index of refraction 1.62, which is similar to the special glass triplet average index of refraction (for example: PSK53A, KZFS1 and TIF6). Third, the lens is then reoptimized to an achromatic design. Fourth, the single element is replace by the special glass triplet. Fifth, only the internal surfaces of the triplet are varied to correct all three wavelengths. Although this step will produce little improvement, it does serve to stabilize further optimization. Sixth and finally, all potential variables are used to fully optimize the apochromatic lens. Microscope objectives, for example, could be designed using this technique. The important concept to apply is the use of multiple buried surfaces in which each interface involves a special glass, after an achromatic design has been achieved. This extension relieves the restriction that all special glasses have a common index of refraction and allows a wider variety of special glasses to be used. However, it is still desirable to use glasses which form a large triangle on the P versus V diagram.

  1. Quantitative RT-PCR Gene Evaluation and RNA Interference in the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Chen, Yuting; Mamidala, Praveen; Zhao, Chaoyang; Michel, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) has emerged as one of the most important invasive insect pests in the United States. Functional genomics in H. halys remains unexplored as molecular resources in this insect have recently been developed. To facilitate functional genomics research, we evaluated ten common insect housekeeping genes (RPS26, EF1A, FAU, UBE4A, ARL2, ARP8, GUS, TBP, TIF6 and RPL9) for their stability across various treatments in H. halys. Our treatments included two biotic factors (tissues and developmental stages) and two stress treatments (RNAi injection and starvation). Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). The qRT-PCR results indicated ARP8 and UBE4A exhibit the most stable expression across tissues and developmental stages, ARL2 and FAU for dsRNA treatment and TBP and UBE4A for starvation treatment. Following the dsRNA treatment, all genes except GUS showed relatively stable expression. To demonstrate the utility of validated reference genes in accurate gene expression analysis and to explore gene silencing in H. halys, we performed RNAi by administering dsRNA of target gene (catalase) through microinjection. A successful RNAi response with over 90% reduction in expression of target gene was observed. PMID:27144586

  2. [Progress of Autoantibody Examinations for Connective Tissue Diseases].

    PubMed

    Akashi, Kengo; Saegusa, Jun; Morinobu, Akio

    2015-05-01

    Connective tissue diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases that can affect multiple organs and, thus, have a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. Various autoantibodies are detected in patients with connective tissue diseases, represented by anti-nuclear antibody for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), Sjögren's syndrome, and mixed connective tissue disease. Assessment of the autoantibody profile is fundamental for the clinical management of patients with connective tissue diseases, providing important data for the diagnosis, clinical characterization, and disease activity evaluation. Anti-ribosomal P antibody and anti-NMDA receptor antibody are associated with neuropsychiatric SLE. Anti-synthetase syndrome comprises the association of myositis (PM/DM), interstitial lung disease, fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, mechanic's hands, and anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibodies. Anti-MDA5 antibody is detected in patients with clinically amyopathic DM, often complicated by rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease. Between 50 and 75% of malignancy-associated DM patients are positive for anti-TIF1-γ antibody. Anti-RNA polymerase III antibody is associated with diffuse cutaneous SSc and renal crisis. This review focuses on the importance and usefulness of these autoantibodies for the diagnosis and management of patients with connective tissue diseases in clinical practice.

  3. Myositis autoantibodies and clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ghirardello, Anna; Borella, Elisabetta; Beggio, Marianna; Franceschini, Franco; Fredi, Micaela; Doria, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Autoantibodies are powerful diagnostic tools in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, especially for confirming the diagnosis and contributing to the definition of disease subsets. They are present in over 80 % of patients with immuno-mediated myositis and directed towards ubiquitously expressed intracellular complexes. Most of these autoantibodies are reported also in other autoimmune diseases, while some are considered myositis-specific. Myositis autoantibodies are traditionally categorized in two groups, based on their diagnostic accuracy: myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) and myositis-associated antibodies (MAA), the latter mostly occurring in myositis-overlap syndromes. Besides the so-called traditional MSA, including anti-synthetases, anti-SRP and anti-Mi-2 antibodies, additional newly conceived immune targets have been recently identified, mostly in patients with severe forms of dermatomyositis or necrotizing myopathy. They mainly encompass enzymatic proteins essentially involved in the regulation of gene transcription or post-translational modifications, i.e., TIF1-γ, NXP-2, MDA5, SAE and HMGCR. Among the MAA, anti-PM/Scl and anti-Ku characterize an overlap polydermatomyositis/systemic sclerosis syndrome with severe interstitial lung involvement.

  4. Structural evidence of [Rh(Thio) 6] 3+ and [Rh(Thio) 5Cl] 2+ cations in three novel ionic systems based on Co(III) dioximates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourosh, Paulina N.; Coropceanu, Eduard B.; Rija, Andrei P.; Bologa, Olga A.; Gdaniec, Maria; Bulhac, Ion I.

    2011-07-01

    Multicomponent mixed metal ionic-type dioximates, [Со(DH) 2(Thio) 2][Rh(Thio) 6][BF 4] 4 ( 1), [Со(DH) 2(Thio) 2][Rh(Thio) 6][TiF 6] 2·H 2O ( 2) and [Со(NioxH) 2(Thio) 2] 2[Rh(Thio) 5Cl][TiF 6] 2·CH 3OH·3H 2O ( 3), where DH 2 is dimethylglyoxime, NioxH 2 is 1.2-cyclohexanedionedioxime, and Thio is thiourea, were synthesized and their structures were determined by an X-ray method. Compounds 1-3 consist of two different mononuclear coordination cations with cobalt(III) and rhodium(III) as octahedrally coordinated metal centers and fluorine-containing anions as counterions. In the studied systems, Rh(III) mostly binds Thio ligands instead of dioximes, while a typical bis-dioximate in trans geometry is formed by Co(III) with two Thio ligands placed in axial positions. A structural characterization of coordination cations [Rh(Thio) 6] 3+ and [Rh(Thio) 5Cl] 2+ is given for the first time. The interactions and arrangement of the components in crystals 1-3 are discussed.

  5. Preparation of fibrous titania oxynitride - carbon catalyst and oxygen reduction reaction analysis in both acidic and alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinumoto, Taro; Sou, Yoshinori; Ono, Kohei; Matsuoka, Miki; Arai, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    A fibrous catalyst of titania oxynitride and carbon is prepared and its catalytic behavior in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are investigated in both HClO4 and KOH aqueous solutions. TiO2 particles are successfully deposited on activated carbon fibers by a liquid phase deposition technique using (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3. The catalyst obtained after subsequent ammonia nitridation at 1273 K had a fibrous structure with TiOxNy and TiN components. Interestingly, the product demonstrates catalytic activity for the ORR in not only HClO4 but also KOH aqueous solution. The onset potential in HClO4 solution is assumed to be moderate, at 0.85 V; on the other hand, that in KOH solution is relatively high at 0.95 V. Furthermore, it is considered from the Tafel plot analysis of the KOH solution result that the ORR mechanism follows a peroxide intermediate pathway and the rate-determining step would be a one-electron-transfer reaction to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the active site.

  6. Effect of co-products of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans on ethanol production in dry-grind corn fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Jasreen K; Jung, Stephanie; Wang, Tong; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2015-09-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) is an environmentally-friendly alternative to solvent and mechanical oil extraction methods, and can achieve ∼ 97% oil recovery from soybeans. The present study utilized soy skim (protein rich) and insoluble fiber (IF; carbohydrate rich), both co-products of EAEP, in dry-grind corn fermentation. The effects of adding soy skim and untreated IF (UIF), either separately or together, and adding pretreated IF (TIF), on ethanol production were investigated. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when UIF and skim were slurried together (corn-to-UIF ratio 1:0.16; skim-to-UIF ratio 6.5:1) and when fiber-hydrolyzing enzymes were added to corn fermentation. This modification to corn fermentation increased ethanol yield by 20%, ethanol production rate by 3%, and decreased fermentation time by 38 h compared to corn-only fermentation. An attempt was also made to utilize pentoses (from soy skim and IF) in integrated corn-soy fermentation slurry by an additional Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation step.

  7. Optimizing Cloud Based Image Storage, Dissemination and Processing Through Use of Mrf and Lerc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Plesea, Lucian; Maurer, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The volume and numbers of geospatial images being collected continue to increase exponentially with the ever increasing number of airborne and satellite imaging platforms, and the increasing rate of data collection. As a result, the cost of fast storage required to provide access to the imagery is a major cost factor in enterprise image management solutions to handle, process and disseminate the imagery and information extracted from the imagery. Cloud based object storage offers to provide significantly lower cost and elastic storage for this imagery, but also adds some disadvantages in terms of greater latency for data access and lack of traditional file access. Although traditional file formats geoTIF, JPEG2000 and NITF can be downloaded from such object storage, their structure and available compression are not optimum and access performance is curtailed. This paper provides details on a solution by utilizing a new open image formats for storage and access to geospatial imagery optimized for cloud storage and processing. MRF (Meta Raster Format) is optimized for large collections of scenes such as those acquired from optical sensors. The format enables optimized data access from cloud storage, along with the use of new compression options which cannot easily be added to existing formats. The paper also provides an overview of LERC a new image compression that can be used with MRF that provides very good lossless and controlled lossy compression.

  8. Targeted Gene Therapy of Cancer: Second Amendment toward Holistic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    It seems solid tumors are developing smart organs with specialized cells creating specified bio-territory, the so called "tumor microenvironment (TME)", in which there is reciprocal crosstalk among cancer cells, immune system cells and stromal cells. TME as an intricate milieu also consists of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can resist against chemotherapies. In solid tumors, metabolism and vascularization appears to be aberrant and tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) functions as physiologic barrier. Thus, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and gene therapy often fail to provide cogent clinical outcomes. It looms that it is the time to accept the fact that initiation of cancer could be generation of another form of life that involves a cluster of thousands of genes, while we have failed to observe all aspects of it. Hence, the current treatment modalities need to be re-visited to cover all key aspects of disease using combination therapy based on the condition of patients. Perhaps personalized cluster of genes need to be simultaneously targeted.

  9. A novel Krueppel related factor consisting of only a KRAB domain is expressed in the murine trigeminal ganglion

    SciTech Connect

    Nikulina, Karina; Bodeker, MacDara; Warren, John; Matthews, Philip; Margolis, Todd P. . E-mail: todd.margolis@ucsf.edu

    2006-09-29

    The largest family of zinc-finger (ZnF) transcription factors is that containing the Krueppel-associated box, or KRAB domain. The amino-terminal KRAB domain of these proteins functions as a transcriptional repressor with the downstream ZnF motifs providing DNA-binding specificity. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel murine Krueppel-related factor (KLF), MIF1, which contains a KRAB domain but lacks a ZnF motif. Western blot analysis identified MIF1-like proteins in the murine trigeminal ganglion (TG) and immunostaining localized these proteins primarily to the cytoplasm of TG neuronal cell bodies. In situ hybridization for Mif1 transcripts confirms the selective expression of Mif1 in TG neurons. Consistent with the non-nuclear localization of MIF1 we could detect no transcriptional repressor activity of the MIF1 protein. However MIF1 appears to be capable of interacting with the co-repressor TIF1{beta} and exhibits transcription repressor activity when fused to yeast GAL4 binding domain protein. Genomic analysis of Mif1 sequence suggests that the Mif1 transcript may result from splicing of a longer KRAB-ZnF containing transcript.

  10. Crystal structure and optical properties of new 0D-hybrid hydroxyfluorotitanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhoste, Jérôme; Galven, Cyrille; Leblanc, Marc; Maisonneuve, Vincent; Rocquefelte, Xavier; Jobic, Stéphane; Bujoli-Doeuff, Martine

    2013-10-01

    New 0D hybrid organic-inorganic hydroxyfluorotitanates result from the microwave assisted reactions in autoclaves of TiF4 with organic amines (3-5 diamino-1,2,4,triazol (guaz), ethylenediamine (en) and diethylenetriamine (dien)) and concentrated aqueous HF in ethanol at 190 °C for 1 h. Four compounds, [Hguaz]2·(TiF4.9(OH)1.1) (I), [H2guaz]·(TiF4.8(OH)1.2) (II), [H2en]·(TiF4.3(OH)1.7) (III) and [H2dien]·(Ti(F,OH)6)·2H2O (IV) are prepared and characterized. All structures are built up from isolated (Ti(F,OH)6)2- anions interacting with mono- or di-protonated amines which local symmetry dictates the long range stacking of the Ti(F,OH)6 octahedra. Insertion of crystallized water molecules is only observed for IV. The experimental optical gaps of I, II and III have been measured at about 3.4 eV and compare well with the theoretical values estimated from the examination of density of state diagrams. The optical thresholds are mainly due to O(2p) → Ti(3d) electronic transitions, the F(2p) → Ti(3d) charge transfers occurring at higher energy.

  11. A Combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and Standardized RNAi as a Versatile Platform for the Characterization of Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Wissel, Sebastian; Kieser, Anja; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Duchek, Peter; Roitinger, Elisabeth; Gokcezade, Joseph; Steinmann, Victoria; Gaul, Ulrike; Mechtler, Karl; Förstemann, Klaus; Knoblich, Jürgen A.; Neumüller, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional loss-of-function studies in Drosophila suffer from a number of shortcomings, including off-target effects in the case of RNA interference (RNAi) or the stochastic nature of mosaic clonal analysis. Here, we describe minimal in vivo GFP interference (miGFPi) as a versatile strategy to characterize gene function and to conduct highly stringent, cell type-specific loss-of-function experiments in Drosophila. miGFPi combines CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tagging of genes at their endogenous locus with an immunotag and an exogenous 21 nucleotide RNAi effector sequence with the use of a single reagent, highly validated RNAi line targeting this sequence. We demonstrate the utility and time effectiveness of this method by characterizing the function of the Polymerase I (Pol I)-associated transcription factor Tif-1a, and the previously uncharacterized gene MESR4, in the Drosophila female germline stem cell lineage. In addition, we show that miGFPi serves as a powerful technique to functionally characterize individual isoforms of a gene. We exemplify this aspect of miGFPi by studying isoform-specific loss-of-function phenotypes of the longitudinals lacking (lola) gene in neural stem cells. Altogether, the miGFPi strategy constitutes a generalized loss-of-function approach that is amenable to the study of the function of all genes in the genome in a stringent and highly time effective manner. PMID:27280787

  12. Surficial Geologic Map of the Salem Depot-Newburyport East-Wilmington-Rockport 16-Quadrangle Area in Northeast Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet Radway; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 16 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 658 mi2) in northeast Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (grain size, sedimentary structures, mineral and rock-particle composition), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  13. Ribosome biogenesis adaptation in resistance training-induced human skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Vandre C; Caldow, Marissa K; Massie, Vivien; Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-07-01

    Resistance training (RT) has the capacity to increase skeletal muscle mass, which is due in part to transient increases in the rate of muscle protein synthesis during postexercise recovery. The role of ribosome biogenesis in supporting the increased muscle protein synthetic demands is not known. This study examined the effect of both a single acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) and a chronic RT program on the muscle ribosome biogenesis response. Fourteen healthy young men performed a single bout of RE both before and after 8 wk of chronic RT. Muscle cross-sectional area was increased by 6 ± 4.5% in response to 8 wk of RT. Acute RE-induced activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways were similar before and after RT, as assessed by phosphorylation of ERK, MNK1, p70S6K, and S6 ribosomal protein 1 h postexercise. Phosphorylation of TIF-IA was also similarly elevated following both RE sessions. Cyclin D1 protein levels, which appeared to be regulated at the translational rather than transcriptional level, were acutely increased after RE. UBF was the only protein found to be highly phosphorylated at rest after 8 wk of training. Also, muscle levels of the rRNAs, including the precursor 45S and the mature transcripts (28S, 18S, and 5.8S), were increased in response to RT. We propose that ribosome biogenesis is an important yet overlooked event in RE-induced muscle hypertrophy that warrants further investigation.

  14. Risk Factor Analysis in Low-Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin (GPFA-AB)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Teresa E. Jordan

    2015-09-30

    This submission contains information used to compute the risk factors for the GPFA-AB project (DE-EE0006726). The risk factors are natural reservoir quality, thermal resource quality, potential for induced seismicity, and utilization. The methods used to combine the risk factors included taking the product, sum, and minimum of the four risk factors. The files are divided into images, rasters, shapefiles, and supporting information. The image files show what the raster and shapefiles should look like. The raster files contain the input risk factors, calculation of the scaled risk factors, and calculation of the combined risk factors. The shapefiles include definition of the fairways, definition of the US Census Places, the center of the raster cells, and locations of industries. Supporting information contains details of the calculations or processing used in generating the files. An image of the raster will have the same name except *.png as the file ending instead of *.tif. Images with “fairways” or “industries” added to the name are composed of a raster with the relevant shapefile added. The file About_GPFA-AB_Phase1RiskAnalysisTask5DataUpload.pdf contains information the citation, special use considerations, authorship, etc. More details on each file are given in the spreadsheet “list_of_contents.csv” in the folder “SupportingInfo”. Code used to calculate values is available at https://github.com/calvinwhealton/geothermal_pfa under the folder “combining_metrics”.

