Science.gov

Sample records for inclined sag cable

  1. Sagging of evaporating droplets of colloidal suspensions on inclined substrates.

    PubMed

    Espín, Leonardo; Kumar, Satish

    2014-10-14

    A droplet of a colloidal suspension placed on an inclined substrate may sag under the action of gravity. Solvent evaporation raises the concentration of the colloidal particles, and the resulting viscosity changes may influence the sag of the droplet. To investigate this phenomenon, we have developed a mathematical model for perfectly wetting droplets based on lubrication theory and the rapid-vertical-diffusion approximation. Precursor films are assumed to be present, the colloidal particles are taken to be hard spheres, and particle and liquid dynamics are coupled through a concentration-dependent viscosity and diffusivity. Evaporation is assumed to be limited by how rapidly solvent molecules can transfer from the liquid to the vapor phase. The resulting one-dimensional system of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the evolution of the droplet height and particle concentration is solved numerically for a range of initial particle concentrations and substrate temperatures. The solutions reveal that the interaction between evaporation and non-Newtonian suspension rheology gives rise to several distinct regimes of droplet shapes and particle concentration distributions. The results provide insight into how evaporation and suspension rheology can be tuned to minimize sagging as well as the well-known coffee-ring effect, an outcome which is important for industrial coating processes.

  2. 58. VIEW OF CABLE INCLINE, LOCATED ON THE HILLSIDE BELOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF CABLE INCLINE, LOCATED ON THE HILLSIDE BELOW THE FOREBAY (NORTHWEST OF FOREBAY), Print No. 156, August 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  3. Multi-modal vibration amplitudes of taut inclined cables due to direct and/or parametric excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, J. H. G.

    2016-02-01

    Cables are often prone to potentially damaging large amplitude vibrations. The dynamic excitation may be from external loading or motion of the cable ends, the latter including direct excitation, normally from components of end motion transverse to the cable, and parametric excitation induced by axial components of end motion causing dynamic tension variations. Geometric nonlinearity can be important, causing stiffening behaviour and nonlinear modal coupling. Previous analyses of the vibrations, often neglecting sag, have generally dealt with direct and parametric excitation separately or have reverted to numerical solutions of the responses. Here a nonlinear cable model is adopted, applicable to taut cables such as on cable-stayed bridges, that allows for cable inclination, small sag (such that the vibration modes are similar to those of a taut string), multiple modes in both planes and end motion and/or external forcing close to any natural frequency. Based on the method of scaling and averaging it is found that, for sinusoidal inputs and positive damping, non-zero steady state responses can only occur in the modes in each plane with natural frequencies close to the excitation frequency and those with natural frequencies close to half this frequency. Analytical solutions, in the form of non-dimensional polynomial equations, are derived for the steady state vibration amplitudes in up to three modes simultaneously: the directly excited mode, the corresponding nonlinearly coupled mode in the orthogonal plane and a parametrically excited mode with half the natural frequency. The stability of the solutions is also identified. The outputs of the equations are consistent with previous results, where available. Example results from the analytical solutions are presented for a typical inclined bridge cable subject to vertical excitation of the lower end, and they are validated by numerical integration of the equations of motion and against some previous experimental

  4. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  5. Super and Combinatorial Harmonic Response of Flexible Elastic Cables with Small Sag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. R. K.; Kirkegaard, P. H.

    2002-03-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of cables in stayed bridges and TV-towers, where the excitation is caused by harmonically varying in-plane motions of the upper support point with the amplitude U. Such cables are characterized by a sag-to-chord-length ratio below 0.02", which means that the lowest circular eigenfrequencies for in-plane and out-of-plane eigenvibrations, ω1and ω2, are closely separated. The dynamic analysis is performed by a two-degree-of-freedom modal decomposition in the lowest in-plane and out-of-plane eigenmodes. Modal parameters are evaluated based on the eigenmodes for the parabolic approximation to the equilibrium suspension. Superharmonic components of the ordern , supported by the parametric terms of the excitation and the non-linear coupling terms, are registered in the response for circular frequency ω≃ω1/n. At moderate U, the cable response takes place entirely in the static equilibrium plane. At larger amplitudes the in-plane response becomes unstable and a coupled whirling superharmonic component occurs. In the paper a first order perturbation solution to the superharmonic response is performed based on the averaging method. For ω≃(m/n)ω1, m

  6. A unified approach to aerodynamic damping and drag/lift instabilities, and its application to dry inclined cable galloping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, J. H. G.; Larose, G. L.

    2006-02-01

    Inclined cables of cable-stayed bridges often experience large amplitude vibrations. One of the potential excitation mechanisms is dry inclined cable galloping, which has been observed in wind tunnel tests but which has not previously been fully explained theoretically. In this paper, a general expression is derived for the quasi-steady aerodynamic damping (positive or negative) of a cylinder of arbitrary cross-section yawed/inclined to the flow, for small amplitude vibrations in any plane. The expression covers the special cases of conventional quasi-steady aerodynamic damping, Den Hartog galloping and the drag crisis, as well as dry inclined cable galloping. A nondimensional aerodynamic damping parameter governing this behaviour is proposed, which is a function of only the Reynolds number, the angle between the wind velocity and the cable axis, and the orientation of the vibration plane. Measured static force coefficients from wind tunnel tests have been used with the theoretical expression to predict values of this parameter. Two main areas of instability (i.e. negative aerodynamic damping) have been identified, both in the critical Reynolds number region, one of which was previously observed in separate wind tunnel tests on a dynamic cable model. The minimum values of structural damping required to prevent dry inclined cable galloping are defined, and other factors in the behaviour in practice are discussed.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics Analysis for the Taut Inclined Cable Excited by Deck Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, C. Z.; Chen, C. P.

    2017-09-01

    A simple mechanical model is proposed to describe the dynamics system of the taut inclined cable excited by the deck vibration. Using Galerkin method, the dynamics system is simplified into a one-degree of freedom nonlinear system. Average method is used to obtain the average equations and bifurcation equation. Bifurcation maps are obtained and used to reveal the evolution mechanism of period-1 motion to period-2 motion. Several motion forms are discussed and evolution progress between different motions is studied. Several kinds of parametric resonance are revealed in various parameter regions. The conclusions indicate that the parametric resonance excited by the frequency ratio 3:2 is significant should be paid more attention.

  8. Parametrically excited oscillation of stay cable and its control in cable-stayed bridges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing-nan; Wang, Zhi-gang; Ko, J M; Ni, Y Q

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model for simulation and analysis of a kind of parametrically excited vibration of stay cable caused by support motion in cable-stayed bridges. The sag, inclination angle of the stay cable are considered in the model, based on which, the oscillation mechanism and dynamic response characteristics of this kind of vibration are analyzed through numerical calculation. It is noted that parametrically excited oscillation of a stay cable with certain sag, inclination angle and initial static tension force may occur in cable-stayed bridges due to deck vibration under the condition that the natural frequency of a cable approaches to about half of the first model frequency of the bridge deck system. A new vibration control system installed on the cable anchorage is proposed as a possible damping system to suppress the cable parametric oscillation. The numerical calculation results showed that with the use of this damping system, the cable oscillation due to the vibration of the deck and/or towers will be considerably reduced.

  9. Performance enhancement of a rotational energy harvester utilizing wind-induced vibration of an inclined stay cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In-Ho; Jang, Seon-Jun; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an innovative strategy for improving the performance of a recently developed rotational energy harvester is proposed. Its performance can be considerably enhanced by replacing the electromagnetic induction part, consisting of moving permanent magnets and a fixed solenoid coil, with a moving mass and a rotational generator (i.e., an electric motor). The proposed system is easily tuned to the natural frequency of a target structure using the position change of a proof mass. Owing to the high efficiency of the rotational generator, the device can more effectively harness electrical energy from the wind-induced vibration of a stay cable. Also, this new configuration makes the device more compact and geometrically tunable. In order to validate the effectiveness of the new configuration, a series of laboratory and field tests are carried out with the prototype of the proposed device, which is designed and fabricated based on the dynamic characteristics of the vibration of a stay cable installed in an in-service cable-stayed bridge. From the field test, it is observed that the normalized output power of the proposed system is 35.67 mW (m s-2)-2, while that of the original device is just 5.47 mW (m s-2)-2. These results show that the proposed device generates much more electrical energy than the original device. Moreover, it is verified that the proposed device can generate sufficient electricity to power a wireless sensor node placed on a cable under gentle-moderate wind conditions.

  10. Optimization of cable preloading on cable-stayed bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang Cheng; Vlahinos, Andreas S.; Shu, HungShan

    1997-05-01

    Generally, geometric nonlinearities of cable-stayed bridges depend on the behaviors of cables, pylons, the bridge deck and their interactions. These are geometry change, cable sag, and the interactions of axial forces, the bending moment and their deformations in the pylons and bridge deck. Therefore, a large cable-stayed bridges system having a large number of cables can be analyzed under different load conditions. In investigating nonlinear behaviors of cable- stayed bridges, the nonlinear behavior of cables needs to be considered because it may cause the nonlinear behavior of whole bridge system. The nonlinear behavior of a cable gained from its sag. With an increasing axial load, the elongation of the cable is increased but the total cable sag is decreased. Cable-stayed bridge uses cables instead of the internal piers to support the bridge deck. Usually, cable- stayed bridge decks are straight with a little camber compared to the total length of the bridge. Keeping the bridge deck in the position where is the designer desired is not only for bridge aesthetics but also for people on the bridge in terms of psychological effect of improving confidence in structure and engineering considerations. To achieve the serviceability and engineering requirements, preloading of the cable is necessary. In this paper, one such a bridge with geometry similarly to an existing cable- stayed bridge. Quincy Bayview Bridge, located in Illinois, USA, has been considered. Quincy Bayview Bridge has 58 cables in the two planes. Four methods have been considered in this paper to make the optimum selection of cable preloading. The objective is to select appropriate method to determine cable prestrains in order to minimize the deformations and stresses due to dead load of the bridge. Thus, it is not a trivial problem since a change in the prestress of a cable influence the deformation every where in the structure. The best method would be determined by comparing the calculated bending and

  11. Angiographic features of "brain sag".

    PubMed

    Alaraj, Ali; Munson, Troy; Herrera, Sebastian R; Aletich, Victor; Charbel, Fady T; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh

    2011-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid hypotension, or "brain sag," is a recently described phenomenon most commonly seen following craniotomy for the clipping of ruptured aneurysms along with preoperative lumbar drain placement. The clinical features and CT findings have been previously described. Clinical presentation can be similar to and often mistaken for cerebral vasospasm. In this study, the authors report on the angiographic findings in patients with brain sag. Five cases of brain sag were diagnosed (range 1-4 days) after the surgical treatment of ruptured aneurysms at the University of Illinois at Chicago. All patients met the clinical and CT criteria for brain sag. Admission cerebral angiograms and subsequent angiograms during symptoms of brain sag were obtained in all patients. In 3 patients, angiography was performed after the resolution of symptoms. In all 5 patients, the level of the basilar artery apex was displaced inferiorly with respect to the posterior clinoid processes during brain sag. This displacement was significant enough to create a noticeable kink in the basilar artery ("cobra sign") in 3 patients. Other angiographic findings included foreshortening or kinking of the intracranial vertebral artery. In all patients, the posterior cerebral arteries were displaced medially and inferiorly. Three patients were treated for simultaneous severe radiological vasospasm. In 4 patients, the brain sag was recognized, and the patients' conditions improved when they were placed flat or in the Trendelenburg position, at times combined with an epidural blood patch. Patients with follow-up angiography studies after the symptoms had resolved displayed a reversal of the angiographic features. Brain sag appears to be associated with characteristic angiographic features. Recognizing these features may help to diagnose brain sag as the cause of neurological deterioration in this patient population.

  12. 85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ARE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE CABLE LEAVING THE POWER HOUSE. THIS CABLE IS ATTATCHED TO A DRUM ON THE INSIDE THE POWER HOUSE WHICH IS TURNED BY MEANS OF A WATER POWERED TURBINE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  13. Oxygen Sag and Stream Purification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry; Herwig, Roy

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality related to oxygen sag and stream purification, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) self-purification models; (2) oxygen demand; and (3) reaeration and oxygen transfer. A list of 60 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Oxygen Sag and Stream Purification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry; Herwig, Roy

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality related to oxygen sag and stream purification, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) self-purification models; (2) oxygen demand; and (3) reaeration and oxygen transfer. A list of 60 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. 3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View some what similar to that of NJ-30-2. Stone track bed is visible under cable system of NJ-30-2. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 10 West, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  16. On the Origin of Cratonic Sag Basins: Did They Sag?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-04-01

    Cratonic sag basins are regions of long-lived, extremely slow (~20-30 m/Myr) shallow water and terrestrial sediment accumulation that have no striking signs of tectonic activity (cf. Allen and Armitage, 2012). In their evolution, hundreds of Myr-long periods of slow sediment accumulation are separated by unconformities. The mechanisms for their formation resist geodynamic characterization by other common hypotheses for basin subsidence because of their extremely slow subsidence and lack of evident tectonic activity. I propose their dynamics are better understood within the geodynamic context of continental cratons that ride over a ~250km-deep sub-asthenospheric mantle with lateral temperature variations between a few wide and persistent 1000s-km broad ~1400C 'superplume' upwelling mantle structures (e.g. currently beneath S. African Atlantic and French Polynesia) and prevalent surrounding ~1150C average temperature sub-asthenospheric mantle. When continents pass over typical mantle plumes, buoyant plume material tends to drain beneath the continent along junctions between cratons where the lithosphere is relatively thin, keeping the lithosphere over regions where plume material drains hotter than the average temperature of ~250km-deep mantle. (e.g., the Cameroon Line.) Regions where melting of plume material occurs during decompression associated with either plume ascent or lateral drainage beneath continents are associated with the addition of a buoyant rind of more depleted mantle to the continent. In addition, regions where plume material can pond in a relatively thin sub-lithospheric 'anti-basin' beneath a continent, or that stay stationary for long times over super plumes will heat to a lithospheric basal temperature of ~1400C instead of ~1150C, with ~700m of associated uplift. (e.g., Southern Africa). In this scenario (cf. Yamamoto, Morgan, and Morgan in "Plumes, Plates, and Paradigms"), it is the relative plume-passage-induced uplift of arches between

  17. Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) presents a brief description of cable television and explains some basic regulations pertaining to it. The history of cable regulation covers the initial jurisdiction, economic considerations of the regulation, court tests, and the holding of public hearings. The major provisions of new cable rules are…

  18. Superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank; Marzahn, Erik

    2010-05-04

    A superconductor cable is described, having a superconductive flexible cable core (1) , which is laid in a cryostat (2, 3, 4), in which the cable core (1) runs in the cryostat (2, 3, 4) in the form of a wave or helix at room temperature.

  19. Cable Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    A guide to the economic factors that influence cable television systems is presented. Designed for local officials who must have some familiarity with cable operations in order to make optimum decisions, the guide analyzes the financial framework of a cable system, not only from the operators viewpoint, but also from the perspective of the…

  20. Cable compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J.; Eklund, W.; Burkhardt, R.; Rossoni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the handicapped and the elderly. These included work stations, walkers, prosthetic knee joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. More than half of these objects were met, and models were made and studies completed on most of the others. It was concluded that the many different and versatile solutions obtained only opened the door to many future challenges.

  1. Bridge stay cable condition assessment using vibration measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Mehrabi, Armin B.; Yen, Wen-huei P.

    1998-03-01

    In this paper, results of a research project sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on a non-destructive method for measurement of stay cable forces in cable-stayed bridges are presented. This project included development and verification of specific analytical and experimental procedures for measurement of stay cable forces. In one set of procedures, a single laser vibrometer is used to measure low- level cable vibrations due to ambient (wind and traffic) excitation. The laser device allows rapid measurement of cable vibrations at distances of up to several hundred feet. Procedures are also developed for utilization of accelerometers attached to cables. Contact sensors are more appropriate when long-term remote monitoring is desired. Measured natural frequencies of vibration are related to cable tension through a mathematical formulation developed during the course of this study. This formulation includes the effects of cable sag-extensibility, bending stiffness, various boundary conditions, intermediate springs or dampers, etc. This method can also be used during construction in lieu of the 'lift off' method. The accuracy and effectiveness of this methodology was tested in the laboratory on a scaled model of a cable, and on two cable-stayed bridges. This ability to rapidly measure stay cable forces provides an opportunity for global condition assessment of these major structures.

  2. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai; Shu, De-ming; Li, Aiguo

    2017-05-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  3. Controlling barite sag can reduce drilling problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, M.; Jefferson, D. )

    1994-02-14

    A new method for tracking drilling fluid density variations helps detect barite sag, which may contribute to drilling problems. The method is based in part on continuously measuring fluid density during the first circulation after the fluid has been static for some time. In deviated wells or wells with weighted fluids, barite sag has aggravated or caused drilling problems such as lost circulation, stuck pipe, high torque and drag, poor cement jobs, logging difficulties, and well-control difficulties. Sag is defined as a significant variation in mud density measured during the first bottoms-up circulation after a weighted mud has remained static for some time in a directional well. The density variations are caused in part by slumping of beds formed when weight material settles to the low side of the hole. Furthermore, the bed formation occurs while the fluid is circulating and not just during static conditions. The paper discusses the following: sag mechanisms, complex flow, field measurements, laboratory studies, sag index, and minimizing sag.

  4. Superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE

    2009-12-15

    A superconductor cable includes a superconductive cable core (1) and a cryostat (2) enclosing the same. The cable core (1) has a superconductive conductor (3), an insulation (4) surrounding the same and a shielding (5) surrounding the insulation (4). A layer (3b) of a dielectric or semiconducting material is applied to a central element (3a) formed from a normally conducting material as a strand or tube and a layer (3c) of at least one wire or strip of superconductive material is placed helically on top. The central element (3a) and the layer (3c) are connected to each other in an electrically conducting manner at the ends of the cable core (1).

  5. Venus - Sag Caldera Sachs Patera

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-20

    This image from NASA Magellan spacecraft is of Sachs Patera on Venus, centered at 49 degrees north, 334 degrees east. Defined as a sag-caldera, Sachs is an elliptical depression 130 meters (81 feet) in depth, spanning 40 kilometers (25 miles) in width along its longest axis. The morphology implies that a chamber of molten material drained and collapsed, forming a depression surrounded by concentric scarps spaced 2-to-5 kilometers (1.2- to-3 miles) apart. The arc-shaped set of scarps, extending out to the north from the prominent ellipse, is evidence for a separate episode of withdrawal; the small lobe-shaped extension to the southwest may represent an additional event. Solidified lava flows 10-to-25 kilometers (6-to-16 miles) long, give the caldera its flower-like appearance. The flows are a lighter tone of gray in the radar data because the lava is blockier in texture and consequently returns more radar waves. Much of the lava, which was evacuated from the chamber, probably traveled to other locations underground, while some of it may have surfaced further south. This is unlike calderas on Earth, where a rim of lava builds up in the immediate vicinity of the caldera. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00473

  6. Venus - Sag Caldera 'Sachs Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This image of Sachs Patera on Venus is centered at 49 degrees north, 334 degrees east. Defined as a sag-caldera, Sachs is an elliptical depression 130 meters (81 feet) in depth, spanning 40 kilometers (25 miles) in width along its longest axis. The morphology implies that a chamber of molten material drained and collapsed, forming a depression surrounded by concentric scarps spaced 2-to-5 kilometers (1.2- to-3 miles) apart. The arc-shaped set of scarps, extending out to the north from the prominent ellipse, is evidence for a separate episode of withdrawal; the small lobe-shaped extension to the southwest may represent an additional event. Solidified lava flows 10-to-25 kilometers (6-to-16 miles) long, give the caldera its flower-like appearance. The flows are a lighter tone of gray in the radar data because the lava is blockier in texture and consequently returns more radar waves. Much of the lava, which was evacuated from the chamber, probably traveled to other locations underground, while some of it may have surfaced further south. This is unlike calderas on Earth, where a rim of lava builds up in the immediate vicinity of the caldera.

  7. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  8. Cable tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammage, Robert L.

    1990-10-01

    A device for sequentially testing the plurality of connectors in a wiring harness is disclosed. The harness is attached to the tester by means of adapter cables and a rotary switch is used to sequentially, individually test the connectors by passing a current through the connector. If the connector is unbroken, a light will flash to show it is electrically sound. The adapters allow a large number of cable configurations to be tested using a single tester configuration.

  9. Comparison of SAGS I vs. SAGS II delivery systems in emerging implantation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despres, Joseph; Sweeney, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    The International Fire Code has classified Subatmospheric Gas Delivery Systems (SAGS) technologies into two main categories: SAGS Type I and SAGS Type II systems. SAGS Type I delivery systems both store and deliver gases at subatmospheric pressures. An example of this technology is ATMI's Safe Delivery Source (SDS®) adsorbent based cylinder. SAGS Type II delivery systems store fluids at high pressure and utilize mechanical devices internal to the cylinder to deliver the gas at subatmospheric pressures. Typical mechanical devices used to enable subatmospheric delivery are either set point regulators or mechanical capillary based systems. This paper focuses on how these delivery systems perform against the unique requirements of traditional beam line ion implantation as well as solar and flat panel applications. Specifically, data are provided showing the capability of these systems with respect to flow rate, residual gas left within the cylinder, and cylinder end-point flow and delivery pressure dynamics.

  10. Inclined Levitron experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Max M.

    2012-11-01

    An inclined Levitron demonstration serves to illustrate macroscopically the basic non-quantum mechanical principle of nuclear magnetic resonance. By tuning a "rotary driver" to either the precession or the nutation frequency, the levitated top is made to precess or nutate visibly. By reflecting the beam from a laser-pointer off the Levitron, cycloidal pictures of the induced motion are obtained. Steady inclination at a steep angle is demonstrated in contrast to rotating inclination. Levitron traps are analogous to particle traps. Inclined or horizontal axis operation could lead to nearly frictionless bearings.

  11. Voltage sag analysis peaks customer service

    SciTech Connect

    Steciuk, P.B.; Redmon, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Voltage sags are momentary dips in voltage that may cause misoperations to the utility customers` sensitive loads. These misoperations may only be an annoyance to the residential sector, but, on the industrial and commercial front, they can cost millions of dollars each year. This cost can and probably will negatively affect electric utilities in the evolving competitive market as utility customers look for alternate suppliers of electric power. Voltage sags are usually caused by remote power system faults associated with equipment failures or temporary faults caused by lightning, animals, or other acts of nature. It is impossible to eliminate all of these faults and associated voltage sags, but an improvement can be achieved through system modifications on both the utility system and the industrial or commercial power system. The evaluation of these system modifications was difficult in the past, but a voltage sag analysis program developed by Power Technologies, Inc. (PTI) has simplified the task. The program uses methodologies developed for the update of the IEEE Gold Book (IEEE Standard 493, Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power Systems). The results of this sag analysis program form the basis of possible future cost-benefit analysis enabling utilities and utility customers to make the most economic system modification.

  12. Theoretical and experimental study of vibration suppression for stayed cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shieh-Kung; Lin, Pei-Yang; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a numerical model of a stay cable interacted with deck, and to examine the vibration suppression technique of the stayed cable subject to external loading. First, a numerical model based on the finite difference method and the finite element method has been developed to simulate the effects of the bending stiffness and its sag-extensibility characteristics of the cable. Accurate vibration mode shapes and modal frequency of the interaction between stay cable and deck are examined. For the vibration control of cable, a MR-damper is used as control device. This damper can be achieved either through the passive control strategy or the semi-active control strategy employing decentralized sliding mode control (DSMC) and maximum energy dissipation (MED) on the staycable. To verify this study, a scaled-down cable structure is designed and constructed in NCREE, Taiwan. A small shaker is designed and mounted onto the cable to generate the sinusoid excitation with different amplitudes and frequencies. Dynamic characteristics of the cable-deck system are identified and the system model is developed for control purpose. The DSMC algorithm using MR damper was studied to reduce the cable vibration under different excitation frequencies.

  13. Geology of interior cratonic sag basins

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, M.W.; Eidel, J.J.; Kolata, D.R.; Oltz, D.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Interior cratonic sag basins are thick accumulations of sediment, generally more or less oval in shape, located entirely in the interiors of continental masses. Some are single-cycle basins and others are characterized by repeated sag cycles or are complex polyhistory basins. Many appear to have developed over ancient rift systems. Interior cratonic sag basins are typified by a dominance of flexural over fault-controlled subsidence, and a low ratio of sediment volume to surface area of the basin. The Baltic, Carpentaria, Illinois, Michigan, Parana, Paris, and Williston basins are examples of interior cratonic sag basins. Tectonics played a dominant role in controlling the shapes and the geometries of the juxtaposed packets of sedimentary sequences. While the mechanics of tectonic control are not clear, evidence suggests that the movements are apparently related to convergence of lithospheric plates and collision and breakup of continents. Whatever the cause, tectonic movements controlled the freeboard of continents, altering base level and initiating new tectono-sedimentologic regimes. Sag basins situated in low latitudes during their development commonly were sites of thick carbonates (e.g., Illinois, Michigan, Williston, and Paris basins). In contrast, siliciclastic sedimentation characterized basins that formed in higher latitudes (e.g., Parana and Carpentaria basins). Highly productive sag basins are characterized by widespread, mature, organic-rich source rocks, large structures, and good seals. Nonproductive basins have one or more of the following characteristics: immature source rocks, leaky plumbing, freshwater flushing, and/or complex geology due to numerous intrusions that inhibit mapping of plays.

  14. Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

  15. Superconducting Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-07-22

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  16. Superconducting Cable

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-03-08

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  17. CABLE CONNECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Caller, J.M.

    1962-05-01

    An electrical connector is designed for utilization in connection with either round or flat coaxial cables. The connector comprises a bayonet-type coupling arrangement with a splined movable locking sleeve adapted to lock together components of the connector. A compression spring is attached to one of the connector components and functions to forcibly separate mating components when the locking sleeve is in an unlocked condition so as to minimize the possibility of leaving the conductors electrically coupled. (AEC)

  18. Superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Darrell F.; Lake, Bill L.; Ballinger, Ronald G.

    1988-01-01

    A superconducting cable comprising an in-situ-formed type II superconductor, e.g. Nb.sub.3 Sn, in association with a stabilizing conductor both in heat transfer relationship with at least one passage adapted to carry liquified gaseous refrigerant. The conductor and said at least one passage are enclosed by a sheath comprising an alloy consisting essentially of about 49% nickel, about 4% chromium, about 3% niobium, about 1.4% titanium, about 1% aluminum, balance essentially iron.

  19. The influence of motor reacceleration on voltage sags

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, M.H.J.

    1995-07-01

    The assumption that a voltage sag is rectangular is not correct in a system with large induction motor loads. The motors decelerate during the short circuit. After fault-clearing they will accelerate again, drawing a high reactive current from the supply, causing a prolonged postfault voltage sag. This is aggravated by the removal of branches by the protection. The resulting shape of some voltage sags in an example system is shown and discussed. For the example system, a stochastic voltage sag table is determined. This table gives the expected number of sags of different depth and duration. The influence of faster protection and o reduced transformer impedance on the table is presented. A simple motor model is implemented in a method for including interruptions due to voltage sags in the reliability analysis of power systems. This model is presented briefly and used to show the influence of motor parameters on the number of sags that lead to an interruption of plant operation.

  20. CK2 phosphorylation of SAG at Thr10 regulates SAG stability, but not its E3 ligase activity.

    PubMed

    He, Hongbin; Tan, Mingjia; Pamarthy, Deepika; Wang, Guixia; Ahmed, Khalil; Sun, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene (SAG), a RING component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase, was shown to be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 at the Thr10 residue. It is, however, unknown whether this phosphorylation is stress-responsive or whether the phosphorylation changes its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. To address these, we made a specific antibody against the phosphor-SAG(Thr10). Transient transfection experiment showed that SAG was phosphorylated at Thr10 which can be significantly inhibited by TBB, a relatively specific inhibitor of protein kinase CK2. To determine whether this SAG phosphorylation is stress-responsive, we defined a chemical-hypoxia condition in which SAG and CK2 were both induced. Under this condition, we failed to detect SAG phosphorylation at Thr10, which was readily detected, however, in the presence of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that the phosphorylated SAG has undergone a rapid degradation. To further define this, we made two SAG mutants, SAG-T10A which abolishes the SAG phosphorylation and SAG-T10E, which mimics the constitutive SAG phosphorylation. The half-life study revealed that indeed, SAG-T10E has a much shorter protein half-life (2 h), as compared to wild-type SAG (10 h). Again, rapid degradation of SAG-T10E in cells can be blocked by MG132. Thus, it appears that CK2-induced SAG phosphorylation at Thr10 regulates its stability through a proteasome-dependent pathway. Immunocytochemistry study showed that SAG as well as its phosphorylation mutants, was mainly localized in nucleus and lightly in cytoplasm. Hypoxia condition did not change their sub-cellular localization. Finally, an in vitro ubiqutination assay showed that SAG mutation at Thr10 did not change its E3 ligase activity when complexed with cullin-1. These studies suggested that CK2 might regulate SAG-SCF E3 ligase activity through modulating SAG's stability, rather than its enzymatic activity directly.

  1. An Estimation Method of System Voltage Sag Profile using Recorded Sag Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Sakashita, Tadashi

    The influence of voltage sag to electric equipment has become big issues because of wider utilization of voltage sensitive devices. In order to reduce the influence of voltage sag appearing at each customer side, it is necessary to recognize the level of receiving voltage drop due to lightning faults for transmission line. However it is hard to measure directly those sag level at every load node. In this report, a new method of efficiently estimating system voltage sag profile is proposed based on symmetrical coordinate. In the proposed method, limited recorded sag data is used as the estimation condition which is recorded at each substation in power systems. From the point of view that the number of the recorded node is generally far less than those of the transmission route, a fast solution method is developed to calculate only recorder faulted voltage by applying reciprocity theorem for Y matrix. Furthermore, effective screening process is incorporated, in which the limited candidate of faulted transmission line can be chosen. Demonstrative results are presented using the IEEJ East10 standard system and actual 1700 bus system. The results show that estimation accuracy is sufficiently acceptable under less computation labor.

  2. Source rock maturation, San Juan sag

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.; Clayton, J.L.

