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Sample records for include body weight

  1. A model predicting fluindione dose requirement in elderly inpatients including genotypes, body weight, and amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Pautas, Eric; Duverlie, Charlotte; Berndt, Celia; Andro, Marion; Mahé, Isabelle; Emmerich, Joseph; Lacut, Karine; Le Gal, Grégoire; Peyron, Isabelle; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Siguret, Virginie

    2014-04-01

    Indandione VKAs have been widely used for decades, especially in Eastern Europe and France. Contrary to coumarin VKAs, the relative contribution of individual factors to the indandione-VKA response is poorly known. In the present multicentre study, we sought to develop and validate a model including genetic and non-genetic factors to predict the daily fluindione dose requirement in elderly patients in whom VKA dosing is challenging. We prospectively recorded clinical and therapeutic data in 230 Caucasian inpatients mean aged 85 ± 6 years, who had reached international normalized ratio stabilisation (range 2.0-3.0) on fluindione. In the derivation cohort (n=156), we analysed 13 polymorphisms in seven genes potentially involved in the pharmacological effect or vitamin-K cycle (VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1) and fluindione metabolism/transport (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1). We built a regression model incorporating non-genetic and genetic data and evaluated the model performances in a separate cohort (n=74).Body-weight, amiodarone intake, VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1 genotypes were retained in the final model, accounting for 31.5% of dose variability. None influence of CYP2C9 was observed. Our final model showed good performances: in 83.3% of the validation cohort patients, the dose was accurately predicted within 5 mg, i.e.the usual step used for adjusting fluindione dosage. In conclusion, in addition to body-weight and amiodarone-intake, pharmacogenetic factors (VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1) related to the pharmacodynamic effect and transport of fluindione significantly influenced the dose requirement in elderly patients while CYP2C9 did not. Studies are required to know whether fluindione could be an alternative VKA in carriers of polymorphic CYP2C9 alleles, hypersensitive to coumarins.

  2. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students.

  3. Whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI compared with 5-HTP PET/CT in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carlbom, Lina; Caballero-Corbalán, José; Granberg, Dan; Sörensen, Jens; Eriksson, Barbro; Ahlström, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Aim We wanted to explore if whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW) and liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging could be valuable in lesion detection of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). [11C]-5-Hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography/computed tomography (5-HTP PET/CT) was used for comparison. Materials and methods Twenty-one patients with NET were investigated with whole-body MRI, including DW imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging of the liver, and whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Seven additional patients underwent upper abdomen MRI including DWI, liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging, and 5-HTP PET/CT. Results There was a patient-based concordance of 61% and a lesion-based concordance of 53% between the modalities. MRI showed good concordance with PET in detecting bone metastases but was less sensitive in detecting metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes. MRI detected more liver metastases than 5-HTP PET/CT. Conclusion Whole-body MRI with DWI did not detect all NET lesions found with whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Our findings indicate that MRI of the liver including liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging and DWI could be a useful complement to whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. PMID:27894208

  4. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

  5. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  6. Genome-wide association mapping including phenotypes from relatives without genotypes in a single-step (ssGWAS) for 6-week body weight in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiyu; Misztal, Ignacy; Aguilar, Ignacio; Legarra, Andres; Fernando, Rohan L.; Vitezica, Zulma; Okimoto, Ron; Wing, Terry; Hawken, Rachel; Muir, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2), a single-marker model (CGWAS), and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs) based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60 k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs). After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced for ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These findings emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to be determined

  7. Genome-wide association mapping including phenotypes from relatives without genotypes in a single-step (ssGWAS) for 6-week body weight in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyu; Misztal, Ignacy; Aguilar, Ignacio; Legarra, Andres; Fernando, Rohan L; Vitezica, Zulma; Okimoto, Ron; Wing, Terry; Hawken, Rachel; Muir, William M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2), a single-marker model (CGWAS), and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs) based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60 k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs). After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced for ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These findings emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to be determined.