  15. GPFA-AB_Phase1RiskAnalysisTask5DataUpload

    DOE Data Explorer

    Teresa E. Jordan

    2015-09-30

    This submission contains information used to compute the risk factors for the GPFA-AB project (DE-EE0006726). The risk factors are natural reservoir quality, thermal resource quality, potential for induced seismicity, and utilization. The methods used to combine the risk factors included taking the product, sum, and minimum of the four risk factors. The files are divided into images, rasters, shapefiles, and supporting information. The image files show what the raster and shapefiles should look like. The raster files contain the input risk factors, calculation of the scaled risk factors, and calculation of the combined risk factors. The shapefiles include definition of the fairways, definition of the US Census Places, the center of the raster cells, and locations of industries. Supporting information contains details of the calculations or processing used in generating the files. An image of the raster will have the same name except *.png as the file ending instead of *.tif. Images with “fairways” or “industries” added to the name are composed of a raster with the relevant shapefile added. The file About_GPFA-AB_Phase1RiskAnalysisTask5DataUpload.pdf contains information the citation, special use considerations, authorship, etc. More details on each file are given in the spreadsheet “list_of_contents.csv” in the folder “SupportingInfo”. Code used to calculate values is available at https://github.com/calvinwhealton/geothermal_pfa under the folder “combining_metrics”.

  16. Fast Camera Movies of NSTX Plasmas

    DOE Data Explorer

    Maqueda, Ricky; Wurden, Glenn

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is an innovative magnetic fusion device that is being used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which nuclear fusion will occur under the appropriate conditions of temperature, density, and confinement in a magnetic field. Fusion is the energy source of the Sun and all the stars. Scientists believe it can provide an inexhaustible, safe, and environmentally attractive source. NSTX was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington Seattle. The original TIF images recorded by the KODAK digital camera (i.e., "raw data") are available, using the contact information given on the same web page that provides access to these fast camera movies. MPEG clips are organized under the following headings: • Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) diagnostic • GPI experiments • H-modes (longer) • H-modes (short) • Coaxial Helicity Injection experiments More than 100 MPEGS dating back to 1999 are available for public access.

  17. Surficial geologic map of the Mount Grace-Ashburnham-Monson-Webster 24-quadrangle area in central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction-aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  18. Surficial geologic map of the Norton-Manomet-Westport-Sconticut Neck 23-quadrangle area in southeast Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Kincare, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 23 7.5-minute quadrangles (919 mi2 total) in southeastern Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  19. Complete defluorination of 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopentadiene by titanium tetrakis(dimethylamide)--selective formation of a cyclic hexanuclear titanium fluoroamide and 6,6-dimethylaminotetramethylfulvene.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, C; Beckhaus, R; Haase, D; Saak, W; Koch, R

    2001-02-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetramethyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopentadiene (Cp*CF3-H, 1) reacts with [Ti(NMe2)4] (2) under mild conditions to give [Ti(mu-NMe2)(NMe2)(mu-F)(F)]6 (3) in nearly quantitative yield. The molecular structure of 3 consists of a ring of six [TiF2(NMe2)2] edge-bridged octahedra. Titanium complexes containing the Cp*CF3 ligand, which was the primary intention of these investigations, were not observed. C5Me4=C(NMe2)2 (4) was isolated as a by-product. The complete defluorination of an aliphatic CF3 group occurs during the reaction. The reaction mechanism involves the primary formation of a difluorofulvene intermediate C5Me4=CF2 (5), which was monitored by NMR studies. Density functional theory calculations predict a highly charged C6 atom (+0.87) in 5, which is discussed as the driving force of the reaction. PMID:11261659

  20. Time-Series Photographs of the Sea Floor in Western Massachusetts Bay: May to September 1999; May to September 2000; and October 2001 to February 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents time-series photographs of the sea floor obtained from an instrumented tripod deployed at Site A in western Massachusetts Bay (42? 22.6' N., 70? 47.0' W., 30 m water depth, figure 1) from May 1999 to September 1999; May 2000 to September 2000; and October 2001 to February 2002. Site A is approximately 1 km south of an ocean outfall that began discharging treated sewage effluent from the Boston metropolitan area into Massachusetts Bay in September 2000. Time-series photographs and oceanographic observations were initiated at Site A in December 1989 and are anticipated to continue to September 2005. This one of a series of reports that present these images in digital form. The objective of these reports is to enable easy and rapid viewing of the photographs and to provide a medium-resolution digital archive. The images, obtained every 4 hours, are presented as a movie (in .avi format, which may be viewed using an image viewer such as QuickTime or Windows Media Player) and as individual images (.tif format). The images provide time-series observations of changes of the sea floor and near-bottom water properties.

  1. Time-Series Photographs of the Sea Floor in Western Massachusetts Bay: June 1998 to May 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents time-series photographs of the sea floor obtained from an instrumented tripod deployed at Site A in western Massachusetts Bay (42? 22.6' N., 70? 47.0' W., 30 m water depth, figure 1) from June 1998 through May 1999. Site A is approximately 1 km south of an ocean outfall that began discharging treated sewage effluent from the Boston metropolitan area into Massachusetts Bay in September 2000. Time-series photographs and oceanographic observations were initiated at Site A in December 1989 and are anticipated to continue to September 2005. This one of a series of reports that present these images in digital form. The objective of these reports is to enable easy and rapid viewing of the photographs and to provide a medium-resolution digital archive. The images, obtained every 4 hours, are presented as a movie (in .avi format, which may be viewed using an image viewer such as QuickTime or Windows Media Player) and as individual images (.tif format). The images provide time-series observations of changes of the sea floor and near-bottom water properties.

  2. Time-Series Photographs of the Sea Floor in Western Massachusetts Bay: June 1997 to June 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents time-series photographs of the sea floor obtained from an instrumented tripod deployed at Site A in western Massachusetts Bay (42? 22.6' N., 70? 47.0' W., 30 m water depth, figure 1) from June 1997 through June 1998. Site A is approximately 1 km south of an ocean outfall that began discharging treated sewage effluent from the Boston metropolitan area into Massachusetts Bay in September 2000. Time-series photographs and oceanographic observations were initiated at Site A in December 1989 and are anticipated to continue to September 2005. This is the first in a series of reports planned to summarize and distribute these images in digital form. The objective of these reports is to enable easy and rapid viewing of the photographs and to provide a medium-resolution digital archive. The images, obtained every 4 hours, are presented as a movie (in .avi format, which may be viewed using an image viewer such as QuickTime or Windows Media Player) and as individual images (.tif format). The images provide time-series observations of changes of the sea floor and near-bottom water properties.

  3. Single electron capture in fast ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milojević, Nenad

    2014-12-01

    Single-electron capture cross sections in collisions between fast bare projectiles and heliumlike atomic systems are investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation. The prior and post transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of twodimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. The dielectronic interaction V12 = 1/r12 = 1/|r1 - r2| explicitly appears in the complete perturbation potential Vf of the post transition probability amplitude T+if. An illustrative computation is performed involving state-selective and total single capture cross sections for the p - He (prior and post form) and He2+, Li3+Be4+B5+C6+ - He (prior form) collisions at intermediate and high impact energies. We have also studied differential cross sections in prior and post form for single electron transfer from helium by protons. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  4. Basolateral sorting of chloride channel 2 is mediated by interactions between a dileucine motif and the clathrin adaptor AP-1

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente-Ortega, Erwin; Gravotta, Diego; Bay, Andres Perez; Benedicto, Ignacio; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Lehmann, Guillermo L.; Lagos, Carlos F.; Rodríguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the many key cellular functions of chloride channels, the mechanisms that mediate their subcellular localization are largely unknown. ClC-2 is a ubiquitous chloride channel usually localized to the basolateral domain of epithelia that regulates cell volume, ion transport, and acid–base balance; mice knocked out for ClC-2 are blind and sterile. Previous work suggested that CLC-2 is sorted basolaterally by TIFS812LL, a dileucine motif in CLC-2's C-terminal domain. However, our in silico modeling of ClC-2 suggested that this motif was buried within the channel's dimerization interface and identified two cytoplasmically exposed dileucine motifs, ESMI623LL and QVVA635LL, as candidate sorting signals. Alanine mutagenesis and trafficking assays support a scenario in which ESMI623LL acts as the authentic basolateral signal of ClC-2. Silencing experiments and yeast three-hybrid assays demonstrated that both ubiquitous (AP-1A) and epithelium-specific (AP-1B) forms of the tetrameric clathrin adaptor AP-1 are capable of carrying out basolateral sorting of ClC-2 through interactions of ESMI623LL with a highly conserved pocket in their γ1-σ1A hemicomplex. PMID:25739457

  5. Sugar apple-shaped TiO2 hierarchical spheres for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bing-Xin; Zeng, Li-Li; Zhang, Ping; Qiao, He-Kang; Sun, Zhen-Fan

    2014-05-01

    The sugar apple-shaped TiO2 hierarchical spheres are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using polyethylene glycol 600 as stabilized reagent, (NH4)2TiF6 and urea as starting materials at 180 °C. The characterizations show that the TiO2 hierarchical sphere has well-defined pyramid-shaped crystal facets. The as-prepared TiO2 hierarchical spheres are crystalline of the anatase phase, with a diameter of about 2-4 μm and a surface area of 36.846 m2 g-1. The optical investigation evidences that the sugar apple-shaped TiO2 hierarchical sphere film exhibits a prominent light scattering effect at a wavelength range of 600-800 nm due to the unique hierarchical morphology. Furthermore, the sugar apple-shaped TiO2 hierarchical spheres are deposited as the scattering layer to balance the dye adsorption and light scattering effect in DSSCs and a 7.20% solar energy conversion efficiency is demonstrated, indicating an improvement compared with the P25 cell (6.68%). Based on the optical and electrochemical investigations, the high conversion efficiency is mainly due to the effective suppression of the back reaction of the injected electron with the I3- in the electrolyte and excellent light scattering ability.

  6. Effects of nitric oxide-related agents on opioid regulation of rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1996-05-01

    These studies examined whether nitric oxide (NO) mediates opioid suppression of testicular steroidogenesis. Adult male rats were treated with various combinations of a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; NAME), a NO donor (isosorbide dinitrate; ISDN), an opioid agonist (morphine, and an opioid antagonist (naltrexone). Serum LH and testosterone and testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) testosterone concentrations were then measured. Inhibition of NO production by NAME reversed morphine-suppressed testosterone secretion; treatment with the NO donor, ISDN, reversed naltrexone-stimulated testosterone secretion. NAME did not alter morphine's effects on LH secretion and attenuated morphine's suppression of hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion, indicating that these effects occur directly in the testes and are not dependent on LH secretion. Even though these effects suggested possible interactions between NO and opioid systems, no additive or synergistic effects were found with suppressive combinations of morphine and ISDN, or with stimulatory combinations of naltrexone and NAME at does that had little effect on testosterone secretion when given alone. These results indicate that opioid and NO exert independent effects on testicular steroidogenesis through separate pathways or mechanisms and that NO does not mediate opioid-induced testicular suppression. PMID:8722635

  7. Polarization Dependence of Resonant X-Ray Emission Spectra in 3dn Transition Metal Compounds with n = 0, 1, 2, 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Masahiko; Uozumi, Takayuki; Kotani, Akio; Harada, Yoshihisa; Shin, Shik

    2002-01-01

    The polarization dependence of 2p \\to 3d \\to 2p resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) in 3d1, 3d2 and 3d3 systems (TiF3, VF3 and Cr2O3, respectively) is measured and analyzed by means of the MX6 (M denotes a transition metal and X denotes a ligand, respectively) cluster model. The results are compared with a previous one for the 3d0 system (TiO2). Generally, with increasing 3d electron number, the spectral structure of RXES becomes more complicated by the influence of the crystal field and the multiplet coupling effect. Moreover, we point out that the selection rules on the polarization dependence of RXES change with the 3d electron number and that a drastic resonance enhancement corresponding to the excitation to an antibonding state in the 3d0 system is almost absent for the 3dn systems with n = 1, 2 and 3.

  8. In vivo estimation of pigmentation in ultraviolet-exposed hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A B; Bech-Thomsen, N; Wulf, H C

    1995-02-01

    A new in vivo method of visual scoring of pigmentation in hairless hr/hr mice with a C3H/Tif background is described. The mice were placed under a bank of 6 Philips TL08 fluorescent ultraviolet A (UVA) tubes in a dark room, and the pigmentation of the skin was compared with a Kodak Gray Scale with 20 different shades from white to black. The radiation from the tubes changed both the color of the back of the mouse and the gray scale into purple hues. The purple color of the back of each mouse could then be classified as one of 20 shades on the gray scale. An experiment was conducted exposing 3 groups of 20 mice to different doses of UV radiation from Philips TL01 tubes. One group of 20 mice was not irradiated and served as control. The pigmentation of each mouse was scored by one investigator every 2-3 weeks. After a few weeks of exposure a clear distinction between the groups was seen. To evaluate the inter- and intrapersonal variation of the method, 30 mice with various degrees of pigmentation were scored independently and blindly by two investigators. This was done twice during the study with a few days' interval. No interpersonal difference was found, but one investigator scored differently the first and second time by only 0.5 points. The described method provides a reproducible in vivo method, with very good discrimination, for estimation of pigmentation in hairless mice. PMID:7654561

  9. Quantitative RT-PCR Gene Evaluation and RNA Interference in the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Raman; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Chen, Yuting; Mamidala, Praveen; Zhao, Chaoyang; Michel, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) has emerged as one of the most important invasive insect pests in the United States. Functional genomics in H. halys remains unexplored as molecular resources in this insect have recently been developed. To facilitate functional genomics research, we evaluated ten common insect housekeeping genes (RPS26, EF1A, FAU, UBE4A, ARL2, ARP8, GUS, TBP, TIF6 and RPL9) for their stability across various treatments in H. halys. Our treatments included two biotic factors (tissues and developmental stages) and two stress treatments (RNAi injection and starvation). Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). The qRT-PCR results indicated ARP8 and UBE4A exhibit the most stable expression across tissues and developmental stages, ARL2 and FAU for dsRNA treatment and TBP and UBE4A for starvation treatment. Following the dsRNA treatment, all genes except GUS showed relatively stable expression. To demonstrate the utility of validated reference genes in accurate gene expression analysis and to explore gene silencing in H. halys, we performed RNAi by administering dsRNA of target gene (catalase) through microinjection. A successful RNAi response with over 90% reduction in expression of target gene was observed. PMID:27144586

  10. Important role of surface fluoride in nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jonathan I; Szulczewski, Greg

    2014-12-11

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sol-gel methods and subsequently fluorinated at room temperature by aging in acidic solutions of NaF. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, and IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. After aging at room temperature in NaF solutions, the Ti-OH groups on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles were replaced by Ti-F bonds, which resulted in a decrease of the point of zero charge from pH 5.4 to 2.8. Most importantly, the nitrogen dopants were retained after the fluorination process, and the amorphous nanoparticles were partially converted into the anatase phase. Annealing the photocatalysts resulted in a decrease of both the nitrogen and fluoride atomic concentration. Diffuse reflectance spectra show an increase in absorbance above 400 nm after annealing the F,N-doped TiO2, which suggests the formation of color centers. The photoactivity of the F,N-doped and N-doped TiO2 catalysts were evaluated by monitoring by the decolorization of methylene blue with visible light. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that methylene blue undergoes successive demethylation, and more importantly, the rate of decolorization depends on the fluoride concentration. These results show the importance of a two-step synthesis method to independently control the nitrogen and fluoride concentration.

  11. On the origin of the differences in structure directing properties of polar metal oxyfluoride [MO(x)F(6-x)]2- (x = 1, 2) building units.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Romain; Gautier, Régis; Chang, Kelvin B; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2015-02-16

    In oxyfluoride chemistry, the [MO(x)F(6-x)](2-) anions (M = transition metal) are interesting polar building units that may be used to design polar materials, but their polar vs antipolar orientations in the solid state, which directly depend on the interactions between O(2-)/F(-) ligands and the extended structure, remain difficult to control. To improve this control, these interactions were assessed through crystallization of five related [MO(x)F(6-x)](2-) (M = Ti(4+), V(5+), Mo(6+), W(6+)) anions with organic molecules. The hybrid organic-inorganic compounds, (4,4'-bpyH2)TiF6 (1), (enH2)MoO2F4 (2), (4-hpyH)2MoO2F4·H2O (3), (4,4'-bpyH2)WO2F4 (4), and (4,4'-bpyH2)VOF5 (5), exhibit isolated [MO(x)F(6-x)](2-) anions in a hydrogen bond network. The analysis of these crystal structures in combination with DFT calculations elucidate how differences in structure directing properties of these anions arise when π-overlap between O 2p orbitals and M d orbitals is weak and significantly affected by an increase of the energy of the d orbitals from 3d to 5d.

  12. TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures: Hydrothermal fabrication and application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yang, Jin; Sun, Wentao; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Arrays of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures that consisted of rutile nanorods and anatase branches were hydrothermally fabricated and employed as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Each hierarchical nanostructure array was attained in two steps. First, a primary nanorod array was synthesized in aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and tetrabutyl titanate (C16H36O4Ti); subsequently, secondary branches were grown on the nanorods in aqueous solutions of ammonium hexafluorotitanate ((NH4)2TiF6) and boric acid (H3BO3). The secondary anatase branches filled part of the space among the primary rutile nanorods and gave rise to a larger surface area. Light-harvesting capability of the DSSCs with TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures as photoanodes was appreciably improved because more dye molecules could be loaded on the photoanodes and more light could be scattered inside the DSSCs. Therefore, the conversion efficiencies of the DSSCs were doubled by replacing the photoanode of primary TiO2 nanorod array with the photoanodes of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructure arrays. Furthermore, in order to reach a compromise between the photoanode surface area and the inter-nanorod space volume, the growth time of the secondary TiO2 anatase branches was optimized.