    1989-09-01

    Kinetic modeling for thermal histories was simulated for seven wells in the San Juan sag honoring measured geochemical data. Wells in the area of Del Norte field (Sec. 9, T40N, R5E), where minor production has been established from an igneous sill reservoir, show that the Mancos Shale source rocks are in the mature oil generation window as a combined result of high regional heat flow and burial by approximately 2,700 m of Oligocene volcanic rocks. Maturation was relatively recent for this area and insignificant during Laramide subsidence. In the vicinity of Gramps field (Sec. 24, T33N, R2E) on the southwest flank of the San Juan sag, these same source rocks are exposed due to erosion of the volcanic cover but appear to have undergone a similar maturation history. At the north and south margins of the sag, two wells (Champlin 34A-13, Sec. 13, T35N, R4.5E; and Champlin 24A-1, Sec. 1, T44N, R5E) were analyzed and revealed that although the regional heat flow was probably similar to other wells, the depth of burial was insufficient to cause maturation (except where intruded by thick igneous sills that caused localized maturation). The Meridian Oil 23-17 South Fork well (Sec. 17, T39N, R4E) was drilled in a deeper part of the San Juan sag, and source rocks were intruded by numerous igneous sills creating a complex maturation history that includes overmature rocks in the lowermost Mancos Shale, possible CO{sub 2} generation from the calcareous Niobrara Member of the Mancos Shale, and mature source rocks in the upper Mancos Shale.

  3. The sagging rope sign: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N M; Harrison, M H; Keret, D

    1983-05-01

    Certain features of the sagging rope sign recently analysed by Apley and Weintroub (1981) are examined in detail. Evidence is presented to show that the line is a radiological shadow cast by the lateral edge of a severely deformed femoral head rather than a condensation of the spongiosa within the neck. An explanation is offered to explain the common association of the presence of this radiological sign with premature epiphysial fusion.

  4. Cable Television Service; Cable Television Relay Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) concerning cable television service and cable relay service are presented along with the comments of the National Cable Television Association, the National Association of Broadcasters, the Association of Maximum Service Telecasters, and a major group of program suppliers.…

  5. Cable Television Service; Cable Television Relay Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) concerning cable television service and cable relay service are presented along with the comments of the National Cable Television Association, the National Association of Broadcasters, the Association of Maximum Service Telecasters, and a major group of program suppliers.…

  6. Monitoring of barite sag important in deviated drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Saasen, A.; Marken, C.; Sterri, N. ); Jakobsen, J. )

    1991-08-26

    Very low shear rate and oscillation rheometry techniques provide insight into the properties of drilling fluids that are associated with barite sag observed during drilling operations. This paper provides detailed study of the rheological behavior of four field muds completed with a controlled-stress rheometer. The techniques verified that detailed rheological studies of muds are needed to explain barite sag. Barite sag can be the source of severe drilling and well control problems during the drilling of deviated wells. In a deviated well this phenomenon results from the gravitationally induced settling of the barite to form either a density gradient or a barite sedimentation bed. Barite sag results if the rheological properties of the drilling fluid are inadequate to keep the weighting agent suspended. Improved rheological characterization of drilling fluids leads to a better understanding of barite sag and to the improvement of fluid properties that prevent sag.

  7. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  8. Seismic cable compass system

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, E.C.

    1984-11-06

    An apparatus for determining the azimuthal direction of a marine streamer cable at selected points along the cable. The apparatus comprises a pod that is clamped to the cable and contains a gimbaled magnetic compass and mean for establishing two-way communication between the pod and the cable.

  9. Flat-cable fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, K. J.

    1982-11-01

    Processes, environment, designs, and materials were reviewed to lower the attrition rate and improve the manufacturing ability of flat, flexible cables. Attrition caused by foreign material, damage, and dents was lowered. A new termination was developed for two cables. An alternative design for Kapton insulated cables reduced notch sensitivity. Alternative methods of cable manufacturing and inspection are investigated.

  10. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  11. Investigation into the impact of couch sag on delivered dose.

    PubMed

    Arts, J K; Bailey, M J; Bannister, K; Lee, M; Holloway, L

    2006-09-01

    The effect of couch sag on treatment delivery accuracy has been investigated by modelling the variation of delivered dose from planned dose due to the difference between the treatment and simulation couches. The couch sag of the Siemens (Concord, USA) Primus linac was determined relative to the couch sag of the Siemens (Germany) Sensation 4 CT Scanner. A phantom planning study was then undertaken to evaluate the likely clinical impact of the couch sag through an evaluation of changes in dose distribution, dose volume histograms and monitor units. The couch sag was simulated by altering the angle of the CT gantry when obtaining image studysets. A second investigation into the effects of couch sag was undertaken using an existing patient CT studyset. For this investigation, the couch sag was simulated by appropriate rotation of the gantry and collimator angles. The effect of couch sag on calculated monitor units (MU) was found to be statistically insignificant. The small monitor unit changes observed were likely to result from differences in the average linear attenuation coefficient along the beam path to the isocentre. The major differences seen however were in the regions away from the central axis. The dose volume histograms showed that both the bladder and rectum were further spared with increasing tilt angle whilst the PTV dose was unchanged. The only issue at South West Sydney Cancer Services (SWSCS) in terms of patient position variation arises from the angle induced by the couch sag (or more precisely, the difference in couch sag angle between the CT and Linac couches). Due to the relatively uniform structures (of PTV, bladder and rectum), and the proximity of these critical structures to the isocentre, this angular rotation about the isocentre did not cause any major variations to the DVH, MU and isodoses for realistic levels of couch sag (i.e. less than 20mm).

  12. Electric Double-Layer Capacitors Applying to Voltage Sag Compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Hidetaka

    Recently the electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) which is rapidly charged and discharged and offers long life, maintenance-free, has been developed as a new energy storage element. Therefore, we developed the uninterruptible power supply as voltage sag compensator utilizing EDLC. This paper describes an abstract of EDLC and applying to voltage sag compensation.

  13. Effect of pipe sags on wastewater collection system performance.

    PubMed

    Sever, V Firat; Foust, Henry

    2011-04-01

    Sagging of pipelines is a common problem in centralized wastewater collection systems. Wastewater flowing through sags experiences several changes of slope, and the flow through flat and negative slope sections is prone to a significant reduction in mean velocity. The objective of this study is to determine when pipe sags would result in significant velocities below design conditions, which also would increase the risk of a sewer backup. A sagged pipe configuration that could be encountered in sanitary sewer systems was depicted; thereby, analyses on uniform and gradually varied flows were conducted to determine velocity profiles through different segments of the sagged pipeline setup used for the study. The results indicate that there are significant occurrences when either the velocity in the pipe sags goes below minimum, as recommended in the Ten States Standards (Health Research, Inc., 2004) (0.61 m/s [2.0 ft/ sec]), or flow depth rises to pipe diameter (full section flow). Additionally, velocities along a sagged pipe were calculated for temporal flow rates to account for daily and seasonal flow rate changes in a typical wastewater collection system. Results of the temporal flow rate analysis suggest that, for a 200-mm (8-in.) diameter sagged pipe segment with full-section (wet weather) flow, 75% of the mean velocities would be below the minimum velocity recommended as a Ten States Standard.

  14. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-02-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets.

  15. Evaporation of inclined water droplets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-02-16

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets.

  16. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  17. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    PubMed Central

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  18. Bidispersive-inclined convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsaperla, Paolo; Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian

    2016-08-01

    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068-3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only.

  19. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  20. SnSAG5 is an alternative surface antigen of Sarcocystis neurona strains that is mutually exclusive to SnSAG1.

    PubMed

    Crowdus, Carolyn A; Marsh, Antoinette E; Saville, Willliam J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-11-25

    Sarcocystis neurona is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Previous work has identified a gene family of paralogous surface antigens in S. neurona called SnSAGs. These surface proteins are immunogenic in their host animals, and are therefore candidate molecules for development of diagnostics and vaccines. However, SnSAG diversity exists in strains of S. neurona, including the absence of the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1. Instead, sequence for an alternative SnSAG has been revealed in two of the SnSAG1-deficient strains. Herein, we present data characterizing this new surface protein, which we have designated SnSAG5. The results indicated that the protein encoded by the SnSAG5 sequence is indeed a surface-associated molecule that has characteristics consistent with the other SAGs identified in S. neurona and related parasites. Importantly, Western blot analyses of a collection of S. neurona strains demonstrated that 6 of 13 parasite isolates express SnSAG5 as a dominant surface protein instead of SnSAG1. Conversely, SnSAG5 was not detected in SnSAG1-positive strains. One strain, which was isolated from the brain of a sea otter, did not express either SnSAG1 or SnSAG5. Genetic analysis with SnSAG5-specific primers confirmed the presence of the SnSAG5 gene in Western blot-positive strains, while also suggesting the presence of a novel SnSAG sequence in the SnSAG1-deficient, SnSAG5-deficient otter isolate. The findings provide further indication of S. neurona strain diversity, which has implications for diagnostic testing and development of vaccines against EPM as well as the population biology of Sarcocystis cycling in the opossum definitive host.

  1. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  2. Inclined, collisional sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzi, Diego; Fraccarollo, Luigi

    2013-10-01

    We apply the constitutive relations of kinetic theory of granular gases to the transport of cohesionless sediments driven by a gravitational liquid turbulent stream in steady uniform conditions. The sediment-laden flow forms self-equilibrated mechanisms of resistance at the bed surface, below which the sediments are at rest. This geo-physical process takes place quite often in streams at moderate slope and may be interpreted through tools common to fluid mechanics and particle physics. Taking into account the viscous dissipation of the fluctuation energy of the particles, and using approximate methods of integration of the governing differential equations, permit to obtain a set of simple formulas for predicting how depths and flow rates adjust to the angle of inclination of the bed, without requiring additional tuning parameters besides the particle and fluid properties. The agreement with laboratory experiments performed with either plastic cylinders or gravel in water is remarkable. We also provide quantitative criteria to determine the range of validity of the theory, i.e., the values of the Shields number and the angle of inclination of the bed for which the particle stresses can be mostly ascribed to collisional exchange of momentum.

  3. Cutting Edge Cable Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Describes how one school district was able to efficiently install fragile telecommunication cabling throughout its high school and save thousands of dollars. Discusses solutions to some common cable-management problems. (GR)

  4. Cutting Edge Cable Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Describes how one school district was able to efficiently install fragile telecommunication cabling throughout its high school and save thousands of dollars. Discusses solutions to some common cable-management problems. (GR)

  5. Modeling and analysis of the in-plane vibration of a complex cable-stayed bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, D. Q.; Song, M. T.; Zhu, W. D.; Tucker, R. W.; Wang, C. H.-T.

    2012-12-01

    The in-plane vibration of a complex cable-stayed bridge that consists of a simply-supported four-cable-stayed deck beam and two rigid towers is studied. The nonlinear and linear partial differential equations that govern transverse and longitudinal vibrations of the cables and transverse vibrations of segments of the deck beam, respectively, are derived, along with their boundary and matching conditions. The undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes of the linearized model of the cable-stayed bridge are determined, and orthogonality relations of the mode shapes are established. Numerical analysis of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-stayed bridge is conducted for various symmetrical and non-symmetrical bridge cases with regards to the sizes of the components of the bridge and the initial sags of the cables. The results show that there are very close natural frequencies when the bridge model is symmetrical and/or partially symmetrical, and the mode shapes tend to be more localized when the bridge model is less symmetrical. The relationships between the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-stayed bridge and those of a single fixed-fixed cable and the single simply-supported deck beam are analyzed. The results, which are validated by commercial finite element software, demonstrate some complex classical resonance behavior of the cable-stayed bridge.

  6. A three-phase sag generator for testing industrial equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.R. Jr.; Morgan, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A diesel powered three-phase standby 480V, 15kW, 60Hz synchronous generator has been modified to give controlled three-phase voltage sags. These sags can be controlled in both depth and duration. A 486-based computer with a data acquisition system controls the generator and monitors the system under test. The custom software interface allows the user to select the depth and duration of the each sag. Typically, the user will select a series of sags in selectable increments down to a certain depth. The data acquisition system has both digital and analog inputs, so that data lines, ac and dc voltages and currents, contactors and relays, etc. can be monitored during the tests. The software interface enables the user to select allowable tolerance bands for the monitored signals. If one or more of the signals falls outside the allowable range, the test is suspended. The sag depth and duration that caused the equipment to fail the test is then recorded. After testing over a range of sag durations, a CBEMA-type curve is available for the system under test. The sag generator enables the user to systematically determine the sensitivity of the components of an installed process line. This will enable the user to determine cost-effective ride-through enhancement strategies or to test the effectiveness of currently installed equipment. Although this test generator is small, the basic concept can be scaled up to the 2MVA range.

  7. Vertex Detector Cable Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, William E.; /Fermilab

    2009-02-01

    Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, 'pulsed power' is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

  8. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1996-12-10

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

  9. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1996-01-01

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made.

  10. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  11. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  12. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  13. Cable Library Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Service Satellite Consortium, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes a survey of 198 libraries which had been identified as potential cable libraries which assessed: (1) to what extent a national satellite cable library network might already be in technical existence, (2) how many libraries are connected to cooperative cable companies with satellite hardware and excess receiver capacity, and…

  14. Characteristics of an Airfoil as Affected by Fabric Sag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kenneth E

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests made at a high value of the Reynolds Number in the N.A.C.A. variable-density wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil as affected by fabric sag. Tests were made of two Gottingen 387 airfoils, one having the usual smooth surface and the other having a surface modified to simulate two types of fabric sag. The results of these tests indicate that the usual sagging of the wind covering between ribs has a very small effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil.

  15. Apparatus and method for analyzing well fluid sag

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, D.E.; Clements, W.R.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of analyzing sag phenomena in well fluids. It comprises: mounting an elongate container containing a sample of a fluid to be tested on a force responsive device which provides a measurable, variable indication of the center of mass of the container, at an angle with respect to vertical; holding the angle generally constant, but for small movements corresponding to changes in the center of mass of the container due to sagging of the contents of the sample, for a period of time sufficient for such sagging to occur, and measuring the indication.

  16. Co-administration of glycyrrhizic acid with the antileishmanial drug sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) cures SAG-resistant visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharyya; Choudhuri, Soumitra Kumar; Roy, Syamal; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-03-01

    Since there are very few affordable antileishmanial drugs available, antimonial resistance has crippled antileishmanial therapy, thereby emphasising the need for development of novel therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the antileishmanial role of combined therapy with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and the triterpenoid glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against infection with SAG-resistant Leishmania (GE1F8R). Combination therapy with GA and SAG successfully limited infection with SAG-resistant Leishmania in a synergistic manner (fractional inhibitory concentration index <1.0). At the same time, mice infected with SAG-resistant Leishmania and co-treated with GA and SAG exhibited a significant reduction in hepatic and splenic parasite burden. In probing the mechanism, it was observed that GA treatment suppressed the expression and efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), two host ABC transporters responsible for antimony efflux from host cells infected with SAG-resistant parasites. This suppression correlated with greater intracellular antimony retention during SAG therapy both in vitro and in vivo, which was reflected in the reduced parasite load. Furthermore, co-administration of GA and SAG induced a shift in the cytokine balance towards a Th1 phenotype by augmenting pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα) and inducing nitric oxide generation in GE1F8R-infected macrophages as well as GE1F8R-infected mice. This study aims to provide an affordable leishmanicidal alternative to expensive antileishmanial drugs such as miltefosine and amphotericin B. Furthermore, this report explores the role of GA as a resistance modulator in MRP1- and P-gp-overexpressing conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Divide and conquer: the Pseudomonas aeruginosa two-component hybrid SagS enables biofilm formation and recalcitrance of biofilm cells to antimicrobial agents via distinct regulatory circuits.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Olga E; Gupta, Kajal; Liao, Julie; Goodwine, James S; Sauer, Karin

    2017-05-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms antimicrobial resistant biofilms through sequential steps requiring several two-component regulatory systems. The sensor-regulator hybrid SagS plays a central role in biofilm development by enabling the switch from the planktonic to the biofilm mode of growth, and by facilitating the transition of biofilm cells to a highly tolerant state. However, the mechanism by which SagS accomplishes both functions is unknown. SagS harbours a periplasmic sensory HmsP, and phosphorelay HisKA and Rec domains. SagS domain was used as constructs and site-directed mutagenesis to elucidate how SagS performs its dual functions. It was demonstrated that HisKA-Rec and the phospho-signalling between SagS and BfiS contribute to the switch to the biofilm mode of growth, but not to the tolerant state. Instead, expression of SagS domain constructs harbouring HmsP rendered ΔsagS biofilm cells as recalcitrant to antimicrobial agents as wild-type biofilms, likely by restoring BrlR production and cellular c-di-GMP levels to wild-type levels. Restoration of biofilm tolerance by HmsP was independent of biofilm biomass accumulation, RsmA, RsmYZ, HptB and BfiSR-downstream targets. Our findings thus suggest that SagS likely makes use of a "divide-and-conquer" mechanism to regulate its dual switch function, by activating two distinct regulatory networks via its individual domains. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Antimicrobial Tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Is Activated during an Early Developmental Stage and Requires the Two-Component Hybrid SagS

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kajal; Marques, Cláudia N. H.; Petrova, Olga E.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark characteristic of biofilms is their extraordinary tolerance to antimicrobial agents. While multiple factors are thought to contribute to the high level of antimicrobial tolerance of biofilms, little is known about the timing of induction of biofilm tolerance. Here, we asked when over the course of their development do biofilms gain their tolerance to antimicrobial agents? We demonstrate that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm tolerance is linked to biofilm development, with transition to the irreversible attachment stage regulated by the two-component hybrid SagS, marking the timing when biofilms switch to the high-level tolerance phenotype. Inactivation of sagS rendered biofilms but not planktonic cells more susceptible to tobramycin, norfloxacin, and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, inactivation of sagS also eliminated the recalcitrance of biofilms to killing by bactericidal antimicrobial agents, a phenotype comparable to that observed upon inactivation of brlR, which encodes a MerR-like transcriptional regulator required for biofilm tolerance. Multicopy expression of brlR in a ΔsagS mutant restored biofilm resistance and recalcitrance to killing by bactericidal antibiotics to wild-type levels. In contrast, expression of sagS did not restore the susceptibility phenotype of ΔbrlR mutant biofilms to wild-type levels, indicating that BrlR functions downstream of SagS. Inactivation of sagS correlated with reduced BrlR levels in biofilms, with the produced BrlR being impaired in binding to the previously described BrlR-activated promoters of the two multidrug efflux pump operons mexAB-oprM and mexEF-oprN. Our findings demonstrate that biofilm tolerance is linked to early biofilm development and SagS, with SagS contributing indirectly to BrlR activation. PMID:23995639

  19. DC Cable for Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  20. Electronically controlled cable wrapper

    DOEpatents

    Young, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    A spindle assembly engages and moves along a length of cable to be wrapped with insulating tape. Reels of insulating tape are mounted on a outer rotatable spindle which revolves around the cable to dispense insulating tape. The rate of movement of the spindle assembly along the length of the cable is controlled by a stepper motor which is programmably synchronized to the rate at which rotatable spindle wraps the cable. The stepper motor drives a roller which engages the cable and moves the spindle assembly along the length of the cable as it is being wrapped. The spindle assembly is mounted at the end of an articulated arm which allows free movement of the spindle assembly and allows the spindle assembly to follow lateral movement of the cable.

  1. Electronically controlled cable wrapper

    DOEpatents

    Young, T.M.

    1982-08-17

    A spindle assembly engages and moves along a length of cable to be wrapped with insulating tape. Reels of insulating tape are mounted on a outer rotatable spindle which revolves around the cable to dispense insulating tape. The rate of movement of the spindle assembly along the length of the cable is controlled by a stepper motor which is programmably synchronized to the rate at which rotatable spindle wraps the cable. The stepper motor drives a roller which engages the cable and moves the spindle assembly along the length of the cable as it is being wrapped. The spindle assembly is mounted at the end of an articulated arm which allows free movement of the spindle assembly and allows the spindle assembly to follow lateral movement of the cable.

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CHORD CONNECTIONS AND SAG RODS, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CHORD CONNECTIONS AND SAG RODS, SOUTH TRUSS, EAST END, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Henszey's Wrought-Iron Arch Bridge, Spanning Ontelaunee Creek at Kings Road, Wanamakers, Lehigh County, PA

  3. Sagging eye syndrome presenting as a form of strabismus fixus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Ho; Jung, Ji Sung; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Lateral rectus-superior rectus band degeneration with aging is the major cause of sagging eye syndrome, which usually presents with small-angle esotropia or hypotropia. In contrast, heavy eye syndrome, also called myopic strabismus fixus, is characterized by profound esotropia and hypotropia with the eyeball fixed nasally. We report the case of a 71-year-old man with sagging eye syndrome presenting with strabismus fixus and no myopia.

  4. A new method to evaluate lower eyelid sag using three-dimensional image analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Y; Fujimura, T; Moriwaki, S; Kitahara, T

    2005-10-01

    Lower eyelid sags as well as wrinkles represent age-related morphological changes of the skin surface. However, a quantitative method to evaluate lower eyelid sagging has not been previously established. We designed a new quantitative evaluation method that uses non-invasive skin scanning, which is based on the difference between the superficial dimension of the sagging surface of the lower eyelid and the dimension of its projection area. In 97 females, 2-D and the 3-D images were taken. By 3-D image analysis, the difference between the superficial dimension of the sagging surface of the lower eyelid and the dimension of its virtual projection area was assessed, and was defined as the sag parameter. This parameter was significantly correlated with the sag score (a photographic scale to assess the degree of sagging) and with aging. The accuracy of the sag parameter was confirmed in a clinical test using a sag treatment lotion and a placebo lotion. The sag score decreased in skin treated with the sag treatment lotion, but the change was not significantly different from that of the placebo treated skin. On the contrary, the sag parameter was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after topical application of the sag treatment lotion compared with the placebo-treated skin. These results indicate that the sag parameter as proposed herein is useful in clinical studies to evaluate slight changes in lower eyelid sagging.

  5. Cable Television for Librarians. Cable Television Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Wallace C.

    1973-01-01

    The development of cable television, its present state, and future prospects, including a possible role for libraries, are discussed. (Other conference materials are LI 503071 and 503073 through 503084.) (SJ)

  6. Cable Television for Librarians. Cable Television Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Wallace C.

    1973-01-01

    The development of cable television, its present state, and future prospects, including a possible role for libraries, are discussed. (Other conference materials are LI 503071 and 503073 through 503084.) (SJ)

  7. Magnet cable manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Royet, J.

    1990-10-01

    The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

  8. Cable Tester Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  9. Critical inclinations in satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deprit, A.

    1978-01-01

    The main problem of satellite theory is described in polar coordinates by a Hamiltonian function. It is proposed to find a solution of the Hamiltonian function with the following properties: (1) the reference orbit is Keplerian; (2) no restriction is imposed on the eccentricity; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small eccentricities; and (3) no restriction is imposed on the inclination; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small inclinations; also it is valid even in the neighborhood of inclinations at which the perigee is stationary.

  10. Coaxial cable stripping device facilitates RF cabling fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. S.; Tobias, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Coaxial cable stripping device assures clean, right angled shoulder for RF cable connector fabrication. This method requires minimal skill and creates a low voltage standing wave ratio and mechanical stability in the interconnecting RF Cables.

  11. Aging assessment of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

  12. Aging assessment of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for sagging eyelids.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie C; Liu, Fan; Bleyen, Isabel; Gunn, David A; Hofman, Albert; Klaver, Caroline C W; Uitterlinden, André G; Neumann, H A Martino; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Timothy D; Kayser, Manfred; Nijsten, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Sagging eyelids, or dermatochalasis, are a frequent concern in older adults. It is considered a feature of skin aging, but risk factors other than aging are largely unknown. To study nongenetic and genetic risk factors for sagging eyelids. Upper eyelid sagging was graded in 4 categories of severity using digital photographs. Dermatochalasis was defined as the eyelid hanging over the eyelashes. Age, sex, skin color, tanning ability, hormonal status in women, current smoking, body mass index, and sun protection behavior were analyzed in a multivariable multinomial logistic regression model. Genetic predisposition was assessed using heritability analysis and a genome-wide association study. The study was performed in 2 independent population-based cohorts. The Rotterdam Study included older adults from one district in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and the UK Adult Twin Registry (TwinsUK) included twins from all over the United Kingdom. Participants were 5578 unrelated Dutch Europeans (mean age, 67.1 years; 44.0% male) from the Rotterdam Study and 2186 twins (mean age, 53.1 years; 10.4% male) from the TwinsUK. Sagging eyelid severity levels, ranging from 1 (normal control) to 4 (severe sagging). Among 5578 individuals from the Rotterdam Study, 17.8% showed dermatochalasis (moderate and severe sagging eyelids). Significant and independent risk factors for sagging eyelids included age, male sex, lighter skin color, and higher body mass index. In addition, current smoking was borderline significantly associated. Heritability of sagging eyelids was estimated to be 61% among 1052 twin pairs from the TwinsUK (15.6% showed dermatochalasis). A meta-analysis of genome-wide association study results from 5578 Rotterdam Study and 1053 TwinsUK participants showed a genome-wide significant recessive protective effect of the C allele of rs11876749 (P = 1.7 × 10(-8)). This variant is located close to TGIF1 (an inducer of transforming growth factor β), which is a known gene

  14. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  15. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating

  16. The influence of drilling variables on barite sag

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, P.A.; Zamora, M.; Slater, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    Barite sag is a significant variation in mud density caused by the settlement of barite or other weight material in high-angle wells. The wide fluctuations in mud weight can lead to severe operational problems, including well-control, induced wellbore instability, downhole mud losses, and stuck pipe. A laboratory flow loop has been used to evaluate the influence of key drilling parameters on barite sag. Results show that the highest sag occurs at angles in the region 60-75{degrees}, particularly at low annular velocities. Drillpipe rotation is shown to be particularly beneficial in minimizing barite settlement. Rotation also assists in re-distributing barite deposits formed on the low side of the hole. Data from the tests clearly demonstrate the interdependence of drillpipe eccentricity, rotation, and mud flow rate. Results from the study have been combined with field observations to develop guidelines to minimize barite sag and manage the associated risks. The conclusions of the study are that barite sag can be minimized by attention to detail at the planning and execution stages of drilling a well. In particular, recommendations in four key areas are addressed: well planning, mud properties and testing, operational practices, and wellsite monitoring procedures.

  17. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites express a family of immunogenic surface antigens that are orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences.

    PubMed

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-02-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s).

  18. Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Express a Family of Immunogenic Surface Antigens That Are Orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigens (SAGs) and SAG-Related Sequences†

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Daniel K.; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y.; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s). PMID:15664946

  19. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  20. Multistrand superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Albert R.

    1985-01-01

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easily over one another, so as to facilitate flexing and bending of the cable, while also minimizing the possibility of causing damage to the strands by such flexing or bending. Moreover, the improved cable substantially maintains its compactness and cross-sectional shape when the cable is flexed or bent.

  1. Multistrand superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easil

  2. Ascending SAG neurons control sexual receptivity of Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai; Palfreyman, Mark T; Häsemeyer, Martin; Talsma, Aaron; Dickson, Barry J

    2014-07-02

    Mating induces pronounced changes in female reproductive behavior, typically including a dramatic reduction in sexual receptivity. In Drosophila, postmating behavioral changes are triggered by sex peptide (SP), a male seminal fluid peptide that acts via a receptor (SPR) expressed in sensory neurons (SPSNs) of the female reproductive tract. Here, we identify second-order neurons that mediate the behavioral changes induced by SP. These SAG neurons receive synaptic input from SPSNs in the abdominal ganglion and project to the dorsal protocerebrum. Silencing SAG neurons renders virgin females unreceptive, whereas activating them increases the receptivity of females that have already mated. Physiological experiments demonstrate that SP downregulates the excitability of the SPSNs, and hence their input onto SAG neurons. These data thus provide a physiological correlate of mating status in the female central nervous system and a key entry point into the brain circuits that control sexual receptivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sagging rope sign in achondroplasia is different from Perthes disease.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Wug; Shingade, Viraj Uttamrao; Song, Hae-Ryong; Suh, Seung-Woo; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seok-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The "sagging rope" sign is a radiopaque line seen on radiographs of hips with Perthes disease. The main purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, cause, and importance of this sign in achondroplasia and to reveal how it differs from in Perthes disease. Serial radiograms, along with two- and three-dimensional CT images were studied in 42 patients with achondroplasia. The sign was observed bilaterally in all patients. Evaluation of CT images revealed spherical heads with the presence of circumferential overhang in all hips. This circumferential overhang seen on three-dimensional CT images corresponded to the sagging rope sign on plain radiographs. The presence of the sagging rope sign in bilateral hips is a characteristic feature of achondroplasia. It usually appears before epiphyseal closure. Its cause, incidence, and nature differ from in Perthes disease, and its presence does not carry a negative prognosis in achondroplasia.

  4. Cable and Line Inspection Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

  5. Cable and line inspection mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

  6. Gravity sag of sandwich panel assemblies as applied to precision cathode strip chamber structural design

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.

    1993-09-16

    The relationship between gravity sag of a precision cathode strip chamber and its sandwich panel structural design is explored parametrically. An algorithm for estimating the dominant component of gravity sag is defined. Graphs of normalized gravity sag as a function of gap frame width and material, sandwich core edge filler width and material, panel skin thickness, gap height, and support location are calculated using the gravity sag algorithm. The structural importance of the sandwich-to-sandwich ``gap frame`` connection is explained.

  7. Bringing Cable into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blubaugh, Donelle

    1999-01-01

    Cable TV may be an educationally and fiscally sound way to inspire active learning. Creative TV applications help teachers address potentially disabling social and emotional factors. The Cable in the Classroom program offers over 80,000 eligible schools free cable connections, free basic monthly cable service, and copyright clearances for off-air…

  8. Cable Television; A Bibliographic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenung, James

    This bibliographic review of publications in the field of cable television begins with an introduction to cable television and an outline of the history and development of cable television. Particular attention is given to the regulatory activities of the Federal Communications Commission and the unfulfilled potential of cable television. The…

  9. Bringing Cable into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blubaugh, Donelle

    1999-01-01

    Cable TV may be an educationally and fiscally sound way to inspire active learning. Creative TV applications help teachers address potentially disabling social and emotional factors. The Cable in the Classroom program offers over 80,000 eligible schools free cable connections, free basic monthly cable service, and copyright clearances for off-air…

  10. Bursts in inclined layer convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, F. H.; Clever, R. M.

    2000-08-01

    A new instability of longitudinal rolls in an inclined fluid layer heated from below is analyzed in the case of the Prandtl number P=0.71. The instability assumes the form of subharmonic undulations and evolves into a spatially chaotic pattern when the angle of inclination is of the order of 20°. The chaotic state rapidly decays and longitudinal rolls recover until the next burst of chaotic convection occurs. The theoretical findings closely correspond to recent experimental observations by Daniels et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published)].