  8. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  9. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific ‘learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (−0.002 kg m−2 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (−94 kcal, 95% CI −122 to −66), with no difference versus water (−2 kcal, 95% CI −30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; −1.35 kg, 95% CI –2.28 to −0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; −1.24 kg, 95% CI –2.22 to −0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI

  10. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  11. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  12. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    PubMed

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  13. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  14. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  15. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Hursel, R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-04-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management, including consumption of caffeine, capsaicin and different teas such as green, white and oolong tea, have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, as they may increase energy expenditure (4-5%), fat oxidation (10-16%) and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. Daily increases in thermogenesis of approximately 300-400 kJ can eventually lead to substantial weight loss. However, it becomes clearer that certain conditions have to be met before thermogenic ingredients yield an effect, as intra-variability with respect to body weight regulation has been shown between subjects. Furthermore, the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may have an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general. Taken together, these functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome may sometimes appear straightforward and may also depend very strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

  16. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; O'Malley, Bert W; Elmquist, Joel K

    2017-02-20

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.

  17. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  18. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  19. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children.

  20. Modelling body weight, dieting and obesity traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Paolo Nicola

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.

  1. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  2. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  3. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity.

  4. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  5. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  6. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Bellisle, France

    2007-03-01

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to rising rates of obesity in the United States. The standard explanation is that energy-containing liquids are less satiating than are solid foods. However, purely physiologic mechanisms do not fully account for the proposed links between liquid sugar energy and body weight change. First, a reevaluation of published epidemiologic studies of consumption of sweetened beverages and overweight shows that most such studies either are cross-sectional or are based on passive surveillance of temporal trends and thus permit no conclusions about causal links. Second, research evidence comparing the short-term satiating power of different types of liquids and of solids remains inconclusive. Numerous clinical studies have shown that sugar-containing liquids, when consumed in place of usual meals, can lead to a significant and sustained weight loss. The principal ingredient of liquid meal replacement shakes is sugar, often high-fructose corn syrup, which is present in amounts comparable to those in soft drinks. Far from suppressing satiety, one such liquid shake is marketed on the grounds that it helps control hunger and prevents hunger longer when consumed for the purpose of weight loss. These inconsistencies raise the question whether the issue of sugars and body weight should continue to be framed purely in metabolic or physiologic terms. The effect of sugar consumption on body weight can also depend on behavioral intent, context, and the mode of use, availability, and cost of sweetened liquids.

  7. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Gunter, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total body weight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

  8. The dynamics of human body weight change.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2008-03-28

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass.

  9. The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  10. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  11. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  12. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review.

  13. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  14. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  15. Glycaemic index, appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ford, Heather; Frost, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Much interest has been focused on the relationship between glycaemic index and body-weight loss, some of which is fueled by popular media. However, there is a number of potential mechanisms that could be triggered by reducing the glycaemic index of the carbohydrate consumed in the diet. For example, the effect of foods on the gastrointestinal tract and the effect on blood glucose both could lead to potential appetite effects. Acute meal studies seem to point to an effect of glycaemic index on appetite regulation. However, the results of longer-term studies of weight loss are not as clear. In the present review a possible reason for this variation in outcome from the weight-loss studies will be discussed. The present review focuses on the possibility that the fermentable fibre content of the low-glycaemic-index diet may be important in weight-loss efficacy. A novel receptor that binds SCFA, the products of carbohydrate fermentation, has recently been described on the enteroendocrine L-cell in the colon. This cell releases a number of anorectic hormones and could offer an explanation of the appetite suppressant effects of fermentable carbohydrates. It could also explain the variability in the results of glycaemic-index weight-loss studies.

  16. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  17. Cosmological N -body simulations including radiation perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Rampf, Cornelius; Tram, Thomas; Leclercq, Florent; Fidler, Christian; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-03-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations are the standard tools to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects such as the coupling between matter and radiation (≡ photons and neutrinos). In this Letter, we investigate novel hybrid simulations that incorporate interactions between radiation and matter to the leading order in General Relativity, whilst evolving the matter dynamics in full non-linearity according to Newtonian theory. Our hybrid simulations come with a relativistic space-time and make it possible to investigate structure formation in a unified framework. In this work, we focus on simulations initialized at z = 99 and show that the extracted matter power spectrum receives up to 3 per cent corrections on very large scales through radiation. Our numerical findings compare favourably with linear analytical results from Fidler et al., from which we deduce that there cannot be any significant non-linear mode-coupling induced through linear radiation corrections.

  18. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  19. Weight status and the perception of body image in men.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%-7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  20. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG) as many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the re...

  1. Body weight gain and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck

    2011-11-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients.