  13. Characteristics and anticorrosion performance of Fe-doped TiO2 films by liquid phase deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Xu, Chao; Feng, ZuDe

    2014-09-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were fabricated by liquid phase deposition (LPD) method, using Fe(III) nitrate as both Fe element source and fluoride scavenger instead of commonly-used boric acid (H3BO3). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis spectrum were employed to examine the effects of Fe element on morphology, structure and optical characteristics of TiO2 films. The as-prepared films were served as photoanode applied to photogenerated cathodic protection of SUS304 stainless steel (304SS). It was observed that the photoelectrochemical properties of the as-prepared films were enhanced with the addition of Fe element compared to the undoped TiO2 film. The highest photoactivity was achieved for Ti13Fe (Fe/Ti = 3 molar ratio) film prepared in precursor bath containing 0.02 M TiF4 + 0.06 M Fe(NO3)3 under white-light illumination. The effective anticorrosion behaviors can be attributed to the Fe element incorporation which decreases the probability of photogenerated charge-carrier recombination and extends the light response range of Fe-doped TiO2 films appeared to visible-light region.

  14. The effect of active galactic nuclei feedback on the halo mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weiguang; Borgani, Stefano; Murante, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    We investigate baryon effects on the halo mass function (HMF), with emphasis on the role played by active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback. Haloes are identified with both friends-of-friends (FoF) and spherical overdensity (SO) algorithms. We embed the standard SO algorithm into a memory-controlled frame program and present the Python spherIcAl Overdensity code - PIAO (Chinese character: tif"/>). For both FoF and SO haloes, the effect of AGN feedback is that of suppressing the HMFs to a level even below that of dark matter (DM) simulations. The ratio between the HMFs in the AGN and in the DM simulations is ˜0.8 at overdensity Δc = 500, a difference that increases at higher overdensity Δc = 2500, with no significant redshift and mass dependence. A decrease of the halo masses ratio with respect to the DM case induces the decrease of the HMF in the AGN simulation. The shallower inner density profiles of haloes in the AGN simulation witnesses that mass reduction is induced by the sudden displacement of gas induced by thermal AGN feedback. We provide fitting functions to describe halo mass variations at different overdensities, which can recover the HMFs with a residual random scatter ≲5 per cent for halo masses larger than 1013 h-1 M⊙.

  15. Molecular predictors of response to decitabine in advanced chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: a phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; Renneville, Aline; de Renzis, Benoit; Dreyfus, François; Laribi, Kamel; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Vey, Norbert; Toma, Andrea; Recher, Christian; Royer, Bruno; Joly, Bertrand; Vekhoff, Anne; Lafon, Ingrid; Sanhes, Laurence; Meurice, Guillaume; Oréar, Cédric; Preudhomme, Claude; Gardin, Claude; Ades, Lionel; Fontenay, Michaela; Fenaux, Pierre; Droin, Nathalie; Solary, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Hydroxyurea is the standard therapy of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) presenting with advanced myeloproliferative and/or myelodysplastic features. Response to hypomethylating agents has been reported in heterogeneous series of CMML. We conducted a phase 2 trial of decitabine (DAC) in 39 patients with advanced CMML defined according to a previous trial. Median number of DAC cycles was 10 (range, 1-24). Overall response rate was 38% with 4 complete responses (10%), 8 marrow responses (21%), and 3 stable diseases with hematologic improvement (8%). Eighteen patients (46%) demonstrated stable disease without hematologic improvement, and 6 (15%) progressed to acute leukemia. With a median follow-up of 23 months, overall survival was 48% at 2 years. Mutations in ASXL1, TET2, AML1, NRAS, KRAS, CBL, FLT3, and janus kinase 2 (JAK2) genes, and hypermethylation of the promoter of the tumor suppressor gene TIF1γ, did not predict response or survival on DAC therapy. Lower CJUN and CMYB gene expression levels independently predicted improved overall survival. This trial confirmed DAC efficacy in approximately 40% of CMML patients with advanced myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic features and suggested that CJUN and CMYB expression could be potential biomarkers in this setting. This trial is registered at EudraCT (eudract.ema.europa.eu) as #2008-000470-21 and www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01098084.

  16. Survey on spontaneous systemic amyloidosis in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S K

    1993-02-01

    The incidence of systemic amyloidosis in CD-1 mice (Charles River, caesarian derived) obtained from long term studies over more than a 15-year period is reported. The survey included samples of visceral organs, peripheral and central nervous tissues, bone and bone marrow. The total incidence in all mice of this survey did not show any clear evidence of a difference between males and females. Amyloidosis deposits were mainly seen in the stomach (glandular), heart, small intestines, kidney, liver, spleen, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, salivary glands and ovaries, but not in the brain, spinal cord, bone or bone marrow. The survey showed that amyloidosis in CD-1 mice was spontaneous, systemic and it is age-related. Amyloid deposition was extracellular and it stained positively with Congo Red and also stained positively with Oil Red O and Alcian blue. In general, amyloidosis in CD-1 mice, was higher in comparison with B6C3F (cross between C57BL/C6 NCRLB and C3H/HEN NCRLB, (bred by Charles River), CFLP strain (hysterectomy derived strain of Swiss origin) and MAGF: TIF (SPF). This survey also showed that spontaneous systemic amyloidosis in CD-1 mice, was one of the major factors contributory to death in aging CD-1 mice. PMID:8457241

  17. Increased WD-repeat containing protein 1 in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas shown by comparative proteomic analysis of malignant and healthy gynecological tissue.

    PubMed

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian cancer employing multiple fractioning and high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, and asked whether specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates or therapeutic targets could be identified. High throughput proteomics was conducted on immunodepleted and fractioned interstitial fluid from pooled samples of ovarian carcinomas, using endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue as controls. Differential analysis revealed the up-regulation of extracellular proteasomes in tumor interstitial fluid compared to the healthy control. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared with control tissues were identified. Detection of proteasome 20S related proteins in TIF compared to IF from healthy tissue indicates that the 20S proteasome can have a role in the tumor microenvironment. Six selected proteins, CEACAM5, FREM2, MUC5AC, TFF3, PYCARD and WDR1, were independently validated in individual tumor lysates from ovarian carcinomas by multiple reaction monitoring initiated detection and sequence analysis, Western blot and/or selected reaction monitoring. Quantification of specific proteins revealed substantial heterogeneity between individual samples. Nevertheless, WD repeat-containing protein 1 was confirmed as being significantly overexpressed in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared to healthy ovarian tissue by Orbitrap analysis of individual native interstitial fluid from ovarian and endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue. We suggest that this protein should be explored as a therapeutic target in ovarian carcinomas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

  18. Characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi ortholog of the SBDS protein reveals an intrinsically disordered extended C-terminal region showing RNA-interacting activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Juliana Ferreira; Castilho, Beatriz A; Sforça, Mauricio L; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Zeri, Ana Carolina; Guimarães, Beatriz G; Zanchin, Nilson I T

    2009-04-01

    The human SBDS gene and its yeast ortholog SDO1 encode essential proteins that are involved in ribosome biosynthesis. SDO1 has been implicated in recycling of the ribosomal biogenesis factor Tif6p from pre-66S particles as well as in translation activation of 60S ribosomes. The SBDS protein is highly conserved, containing approximately 250 amino acid residues in animals, fungi and Archaea, while SBDS orthologs of plants and a group of protists contain an extended C-terminal region. In this work, we describe the characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi SBDS ortholog (TcSBDS). TcSBDS co-fractionates with polysomes in sucrose density gradients, which is consistent with a role in ribosome biosynthesis. We show that TcSBDS contains a C-terminal extension of 200 amino acids that displays the features of intrinsically disordered proteins as determined by proteolytic, circular dichroism and NMR analyses. Interestingly, the C-terminal extension is responsible for TcSBDS-RNA interaction activity in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This finding suggests that Trypanosomatidae and possibly also other organisms containing SBDS with extended C-terminal regions have evolved an additional function for SBDS in ribosome biogenesis.

  19. Why Japanese workers show low work engagement: An item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement scale

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    With the globalization of occupational health psychology, more and more researchers are interested in applying employee well-being like work engagement (i.e., a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) to diverse populations. Accurate measurement contributes to our further understanding and to the generalizability of the concept of work engagement across different cultures. The present study investigated the measurement accuracy of the Japanese and the original Dutch versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9-item version, UWES-9) and the comparability of this scale between both countries. Item Response Theory (IRT) was applied to the data from Japan (N = 2,339) and the Netherlands (N = 13,406). Reliability of the scale was evaluated at various levels of the latent trait (i.e., work engagement) based the test information function (TIF) and the standard error of measurement (SEM). The Japanese version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with extremely low work engagement, whereas the original Dutch version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with high work engagement. The measurement accuracy of both versions was not similar. Suppression of positive affect among Japanese people and self-enhancement (the general sensitivity to positive self-relevant information) among Dutch people may have caused decreased measurement accuracy. Hence, we should be cautious when interpreting low engagement scores among Japanese as well as high engagement scores among western employees. PMID:21054839

  20. An in-flight investigation of a twin fuselage configuration in approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, N. C.

    1984-01-01

    An in-flight investigation of the flying qualities of a twin fuselage aircraft design in the approach and landing flight phase was carried out in the USAF/AFWAL Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS). The objective was to determine the effects of actual motion and visual cues on the pilot when he was offset from the centerline of the aircraft. The experiment variables were lateral pilot offset position (0, 30 and 50 feet) and effective roll mode time constant (.6, 1.2, 2.4 seconds). The evaluation included the final approach, flare and touchdown. Lateral runway offsets and 15 knot crosswinds were used to increase the pilot's workload and force him to make large lateral corrections in the final portion of the approach. Results indicated that large normal accelerations rather than just vertical displacements in rolling maneuvers had the most significant degrading effect on pilot ratings. The normal accelerations are a result of large lateral offset and fast roll mode time constant and caused the pilot to make unnecessary pitch inputs and get into a coupled pitch/roll oscillation while he was making line up and crosswind corrections. A potential criteria for lateral pilot offset position effects is proposed. When the ratio of incremented normal aceleration at the pilot station to the steady state roll rate for a step input reaches .01 to .02 g/deg/sec a deterioration of pilot rating and flying qualities level can be expected.

  1. Evaluation of Chloropicrin as a Soil Fumigant against Ralstonia solanacarum in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Taotao; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Chloropicrin (Pic) offers a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) against Ralstonia solanacarum in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) production. MB is scheduled to be withdrawn from routine use by 2015 in developing countries. Methods Pic treatments were evaluated in a laboratory study and in three commercial ginger fields. Results Laboratory studies showed that the EC50 value and EC80 value of Pic were 2.7 and 3.7 mg a.i. kg−1 soil, respectively. Field trials in highly infested soil revealed that treatments of Pic at the dose of 50 g m−2 covered with totally impermeable film (TIF) or polyethylene film (PE) sharply reduced Ralstonia solanacarum and maintained high ginger yields. Both of the Pic treatments provided results similar to, or in some cases slightly lower than, MB with respect to Ralstonia solanacarum control, plant survival, plant growth and yield. All of the fumigant treatments were significantly better than the non-treated control. Conclusions The present study confirms that the Pic is a promising alternative with good efficacy against Ralstonia solanacarum for ginger production and could be used in integrated pest management programs in China. PMID:24618853

  2. The Dtk receptor tyrosine kinase, which binds protein S, is expressed during hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Crosier, P S; Freeman, S A; Orlic, D; Bodine, D M; Crosier, K E

    1996-02-01

    Dtk (Tyro 3/Sky/Rse/Brt/Tif) belongs to a recently recognized subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that also includes Ufo (Axl/Ark) and Mer (Eyk). Ligands for Dtk and Ufo have been identified as protein S and the related molecule Gas6, respectively. This study examined expression of Dtk during ontogeny of the hematopoietic system and compared the pattern of expression with that of Ufo. Both receptors were abundantly expressed in differentiating embryonic stem cells, yolk sac blood islands, para-aortic splanchnopleural mesoderm, fractionated AA4+ fetal liver cells, and fetal thymus from day 14 until birth. Although Ufo was expressed at moderate levels in adult bone marrow, expression of Dtk in this tissue was barely detectable. In adult bone marrow subpopulations fractionated using counterflow centrifugal elutriation, immunomagnetic bead selection for lineage-depletion and FACS sorting for c-kit expression, very low levels of Dtk and/or Ufo were detected in some cell fractions. These results suggest that Dtk and Ufo are likely to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, particularly during the embryonic stages of blood cell development.

  3. A novel member of the RING finger family, KRIP-1, associates with the KRAB-A transcriptional repressor domain of zinc finger proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Su; Chen, Yung-Ming; O’Leary, Eileen; Witzgall, Ralph; Vidal, Marc; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    1996-01-01

    The Krüppel-associated box A (KRAB-A) domain is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional repressor domain present in approximately one-third of zinc finger proteins of the Cys2-His2 type. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel murine protein, KRAB-A interacting protein 1 (KRIP-1) that physically interacts with the KRAB-A region. KRIP-1 is a member of the RBCC subfamily of the RING finger, or Cys3HisCys4, family of zinc binding proteins whose other members are known to play important roles in differentiation, oncogenesis, and signal transduction. The KRIP-1 protein has high homology to TIF1, a putative modulator of ligand-dependent activation function of nuclear receptors. A 3.5-kb mRNA for KRIP-1 is ubiquitously expressed among all adult mouse tissues studied. When a GAL4–KRIP-1 fusion protein is expressed in COS cells with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct with five GAL4 binding sites, there is dose-dependent repression of transcription. Thus, KRIP-1 interacts with the KRAB-A region of C2H2 zinc finger proteins and may mediate or modulate KRAB-A transcriptional repressor activity. PMID:8986806

  4. Fail-safe mechanism of GCN4 translational control--uORF2 promotes reinitiation by analogous mechanism to uORF1 and thus secures its key role in GCN4 expression.

    PubMed

    Gunišová, Stanislava; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2014-05-01

    One of the extensively studied mechanisms of gene-specific translational regulation is reinitiation. It takes place on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) where main ORF is preceded by upstream ORF (uORF). Even though uORFs generally down-regulate main ORF expression, specific uORFs exist that allow high level of downstream ORF expression. The key is their ability to retain 40S subunits on mRNA upon termination of their translation to resume scanning for the next AUG. Here, we took advantage of the exemplary model system of reinitiation, the mRNA of yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 containing four short uORFs, and show that contrary to previous reports, not only the first but the first two of its uORFs allow efficient reinitiation. Strikingly, we demonstrate that they utilize a similar molecular mechanism relying on several cis-acting 5' reinitiation-promoting elements, one of which they share, and the interaction with the a/TIF32 subunit of translation initiation factor eIF3. Since a similar mechanism operates also on YAP1 uORF, our findings strongly suggest that basic principles of reinitiation are conserved. Furthermore, presence of two consecutive reinitiation-permissive uORFs followed by two reinitiation-non-permissive uORFs suggests that tightness of GCN4 translational control is ensured by a fail-safe mechanism that effectively prevents or triggers GCN4 expression under nutrient replete or deplete conditions, respectively.

  5. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  6. Surficial Geologic Map of the Pocasset-Provincetown-Cuttyhunk-Nantucket 24-Quadrangle Area of Cape Cod and Islands, Southeast Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Byron D.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (555 mi2 total) in southeast Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. On Cape Cod and adjacent islands, these materials completely cover the bedrock surface. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relations, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  7. Surficial Geologic Map of the Clinton-Concord-Grafton-Medfield 12-Quadrangle Area in East Central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet R.; Stone, Byron D.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of twelve 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 660 square miles) in east-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (grain size, sedimentary structures, mineral and rock-particle composition), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (12 PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), scanned topographic base maps (TIF), metadata for the GIS layers, and a readme.txt file.

  8. Surficial Geologic Map of the Ashby-Lowell-Sterling-Billerica 11-Quadrangle Area in Northeast-Central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of eleven 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 505 mi2) in northeast-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  9. Preparation of antibacterial composite material of natural rubber particles coated with silica and titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisutiratanamanee, Apisit; Poompradub, Sirilux; Poochinda, Kunakorn

    2014-06-01

    Silica coating, followed by titania coating, was performed over spray-dried natural rubber (NR) compound for physical and anti-bacterial characterizations. Titania has a strong photo-oxidative catalytic property, which can disinfect bacteria, but may degrade NR. Therefore, silica coating was intended to form a barrier between NR and titania. First, NR particles were prepared by spray-drying of NR compound latex, formulated for household glove products, mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to reduce particle agglomeration. The factorial experimental design was employed to investigate the effects of nozzle flow rate (500-700 Lh-1), inlet air temperature (110-150 °C), SDS content (35-55 phr) and mass flow rate (1.2-1.7 g rubber/min) on NR yield and moisture content. Then, the NR compound particles prepared at the optimum condition were coated with silica, using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the precursor, by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at 60 °C for 2-48 hours. Next, the particles were coated with titania using titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) by liquid phase deposition (LPD) at 60 ºC for 4-8 hours. The NR composites were characterized for surface morphology by SEM, silica and titania content by TGA and EDX. The NR composites were found to cause more than 99% reduction of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus under 1-hour exposure to natural light.