  11. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

  12. Cable equation for general geometry.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Erick J; Romero, Juan M

    2017-02-01

    The cable equation describes the voltage in a straight cylindrical cable, and this model has been employed to model electrical potential in dendrites and axons. However, sometimes this equation might give incorrect predictions for some realistic geometries, in particular when the radius of the cable changes significantly. Cables with a nonconstant radius are important for some phenomena, for example, discrete swellings along the axons appear in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, human immunodeficiency virus associated dementia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, using the Frenet-Serret frame, we propose a generalized cable equation for a general cable geometry. This generalized equation depends on geometric quantities such as the curvature and torsion of the cable. We show that when the cable has a constant circular cross section, the first fundamental form of the cable can be simplified and the generalized cable equation depends on neither the curvature nor the torsion of the cable. Additionally, we find an exact solution for an ideal cable which has a particular variable circular cross section and zero curvature. For this case we show that when the cross section of the cable increases the voltage decreases. Inspired by this ideal case, we rewrite the generalized cable equation as a diffusion equation with a source term generated by the cable geometry. This source term depends on the cable cross-sectional area and its derivates. In addition, we study different cables with swelling and provide their numerical solutions. The numerical solutions show that when the cross section of the cable has abrupt changes, its voltage is smaller than the voltage in the cylindrical cable. Furthermore, these numerical solutions show that the voltage can be affected by geometrical inhomogeneities on the cable.

  13. End moldings for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    2000-01-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed is a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  14. Cable equation for general geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sánchez, Erick J.; Romero, Juan M.

    2017-02-01

    The cable equation describes the voltage in a straight cylindrical cable, and this model has been employed to model electrical potential in dendrites and axons. However, sometimes this equation might give incorrect predictions for some realistic geometries, in particular when the radius of the cable changes significantly. Cables with a nonconstant radius are important for some phenomena, for example, discrete swellings along the axons appear in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, human immunodeficiency virus associated dementia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, using the Frenet-Serret frame, we propose a generalized cable equation for a general cable geometry. This generalized equation depends on geometric quantities such as the curvature and torsion of the cable. We show that when the cable has a constant circular cross section, the first fundamental form of the cable can be simplified and the generalized cable equation depends on neither the curvature nor the torsion of the cable. Additionally, we find an exact solution for an ideal cable which has a particular variable circular cross section and zero curvature. For this case we show that when the cross section of the cable increases the voltage decreases. Inspired by this ideal case, we rewrite the generalized cable equation as a diffusion equation with a source term generated by the cable geometry. This source term depends on the cable cross-sectional area and its derivates. In addition, we study different cables with swelling and provide their numerical solutions. The numerical solutions show that when the cross section of the cable has abrupt changes, its voltage is smaller than the voltage in the cylindrical cable. Furthermore, these numerical solutions show that the voltage can be affected by geometrical inhomogeneities on the cable.

  15. Measuring cross sections using a sag tape: a generalized procedure

    Treesearch

    Gary A. Ray; Walter F. Megahan

    1979-01-01

    A procedure was developed for surveying cross sections using a sag tape with unequal end elevations. The procedure is as accurate as traditional engineer's level surveys, is faster and easier, and can be programed for a digital computer by following the flow diagram which is provided.

  16. Inclination-Independent Galaxy Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy; Harris, William E.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new method to classify galaxies from large surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using inclination-corrected concentration, inclination-corrected location on the color-magnitude diagram, and apparent axis ratio. Explicitly accounting for inclination tightens the distribution of each of these parameters and enables simple boundaries to be drawn that delineate three different galaxy populations: early-type galaxies, which are red, highly concentrated, and round; late-type galaxies, which are blue, have low concentrations, and are disk dominated; and intermediate-type galaxies, which are red, have intermediate concentrations, and have disks. We have validated our method by comparing to visual classifications of high-quality imaging data from the Millennium Galaxy Catalogue. The inclination correction is crucial to unveiling the previously unrecognized intermediate class. Intermediate-type galaxies, roughly corresponding to lenticulars and early spirals, lie on the red sequence. The red sequence is therefore composed of two distinct morphological types, suggesting that there are two distinct mechanisms for transiting to the red sequence. We propose that intermediate-type galaxies are those that have lost their cold gas via strangulation, while early-type galaxies are those that have experienced a major merger either that consumed their cold gas, or whose merger progenitors were already devoid of cold gas (the "dry merger" scenario).

  17. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The Discrete Hanging Cable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James V.

    2004-01-01

    Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.

  19. Infiniband Based Cable Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Minich, Makia

    2007-07-01

    As Infiniband continues to be more broadly adopted in High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter applications, one major challenge still plagues implementation: cabling. With the transition to DDR (double data rate) from SDR (single datarate), currently available Infiniband implementations such as standard CX4/IB4x style copper cables severely constrain system design (10m maximum length for DDR copper cables, thermal management due to poor airflow, etc.). This paper will examine some of the options available and compare performance with the newly released Intel Connects Cables. In addition, we will take a glance at Intel's dual-core and quad-core systems to see if core counts have noticeable effect on expected IO patterns.

  20. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Kevlar Cable Development Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    projects. The principal focus of this program was to develop Kevlar as a strength member in general cable and rope applications, including other aspects such as terminations, electrical conductors and user experience .

  2. The Discrete Hanging Cable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James V.

    2004-01-01

    Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.

  3. Sag River Formation, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: depositional environment and diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    The Sag River Formation is a minor hydrocarbon reservoir in the Prudhoe Bay field, Alaska. It comprises bioturbated, glauconitic, argillaceous, quartzose fine to very fine-grained sandstone and siltstone and varies from 55 ft (17 m) to 20 ft (6 m) in thickness in the field. The formation is the upper part of very fine-grained, upward coarsening, terrigenous, clastic-dominated sequence deposited in late triassic time. This sequence includes the upper part of the subjacent Shublik Formation. Lithofacies variation within the Sag River is minimal with stratigraphic thinning from the north-northeast to a south-southwest shaleout. The formation was deposited in a low-energy, offshore, marine-shelf environment basinward of a low-relief source area. Upward coarsening, as well as slightly older Sag River facies in more proximal areas, suggests regionally significant marine regression during deposition. In the Prudhoe Bay field, diagenesis along with abundant primary detrital matrix significantly diminishes reservoir quality. Ductile grain deformation, authigenic clay-grain coatings, quartz overgrowths, and carbonate cementation have resulted in microporosity and associate low permeability, which is the primary shortcoming of the Sag River reservoir. Larger, interconnected secondary pores (and associated improved reservoir quality) were produced by the dissolution of carbonate cement and possibly other mineral phases. Reservoir quality in the Sag River Formation is strongly influenced by proximity to its subcrop with the overlying Lower Cretaceous Highly Radioactive Zone. Mineral leaching probably resulted from aggressive fluid incursion at that truncation surface. The source of those fluids is not presently known.

  4. Inclination Distribution of Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragozzine, Darin; K. Team

    2011-09-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope is revealing for the first time valuable constraints on the inclination distribution of planetary systems with the discovery of systems of candidate multiple transiting planets. As an ensemble, the 170 candidate multi-transiting systems discovered by Kepler reveal a large population of 3-4 small nearly-coplanar planets with periods less than 125 days (Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011). The presence of multiple transiting planets does not measure the true mutual inclinations, but transit timing and duration variations (or lack thereof), multi-Rossiter-McLaughlin, and/or exoplanet mutual events can measure or put good constraints on true mutual inclinations in individual systems (Ragozzine & Holman 2010). I will discuss the recent results from Kepler observations on the inclination distributions of different exoplanet population. I will also discuss a new method for validating candidates in multi-transiting systems that uses the coplanarity of planetary systems to minimize the probability that such candidates are false positives. A summary of our understanding of exoplanetary inclinations and implications for the formation and evolution of planetary systems will also be provided. ESSII SOC: It is possible that I will focus my talk on a detailed analysis of KOI-500, the Kepler system with 5 candidate planets with new results showing that all the candidates are planets and discussing the intricate three-body resonance structure seen in this system. This work is supported by the Institute for Theory and Computation at Harvard University. Kepler was competitively selected as the tenth Discovery mission. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. AC Cable: Yokohama Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Takato

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables can transmit large amounts of electricity in a compact size with minimal losses. Therefore, they are expected to save the construction cost of underground lines in urban areas and decrease transmission losses. Several HTS cables have recently been demonstrated in networks around the world, and full-scale commercialization is expected in the near future. In Japan, the development of compact HTS cables suitable for urban deployment has been underway since the early 1990s. In 2007, a national project was started to verify their operational performance and long-term reliability in the grid. An HTS cable 240 m long was installed at the Asahi substation of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Yokohama; then a joint, terminations and cooling system was constructed in 2011. After successful performance tests, the cable was connected to the grid for the first time in Japan, and started to deliver electricity to 70,000 households in October 2012. This trouble-free in-grid service continued for over a year. We can conclude that the HTS cable system performs well and has the stability required for long-term in-grid operations.

  6. SagS contributes to the motile-sessile switch and acts in concert with BfiSR to enable Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Olga E; Sauer, Karin

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with surfaces has been described as a two-stage process requiring distinct signaling events and the reciprocal modulation of small RNAs (sRNAs). However, little is known regarding the relationship between sRNA-modulating pathways active under planktonic or surface-associated growth conditions. Here, we demonstrate that SagS (PA2824), the cognate sensor of HptB, links sRNA-modulating activities via the Gac/HptB/Rsm system postattachment to the signal transduction network BfiSR, previously demonstrated to be required for the development of P. aeruginosa. Consistent with the role of SagS in the GacA-dependent HtpB signaling pathway, inactivation of sagS resulted in hyperattachment, an HptB-dependent increase in rsmYZ, increased Psl polysaccharide production, and increased virulence. Moreover, sagS inactivation rescued attachment but abrogated biofilm formation by the ΔgacA and ΔhptB mutant strains. The ΔsagS strain was impaired in biofilm formation at a stage similar to that of the previously described two-component system BfiSR. Expression of bfiR but not bfiS restored ΔsagS biofilm formation independently of rsmYZ. We demonstrate that SagS interacts directly with BfiS and only indirectly with BfiR, with the direct and specific interaction between these two membrane-bound sensors resulting in the modulation of the phosphorylation state of BfiS in a growth-mode-dependent manner. SagS plays an important role in P. aeruginosa virulence in a manner opposite to that of BfiS. Our findings indicate that SagS acts as a switch by linking the GacA-dependent sensory system under planktonic conditions to the suppression of sRNAs postattachment and to BfiSR, required for the development of P. aeruginosa biofilms, in a sequential and stage-specific manner.

  7. SagS Contributes to the Motile-Sessile Switch and Acts in Concert with BfiSR To Enable Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation▿†

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Olga E.; Sauer, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with surfaces has been described as a two-stage process requiring distinct signaling events and the reciprocal modulation of small RNAs (sRNAs). However, little is known regarding the relationship between sRNA-modulating pathways active under planktonic or surface-associated growth conditions. Here, we demonstrate that SagS (PA2824), the cognate sensor of HptB, links sRNA-modulating activities via the Gac/HptB/Rsm system postattachment to the signal transduction network BfiSR, previously demonstrated to be required for the development of P. aeruginosa. Consistent with the role of SagS in the GacA-dependent HtpB signaling pathway, inactivation of sagS resulted in hyperattachment, an HptB-dependent increase in rsmYZ, increased Psl polysaccharide production, and increased virulence. Moreover, sagS inactivation rescued attachment but abrogated biofilm formation by the ΔgacA and ΔhptB mutant strains. The ΔsagS strain was impaired in biofilm formation at a stage similar to that of the previously described two-component system BfiSR. Expression of bfiR but not bfiS restored ΔsagS biofilm formation independently of rsmYZ. We demonstrate that SagS interacts directly with BfiS and only indirectly with BfiR, with the direct and specific interaction between these two membrane-bound sensors resulting in the modulation of the phosphorylation state of BfiS in a growth-mode-dependent manner. SagS plays an important role in P. aeruginosa virulence in a manner opposite to that of BfiS. Our findings indicate that SagS acts as a switch by linking the GacA-dependent sensory system under planktonic conditions to the suppression of sRNAs postattachment and to BfiSR, required for the development of P. aeruginosa biofilms, in a sequential and stage-specific manner. PMID:21949078

  8. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections between cables and to power sources shall not be made...

  9. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections between cables and to power sources shall not be made...

  10. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections between cables and to power sources shall not be made...

  11. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections between cables and to power sources shall not be made...

  12. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections between cables and to power sources shall not be made...

  13. INCLINATION MIXING IN THE CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-20

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  14. SAG-UPS attenuates proapoptotic SARM and Noxa to confer survival advantage to early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Choo, W Q W; Toh, H C; Ding, J L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly cancer because of its commonly late diagnosis and limited treatment options. SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene)-dependent UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) is a key switch between immune-mediated apoptosis and overactivation-mediated protumorigenesis, prompting us to hypothesize that SAG-UPS modulates chronic inflammation-induced tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which SAG-UPS regulates death/survival of liver cancer cells. By retrospective studies, we found reciprocal expressions of anti-/proapoptotic factors: SAG/SARM and SAG/Noxa in human primary HCC tissues - the antiapoptotic SAG was significantly upregulated whereas the proapoptotic SARM and Noxa were markedly downregulated, suggesting their involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis. Upregulated SAG-UPS effectively manipulates the levels of high-molecular-weight ubiquitinated SARM and Noxa in carcinoma tissues compared with corresponding normal tissues. SAG-overexpressing HCC cell lines display reduced SARM and Noxa (but not Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-xL), suggesting that SARM and Noxa are specific substrates of SAG-dependent ubiquitination. SARM overexpression activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, reducing cell viability. SAG knockdown significantly elevated apoptosis with increased cytosolic cytochrome c, confirming SAG-mediated antiapoptosis in HCC. SAG overexpression stimulated protumorigenic cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF, but not antitumorigenic IL-12p40 and anti-inflammatory IL-10. This is consistent with higher proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF) in hepatoma compared with healthy tissues. Altogether, early stage-upregulated SAG-UPS exacerbates hepatocarcinogenesis progression, through: (1) ubiquitination-mediated degradation of proapoptotic SARM and Noxa; and (2) production of protumorigenic cytokines that induce a protumorigenic microenvironment, conferring survival advantage to HCC cells. Thus, we propose SAG-UPS to be an early

  15. SAG-UPS attenuates proapoptotic SARM and Noxa to confer survival advantage to early hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S C; Choo, W Q W; Toh, H C; Ding, J L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly cancer because of its commonly late diagnosis and limited treatment options. SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene)-dependent UPS (ubiquitin–proteasome system) is a key switch between immune-mediated apoptosis and overactivation-mediated protumorigenesis, prompting us to hypothesize that SAG-UPS modulates chronic inflammation-induced tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which SAG-UPS regulates death/survival of liver cancer cells. By retrospective studies, we found reciprocal expressions of anti-/proapoptotic factors: SAG/SARM and SAG/Noxa in human primary HCC tissues – the antiapoptotic SAG was significantly upregulated whereas the proapoptotic SARM and Noxa were markedly downregulated, suggesting their involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis. Upregulated SAG-UPS effectively manipulates the levels of high-molecular-weight ubiquitinated SARM and Noxa in carcinoma tissues compared with corresponding normal tissues. SAG-overexpressing HCC cell lines display reduced SARM and Noxa (but not Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-xL), suggesting that SARM and Noxa are specific substrates of SAG-dependent ubiquitination. SARM overexpression activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, reducing cell viability. SAG knockdown significantly elevated apoptosis with increased cytosolic cytochrome c, confirming SAG-mediated antiapoptosis in HCC. SAG overexpression stimulated protumorigenic cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF, but not antitumorigenic IL-12p40 and anti-inflammatory IL-10. This is consistent with higher proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF) in hepatoma compared with healthy tissues. Altogether, early stage-upregulated SAG-UPS exacerbates hepatocarcinogenesis progression, through: (1) ubiquitination-mediated degradation of proapoptotic SARM and Noxa; and (2) production of protumorigenic cytokines that induce a protumorigenic microenvironment, conferring survival advantage to HCC cells. Thus, we propose SAG-UPS to be an early

  16. Application of a three-dimensional aeroelastic model to study the wind-induced response of bridge stay cables in unsteady wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeesi, Arash; Cheng, Shaohong; Ting, David S.-K.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of bridge stay cables experiencing violent dry inclined cable galloping raises great concern in the engineering community. Numerous experimental and analytical studies have been conducted to investigate this phenomenon, most of which were in the context of steady wind past a rigid cylindrical body. Real stay cables however, are generally long and flexible. They are exposed to more "broad" range of atmospheric boundary layer type of wind velocity profile which is also unsteady and turbulent by nature. To better understand the physics underlying this type of wind-induced cable vibration and to elucidate various contributing factors, a more realistic analytical model which is capable of addressing the above elements is imperative. In the current paper, a three-dimensional aeroelastic model is proposed to study the aerodynamic response of an inclined and/or yawed slender flexible cylindrical body subjected to unsteady mean wind, with practical application to wind-induced vibrations of bridge stay cables under no precipitation condition. The non-linear aerodynamic forces derived in the present study are combined with the cable free vibration equations available in literature to obtain the equations of motion for the wind-induced vibration of stay cables, which are solved numerically by an explicit finite difference scheme. The proposed three-dimensional aeroelastic model and numerical solution technique are validated by comparing the predicted cable free vibration responses with existing data in the literature. The mechanism which triggers dry inclined cable galloping and the required conditions for its growth are explored. In addition, the impact of different initial conditions and various unsteady mean wind scenarios on this violent cable motion are investigated. Results show that the occurrence of dry inclined cable galloping is associated with an opposite-phase relation between the relative wind speed and the aerodynamic force along the direction of

  17. 103. CABLES ENTERING CABLE TRAY SHED AT EAST OF LSB; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. CABLES ENTERING CABLE TRAY SHED AT EAST OF LSB; OXIDIZER APRON AND LAUNCH PAD IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 34. BARGE LOADING PIER, DETAIL SHOWING CABLE CAR TRACKS, CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. BARGE LOADING PIER, DETAIL SHOWING CABLE CAR TRACKS, CABLE CARS AND WALKWAYS. LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST END FROM THE WEST END - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  20. Cable-Dispensing Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredberg, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

  1. Phylogenetic evidence for recombination in SAG5 locus in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Elsheikha, Hany; Hafez, Adel O; Zaalouk, Tarek K H; El Shazly, Atef M; Khalil, Hazem H H; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-08-01

    The present study evaluated the hypothesis that genetic diversity in SAG5 genes was generated by recombination events. Three lines of evidence suggested that recombination occurred in SAG5 genes in T. gondii. The permutation test revealed strong signature of intragenic recombination, pairwise comparisons of nucleotide sequences of SAG5 genes revealed that SAG5A alleles have chimerical structures composed of segments derived through recombination events between different alleles, and phylogenetic trees reconstructed based on SAG5 sequences using neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods, showed statistically well-supported consensus clusters of T. gondii strains specific to each SAG5 gene. Topological discrepancies between trees based on the N-terminal variable domain and C-terminal conserved domain sequences, were observed, suggesting intragenic recombinetion between SAG5A and SAG5B/C genes. The results showed that recombination within SAG5 in T. gondii was a major evolutionary mechanism generating both allelic variation at SAG5 locus and contributing to genotypic diversity and to emergence of new T. gondii variants, allowing them to evade the host immune defence mechanism.

  2. Expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of SAG, a ring finger redox-sensitive protein.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, M; Bian, J; Aviram, M; Duan, H; Bisgaier, C L; Loo, J A; Sun, Y

    1999-07-01

    We recently reported the cloning and characterization of SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), a novel zinc RING finger protein, that is redox responsive and protects mammalian cells from apoptosis. Here we report the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of SAG. Bacterially expressed SAG is brown in color and dithiothreitol (DTT)-sensitive. SAG forms large oligomers without DTT that can be reduced into a monomer in the presence of DTT. These features help us to purify SAG using the chromatography with or without DTT. Likewise, purified SAG is redox sensitive. Upon H2O2 exposure, SAG forms oligomers as well as monomer doublets due to the formation of the inter- or intramolecular disulfide bonds, respectively. This process can be reversed by DTT or prevented by pretreatment with the alkylating reagent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Although SAG contains two putative heme-binding sites and a RING finger domain, the protein appears not to bind with heme and to lack transcription factor activity as determined in a Gal4-fusion/transactivation assay. Wildtype, but not RING finger domain-disrupted SAG mutants, prevents copper-induced lipid peroxidation. These results, along with our previous observations, suggest that SAG is an intracellular antioxidant molecule that may act as a redox sensor to buffer oxidative-stress induced damage.

  3. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy.

    PubMed

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song; Wang, Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J

    2012-04-01

    Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10° gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0° to 180°. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90° collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0° and 180° verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90° collimator angle.

  4. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

  5. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song; Wang, Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston–Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10° gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior–inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0° to 180°. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90° collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0° and 180° verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90° collimator angle. PMID:22482636

  6. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Sou-Tien

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

  7. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  8. High acceleration cable deployment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, T. N.; Barns, C. E.; Murphy, J. P.; Gin, B.; King, R. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A deployment system that will safely pay one cable from a ballistic forebody when the forebody is separated from an afterbody (to which the cable is secured and when the separation is marked by high acceleration and velocity) is described.

  9. Hypervelocity impact testing of cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, D. W.; Adkinson, A. B.; English, J. E.; Linebaugh, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The physics and electrical results obtained from simulated micrometeoroid testing of certain Skylab cables are presented. The test procedure, electrical circuits, test equipment, and cable types utilized are also explained.

  10. High acceleration cable deployment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canning, T. N.; Barns, C. E.; Murphy, J. P.; Gin, B.; King, R. W.

    1981-06-01

    A deployment system that will safely pay one cable from a ballistic forebody when the forebody is separated from an afterbody (to which the cable is secured and when the separation is marked by high acceleration and velocity) is described.

  11. Naviculocuneiform Sag in the Acquired Flatfoot: What to Do.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Joshua A

    2017-09-01

    Sag at the naviculocuneiform (NC) joint represents an important aspect of the flatfoot deformity. Failure to address medial column instability could lead to continued deformity and poor patient outcomes. No single procedure is enough to address the complexity of the adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Whether in combination with other procedures or in isolation, NC fusion and Cotton osteotomy are important pieces of the armamentarium to address all aspects of the flatfoot deformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The sagging rope sign in Perthes' disease and allied disorders.

    PubMed

    Apley, A G; Wientroub, S

    1981-02-01

    The sagging rope sign is the term used to describe the radiographic appearances which sometimes occur after Perthes' disease. It is severe examples of that disease and indicates damage to the growth plate with a marked metaphysial reaction. The same appearance follows severe epiphysitis after forcible reduction of a congenitally dislocated hip, and certain rare epiphysial dysplasias. The origin and significance of the sign are discussed.

  13. South Atlantic sag basins: new petroleum system components

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, S.G. Mohriak, W.U.; Mello, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    Newly discovered pre-salt source rocks, reservoirs and seals need to be included as components to the petroleum systems of both sides of the South Atlantic. These new components lie between the pre-salt rift strata and the Aptian salt layers, forming large, post-rift, thermal subsidence sag basins. These are differentiated from the older rift basins by the lack of syn-rift faulting and a reflector geometry that is parallel to the base salt regional unconformity rather than to the Precambrian basement. These basins are observed in deep water regions overlying areas where both the mantle and the crust have been involved in the extension. This mantle involvement creates post-rift subsiding depocenters in which deposition is continuous while proximal rift-phase troughs with little or no mantle involvement are bypassed and failed to accumulate potential source rocks during anoxic times. These features have been recognized in both West African Kwanza Basin and in the East Brasil Rift systems. The pre-salt source rocks that are in the West African sag basins were deposited in lacustrine brackish to saline water environment and are geochemically distinct from the older, syn-rift fresh to brackish water lakes, as well as from younger, post-salt marine anoxic environments of the drift phase. Geochemical analyses of the source rocks and their oils have shown a developing source rock system evolving from isolated deep rift lakes to shallow saline lakes, and culminating with the infill of the sag basin by large saline lakes to a marginally marine restricted gulf. Sag basin source rocks may be important in the South Atlantic petroleum system by charging deep-water prospects where syn-rift source rocks are overmature and the post-salt sequences are immature.

  14. Cabling design for phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, I. D.; Turkiewicz, L.

    1972-01-01

    The ribbon-cabling system used for the AEGIS phased array which provides minimum cable bulk, complete EMI shielding, rugged mechanical design, repeatable electrical characteristics, and ease of assembly and maintenance is described. The ribbon cables are 0.040-inch thick, and in widths up to 2 1/2 inches. Their terminations are molded connectors that can be grouped in a three-tier arrangement, with cable branching accomplished by a matrix-welding technique.

  15. Cabling design for phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, I. D.; Turkiewicz, L.

    1972-01-01

    The ribbon-cabling system used for the AEGIS phased array which provides minimum cable bulk, complete EMI shielding, rugged mechanical design, repeatable electrical characteristics, and ease of assembly and maintenance is described. The ribbon cables are 0.040-inch thick, and in widths up to 2 1/2 inches. Their terminations are molded connectors that can be grouped in a three-tier arrangement, with cable branching accomplished by a matrix-welding technique.

  16. Coaxial cable cutter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Leslie C.; Hedges, Robert S.

    1990-04-10

    A cutting device is provided which is useful in trimming the jackets from semi-rigid coaxial cables and wire having a cutting bit and support attached to movable jaws. A thumbpiece is provided to actuate the opening of the jaws for receiving the cable to be trimmed, and a spring member is provided to actuate the closing of the jaws when thumbpiece is released. The cutting device utilizes one moving part during the cutting operation by using a rolling cut action. The nature of the jaws allows the cutting device to work in space having clearances less than 0.160 inches.

  17. A cable SGEMP tutorial :

    SciTech Connect

    Liscum-Powell, Jennifer L.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Turner, C. David

    2007-05-01

    This tutorial is aimed at guiding a user through the process of performing a cable SGEMP simulation. The tutorial starts with processing a differential photon spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo code such as ITS into a discrete (multi-group) spectrum used in CEPXS and CEPTRE. Guidance is given in the creation of a nite element mesh of the cable geometry. The set-up of a CEPTRE simulation is detailed. Users are instructed in evaluating the quality of the CEPTRE radiation transport results. The post-processing of CEPTRE results using Exostrip is detailed. And finally, an EMPHASIS/CABANA simulation is detailed including the interpretation of the output.

  18. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  19. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  20. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  1. Economical Aspects of Superconducting Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, Masayoshi

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to resolve technical problems with power grids because they put large-capacity, low-loss power transmission into a compact package. One problem is replacing old 275-kV oil filled (OF) cables with cross-linked polyethylene insulated vinyl sheath cables (XLPE cables). This is difficult because XLPE cable has a lower transmission capacity than OF cable. In addition, the high concentration of public infrastructure underground makes it extremely difficult to build new ones. However, if 66-kV HTS cables can be installed inside existing underground conduits and can achieve a power capacity equivalent to conventional 275-kV cables, construction costs could be significantly reduced. Moreover, if XLPE cables are used for a 1,000 MVA-class transmission line, then three circuits of nine 275-kV single-core cables would be required, which would incur a transmission loss of 90 W/m/cct. Three circuits of three 66-kV Three-in-One HTS cables, however, with an AC loss of 1 W/m/ph@3 kA, heat invasion of 2 W/m, and cooling system efficiency of 0.1, would reduce transmission loss to less than three-fifths that of XLPE cables.

  2. George W. Cable and Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, C. James

    There have been no critical studies of Cable's fiction treated for its own sake; and, without such studies, readers may not become aware of these stories or of their possible value. The absence of a critical position on Cable is due to the decline in his reputation as an artist when he became a writer of popular literature. Before 1925 Cable and…

  3. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections to...

  4. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections to...

  5. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections to...

  6. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices. Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and...

  7. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections to...

  8. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices. Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and...

  9. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices. Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and...

  10. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections to...

  11. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices. Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and...

  12. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices. Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and...

  13. Videotex and Cable TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    One of 10 in a series on videotex, this promotional brochure discusses the enhancement of cable service systems that use videotex and teletext technologies. It explains the advantages of Canada's approach to videotex, which uses the standard called NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax), otherwise known in Canada as Telidon.…

  14. Superconducting Cable Termination

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Uday K.; Tolbert, Jerry

    2005-08-30

    Disclosed is a termination that connects high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable immersed in pressurized liquid nitrogen to high voltage and neutral (shield) external bushings at ambient temperature and pressure. The termination consists of a splice between the HTS power (inner) and shield (outer) conductors and concentric copper pipes which are the conductors in the termination. There is also a transition from the dielectric tape insulator used in the HTS cable to the insulators used between and around the copper pipe conductors in the termination. At the warm end of the termination the copper pipes are connected via copper braided straps to the conventional warm external bushings which have low thermal stresses. This termination allows for a natural temperature gradient in the copper pipe conductors inside the termination which enables the controlled flashing of the pressurized liquid coolant (nitrogen) to the gaseous state. Thus the entire termination is near the coolant supply pressure and the high voltage and shield cold bushings, a highly stressed component used in most HTS cables, are eliminated. A sliding seal allows for cable contraction as it is cooled from room temperature to ˜72-82 K. Seals, static vacuum, and multi-layer superinsulation minimize radial heat leak to the environment.