  2. Body weight loss as an indicator of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Marinho, L A; Rettori, O; Vieira-Matos, A N

    2001-01-01

    Body weight loss (BWL), a major prognostic factor in breast cancer, was included as a parameter to be monitored in the recent breast cancer surveillance guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The aim of this work was prospectively to evaluate BWL as an indicator of breast cancer recurrence. Body weight was measured every 2 months for 10.4+/-3.7 (SD) months in 109 disease-free breast cancer patients in stage II node-positive and stage III disease. The correlation between unexplained BWL and recurrence was studied. Attempts were made to define the limits in weight variations among disease-free patients beyond which recurrence could be suspected. Unexplained BWL was observed in 16/19 (84%) patients developing recurrence, versus 9/90 (10%) patients remaining disease-free. There was a significant (p < 0.001) correlation between BWL and recurrence. BWL anticipated the diagnosis of recurrence by 6 (range 4-12) months. Based on the average percentage weight variation +/- 2 SD (95% confidence interval) of the disease-free group, the limits for BWL beyond which recurrence could be suspected were a 5.8% decrease in the last 6 months, 3.6% in the last 2 months or 3.0% of the patient's mean weight. However, because of the large variation in the amplitude of individual weight oscillations among disease-free patients (from < 0.5% to > 5.9% of the mean weight), individual limits derived from the patient's own body weight curve seemed more reliable. The results suggest that unexplained BWL is a valuable indicator of incipient breast cancer recurrence. Careful monitoring of body weight in breast cancer patients during follow-up is encouraged.

  3. Attitudes to body weight, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; King, W; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1994-12-01

    The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common unwanted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were more likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest good obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.

  4. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement.

  5. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be.

  6. Body weight perception among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; bin Zaal, A A; D'Souza, R

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current body weight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy body weight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond.

  7. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  8. Influence of maternal pregravid weight, height and body mass index on birth weight of male and female newborns.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Tomislav; Stoini, Eugenio

    2005-06-01

    The study included 2300 healthy couples and their healthy newborns delivered vaginally from singleton, normal term (37-42 weeks) pregnancies in Sibenik, Zadar and Split (Croatia). Both fathers and mothers of male newborns were older and had a higher weight than those of female newborns (p < 0.05). Gestational age and birth weight were higher in male than female newborns (p < 0.001). Increasing maternal pregravid weight led to increasing birth weight of both male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Furthermore, increasing maternal height and body mass index resulted in increasing birth weight of male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Thus, the fathers and mothers of male infants were older than those of female infants (p < 0.05), and increasing pre-gravid body weight, body height and body mass index were associated with a higher birth weight in both male and female newborns.

  9. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Saltzman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation.

  10. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  11. Association between eating out of home and body weight.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely

    2012-02-01

    Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association.

  12. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  13. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.

  14. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    PubMed

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  15. Exercise and weight loss: no sex differences in body weight response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John

    2014-07-01

    There is a view that exercise is less effective for weight loss in women compared with men. This systematic review examines the evidence for sex-based differences in the effect of exercise on body weight. We hypothesize that, when energy expenditure is equivalent, there will be no evidence for sex differences in body weight response to exercise.

  16. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  17. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  18. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  19. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.

  20. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  1. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  2. Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight, or both.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Neuschl, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2009-01-08

    Genetic loci for body weight and subphenotypes such as fat weight have been mapped repeatedly. However, the distinct effects of different loci and physiological interactions among different traits are often not accounted for in mapping studies. Here we used the method of structural equation modeling to identify the specific relationships between genetic loci and different phenotypes influencing body weight. Using this technique, we were able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect muscle growth. We examined the high body weight-selected mouse lines NMRI8 and DU6i and the intercross populations NMRI8 x DBA/2 and DU6i x DBA/2. Structural models help us understand whether genetic factors affect lean mass and fat mass pleiotropically or nonpleiotropically. Sex has direct effects on both fat and muscle weight but also influences fat weight indirectly via muscle weight. Three genetic loci identified in these two crosses showed exclusive effects on fat deposition, and five loci contributed exclusively to muscle weight. Two additional loci showed pleiotropic effects on fat and muscle weight, with one locus acting in both crosses. Fat weight and muscle weight were influenced by epistatic effects. We provide evidence that significant fat loci in strains selected for body weight contribute to fat weight both directly and indirectly via the influence on lean weight. These results shed new light on the action of genes in quantitative trait locus regions potentially influencing muscle and fat mass and thus controlling body weight as a composite trait.