  10. Cloud Optimized Image Format and Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; Plesea, L.; Maurer, T.

    2015-04-01

    Cloud based image storage and processing requires revaluation of formats and processing methods. For the true value of the massive volumes of earth observation data to be realized, the image data needs to be accessible from the cloud. Traditional file formats such as TIF and NITF were developed in the hay day of the desktop and assumed fast low latency file access. Other formats such as JPEG2000 provide for streaming protocols for pixel data, but still require a server to have file access. These concepts no longer truly hold in cloud based elastic storage and computation environments. This paper will provide details of a newly evolving image storage format (MRF) and compression that is optimized for cloud environments. Although the cost of storage continues to fall for large data volumes, there is still significant value in compression. For imagery data to be used in analysis and exploit the extended dynamic range of the new sensors, lossless or controlled lossy compression is of high value. Compression decreases the data volumes stored and reduces the data transferred, but the reduced data size must be balanced with the CPU required to decompress. The paper also outlines a new compression algorithm (LERC) for imagery and elevation data that optimizes this balance. Advantages of the compression include its simple to implement algorithm that enables it to be efficiently accessed using JavaScript. Combing this new cloud based image storage format and compression will help resolve some of the challenges of big image data on the internet.

  11. Flared landing approach flying qualities. Volume 1: Experiment design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, Norman C.; Berthe, Charles J., Jr.; Rynaski, Edmund G.; Sarrafian, Shahan K.

    1986-01-01

    An inflight research study was conducted utilizing the USAF Total Inflight Simulator (TIFS) to investigate longitudinal flying qualities for the flared landing approach phase of flight. The purpose of the experiment was to generate a consistent set of data for: (1) determining what kind of commanded response the pilot prefers in order to flare and land an airplane with precision, and (2) refining a time history criterion that took into account all the necessary variables and their characteristics that would accurately predict flying qualities. The result of the first part provides guidelines to the flight control system designer, using MIL-F-8785-(C) as a guide, that yield the dynamic behavior pilots perfer in flared landings. The results of the second part provides the flying qualities engineer with a newly derived flying qualities predictive tool which appears to be highly accurate. This time domain predictive flying qualities criterion was applied to the flight data as well as six previous flying qualities studies, and the results indicate that the criterion predicted the flying qualities level 81% of the time and the Cooper-Harper pilot rating, within + or - 1, 60% of the time.

  12. Co-sputtered metal and polymer nanocomposite films and their electrical responses for gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujisamphan, Nopporn; Murray, Roy E.; Deng, Fei; Supasai, Thidarat

    2016-04-01

    Titanium and polytetrafluoroethylene (Ti-PTFE) nanocomposite thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates using a combination of dc and rf magnetron sputtering. When the Ti-PTFE composites were prepared at below the percolation threshold i.e. 27% metal volume filling (F), Ti clusters with the average sizes of 7 ± 2 nm were found. As the Ti content was increased above the percolation threshold (F = 62%), the connecting regions of Ti were formed within the polymer matrix and the electrical property changed rapidly from insulator-like to metal-like properties. The Ti-PTFE composites prepared near the percolation threshold showed the electrical response to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The sensitivity significantly depended upon the VOCs concentrations. These composites devices showed the presence of distinct chemical bonds of Csbnd C, Csbnd CF, Csbnd F and CF2 and TiF in TiO2 on the surface as investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) while the surface morphology, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) presented the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of 13.3 nm. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the device revealed Ti clusters dispersed in PTFE matrix with particle sizes varied between 10 nm and 30 nm.

  13. Direct Synthesis of Anatase Films with ~100% (001) Facets and [001] Preferred Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Andrew S.; Mack, Brianne; Usmani, Shirin M.; Mars, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Anatase films exhibiting ~100% (001) reactive facets at the surface were grown hydrothermally on gold substrate from a homogeneous solution of TiF4 and NaF. In addition to NaF, it was found that TiO2 films with very similar properties could be prepared with the fluoride salts LiF, CsF, HF, NH4F, and N(CH2CH3)4F. The polycrystalline anatase films are continuous, approximately 1 μm thick, and evenly coat the substrate. The surface grain size is ~400 nm. Grazing angle XRD measurements show that the films exhibit a high degree of preferred orientation with the c-axis normal to the substrate surface. SEM images reveal that the grains span the thickness of the films. Annealing the films at 500 °C removes fluorine and causes crystallites within the grains to restructure as shown by SEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Supported anatase films grown from this one-pot method may serve as oxidative photocatalysts and electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications such as solar cells and hydrogen evolution. PMID:22844184

  14. Complications after tracheal resection and reconstruction: prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Hugh G.

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal resection and reconstruction (TRR) and laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction (LTRR) is commonly performed for post-intubation tracheal stenosis, tracheal tumor, idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (ILTS), and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Ninety-five percent of patients have a good result from surgery. Complications occur in ~20% of patients, of which half are anastomotic complications. Complications include granulation tissue formation, restenosis of the trachea, anastomotic separation, TEF and tracheoinnominate fistula (TIF), wound infection, laryngeal edema, and glottic dysfunction. Risk factors for anastomotic complication include diabetes, reoperation, previous tracheal appliance, and long-segment tracheal resection. Bronchoscopy should be part of the diagnostic workup when a complication is suspected. Anastomotic separation—the most feared complication of tracheal surgery—may present subtly with stridor and wound infection, or with respiratory distress and extremis. Prompt management is required to prevent devastating consequences. The airway should be secured, bronchoscopy should be performed to address the degree of separation, and the anastomosis should be revised if needed, usually with the addition of t-tube or tracheostomy. Anastomotic complications that are managed aggressively typically yield good results. More than half of such patients will eventually have a satisfactory airway. However, an anastomotic complication is associated with a thirteen-fold increase in the risk of death following tracheal resection. PMID:26981267

  15. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkić, Dževad

    1999-06-01

    é approximant (VPA) as a novel non-perturbative theory which is valid at all energies. This is a variationally unified T-matrix, T(VPA)i,f= T'i,f+ Si,f, comprised of a selected perturbative model T'i,f and a related stationary non-linear remainder Si,f conceived as an L2-basis set expansion of the total Green's function. The key input Si,f is a double series ∑ n1, n2Cn1n2 with bound-free atomic form factors as rational coefficients Cn1n2. Convergence of this sum is significantly accelerated by the two-dimensional Padé approximant (2D-PA) implemented through the bi-variate Wynn's epsilon ( ɛ) algorithm. The table ɛ( λ) for Si,f( λ) is evaluated at a sufficiently dense grid λ∈ Λ≡[ λmin, λmax] of any chosen variate λ, e.g. scattering angle, incident energy, coupling strength, etc. The roots λk of the inverse function E(λ)=1/ɛ(λ) directly lead to the poles of Si,f( λ) in the complex λ-plane. The availability of all λk's permits an easy obtaining of each of the magnitudes d ɛk=1/ E'(λ k) of the poles of Si,f( λ) by the Cauchy residue calculus and a mere knowledge of the first derivative E'(λ k) of E(λ k) at λk∈ Λ. This is a new signal processing method called the parametric epsilon spectral (P ɛS) estimator which opens an affordable way to powerful numerical investigations of analytical properties of transition and scattering matrices for a general process including resonance phenomena as one of the the most interesting parts of scattering.

  16. RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis and Apoptosis Contributes to Renal Tubular Cell Progressive Loss and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongjun; Cui, Hongwang; Xia, Yunfeng; Gan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is caused by the progressive loss of renal tubular cells and the consequent replacement of the extracellular matrix. The progressive depletion of renal tubular cells results from apoptosis and necroptosis; however, the relative significance of each of these cell death mechanisms at different stages during the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We sought to explore the mechanisms of renal tubular cell death during the early and intermediate stages of chronic renal damage of subtotal nephrectomied (SNx) rats. The results of tissue histological assays indicated that the numbers of necrotic dying cells and apoptotic cells were significantly higher in kidney tissues derived from a rat model of CKD. In addition, there was a significant increase in necroptosis observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues from SNx rats compared with control rats, and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) could inhibit necroptosis and reduce the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells. More importantly, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of necroptosis compared with apoptosis by TEM in vivo and in vitro and a significant increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive tubular epithelial cells that did not express caspase-3 compared with those expressing cleaved caspase-3 in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with Nec-1 and zVAD strongly reduced necroptosis- and apoptosis-mediated renal tubular cell death and decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and tubular damage scores of SNx rats. These results suggest that necroptotic cell death plays a more significant role than apoptosis in mediating the loss of renal tubular cells in SNx rats and that effectively blocking both necroptosis and apoptosis improves renal function and tubular damage at early and intermediate stages of CKD. PMID:27281190

  17. AnyStitch: a tool for combining electron backscatter diffraction data sets.

    PubMed

    Pilchak, A L; Shiveley, A R; Tiley, J S; Ballard, D L

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in electron backscatter diffraction equipment and software have permitted increased data acquisition rates on the order of hundreds of points per second with additional increases in the foreseeable future likely. This increase in speed allows users to collect data from statistically significant areas of samples by combining beam-control scans and automated stage movements. To facilitate data analysis, however, the individual tiles must be combined, or stitched, into a single data set. In this paper, we describe a matlab(®) (The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) program to facilitate stitching of electron backscatter diffraction data. The method offers users a wide range of controls for tile placement including independent overlaps for horizontal and vertical tiles and also includes a parameter to account for systematic stage positioning errors or improperly calibrated scan rotation. The code can stitch data collected on either square or hexagonal grids and contains a function to reduce the resolution of square grid data if the resulting file is too large (or has too many grains) to be opened by the analysis software. The software was primarily written to work with TSL(®) OIM™ data sets and includes a function to quickly read compressed *.osc files into a variable in the matlab(®) workspace as opposed to using slower, text-reading functions. The output file is in *.ang format and can be opened directly by TSL(®) OIM™ Analysis software. A set of functions to facilitate stitching of text-based *.ctf files produced by Oxford Instruments HKL systems are also included. Finally, the code can also be used to combine *.tif images to produce a montage. The source code, a graphical user interface and a compiled version of the software was made available in the online version of this paper.

  18. Mild Glucose Starvation Induces KDM2A-Mediated H3K36me2 Demethylation through AMPK To Reduce rRNA Transcription and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji; Yano, Hirohisa; Ogasawara, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Sho-Ichi; Imamura, Hiromi; Okamoto, Kengo; Tsuneoka, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Environmental conditions control rRNA transcription. Previously, we found that serum and glucose deprivation induces KDM2A-mediated H3K36me2 demethylation in the rRNA gene (rDNA) promoter and reduces rRNA transcription in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. However, the molecular mechanism and biological significance are still unclear. In the present study, we found that glucose starvation alone induced the KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription. The treatment of cells with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, an inhibitor of glycolysis, reduced rRNA transcription and H3K36me2 in the rDNA promoter, both of which were completely dependent on KDM2A in low concentrations of 2-deoxy-d-glucose, that is, mild starvation conditions. The mild starvation induced these KDM2A activities through AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) but did not affect another AMPK effector of rRNA transcription, TIF-IA. In the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, the mild starvation also reduced rRNA transcription in a KDM2A-dependent manner. We detected KDM2A in breast cancer tissues irrespective of their estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status, including triple-negative cancer tissues. In both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, mild starvation reduced cell proliferation, and KDM2A knockdown suppressed the reduction of cell proliferation. These results suggest that under mild glucose starvation AMPK induces KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription to control cell proliferation.

  19. S6 Kinase is essential for MYC-dependent rDNA transcription in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Naomi C; Tchoubrieva, Elissaveta B; Chahal, Arjun; Woods, Simone; Lee, Amanda; Lin, Jane I; Parsons, Linda; Jastrzebski, Katarzyna; Poortinga, Gretchen; Hannan, Katherine M; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D; Quinn, Leonie M

    2015-10-01

    Increased rates of ribosome biogenesis and biomass accumulation are fundamental properties of rapidly growing and dividing malignant cells. The MYC oncoprotein drives growth predominantly via its ability to upregulate the ribosome biogenesis program, in particular stimulating the activity of the RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) machinery to increase ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription. Although MYC function is known to be highly dependent on the cellular signalling context, the pathways interacting with MYC to regulate transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) in vivo in response to growth factor status, nutrient availability and cellular stress are only beginning to be understood. To determine factors critical to MYC-dependent stimulation of rDNA transcription in vivo, we performed a transient expression screen for known oncogenic signalling pathways in Drosophila. Strikingly, from the broad range of pathways tested, we found that ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (S6K) activity, downstream of the TOR pathway, was the only factor rate-limiting for the rapid induction of rDNA transcription due to transiently increased MYC. Further, we demonstrated that one of the mechanism(s) by which MYC and S6K cooperate is through coordinate activation of the essential Pol I transcription initiation factor TIF-1A (RRN 3). As Pol I targeted therapy is now in phase 1 clinical trials in patients with haematological malignancies, including those driven by MYC, these data suggest that therapies dually targeting Pol I transcription and S6K activity may be effective in treating MYC-driven tumours.

  20. Mild Glucose Starvation Induces KDM2A-Mediated H3K36me2 Demethylation through AMPK To Reduce rRNA Transcription and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuji; Yano, Hirohisa; Ogasawara, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Sho-ichi; Imamura, Hiromi; Okamoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions control rRNA transcription. Previously, we found that serum and glucose deprivation induces KDM2A-mediated H3K36me2 demethylation in the rRNA gene (rDNA) promoter and reduces rRNA transcription in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. However, the molecular mechanism and biological significance are still unclear. In the present study, we found that glucose starvation alone induced the KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription. The treatment of cells with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, an inhibitor of glycolysis, reduced rRNA transcription and H3K36me2 in the rDNA promoter, both of which were completely dependent on KDM2A in low concentrations of 2-deoxy-d-glucose, that is, mild starvation conditions. The mild starvation induced these KDM2A activities through AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) but did not affect another AMPK effector of rRNA transcription, TIF-IA. In the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, the mild starvation also reduced rRNA transcription in a KDM2A-dependent manner. We detected KDM2A in breast cancer tissues irrespective of their estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status, including triple-negative cancer tissues. In both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, mild starvation reduced cell proliferation, and KDM2A knockdown suppressed the reduction of cell proliferation. These results suggest that under mild glucose starvation AMPK induces KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription to control cell proliferation. PMID:26416883

  1. Androgen receptors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Culig, Z; Klocker, H; Bartsch, G; Hobisch, A

    2002-09-01

    The androgen receptor (AR), a transcription factor that mediates the action of androgens in target tissues, is expressed in nearly all prostate cancers. Carcinoma of the prostate is the most frequently diagnosed neoplasm in men in industrialized countries. Palliative treatment for non-organ-confined prostate cancer aims to down-regulate the concentration of circulating androgen or to block the transcription activation function of the AR. AR function during endocrine therapy was studied in tumor cells LNCaP subjected to long-term steroid depletion; newly generated sublines could be stimulated by lower concentrations of androgen than parental cells and showed up-regulation of AR expression and activity as well as resistance to apoptosis. Androgenic hormones regulate the expression of key cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and 4, and that of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. Inhibition of AR expression could be achieved by potential chemopreventive agents flufenamic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and interleukin-1beta, and by the application of AR antisense oligonucleotides. In the clinical situation, AR gene amplification and point mutations were reported in patients with metastatic disease. These mutations generate receptors which could be activated by other steroid hormones and non-steroidal antiandrogens. In the absence of androgen, the AR could be activated by various growth-promoting (growth factors, epidermal growth factor receptor-related oncogene HER-2/neu) and pleiotropic (protein kinase A activators, interleukin-6) compounds as well as by inducers of differentiation (phenylbutyrate). AR function is modulated by a number of coactivators and corepressors. The three coactivators, TIF-2, SRC-1 and RAC3, are up-regulated in relapsed prostate cancer. New experimental therapies for prostate cancer are aimed to down-regulate AR expression and to overcome difficulties which occur because of the acquisition of agonistic properties

  2. S6 Kinase is essential for MYC-dependent rDNA transcription in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Naomi C; Tchoubrieva, Elissaveta B; Chahal, Arjun; Woods, Simone; Lee, Amanda; Lin, Jane I; Parsons, Linda; Jastrzebski, Katarzyna; Poortinga, Gretchen; Hannan, Katherine M; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D; Quinn, Leonie M

    2015-10-01

    Increased rates of ribosome biogenesis and biomass accumulation are fundamental properties of rapidly growing and dividing malignant cells. The MYC oncoprotein drives growth predominantly via its ability to upregulate the ribosome biogenesis program, in particular stimulating the activity of the RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) machinery to increase ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription. Although MYC function is known to be highly dependent on the cellular signalling context, the pathways interacting with MYC to regulate transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) in vivo in response to growth factor status, nutrient availability and cellular stress are only beginning to be understood. To determine factors critical to MYC-dependent stimulation of rDNA transcription in vivo, we performed a transient expression screen for known oncogenic signalling pathways in Drosophila. Strikingly, from the broad range of pathways tested, we found that ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (S6K) activity, downstream of the TOR pathway, was the only factor rate-limiting for the rapid induction of rDNA transcription due to transiently increased MYC. Further, we demonstrated that one of the mechanism(s) by which MYC and S6K cooperate is through coordinate activation of the essential Pol I transcription initiation factor TIF-1A (RRN 3). As Pol I targeted therapy is now in phase 1 clinical trials in patients with haematological malignancies, including those driven by MYC, these data suggest that therapies dually targeting Pol I transcription and S6K activity may be effective in treating MYC-driven tumours. PMID:26215099

  3. Development of Advanced Life Cycle Costing Methods for Technology Benefit/Cost/Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this three-year grant is to provide NASA Langley's System Analysis Branch with improved affordability tools and methods based on probabilistic cost assessment techniques. In order to accomplish this objective, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) needs to pursue more detailed affordability, technology impact, and risk prediction methods and to demonstrate them on variety of advanced commercial transports. The affordability assessment, which is a cornerstone of ASDL methods, relies on the Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) program originally developed by NASA Ames Research Center and enhanced by ASDL. This grant proposed to improve ALCCA in support of the project objective by updating the research, design, test, and evaluation cost module, as well as the engine development cost module. Investigations into enhancements to ALCCA include improved engine development cost, process based costing, supportability cost, and system reliability with airline loss of revenue for system downtime. A probabilistic, stand-alone version of ALCCA/FLOPS will also be developed under this grant in order to capture the uncertainty involved in technology assessments. FLOPS (FLight Optimization System program) is an aircraft synthesis and sizing code developed by NASA Langley Research Center. This probabilistic version of the coupled program will be used within a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method to determine what types of technologies would have to be infused in a system in order to meet customer requirements. A probabilistic analysis of the CER's (cost estimating relationships) within ALCCA will also be carried out under this contract in order to gain some insight as to the most influential costs and the impact that code fidelity could have on future RDS (Robust Design Simulation) studies.