  15. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  16. Urban Cable Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, William F.; And Others

    Analysis of demographic, social, municipal and commercial characteristics of Washington, D.C., indicate that a sophisticated three-stage cable television (CATV) system could be economically viable. The first stage would provide one-way CATV service offering 30 video channels and local program origination at a monthly fee of $3.50. The second stage…

  17. Pediatrics and Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Edward; And Others

    The Department of Community Medicine of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (New York City), in cooperation with the TelePrompTer Corporation and with funding from the Health Services and Mental Health Administration of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, has developed a bidirectional television system using coaxial cable which links…

  18. Schools and Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Educational Technology Div.

    The papers gathered here are designed to provide a foundation of background information for those charged with the responsibility of formulating school district goals regarding cable television (CATV) and of obtaining the necessary cooperation from the local CATV franchise operators to reach these goals. The position of the National Education…

  19. Cable TV: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Educational Library/Media Association, Columbus.

    Designed to aid in planning the best use of cable television in a particular educational situation, this pamphlet was prepared by a joint committee of the Ohio Educational Library Media Association and the Greater Miami Valley Instructional Television Council in order to share their plans, experiences, problems, and solutions with others who are…

  20. Cable indenter aging monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements.

  1. Lightweight Electric Power Cable.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    8I~ .4 111 162 MICROCi Pi RL’ LUHION TESI CHARI "LIGHTWEIGHT ELECTRIC POWER CABLE" FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT SEPTEMBER 30, 1981 to SEPTEMBER 30, 1982... Vulcanized by heat to crosslink. TPE (Thermoplastic Elastomer) - Polymers having elastomeric proper- ties. Used as thermoplastics - melt formed by

  2. Privacy for Cable Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Frank R.

    Cable television's potential for providing new and attractive types of services will best be realized if the public can be assured of privacy of information transmitted specifically to their terminals and of the right to view any channel without information being gathered as to which channel is being watched at any particular time. It appears that…

  3. Comparison of cable ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaček, Vít; Kohout, Tomáš

    2010-03-01

    Two cable types, which currently are used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and which are composed by jacket/insulation materials, i.e. PVC/PVC and PVC/PE, were exposed to accelerated ageing conditions, in order to simulate their behavior after 10 years in service. The cables were aged under two different test conditions: With relatively high accelerating ageing speed:Radiation ageing was carried out at room temperature at a dose rate of 2900 Gy/h, followed by thermal ageing at 100 °C. This accelerated ageing condition was fairly fast, but still in compliance with the standards. With moderate ageing speed:The radiation and thermal ageing was performed simultaneously (superimposed) at a dose rate of 2.7-3.7Gy/h and a temperature of 68-70 °C. Such a test condition seems to be very close to the radiation and temperature impact onto the cables in the real NPP service. Finally, mechanical properties were measured to characterize the ageing status of the cables. The purpose of this study was to compare degradation effects, derived from both ageing methods, and to demonstrate that results obtained from high values of accelerating parameters and from fast ageing simulation can be very different from reality. The observed results corroborated this assumption.

  4. Cable TV: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Educational Library/Media Association, Columbus.

    Designed to aid in planning the best use of cable television in a particular educational situation, this pamphlet was prepared by a joint committee of the Ohio Educational Library Media Association and the Greater Miami Valley Instructional Television Council in order to share their plans, experiences, problems, and solutions with others who are…

  5. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  6. Internal coaxial cable seal system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Sneddon, Cameron; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-07-25

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable and is placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including load ring components and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable sealing the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. The seal system can be used in a variety of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  7. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  8. Tapping the television cable.

    PubMed

    Clarke, M; Findlay, A; Canac, J F; Vergez, A

    1996-01-01

    Immediate access to patient data is essential to support good clinical decision making and support. However, away from the surgery, the doctor is currently unable to have any access to the clinical database. Solutions exist to support remote access, such as modems or radio data networks, but these are slow, with typical speeds in the 2-10 kbaud region. We propose a novel solution, to use the TV cable already installed in many homes. Using this technology, a suitably equipped computer (RF modern) is capable of connecting at speeds in excess of 500 kbaud and will run applications in exactly the same way as if connected to a surgery network: the cable TV becomes a LAN, but on a metropolitan scale. Brunel University, in collaboration with the Cable Corporation, has been piloting such a network. Issues include not only levels of service, but also security on the network and access, since the data are being effectively received in every home. However, close scrutiny of channel use can create closed networks reserved for specific users. The technology involves use of an RF modem to transmit data on a reverse channel (based at 16 MHz) on each subnet to a router at the head end of the cable network. This frequency translates the packet and retransmits it to all the subnets on a forward channel (based at 178 MHz). Each channel occupies the bandwidth normally allocated to one TV channel. Access is based on a modified CSMA/CD protocol, so treating the cable network as single multiple access network. The modem comes as a standard card installed in a PC and appears much as an ethernet card, but at reduced speed. With an NDIS driver it is quite able to support almost any network software, and has successfully demonstrated Novell and TCP/IP. We describe the HomeWorker network and the results from a pilot study being undertaken to determine the performance of the system and its impact on working practice.

  9. The bacteria binding glycoprotein salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp340) activates complement via the lectin pathway.

    PubMed

    Leito, Jelani T D; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; van Houdt, Michel; van den Berg, Timo K; Wouters, Diana

    2011-10-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp-340 and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1, is a glycoprotein that is present in tears, lung fluid and mucosal surfaces along the gastrointestinal tract. It is encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene, a member of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich group B protein superfamily. SAG aggregates bacteria thus promoting their clearance from the oral cavity and activates the complement system. Complement proteins may enter the oral cavity in case of serum leakage, which occurs after mucosal damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mode of complement activation. We showed a dose-dependent C4 deposition on SAG-coated microplates showing that either the classical or lectin pathway of complement was activated. Antibodies against mannose binding lectin inhibited C4 deposition and SAG induced no C4 deposition in MBL deficient sera showing SAG activated complement through the MBL pathway. Periodate treatment of SAG abolished MBL pathway activation consistent with an involvement of SAG glycans in complement activation. This provides the first evidence for a role of SAG in complement activation through the MBL pathway and suggests a potential role of SAG as a complement activating factor at the mucosal epithelia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Arabidopsis senescence-associated protein SAG29 regulates cell viability under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Jung-Min; Kang, Seok Ki; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important cellular organ that perceives incoming developmental and environmental signals and integrates these signals into cellular regulatory mechanisms. It also acts as a barrier against unfavorable extracellular factors to maintain cell viability. Despite its importance for cell viability, molecular components determining cell viability and underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that a plasma membrane-localized MtN3 protein SAG29 regulates cell viability under high salinity in Arabidopsis. The SAG29 gene is expressed primarily in senescing plant tissues. It is induced by osmotic stresses via an abscisic acid-dependent pathway. Whereas the SAG29-overexpressing transgenic plants (35S:SAG29) exhibited an accelerated senescence and were hypersensitive to salt stress, the SAG29-deficient mutants were less sensitive to high salinity. Consistent with this, the 35S:SAG29 transgenic plants showed reduced cell viability in the roots under normal growth condition. In contrast, cell viability in the SAG29-deficient mutant roots was indistinguishable from that in the roots of control plants. Notably, the mutant roots exhibited enhanced cell viability under high salinity. Our observations indicate that the senescence-associated SAG29 protein is associated with cell viability under high salinity and other osmotic stress conditions. We propose that the SAG29 protein may serve as a molecular link that integrates environmental stress responses into senescing process.

  11. Transduced Tat-SAG fusion protein protects against oxidative stress and brain ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Sun Hwa; Jeong, Min Seop; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Mi Jin; Jeong, Hoon Jae; An, Jae Jin; Jang, Sang Ho; Won, Moo Ho; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Lee, Kil Soo; Park, Jinseu; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2010-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG) is a RING-finger protein that exhibits antioxidant activity against a variety of redox reagents. However, the protective effect of SAG in brain ischemic injury is unclear. Here, we investigated the protective effects of a Tat-SAG fusion protein against cell death and ischemic insult. When Tat-SAG fusion protein was added to the culture medium of astrocytes, it rapidly entered the cells and protected them against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that, when Tat-SAG fusion protein was intraperitoneally injected into gerbils, wild-type Tat-SAG prevented neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in response to transient forebrain ischemia. In addition, wild-type Tat-SAG fusion protein decreased lipid peroxidation in the brain compared with mutant Tat-SAG- or vehicle-treated animals. Our results demonstrate that Tat-SAG fusion protein is a tool for the treatment of ischemic insult and it can be used in protein therapy for various disorders related to ROS, including stroke.

  12. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  13. Investigation of Shielded and Unshielded Cables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-11

    increase the yield strength of cables. Table 2 lists the required and measured strengths of the test cables. Both shielded and unshielded Size 2 cables do...selected for evaluation, five shielded and five unshielded, and were examined, dissected and the internal components measured . A list of the cables and...components were measured following the testing parameters shown in Table 17. All complete cables, cables less jacket and cables less jacket and shield

  14. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

  15. Vortex-induced vibrations of a flexibly-mounted inclined cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2013-11-01

    The majority of studies on vortex-induced vibrations of a flexibly-mounted rigid cylinder are for the cases where the flow direction is perpendicular to the long axis of the structure. However, in many engineering applications, such as cable stays in bridges and mooring lines of floating offshore wind turbines, the flow direction may not be perpendicular to the structure. To understand the vortex shedding behind a fixed inclined cylinder, the Independence Principle (IP) has been used. The IP assumes that an inclined cylinder behaves similarly to a normal-incidence case, if only the component of the free stream velocity normal to the cylinder axis is considered. The IP neglects the effect of the axial component of the flow, which seems reasonable for small angles of inclination, but not for large angles. In the present study, a series of experiments have been conducted on a flexibly-mounted rigid cylinder placed inclined to the oncoming flow with various angles of inclination (0°<θ<75°) in a range of Reynolds numbers from 500 to 4000 to investigate how the angle of inclination affects VIV. A rigid cylinder was mounted on springs, and air bearings were used to reduce the structural damping of the system. The system was placed in the test-section of a recirculating water tunnel and the crossflow displacements were measured at each flow velocity. Even at high angles of inclination, large-amplitude oscillations were observed. As the angle of inclination was increased, the lock-in range (the range of reduced flow velocities for which the cylinder oscillates with a large amplitude) started at a higher reduced velocity. When only the normal component of the oncoming flow was considered, the onset of lock-in was observed to be at the same normalized flow velocity for all angles of inclination except for 75°. However, the width of the lock-in region, its pattern, the maximum amplitude of oscillations and its corresponding normalized reduced velocity were not following

  16. Trajectories of balls on the inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröer, H.

    We view trajectories of projection on the inclined plane. We will see that the inclined throw in the homogeneous field is a special case of the throw on the inclined plane. Here the trajectories of projection are dependent upon throwing angle and initial velocity. First we will treat the frictionless case. Thereafter, it will be easier to understand the friction case. In chapter 2 we take into consideration friction. There is an english and a german edition.

  17. Method to improve superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    A method is disclosed of making a stranded superconductor cable having improved flexing and bending characteristics. In such method, a plurality of superconductor strands are helically wound around a cylindrical portion of a mandrel which tapers along a transitional portion to a flat end portion. The helically wound strands form a multistrand hollow cable which is partially flattened by pressure rollers as the cable travels along the transitional portion. The partially flattened cable is impacted with repeated hammer blows as the hollow cable travels along the flat end portion. The hammer blows flatten both the internal and the external surfaces of the strands. The cable is fully flattened and compacted by two sets of pressure rollers which engage the flat sides and the edges of the cable after it has traveled away from the flat end portion of the mandrel. The flattened internal surfaces slide easily over one another when the cable is flexed or bent so that there is very little possibility that the cable will be damaged by the necessary flexing and bending required to wind the cable into magnet coils.

  18. [Hyperparathyroidism disclosed by forward sagging of the head].

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, F; Rajzbaum, G; Bonnichon, P; Amor, B

    1993-06-01

    An unusual clinical presentation of hyperparathyroidism is reported. The 73-year-old patient was unable to maintain her head upright after ten minutes of walking or standing. Parathyroid adenoma was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasound and pathological findings and parathyroid hormone assays. Following surgery the forward sagging of the head no longer occurred and serum levels of calcium and phosphorus returned to normal. Pathophysiological hypotheses are discussed. No similar cases with isolated weakness of the cervical and dorsal paravertebral muscles has been reported to date.

  19. Cable coupling lightning transient qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of instrumentation cabling on the redesigned solid rocket motor was performed. Testing consisted of subjecting the lightning evaluation test article to simulated lightning strikes and evaluating the effects of instrumentation cable transients on cables within the system tunnel. The maximum short-circuit current induced onto a United Space Boosters, Inc., operational flight cable within the systems tunnel was 92 A, and the maximum induced open-circuit voltage was 316 V. These levels were extrapolated to the worst-case (200 kA) condition of NASA specification NSTS 07636 and were also scaled to full-scale redesigned solid rocket motor dimensions. Testing showed that voltage coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 40 to 90 dB and that current coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 30 to 70 dB with the use of braided metallic sock shields around cables that are external to the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels induced onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the cables' relative locations within the systems tunnel. Results of current injections to the systems tunnel indicate that the dominant coupling mode on cables within the systems tunnel is not from instrumentation cables but from coupling through the systems tunnel cover seam apertures. It is recommended that methods of improving the electrical bonding between individual sections of the systems tunnel covers be evaluated. Further testing to better characterize redesigned solid rocket motor cable coupling effects as an aid in developing methods to reduce coupling levels, particularly with respect to cable placement within the systems tunnel, is also recommended.

  20. Cable shield connecting device

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    A cable shield connecting device for installation on a high voltage cable of the type having a metallic shield, the device including a relatively conformable, looped metal bar for placement around a bared portion of the metallic shield to extend circumferentially around a major portion of the circumference of the metallic shield while being spaced radially therefrom, a plurality of relatively flexible metallic fingers affixed to the bar, projecting from the bar in an axial direction and spaced circumferentially along the bar, each finger being attached to the metallic shield at a portion located remote from the bar to make electrical contact with the metallic shield, and a connecting conductor integral with the bar.

  1. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  2. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Matthew M.; Wilfong, Dennis H.; Lomax, Ralph E.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  3. Non-Intrusive Cable Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A cable tester is described for low frequency testing of a cable for faults. The tester allows for testing a cable beyond a point where a signal conditioner is installed, minimizing the number of connections which have to be disconnected. A magnetic pickup coil is described for detecting a test signal injected into the cable. A narrow bandpass filter is described for increasing detection of the test signal. The bandpass filter reduces noise so that a high gain amplifier provided for detecting a test signal is not completely saturate by noise. To further increase the accuracy of the cable tester, processing gain is achieved by comparing the signal from the amplifier with at least one reference signal emulating the low frequency input signal injected into the cable. Different processing techniques are described evaluating a detected signal.

  4. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of electric... MSHA-approved flame-resistant cable. The cable shall be of the type that the splice kit is designed to... the cable shall be compatible with the splice kit design. Each splice shall be made in accordance...

  5. Ubiquitination by SAG regulates macrophage survival/death and immune response during infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Ding, J L

    2014-09-01

    The checkpoint between the life and death of macrophages is crucial for the host's frontline immune defense during acute phase infection. However, the mechanism as to how the immune cell equilibrates between apoptosis and immune response is unclear. Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. However, SAG knockdown disrupted this balance. Further analysis revealed that ubiquitination of Bax and SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein) by SAG-UPS confers survival advantage to infected macrophages. SAG knockdown caused the accumulation of proapoptotic Bax and SARM, imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax in the mitochondria, induction of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3, all of which led to disequilibrium between life and death of macrophages. In contrast, SAG-overexpressing macrophages challenged with PAMPs exhibited upregulation of protumorigenic cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and downregulation of antitumorigenic cytokine (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). This suggests that SAG-dependent UPS is a key switch between immune defense and apoptosis or immune overactivation and tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicate that SAG-UPS facilitates a timely and appropriate level of immune response, prompting future development of potential immunomodulators of SAG-UPS.

  6. Optimum inclination for shuttle retrieval of inclination non-sensitive satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    A study to identify the optimum inclination for a satellite when the satellite is inclination non-sensitive and is to be retrieved is reported. This inclination is such that it provides an opportunity for a retrieval flight at least once each day with minimal on-orbit phasing requirements and minimal ascent performance losses.

  7. Monitoring cables for local degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Sliter, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiences in operating nuclear plants in the United States have demonstrated the need for an in situ cable condition monitoring technique that can assess whether installed, low-voltage, unshielded cables have local damage that could compromise their ability to function under normal and accident service conditions. This paper summarizes current US programs that have been initiated to develop a technological basis for monitoring cables with local degradation. 7 refs.

  8. Cable structures and lunar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettouney, Mohammed; Benaroya, Haym; Agassi, Nissim

    1992-07-01

    The feasibility of using cable-based structural systems for lunar bases is examined. Small, medium, and long structural spans are considered, and it is shown that each span category dictates the use of a different structural system. It is demonstrated that efficient cable and secondary support systems and foundations are feasible for each span group. The advantages and possibilities offered by cable structures for lunar bases are discussed.

  9. Epoxy-Resin Cable Terminations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-03

    of epoxy- resin terminations , or end -fittings, to small diameter cables. Test samples were made using steel, titanium, and amorphous metal cable...15 vi NSWC TR 88-400 CHAITER 1 INTROIDUCTION The general function of end fittings, also referred to as terminations , is to allow the attachment of...instructions require that the termination body (henceforth referred to as’body’) be slipped over the end of the cable which is then unlaid and cleaned

  10. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  11. 46 CFR 28.535 - Inclining test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inclining test. 28.535 Section 28.535 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.535 Inclining test. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this...

  12. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  13. Superconducting flat tape cable magnet

    DOEpatents

    Takayasu, Makoto

    2015-08-11

    A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.

  14. Overhead tray for cable test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, K. T.

    1976-01-01

    System consists of overhead slotted tray, series of compatible adapter cables, and automatic test set which consists of control console and cable-switching console. System reduces hookup time and also reduces cost of fabricating and storing test cables.

  15. The Future of Cable Communications in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigette L.

    1976-01-01

    Cable technology, the regulatory framework, and the cable industry's economic situation are examined. It is proposed that libraries engage in informational activities using the cable which are different from those presently undertaken. (Author)

  16. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  17. 5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM SOUTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. MICROWAVE DISH IN FOREGROUND. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM NORTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. TOPS OF BUNKER PERISCOPE AND FLAGPOLE ON ROOF OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 51. View of sitdown cable car and cable way for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of sit-down cable car and cable way for stream gaging, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  20. 52. View of sitdown cable car, cable way, and stream ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View of sit-down cable car, cable way, and stream gaging station, looking southeast. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  1. Improved detection of equine antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using polyvalent ELISAs based on the parasite SnSAG surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Yeargan, Michelle R; Howe, Daniel K

    2011-02-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a common neurologic disease of horses that is caused by the apicomplexan pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. To help improve serologic diagnosis of S. neurona infection, we have modified existing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the immunogenic parasite surface antigens SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4 to make the assays polyvalent, thereby circumventing difficulties associated with parasite antigenic variants and diversity in equine immune responses. Two approaches were utilized to achieve polyvalence: (1) mixtures of the individual recombinant SnSAGs (rSnSAGs) were included in single ELISAs; (2) a collection of unique SnSAG chimeras that fused protein domains from different SnSAG surface antigens into a single recombinant protein were generated for use in the ELISAs. These new assays were assessed using a defined sample set of equine sera and cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) that had been characterized by Western blot and/or were from confirmed EPM horses. While all of the polyvalent ELISAs performed relatively well, the highest sensitivity and specificity (100%/100%) were achieved with assays containing the rSnSAG4/2 chimera (Domain 1 of SnSAG4 fused to SnSAG2) or using a mixture of rSnSAG3 and rSnSAG4. The rSnSAG4 antigen alone and the rSnSAG4/3 chimera (Domain 1 of SnSAG4 fused to Domain 2 of SnSAG3) exhibited the next best accuracy at 95.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Binding ratios and percent positivity (PP) ratios, determined by comparing the mean values for positive versus negative samples, showed that the most advantageous signal to noise ratios were provided by rSnSAG4 and the rSnSAG4/3 chimera. Collectively, our results imply that a polyvalent ELISA based on SnSAG4 and SnSAG3, whether as a cocktail of two proteins or as a single chimeric protein, can give optimal results in serologic testing of serum or CSF for the presence of antibodies against S. neurona. The use of polyvalent SnSAG ELISAs will

  2. Universal cable head for a multiconductor logging cable

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, M.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a universal cable head. It comprises: an armored logging cable having up to seven electrical conductors therein and incorporating a woven wire rope, and a surrounding armor wrap; stress relieving stinger means on the cable; an encircling housing to transfer axial loads from the cable to the housing; an internal transverse bulkhead within the housing adjacent to an internal cavity therein; electrical feedthrus for connection of conductors in the logging cable; exposed mating connectors electrically connected to the feedthrus; the housing extending past and encircling the mating connectors; and a rotatable, shoulder limited sleeve on the exterior of the housing having threading means thereon for connecting with a mating female connector.

  3. SU-E-T-88: Evaluating Gantry Sag on Linear Accelerators and Introducing an MLC-Based Compensation Strategy.

    PubMed

    Du, W; Gao, S; Wang, X; Kudchadker, R

    2012-06-01

    Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. This study aims to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linacs and to investigate a multiple leaf collimator (MLC)-base strategy to compensate for gantry sag. We used the Winston-Lutz method to measure the gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball-bearing phantom was imaged with a square radiation field during gantry rotation. The images were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and subsequently the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center from the radiation isocenter as a function of gantry angle. Compensation for gantry sag was attempted by offsetting the MLC leaves at 90-degree collimator angle. The amount of offset was the opposite of measured gantry sag, which was gantry angle-specific. Gantry sag was reproducible within a six-month period. On the three linacs, the maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 mm to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly, or away from the gantry, when the gantry was rotated from 0 to 180 degrees. Comparison of gantry sag at 0- and 90-degree collimator angles showed that the uncertainty in MLC leaf positions did not increase the gantry sag. Instead, gantry sag was caused primarily by nonideal gantry rotation. After the MLC compensation was applied, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to less than 0.2 mm. The results indicated that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured with sub-millimeter precision, using a simple ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 degree collimator angle. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Inclination Excitation in Compact Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juliette; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-05-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. We have explored the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination in this class of solar systems. The two mechanisms we discuss are self-excitation of orbital inclination in initially (nearly) coplanar planetary systems and perturbations by additional unseen larger bodies in the outer regions of the solar systems. For both of these scenarios, we determine the regimes of parameter space for which orbital inclination can be effectively excited. For compact planetary systems with the observed architectures, we find that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation, resulting in a negligible scatter in impact parameter and a subsequently stable transiting system. In contrast, companions in the outer solar system can be effective in driving variations of the inclination angles of the inner planetary orbits, leading to significant scatter in impact parameter and resultantly non-transiting systems. We present the results of our study, the regimes in which each excitation method - self-excitation of inclination and excitation by a perturbing secondary - are relevant, and the magnitude of the effects.

  5. Cable Television: Notebook Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notebook, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Cable television has been introduced to the public as a revolutionary development in communications, but its history, evolving structure, and present operation indicate otherwise. A few large industrial conglomerates have come to dominate the field of cable television and studies by private institutions and the regulatory activities of the Federal…

  6. Cable Television and Public Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranberg, Gilbert

    One of the most promising applications of cable television (CATV) is municipal surveillance of public areas for protection against crime, fire detection, control of air pollution, and traffic. Thus far, however, the CATV industry has made minimal efforts to realize the potential of CATV for community protection--the use of cable for public safety…

  7. Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

    A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

  8. A Glossary of Cable Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Prepared as part of the ongoing series of publications designed to assist local and state government policy makers with cable television planning and decision-making, this glossary updates the document originally published in 1972. It contains definitions of terms frequently encountered in matters concerning cable television. (DGC)

  9. What Belongs On the Cable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, John E.

    Many papers and articles over the past few years have suggested that the coaxial cable television (CATV) cable carries sufficient bandwidth into and out of the home that it can serve almost every conceivable communications need--providing many television viewing channels; two-way data, audio and data services; the functions of the present…

  10. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  11. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, Stephen N; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C

    2014-06-24

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  12. Surgical treatment of the denervated or sagging lower lid.

    PubMed

    Wiggs, E O; Guibor, P; Hecht, S D; Wolfley, D E

    1982-05-01

    Paralytic ectropion of the lower eyelid and increased curvature of the lower eyelid associated with anophthalmos both cn be optimally treated by use of an autogenous fascia lata sling. Some patients also have problems with prosthesis retention due to lower eyelid deformity with a shortened inferior fornix. In some instances, it is also necessary to perform a horizontal shortening operation on the lower eyelid. In anophthalmic patients, the relationship between prosthesis size and weight and a sagging lower lid is discussed. In some patients when the lower eyelid is elevated, the patient then has an upper lid ptosis for which it is necessary to perform an appropriate levator shortening operation. Surgical technique and illustrative pre- and post-operative photographs are shown.

  13. Undiscovered petroleum of the Brazilian interior sag basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingston, J.; Matzko, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the four large intracratonic (or interior) sag basins of Brazil: the Solimoes, Amazonas, Parnaiba, and Parana. The smaller Chaco basin also is discussed, although in less detail. The Dolimoes basin has the greatest initial estimated undiscovered reserves of oil (0.04 BBO), and the Parana basin has the greatest initial estimated undiscovered reserves of gas (5.08 TCFG). The most important plays in the Solimoes and structurally similar Amazonas basins are the fold and fault closures associated with the wrench systems found in the basins. The plays in the Parana basin are limited to possible structural traps linked to fault-associated closures, and possibly to some wrench-related features.

  14. Fitting discrete aspherical surface sag data using orthonormal polynomials.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, David; Ceyhan, Ufuk; Henning, Thomas; Fleischmann, Friedrich; Knipp, Dietmar

    2015-08-24

    Characterizing real-life optical surfaces usually involves finding the best-fit of an appropriate surface model to a set of discrete measurement data. This process can be greatly simplified by choosing orthonormal polynomials for the surface description. In case of rotationally symmetric aspherical surfaces, new sets of orthogonal polynomials were introduced by Forbes to replace the numerical unstable standard description. From these, for the application of surface retrieval using experimental ray tracing, the sag orthogonal Q(con)-polynomials are of particular interest. However, these are by definition orthogonal over continuous data and may not be orthogonal for discrete data. In this case, the simplified solution is not valid. Hence, a Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization of these polynomials over the discrete data set is proposed to solve this problem. The resulting difference will be presented by a performance analysis and comparison to the direct matrix inversion method.

  15. Inclination of Nations to Control Press and Attitudes on Professionalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Interviews official representatives of 58 nations to investigate their "inclination to control" the press. Finds the region most inclined to control the press is the Middle East, whereas regions least inclined are Western Europe and North America. (RS)

  16. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Ahmed M; Abdel Aleem, Shady H E; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Balci, Murat E; El-Zahab, Essam E A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  17. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Ahmed M.; Abdel Aleem, Shady H.E.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M.; Balci, Murat E.; El-Zahab, Essam E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type. PMID:26843975

  18. Twenty year experience of the oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in wildlife: a global review.

    PubMed

    Mähl, Philippe; Cliquet, Florence; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel; Fournials, Emma; Saint-Jean, Nathalie; Aubert, Michel; Rupprecht, Charles E; Gueguen, Sylvie

    2014-08-10

    The SAG2 vaccine (RABIGEN® SAG2) is a modified live attenuated rabies virus vaccine, selected from the SAD Bern strain in a two-step process of amino acid mutation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The strain is genetically stable and does not spread in vivo or induce a persistent infection. Its absence of residual pathogenicity was extensively demonstrated in multiple target and non target species (such as wild carnivores and rodent species), including non-human primates. The efficacy of SAG2 baits was demonstrated according to the EU requirements for the red fox and raccoon dog. The use of safe and potent rabies vaccines such as SAG2 largely contributed to the elimination of rabies in Estonia, France, Italy and Switzerland. Importantly, these countries were declared free of rabies after few years of oral vaccination campaigns with SAG2 baits distributed with an appropriate strategy. The excellent tolerance of the SAG2 vaccine has been confirmed in the field since its first use in 1993. No safety issues have been reported, and in particular no vaccine-induced rabies cases were diagnosed, after the distribution of more than 20 million SAG2 baits in Europe.

  19. An Effect of Fault Current Limiter to Distributed Generator Shaft Torque Increase under Voltage Sag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Takayuki; Funabashi, Toshihisa; Otoguro, Hitomi; Martinez, Juan A.; Putrus, Ghanim; Fujita, Goro; Koyanagi, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Ryuichi

    Voltage sags originated at the transmission level can have a very adverse effect on distributed generators running at distribution levels. A fault current limiter (FCL) can be an effective means to limit the voltage sag impact. This paper presents the main results of a research based on digital simulation and aimed at studying the effectiveness of a FCL to limit the impact of voltage sag on the shaft torque of distributed generators. The sensitivity of the shaft torque to parameters of the FCL, the power system and the fault is analyzed.

  20. "Sagging heart syndrome": a cause of acute lead dislodgment in two patients.

    PubMed

    Iskos, D; Lurie, K G; Shultz, J J; Fabian, W H; Benditt, D G

    1999-02-01

    Acute passive fixation atrial lead dislodgment occurred due to an unexpected and marked postural descent of the heart after permanent pacemaker implantation in two patients. Sagging of the heart in these two individuals may have been related to a history of morbid obesity followed by weight loss of over 100 pounds. Lead replacement with active fixation leads was required in both cases. The term "sagging heart syndrome" is proposed to describe this clinical entity. In certain adult populations, such as in patients with a history of significant weight loss, the "sagging heart syndrome" may represent a previously unrecognized cause of acute lead dislodgment.

  1. 23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL BRACING DETAIL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  2. Inclination Excitation in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juliette; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of planetary systems with little or no excited inclination between the inferred orbits. This present study examines the magnitude and efficacy of three potential mechanisms for exciting orbital inclination in these systems: self-excitation of orbital inclination in initially coplanar planetary systems, perturbations by larger bodies within the planetary systems, and perturbations by massive bodies external to the systems. For each of these mechanisms, we determine the regime(s) of parameter space for which orbital inclination excitation is effective. This work provides constraints on the properties (masses and orbital elements) of possible additional bodies in observed planetery systems, and on their dynamical history. One interesting application is to consider the relative size of the external perturbations both in and out of clusters.

  3. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping.