  3. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  4. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  5. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation.

  6. CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, G.; Jones, D.; Hubert, G. W.; Lin, Y.; Kuhar, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of body weight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing and functions of CART peptides, but additional studies aimed at elucidating the physiological effects of the peptides and at characterizing the CART receptor(s) are needed to take advantage of possible therapeutic applications. PMID:18802445

  7. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  8. Misconceptions in body weight regulation: implications for the obesity pandemic.

    PubMed

    Flatt, J P

    2012-01-01

    Energy is a concept of universal importance. In applying it to body weight regulation, the focus has been on energy balance and how this balance is affected by intakes and expenditures. However, energy is an abstract concept without biological equivalent and applying it to explain body weight regulation has led to various misconceptions and created intellectual obstacles in understanding the obesity problem. When nutrient and substrate interactions are considered, instead, a number of important issues pertaining to body weight regulation and to the obesity epidemic can be much more pertinently addressed.

  9. Increase in body weight after pramipexole treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Santamaria, Joan; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Marti, Maria J; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2006-11-01

    Body weight changes occur during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with surgical treatment, but the effect of dopaminergic treatment on weight is unknown. Body mass index (BMI), Hamilton depression scale score (HDS), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPRS-III) were measured before and 3 months after starting pramipexole in 28 PD patients. Pramipexole produced a significant weight increase, as well as motor and mood improvement (P <0.001). HDS and BMI changes were mildly related (P = 0.05). A direct effect of pramipexole on limbic D(3) receptors involved in the control of feeding may be responsible for weight gain in PD.

  10. Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya

    2010-08-02

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes.

  11. Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  12. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed.

  13. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  14. Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Pàmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences.

  15. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  16. Sleep, circadian rhythm and body weight: parallel developments.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-11-01

    Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.

  17. True Believers? Religion, Physiology, and Perceived Body Weight in Texas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Andrea L; Acevedo, Gabriel A

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines relationships between body weight, religion, and gender while controlling for relevant covariates and body mass index (BMI), a measure of physical/biological body type. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Texas Adults (n = 1,504), we present results of ordered logistic regression models which indicate that religious factors work distinctly for men and women when controlling for BMI. While church attendance is associated with lower odds of overweight perceptions among women, it is religious salience that is associated with lower odds of self-reported excess weight in men. Implications for research which associates religious and physiological factors are discussed.

  18. Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight?

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Pearson, Jordan A; Ellis, Hillary T; Poole, Rachel L

    2017-03-01

    Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight? To investigate, we first established some concentrations of sucralose and mineral oil in chow that mice strongly preferred. Then, in Experiment 1, we compared groups of 16 mice fed plain chow (i.e., chow with no additives) to groups fed chow with added (a) sucralose, (b) mineral oil, (c) sucralose and mineral oil, or (d) sucralose on odd days and mineral oil on even days. During a 6-week test, the body weights and body compositions of the five groups never differed. In Experiment 2, we compared groups of 18 mice fed plain chow or plain high-fat diet to groups fed these diets with added sucralose. During a 9-week test, the high-fat diet caused weight gain, but the body weights of mice fed the sucralose-sweetened diets did not differ from those fed the corresponding plain versions. Two-cup choice tests conducted at the end of each experiment showed persisting strong preferences for the diets with added sucralose and/or mineral oil. In concert with earlier work, our results challenge the hypothesis that the orosensory properties of a food influence body weight gain. A good taste can stimulate food intake acutely, and guide selection toward nutrient-dense foods that cause weight gain, but it does not determine how much is eaten chronically.