  4. Skeletal Consequences of Deletion of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-2/Transcription Intermediary Factor-2*

    PubMed Central

    Mödder, Ulrike I.; Monroe, David G.; Fraser, Daniel G.; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Géhin, Martine; Chambon, Pierre; O'Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2009-01-01

    Both estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) regulate bone metabolism, and because steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-2 (TIF-2) enhances ER and PPARγ activity, we examined the consequences of deletion of SRC-2 on bone using SRC-2 knock out (KO) mice. Loss of SRC-2 resulted in increased bone mass, with SRC-2 KO mice having 80% higher trabecular bone volume as compared with wild type mice. SRC-2 KO mice also had a marked decrease (by 50%) in bone marrow adipocytes. These data suggested that marrow precursor cells in the SRC-2 KO mice may be resistant to the inhibitory effects of endogenous PPARγ ligands on bone formation. Consistent with this, compared with cultures from wild type mice, marrow stromal cultures from SRC-2 KO mice formed significantly more mineralized nodules (by 3-fold) in the presence of the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrated that in bone marrow stromal cells, loss of SRC-2 leads to destabilization of the transcription complex at the peroxisome proliferator response elements of a number of PPARγ target genes, resulting in an overall decrease in the expression of adipocyte-related genes and a marked decrease in adipocyte development. Using ovariectomy with or without estrogen replacement, we also demonstrated that SRC-2 KO mice were partially resistant to the skeletal actions of estrogen. Collectively, these findings indicate that loss of SRC-2 leads to partial skeletal resistance to the ER and PPARγ, but resistance to PPARγ is dominant, leading to increased bone mass. Modulating SRC-2 action may, thus, represent a novel therapeutic target for osteoporosis. PMID:19423703

  5. Transparent, 3-dimensional light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Yang, Yingchao

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical anatase TiO2 structures are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in this report. A new transparent, 3D light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cell (FF-DSSC) with such hierarchical TiO2 structures is developed. The conversion efficiency of the FF-DSSC based on a TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array (hierarchical structure I) exhibits about 4 times higher than that based on a HCl-treated TiO2 nanorod array, and further rises to 4.4% when the TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array is treated in a mixed solution of (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3 three times (hierarchical structure II). The obvious enhancement in conversion efficiency can be ascribed to the dye adsorption promotion benefiting from their hierarchical structures. Beyond the attractive conversion efficiency, the new designed FF-DSSC possesses several advantages including good flexibility, excellent stability, and 3D light-collection. The conversion efficiencies of the FF-DSSCs can still keep 85%-90% even the FF-DSSCs are bent for 1000 times. The maximum power outputs of the FF-DSSCs characterized by Diffuse Illumination Mode using home-made Al reflector exhibit about 3 times higher than that done by Standard Illumination Mode due to 3D light-collections. The FF-DSSCs based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays hold great promise in future energy harvest.

  6. Hematopoietic progenitor cells grow on 3T3 fibroblast monolayers that overexpress growth arrest-specific gene-6 (GAS6).

    PubMed

    Dormady, S P; Zhang, X M; Basch, R S

    2000-10-24

    Pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells grow in close association with bone marrow stromal cells, which play a critical role in sustaining hematopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. The mechanisms through which stromal cells act to support pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells are largely unknown. This study demonstrates that growth arrest-specific gene-6 (GAS6) plays an important role in this process. GAS6 is a ligand for the Axl (Ufo/Ark), Sky (Dtk/Tyro3/Rse/Brt/Tif), and Mer (Eyk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors and binds to these receptors via tandem G domains at its C terminus. After translation, GAS6 moves to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is extensively gamma-carboxylated. The carboxylation process is vitamin K dependent, and current evidence suggests that GAS6 must be gamma-carboxylated to bind and activate any of the cognate tyrosine kinase receptors. Here, we show that expression of GAS6 is highly correlated with the capacity of bone marrow stromal cells to support hematopoiesis in culture. Nonsupportive stromal cell lines express little to no GAS6, whereas supportive cell lines express high levels of GAS6. Transfection of the cDNA encoding GAS6 into 3T3 fibroblasts is sufficient to render this previously nonsupportive cell line capable of supporting long-term hematopoietic cultures. 3T3 cells, genetically engineered to stably express GAS6 (GAS6-3T3), produce a stromal layer that supports the generation of colony-forming units in culture (CFU-c) for up to 6 wk. Hematopoietic support by genetically engineered 3T3 is not vitamin K dependent, and soluble recombinant GAS6 does not substitute for coculturing the hematopoietic progenitors with genetically modified 3T3 cells. PMID:11050245

  7. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  8. Inhibition of mRNA turnover in yeast by an xrn1 mutation enhances the requirement for eIF4E binding to eIF4G and for proper capping of transcripts by Ceg1p.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J T; Yang, X; Johnson, A W

    2000-01-01

    Null mutants of XRN1, encoding the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease in yeast, are viable but accumulate decapped, deadenylated transcripts. A screen for mutations synthetic lethal with xrn1Delta identified a mutation in CDC33, encoding eIF4E. This mutation (glutamate to glycine at position 72) affected a highly conserved residue involved in interaction with eIF4G. Synthetic lethality between xrn1 and cdc33 was not relieved by high-copy expression of eIF4G or by disruption of the yeast eIF4E binding protein Caf20p. High-copy expression of a mutant eIF4G defective for eIF4E binding resulted in a dominant negative phenotype in an xrn1 mutant, indicating the importance of this interaction in an xrn1 mutant. Another allele of CDC33, cdc33-1, along with mutations in CEG1, encoding the nuclear guanylyltransferase, were also synthetic lethal with xrn1Delta, whereas mutations in PRT1, encoding a subunit of eIF3, were not. Mutations in CDC33, CEG1, PRT1, PAB1, and TIF4631, encoding eIF4G1, have been shown to lead to destabilization of mRNAs. Although such destabilization in cdc33, ceg1, and pab1 mutants can be partially suppressed by an xrn1 mutation, we observed synthetic lethality between xrn1 and either cdc33 or ceg1 and no suppression of the inviability of a pab1 null mutation by xrn1Delta. Thus, the inhibition of mRNA turnover by blocking Xrn1p function does not suppress the lethality of defects upstream in the turnover pathway but it does enhance the requirement for (7)mG caps and for proper formation of the eIF4E/eIF4G cap recognition complex. PMID:10790382

  9. Enhancement on photocatalytic activity of an amorphous titanium oxide film with nano-textured surface by selective-fluorination etching process

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Pin-Chun; Huang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Tai-Hong; Lai, Li-Wen; Lu, Yi-Shan; Liu, Day-Shan

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The amorphous TiO{sub x} film surface was modified via selective fluorination etching process. • The resulting nano-textured surface markedly enriched the specific surface area and surface acidity. • The photocatalytic activity was comparable to an annealed TiO{sub x} film with anatase structure. - Abstract: A selective-fluorination etching process achieved by an UV light pre-irradiation and the subsequently fluorination etching was developed to enhance the photocatalytic activity of a low-temperature deposited amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiO{sub x}) film. Textured surface on the a-TiO{sub x} films formed by this process were investigated using atomic force microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope. Evidence of the fluorine ions introduced into the a-TiO{sub x} films was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The etching thickness of the a-TiO{sub x} film was found to be deeply relevant to the film pre-irradiated by the UV light. An a-TiO{sub x} film with nano-textured surface, which was favorable to enlarge the specific surface area, thus was obtainable from the notable etching selectivity of the film pre-irradiated by UV light through a nano-sized mask. In addition, the surface acidity of the a-TiO{sub x} film was enhanced by the formation of the Ti-F chemical bonds originating from the fluorination etching process, which also was functional to facilitate the production of surface OH free radicals. Accordingly, the resulting fluorinated a-TiO{sub x} film with nano-textured surface performed a quality photocatalytic activity comparable to that of the high-temperature achieved TiO{sub x} film with anatase structures.

  10. X-rays and photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that excessive X-ray radiation can cause non-melanoma skin cancers. With the increased incidence of sun-related skin cancer there is a need to investigate the combination of sunlight and X-rays. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac mice (n = 298) were divided into 12 groups. Mice were irradiated with 12, 29 or 50 kV X-rays. The mice received a total dose of 45 Gy. They were irradiated with 3 SED simulated solar radiation (SSR) either before or after irradiation with X-rays. The groups irradiated with X-rays alone, 0, 3, 9 and 10 mice (0, 12, 29 and 50 kV, respectively) developed squamous cell carcinoma. In the groups irradiated with SSR after X-rays the development of tumours was significantly faster in the 50 kV group than in the corresponding control group (175 vs. 194 days, p < 0.001). In the groups irradiated with SSR prior to the X-ray radiation the development of tumours was significantly faster in the 29 and the 50 kV groups than in the corresponding control group (175 vs. 202 days, p < 0.001 and 158 vs. 202 days, p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, X-ray radiation alone is a weak carcinogen in hairless mice. There is an added carcinogenic effect if X-ray radiation is given on prior sun-exposed skin or if the skin is sun-exposed after X-rays. We still believe that X-ray radiation is a safe and effective therapy for various dermatological diseases but caution should be observed if a patient has severely sun-damaged skin or has a high-risk sun behaviour.

  11. Genomic organization of the human VP16 accessory protein, a housekeeping gene (HCFC1) mapping to Xq28

    SciTech Connect

    Frattini, A.; Faranda, S.; Redolfi, E.

    1994-09-01

    The region between DXS52 and Factor VIII gene in the human Xq28 chromosomal band contains a G+C-rich isochore to which many genes have been mapped. We report here the isolation and characterization of a transcript mapping about 50 kb telomeric from the vasopressin type 2 receptor gene in a 180-kb YAC/cosmid contig containing the L1CAM gene at its centromeric end. The determined transcribed sequence from a human fetal brain library is identical to that of the recently identified accessory protein HCFC1 (host cell factor, also called C1) that activates herpes simplex virus VP16 ({alpha}TIF) transactivator protein for association with the octamer motif-binding protein Oct-1. The gene is expressed in a ubiquitous pattern and a larger transcript of approximately 10 kb is present in all the tissues tested, while an alternatively spliced RNA of approximately 8.0 kb is present in muscle and heart tissues. Genomic sequencing allowed us to determine that the sequenced transcript is assembled from 26 exons spread over a relatively small genomic region of approximately 24 kb. This allowed us to determine that a previously reported cDNA clone arises from the splicing out of an internal portion of exon 8 which does not change the reading frame. All together these results raise the possibility that alternative mRNA processing could partly contribute to the diversity of the polypeptide HCFC1 family in a subset of tissues. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. iRODS-Based Climate Data Services and Virtualization-as-a-Service in the NASA Center for Climate Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; Tamkin, G. S.; Strong, S.; Ripley, D.; Gill, R.; Sinno, S. S.; Shen, Y.; Carriere, L. E.; Brieger, L.; Moore, R.; Rajasekar, A.; Schroeder, W.; Wan, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific data services are becoming an important part of the NASA Center for Climate Simulation's mission. Our technological response to this expanding role is built around the concept of specialized virtual climate data servers, repetitive cloud provisioning, image-based deployment and distribution, and virtualization-as-a-service. A virtual climate data server is an OAIS-compliant, iRODS-based data server designed to support a particular type of scientific data collection. iRODS is data grid middleware that provides policy-based control over collection-building, managing, querying, accessing, and preserving large scientific data sets. We have developed prototype vCDSs to manage NetCDF, HDF, and GeoTIF data products. We use RPM scripts to build vCDS images in our local computing environment, our local Virtual Machine Environment, NASA's Nebula Cloud Services, and Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. Once provisioned into these virtualized resources, multiple vCDSs can use iRODS's federation and realized object capabilities to create an integrated ecosystem of data servers that can scale and adapt to changing requirements. This approach enables platform- or software-as-a-service deployment of the vCDSs and allows the NCCS to offer virtualization-as-a-service, a capacity to respond in an agile way to new customer requests for data services, and a path for migrating existing services into the cloud. We have registered MODIS Atmosphere data products in a vCDS that contains 54 million registered files, 630TB of data, and over 300 million metadata values. We are now assembling IPCC AR5 data into a production vCDS that will provide the platform upon which NCCS's Earth System Grid (ESG) node publishes to the extended science community. In this talk, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned, and plans for the future.

  13. Tubular cell phenotype in HIV-associated nephropathy: role of phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Ayasolla, Kamesh R; Rai, Partab; Rahimipour, Shai; Hussain, Mohammad; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

    2015-08-01

    Collapsing glomerulopathy and microcysts are characteristic histological features of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). We have previously reported the role of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the development of glomerular and tubular cell phenotypes in HIVAN. Since persistent tubular cell activation of NFκB has been reported in HIVAN, we now hypothesize that HIV may be contributing to tubular cell phenotype via lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediated downstream signaling. Interestingly, LPA and its receptors have also been implicated in the tubular interstitial cell fibrosis (TIF) and cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Primary human proximal tubular cells (HRPTCs) were transduced with either empty vector (EV/HRPTCs), HIV (HIV/HRPTCs) or treated with LPA (LPA/HRPTC). Immunoelectrophoresis of HIV/HRPTCs and LPA/HRPTCs displayed enhanced expression of pro-fibrotic markers: a) fibronectin (2.25 fold), b) connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; 4.8 fold), c) α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; 12 fold), and d) collagen I (5.7 fold). HIV enhanced tubular cell phosphorylation of ILK-1, FAK, PI3K, Akt, ERKs and P38 MAPK. HIV increased tubular cell transcriptional binding activity of NF-κB; whereas, a LPA biosynthesis inhibitor (AACOCF3), a DAG kinase inhibitor, a LPA receptor blocker (Ki16425), a NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC) and NFκB-siRNA not only displayed downregulation of a NFκB activity but also showed attenuated expression of profibrotic/EMT genes in HIV milieu. These findings suggest that LPA could be contributing to HIV-induced tubular cell phenotype via NFκB activation in HIVAN. PMID:26079546

  14. High Mobility Group A2 protects cancer cells against telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Suchitra; Begum, Farhana; Gim, Jeonga; Wark, Landon; Henderson, Dana; Davie, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The non-histone chromatin binding protein High Mobility Group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) plays important roles in the repair and protection of genomic DNA in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Here we show that HMGA2 localizes to mammalian telomeres and enhances telomere stability in cancer cells. We present a novel interaction of HMGA2 with the key shelterin protein TRF2. We found that the linker (L1) region of HMGA2 contributes to this interaction but the ATI-L1-ATII molecular region of HMGA2 is required for strong interaction with TRF2. This interaction was independent of HMGA2 DNA-binding and did not require the TRF2 interacting partner RAP1 but involved the homodimerization and hinge regions of TRF2. HMGA2 retained TRF2 at telomeres and reduced telomere-dysfunction despite induced telomere stress. Silencing of HMGA2 resulted in (i) reduced binding of TRF2 to telomere DNA as observed by ChIP, (ii) increased telomere instability and (iii) the formation of telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF). This resulted in increased telomere aggregation, anaphase bridges and micronuclei. HMGA2 prevented ATM-dependent pTRF2T188 phosphorylation and attenuated signaling via the telomere specific ATM-CHK2-CDC25C DNA damage signaling axis. In summary, our data demonstrate a unique and novel role of HMGA2 in telomere protection and promoting telomere stability in cancer cells. This identifies HMGA2 as a new therapeutic target for the destabilization of telomeres in HMGA2+ cancer cells. PMID:26799419

  15. Synchrotron X-ray studies of Al(1-y)Ti(y) formation and re-hydriding inhibition in Ti-enhanced NaAlH4.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Hendrik W; Hauback, Bjørn C; Srinivasan, Sesha S; Jensen, Craig M

    2005-08-25

    NaAlH4 samples with Ti additives (TiCl3, TiF3, and Ti(OBu)4) have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to unveil the nature of Ti. No crystalline Ti-containing phases were observed after ball milling of NaAlH4 with the additives, neither as a solid solution in NaAlH4 nor as secondary phases. However, after cycling, a high-angle shoulder of Al is observed in the same position with 10% TiCl3 as that with 2% Ti(OBu)4, but with considerably higher intensity, indicating that the shoulder is caused by Ti. After prolonged reabsorption, there is only a small fraction of free Al phase left to react with Na3AlH6, whereas the shoulder caused by Al(1-y)Ti(y) is dominating. The Ti-containing phase causing the shoulder therefore contains less Ti than Al3Ti, and the aluminum in this phase is too strongly bound to react with Na3AlH6 to form NaAlH4. The composition of the Al(1-y)Ti(y) phase is estimated from quantitative phase analysis of powder X-ray diffraction data to be Al(0.85)Ti(0.15). Formation of this phase may explain the reduction of capacity beyond the theoretical reduction from the dead weight of the additive and the reaction between the additive and NaAlH4.