    PubMed

    Kannas, Theodoros M; Kellis, Eleftherios; Amiridis, Ioannis G

    2011-12-01

    Kannas, TM, Kellis, E, and Amiridis, IG. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3334-3341, 2011-The need for the generation of higher joint power output during performance of dynamic activities led us to investigate the force-length relationship of the plantar flexors during consecutive stretch-shortening cycles of hopping. The hypothesis of this study was that hopping (consecutive jumps with the knee as straight as possible) on an inclined (15°) surface might lead to a better jumping performance compared with hopping on a plane surface (0°). Twelve active men performed 3 sets of 10 consecutive hops on both an incline and plane surface. Ground reaction forces; ankle and knee joint kinematics; electromyographic (EMG) activity from the medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA); and architectural data from the MG were recorded. The results showed that participants jumped significantly higher (p < 0.05) when hopping on an inclined surface (30.32 ± 8.18 cm) compared with hopping on a plane surface (27.52 ± 4.97 cm). No differences in temporal characteristics between the 2 types of jumps were observed. Incline hopping induced significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension at takeoff compared with plane hopping (p < 0.05). The fascicle length of the MG was greater at initial contact with the ground during incline hopping (p < 0.05). Moreover, the EMG activities of Sol and TA during the propulsion phase were significantly higher during incline compared with that during plane hopping (p < 0.05). It does not seem unreasonable to suggest that, if the aim of hopping plyometrics is to improve plantar flexor explosivity, incline hopping might be a more effective exercise than hopping on a plane surface.

  4. Validation of SAG/RBX2/ROC2 E3 ubiquitin ligase as an anticancer and radiosensitizing target.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lijun; Yang, Jie; Hao, Xinbao; Zheng, Min; He, Hongbin; Xiong, Xiufang; Xu, Liang; Sun, Yi

    2010-02-01

    Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG; also known as RBX2 or ROC2) was originally cloned as a redox-inducible antioxidant protein and was later characterized as a RING component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. SAG overexpression inhibits apoptosis induced by many stimuli both in vitro and in vivo. SAG mRNA was overexpressed in human lung tumor tissues with a correlation to poor patient survival. To investigate whether SAG serves as an anticancer target, we determined the effect of SAG silencing on cell proliferation, survival, and radiosensitivity. SAG protein expression in human tumors was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining using tumor tissue arrays. SAG expression in cancer cells was knocked down by siRNA silencing. The anticancer effects of SAG silencing were evaluated by in vitro assays for cell growth and survival and by an in vivo orthotopic xenograft tumor model. Radiosensitization by SAG silencing of human cancer cells was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Apoptosis induction was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, caspase-3 activation assay, and Western blotting of apoptosis-associated proteins. SAG was overexpressed in multiple human tumor tissues compared with their normal counterparts. SAG silencing selectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation, suppressed in vivo tumor growth, and sensitized radiation-resistant cancer cells to radiation. Mechanistically, SAG silencing induced apoptosis with accumulation of NOXA, whereas SAG overexpression reduced NOXA levels and shortened NOXA protein half-life. The findings showed that SAG E3 ubiquitin ligase plays an essential role in cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth and may serve as a promising anticancer and radiosensitizing target.

  5. SAG/ROC2/RBX2 is a HIF-1 target gene that promotes HIF-1 alpha ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; Gu, Q; He, H; Pamarthy, D; Semenza, G L; Sun, Y

    2008-02-28

    SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene) or ROC2/RBX2 is the second family member of ROC1/RBX1, a component of SCF (Skp1, Cullin, F-box protein) and VCB (von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), Cullin and Elongin B/C) E3 ubiquitin ligases. SAG protected cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis when overexpressed. We report here that SAG was subjected to hypoxia induction at the levels of mRNA and protein. Hypoxia induction of SAG was largely HIF-1alpha dependent. A consensus HIF-1-binding site, GCGTG was identified in the first intron of the SAG gene. In response to hypoxia, HIF-1 bound to this site and transactivated SAG expression. SAG transactivation required both the intact binding site in cis and HIF-1alpha in trans. On the other hand, like its family member, ROC1, SAG promoted VHL-mediated HIF-1alpha ubiquitination and degradation, which was significantly inhibited upon small interfering RNA silencing of SAG or ROC1. Furthermore, the endogenous HIF-1alpha at both basal and hypoxia-induced levels was significantly increased upon SAG silencing. Finally, SAG forms in vivo complex with Cul-5 and VHL under hypoxia condition. These results suggest an HIF-1-SAG feedback loop in response to hypoxia, as follows: hypoxia induces HIF-1 to transactivate SAG. Induced SAG then promotes HIF-1alpha ubiquitination and degradation. This feedback loop may serve as a cellular defensive mechanism to reduce potential cytotoxic effects of prolonged HIF-1 activation under hypoxia.

  6. Evolution of Vortex Rings Exiting Inclined Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmire, E. K.; Webster, D. R.; Reetz, M.; Gefroh, D.

    1996-11-01

    Vortex rings initiated in cylinders with exit incline lengths of 0, D/4, and D/2 were investigated for Reynolds numbers up to 30,000. The fluid exiting each cylinder was visualized with an ionized bromothymol blue solution, and velocity fields were obtained with PIV. In each inclined case, vortex rings form at angles smaller than the cylinder incline angle. Entrainment of ambient fluid on the short side of the cylinder is much stronger than that on the long side. This results in a larger circulation about the short side of the ring and a greater propagation velocity on that side. The incline angle of the ring thus decreases as it moves downstream. Behind the ring core, an impulsive wave of entrained ambient fluid flows parallel to the cylinder exit plane. Some of this fluid is wrapped into the core, while the rest is ejected outward past the long cylinder edge. The vortex ring dynamics differ significantly from those observed in jets from inclined nozzles where neighboring rings are connected by straining zones, and ring incline angles increase with downstream distance.

  7. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments.

    PubMed

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-09-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage. PMID:26116678

  9. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  12. Cable Television for Librarians. Conference Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drexel Library Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The conclusion contains reports of discussions from the four groups which make up participant types: (a) those having no cable, (b) those having old cable systems, (c) those negotiating for cable, and (d) those having cable but no programs. (Other conference materials are LI 503071 through LI 503083.) (Author/SM)

  13. Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

  14. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  16. Competition in the Pay Cable Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarran, Alan B.

    This paper analyzes the state of competition in the pay cable industry. The analysis conceptualizes competition in pay cable and discusses the current structure of the pay cable industry and the competition for subscribers and programming. The competition for audiences that pay cable faces from both pay-per-view services and the video cassette…

  17. Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

  18. Cable in Connecticut; a Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Margaret

    This handbook for Connecticut cable television consumers addresses a variety of topics, including: (1) a definition of cable television services; (2) the public stake in cable television; (3) program variety; (4) pay cable service; (5) public satellites; (6) government regulation; (7) proposed regulation; (8) role of the Connecticut Public…

  19. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to central... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to central... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable...

  1. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to central... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to central... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable...

  3. Cable Modem Technology Implementation: Challenges and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    1998-01-01

    Describes cable modem technology (i.e., an external device that facilitates high-speed access to the Internet via the same network configuration employed for cable television). Examples of cable field trials carried out in collaboration with educational user communities are presented, and cable technical capabilities, advantages, and constraints…

  4. Cable Modem Technology Implementation: Challenges and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    1998-01-01

    Describes cable modem technology (i.e., an external device that facilitates high-speed access to the Internet via the same network configuration employed for cable television). Examples of cable field trials carried out in collaboration with educational user communities are presented, and cable technical capabilities, advantages, and constraints…

  5. 105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC-3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT AND SLC-3E CABLE TUNNEL. NOTE WOODEN PLANKING ON FLOOR OF TUNNEL AND CABLE TRAYS LINING TUNNEL WALLS. STAIRS ON EAST WALL OF CABLE VAULT LEAD INTO LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, E.B.; Muller, A.C.

    1983-07-15

    The present invention is a cable which, although constructed from inexpensive polyolefin tapes and using typical impregnating oils, furnishes high voltage capability up to 765 kV, and has such excellent dielectric characteristics and heat transfer properties that it is capable of operation at capacities equal to or higher than presently available cables at a given voltage. This is accomplished by using polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene insulating tape which has been specially processed to attain properties which are not generally found in these materials, but are required for their use in impregnated electrical cables. Chief among these properties is compatibility with impregnating oil.

  7. Robot cable-compliant devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A cable compliant robotic joint includes two U configuration cross section brackets with their U cross sections lying in different planes, one of their brackets being connected to a robot arm and the other to a tool. Additional angle brackets are displaced from the other brackets at corners of the robotic joint. All the brackets are connected by cable segments which lie in one or more planes which are perpendicular to the direction of tool travel as it approaches a work object. The compliance of the joint is determined by the cable segment characteristics, such as their length, material, angle, stranding, pretwisting, and prestressing.

  8. Thermal analysis of underground power cable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rerak, Monika; Ocłoń, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the application of Finite Element Method in thermal analysis of underground power cable system. The computations were performed for power cables buried in-line in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The developed mathematical model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil and cable backfill thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Also, the effect of cable diameter on the temperature of cable core was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  9. Aerodynamic control of bridge cables through shape modification: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, K.; Georgakis, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the viability of modifying bridge cable shape and surface for the purpose of controlling wind-induced vibrations. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was carried out on various cable shapes about the critical Reynolds number region. Cable shapes were chosen to passively modify the flow in a particular manner. Tested shapes included those which have some form of waviness, faceting and shrouding. Section models were tested using a static inclined rig, allowing them to be installed at yawed cable-wind angles for both smooth and turbulent flow conditions. The aerodynamic damping of the tested cylinders is evaluated by applying both 1- and 2-dof quasi-steady aerodynamic instability models. This allows for the prediction of regions of aerodynamic instability, as a function of flow angle and Reynolds number. Whilst the plain, wavy and faceted cylinders are predicted to suffer from either dry inclined galloping, “drag crisis” or Den Hartog galloping, the shrouded cylinder is found to be stable for all angles of attack, albeit with an increase in drag at typical design wind velocities. Finally, turbulent flow is found to introduce an increased amount of aerodynamic damping mainly by providing a more constant lift force over tested Reynolds numbers.

  10. A Pulsed Power Supply with Sag Compensation using Controlled Gradational Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Yamada, Masaki; Tashiro, Shojirou; Iwata, Akihiko

    A pulsed power supply with sag compensation using controlled gradational voltage to increase the flatness of output waveforms has been developed.The sag compensation circuit consists of compensation units connected in series. Each compensation unit consists of capacitances, diodes, and semiconductor switches. The capacitances of each unit are charged with different voltages by 2n (V0, 2V0, 4V0, ···). The compensation voltages, which has 2n-1 steps, is generated by switching the semiconductor switches of each unit in a binary sequence. Using this method, compensation voltage waveforms up to 6.2kV with 31 steps can be obtained with 5 compensation units. The sag compensation circuit has been adapted to a direct switch type pulsed power supply, which generates 7kV pulsed voltage with a pulse width of 700μs, thus realizing sag compensation.

  11. Single-access gastrostomy (SAG) dispenses endoscopy or laparoscopy: a simple method under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zorron, Ricardo; Cazarim, Davi; Flores, Daniel; Fontes Meyer, Carlos André; de Castro, Leonardo Machado; Kanaan, Eduardo

    2009-12-01

    Gastrostomy for feeding or desobstructive purposes is often performed transendoscopically. However, as endoscopy specialists and instruments are not widely available in community hospitals in Brazil, an alternative method was developed at the authors' institution. Surgical single-access gastrostomy (SAG), performed under local anesthesia and requiring no endoscopic guidance is described. The authors used the SAG technique on 19 patients eligible for gastrostomy, and the data were prospectively documented. After local anesthesia and a 1-cm incision, the gastric wall was localized under direct vision. Purse string sutures were placed to work as a fixed valve to rectus sheath. SAG was feasible in all patients. Minor complications occurred in 3 patients. The mean operative time was 44.2 minutes, and the mean institution of gastrostomy feeding was 27.8 hours. SAG may dispense with the use of endoscopy and laparoscopy, providing a feasible, reproducible, and effective feeding gastrostomy in developing countries where alternative methods are not available.

  12. Model-based optimization of gravity sagging for a horizontally mounted optical flat.

    PubMed

    Quan, Haiyang; Gu, Wei; Hou, Xi; Wu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    A practical and generalized model-based gravity sagging reconstruction method for a horizontally mounted optical flat is proposed. It is a practical and generalized approach based on the finite element method (FEM) model and real experiment results. Gravity sagging and misalignment parameters are retrieved by solving the multivariable unconstrained optimization problem with a least squares sense. Finally, the accurate true surface figure can be obtained by subtracting the optimized gravity sagging from the test result in the practical mounting state. A reasonable agreement with the outcomes of the FEM analysis and the real experiment is achieved through the proposed method. The effectiveness of the method was verified by comparison with the result measured by three-flat calibration. Experimental results demonstrated that this reverse optimization method can effectively reconstruct the sagging information due to gravity, is generalized, and is computationally efficient in practice.

  13. Process of modifying a cable end

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1995-01-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  14. Process of modifying a cable end

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1995-08-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves. 5 figs.

  15. Ubiquitination by SAG regulates macrophage survival/death and immune response during infection

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S C; Ding, J L

    2014-01-01

    The checkpoint between the life and death of macrophages is crucial for the host's frontline immune defense during acute phase infection. However, the mechanism as to how the immune cell equilibrates between apoptosis and immune response is unclear. Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS). When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. However, SAG knockdown disrupted this balance. Further analysis revealed that ubiquitination of Bax and SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein) by SAG-UPS confers survival advantage to infected macrophages. SAG knockdown caused the accumulation of proapoptotic Bax and SARM, imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax in the mitochondria, induction of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3, all of which led to disequilibrium between life and death of macrophages. In contrast, SAG-overexpressing macrophages challenged with PAMPs exhibited upregulation of protumorigenic cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and downregulation of antitumorigenic cytokine (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). This suggests that SAG-dependent UPS is a key switch between immune defense and apoptosis or immune overactivation and tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicate that SAG-UPS facilitates a timely and appropriate level of immune response, prompting future development of potential immunomodulators of SAG-UPS. PMID:24786833

  16. Improvement of sag resistance by the addition of tungsten in Si-Cr-Mo-V steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, W.J.; Lee, C.S.; Ban, D.Y.

    1997-06-01

    The sag resistance of automobile suspension springs is defined, in general, as the resistance to the plastic deformation of springs during repeated loading in service. Since it is one of the most important properties required for high strength spring steels, earlier works on high strength spring steels have concentrated on the improvement of the sag resistance by adding alloying elements or by changing processing treatments. However, the effect of W, a carbide former, on the sag resistance has not been clarified yet. It is, therefore, of interest to investigate the effect of the W addition on the sag resistance. The evaluation of the sag resistance is usually performed by direct static and dynamic tests on prototype springs. However, such a direct method leads to high costs and long testing time. Thus, Furr has proposed the torsional Bauschinger test as one of convenient testing methods, which is related to the Bauschinger effect. He has also shown that the size of hysteresis loops generated in the torsional Bauschinger test has a close relationship with the sag resistance of springs. Ohara, et al. have investigated the correlation between a direct testing on prototype springs and the torsional Bauschinger test, and have shown that a larger loop area in the torsional Bauschinger test represents a higher sag resistance. In view of the foregoing, the purposes of this investigation are to examine the effects of the W addition on (a) the microstructural evolution during tempering and (b) the sag resistance, using the torsional Bauschinger test, for 0.6C-1.5Si-0.5Cr-0.1Mo-0.2V (wt.%) spring steels.

  17. Accurate ampacity determination: Temperature-Sag Model for operational real time ratings

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, T.O.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents a method for determining transmission line ratings based on the relationship between the conductor`s temperature and its sag. The method is based on the Ruling Span principle and the use of transmission line tension monitoring systems. The report also presents a method of accurately calibrating the final sag of the conductor and determining the actual Ruling Span length of the line sections between deadend structures. Main error sources for two other real time methods are also examined.

  18. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xu; Li, Xiaozhang; Shen, Yonggang

    2014-06-23

    In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  19. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xu; Li, Xiaozhang; Shen, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance. PMID:28788710

  20. MS Grunsfeld during cable IFM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-02-24

    STS081-360-003 (12-22 Jan. 1997) --- Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld performs an inflight maintenance (IFM) task to re-activate power cables connected to experiments in the Spacehab Double Module (DM), onboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis.

  1. Install of Cygnus controller cable

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-15

    ISS040-E-063760 (15 July 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, works with power and data cables in the vestibule between the Destiny laboratory and Unity node of the International Space Station.

  2. Cable Television in Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Mark W.

    1978-01-01

    The experience of producing and presenting two continuing education courses on cable television proved that this technique can be a valuable additional means of presenting courses, complementing classroom discussions, and efficiently extending the university into the community. (Author)

  3. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, William Parker

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  4. Rapid detection of SAG 926delA mutation using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shigeo; Yamaji, Yoko; Yoshida, Ayako; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Ken; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2006-12-06

    Mutation 926delA of the arrestin/S-antigen SAG gene is the main cause of Oguchi disease in the Japanese. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid diagnostic assay to detect mutations in the SAG gene. Two sequence-specific primers and fluorophore-labeled probes for exon 11 of the SAG gene were designed, and the region spanning the mutations was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the LightCycler detection system (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The mutations were then identified by melting curve analyses of the hybrid formed between the PCR product and a specific fluorescent probe. We clearly distinguished each SAG genotype (homozygous and heterozygous 926delA and wild type) by the distinct melting peaks at different temperatures. One thermal cycling required approximately 54 min to process, and the results were 100% in concordance with the genotypes determined by DNA sequencing. We have succeeded in developing a rapid method to detect the most frequent mutation in the SAG gene. This method will help in identifying gene mutations associated with Oguchi disease with a rapid and reliable identification or the exclusion of the frequent mutations in the SAG gene.

  5. Implication of CT table sag on geometrical accuracy during virtual simulation.

    PubMed

    Zullo, John R; Kudchadker, Rajat; Wu, Richard; Lee, Andrew; Prado, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are used in hospitals worldwide for radiation oncology treatment simulation. It is critical that the process very accurately represents the patient positioning to be used during the administration of radiation therapy to minimize the dose delivery to normal tissue. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. One problem is that some degree of vertical displacement, or sag, occurs when the table is extended from its base when under a clinical weight load, a problem resulting from mechanical limitations of the CT table. In an effort to determine the extent of the problem, we measured and compared the degree of table sag for various CT scanner tables at our institution. A clinically representative weight load was placed on each table, and the amount of table sag was measured for varying degrees of table extension from its base. Results indicated that the amount of table sag varied from approximately 0.7 to 6.6 mm and that the amount of table sag varied not only between tables from different manufacturers but also between tables of the same model from the same manufacturer. Failure to recognize and prevent this problem could lead to incorrectly derived isocenter localization and subsequent patient positioning errors. Treatment site-specific and scanner-based laser offset correction should be implemented for each patient's virtual simulation procedure. In addition, the amount of sag should be measured under a clinically representative weight load upon CT-simulator commissioning.

  6. Implication of CT Table Sag on Geometrical Accuracy During Virtual Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, John R. Kudchadker, Rajat; Wu, Richard; Lee, Andrew; Prado, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are used in hospitals worldwide for radiation oncology treatment simulation. It is critical that the process very accurately represents the patient positioning to be used during the administration of radiation therapy to minimize the dose delivery to normal tissue. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. One problem is that some degree of vertical displacement, or sag, occurs when the table is extended from its base when under a clinical weight load, a problem resulting from mechanical limitations of the CT table. In an effort to determine the extent of the problem, we measured and compared the degree of table sag for various CT scanner tables at our institution. A clinically representative weight load was placed on each table, and the amount of table sag was measured for varying degrees of table extension from its base. Results indicated that the amount of table sag varied from approximately 0.7 to 6.6 mm and that the amount of table sag varied not only between tables from different manufacturers but also between tables of the same model from the same manufacturer. Failure to recognize and prevent this problem could lead to incorrectly derived isocenter localization and subsequent patient positioning errors. Treatment site-specific and scanner-based laser offset correction should be implemented for each patient's virtual simulation procedure. In addition, the amount of sag should be measured under a clinically representative weight load upon CT-simulator commissioning.

  7. Impacts of Voltage Sags and Protection Coordination on Sensitive Equipment in Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Le Viet; Tayjasanant, Thavatchai; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Eua-Arporn, Bundhit

    Nowadays, a lot of sensitive electronic equipment is widely used in modern power systems such as power converters and adjustable speed drivers. Voltage sags have gained more interest due to their consequences on the performance of sensitive equipment (SE). Malfunction or failure of the equipment that leads to work or production losses can be caused by voltage sags. As a result, it is essential to have information on equipment sensitivity. If the magnitude and duration of voltage sag exceed the equipment sensitivity threshold, the equipment can malfunction, and such a consequence can affect an entire automatic process, resulting in high economical losses. Reclosers and fuses are the main overcurrent protection devices in distribution systems. Poor coordination may adversely impact on the sensitive equipment. This paper presents a method to analyze impacts of voltage sags and protection coordination on sensitive equipment. A fault position method and mathematical equations describing characteristics of protection devices are used to calculate voltage sags and the protection settings. Voltage tolerance thresholds and protective device characteristics are used to analyze protection and sensitive equipment coordination. Based on the results, new settings for protective devices can be adjusted for sensitive equipment in distribution systems. The Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) bus 2 is used to analyze impacts of voltage sags and protection coordination.

  8. Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Koji; Kishino, Katsumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Oto, Takao; Wakahara, Akihiro; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    We have demonstrated a novel selective area growth (SAG) method based on rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy for AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates. The nanotemplates, which were prepared on a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-GaN template, consisted of a triangular lattice of nanopillars with a lattice constant from 200 to 400 nm. For nanopillars with a lattice constant of 400 nm, the gap width between adjacent pillars was varied from 30 to 130 nm. The well-controlled SAG of GaN nanocolumns was achieved on nanopillar arrays with gap widths of less than approximately 45 nm. The beam shadowing effect, which was induced in the high-density nanopillar arrays with small gaps, was a key mechanism in the SAG. This gap width condition for SAG was satisfied for lattice constants from 200 to 400 nm. Using the nanotemplate SAG technology, the SAG of AlGaN nanocolumn arrays was achieved for Al compositions of 0.13, 0.22, 0.43, and 1. Single-peak photoluminescence (PL) spectra of AlGaN were observed, whose wavelengths were close to the calculated bandgap wavelengths using the bandgaps of AlN (6.015 eV) and GaN (3.39 eV) and a bowing parameter of 0.98 eV.

  9. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, Eric B.; Muller, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  10. IntelliCable Interface Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    on system operation and is purely information for the user. If it is unused it should be set as 0, which will allow the power manager to display an...IntelliCable vastly reduces the possibility of equipment damage, by providing information tied to each power cable, indicating to the Power Manager ...specific device type is used to further identify the device attached the Power Manager . This field is often extra information or ‘fluff’, used for the

  11. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Collins P.; Brown, Donald P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates.

  12. Cables and connectors: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A compilation is presented that reflects the uses, adaptation, and maintenance plus service, that are innovations derived from problem solutions in the space R and D programs, both in house and by NASA and AEC contractors. Data cover: (1) technology revelant to the employment of flat conductor cables and their adaptation to and within conventional systems, (2) connectors and various adaptations, and (3) maintenance and service technology, and shop hints useful in the installation and care of cables and connectors.

  13. Effects of using inclined parametric echosounding on sub-bottom acoustic imaging and advances in buried object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Held, Philipp; Feldens, Peter; Wilken, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    This study reports an adaptation of a parametric echosounder system using 15 kHz as secondary frequency to investigate the angular response of sub-bottom backscatter strength of layered mud, providing a new method for enhanced acoustic detection of buried targets. Adaptions to achieve both vertical (0°) and non-vertical inclination (1-15°, 30°, 45° and 60°) comprise mechanical tilting of the acoustic transducer and electronic beam steering. Data were acquired at 18 m water depth at a study site characterized by a flat, muddy seafloor where a 0.1 m diameter power cable lies 1-2 m below the seafloor. Surveying the cable with vertical incidence revealed that the buried cable can hardly be discriminated against the backscatter strength of the layered mud. However, the backscatter strength of layered mud decreases strongly at >3±0.5° incidence and the layered mud echo pattern vanishes beyond 5°. As a consequence, the backscatter pattern of the buried cable is very pronounced in acoustic images gathered at 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° incidence. The size of the cable echo pattern increases linearly with incidence. These effects are attributed to reflection loss from layered mud at larger incidence and to the scattering of the 0.1 m diameter buried cable. Data analyses support the visual impression of superior detection of the cable with an up to 2.6-fold increase of the signal-to-noise ratio at 40° incidence compared to the vertical incidence case.

  14. Motility of Electric Cable Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-07-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces with a highly variable speed of 0.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) (mean ± standard deviation) and time between reversals of 155 ± 108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment. This study reports on the motility of cable bacteria, capable of transmitting electrons over centimeter distances. It gives us a new insight into their behavior in sediments and explains previously puzzling findings. Cable bacteria greatly influence their environment, and this article adds significantly to the body of knowledge about this organism. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Motility of Electric Cable Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces with a highly variable speed of 0.5 ± 0.3 μm s−1 (mean ± standard deviation) and time between reversals of 155 ± 108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment. IMPORTANCE This study reports on the motility of cable bacteria, capable of transmitting electrons over centimeter distances. It gives us a new insight into their behavior in sediments and explains previously puzzling findings. Cable bacteria greatly influence their environment, and this article adds significantly to the body of knowledge about this organism. PMID:27084019

  16. Dense granular flows down an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Robert; Borzsonyi, Tamas

    2006-03-01

    Granular flow on a rough inclined plane is an important model system in which to study the basic rules of the dynamics of granular materials. Despite intensive study, many features of such flows are still incompletely understood. For uniformly flowing layers at relatively shallow inclination, we consider experimentally the the basic flow rheology of the granular media and propose new scalings to collapse our data for glass beads and rough sand as a function of inclination angle and particle diameter. At steep inclinations above some angle θs (θs/θr 1.3-1.5, where θr stands for the angle of repose) for flowing grains, numerics and theory predict that the surface roughness is inadequate to dissipate energy gained in the gravitational field, and the flow should continue to accelerate. We report on our experimental results on the properties of granular flows on a steeply inclined plane and define the domains of steady flows. We also discuss the instabilities of such flows leading to spatial patterns.

  17. SagE induces highly effective protective immunity against Streptococcus iniae mainly through an immunogenic domain in the extracellular region.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun; Sun, Li; Xing, Ming-qing; Liu, Chun-sheng; Hu, Yong-hua

    2013-11-12

    Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe pathogen of a wide range of farmed fish. S. iniae possesses a virulence-associated streptolysin S cluster composed of several components, one of which is SagE. SagE a transmembrane protein with one major extracellular region named ECR. This study aimed to develop a SagE-based DNA candidate vaccine against streptococcosis and examine the immunoprotective mechanism of the vaccine. We constructed a DNA vaccine, pSagE, based on the sagE gene and examined its immunological property in a Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) model. The results showed that at 7 days post-vaccination, expression of SagE at transcription and translation levels was detected in the tissues of the vaccinated fish. After challenge with S. iniae at one and two months post-vaccination, pSagE-vaccinated fish exhibited relative percent survival (RPS) of 95% and 88% respectively. Immunological analysis showed that (i) pSagE significantly upregulated the expression of a wide range of immune genes, (ii) pSagE induced the production of specific serum antibodies that bound whole-cell S. iniae, and (iii) treatment of S. iniae with pSagE-induced antibodies blocked bacterial invasion of host cells. To localize the immunoprotective domain of SagE, the ECR-expressing DNA vaccine pSagEECR was constructed. Immunization analysis showed that flounder vaccinated with pSagEECR exhibited a RPS of 68%, and that pSagEECR induced serum antibody production and immune gene expression in a manner similar to, though to lower magnitudes than, those induced by pSagE. We in this study developed a DNA vaccine, pSagE, which induces highly protective immunity against S. iniae. The protective effect of pSagE is probably due to its ability to elicit systemic immune response, in particular that of the humoral branch, which leads to production of specific serum antibodies that impair bacterial infection. These results add insights to the immunoprotective mechanism

  18. Recognizing the threshold magnetic anisotropy for inclination shallowing: Implications for correcting inclination errors of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongxiang; Wang, Shipeng; Fu, Shaoying; Jiao, Wenjun

    2014-05-01

    Post-depositional compaction is an integral part of sedimentary rock formation and thus has been reasonably deemed as a major culprit for the long-recognized inclination-shallowing problem in sedimentary rocks. Although theoretical treatment elegantly envisions magnetic anisotropy (or oblate fabrics) to correspond to the degree of compaction and the magnitude of inclination flattening, such correspondence has rarely been seen in nature quantitavely, which leaves the possibility of misidentification and/or over-correction for inclination shallowing using magnetic anisotropy. This is because the extent to which oblate magnetic fabrics are developed strongly enough for inclination to start becoming shallow is not yet known. Here, we present sedimentary paleomagnetic data from two ~6 m long gravity cores GHE24L and GHE27L from the northern slope of the South China Sea to examine the down-core changes in magnetic anisotropy and inclinations, and to explore the possible connection between the two parameters. The results show that oblate fabrics are dominantly developed at depths >~2m and the degree of anisotropy displays an overall gradual increase with depth. Inclination shallowing occurs in the > 5m segment of the relatively distal core GHE27L and the amount of shallowing largely correlates with the degree of anisotropy, suggesting a causal relation between the development of magnetic anisotropy and the degree of inclination shallowing. Examination of down-core changes in inclination and magnetic anisotropy suggests that a threshold anisotropy of PAMS~1.04 and PAAR~1.10 exists for inclination shallowing in the cores. For PAAR<1.10, over-correction is mostly negligible, but can amount >10° if particle anisotropy is <1.4. This study provides strong field evidence that complements and substantiates the theoretical model and suggests that the threshold anisotropy can be used as a first-order criterion to identify inclination errors of some sedimentary rocks.

  19. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    PubMed

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  20. Development of a flat cable system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neel, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    A flat conductor cabling system for electrical/electronic interwiring is described. Six major items comprise the system: the cables, splices - one for flat cable to round wires and one for flat cable to flat cable; a series of flat cable connectors; the distributor, which is used for interconnecting the circuits; and a repair technique for the falt cable. Polyarylene, a new high performance melt-processable insulation material, permits the design of a completely standardized, modular flat conductor flat cable. The development of an advanced heat-shrinkable plastics technology involving the use of selectively bonded plastic film has resulted in the multiple termination module, used for making high-reliability sealed solder terminations to either flat conductor cable or round wires. All necessary tools and application equipment are included in the system design.