  19. [Method of determining body thickness from weight and height].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-20

    With attention given to the fact that information on weight and height is available in advance from electronic medical charts, we devised a method for determining body thickness on the basis of a simple calculation. The formula is as follows: body thickness=weight(a) x height(b) xf. In order to obtain body thickness from the above formula, it is necessary to determine optimal factors of a, b, and f. Therefore, the formula is modified to give f=body thickness/weight(a) x height(b). Then, a multiplier of a with b is changed to determine a combination in which f is varied to the smallest extent. Every site of the body is checked to find that an optimal multiplier of a with b is weight(0.6) x height(-0.8). This multiplier is applicable to all sites of the body. Then, f is given as a median of 15 to 74 cases in which calculation is made for each case based on the formula of weight(0.6) x height(-0.8) and the body thickness. A difference between calculation values and measured values is equivalent to the variation of f in which the median is given as 100%. The variation of f at all sites of the body is 3% to 11% in terms of average absolute deviation. The calculation difference is obtained by the formula of body thickness x average absolute deviation. Where the calculation difference is within the above range, clinical practices will be influenced to a small extent. Thus, this study will provide an effective method for determining body thickness.

  20. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  1. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p < 0.0001) gains in weight (3.0 kg), BMI (1.0 kg·m(-2)), body fat (3.6%), and absolute fat mass (3.2 kg). Males gained significantly (p < 0.0001) greater amounts of weight, BMI, percent and absolute fat mass, and fat-free mass than females. Weight change ranged from (-)8.7 to (+)16.8 kg. About 70% of the participants gained weight, which averaged 5.3 kg; significant (p < 0.0001) gains in BMI, fat-free mass, absolute fat mass, and percent body fat and significant (p < 0.0005) increases in neck, chest-bust, waist, hips, seat, and biceps circumferences were also observed in this weight gain group. The percentage of participants classified as overweight-obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with both weight and percent body fat changes. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  2. Body weight control practice as a cause of infertility.

    PubMed

    Bates, G W

    1985-09-01

    Evidence concerning the relationship between the ratio of lean mass to body fat in the female body and the maintenance of female reproductive functions was examined, and the results of a US clinical study in which a weight gain regime was used to treat unexplained in fertility in 29 fashionabely slim women were presented. During the female pubertal process, there is an average increase in the lean body weight of 44% and a mean increase in the body fat of 120%. Apparently, the accummulation of fat is a necessary prerequisite for the onset of menarche and the establishment and maintenance of regular ovulatory cycles. A small change in body weight produces a relatively large shift in the body weight to fat ratio. As a result, weight loss is frequently followed by amenorrhea. Studies of the endocrine and central nervous system changes in patients with anorexia nervosa, an extreme form of overzealous weight control, provides clues for understanding the effects of less extreme weight control practices on reproductive functions. The gonadotropin secretory pattern of anorexia nervosa patients is similar to the prepubertal pattern. When gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is administered to patients with 53%-64% of their ideal body weight (IBW), they have a weak luteinizing hormone (LH) response and a normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response. As their weight increases, the LH response becomes stronger, and at 90%-94% of their IBW, the LH response is frequently exaggerated. Other studies indicate that an exaggerated LH response also occurs when GnRH is administered to fashionably slim women. This finding suggests that gonadotropin secretory studies should be conducted when evaluating women with weight related menstrual dysfunctions. In the present study, 29 patients with unexplained infertility were identified as being overly, but not excessively, concerned with maintaining a slim body image. On the average, they were 91% below their IBW. The women were asked to

  3. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  4. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  5. The Relationship between Body Weight Change and Body Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jui-Fen; Liu, Te-Le; Wang, Ruey-Yun; Ching, Han-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the relationship between body constitution (BC) types and weight change in patients with schizophrenia and who underwent second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) treatment. Method. Body weight and waist circumference of eighty-five participants were measured for 6 consecutive weeks. Constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis were assessed using the Body Constitution Questionnaire (BCQ). Results. Participants with body constitutions Yin-Xu (50.6%), Yang-Xu (49.4%), or Stasis (38.8%) exhibited worse physical condition and unhealthy daily habits, particularly in Stasis constitution. Moreover, Stasis constitution was significantly associated with several factors, including BMI, body weight, waist circumference, perception of stress, perception of health, staying up late, and less physical exercise. However, perception of stress showed significant difference in Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis revealed that significant time effects in body weight increase in the imbalanced BC types and gentleness BC type. SGAs induced weight gain in imbalanced BC type as well as gentleness BC type, especially treated with olanzapine. Conclusions. This is the first study to explore the longitudinal relationship between BC and weight gain in schizophrenia patients undergoing SGAs treatment. Health care providers should focus on weight gain problems in schizophrenia patients who underwent SGAs treatment. PMID:27818703

  6. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students.