  16. RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis and Apoptosis Contributes to Renal Tubular Cell Progressive Loss and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongjun; Cui, Hongwang; Xia, Yunfeng; Gan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is caused by the progressive loss of renal tubular cells and the consequent replacement of the extracellular matrix. The progressive depletion of renal tubular cells results from apoptosis and necroptosis; however, the relative significance of each of these cell death mechanisms at different stages during the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We sought to explore the mechanisms of renal tubular cell death during the early and intermediate stages of chronic renal damage of subtotal nephrectomied (SNx) rats. The results of tissue histological assays indicated that the numbers of necrotic dying cells and apoptotic cells were significantly higher in kidney tissues derived from a rat model of CKD. In addition, there was a significant increase in necroptosis observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues from SNx rats compared with control rats, and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) could inhibit necroptosis and reduce the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells. More importantly, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of necroptosis compared with apoptosis by TEM in vivo and in vitro and a significant increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive tubular epithelial cells that did not express caspase-3 compared with those expressing cleaved caspase-3 in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with Nec-1 and zVAD strongly reduced necroptosis- and apoptosis-mediated renal tubular cell death and decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and tubular damage scores of SNx rats. These results suggest that necroptotic cell death plays a more significant role than apoptosis in mediating the loss of renal tubular cells in SNx rats and that effectively blocking both necroptosis and apoptosis improves renal function and tubular damage at early and intermediate stages of CKD.

  17. High Mobility Group A2 protects cancer cells against telomere dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Suchitra; Begum, Farhana; Gim, Jeonga; Wark, Landon; Henderson, Dana; Davie, James R; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Klonisch, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    The non-histone chromatin binding protein High Mobility Group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) plays important roles in the repair and protection of genomic DNA in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Here we show that HMGA2 localizes to mammalian telomeres and enhances telomere stability in cancer cells. We present a novel interaction of HMGA2 with the key shelterin protein TRF2. We found that the linker (L1) region of HMGA2 contributes to this interaction but the ATI-L1-ATII molecular region of HMGA2 is required for strong interaction with TRF2. This interaction was independent of HMGA2 DNA-binding and did not require the TRF2 interacting partner RAP1 but involved the homodimerization and hinge regions of TRF2. HMGA2 retained TRF2 at telomeres and reduced telomere-dysfunction despite induced telomere stress. Silencing of HMGA2 resulted in (i) reduced binding of TRF2 to telomere DNA as observed by ChIP, (ii) increased telomere instability and (iii) the formation of telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF). This resulted in increased telomere aggregation, anaphase bridges and micronuclei. HMGA2 prevented ATM-dependent pTRF2T188 phosphorylation and attenuated signaling via the telomere specific ATM-CHK2-CDC25C DNA damage signaling axis. In summary, our data demonstrate a unique and novel role of HMGA2 in telomere protection and promoting telomere stability in cancer cells. This identifies HMGA2 as a new therapeutic target for the destabilization of telomeres in HMGA2+ cancer cells. PMID:26799419

  18. An investigation of Zr doping in NaBiTi2O6 perovskite by direct hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Harunsani, Mohammad H; Woodward, David I; Thomas, Pam A; Walton, Richard I

    2015-06-21

    The direct crystallisation of perovskites NaBi(Ti(1-x)Zrx)(2)O(6) with x = 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 at 240 °C is achieved from aqueous alkali (NaOH) solutions of NaBiO(3), TiF(3) and ZrOCl(2). For each material, a single rhombohedral polymorph (R3c a∼ 5.51 Å, c∼ 13.50 Å) can be fitted to powder X-ray diffraction data, with Rietveld refinement showing a linear increase in lattice parameters and unit cell volume with increasing Zr content. Scanning electron microscopy shows micron-sized cube-shaped crystallites for each sample, with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis giving Bi : Ti : Zr ratios consistent with the expected substitution. Raman spectroscopy shows no perturbance of local structure upon Zr doping and the spectrum shows five broad bands, consistent with the literature on similar materials. Attempts to increase the Zr content further (x > 0.1) were unsuccessful by this hydrothermal synthesis method, leading instead to crystalline ZrO(2) by-products. For NaBiTi(2)O(6) and NaBi(Ti(0.99)Zr(0.01))(2)O(6) densified ceramics were prepared (∼95% density of crystallographic value) and their remnant polarisation was found to be reduced upon Zr substitution, along with a higher maximum piezoelectric coefficient, d33, measured and comparable permittivity and dielectric loss to other reported NaBiTi(2)O(6) materials. PMID:25677453

  19. Molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Final report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Ptashne, M.

    1980-04-01

    The recA gene product mediates induction of a battery of cellular functions in E. coli collectively known as the SOS inducible functions. These include prophage induction, induction of filamentous cell growth, induction of DNA repair systems and induction of the recA gene itself. Prophage induction has been demonstrated to result from cleavage of the phage repressor protein by a specific protease function of the recA protein. Such cleavage destroys repressor function in lysogenic cells and allows the prophage to enter the vegetative growth cycle. Normally, the protease function of recA protein only becomes active in the cell in response to signals produced by agents (carcinogens) or treatments that specifically damage DNA or interfere with DNA replication. In the tif-1 mutant of recA, however, the protease can be made to be active simply by raising the temperature of the culture from 30/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/ C; lambda prophage is induced and the cell produces a normal burst of phage. Indeed, all known SOS functions are also induced under these conditions. Thus, it has been proposed that all SOS functions are similarly regulated by repressors that are sensitive to the recA portease function. We have sought to further characterize the recA-/mediated cleavage reaction and its requirements for lambda repressor in vitro and to extend our biochemical studies to a cellular SOS repressor, the lexA gene product which is proposed to negatively regulate several SOS inducible functions, including the recA gene, a gene controlling cell separation and lexA gene itself.

  20. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Tuğba; Sivrice, Ayşe Çiğdem; Dereci, Selim; Duman, Levent; Akçam, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    had undergone Nissen fundoplication. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was removed in a patient. The parents had positive views related with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy after the procedure. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a substantially successful and reliable method in infants as well as in children and adolescents. The parents had positive views related with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy after the procedure. PMID:26884690

  1. Aspects of spinal deformity in familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kaplan, L; Margulies, J Y; Kadari, A; Floman, Y; Robin, G C

    1997-01-01

    after spinal deformity surgery in children; this is all the more important in a disease in which general anesthesia is an additional major complicating factor. It is hoped that the improved physical condition now seen after early gastrostomy and fundoplication will aid in reducing this high complication rate. Only a small degree (about 25%) of correction was achieved in the majority of patients. Some of this apparent rigidity derived from the inability to apply sufficient instrumental corrective force because of the friable osteoporotic bone. After surgery, there was a marked decrease in the frequency of pneumonia and an improvement in the degree of ataxia, for reasons not understood, which led to an obvious improvement in the quality of life.

  2. Prevalence and clinical picture of gastroesophageal prolapse in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Aramini, B; Mattioli, S; Lugaresi, M; Brusori, S; Di Simone, M P; D'Ovidio, F

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal (GE) mucosal prolapse in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was investigated as well as the clinical profile and treatment outcome of these patients. Of the patients who were referred to our service between 1980 and 2008, those patients who received a complete diagnostic work-up, and were successively treated and followed up at our center with interviews, radiology studies, endoscopy, and, when indicated, esophageal manometry and pH recording were selected. The prevalence of GE prolapse in GERD patients was 13.5% (70/516) (40 males and 30 females with a median age of 48, interquartile range 38-57). All patients had dysphagia and reflux symptoms, and 98% (69/70) had epigastric or retrosternal pain. Belching decreased the intensity or resolved the pain in 70% (49/70) of the cases, gross esophagitis was documented in 90% (63/70) of the cases, and hiatus hernias were observed in 62% (43/70) of the cases. GE prolapse in GERD patients was accompanied by more severe pain (P < 0.05) usually associated with belching, more severe esophagitis, and dysphagia (P < 0.05). A fundoplication was offered to 100% of the patients and was accepted by 56% (39/70) (median follow up 60 months, interquartile range 54-72), which included two Collis-Nissen techniques for true short esophagus. Patients who did not accept surgery were medically treated (median follow up 60 months, interquartile range 21-72). Persistent pain was reported in 98% (30/31) of medical cases, belching was reported in 45% (14/31), and GERD symptoms and esophagitis were reported in 81% (25/31). After surgery, pain was resolved in 98% (38/39) of the operative cases, and 79% (31/39) of them were free of GERD symptoms and esophagitis. GE prolapse has a relatively low prevalence in GERD patients. It is characterized by epigastric or retrosternal pain, and the need to belch to attenuate or resolve the pain. The pain is allegedly a result of the mechanical consequences of

  3. Surgical treatment analysis of idiopathic esophageal achalasia

    PubMed Central

    de AQUINO, José Luis Braga; SAID, Marcelo Manzano; PEREIRA, Douglas Rizzanti; do AMARAL, Paula Casals; LIMA, Juliana Carolina Alves; LEANDRO-MERHI, Vânia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic esophageal achalasia is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter in response to swallowing, with consequent dysphagia. Aim To demonstrate the results of surgical therapy in these patients, evaluating the occurred local and systemic complications. Methods Were studied retrospectively 32 patients, 22 of whom presented non-advanced stage of the disease (Stage I/II) and 10 with advanced disease (Stage III/IV). All of them had the clinical conditions to be submitted to surgery. The diagnoses were done by clinical, endoscopic, cardiological, radiological and esophageal manometry analysis. Pre-surgical evaluation was done with a questionnaire based on the most predisposing factors in the development of the disease and the surgical indication was based on the stage of the disease. Results The patients with non-advanced stages were submitted to cardiomyotomy with fundoplication, wherein in the post-surgical early assessment, only one (4,4%) presented pulmonary infection, but had a good outcome. In patients with advanced disease, seven were submitted to esophageal mucosectomy preserving the muscular layer, wherein one patient (14,2%) presented dehiscence of gastric cervical esophagus anastomosis as well as pulmonary infection; all of these complications were resolved with proper specific treatment; the other three patients with advanced stage were submitted to transmediastinal esophagectomy; two of them presented hydropneumothorax with good evolution, and one of them also presented fistula of the cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but with spontaneous healing after conservative treatment and nutritional support. The two patients with fistula of the cervical anastomosis progressed to stenosis, with good results after endoscopic dilations. In the medium and long term assessment done in 23 patients, all of them reported improvement in life quality, with

  4. Medium-term durability of giant hiatus hernia repair without mesh.

    PubMed

    Furtado, R V; Vivian, S J; van der Wall, H; Falk, G L

    2016-09-01

    Introduction This is the second report on objective review of 100 patients who underwent composite fundoplication-cardiopexy for repair of giant hiatus hernia (GHH) at a median of 24 months following surgery. Outcomes were objective follow-up by endoscopy and quality of life (QoL) by Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI), modified Visick scores and dysphagia scores. The initial report for this cohort suggested a low objective recurrence rate (9%) and substantial improvements in QoL indices. Methods The rate of hernia recurrence was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and covariates were analysed with the Cox proportional hazards model. Paired t-tests and related samples Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare QoL scores. Unpaired data were compared with the independent samples t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Objective review was obtained in 97% of the patients. There were five recurrences of hernias that had a vertical height of >2cm from the diaphragmatic hiatus, with three patients requiring reoperation for severe dysphagia. Small recurrences (<2cm) occurred in 20 patients. The median time to recurrence was 40 months (95% confidence interval: 34-46 months). At two years, recurrence of any size had occurred in 24% of cases. At follow-up review (median: 27 months), the mean GIQLI score was 109 (p=0.279), the median modified Visick score was 2 (p=0.954) and the median dysphagia score was 41 (p=0.623). There was no evidence that the GIQLI score (p=0.089), the modified Visick score (p=0.339) or the dysphagia score (p=0.445) changed significantly after recurrence. Conclusions There was a sustained improvement in overall QoL and reflux scores after GHH repair. QoL scores showed persistent improvement in reflux and overall health, even in the subgroup with recurrence. The majority (80%) of recurrences were small and recurrent herniation did not appear to significantly change QoL. The rates of recurrence and QoL are comparable with those for other

  5. Management of gastroesophageal reflux disease: medications, surgery, or endoscopic therapy? (Current status and trends).

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xu-ting; Kavic, Stephen M; Park, Adrian E

    2005-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common chronic disorder in the Western world. The basic cause of GERD has been well characterized--the fundamental defect is a loss of integrity of the gastroesophageal barrier. What is less clear is the most appropriate means of addressing this reflux. GERD has a variety of symptoms, ranging from typical presentations of heartburn and regurgitation (without esophagitis) to atypical presentations, such as severe erosive esophagitis and its associated complications. Because of its symptomatic diversity, physicians may select from a variety of therapeutic approaches. Medical therapy aims at decreasing acidity by suppressing proton secretion and has been well established. Available medications include antacids and alginates, H2-receptor antagonists, motility agents, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Antireflux surgery, commonly performed laparoscopically, aims at reinforcing and repairing the defective barrier through plication of the gastric fundus. The earliest performed successful procedures were the Nissen and Toupet fundoplications, to which several modifications have since been made. It has been demonstrated in preliminary studies and long-term outcomes of such open surgery and preliminary studies of such laparoscopic surgery that antireflux surgery is an effective approach, with overall outcomes superior to those achieved with medications. The precise indications for the surgical treatment of patients with GERD, however, remain controversial. In recent years, endoscopic intraluminal antireflux approaches have attracted the attention of physicians, surgeons, and commercial companies, especially after the approval of two endoscopic intraluminal methods by the United States FDA in 2000. The common element is prevention of acid reflux by construction of a functional or controlled barrier in the lower esophageal sphincter zone. Three main methods are currently employed: endoscopic intraluminal valvuloplasty, endoscopic

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children with esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, J; Tobias, V; Sugo, E; Varjavandi, V; Lemberg, D; Day, A; Bohane, T; Ledder, O; Jiwane, A; Adams, S; Henry, G; Dilley, A; Shi, E; Krishnan, U

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has only rarely been reported in esophageal atresia (EA) patients. A retrospective case analysis of all EA patients born at our center between January 1999 and April 2012 was performed. A total of 113 of patients were identified; 10 patients were excluded as a result of inadequate data. Eighteen patients (17%) were diagnosed with EoE. The average number of eosinophilis was 30/high-power field (HPF) (19/HPF-80/HPF). The median age for diagnosis of EoE was 1 year and 6 months (8 months-8 years and 7 months). Children with EoE had a significantly greater incidence of reflux symptoms, dysphagia, tracheomalacia, and 'hypoxic spells' (P < 0.05). EoE patients also underwent significantly more surgery including fundoplication and aortopexy when compared with those without EoE (P < 0.0001). Although the incidence of gastrostomy was greater in the EoE group (33% vs. 13%), this was not statistically significant. Half of the EoE patients had a coexisting atopic condition at time of diagnosis. The commonest condition was asthma 7/18 (38%) followed by specific food allergy 6/18 (33%). EoE was treated in 11 patients with either swallowed fluticasone or budesonide slurry. All improved clinically. Histologically, five had complete resolution and six had partial improvement. Six children with EoE were treated with acid suppression alone. All improved clinically, and 5/6 had subsequent histological resolution. One child who received acid suppression and an exclusion diet also improved. Seven patients (38%) had an esophageal stricture at time of EoE diagnosis. Five were dilated at time of the initial endoscopy, prior to the diagnosis of EoE being available. Two patients had resolution of their strictures on medical treatment of their EoE alone and did not require further dilatation. EoE was seen in 17% of children with EA in this study. EoE should be considered in EA patients with persistent symptoms on standard reflux treatment, increasing

  7. [Robotic surgery and NOTES--Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery in treatment of cholelithiasis--revolution or failed conception].