  1. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling

  2. Optimizing snake locomotion on an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Osborne, Matthew T; Alben, Silas

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model to study the locomotion of snakes on inclined planes. We determine numerically which snake motions are optimal for two retrograde traveling-wave body shapes, triangular and sinusoidal waves, across a wide range of frictional parameters and incline angles. In the regime of large transverse friction coefficients, we find power-law scalings for the optimal wave amplitudes and corresponding costs of locomotion. We give an asymptotic analysis to show that the optimal snake motions are traveling waves with amplitudes given by the same scaling laws found in the numerics.

  3. Moments of inclination error distribution computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, T. R.

    1981-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program is described which calculates orbital inclination error statistics using a closed-form solution. This solution uses a data base of trajectory errors from actual flights to predict the orbital inclination error statistics. The Scott flight history data base consists of orbit insertion errors in the trajectory parameters - altitude, velocity, flight path angle, flight azimuth, latitude and longitude. The methods used to generate the error statistics are of general interest since they have other applications. Program theory, user instructions, output definitions, subroutine descriptions and detailed FORTRAN coding information are included.

  4. Flow through very porous inclined screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muramoto, K. K.; Durbin, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    The steady, inviscid flow through and around a screen inclined at a uniform angle to the incoming flow was investigated. For a screen placed in an infinite flow field, an asymptotic analysis for small resistance coefficients was performed, and the effects of inclination were determined. The velocity at first order in the asymptotic expansion was nonuniform along the screen. This nonuniformity caused the wake behind the screen to contain distributed vorticity at second order. These effects therefore occurred at one order lower than for normal screens.

  5. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  6. The RHIC transfer line cable database

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, E.H.; Satogata, T.

    1995-05-01

    A cable database was created to facilitate and document installation of cables and wiring in the RHIC project, as well as to provide a data source to track possible wiring and signal problems. The eight tables of this relational database, currently implemented in Sybase, contain information ranging from cable routing to attenuation of individual wires. This database was created in a hierarchical scheme under the assumption that cables contain wires -- each instance of a cable has one to many wires associated with it. This scheme allows entry of information pertinent to individual wires while only requiring single entries for each cable. Relationships to other RHIC databases are also discussed.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of cable stays. Part 2: stochastic cable support excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakis, C. T.; Taylor, C. A.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, an extensive behavioural study of cable vibrations, induced by in-plane stochastic cable-stayed structural vibrations, is made. Finite element modelling (FEM) and analysis (FEA) is used to determine in-plane and out-of-plane cable displacements induced by stochastic cable end displacements. The effects of stochastic cable support displacements, with abrupt and gradual transients, are studied. Regions of large-amplitude cable vibrations, induced by stochastic cable end displacements, are compared with those found from sinusoidal cable end displacements. The results show that, together with important similarities in cable response, there are also important differences in cable response between sinusoidal and stochastic cable support excitation. Differences in cable response amplitudes are found and discussed. It is also found that "cable-stiffening" occurs, for specific cable excitation parameters, as it does for sinusoidal cable support excitation, but to a lesser extent. Throughout the analyses, maximum cable stresses are calculated and, in some cases, are found to be near that required for cable material yielding.

  8. Tat-Fused Recombinant Human SAG Prevents Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a MPTP-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Dae Won; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2014-01-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from abnormal cellular process lead to various human diseases such as inflammation, ischemia, and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), a RING-FINGER protein, has anti-apoptotic activity and anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigate whether Tat-SAG, fused with a Tat domain, could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that, unlike SAG, Tat-SAG transduced efficiently into SH-SY5Y cells and into the brain, respectively. Tat-SAG remarkably suppressed ROS generation, DNA damage, and the progression of apoptosis, caused by MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, immunohistochemical data using a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and cresyl violet staining demonstrated that Tat-SAG obviously protected DA neurons in the SN against MPTP toxicity in a PD mouse model. Tat-SAG-treated mice showed significant enhanced motor activities, compared to SAG- or Tat-treated mice. Therefore, our results suggest that Tat-SAG has potential as a therapeutic agent against ROS-related diseases such as PD. PMID:24625574

  9. Tat-fused recombinant human SAG prevents dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Dae Won; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2014-03-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from abnormal cellular process lead to various human diseases such as inflammation, ischemia, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), a RING-FINGER protein, has anti-apoptotic activity and anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigate whether Tat-SAG, fused with a Tat domain, could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that, unlike SAG, Tat-SAG transduced efficiently into SH-SY5Y cells and into the brain, respectively. Tat-SAG remarkably suppressed ROS generation, DNA damage, and the progression of apoptosis, caused by MPP(+) in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, immunohistochemical data using a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and cresyl violet staining demonstrated that Tat-SAG obviously protected DA neurons in the SN against MPTP toxicity in a PD mouse model. Tat-SAG-treated mice showed significant enhanced motor activities, compared to SAG- or Tat-treated mice. Therefore, our results suggest that Tat-SAG has potential as a therapeutic agent against ROS-related diseases such as PD.

  10. SAG-QC: quality control of single amplified genome information by subtracting non-target sequences based on sequence compositions.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Toru; Mori, Tetsushi; Yamagishi, Keisuke; Takeyama, Haruko

    2017-03-04

    Whole genome amplification techniques have enabled the analysis of unexplored genomic information by sequencing of single-amplified genomes (SAGs). Whole genome amplification of single bacteria is currently challenging because contamination often occurs in experimental processes. Thus, to increase the confidence in the analyses of sequenced SAGs, bioinformatics approaches that identify and exclude non-target sequences from SAGs are required. Since currently reported approaches utilize sequence information in public databases, they have limitations when new strains are the targets of interest. Here, we developed a software SAG-QC that identify and exclude non-target sequences independent of database. In our method, "no template control" sequences acquired during WGA were used. We calculated the probability that a sequence was derived from contaminants by comparing k-mer compositions with the no template control sequences. Based on the results of tests using simulated SAG datasets, the accuracy of our method for predicting non-target sequences was higher than that of currently reported techniques. Subsequently, we applied our tool to actual SAG datasets and evaluated the accuracy of the predictions. Our method works independently of public sequence information for distinguishing SAGs from non-target sequences. This method will be effective when employed against SAG sequences of unexplored strains and we anticipate that it will contribute to the correct interpretation of SAGs.

  11. Charge-Dissipative Electrical Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical cables that dissipate spurious static electric charges, in addition to performing their main functions of conducting signals, have been developed. These cables are intended for use in trapped-ion or ionizing-radiation environments, in which electric charges tend to accumulate within, and on the surfaces of, dielectric layers of cables. If the charging rate exceeds the dissipation rate, charges can accumulate in excessive amounts, giving rise to high-current discharges that can damage electronic circuitry and/or systems connected to it. The basic idea of design and operation of charge-dissipative electrical cables is to drain spurious charges to ground by use of lossy (slightly electrically conductive) dielectric layers, possibly in conjunction with drain wires and/or drain shields (see figure). In typical cases, the drain wires and/or drain shields could be electrically grounded via the connector assemblies at the ends of the cables, in any of the conventional techniques for grounding signal conductors and signal shields. In some cases, signal shields could double as drain shields.

  12. Penning trap with an inclined magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Yaremko, Yurij; Przybylska, Maria; Maciejewski, Andrzej J

    2016-08-01

    A modified Penning trap with a spatially uniform magnetic field B inclined with respect to the axis of rotational symmetry of the electrodes is considered. The inclination angle can be arbitrary. Canonical transformation of phase variables transforming the Hamiltonian of the considered system into a sum of three uncoupled harmonic oscillators is found. We determine the region of stability in space of two parameters controlling the dynamics: the trapping parameter κ and the squared sine of the inclination angle ϑ0. If the angle ϑ0 is smaller than 54°, a charge occupies a finite spatial volume within the processing chamber. A rigid hierarchy of trapping frequencies is broken if B is inclined at the critical angle: the magnetron frequency reaches the modified cyclotron frequency while the axial frequency exceeds them. Apart from this resonance, we reveal the family of resonant curves in the region of stability. In the relativistic regime, the system is not linear. We show that it is not integrable in the Liouville sense. The averaging over the fast variable allows to reduce the system to two degrees of freedom. An analysis of the Poincaré cross-sections of the averaged systems shows the regions of effective stability of the trap.

  13. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  14. Particle Sliding on a Rough Incline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurcher, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    We study a particle sliding on a rough inclined plane as an example of a mechanical problem with nonholonomic constraint. The particle is launched in an arbitrary direction so that its motion has both a horizontal and a "vertical" (i.e., up- and downhill) direction. The friction force acts along the instantaneous velocity, so that the horizontal…

  15. Airborne LIDAR point cloud tower inclination judgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liang, Chen; zhengjun, Liu; jianguo, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Inclined transmission line towers for the safe operation of the line caused a great threat, how to effectively, quickly and accurately perform inclined judgment tower of power supply company safety and security of supply has played a key role. In recent years, with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a laser scanner, GPS, inertial navigation is one of the high-precision 3D Remote Sensing System in the electricity sector more and more. By airborne radar scan point cloud to visually show the whole picture of the three-dimensional spatial information of the power line corridors, such as the line facilities and equipment, terrain and trees. Currently, LIDAR point cloud research in the field has not yet formed an algorithm to determine tower inclination, the paper through the existing power line corridor on the tower base extraction, through their own tower shape characteristic analysis, a vertical stratification the method of combining convex hull algorithm for point cloud tower scarce two cases using two different methods for the tower was Inclined to judge, and the results with high reliability.

  16. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  17. 46 CFR 28.535 - Inclining test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, each vessel for which the lightweight displacement and centers of gravity must be determined in... of the vessel which was inclined and the location of the longitudinal center of gravity differs less... characteristics can be made and the precise location of the position of the vessel's vertical center of gravity is...

  18. 46 CFR 28.535 - Inclining test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section, each vessel for which the lightweight displacement and centers of gravity must be determined in... of the vessel which was inclined and the location of the longitudinal center of gravity differs less... characteristics can be made and the precise location of the position of the vessel's vertical center of gravity is...

  19. Particle Sliding on a Rough Incline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurcher, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    We study a particle sliding on a rough inclined plane as an example of a mechanical problem with nonholonomic constraint. The particle is launched in an arbitrary direction so that its motion has both a horizontal and a "vertical" (i.e., up- and downhill) direction. The friction force acts along the instantaneous velocity, so that the horizontal…

  20. Well productivity for arbitrarily inclined well

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, S.

    1995-12-31

    This work extends Peaceman`s equation to a well areally and vertically inclined at arbitrary angles with respect to grid lines in anisotropic reservoirs. The method is based on the transformation of the anisotropic flow equation to a homogeneous equation, and interpolating the effective well block radius, wellbore radius, and equivalent well length as a function of angles.

  1. Penning trap with an inclined magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremko, Yurij; Przybylska, Maria; Maciejewski, Andrzej J.

    2016-08-01

    A modified Penning trap with a spatially uniform magnetic field B inclined with respect to the axis of rotational symmetry of the electrodes is considered. The inclination angle can be arbitrary. Canonical transformation of phase variables transforming the Hamiltonian of the considered system into a sum of three uncoupled harmonic oscillators is found. We determine the region of stability in space of two parameters controlling the dynamics: the trapping parameter κ and the squared sine of the inclination angle ϑ 0 . If the angle ϑ 0 is smaller than 54°, a charge occupies a finite spatial volume within the processing chamber. A rigid hierarchy of trapping frequencies is broken if B is inclined at the critical angle: the magnetron frequency reaches the modified cyclotron frequency while the axial frequency exceeds them. Apart from this resonance, we reveal the family of resonant curves in the region of stability. In the relativistic regime, the system is not linear. We show that it is not integrable in the Liouville sense. The averaging over the fast variable allows to reduce the system to two degrees of freedom. An analysis of the Poincaré cross-sections of the averaged systems shows the regions of effective stability of the trap.

  2. Heavy eye syndrome versus sagging eye syndrome in high myopia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Roland Joseph D.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy eye syndrome (HES) presents with esotropia and limited abduction due to superotemporal globe shift relative to the extraocular muscles. Sagging eye syndrome (SES) was originally described in nonmyopic patients exhibiting distance esotropia and cyclovertical strabismus with limited supraduction due to lateral rectus muscle inferodisplacement caused by degeneration of the lateral rectus–superior rectus (LR-SR) band. We hypothesized that SES might also cause strabismus in high myopia. Methods Eleven strabismic subjects with high myopia underwent ophthalmological examination and orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess quantitative orbital anatomy. Results Of 11 subjects, 5 had HES; 6, SES. Mean axial length in subjects with HES was 32 ± 5 mm; in subjects with SES, 32 ± 6 mm. Average distance esotropia in subjects with HES was 61Δ ± 39Δ; hypotropia was 26Δ ± 21Δ. Average distance esotropia in subjects with SES was 23Δ ± 57Δ; hypertropia was 2Δ ± 2Δ. All 5 subjects with HES had superotemporal globe prolapse; the LR-SR band was thinned in 6 orbits and ruptured in 2. The mean angle between the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles in HES was 121° ± 7°. In SES the LR-SR band was thinned in 7 orbits and ruptured in 5, with superotemporal soft tissue prolapse. The mean angle between the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles was 104° ± 11°, significantly less than in HES (P < 0.001). Conclusions SES occurs in highly myopic patients who also exhibit less relative globe dislocation than in HES. Unlike HES, SES exhibits superotemporal soft tissue prolapse that may limit superotemporal globe shift. The distinction is important because surgery for HES uniquely requires creation of a surgical connection between the superior rectus and lateral rectus muscles, whereas SES may be treated with conventional surgery. SES can cause strabismus in high axial myopia. Orbital MRI is useful in differentiating SES from HES. PMID

  3. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  4. Leaky cable intrusion detection sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Buried Line Field Disturbance Sensors used for the purpose of outdoor perimeter intrusion detection are unique in the sense that they are covert and terrain following. Considerable effort has been spent in recent years to develop an effective Buried Line Sensor using leaky (or ported) cable technology. To date, a modular CW (Continuous Wave) approach to designing such a sensor has proven to be the most effective compromise in terms of cost, performance and installation. Proper design of a leaky cable sensor requires an in-depth knowledge of the coupling performance and attenuation characteristics of the sensor cable to be used. The ''Forward Wave'' (codirectional) method of detection is discussed. This paper contains theoretical and experimental expressions developed to demonstrate operation in terms of cost, performance and ease of installation.

  5. Data Base On Cables And Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Arlen R.; Oliver, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes Connector Adapter Cable Information Data Base (CONNAID) computer program, managing data base containing necessary information concerning electrical connectors, breakout boxes, adapter cables, backshells, and pertinent torque specifications for engineering project.

  6. Folding tools for flat conductor cable harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loggins, R.

    1971-01-01

    Vise grip pliers have detachable metal gripping plates which are changed to accommodate cables from 1 to 3 in. wide and to form any desired fold angle. A second tool squeezes cable along crease to complete the fold.

  7. New sensitive seismic cable with imbedded geophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Alex; Pisano, Dan; Goldburt, Tim

    2005-10-01

    Seismic detection systems for homeland security applications are an important additional layer to perimeter and border protection and other security systems. General Sensing Systems has been developing low mass, low cost, highly sensitive geophones. These geophones are being incorporated within a seismic cable. This article reports on the concept of a seismic sensitive cable and seismic sensitive ribbon design. Unlike existing seismic cables with sensitivity distributed along their lengths, the GSS new cable and ribbon possesses high sensitivity distributed in several points along the cable/ribbon with spacing of about 8-12 to 100 meters between geophones. This cable/ribbon is highly suitable for design and installation in extended perimeter protection systems. It allows the use of a mechanical cable layer for high speed installation. We show that any installation mistakes in using the GSS seismic sensitive cable/ribbon have low impact on output seismic signal value and detection range of security systems.

  8. Ames Lab 101: Reinventing the Power Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Alan

    2013-09-27

    Ames Laboratory researchers are working to develop new electrical power cables that are stronger and lighter than the cables currently used in the nation's power grid. Nano Tube animation by Iain Goodyear

  9. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., hydraulically, or electrically driven reel upon which to wind the portable cable. (b) The enclosure for moving... of travel of a machine when receiving power through a portable (trailing) cable shall not exceed...

  10. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., hydraulically, or electrically driven reel upon which to wind the portable cable. (b) The enclosure for moving... of travel of a machine when receiving power through a portable (trailing) cable shall not exceed...

  11. Cable Television: From Here to Where?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Cable Television Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    A brief description is presented of the present uses, regulatory structure, and future potentials of cable television for Canada. Some 30% of Canada is already wired for cable, as opposed to 9% in the United States. (RH)

  12. Debris protection cover assembly for cable connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yovan, Roger D. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A protective cover assembly for an end of a cable connector having a cable housing that encloses a plurality of connective pins or sockets and that satisfies all requirements for space applications. A connector body flange is formed at the extremity of a cable and is positioned so that it may register with a corresponding connector body flange on the end of a companion cable to which a connection is to be made, one cable end having cable lead pins and the companion cable end having lead sockets with which the pins register. A latch mechanism having a latch housing is received in the connector body flange and a crank connected to a manually rotatable cap actuates a spring-loaded latch element that is engageable with a connector body flange to secure or to release the cover assembly with the simple twisting motion of the cap, thereby simplifying the task of effecting coupling and decoupling of the cable ends.

  13. Ames Lab 101: Reinventing the Power Cable

    ScienceCinema

    Russell, Alan

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory researchers are working to develop new electrical power cables that are stronger and lighter than the cables currently used in the nation's power grid. Nano Tube animation by Iain Goodyear

  14. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., hydraulically, or electrically driven reel upon which to wind the portable cable. (b) The enclosure for moving... of travel of a machine when receiving power through a portable (trailing) cable shall not exceed 6...

  15. Repairing Damaged Power-Cable Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Simple method saves time, money, and material. In new method cable remains in place while new insulation is applied to damaged portion. Method results in new terminations with safety factor equal to that of any portion of cable.

  16. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  17. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  18. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  19. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  20. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  1. 47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems. 76.640 Section 76.640 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Standards § 76.640 Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems. (a)...

  2. 47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems. 76.640 Section 76.640 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Standards § 76.640 Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems. (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 75.816 - Guarding of cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding of cables. 75.816 Section 75.816... Longwalls § 75.816 Guarding of cables. (a) High-voltage cables must be guarded at the following locations: (1) Where persons regularly work or travel over or under the cables. (2) Where the cables leave cable...

  4. 30 CFR 75.816 - Guarding of cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guarding of cables. 75.816 Section 75.816... Longwalls § 75.816 Guarding of cables. (a) High-voltage cables must be guarded at the following locations: (1) Where persons regularly work or travel over or under the cables. (2) Where the cables leave cable...

  5. 47 CFR 76.990 - Small cable operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small cable operators. 76.990 Section 76.990... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.990 Small cable operators. (a) Effective February 8, 1996, a small cable operator is exempt from rate regulation on its cable programming services tier, or...

  6. 47 CFR 76.990 - Small cable operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small cable operators. 76.990 Section 76.990... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.990 Small cable operators. (a) Effective February 8, 1996, a small cable operator is exempt from rate regulation on its cable programming services tier, or...

  7. 30 CFR 75.816 - Guarding of cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guarding of cables. 75.816 Section 75.816... Longwalls § 75.816 Guarding of cables. (a) High-voltage cables must be guarded at the following locations: (1) Where persons regularly work or travel over or under the cables. (2) Where the cables leave cable...

  8. 47 CFR 76.990 - Small cable operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small cable operators. 76.990 Section 76.990... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.990 Small cable operators. (a) Effective February 8, 1996, a small cable operator is exempt from rate regulation on its cable programming services tier, or...

  9. 30 CFR 75.816 - Guarding of cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guarding of cables. 75.816 Section 75.816... Longwalls § 75.816 Guarding of cables. (a) High-voltage cables must be guarded at the following locations: (1) Where persons regularly work or travel over or under the cables. (2) Where the cables leave cable...

  10. 47 CFR 76.990 - Small cable operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small cable operators. 76.990 Section 76.990... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.990 Small cable operators. (a) Effective February 8, 1996, a small cable operator is exempt from rate regulation on its cable programming services tier, or...

  11. 30 CFR 75.816 - Guarding of cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guarding of cables. 75.816 Section 75.816... Longwalls § 75.816 Guarding of cables. (a) High-voltage cables must be guarded at the following locations: (1) Where persons regularly work or travel over or under the cables. (2) Where the cables leave cable...

  12. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  13. Open Source Cable Models for EMI Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greedy, S.; Smartt, C.; Thomas, D. W. P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the progress of work towards an Open Source software toolset suitable for developing Spice based multi-conductor cable models. The issues related to creating a transmission line model for implementation in Spice which include the frequency dependent properties of real cables are presented and the viability of spice cable models is demonstrated through application to a three conductor crosstalk model. Development of the techniques to include models of shielded cables and incident field excitation has been demonstrated.

  14. Actin cable dynamics in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Pon, Liza A.

    2002-01-01

    Actin cables, bundles of actin filaments that align along the long axis of budding yeast, are crucial for establishment of cell polarity. We fused green fluorescent protein (GFP) to actin binding protein 140 (Abp140p) and visualized actin cable dynamics in living yeast. We detected two populations of actin cables: (i) bud-associated cables, which extend from the bud along the mother-bud axis, and (ii) randomly oriented cables, which are relatively short. Time-lapse imaging of Abp140p–GFP revealed an apparent increase in the length of bud-associated actin cables. Analysis of movement of Abp140p–GFP fiduciary marks on bud-associated cables and fluorescence loss in photobleaching experiments revealed that this apparent elongation occurs by assembly of new material at the end of the cable within the bud and movement of the opposite end of the cable toward the tip of the mother cell distal to the bud. The rate of extension of the tip of an elongating actin cable is 0.29 ± 0.08 μm/s. Latrunculin A (Lat-A) treatment completely blocked this process. We also observed movement of randomly oriented cables around the cortex of cells at a rate of 0.59 ± 0.14 μm/s. Mild treatment with Lat-A did not affect the velocity of movement of randomly oriented cables. However, Lat-A treatment did increase the number of randomly oriented, motile cables per cell. Our observations suggest that establishment of bud-associated actin cables during the cell cycle is accomplished not by realignment of existing cables but by assembly of new cables within the bud or bud neck, followed by elongation. PMID:11805329

  15. Hawaii Deep Water Cable Program: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-01

    The Hawaii Deep Water Cable Program has succeeded unequivocally in determining the feasibility of deploying a submarine power cable system between the islands of Hawaii and Oahu. Major accomplishments of the program include designing, fabricating and testing an appropriate power cable, developing an integrated system to control all aspects of the cable laying operation, and testing all deployment systems at sea in the most challenging sections of the route.

  16. Equalization of data transmission cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  17. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  18. Inactivation of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Triggers Senescence and Inhibits Kras-Induced Immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mingjia; Li, Hua; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study showed that SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates apoptosis and vasculogenesis by promoting degradation of NOXA and NF1, and co-operates with Kras to promote lung tumorigenesis by activating NFκB and mTOR pathways via targeted degradation of tumor suppressive substrates including IκB, DEPTOR, p21 and p27. Here we investigated the role of Sag/Rbx2 E3 ligase in cellular senescence and immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and report that Sag is required for proper cell proliferation and KrasG12D-induced immortalization. Sag inactivation by genetic deletion remarkably suppresses cell proliferation by inducing senescence, which is associated with accumulation of p16, but not p53. Mechanistically, Sag deletion caused accumulation of Jun-B, a substrate of Sag-Fbxw7 E3 ligase and a transcription factor that drives p16 transcription. Importantly, senescence triggered by Sag deletion can be largely rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a, the p16 encoding gene, indicating its causal role. Furthermore, KrasG12D-induced immortalization can also be abrogated by Sag deletion via senescence induction, which is again rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a. Finally, we found that Sag deletion inactivates KrasG12D activity and block the MAPK signaling pathway, together with accumulated p16, to induce senescence. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Sag is a KrasG12D-cooperating oncogene required for KrasG12D-induced immortalization and transformation, and targeting SAG-SCF E3 ligase may, therefore, have therapeutic value for senescence-based cancer treatment. PMID:25622904

  19. Inactivation of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 e3 ubiquitin ligase triggers senescence and inhibits kras-induced immortalization.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mingjia; Li, Hua; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study showed that SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates apoptosis and vasculogenesis by promoting degradation of NOXA and NF1, and co-operates with Kras to promote lung tumorigenesis by activating NFκB and mTOR pathways via targeted degradation of tumor suppressive substrates including IκB, DEPTOR, p21 and p27. Here we investigated the role of Sag/Rbx2 E3 ligase in cellular senescence and immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and report that Sag is required for proper cell proliferation and Kras(G12D)-induced immortalization. Sag inactivation by genetic deletion remarkably suppresses cell proliferation by inducing senescence, which is associated with accumulation of p16, but not p53. Mechanistically, Sag deletion caused accumulation of Jun-B, a substrate of Sag-Fbxw7 E3 ligase and a transcription factor that drives p16 transcription. Importantly, senescence triggered by Sag deletion can be largely rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a, the p16 encoding gene, indicating its causal role. Furthermore, Kras(G12D)-induced immortalization can also be abrogated by Sag deletion via senescence induction, which is again rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a. Finally, we found that Sag deletion inactivates Kras(G12D) activity and block the MAPK signaling pathway, together with accumulated p16, to induce senescence. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Sag is a Kras(G12D)-cooperating oncogene required for Kras(G12D)-induced immortalization and transformation, and targeting SAG-SCF E3 ligase may, therefore, have therapeutic value for senescence-based cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated Cable System Aging Management Guidance: Low-Voltage Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W M

    2003-01-02

    The document provides insights into common aging issues and symptoms and includes pictures and descriptions of deterioration that is observable. The report provides a rapid review of the important information necessary to assess the aging of the low-voltage cable system used in nuclear power plants.

  1. Your Personal Genie in the Cable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlafly, Hubert J.

    The technology necessary for the use of cable television (TV) has been invented; it simply must be put to use. By the 1970's, cable TV should be commonplace in this country. Its rapid growth was caused in part by its appearance at a time of explosive expansion of related technologies like data theory and computer design. The coaxial cable system…

  2. Cable: Report to the President, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Telecommunications Policy, Washington, DC.

    A comprehensive, new national policy for cable communications is recommended by the Cabinet Committee on Cable Communications. The goal of the policy is to achieve the orderly integration of cable with other existing communications media so that information may flow freely, protected from both private and governmental barriers. The first two…

  3. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial cable. 32.2421 Section 32.2421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2421 Aerial cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of aerial cable and of drop and block wires served by such...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial cable. 32.2421 Section 32.2421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2421 Aerial cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of aerial cable and of drop and block wires served by such...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial cable. 32.2421 Section 32.2421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2421 Aerial cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of aerial cable and of drop and block wires served by such...

  6. Pseudoparalysis: the importance of rotator cable integrity.

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J; Koo, Samuel S; Murena, Luigi; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to clinically examine the relationship between rotator cable integrity and the presence of pseudoparalysis. A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of arthroscopic repairs of massive rotator cuff tears performed between January 2007 and June 2009. A total of 127 massive tears were identified. Group 1 comprised 24 patients with preoperative pseudoparalysis. Group 2 comprised 97 patients (103 repairs) with active forward flexion more than 90°. In group I, no patient maintained integrity of both rotator cable attachments; 1 rotator cable attachment was disrupted in 45.8% of cases; and both rotator cable attachments were disrupted in 54.2% of cases. In group II, both rotator cable attachments were intact in 22.3% of cases; 1 rotator cable attachment was disrupted in 62.1% of cases; and both rotator cable attachments were disrupted in 15.5% of cases. The difference in the distribution of cable attachments between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P<.001). Overall, preoperative pseudoparalysis predicted a disruption of both rotator cables with 88.8% specificity, 44.8% sensitivity, and 77.8% accuracy. Pseudoparalysis requires the disruption of at least 1 rotator cable attachment. This study reinforces the concept of rotator cable integrity and the ability of patients to maintain forward flexion above shoulder level and highlights the importance of reinforcing the rotator cable attachments in the repair of massive rotator cuff tears. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial cable. 32.2421 Section 32.2421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2421 Aerial cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of aerial cable and of drop and block wires served by such...

  8. 76 FR 32866 - Cable Landing Licenses; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Cable Landing Licenses; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... streamlined processing of cable landing license applications. Need for Correction As published, the final... 2. Section 1.767 is amended by revising paragraph (j) to read as follows: Sec. 1.767 Cable landing...

  9. Your Personal Genie in the Cable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlafly, Hubert J.

    The technology necessary for the use of cable television (TV) has been invented; it simply must be put to use. By the 1970's, cable TV should be commonplace in this country. Its rapid growth was caused in part by its appearance at a time of explosive expansion of related technologies like data theory and computer design. The coaxial cable system…

  10. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material used...

  11. Dynamic Termination On Radiating Coaxial Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, Robert; Stern, Jon; Rassweiler, George

    1993-01-01

    Radiation pattern dithered to reduce adverse effect of nulls. In improved system for radio communication between base station and portable units within building, tunnel, ship, or other large structure, radiating or "leaky" coaxial cable serves as base-station antenna, and radiation pattern of cable dithered by dithering impedance of termination at end of cable remote from base station.

  12. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to...