  7. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  8. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  9. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  10. Body weight and response acquisition with delayed reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, K A; Williams, A M

    1997-01-01

    The relation between body weight and responding established with unsignaled delayed reinforcement was investigated. In three experiments, naive rats were deprived to either 70%, 80%, or 90% of ad libitum weight and were then exposed to tandem variable-interval 15-s differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior 30-s schedules. The tandem schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure. In the first experiment, speed of magazine training, acquisition of lever pressing, and final rate of lever pressing were related to body weight. In the next experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained in rats that were magazine trained at 70% of ad libitum weight but that were then exposed to the delay procedure at 90% of ad libitum weight. Responding did not change consistently either across or within subjects in subsequent conditions in which body weight was manipulated. In the final experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained with delayed reinforcement in the absence of magazine training for each of 2 rats at 70% and for 1 of 2 rats at 90% of ad libitum weight. The results further illuminate the conditions under which responding can be established in the absence of training and when such responses are reinforced only following an unsignaled delay period. PMID:9037784

  11. Eating and weight control behaviors among middle school girls in relationship to body weight and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Shisslak, Catherine M; Mays, Mary Z; Crago, Marjorie; Jirsak, Jan K; Taitano, Keolani; Cagno, Colleen

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the links among body mass index (BMI), weight control practices, binge eating, and eating disorders in 1164 middle school girls. Both the prevalence and frequency of weight control behaviors increased as BMI increased, but binge eating was reported approximately equally by girls across the BMI spectrum.

  12. Randomized Comparison of Actual and Ideal Body Weight for Size Selection of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic in Overweight Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Sang Beom; Kang, Hyo Jong; Kim, Ji Eun

    2015-08-01

    Size selection of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic based on actual body weight remains a common practice. However, ideal body weight might allow for a better size selection in obese patients. The purpose of our study was to compare the utility of ideal body weight and actual body weight when choosing the appropriate size of the LMA Classic by a randomized clinical trial. One hundred patients with age 20 to 70 yr, body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), and the difference between LMA sizes based on actual weight and ideal weight were allocated to insert the LMA Classic using either actual body weight or ideal body weight in a weight-based formula for size selection. After insertion of the device, several variables including insertion parameters, sealing function, fiberoptic imaging, and complications were investigated. The insertion success rate at the first attempt was lower in the actual weight group (82%) than in the ideal weight group (96%), even it did not show significant difference. The ideal weight group had significantly shorter insertion time and easier placement. However, fiberoptic views were significantly better in the actual weight group. Intraoperative complications, sore throat in the recovery room, and dysphonia at postoperative 24 hr occurred significantly less often in the ideal weight group than in the actual weight group. It is suggested that the ideal body weight may be beneficial to the size selection of the LMA Classic in overweight patients (Clinical Trial Registry, NCT 01843270).

  13. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0

  14. Strength and Body Weight in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ervin, R. Bethene; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Wang, Chia-Yih; Miller, Ivey M.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Regular aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity in youth has been positively associated with health and may help prevent obesity. The purpose of this study is to provide reference values on 4 core, upper, and lower body measures of muscle strength among US children and adolescents and to investigate the association between these measures of strength and weight status. METHODS We assessed muscular strength using 4 different tests (plank, modified pull-up, knee extension, and grip strength) in 1224 youth aged 6 to 15 years collected during the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Mean and median estimates are provided by gender, age, and weight status. Weight status was defined based on standard categories of obesity, overweight, normal weight, and underweight using the gender-specific BMI-for-age Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. RESULTS There were significant positive trends with age for each of the strength tests (P < .001) except the modified pull-up among girls. The length of time the plank was held decreased as weight status increased for both girls and boys (P < .001). As weight status increased the number of modified pull-ups decreased (P < .001 boys and girls). Scores on the knee extension increased as weight status increased (P < .01). Grip strength increased as weight status increased (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS Increasing weight status had a negative association with measures of strength that involved lifting the body, but was associated with improved performances on tests that did not involve lifting the body. PMID:25157016

  15. Relationships between heart score, heart weight and body weight in Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Steel, J D; Taylor, R I; Davis, P E; Stewart, G A; Salmon, P W

    1976-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between heart score (mean QRS interval), heart weight and body weight in Greyhound dogs. Highly significant correlations between these measurements have been observed and distinct sex differences have been demonstrated. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that 66% of the variation in heart weight was due to variation in heart score and body weight. From the regression analysis, a formula for heart weight prediction with a standard deviation of 27.1 g was derived. The implications of these findings have been discussed briefly and emphasis has been placed on the need for good electrocardiographic technique, if the procedures outlined are to be used successfully. The positive correlation between heart score and heart size demonstrated here in Greyhounds is in accord with similar correlations reported previously in racehorses and human athletes.