    PubMed

    Ciesielczyk, Błazej; Cwaliński, Jarosław; Janusz, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    At the beginning of 90th years of the last century a laparoscopy technique initiated a new chapter in surgical treatment becoming the realistic alternative of classical laparotomies. Nowadays, after 20. years from first laparoscopic cholecystectomy new treatment methods such as Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) and robotic surgery are gaining more and more great interest. The first robots created in the middle of 90 years were used only for keeping a camera and they were steered with voice, however with the development of technology was possible constructing precise machines, which were able to carry complicated procedures out (fundoplication, gastrectomy or colectomy), also from a long distance. At present two types of robots are being applied in the medical practice: da Vinci and Zeus. NOTES is a method that make possible to perform operations trough natural orifice of the body with an endoscope and appropriate instrumentation. Actually three fundamental ways of reaching the peritoneum are being used: through the stomach, through the rectum and through the vagina. Some authors tried also to use transbladder approach. The main advantage of the NOTES technique is a possibility of performing the procedure without necessity of cutting the abdominal wall, what decreases postoperative pain, eliminates the problem of an infecting wound, minimizes risk of postoperative hernias and reduces amount of postoperative adhesions. Problems related to the NOTES technique are mostly need of inventing new and better equipment, assurance tightness of the surgical access, development of an efficient antiseptic prophylaxis and also standardize learning methods. Dynamic development of the NOTES method allows overcoming some of these limitations by using innovative technical solutions and new systems e.g. TULA, NOTUS, ShapeLock, ViaCath, MAGS and many others. The aim of this study is a deep analysis of the recent technical solutions, rules of the therapy and

  8. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is probably one of the most prevalent diseases in the world that also compromises the quality of life of the affected significantly. Its incidence in Brazil is 12%, corresponding to 20 million individuals. Objective To update the GERD management and the new trends on diagnosis and treatment, reviewing the international and Brazilian experience on it. Method The literature review was based on papers published on Medline/Pubmed, SciELO, Lilacs, Embase and Cochrane crossing the following headings: gastroesophageal reflux disease, diagnosis, clinical treatment, surgery, fundoplication. Results Various factors are involved on GERD physiopathology, the most important being the transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Clinical manifestations are heartburn, regurgitation (typical symptoms), cough, chest pain, asthma, hoarseness and throat clearing (atypical symptoms), which may be followed or not by typical symptoms. GERD patients may present complications such as peptic stenosis, hemorrhage, and Barrett's esophagus, which is the most important predisposing factor to adenocarcinoma. The GERD diagnosis must be based on the anamnesis and the symptoms must be evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, frequency, triggering and relief factors, pattern of evolution and impact on the patient's quality of life. The diagnosis requires confirmation with different exams. The goal of the clinical treatment is to relieve the symptoms and surgical treatment is indicated for patients who require continued drug use, with intolerance to prolonged clinical treatment and with GERD complications. Conclusion GERD is a major digestive health problem and affect 12% of Brazilian people. The anamnesis is fundamental for the diagnosis of GERD, with special analysis of the typical and atypical symptoms (duration, intensity, frequency, triggering and relief factors, evolution and impact on the life quality). High digestive endoscopy and

  9. Prevalence and clinical picture of gastroesophageal prolapse in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Aramini, B; Mattioli, S; Lugaresi, M; Brusori, S; Di Simone, M P; D'Ovidio, F

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal (GE) mucosal prolapse in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was investigated as well as the clinical profile and treatment outcome of these patients. Of the patients who were referred to our service between 1980 and 2008, those patients who received a complete diagnostic work-up, and were successively treated and followed up at our center with interviews, radiology studies, endoscopy, and, when indicated, esophageal manometry and pH recording were selected. The prevalence of GE prolapse in GERD patients was 13.5% (70/516) (40 males and 30 females with a median age of 48, interquartile range 38-57). All patients had dysphagia and reflux symptoms, and 98% (69/70) had epigastric or retrosternal pain. Belching decreased the intensity or resolved the pain in 70% (49/70) of the cases, gross esophagitis was documented in 90% (63/70) of the cases, and hiatus hernias were observed in 62% (43/70) of the cases. GE prolapse in GERD patients was accompanied by more severe pain (P < 0.05) usually associated with belching, more severe esophagitis, and dysphagia (P < 0.05). A fundoplication was offered to 100% of the patients and was accepted by 56% (39/70) (median follow up 60 months, interquartile range 54-72), which included two Collis-Nissen techniques for true short esophagus. Patients who did not accept surgery were medically treated (median follow up 60 months, interquartile range 21-72). Persistent pain was reported in 98% (30/31) of medical cases, belching was reported in 45% (14/31), and GERD symptoms and esophagitis were reported in 81% (25/31). After surgery, pain was resolved in 98% (38/39) of the operative cases, and 79% (31/39) of them were free of GERD symptoms and esophagitis. GE prolapse has a relatively low prevalence in GERD patients. It is characterized by epigastric or retrosternal pain, and the need to belch to attenuate or resolve the pain. The pain is allegedly a result of the mechanical consequences of

  10. [Robotic surgery and NOTES--Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery in treatment of cholelithiasis--revolution or failed conception].

    PubMed

    Ciesielczyk, Błazej; Cwaliński, Jarosław; Janusz, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    At the beginning of 90th years of the last century a laparoscopy technique initiated a new chapter in surgical treatment becoming the realistic alternative of classical laparotomies. Nowadays, after 20. years from first laparoscopic cholecystectomy new treatment methods such as Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) and robotic surgery are gaining more and more great interest. The first robots created in the middle of 90 years were used only for keeping a camera and they were steered with voice, however with the development of technology was possible constructing precise machines, which were able to carry complicated procedures out (fundoplication, gastrectomy or colectomy), also from a long distance. At present two types of robots are being applied in the medical practice: da Vinci and Zeus. NOTES is a method that make possible to perform operations trough natural orifice of the body with an endoscope and appropriate instrumentation. Actually three fundamental ways of reaching the peritoneum are being used: through the stomach, through the rectum and through the vagina. Some authors tried also to use transbladder approach. The main advantage of the NOTES technique is a possibility of performing the procedure without necessity of cutting the abdominal wall, what decreases postoperative pain, eliminates the problem of an infecting wound, minimizes risk of postoperative hernias and reduces amount of postoperative adhesions. Problems related to the NOTES technique are mostly need of inventing new and better equipment, assurance tightness of the surgical access, development of an efficient antiseptic prophylaxis and also standardize learning methods. Dynamic development of the NOTES method allows overcoming some of these limitations by using innovative technical solutions and new systems e.g. TULA, NOTUS, ShapeLock, ViaCath, MAGS and many others. The aim of this study is a deep analysis of the recent technical solutions, rules of the therapy and

  11. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    summer 2006, the biggest oil pollution event in the Eastern Mediterranean so far) and through inter-comparison using drifters. The quality of the MEDSLIK oil spill model predictions depends on the quality of the meteo-ocean forecasting data that will be used. The guidelines set by the MEDESS4MS project to harmonize the meteo-ocean, oil spill and trajectory models input/output formats are implemented in MEDSLIK to suit the operational oil spill predictions. The output results of the trajectory predictions may available in the MEDESS4MS output standards (XML)and in ASCII, while the images in BMP or PNG, TIF,GIF, JPG (image), in KML (Google Earth).

  12. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward

  13. Comprehensive Protein Interactome Analysis of a Key RNA Helicase: Detection of Novel Stress Granule Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bish, Rebecca; Cuevas-Polo, Nerea; Cheng, Zhe; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Munschauer, Mathias; Landthaler, Markus; Vogel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    DDX6 (p54/RCK) is a human RNA helicase with central roles in mRNA decay and translation repression. To help our understanding of how DDX6 performs these multiple functions, we conducted the first unbiased, large-scale study to map the DDX6-centric protein-protein interactome using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Using DDX6 as bait, we identify a high-confidence and high-quality set of protein interaction partners which are enriched for functions in RNA metabolism and ribosomal proteins. The screen is highly specific, maximizing the number of true positives, as demonstrated by the validation of 81% (47/58) of the RNA-independent interactors through known functions and interactions. Importantly, we minimize the number of indirect interaction partners through use of a nuclease-based digestion to eliminate RNA. We describe eleven new interactors, including proteins involved in splicing which is an as-yet unknown role for DDX6. We validated and characterized in more detail the interaction of DDX6 with Nuclear fragile X mental retardation-interacting protein 2 (NUFIP2) and with two previously uncharacterized proteins, FAM195A and FAM195B (here referred to as granulin-1 and granulin-2, or GRAN1 and GRAN2). We show that NUFIP2, GRAN1, and GRAN2 are not P-body components, but re-localize to stress granules upon exposure to stress, suggesting a function in translation repression in the cellular stress response. Using a complementary analysis that resolved DDX6’s multiple complex memberships, we further validated these interaction partners and the presence of splicing factors. As DDX6 also interacts with the E3 SUMO ligase TIF1β, we tested for and observed a significant enrichment of sumoylation amongst DDX6’s interaction partners. Our results represent the most comprehensive screen for direct interaction partners of a key regulator of RNA life cycle and localization, highlighting new stress granule components and possible DDX6 functions—many of which are

  14. Yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) enhances complex assembly between eIF4A and eIF4G in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Hee; Walker, Sarah E; Zhou, Fujun; Lee, Joseph M; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Lorsch, Jon R; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2013-01-25

    Translation initiation factor eIF4F (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F), composed of eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF4A, binds to the m(7)G cap structure of mRNA and stimulates recruitment of the 43S preinitiation complex and subsequent scanning to the initiation codon. The HEAT domain of eIF4G stabilizes the active conformation of eIF4A required for its RNA helicase activity. Mammalian eIF4B also stimulates eIF4A activity, but this function appears to be lacking in yeast, making it unclear how yeast eIF4B (yeIF4B/Tif3) stimulates translation. We identified Ts(-) mutations in the HEAT domains of yeast eIF4G1 and eIF4G2 that are suppressed by overexpressing either yeIF4B or eIF4A, whereas others are suppressed only by eIF4A overexpression. Importantly, suppression of HEAT domain substitutions by yeIF4B overexpression was correlated with the restoration of native eIF4A·eIF4G complexes in vivo, and the rescue of specific mutant eIF4A·eIF4G complexes by yeIF4B was reconstituted in vitro. Association of eIF4A with WT eIF4G in vivo also was enhanced by yeIF4B overexpression and was impaired in cells lacking yeIF4B. Furthermore, we detected native complexes containing eIF4G and yeIF4B but lacking eIF4A. These and other findings lead us to propose that yeIF4B acts in vivo to promote eIF4F assembly by enhancing a conformation of the HEAT domain of yeast eIF4G conducive for stable binding to eIF4A.

  15. Electron correlations in single-electron capture into any state of fast projectiles from heliumlike atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2013-11-01

    State-selective and total single-electron capture cross sections in fast collisions of a bare projectile with a heliumlike target are examined in the four-body formalism. A special emphasis is given to a proper inclusion of dynamic electron-electron correlation effects. For this purpose, the post form of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B) is utilized. With regard to our related previous study, where the prior version has been considered, in the present work an extensive analytical study of the post-transition amplitude for electron capture into the arbitrary final states nflfmf of the projectile is carried out. The post-transition amplitude for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and asymmetric collisions is derived in terms of five-dimensional integrals over real variables. The dielectronic interaction V12=1/r12≡1/|r⃗1-r⃗2| explicitly appears in the perturbation potential Vf of the post-transition probability amplitude Tif+, such that the CB1-4B method can provide information about the relative significance of the dynamic interelectron correlation in the collisions under study. An illustrative computation is performed involving state-selective and total single capture cross sections for the p-He collisions at intermediate and high impact energies. The so-called post-prior discrepancy, which plagues almost all the existing distorted wave approximations, is presently shown to be practically nonexistent in the CB1-4B method. The validity of our findings is critically assessed in comparisons with the available experimental data for both state-selective and total cross sections summed over all the discrete energy levels of the hydrogenlike atom formed with the projectile. Overall, excellent performance of the CB1-4B method is recorded, thus robustly establishing this formalism as the leading first-order description of high-energy single charge exchange, which is a collision of paramount theoretical and practical

  16. Comprehensive Protein Interactome Analysis of a Key RNA Helicase: Detection of Novel Stress Granule Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bish, Rebecca; Cuevas-Polo, Nerea; Cheng, Zhe; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Munschauer, Mathias; Landthaler, Markus; Vogel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    DDX6 (p54/RCK) is a human RNA helicase with central roles in mRNA decay and translation repression. To help our understanding of how DDX6 performs these multiple functions, we conducted the first unbiased, large-scale study to map the DDX6-centric protein-protein interactome using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Using DDX6 as bait, we identify a high-confidence and high-quality set of protein interaction partners which are enriched for functions in RNA metabolism and ribosomal proteins. The screen is highly specific, maximizing the number of true positives, as demonstrated by the validation of 81% (47/58) of the RNA-independent interactors through known functions and interactions. Importantly, we minimize the number of indirect interaction partners through use of a nuclease-based digestion to eliminate RNA. We describe eleven new interactors, including proteins involved in splicing which is an as-yet unknown role for DDX6. We validated and characterized in more detail the interaction of DDX6 with Nuclear fragile X mental retardation-interacting protein 2 (NUFIP2) and with two previously uncharacterized proteins, FAM195A and FAM195B (here referred to as granulin-1 and granulin-2, or GRAN1 and GRAN2). We show that NUFIP2, GRAN1, and GRAN2 are not P-body components, but re-localize to stress granules upon exposure to stress, suggesting a function in translation repression in the cellular stress response. Using a complementary analysis that resolved DDX6's multiple complex memberships, we further validated these interaction partners and the presence of splicing factors. As DDX6 also interacts with the E3 SUMO ligase TIF1β, we tested for and observed a significant enrichment of sumoylation amongst DDX6's interaction partners. Our results represent the most comprehensive screen for direct interaction partners of a key regulator of RNA life cycle and localization, highlighting new stress granule components and possible DDX6 functions-many of which are likely

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of two-stage testing for English and French examinees on the SAIP Science 1996 and 1999 tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhan, Gautam

    Two-stage testing (TST) is an adaptive testing procedure where test forms of varying difficulty are administered to examinees based on performance from a routing test. The School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) is the national achievement test in Canada and uses the TST procedure to assess educational progress of 13- and 16-year-olds in Science. SAIP works with the implicit assumption that the routing test works equally well for examinees in English and French. If this assumption is true, then there should be proper placement of English- and French-speaking examinees in the second-stage test. However, if the assumption is not true, then there might be misplacement of English- and French-speaking examinees in the second-stage test. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a TST procedure for English- and French-speaking examinees who wrote the SAIP Science tests. The study was conducted using existing data (N = 24,642 and 22,320 for the Science 1996 and 1999 administrations, respectively) obtained from SAIP. The analyses were conducted in two steps. First, a comprehensive analysis of the routing test items was conducted using statistical and substantive methods. The purpose of these analyses was to identify items that might favor English- or French-speaking examinees, which in turn, might lead to different placement of examinees in the second-stage test. Second, a comprehensive analysis of the second-stage tests was conducted using BILOG-MG (Zimowski, Muraki, Mislevy, Bock, 1996). To assess performance differences for English- and French-speaking examinees on the second-stage tests, test information functions (TIF), test characteristic curves (TCCs), standard errors of estimate SE( q̂ ), and reliability indices for English and French versions of the second-stage tests were compared. Statistical analysis of the routing test items revealed that three out of twelve items displayed DIF. However, substantive analysis of the routing

  18. MiR137 is an androgen regulated repressor of an extended network of transcriptional coregulators

    PubMed Central

    Whitchurch, Jonathan; McWilliam, Andrew; Ødum, Niels; Persson, Jenny L.; Heery, David M.; Gudas, Lorraine J.; Mongan, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) play crucial roles in male development and the pathogenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). The AR functions as a ligand dependent transcription factor which recruits multiple enzymatically distinct epigenetic coregulators to facilitate transcriptional regulation in response to androgens. Over-expression of AR coregulators is implicated in cancer. We have shown that over-expression of KDM1A, an AR coregulator, contributes to PCa recurrence by promoting VEGFA expression. However the mechanism(s) whereby AR coregulators are increased in PCa remain poorly understood. In this study we show that the microRNA hsa-miR-137 (miR137) tumor suppressor regulates expression of an extended network of transcriptional coregulators including KDM1A/LSD1/AOF1, KDM2A/JHDM1A/FBXL11, KDM4A/JMJD2A, KDM5B JARID1B/PLU1, KDM7A/JHDM1D/PHF8, MED1/TRAP220/DRIP205 and NCoA2/SRC2/TIF2. We show that expression of miR137 is increased by androgen in LnCaP androgen PCa responsive cells and that the miR137 locus is epigenetically silenced in androgen LnCaP:C4-2 and PC3 independent PCa cells. In addition, we found that restoration of miR137 expression down-regulates expression of VEGFA, an AR target gene, which suggests a role of miR137 loss also in cancer angiogenesis. Finally we show functional inhibition of miR137 function enhanced androgen induction of PSA/KLK3 expression. Our data indicate that miR137 functions as an androgen regulated suppressor of androgen signaling by modulating expression of an extended network of transcriptional coregulators. Therefore, we propose that epigenetic silencing of miR137 is an important event in promoting androgen signaling during prostate carcinogenesis and progression. PMID:26461474

  19. The novel myxofibrosarcoma cell line MUG-Myx1 expresses a tumourigenic stem-like cell population with high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myxofibrosarcoma comprises a spectrum of malignant neoplasms withprominent myxoid stromata, cellular pleomorphism, and distinct curvilinear vascular patterns. These neoplasms mainly affect patients in the sixth to eighth decades of life and the overall 5-year survival rate is 60–70%. Methods After the establishment of the novel myxofibrosarcoma cell lines MUG-Myx1, cells were characterized using short tandem repeat (STR), copy number variation (CNV), and genotype/loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) analyses. The growth behaviour of the cells was analyzed with the xCELLigence system and an MTS assay. The tumourigenicity of MUG-Myx1 was proved in NOD/SCID mice. Additionally, a stem-like cell population with high enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1high) was isolated for the first time from myxofibrosarcoma cells using the Aldefluor® assay followed by FACS analysis. Results The frozen primary parental tumour tissue and the MUG-Myx1 cell line showed the same STR profile at the markers D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, Amelogenin, D8S1179, TPOX, and FGY. Typically, myxofibrosarcoma gain and/or amplification was mapped to 7p21.3-q31.1, q31.1-q31.33, q33-q36.2, p21.3, p21.2, p14.1-q11.23, q31.33-q33, p21.2-p14.1, q11.23-q21.3, q36.2-q36.3, which, respectively are known to harbour tumour-associated genes, including TIF, BRAF, MLL3, SMO, and MET. Typically an LOH for myxofibrosarcoma on chr5 q21 was found. In addition, MUG-Myx1 ALDH1high cells showed an upregulation of the ABC transporter ABCB1 and ABCG2; higher c-Myc, E-cadherin and SOX-2 expression; and a higher potential for tumourigenicity and proliferation levels. Conclusion The new myxofibrosarcoma cell line MUG-Myx1 was established to enrich the bank of publicly available cell lines, with respect to providing comprehensive genetic and epigenetic characterization. Furthermore, because of their tumourigenicity, the cell line is also

  20. AKTIP/Ft1, a New Shelterin-Interacting Factor Required for Telomere Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Raffa, Grazia D.; Galati, Alessandra; Raimondo, Domenico; Rizzo, Angela; La Torre, Mattia; Micheli, Emanuela; Ciapponi, Laura; Cenci, Giovanni; Cundari, Enrico; Musio, Antonio; Biroccio, Annamaria; Cacchione, Stefano; Gatti, Maurizio; Saggio, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes from incomplete replication, degradation and detection as DNA breaks. Mammalian telomeres are protected by shelterin, a multiprotein complex that binds the TTAGGG telomeric repeats and recruits a series of additional factors that are essential for telomere function. Although many shelterin-associated proteins have been so far identified, the inventory of shelterin-interacting factors required for telomere maintenance is still largely incomplete. Here, we characterize AKTIP/Ft1 (human AKTIP and mouse Ft1 are orthologous), a novel mammalian shelterin-bound factor identified on the basis of its homology with the Drosophila telomere protein Pendolino. AKTIP/Ft1 shares homology with the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating (UEV) enzymes and has been previously implicated in the control of apoptosis and in vesicle trafficking. RNAi-mediated depletion of AKTIP results in formation of telomere dysfunction foci (TIFs). Consistent with these results, AKTIP interacts with telomeric DNA and binds the shelterin components TRF1 and TRF2 both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of AKTIP- depleted human primary fibroblasts showed that they are defective in PCNA recruiting and arrest in the S phase due to the activation of the intra S checkpoint. Accordingly, AKTIP physically interacts with PCNA and the RPA70 DNA replication factor. Ft1-depleted p53-/- MEFs did not arrest in the S phase but displayed significant increases in multiple telomeric signals (MTS) and sister telomere associations (STAs), two hallmarks of defective telomere replication. In addition, we found an epistatic relation for MST formation between Ft1 and TRF1, which has been previously shown to be required for replication fork progression through telomeric DNA. Ch-IP experiments further suggested that in AKTIP-depleted cells undergoing the S phase, TRF1 is less tightly bound to telomeric DNA than in controls. Thus, our results collectively

  1. A Methodology for Near-Field Tsunami Inundation Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, A. R.; Tanioka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    NearTIF was effective in helping them make better decisions with high confidence during the tsunami evacuation drill. This method can be useful in developing future tsunami forecasting systems with a capability of providing tsunami inundation forecasts for locations near the tsunami source area.