  13. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  14. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  15. New method for the detection and monitoring of subsea power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Philipp; Schneider, Jens; Feldens, Peter; Wilken, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy farms, no matter what kind of, have in common that they need a connection with the onshore power grid. Thus, not only their offshore generation facilities could have impacts on the surrounding environment, but also associated submarine power cables. These cables have to be buried in the seabed - at least in coastal heavy shipping environments - for safety reasons. Cable laying disturbs the local seafloor and the sub-bottom. Refillment of dredged sediments are expected softer than the original material and could be washed away by currents. Therefore, buried cables have to be repeatedly monitored to ensure their burial depth. This study presents a new method for efficient cable detection. A parametric echosounder system using 15 kHz as secondary frequency was adapted to investigate the angular response of sub-bottom backscatter strength of layered mud and to introduce a new method for enhanced acoustic detection of buried targets. Adaptations to achieve both vertical (0°) and non-vertical inclination of incident sound on the seabed (1-15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) comprise mechanical tilting of the acoustic transducer and electronic beam steering. A sample data set was acquired at a study site at 18 m water depth and a flat and muddy seafloor. At this site, a 0.1 m diameter power cable is buried 1-2 m below the sea floor. Surveying the cable with vertical incidence revealed that the buried cable can hardly be discriminated against the backscatter strength of the layered mud. However, the backscatter strength of layered mud was found to strongly decrease at >3±0.5° incidence and the layered mud echo pattern vanished beyond 5°. As a consequence the visual recognition of the cable echo in acoustic images improves for higher incidence angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. Data analysis support this visual impression. The size of the cable echo pattern was found to linearly increase with incidence, whereas the signal-to-noise ratio peaks at about

  16. Facile synthesis, structure, and properties of Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure has been produced by a simple one-stage chemical deposition from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate, sodium sulfide, and sodium citrate with the use of monochromatic light irradiation. For simultaneous synthesis of Ag2S and Ag nanoparticles, deposition has been performed from reaction mixtures with reduced sodium sulfide concentration. The size of Ag2S and Ag nanoparticles is 45-50 and 15-20 nm, respectively. It is established that in the contact layer between silver sulfide and silver, nonconducting α-Ag2S acanthite transforms into superionic β-Ag2S argentite under the action of external electric field. The scheme of the operation of a resistive switch based on an Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure is proposed. The UV-Vis optical absorption spectra of colloidal solutions of Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructures have been studied.

  17. Early monitoring results of two voltage sag ride-through devices at a plastics extrusion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, L.A.; Lamoree, J.; Peele, G.S.; Samotyj, M.

    1995-06-01

    Voltage sag mitigation techniques command attention in the power quality arena today due to the increasing numbers of sensitive process loads connected to the utility distribution system. This paper presents monitoring results related to the performance of two such devices applied in different levels of voltage sag coverage. The superconducting storage device is designed to protect sensitive loads without the normal segregation of large-power loads (drives, motors) from low-power/high sensitivity machines (computers, programmable logic controllers). The magnetic synthesizer in this case study protects control circuits and requires separation of these circuits from other loads within the sensitive machine. Both methods are effective in reducing process shutdowns due to voltage sags. Their relative economy depends on the type of disturbances affecting the process and the amount of the customer`s economic losses.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a surface antigen glycoprotein, SAG19, from Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Nur Zazarina; Rouzheinikov, Sergey N; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E; Baker, Patrick J; Chow, Yock Ping; Wan, Kiew Lian; Nathan, Sheila; Rice, David W

    2013-12-01

    Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria tenella and is thought to involve a role for a superfamily of more than 20 cysteine-rich surface antigen glycoproteins (SAGs) in host-parasite interactions. A representative member of the family, SAG19, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop method of vapour diffusion using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. Crystals of SAG19 diffracted to beyond 1.50 Å resolution and belonged to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 108.2, c = 37.5 Å. Calculation of possible values of VM suggests that there is a single molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  19. A Study on the Innovation Cost and Effectiveness Evaluation of Compensation Devices for Voltage Sags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xuhui; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yonaga, Shigeru

    Due to the advancement of information technology and widespread use of power electronic devices in recent years, many customers in various fields have suffered from the voltage sag problem. In order to compensate voltage sags, sensitive loads have been primarily equipped with uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) by each consumer individually. Because consumers have many individual needs, this topic becomes an important problem to be considered by quality consultants in the electric utility industry. Based on this situation, we present the applications of UPS and dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) as compensation devices of voltage sags. By considering the need for power quality, we examine the cost-efficiency of both devices quantitatively. Simulations are carried out and the results are shown in this paper.

  20. Evolution of a Miocene sag basin in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, D.; Gorini, C.; Jolivet, L.; Letouzey, J.; Smit, J.; d'Acremont, E.; Auxietre, J. L.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Estrada, F.; Elabassi, M.; Ammar, A.; Jabour, H.; Vendeville, B.

    2012-04-01

    that bounds the basin toward the East. The contacts observed between the sediment and the basement reflectors are purely stratigraphic. These observations confirm that the geometry is essentially that of a sag basin. We discuss all these stratigraphic observations in the scope of the geodynamic evolution of the eastern and western Alboran basin and the extension recorded onshore during the basin development time interval.

  1. 5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT, FILL CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. 2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. 6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MIDSLOPE VICINITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MID-SLOPE VICINITY, CUT CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a... angle of list up to and including 15°, and when the vessel is inclined under dynamic conditions (rolling...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a... angle of list up to and including 15°, and when the vessel is inclined under dynamic conditions (rolling...

  7. Evaporation dynamics of water droplets on inclined surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    When a water droplet is gently placed on a flat substrate, particularly which is tilted at an inclined angle, usually there are advancing and receding angles inside the droplet formed by inclination under gravitational force. Evaporation dynamics of an nonspherical inclined droplet at inclinations would deviate from that of a spherical droplet. Here we study on evaporation dynamics rates of inclined droplets by measuring mass changes with time and their lifetimes. We find that the lifetime of an evaporating inclined droplets becomes longer as the gravitational influence becomes stronger. The lifetime depends on the pinning-depinning transitions and the depinning onset times, which are changed by the gravitational influence. This The dependence inclination-induced evaporation behavior would be useful important in understanding evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... designed to operate when the vessel is upright, when the vessel is inclined under static conditions at any angle of list up to and including 15°, and when the vessel is inclined under dynamic conditions...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... designed to operate when the vessel is upright, when the vessel is inclined under static conditions at any angle of list up to and including 15°, and when the vessel is inclined under dynamic conditions...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... designed to operate when the vessel is upright, when the vessel is inclined under static conditions at any angle of list up to and including 15°, and when the vessel is inclined under dynamic conditions...

  11. SAG/Rbx2-Dependent Neddylation Regulates T-Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Nathan D; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Wu, Shin-Rong; Toubai, Tomomi; Oravecz-Wilson, Katherine; Sun, Yaping; Rossi, Corinne; Zajac, Cynthia; Sun, Yi; Reddy, Pavan

    2016-10-01

    Neddylation is a crucial post-translational modification that depends on the E3 cullin ring ligase (CRL). The E2-adapter component of the CRL, sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), is critical for the function of CRL-mediated ubiquitination; thus, the deletion of SAG regulates neddylation. We examined the role of SAG-dependent neddylation in T-cell-mediated immunity using multiple approaches: a novel T-cell-specific, SAG genetic knockout (KO) and chemical inhibition with small-molecule MLN4924. The KO animals were viable and showed phenotypically normal mature T-cell development. However, in vitro stimulation of KO T cells revealed significantly decreased activation, proliferation, and T-effector cytokine release, compared with WT. Using in vivo clinically relevant models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation also demonstrated reduced proliferation and effector cytokine secretion associated with markedly reduced graft-versus-host disease. Similar in vitro and in vivo results were observed with the small-molecule inhibitor of neddylation, MLN4924. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SAG-mediated effects in T cells were concomitant with an increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling, but not NF-κB translocation. Our studies suggest that SAG is a novel molecular target that regulates T-cell responses and that inhibiting neddylation with the clinically available small-molecule MLN4924 may represent a novel strategy to mitigate T-cell-mediated immunopathologies, such as graft-versus-host disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical Fiber Communications Cable Connector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    incorp- oration of the TRW Cinch Optalign 4 double elbow " fiber alignment guide concept. Means for connecting either Siecor or ITT six fiber cable were...the guide, and forced toward the top cusp by the double elbow con- figuration. The geometry of the guide is such that normal tolerances of molded or

  13. 300 Area signal cable study

    SciTech Connect

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-09-15

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system.

  14. Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

  15. Cable Television and Satellite Broadcasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-31

    a TV set from manufacturer A of the interconnection agreement negotiated with Mer- can talk to a VCR from manufacturer B and a compact cury or...Broadcasting Structure for the Next Decade, sion of cable’s unique programing. The expansion began Madame Catherine Tasca, Ministre Delegue Charge de with

  16. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  17. Cable Television: Developing Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter-Huffman, Polly; And Others

    The final volume of a four-volume study focuses on community use of cable television systems. Four separate aspects are discussed extensively: the possibilities of public access, use in municipal service applications, uses in education, and a guide for education planners. Each section contains several appendixes and the education sections include…

  18. Educational Uses of Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The different educational uses of cable television as well as the methods and problems of that use are described in a state of the art review. The Federal Communications Commission regulations and related franchise activity are described, and the methods of using the educational channel as open or closed circuit TV or pay TV are indicated for…

  19. Cable Television: Developing Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter-Huffman, Polly; And Others

    The final volume of a four-volume study focuses on community use of cable television systems. Four separate aspects are discussed extensively: the possibilities of public access, use in municipal service applications, uses in education, and a guide for education planners. Each section contains several appendixes and the education sections include…

  20. COUPLER FOR TOOL AND CABLE

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Frantz, C.E.

    1962-02-27

    A two-part device is designed for pulling a splitting tool through a fuel tube. The device can be readily disconnected by unthreading the parts by means of a movable head carrying a transverse key which fits into a slot in the threaded part attached to the cable. (AEC)

  1. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonar, Prasad; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant

    2017-06-01

    Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  2. SAG4 DNA and Peptide Vaccination Provides Partial Protection against T. gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can lead to congenital infections in human. Surface antigen protein 4 (SAG4) of T. gondii is a potential stimulator for humoral and cellular immune responses. In the present study, a DNA vaccine encoding SAG4 from T. gondii was constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice with peptide to evaluate the protective efficacy of the vaccine. The productions of IgG antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon) from the vaccine (pSAG4/peptide) group were significantly higher than pSAG4 or peptide groups. After a lethal challenge by 1 × 10(4) tachyzoites from the I strain (RH), the survival time of mice immunized by pSAG4/peptide was longer than that of pSAG4 or peptide immunized mice or control mice. Moreover, after challenging by 20 cysts of the II strain (PRU) of T. gondii, the number of brain cysts from pSAG4/peptide vaccinated mice was only 31% of the number in PBS injected mice. The findings suggested the SAG4 DNA vaccine with peptide led significant immune responses and improved the protection against T. gondii challenges.

  3. Endothelial deletion of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 E3 ubiquitin ligase causes embryonic lethality and blocks tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; Li, H; Sun, Y

    2014-10-30

    SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2 or ROC2, is a RING protein required for the activity of Cullin-RING ligase (CRL). Our recent study showed that Sag total knockout caused embryonic lethality at E11.5-12.5 days with associated defects in vasculogenesis. Whether Sag is required for de novo vasculogenesis in embryos and angiogenesis in tumors is totally unknown. Here, we report that Sag endothelial deletion also causes embryonic lethality at E15.5 with poor vasculogenesis. Sag deletion in primary endothelial cells (ECs) or knockdown in MS-1 ECs inhibits migration, proliferation and tube formation, with p27 accumulation being responsible for the suppression of migration and proliferation. Furthermore, Sag deletion significantly inhibits angiogenesis in an in vivo Matrigel plug assay, and tumor angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in a B16F10 melanoma model. Finally, MLN4924, an investigational small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) that inhibits CRL, suppresses in vitro migration, proliferation and tube formation, as well as in vivo angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Taken together, our study, using both genetic and pharmaceutical approaches, demonstrates that Sag is essential for embryonic vasculogenesis and tumor angiogenesis, and provides the proof-of-concept evidence that targeting Sag E3 ubiquitin ligase may have clinical value for anti-angiogenesis therapy of human cancer.

  4. Functional characterization of SAG/RBX2/ROC2/RNF7, an antioxidant protein and an E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Li, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2 (RING box protein 2), ROC2 (Regulator of Cullins 2), or RNF7 (RING Finger Protein 7), was originally cloned in our laboratory as a redox inducible antioxidant protein and later characterized as the second member of the RBX/ROC RING component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL-F-box Proteins) E3 ubiquitin ligase. When acting alone, SAG scavenges oxygen radicals by forming inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds, whereas by forming a complex with other components of the SCF E3 ligase, SAG promotes ubiquitination and degradation of a number of protein substrates, including c-JUN, DEPTOR, HIF-1α, IκBα, NF1, NOXA, p27, and procaspase-3, thus regulating various signaling pathways and biological processes. Specifically, SAG protects cells from apoptosis, confers radioresistance, and plays an essential and non-redundant role in mouse embryogenesis and vasculogenesis. Furthermore, stress-inducible SAG is overexpressed in a number of human cancers and SAG overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Finally, SAG transgenic expression in epidermis causes an early stage inhibition, but later stage promotion, of skin tumorigenesis triggered by DMBA/TPA. Given its major role in promoting targeted degradation of tumor suppressive proteins, leading to apoptosis suppression and accelerated tumorigenesis, SAG E3 ligase appears to be an attractive anticancer target.

  5. Endothelial deletion of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 E3 ubiquitin ligase causes embryonic lethality and blocks tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mingjia; Li, Hua; Sun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2 or ROC2, is a RING protein required for the activity of Cullin-RING ligase (CRL). Our recent study showed that Sag total knockout caused embryonic lethality at E11.5–12.5 days with associated defects in vasculogenesis. Whether Sag is required for de novo vasculogenesis in embryos and angiogenesis in tumors is totally unknown. Here, we report that Sag endothelial deletion also causes embryonic lethality at E15.5 with poor vasculogenesis. Sag deletion in primary endothelial cells or knockdown in MS-1 endothelial cells inhibits migration, proliferation and tube formation with p27 accumulation being responsible for the suppression of migration and proliferation. Furthermore, Sag deletion significantly inhibits angiogenesis in an in vivo Matrigel plug assay, and tumor angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in a B16F10 melanoma model. Finally, MLN4924, an investigational small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) that inhibits CRL, suppresses in vitro migration, proliferation, and tube formation, as well as in vivo angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Taken together, our study, using both genetic and pharmaceutical approaches, demonstrates that Sag is essential for embryonic vasculogenesis and tumor angiogenesis, and provides the proof-of-concept evidence that targeting Sag E3 ubiquitin ligase may have clinical value for anti-angiogenesis therapy of human cancer. PMID:24213570

  6. Disruption of the Arabidopsis Defense Regulator Genes SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 Confers Enhanced Freezing Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin-Fang; Xu, Le; Tan, Wei-Juan; Chen, Liang; Qi, Hua; Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Liu, Bin-Yi; Yu, Lu-Jun; Yao, Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2017-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, three lipase-like regulators, SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4, act downstream of resistance protein-associated defense signaling. Although the roles of SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 in biotic stress have been extensively studied, little is known about their functions in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we show that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. With or without cold acclimation, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 single mutants, as well as their double mutants exhibited similarly enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants showed increased transcript levels of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs and their regulons, compared with wild type. Moreover, freezing-induced cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide were ameliorated in sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants. The sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants had much lower salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents than wild type and exogenous application of SA and DAG compromised the freezing tolerance of the mutants. Furthermore, SA suppressed the cold-induced expression of DGATs and DGKs in wild-type leaves. These findings indicate that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in freezing response in Arabidopsis, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG. PMID:26149542

  7. Disruption of the Arabidopsis Defense Regulator Genes SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 Confers Enhanced Freezing Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin-Fang; Xu, Le; Tan, Wei-Juan; Chen, Liang; Qi, Hua; Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Liu, Bin-Yi; Yu, Lu-Jun; Yao, Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-10-05

    In Arabidopsis, three lipase-like regulators, SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4, act downstream of resistance protein-associated defense signaling. Although the roles of SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 in biotic stress have been extensively studied, little is known about their functions in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we show that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. With or without cold acclimation, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 single mutants, as well as their double mutants, exhibited similarly enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants showed increased transcript levels of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs and their regulons compared with the wild type. Moreover, freezing-induced cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide were ameliorated in sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants. The sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants had much lower salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents than the wild type, and exogenous application of SA and DAG compromised the freezing tolerance of the mutants. Furthermore, SA suppressed the cold-induced expression of DGATs and DGKs in the wild-type leaves. These findings indicate that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the freezing response in Arabidopsis, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SAG4 DNA and Peptide Vaccination Provides Partial Protection against T. gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can lead to congenital infections in human. Surface antigen protein 4 (SAG4) of T. gondii is a potential stimulator for humoral and cellular immune responses. In the present study, a DNA vaccine encoding SAG4 from T. gondii was constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice with peptide to evaluate the protective efficacy of the vaccine. The productions of IgG antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon) from the vaccine (pSAG4/peptide) group were significantly higher than pSAG4 or peptide groups. After a lethal challenge by 1 × 104 tachyzoites from the I strain (RH), the survival time of mice immunized by pSAG4/peptide was longer than that of pSAG4 or peptide immunized mice or control mice. Moreover, after challenging by 20 cysts of the II strain (PRU) of T. gondii, the number of brain cysts from pSAG4/peptide vaccinated mice was only 31% of the number in PBS injected mice. The findings suggested the SAG4 DNA vaccine with peptide led significant immune responses and improved the protection against T. gondii challenges. PMID:28936207

  9. Effects of conductor sag on spatial distribution of power line magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mamishev, A.V.; Nevels, R.D.; Russell, B.D.

    1996-07-01

    Traditional extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field computation techniques assume that the current carrying power line conductors are straight horizontal wires. This assumption results in a model whose magnetic fields are distorted from those produced in reality. An exact solution and an approximation are proposed for modeling magnetic fields produced by the sagged conductors of power lines, by taking advantage of the fact that the equation of the catenary exactly describes the line sag. The proposed approaches differ in the required computational burden and in the precision of the results. A field mapping measurement example illustrates the applicability and the need for this analysis. The relative importance of the catenary effect is discussed.

  10. Dural Reduction Surgery: A Treatment Option for Frontotemporal Brain Sagging Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Emily; Schievink, Wouter I; Sim, Valerie L

    2016-07-01

    Frontotemporal brain sagging syndrome is a dementia associated with hypersomnolence, personality changes, and features of intracranial hypotension on magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is sparse with respect to treatment options; many patients simply worsen. We present a case in which this syndrome responded to lumbar dural reduction surgery. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging indicated normalization of brain sagging and lumbar intrathecal pressure. Although no evidence of cerebrospinal leak was found, extremely thin dura was noted intraoperatively, suggesting that a thin and incompetent dura could result in this low-pressure syndrome. Clinicians who encounter this syndrome should consider dural reduction surgery as a treatment strategy.

  11. Development of Voltage Sag Compensator and UPS using a Flywheel Induction Motor and an Engine Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shuhei; Takaku, Taku; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

    Flywheel energy storage systems are focused as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) from the viewpoint of environmental friendliness and high durability performance. Using a low-speed and heavy flywheel, and a low-cost squirrel-cage induction motor/generator, two applications are proposed; 1) 11kW voltage sag compensator using a capacitor self-excited induction generator without semiconductor converters; 2) UPS composed of the flywheel system and an engine generator. From some experimental results, an ideal voltage sag compensator and UPS are realized by the low-technology flywheel system.

  12. A new inclination instability in planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2015-08-01

    I describe a new instability in Keplerian disks of massive particles on eccentric orbits. Gravitational torques between the orbits align their angles of pericenter and drive exponential growth in orbital inclination. This instability implies specific ratios for Kepler elements of the orbits, similar to what is seen in the inner Oort Cloud of our solar system. I also discuss implications for extra-solar planetary systems and for nuclear star clusters in the centers of galaxies.

  13. Development of modular cable mesh deployable antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Akira; Mitsugi, Jin; Andou, Kazuhide

    1993-03-01

    This report describes a concept and key technologies for the modular mesh deployable antenna. The antenna reflector composed of independently manufactured and tested modules is presented. Each module consists of a mesh surface, a cable network, and a deployable truss structure. The cable network comprises three kinds of cables, surface, tie, and back cables. Adjustment of tie cable lengths improves the surface accuracy. Synchronous deployment truss structures are considered as a supporting structure. Their design method, BBM's (Bread Board Model) and deployment analysis are also explained.

  14. The GEOS-20 m Cable Boom Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G. K.; Suttner, K.

    1977-01-01

    The GEOS Cable Boom Mechanism which allows the controlled deployment of a 20 m long cable in a centrifugal force field is described. In launch configuration the flat cable is reeled on a 240 mm diameter drum. The electrical connection between the rotating drum and the stationary housing is accomplished via a flexlead positioned inside the drum. Active motion control of this drum is achieved by a self locking worm gear, driven by a stepper motor. The deployment length of the cable is monitored by an optical length indicator, sensing black bars engraved on the cable surface.

  15. GEOS-20 m cable boom mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, B. K.; Suttner, K.

    1977-01-01

    The GEOS cable boom mechanism allows the controlled deployment of a 20 m long cable in a centrifugal force field. In launch configuration the flat cable is reeled on a 240 mm diameter drum. The electrical connection between the rotating drum and the stationary housing is accomplished via a flexlead positioned inside the drum. Active motion control of this drum is achieved by a self locking worm gear, driven by a stepper motor. The deployment length of the cable is monitored by an optical length indicator, sensing black bars engraved on the cable surface.

  16. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999), 10.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  17. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes.

    PubMed

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999)PHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  18. Energetics of ascent: insects on inclines.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Tullis, A

    1990-03-01

    Small animals use more metabolic energy per unit mass than large animals to run on a level surface. If the cost to lift one gram of mass one vertical meter is constant, small animals should require proportionally smaller increases in metabolic cost to run uphill. To test this hypothesis on very small animals possessing an exceptional capacity for ascending steep gradients, we measured the metabolic cost of locomotion in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, running at angles of 0, 45 and 90 degrees to the horizontal. Resting oxygen consumption (VO2rest) was not affected by incline angle. Steady-state oxygen consumption (VO2ss) increased linearly with speed at all angles of ascent. The minimum cost of locomotion (the slope of the VO2ss versus speed function) increased with increasing angle of ascent. The minimum cost of locomotion on 45 and 90 degrees inclines was two and three times greater, respectively, than the cost during horizontal running. The cockroach's metabolic cost of ascent greatly exceeds that predicted from the hypothesis of a constant efficiency for vertical work. Variations in stride frequency and contact time cannot account for the high metabolic cost, because they were independent of incline angle. An increase in the metabolic cost or amount of force production may best explain the increase in metabolic cost. Small animals, such as P. americana, can easily scale vertical surfaces, but the energetic cost is considerable.

  19. Drop impact on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonjae; Leclear, Sani; Leclear, Johnathon; Abhijeet, .; Park, Kyoo-Chul

    We report an empirical study and dimensional analysis on the impact patterns of water drops on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces. While the classic Weber number determines the spreading and recoiling dynamics of a water drop on a horizontal / smooth surface, for a superhydrophobic surface, the dynamics depends on two distinct Weber numbers, each calculated using the length scale of the drop or of the pores on the surface. Impact on an inclined superhydrophobic surface is even more complicated, as the velocity that determines the Weber number is not necessarily the absolute speed of the drop but the velocity components normal and tangential to the surface. We define six different Weber numbers, using three different velocities (absolute, normal and tangential velocities) and two different length scales (size of the drop and of the texture). We investigate the impact patterns on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces with three different types of surface texture: (i) posts, (ii) ridges aligned with and (iii) ridges perpendicular to the impact direction. Results suggest that all six Weber numbers matter, but affect different parts of the impact dynamics, ranging from the Cassie-Wenzel transition, maximum spreading, to anisotropic deformation. We acknowledge financial support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through Contract 3002453812.

  20. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Analysis of inclined showers measured with LOPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Collaboration; Saftoiu, A.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Asch, T.; Auffenberg, J.; Badea, F.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Buitink, S.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Falcke, H.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Kolotaev, Y.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Lafebre, S.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Nigl, A.; Oehlschläger, J.; Over, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Singh, K.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.; LOPES Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, we analyze the radio signal from inclined air showers recorded by LOPES-30 in coincidence with KASCADE-Grande. LOPES-30 consists of 30 East-West oriented digital antennas, which are amplitude calibrated by an external source. Radio emission from air showers is considered a geomagnetic effect. Inclined events provide a larger range of values for geomagnetic angle (angle between shower axis and geomagnetic field direction) than vertical showers and thus more information on the emission processes can be gathered. In order to have the geometry of the air shower we use the reconstruction provided by the KASCADE-Grande particle detectors array. Analyzing events observed by both LOPES and the extended part of the KASCADE array, Grande, gives the possibility to test in particular the capability and efficiency of radio detection of more distant events. The results are compared with a previous analysis of inclined events recorded by the initial 10 antenna set-up, LOPES-10, in coincidence with the Grande array.

  2. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination.

  3. The rice OsSAG12-2 gene codes for a functional protease that negatively regulates stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Singh, Subaran; Singh, Anupriya; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Senescence is the final stage of plant development. Although expression of most of the genes is suppressed during senescence, a set of genes referred as senescence-associated genes (SAGs) is induced. Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12 (AtSAG12) is one such gene that has been mostly studied for its strict association with senescence. AtSAG12 encodes a papain-like cysteine protease, expressed predominantly in senescence-associated vacuoles. Rice genome contains multiple AtSAG12 homologues (OsSAGs). OsSAG12-1, the closest structural homologue of AtSAG12, is a negative regulator of developmental and stress-induced cell death. Proteolytic activity has not been established for any SAG12 homologues in vitro. Here, we report that OsSAG12-2, the second structural homologue of AtSAG12 from rice, codes for a functional proteolytic enzyme. The recombinant OsSAG12-2 protein produced in Escherichia coli undergoes autolysis to generate a functional protease. The matured OsSAG12-2 protein shows 27 percent trypsin-equivalent proteolytic activity on azocasein substrate. Dark-induced senescence activates OsSAG12-2 expression. Down-regulation of OsSAG12-2 in the transgenic artificial miRNA lines results in enhanced salt- and UV-induced cell death, even though it does not affect cell viability in the stress-free condition. Our results show that OsSAG12-2 codes for a functional protease that negatively regulates stress-induced cell death in rice.

  4. DNA vaccine encoding the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific surface antigens SAG2CDX protect BALB/c mice against type II parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lingxiao; Song, Jing; Li, Ying; Zhao, Qunli; He, Shenyi; Cong, Hua

    2013-09-23

    The surface antigens SAG2C, SAG2D, and SAG2X, which expressed specifically on bradyzoite stage of Toxoplasma gondii, have been demonstrated to be important for persistence of cyst in the brain. In this study, DNA vaccines expressing SAG2C, SAG2D, and SAG2X of T. gondii were constructed and their protective efficacy were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Mice vaccinated with pVAX1-SAG2C (pSAG2C), pVAX1-2D (pSAG2D) or pVAX1-2X (pSAG2C) showed higher levels of serum IgG antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation response compared to PBS and pVAX1 treated mice (p<0.05). The immune response was characterized by a strong Th1 response and increased cytokine production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. Vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against the challenge with the cyst of T. gondii genotype II strain of PRU (cyst-forming in mouse). A significant reduction in the brain cyst burden was detected in the mice immunized with pSAG2C (72%), pSAG2D (23%), pSAG2X (69%) alone and even more reduction rate, 77%, was achieved in the combination group compared to PBS treated mice. The results implied that immunization with DNA vaccines expressing SAG2C, SAG2D, and SAG2X, and, in particular, a combination of all three DNA plasmids, could effectively protect the mice against T. gondii chronic infection.

  5. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  6. 4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT TO CONEMAUGH RIVER AND AREA OF LOWER INCLINE - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. 30 CFR 57.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 57.19135 Section 57... Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned, and kept in good repair....

  8. 30 CFR 56.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 56.19135 Section 56.19135 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined...

  9. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  10. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards. ...

  11. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards. ...

  12. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards. ...

  13. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards. ...

  14. 30 CFR 56.11017 - Inclined fixed ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclined fixed ladders. 56.11017 Section 56.11017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....11017 Inclined fixed ladders. Fixed ladders shall not incline backwards. ...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56... Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56... Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56... Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56... Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56... Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  5. Optimization of the expression of surface antigen SAG1/2 of Toxoplasma gondii in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, G; Init, I; Fong, M Y; Lau, Y L

    2011-12-01

    Surface antigens are the most abundant proteins found on the surface of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and Surface antigen 2 (SAG2) remain the most important and extensively studied surface proteins. These antigens have been identified to play a role in host cell invasion, immune modulation, virulence attenuation. Recombinant SAG1/2 was cloned and expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. We describe here optimization of critical parameters involved in high yield expression of the recombinant SAG1/2. Our results suggest that recombinant SAG1/2 were best expressed at 30ºC, pH 6 and 1% methanol as the carbon source by X33 Pichia cells. Additional optimizations included the downstream process such as ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The fusion protein was purified using Ni-NTA purification system with 80% recovery. The purified protein was 100% specific and sensitive in detection of toxoplasmosis.

  6. Primary structure of mature SAG1 gene of an Indonesian Toxoplasma gondii and comparison with other strains.

    PubMed

    Hartati, Sri; Kusumawati, Asmarani; Wuryastuti, Hastari; Widada, J Sri

    2006-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent protozoan parasite capable of infecting almost any warm-blooded vertebrates. SAG1 (p30) is the prototypic member of a superfamily of surface antigens called SRS (SAG1-related sequence). It constitutes the most abundant and predominant antigen. In this paper the primary structure of mature SAG1 gene of an Indonesian T. gondii isolate is described and sequence comparison is made with published sequence data of 7 other strains or isolates. Sequence comparison indicated that SAG1 is highly conserved through evolution and despite parasite spreading world-wide. Sequences may be divided into two major families, independent of the strain/isolate geographic origin. Variations were mainly localized at the C-terminal half or domain 2 and some clustered in restricted areas. Sequence comparison allowed us to define the Indonesian isolate as genuine virulent RH strain. A phylogenetic tree of Toxoplasma strains/isolates was constructed based on SAG1.

  7. Ampacity test of 28 AWG ribbon cables

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, E.

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the results of testing ribbon cables in order to determine the amount of current they can carry. In some experiments ribbon cables are used to power circuit boards and carry several amperes of current. These tests were required to establish safe operating current limits for electrical safety reviews. The basic principle behind these tests was to increase the amount of current passed through the ribbon cables until the insulation melted and the cable clearly became a fire hazard. As the current through the cable was increased the copper temperature was determined from the increased conductor resistance. The tests were done on two different types of ribbon cables. One was the flat 26 conductor 28AWG and the other was the twist and flat 26 conductor 28AWG ribbon cable, both of which are commonly used in the experiments. The flat cable was tested for current carrying capacity through three conductors and through a single conductor. The twist and flat cable was tested for current carrying capacity through a single conductor. It was found that the maximum single conductor ampacity for both cables is approximately 3A and the three conductor ampacity for the flat cable is about 10A. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of a solid hydrophone cable

    SciTech Connect

    Berni, A.J.; Kruka, V.R.; McNerney, R.P.; Park, L.D.