  2. Preparation and structures of coordination complexes of the very hard Lewis acids ZrF4 and HfF4.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Levason, William; Pugh, David; Reid, Gillian; Zhang, Wenjian

    2012-10-28

    [MF(4)(dmso)(2)] (M = Zr or Hf) and [MF(4)(dmf)(2)], prepared by dissolving MF(4)·nH(2)O in the appropriate solvent, have been used as synthons for a range of complexes of these otherwise intractable tetrafluorides. These reagents react with OPR(3) (R = Me or Ph) or OAsPh(3) (L) in anhydrous CH(2)Cl(2) to form six-coordinate [MF(4)L(2)] which exist as a mixture of cis (predominant form) and trans isomers in CH(2)Cl(2) solution but which crystallise as trans (OPPh(3), OAsPh(3)) or cis (OPMe(3)) forms. Cis-[ZrF(4)(OAsPh(3))(2)] crystals were obtained from MeCN. Cis-[MF(4)(pyNO)(2)] and eight-coordinate (distorted dodecahedral) [MF(4)(L-L)(2)] (L-L = 2,2'-bipy, or 1,10-phen), and [MF(4)(Me(4)-cyclam)] were also obtained. Attempts to prepare complexes with the N-heterocyclic carbene, 1,3-(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IDiPP) or alkyl diphosphines were unsuccessful. Crystal structures are reported for trans-[ZrF(4)(OPPh(3))(2)], cis- and trans-[ZrF(4)(OAsPh(3))(2)], cis-[HfF(4)(OPMe(3))(2)], [ZrF(4)(2,2'-bipy)(2)], cis-[HfF(4)(dmf)(2)], and geometric isomers (both pentagonal bipyramidal) of [(dmso)(2)F(3)M(μ-F)(2)MF(3)(dmso)(2)]. The failed attempts to make IDiPP adducts led to crystals of [IDiPPH](3)[M(3)F(15)] containing discrete anions based upon a triangle of M atoms with single F bridges. The results are compared with previous work on TiF(4) adducts and with complexes of MCl(4), and demonstrate that the MF(4) are very hard Lewis acids, with a marked preference for O- over N-donors. PMID:22955291

  3. Diagnosis and Anti-Reflux Therapy for GERD with Respiratory Symptoms: A Study Using Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Jimin; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Diangang; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Respiratory symptoms are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance–pH (MII-pH) monitoring in GERD is clear, little is known regarding the characteristics of patients with respiratory symptoms based on MII-pH monitoring and anti-reflux therapy. We evaluated a cohort of GERD patients to identify the MII-pH parameters of GERD-related respiratory symptoms and to assess the anti-reflux therapy outcomes. Methods We undertook a prospective study of patients who were referred for GERD evaluation from January 2011 to January 2012. One hundred ninety-five patients underwent MII-pH monitoring and esophageal manometry, and one hundred sixty-five patients underwent invasive anti-reflux therapy that included laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and the Stretta procedure. The patient characteristics and MII-pH parameters were analyzed, and the symptom scores were assessed at baseline and at 1- and 3-year follow-up evaluations. Results Of the 195 patients, 96 (49.2%) exhibited respiratory symptoms and significantly more reflux episodes (70.7±29.3) than patients without respiratory symptoms (64.7±24.4, p = 0.044) based on the MII-pH monitoring results. Moreover, the group of patients with respiratory symptoms exhibited more proximal reflux episodes (35.2±21.3) than the non-respiratory symptomatic group (28.3±17.9, p = 0.013). One hundred twenty-five patients following the Stretta procedure (n = 60, 31 with respiratory symptoms) or LTF (n = 65, 35 with respiratory symptoms) completed the designated 3-year follow-up period and were included in the final analysis. The symptom scores after anti-reflux therapy all decreased relative to the corresponding baseline values (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences in the control of respiration between the Stretta procedure and LTF (p>0.05). However, LTF significantly reduced the recurrence (re-operation) rate compared with the

  4. Tailoring the Pore Environment of Metal-Organic and Molecular Materials Decorated with Inorganic Anions: Platforms for Highly Selective Carbon Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Patrick S.

    Due to their high surface areas and structural tunability, porous metal-organic materials, MOMs, have attracted wide research interest in areas such as carbon capture, as the judicious choice of molecular building block (MBB) and linker facilitates the design of MOMs with myriad topologies and allows for a systematic variation of the pore environment. Families of MOMs with modular components, i.e. MOM platforms, are eminently suitable for targeting the selective adsorption of guest molecules such as CO2 because their pore size and pore functionality can each be tailored independently. MOMs with saturated metal centers (SMCs) that promote strong yet reversible CO2 binding in conjunction with favorable adsorption kinetics are an attractive alternative to MOMs containing unsaturated metal centers (UMCs) or amines. Whereas MOMs with SMCs and exclusively organic linkers typically have poor CO2 selectivity, it has been shown that a versatile, long known platform with SMCs, pillared square grids with inorganic anion pillars and pcu topology, exhibits high and selective CO 2 uptake, a moderate CO2 binding affinity, and good stability under practical conditions. As detailed herein, the tuning of pore size and pore functionality in this platform has modulated the CO2 adsorption properties and revealed variants with unprecedented selectivity towards CO 2 under industrially relevant conditions, even in the presence of moisture. With the aim of tuning pore chemistry while preserving pore size, we initially explored the effect of pillar substitution upon the carbon capture properties of a pillared square grid, [Cu(bipy)2(SiF6)] (SIFSIX-1-Cu). Room temperature CO2, CH4, and N 2 adsorption isotherms revealed that substitution of the SiF6 2- ("SIFSIX") inorganic pillar with TiF6 2- ("TIFSIX") or SnF62- ("SNIFSIX") modulated CO2 uptake, CO2 affinity (heat of adsorption, Qst), and selectivity vs. CH4 and N2. TIFSIX-1-Cu and SNIFSIX-1-Cu were calculated to exhibit the highest CO2/N 2

  5. [How can we diagnose and better understand inflammatory myopathies? The usefulness of auto-antibodies].

    PubMed

    Sibilia, Jean; Chatelus, Emmanuel; Meyer, Alain; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Sordet, Christelle; Goetz, Joëlle

    2010-10-01

    The inflammatory myopathies are a group of quite proteiform, systemic auto-immune diseases which include polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myopathies. To facilitate the diagnosis, classification criteria (Bohan and Peter, 1975) have been proposed, based essentially on clinical criteria. In addition, over the past fifteen years, auto-antibodies characterizing certain forms of inflammatory myopathy have been identified. One distinguishes schematically: auto-antibodies specific for myositis and auto-antibodies sometimes associated with myositis. Concerning the myositis specific auto-antibodies (MSA), schematically there are a dozen specificities which are classed according to the cellular distribution of the auto-antigen. The most characteristic are certainly the auto-antibodies directed against cytoplasmic antigens: the anti-tRNA synthetases (anti-Jo-1 (PL-1), anti-PL-7, PL-12, EJ, OJ, JS, KS, ZO, YRS), anti-SRP (signal recognition particle), anti-Mas and anti-KJ, anti-Fer (eEF1), anti-Wa and anti-CADM p140. Other auto-antibodies are directed against nuclear auto-antigens: the anti-Mi-2, anti-PMS (PMS1, PMS2) and related antibodies (MLH1, DNA PKcs…), anti-56 kDa, anti-MJ (NXP-2), anti-SAE and anti-p155/p140 (TIF-1γ). Concerning the auto-antibodies sometimes associated with myositis (myositis associated auto-antibodies or MAA), they can also be observed in other auto-immune diseases. These auto-antibodies are directed against nuclear or nucleolar auto-antigens: the anti-PM-Scl, anti-Ku, anti-RNP (U1 RNP and U2 RNP, U4/U6 RNP and U5 RNP), anti-Ro 52 kDa and more rarely, anti-Ro 60 kDa and anti-La. The auto-antibodies related to myositis are biological tools which are of interest in two main ways. They have allowed us to sort out the nosology of these inflammatory myopathies, in particular by defining anti-tRNA synthetase syndrome. It now remains to determine how they might be employed to complement the classical clinico-biological diagnostic criteria

  6. Evidence for Ultra-Energetic Particles in Jet from Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    .-J.Röser, & R.Perley Jpeg | Tiff There have been two competing theories of how emissions arise from the particles -- the "Inverse-Compton" theory proposing that the emissions occur when jet particles scatter cosmic microwave background photons, and the "Synchrotron Radiation" theory postulating a separate population of extremely energetic electrons or protons that cause the high-energy emission. "The Yale team used the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe 3C273 because it is located in space and is more sensitive to faint infrared jet emission than any previous telescope," said Yasunobu Uchiyama, a team leader and former postdoctoral fellow at the Yale Center for Astronomy. Spitzer observations enabled the team, with collaborators at Stanford, University of Southampton, Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Brera Observatory in Milan, to determine the infrared spectrum for the first time and thus to realize its close connection to the X-ray emission. Sebastian Jester, now at the University of Southampton, led a complementary study that used the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This team, with collaborators at MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, MA, and at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, obtained the first detailed study of energy distribution of X-rays from the jet, which also supported the synchrotron theory. Composite of 3C273's jet Composite of 3C273's jet, showing in which wavelength region the emission peaks: X-rays (observed with Chandra) in blue, optical light (observed with HST) in green, radio waves (observed with the VLA) in red. Yellow indicates that both optical and radio emission are strong. jpg | tif According to the researchers, while the lifetime of the X-ray producing particles is only about 100 years, the data indicate that the visibly brightest part of the jet has a length of about 100,000 light years. Since there would be insufficient time for the particles to

  7. La recherche de naines brunes autour d'etoiles du voisinage solaire et le spectrographe multi-objets SIMON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Loic

    cependant aucun nouveau compagnon n'a été découvert. Compte tenu de la distance des cibles (5-10 parsecs), du champ de vue des instruments (~7' × 7') et des magnitudes limites atteintes ( J [approximate] 18), le relevé était sensible aux tuasses supérieures à 30 M JuP situées entre 200 et 1400 UA. Bien qu'aucune nouvelle naine brune n'ait été découverte, la détection de GJ570, faisant partie de l'échantillon sélectionné, signifie que le taux de binarité de naines brunes plus massives que ~ 0.030 M Sol à une séparation de 200-1400 UA est de f nb = [Special characters omitted.] . Cela démontre que le désert de naines brunes observé à faible séparation s'étend à grande séparation. Quatre naines brunes candidates de type L hâtif ont aussi été détectées en arrière-plan. C'est à peu près le nombre attendu selon les modèles de distribution galactique. Mots clés: astronomie, instrumentation, infrarouge, polarimétrie, imagerie, binarité, naine T, relevé

  8. An X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Multilayered Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Joseph

    Recently, a new family of two-dimensional (2D) early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides, labeled MXenes, was discovered at Drexel University. MXenes are produced by selectively etching mostly Al from Al-containing MAX phases and replacing Al with surface termination groups. Theoretically it has been predicted that changing the nature of the surface terminations, T, can change MXenes' properties, such as electronic and optical, resulting in changes in performance in various applications such as electrodes for Li-ion batteries. Prior to this work, there had been little systematic effort devoted to carefully identifying and quantifying the exact nature of T. In this work, high resolution XPS spectra of multilayered Ti3C2T x, Ti2CTx, Ti3CNTx, Nb 2CTx, Nb4C3Tx, V2CT x, Mo2CTx, Mo2TiC2T x, and Mo2Ti2C2Tx were acquired and analyzed. The influence of the M and X elements, the order of MXene, n, aging, Ar+ sputtering, and the concentration/nature of the etchants on the amounts of --O, --OH and --F, were systematically investigated. XPS analysis confirmed the intercalation of Li+ ions upon etching Ti3AlC2 using a mixture of LiF and HCl or LiCl and HF; when Ti3C2Tx multilayers is immersed in RbCl or NaCl solutions, cation exchange resulted in the replacement of Li+ ions with Rb+ or Na+ , respectively. Similar cation intercalations were confirmed when treating HF-etched Ti3C2Tx samples with Ti 3C2Tx with alkali metal hydroxides, such as NaOH and KOH. Based on quantification of the various chemical species before and after treatment, a mechanism was suggested where the reduction of -F terminations took place by exchanging with -OH and -O terminations and/or complete removal of Ti-F species and converting them to TiO2-Fx. From XPS peak fits for all MXene samples in this study, it was established that x was ≈ 2.0+/-0.2. Both -F and -OH terminations are formed during etching through the reaction of MXene with HF or H2O, respectively. However, for the -O terminations to

  9. Tailoring the Pore Environment of Metal-Organic and Molecular Materials Decorated with Inorganic Anions: Platforms for Highly Selective Carbon Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Patrick S.

    Due to their high surface areas and structural tunability, porous metal-organic materials, MOMs, have attracted wide research interest in areas such as carbon capture, as the judicious choice of molecular building block (MBB) and linker facilitates the design of MOMs with myriad topologies and allows for a systematic variation of the pore environment. Families of MOMs with modular components, i.e. MOM platforms, are eminently suitable for targeting the selective adsorption of guest molecules such as CO2 because their pore size and pore functionality can each be tailored independently. MOMs with saturated metal centers (SMCs) that promote strong yet reversible CO2 binding in conjunction with favorable adsorption kinetics are an attractive alternative to MOMs containing unsaturated metal centers (UMCs) or amines. Whereas MOMs with SMCs and exclusively organic linkers typically have poor CO2 selectivity, it has been shown that a versatile, long known platform with SMCs, pillared square grids with inorganic anion pillars and pcu topology, exhibits high and selective CO 2 uptake, a moderate CO2 binding affinity, and good stability under practical conditions. As detailed herein, the tuning of pore size and pore functionality in this platform has modulated the CO2 adsorption properties and revealed variants with unprecedented selectivity towards CO 2 under industrially relevant conditions, even in the presence of moisture. With the aim of tuning pore chemistry while preserving pore size, we initially explored the effect of pillar substitution upon the carbon capture properties of a pillared square grid, [Cu(bipy)2(SiF6)] (SIFSIX-1-Cu). Room temperature CO2, CH4, and N 2 adsorption isotherms revealed that substitution of the SiF6 2- ("SIFSIX") inorganic pillar with TiF6 2- ("TIFSIX") or SnF62- ("SNIFSIX") modulated CO2 uptake, CO2 affinity (heat of adsorption, Qst), and selectivity vs. CH4 and N2. TIFSIX-1-Cu and SNIFSIX-1-Cu were calculated to exhibit the highest CO2/N 2

  10. A multidisciplinary approach to the identification and evaluation of novel concepts for deeply buried hardened target defeat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branscome, Ewell Caleb

    penetration rate of about 10 meters/day could be a significant negative factor with regards to possible viability of the concept. Consequently, a survey for potentially enabling technologies was performed using an adaptation of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) approach. It was found that the greatest potential for improving performance of the baseline Thulium-170 RIPTP resulted from increasing overall power density of the penetrator. Several possible technology approaches to achieving significantly increased penetration rates (approximately 50 meters/day expected penetration rate vs. original 13 meters/day) were proposed. However, it was determined that the hypothetical technology having the greatest potential impact on thermal subterrene viability for DHBT defeat with respect to penetration rate was cost-effective enrichment for Ytterbium-168. Development of such a technology would eliminate or enormously reduce the impact of all identified RIPTP performance and producibility concerns. Alternatively, relaxation of the requirement for no radiological hazard to enemy combatants would enable selection of a fissile powered thermal subterrene to provide required power densities consistent with rapid penetration.