    1982-07-01

    In marine seismic exploration, an approximately two-mile long hydrophone cable is towed behind the ship. The commonly employed cable consists of a kerosene-filled hose enclosing hydrophones, electrical wires, and steel ropes. The kerosene provides buoyancy while the steel ropes are for structural support. For deep-water operations, the cable is pulled through the water at a depth of 20-40 feet. For shallow water, a bottom reference configuration is used and the cable is dragged. This paper presents a comparison of electroacoustic properties between a newly designed, buoyant solid cable and those of the conventional kerosene-filled hose. The emphasis is on drag cable operations. Cable maintenance is a major problem. Jacket cuts occur because of improper handling or collisions with other ships, subsea structures, and debris. Kerosene leakage causes buoyancy loss and the need for immediate replacement. Salt water intrusion causes electrical shorts. Replacement rates on drag cables are very high. The solid cable was designed to be more damage-resistant than the kerosene-filled hose and smaller in size. Laboratory testing and a series of sea trials have specifically addressed the problems of i) the pressure sensitivity of hydrophones buried in a solid cable, and ii) a noise level comparison of the two cables.

  9. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  10. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Jose Angel Delgadillo

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and Outokumpu Technology. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling and operators had to learn more. Now the power consumption is 0.3-1.3 kWh/ton lower than before. The actual SAG mill power draw is 230-370 kW lower. Mill runs 1 rpm lesser in speed on the average. The recirculation to the cone crusher is reduced by 1-10%, which means more efficient grinding of critical size material is taking place in the mill. All of the savings have resulted in reduction of operating cost be about $0.023-$0.048/ ton. After completing the shell lifter design, the pulp lifter design was taken up. Through a series of mill surveys and

  11. Cryogenic design of liquid-nitrogen circulation system for long-length HTS cables with altitude variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Yang, Hyung Suk

    2017-04-01

    Liquid-nitrogen (LN2) circulation systems with altitude variation are investigated and designed for application to practical long-length HTS cables. This study is motivated by the KEPCO's immediate plan to install new HTS cables in existing utility tunnels including inclined and vertical sections. The distribution of pressure and temperature along the LN2 circulation loop is examined for various geographic conditions, taking into account the gravitational effect of altitude variation. The cryogenic cooling requirements are defined in terms of the pressure and temperature of LN2, and a design process is graphically demonstrated on phase diagram. It is concluded that the LN2 flow rate along the cable with altitude variation should be carefully determined with the constraints on pressure and temperature, and the proposed graphical method is useful in the design.

  12. Light-trapping properties of the Si inclined nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaopeng; Huangfu, Huichao; He, Long; Wang, Jiazhuang; Yang, Dong; Guo, Jingwei; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    The light trapping performance of Si nanowire with different inclination angles were systematically studied by COMSOL Multiphysics. The inclined nanowires with inclination angles smaller than 60° show greater light trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanowires. The Si solar cell with the inclined nanowires of the optimal parameters, whose θ=30°, P=400 nm, D=140 nm, can achieve a 32.395 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density and a 35.655% conversion efficiency. The study of the inclined nanowire provides an effective way for further utilization of the incoming light.

  13. High Voltage Cable Splicing and Cable Termination Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    solid dielectric insulations currently used are high-molecular-weight polyethylene (EP) and cross-linked poly- ethylene ( XLPE ). The EP insulation is...rated for 750 C a maximum temperature, and the XLPE insulation is rated for 900C maximum temperature. These insulation materials provide the conductor...The cost of installing PILC with copper conductors is compared to the cost of installing XLPE cable with aluminum conductors in Table 1. The

  14. Test plan and report for Space Shuttle launch environment testing of Bergen cable technology safety cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, John

    1992-01-01

    Bergen Cable Technology (BCT) has introduced a new product they refer to as 'safety cable'. This product is intended as a replacement for lockwire when installed per Aerospace Standard (AS) 4536 (included in Appendix D of this document). Installation of safety cable is reportedly faster and more uniform than lockwire. NASA/GSFC proposes to use this safety cable in Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) applications on upcoming Shuttle missions. To assure that BCT safety cable will provide positive locking of fasteners equivalent to lockwire, the SSPP will conduct vibration and pull tests of the safety cable.

  15. PRECISE TULLY-FISHER RELATIONS WITHOUT GALAXY INCLINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Obreschkow, D.; Meyer, M.

    2013-11-10

    Power-law relations between tracers of baryonic mass and rotational velocities of disk galaxies, so-called Tully-Fisher relations (TFRs), offer a wealth of applications in galaxy evolution and cosmology. However, measurements of rotational velocities require galaxy inclinations, which are difficult to measure, thus limiting the range of TFR studies. This work introduces a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method for recovering the TFR in galaxy samples with limited or no information on inclinations. The robustness and accuracy of this method is demonstrated using virtual and real galaxy samples. Intriguingly, the MLE reliably recovers the TFR of all test samples, even without using any inclination measurements—that is, assuming a random sin i-distribution for galaxy inclinations. Explicitly, this 'inclination-free MLE' recovers the three TFR parameters (zero-point, slope, scatter) with statistical errors only about 1.5 times larger than the best estimates based on perfectly known galaxy inclinations with zero uncertainty. Thus, given realistic uncertainties, the inclination-free MLE is highly competitive. If inclination measurements have mean errors larger than 10°, it is better not to use any inclinations than to consider the inclination measurements to be exact. The inclination-free MLE opens interesting perspectives for future H I surveys by the Square Kilometer Array and its pathfinders.

  16. Holbrook Substation Superconductor Cable System, Long Island, New York Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, James; McNamara, Joseph

    2010-06-25

    The LIPA Superconductor project broke ground on July 4, 2006, was first energized on April 22, 2008 (Earth Day) and was commissioned on June 25, 2008. Since commissioning, up until early March, 2009, there were numerous refrigeration events that impacted steady state operations. This led to the review of the alarms that were being generated and a rewrite of the program logic in order to decrease the hypersensitivity surrounding these alarms. The high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable was energized on March 5, 2009 and ran uninterrupted until a human error during a refrigeration system switchover knocked the cable out of the grid in early February 2010. The HTS cable was in the grid uninterrupted from March 5, 2009 to February 4, 2010. Although there have been refrigeration events (propagated mainly by voltage sags/surges) during this period, the system was able to automatically switch over from the primary to the backup refrigeration system without issue as required during this period. On February 4, 2010, when switching from the backup over to the primary refrigeration system, two rather than one liquid nitrogen pumps were started inadvertently by a human error (communication) causing an overpressure in the cable cooling line. This in turn activated the pressure relief valve located in the grounding substation. The cable was automatically taken out of the grid without any damage to the components or system as a result of signals sent from the AMSC control cabinet to the LIPA substation. The cable was switched back into the grid again on March 16, 2010 without incident and has been operational since that time. Since switching from the backup to the primary is not an automatic process, a recent improvement was added to the refrigeration operating system to allow remote commands to return the system from backup to primary cooling. This improvement makes the switching procedure quicker since travel to the site to perform this operation is no longer necessary and

  17. Prolonged activity evokes potentiation and the "sag" phenomenon in slow motor units of rat soleus.

    PubMed

    Drzymała-Celichowska, Hanna; Raikova, Rositsa; Krutki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Slow motor units (MUs) have no sag in their unfused tetani. This study in anesthetized rats shows that the sag can be observed in slow soleus MUs after prolonged activity. Twitches and unfused tetanic contractions were recorded from male (n=35) and female (n=39) MUs before and after the four minutes of the fatigue test (trains of 13 pulses at 40 Hz repeated every second). After this activity twitch contractions potentiated and a shift in the steep part of the force-frequency curve towards lower frequencies was observed in both sexes. Initially no sag was visible in unfused tetani, but after the fatigue test the phenomenon was observed in 77% of male, while in 13% of female MUs, the result consistent with the previously reported higher content of IIa myosin and faster contraction of MUs in male soleus. The decomposition of tetani with sag into trains of twitch-shape responses to consecutive stimuli revealed higher forces of initial decomposed twitches than later. The revealed alterations the force development due to long-lasting activation of slow MUs were sex-related and more pronounced in male soleus.

  18. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates That Lack Large Regions of the sag Operon Mediating Streptolysin S Production▿

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Miho; Murayama, Somay Y.; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Wajima, Takeaki; Takahashi, Miki; Masaki, Junko; Kurokawa, Iku; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2010-01-01

    Among nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) strains (n = 9) isolated from patients with pharyngitis or acute otitis media, we identified three deletions in the region from the epf gene, encoding the extracellular matrix binding protein, to the sag operon, mediating streptolysin S production. PMID:20018818

  19. Optical measurement and modelling of parison sag and swell in blow moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béreaux, Yves; Charmeau, Jean-Yves; Balcaen, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Blow moulding is a process whereby a cylindrical parison is extruded first, then pinched between the two halves of a mould and, finally, blown into the product. Parison size and shape result from complex interactions between mandrel and die geometries, processing parameters and viscoelastic properties of the polymeric material. Moreover, parison size changes with time due to sag. An innovative, contactless and online measurement technique of the parison is shown to be an effective tool to measure precisely parison diameter and thickness and to capture dimensional changes with time. This technique employs laser lighting of the parison and hinges on the refractive properties of molten polymer. Images taken with a digital camera are processed to give a precise measurement of diameter and thickness, at different time step during extrusion. Thus, parison swell and sag have been recorded for a commercial HDPE. Influence of processing parameters such as the rotational screw speed or die gap width can be brought forward. Thickness swell is found to possess a different behaviour from diameter swell. Swell is a purely viscoelastic phenomenon, therefore requiring a numerical modelling with an integral viscoelastic constitutive equation. On the other hand, sag has been measured and could be modelled from a Newtonian perspective using one dimensional convected coordinates. A sagging susceptibility coefficient of the polymer is deduced.

  20. Development of a New Voltage Sag Compensator with a Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaki; Iwata, Akihiko; Hatakeyama, Yoshihiro; Ishii, Yasuhiro

    A new voltage sag compensator with a gradationally controlled voltage inverter which exceeds SEMI F47 standard has been developed. It consists of a gradationally controlled voltage inverter in which inverters are connected in series and are charged at different voltages to each other, and which outputs the sum of each output voltage. This system is small and with an extremely low loss.

  1. New Life For The Cable Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA-Arnes' major recommendations involved ways of extending cable life in the interests of safety and economy. Other recommendations included redesign of the cablegripping device, substitution of modern braking mechanisms, improvements in cable pulleys and other components, and new inspection and repair procedures. Ames followed up by designing and installing new equipment to lengthen cable life, which averages only about two months. These cables-four of them for four different car routes--are endless belts, like ski lift cables, running from the downtown car barn to the end of each line. When a cable is installed, the loop is closed by splicing the ends together in a 72-footlong splice. The splice is the weakest part of the cable and a source of problems. When the car operator applies his grip while over a splice, the resulting friction sometimes causes the splice to "unbraid" and fail; this means shutting down the line until the splice can be repaired. Even when unbraiding does not occur, gripping a splice shortens cable life by friction wear. Worn cables are a safety hazard and must be replaced, which is expensive at $1.60 a foot for 10,000 to 20,000 feet of cable.

  2. Can inorganic phosphate explain sag during unfused tetanic contractions of skeletal muscle?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian C; Bellissimo, Catherine; Herzog, Walter; Tupling, A Russell

    2016-11-01

    We test the hypothesis that cytosolic inorganic phosphate (Pi) can account for the contraction-induced reductions in twitch duration which impair summation and cause force to decline (sag) during unfused tetanic contractions of fast-twitch muscle. A five-state model of crossbridge cycling was used to simulate twitch and unfused tetanic contractions. As Pi concentration ([Pi]) was increased from 0 to 30 mmol·L(-1), twitch duration decreased, with progressive reductions in sensitivity to Pi as [Pi] was increased. When unfused tetani were simulated with rising [Pi], sag was most pronounced when initial [Pi] was low, and when the magnitude of [Pi] increase was large. Fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles (sag-prone, typically low basal [Pi]) and slow-twitch soleus muscles (sag-resistant, typically high basal [Pi]) were isolated from 14 female C57BL/6 mice. Muscles were sequentially incubated in solutions containing either glucose or pyruvate to create typical and low Pi environments, respectively. Twitch duration was greater (P < 0.05) in pyruvate than glucose in both muscles. Stimuli applied at intervals approximately three times the time to peak twitch tension resulted in sag of 35.0 ± 3.7% in glucose and 50.5 ± 1.4% in pyruvate in the EDL (pyruvate > glucose; P < 0.05), and 3.9 ± 0.3% in glucose and 37.8 ± 2.7% in pyruvate in the soleus (pyruvate > glucose; P < 0.05). The influence of Pi on crossbridge cycling provides a tenable mechanism for sag. Moreover, the low basal [Pi] in fast-twitch relative to slow-twitch muscle has promise as an explanation for the fiber-type dependency of sag. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  4. High current pulse transmission cable

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1990-09-28

    This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.

  5. Evaluation of corrosion control for underground residential distribution cables

    SciTech Connect

    Hanck, J.A. ); Nekoksa, G. )

    1992-04-01

    Two sections of concentric neutral cables were buried next to an energized cable at several locations in PG E's service area. At each location, one cable sample was connected to the cathodically protected energized cable, while the other cable sample was isolated from both the energized cable and the cathodic protection system. After nine years of exposure in different soil conditions, the cable samples were excavated and tested. The test results indicate that cathodic protection effectively controlled concentric neutral wire corrosion and that the unprotected cable samples corroded in a similar way to the energized cables before the cathodic protection was applied.

  6. The speed of an inclined ruck.

    PubMed

    Balmforth, N J; Craster, R V; Hewitt, I J

    2015-01-08

    Steady rucks in an elastic beam can roll at constant speed down an inclined plane. We examine the dynamics of these travelling-wave structures and argue that their speed can be dictated by a combination of the physical conditions arising in the vicinity of the 'contact points' where the beam is peeled off the underlying plane and stuck back down. We provide three detailed models for the contact dynamics: viscoelastic fracture, a thermodynamic model for bond formation and detachment and adhesion mediated by a thin liquid film. The results are compared with experiments.

  7. Braiding patterns on an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Keith; Putkaradze, Vakhtang; Vorobieff, Peter

    2004-07-08

    A jet of fluid flowing down a partially wetting, inclined plane usually meanders but--by maintaining a constant flow rate--meandering can be suppressed, leading to the emergence of a beautiful braided structure. Here we show that this flow pattern can be explained by the interplay between surface tension, which tends to narrow the jet, and fluid inertia, which drives the jet to widen. These observations dispel misconceptions about the relationship between braiding and meandering that have persisted for over 20 years.

  8. Circular Waveguide Slotted Antenna with Inclined Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekretarov, S. S.; Vavriv, D. M.

    2009-03-01

    The novel design of a Ku-band circular waveguide slotted antenna is proposed. In contrast to standard antennas of this type, the main beam of the developed antenna is inclined from its surface normal by the value noticeably exceeding the beam width, which is necessary e.g. to reduce the radar cross section of the antenna in the direction towards an illuminated target. The design features of such antennas are considered. The practical desing of the antenna developed is presented along with the comparison of the simulation and experimental results.

  9. The speed of an inclined ruck

    PubMed Central

    Balmforth, N. J.; Craster, R. V.; Hewitt, I. J.

    2015-01-01

    Steady rucks in an elastic beam can roll at constant speed down an inclined plane. We examine the dynamics of these travelling-wave structures and argue that their speed can be dictated by a combination of the physical conditions arising in the vicinity of the ‘contact points’ where the beam is peeled off the underlying plane and stuck back down. We provide three detailed models for the contact dynamics: viscoelastic fracture, a thermodynamic model for bond formation and detachment and adhesion mediated by a thin liquid film. The results are compared with experiments. PMID:25568622

  10. Plume impingement forces on inclined flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, H.

    Plume impingement from spacecraft control thrusters on vehicles in space is simulated in wind tunnel scale experiments. Pressure and shear stress are measured on flat plates inclined to the plume axis between 0 and 90 deg. In addition to a nozzle of a 0.5N thruster, a free jet from a thin plate orifice was used, by which the flow regime from nearly free molecular flow to continuum flow was covered. Simple pressure and shear stress laws are given by which the impingement pressure and shear stress can be estimated for engineering applications.

  11. Understanding the Dynamics of Bomb Sags: a High Velocity Impact Experimental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, J.; Dufek, J.

    2016-12-01

    The conditions of ancient volcanic eruptions are difficult to resolve under current methods due to evolution of the landscape with time and the limited volcanic features able to be used as proxies for atmospheric conditions and volcanic strength. The age of volcanic eruptions may be determined by the relative positions of rock and ash layers viewed in an outcrop or by employing geochronology techniques such as radiogenic dating. The strength of eruptions is given by the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), a relative scale that enables explosive volcanic eruptions to be compared with one another by analyzing factors such as distance of fallout from conduit and total calculated volume of ejecta. Determining the height of plume and atmospheric density during eruption proves to be problematic. However, sedimented features found in outcrops of volcanic eruptions, such as bomb sags, may be used as proxies for the kinetics of these eruptions. Bomb sags occur during pyroclastic eruptions, specifically phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions, when a pyroclast impacts a saturated ash and tephra layer and the cohesion of the impacted media decreases the amount of ejecta, creating a sag layer. Our experimental apparatus consists of an air pressure cannon which we use to launch impactors into a barrel housing impact media. With this setup we are able to vary grain size as well as saturation level of the impact media to map across a wide range of potential volcanic environments. Impact velocity is measured using a high speed camera. Physical measurements including depth, mass, and density of impactor, and diameter of impact crater are made per run. In addition to in situ field measurements of bomb sag features, these experimental measurements including porosity and composition of the impact media, angle of impact, atmospheric density, and saturation level of media can assist in developing a numerical model resolving the dynamics of bomb sags as well as atmospheric conditions during

  12. Sag-ponding and its Significance in determining Paleo-seismic events along the active strike- slip fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhang, P.; Yuan, D.

    2007-12-01

    During the development of one active fault, we really want to know how it behaves and what it will do next. This mostly depends on the record and preservation of the information showing the action of the fault. Sparse young sediments or sediments with coarse grain along most of big strike-slip faults make it hard record and preserve the vestige of the paleo-seismic events. This extremely restricts the development of the Paleo-seismic research. Sag-ponding as well as the deposits in ponds, which are formed by the movement of the fault, can help settling the difficulty. Periodic sag-ponding is a feature to which should be paid more attention along the strike-slip fault, it can develop a pond to capture plenty fine sediments which well record the action of the faults. Sag-ponding can easily be found on the main active strike-slip faults in northern and eastern Tibet. By disclosing the sag-ponding depositions with 3-D excavations, sediment distribution and characters of relevant sag-ponds, and the relation between the sag-ponding and faulting were discussed. 1. Mechanism of the formation of the sag-pond When the valleys and ridges intersecting with the fault are displaced, the fault scarps will block the flow of the streams cut by the fault, or make the gullies develop ancon-like bend. This would form a space for water-storage, and thus a sag-pond comes into being. If the fault behaves like this many times, multi-sag-ponding will occur. 2. Rhythmic sag-ponding deposition features and stratigraphic sequence (1) Vertical characteristics. Observed from the stratigraphic profiles disclosed by the excavation, stratigraphic sequence shows good rhythms. There are several rhythms in each pond, and one rhythm is composed of the lower coarse layers and the upper fine layers. That is, the grains are coarser below and finer upward. (2) Transverse variation. In the direction parallel to the fault, the deposition center of each sag-pond appears regular movement, or migration

  13. Experimental verification of a real-time program for the determination of temperature and sag of overhead lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, R.A.; Black, W.Z.; Byrd, W.R.; Champion, T.C. III

    1983-07-01

    An outdoor test facility was used to experimentally verify real-time overhead conductor ampacity and sag programs. The facility consists of a 213m span of 26/7 336 kcmil ACSR conductor completely instrumented with 13 thermocouples as well as a sag and tension device. A weather station mounted near mid-span monitors all pertinent weather conditions. The measured conductor temperatures fluctuated significantly along the length of the test span. Spanwise variations in the measured instantaneous temperatures were frequently in excess of 10/sup 0/C for a wide variety of conductor currents and weather conditions. The conductor temperatures predicted by the real-time ampacity program were within 10/sup 0/C of the average measured conductor temperatures for all tests. Measured conductor sags were within 5 percent of values predicted by a real-time sag program. The results of the experimental project show that accurate predictions of real-time conductor temperatures and sags can be achieved by knowing the conductor current, wind speed, wind direction and the ambient air temperature. Therefore, computer programs are capable of predicting conductor temperatures and sags with a minimum amount of weather data provided by a simple and inexpensive weather station. Instrumentation placed on the conductor is not necessary for execution of the ampacity and sag programs.

  14. Helical grip for the cable cars of San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peyran, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A helical cable car grip to minimize high maintenance costs of San Francisco's cable car operation is presented. The grip establishes a rolling contact between the cable and grip to reduce sliding friction and associated cable wear. The design, development, and testing of the helical cable car grip are described.

  15. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall provide...

  16. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  17. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  18. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may...

  19. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall provide...

  20. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may...

  1. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall provide...

  2. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may...

  3. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall provide...

  4. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall provide...

  5. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may...

  6. 47 CFR 76.956 - Cable operator response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable operator response. 76.956 Section 76.956... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.956 Cable operator response. (a) Unless otherwise directed by the local franchising authority, a cable operator must file with the local franchise authority...

  7. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  8. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may...

  9. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring... (technical standards) of the Commission's Cable Television Service rules (47 CFR 76.605(a)(13) and 76.610... standards) of the Commission's Cable Television Service rules (47 CFR 76.605(a)(13) and 76.610 through...

  10. 47 CFR 76.990 - Small cable operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.990 Small cable operators. (a) Effective February 8, 1996, a small cable operator is exempt from rate regulation on its cable programming services tier, or on its basic service tier if that tier was the only service tier subject to rate regulation as of...

  11. Inactivation of SAG E3 ubiquitin ligase blocks embryonic stem cell differentiation and sensitizes leukemia cells to retinoid acid.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mingjia; Li, Yun; Yang, Ruiguo; Xi, Ning; Sun, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene (SAG), also known as RBX2 (RING box protein-2), is the RING component of SCF (SKP1, Cullin, and F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Our previous studies have demonstrated that SAG is an anti-apoptotic protein and an attractive anti-cancer target. We also found recently that Sag knockout sensitized mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) to radiation and blocked mES cells to undergo endothelial differentiation. Here, we reported that compared to wild-type mES cells, the Sag(-/-) mES cells were much more sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced suppression of cell proliferation and survival. While wild-type mES cells underwent differentiation upon exposure to RA, Sag(-/-) mES cells were induced to death via apoptosis instead. The cell fate change, reflected by cellular stiffness, can be detected as early as 12 hrs post RA exposure by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). We then extended this novel finding to RA differentiation therapy of leukemia, in which the resistance often develops, by testing our hypothesis that SAG inhibition would sensitize leukemia to RA. Indeed, we found a direct correlation between SAG overexpression and RA resistance in multiple leukemia lines. By using MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8-Activating Enzyme (NAE), that inactivates SAG-SCF E3 ligase by blocking cullin neddylation, we were able to sensitize two otherwise resistant leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and KG-1 to RA. Mechanistically, RA sensitization by MLN4924 was mediated via enhanced apoptosis, likely through accumulation of pro-apoptotic proteins NOXA and c-JUN, two well-known substrates of SAG-SCF E3 ligase. Taken together, our study provides the proof-of-concept evidence for effective treatment of leukemia patients by RA-MLN4924 combination.

  12. Inactivation of SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase suppresses KrasG12D-driven lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua; Tan, Mingjia; Jia, Lijun; Wei, Dongping; Zhao, Yongchao; Chen, Guoan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Lili; Thomas, Dafydd; Beer, David G.; Sun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that rely on either RING-box 1 (RBX1) or sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), also known as RBX2, for activity. RBX1 and SAG are both overexpressed in human lung cancer; however, their contribution to patient survival and lung tumorigenesis is unknown. Here, we report that overexpression of SAG, but not RBX1, correlates with poor patient prognosis and more advanced disease. We found that SAG is overexpressed in murine KrasG12D-driven lung tumors and that Sag deletion suppressed lung tumorigenesis and extended murine life span. Using cultured lung cancer cells, we showed that SAG knockdown suppressed growth and survival, inactivated both NF-κB and mTOR pathways, and resulted in accumulation of tumor suppressor substrates, including p21, p27, NOXA, and BIM. Importantly, growth suppression by SAG knockdown was partially rescued by simultaneous knockdown of p21 or the mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR. Treatment with MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of CRL E3s, also inhibited the formation of KrasG12D-induced lung tumors through a similar mechanism involving inactivation of NF-κB and mTOR and accumulation of tumor suppressor substrates. Together, our results demonstrate that Sag is a Kras-cooperating oncogene that promotes lung tumorigenesis and suggest that targeting SAG-CRL E3 ligases may be an effective therapeutic approach for Kras-driven lung cancers. PMID:24430184

  13. Inactivation of SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase suppresses KrasG12D-driven lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Tan, Mingjia; Jia, Lijun; Wei, Dongping; Zhao, Yongchao; Chen, Guoan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Lili; Thomas, Dafydd; Beer, David G; Sun, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that rely on either RING-box 1 (RBX1) or sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), also known as RBX2, for activity. RBX1 and SAG are both overexpressed in human lung cancer; however, their contribution to patient survival and lung tumorigenesis is unknown. Here, we report that overexpression of SAG, but not RBX1, correlates with poor patient prognosis and more advanced disease. We found that SAG is overexpressed in murine KrasG12D-driven lung tumors and that Sag deletion suppressed lung tumorigenesis and extended murine life span. Using cultured lung cancer cells, we showed that SAG knockdown suppressed growth and survival, inactivated both NF-κB and mTOR pathways, and resulted in accumulation of tumor suppressor substrates, including p21, p27, NOXA, and BIM. Importantly, growth suppression by SAG knockdown was partially rescued by simultaneous knockdown of p21 or the mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR. Treatment with MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of CRL E3s, also inhibited the formation of KrasG12D-induced lung tumors through a similar mechanism involving inactivation of NF-κB and mTOR and accumulation of tumor suppressor substrates. Together, our results demonstrate that Sag is a Kras-cooperating oncogene that promotes lung tumorigenesis and suggest that targeting SAG-CRL E3 ligases may be an effective therapeutic approach for Kras-driven lung cancers.

  14. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work.

  15. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  16. Long-life cable development. Cable-processing survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mangaraj, D.; Preston, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    A survey of cable manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Japan identified state-of-the-art techniques for processing extruded dielectric cables. The review highlights optimal approaches to such process operations as materials handling, extrusion, and vulcanization.

  17. Cable force monitoring system of cable stayed bridges using accelerometers inside mobile smart phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Hu, Weitong; Jiao, Dong; Han, Ruicong; Mao, Xingquan; Li, Mingchu; Ou, Jinping

    2015-03-01

    Cable force is one of the most important parameters in structural health monitoring system integrated on cable stayed bridges for safety evaluation. In this paper, one kind of cable force monitoring system scheme was proposed. Accelerometers inside mobile smart phones were utilized for the acceleration monitoring of cable vibration. Firstly, comparative tests were conducted in the lab. The test results showed that the accelerometers inside smartphones can detect the cable vibration, and then the cable force can be obtained. Furthermore, there is good agreement between the monitoring results of different kinds of accelerometers. Finally, the proposed cable force monitoring system was applied on one cable strayed bridge structure, the monitoring result verified the feasibility of the monitoring system.

  18. Semiflex cable wires airborne microwave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Martin; Gochenour, Tim; Turner, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The SiO2 semiflexible cable is made of a solid-copper center conductor, a high-purity low-density silicon dioxide ceramic dielectric, and an outer sheath of stainless-steel tubing over a thin copper inner lining. The high-temperature properties of the ceramic insulation make possible the full annealing of the outer sheath in the final processing step. This annealing step is responsible for the flexibility of the cable and is the main distinction between semiflexible SiO2 cable and semirigid Teflon cable. A simulatied application is presented, and considerations of phase stability and proper use are examined. It is pointed out that the semiflexible SiO2 cable's simple construction can result in a weight savings of 20 to 40 percent and a 25 percent reduction in diameter compared with equivalent-performance flexible Teflon cables.

  19. An industrial cabling machine for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Royet, J.; Armer, R.; Hannaford, R.; Scanlan, R.

    1989-02-01

    The SSC project will need the manufacturing of some 25,000 kilometers of keystoned flat cable. The technical specifications of the various cables to be produced are the result of five years of research and development work at LBL. An experimental cable machine was built and run in the laboratory; many improvements were implemented and tested. Semi-industrial production of the various cables was performed, and the resulting cables were used and tested in the one-meter model magnets and 17.5 meter dipole prototypes. From these experiments an industrial cabler specification was generated and used for an international RFQ. The winner of the contract is Dour Metal, a Belgium company that built the first industrial prototype which is now in a production line at New England Electric Wire Company. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the machine and give the first industrial production results of superconducting keystoned cable for the SSC project. 4 refs.

  20. Fiber optic cables for severe environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarani, M. G.

    1982-10-01

    The most severe challenges to the fiber optic cable are related to nuclear weapons testing and other military applications. Nuclear experiments are conducted in deep underground holes. Cables connect the experimental device to recording stations positioned at a certain distance from ground zero. Attractive features provided by fiber optic cable technology include large cost advantages in cable purchase price, savings in handling cost due to the lighter weight, immunity to electromagnetic pulses (EMP), and the capability to transmit high data rates. Details of underground nuclear testing are discussed, taking into account the underground nuclear test environment, and questions of fiber optic cable design for the underground experiments. The use of fiber optics for the Ground Launched Cruise Missile Weapons System (GLCM) is also considered. Attention is given to the GLCM environment, and the proposed cable for GLCM application.