  16. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people.

  17. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  18. Regulation of body weight: what is the regulated parameter?

    PubMed

    Bessesen, Daniel H

    2011-09-26

    Despite dramatic variations in day to day intake and energy expenditure, weight remains relatively stable in most animals and humans. There are clear physiological responses to over and underfeeding suggesting that the body strives to maintain a constant weight. Despite this, for most humans and experimental animals, there is a tendency for weight to increase slowly over the lifespan. Recent increases in the prevalence of both obesity and anorexia nervosa suggest that factors other than homeostatic physiological mechanisms are important in determining body weight. Clearly reward pathways are activated by palatable food and evidence is emerging that energy balance can modulate these reward pathways and alter the salience of food related stimuli. Significant inhibitory control of reward pathways also comes from a number of brain regions involved in regulation of behavior. Finally there is strong evidence of the important role that social and environmental factors play in modulating both food intake and physical activity behaviors which in turn result in alterations in weight over time. While some aspects of these regulatory systems are within the conscious awareness of people, many, perhaps even most are not. The evidence then would suggest that weight is controlled by several complex regulatory systems that respond to internal metabolic and hormonal signals, hedonic properties of food, internal forces of valuation and self-control, and social factors. Each of these systems is likely 'regulated' and is important in ultimately determining body weight. Experimental paradigms that test one variable in one of these interrelated systems should, where possible control or at least consider the other systems in an effort to provide an integrated picture of weight regulation.

  19. Associations between Body Weight and Bullying among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…

  20. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  1. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  2. Body Percept Change in Obese Females after Weight Reduction Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measured video-image representations of body size for 68 females undergoing weight reduction counseling. All judged themselves significantly more obese than they actually were. After therapy, more realistic estimates of their physiques ensued. Dropouts saw themselves as significantly more obese than those who graduated from the program. (JAC)

  3. The gut sensor as regulator of body weight.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas; Roth, Christian L

    2015-05-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract comprises a large endocrine organ that regulates not only nutrient sensing and metabolising but also satiety and energy homeostasis. More than 20 hormones secreted from the stomach, intestine, and pancreas as well as signaling mediators of the gut microbiome are involved in this process. A better understanding of how related pathways affect body weight and food intake will help us to find new strategies and drugs to treat obesity. For example, weight loss secondary to lifestyle intervention is often accompanied by unfavorable changes in multiple GI hormones, which may cause difficulties in maintaining a lower body weight status. Conversely, bariatric surgery favorably changes the hormone profile to support improved satiety and metabolic function. This partially explains stronger sustained body weight reduction resulting in better long-term results of improved metabolic functions. This review focuses on GI hormones and signaling mediators of the microbiome involved in satiety regulation and energy homeostasis and summarizes their changes following weight loss. Furthermore, the potential role of GI hormones as anti-obesity drugs is discussed.

  4. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption.

  5. Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Cabanac, M

    1999-10-01

    Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats. PHhe aim of this study was to measure the body weight set point when rats are being handled gently and thus experience emotional rise in body temperature. Wistar male rats were used in this experiment, and each rat was its own control. Body weight set point was estimated from the rat's food hoarding behavior. The set point is the intersection of the regression line for hoarding with the X axis. During hoarding sessions the experimenter handled the rat and took its colonic temperature six to eight times, an action sufficient to arouse emotional fever. On alternate days the rats were not handled. Thus, body weight set point was obtained for each rat without handling and with handling. In sessions with handling, rats raised their body temperature, ate less, and defecated more than in control sessions. When handled, the body weight set point declined from 388 +/- 44 g to 366 +/- 47 g (p = 0.048, t = 2,39). The decline in the set point induced by gentle handling is believed to result from an elevation of the hypothalamic CRH.

  6. Body contouring surgery for military personnel following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L

    2011-12-01

    The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties.

  7. Drude weight fluctuations in many-body localized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Michele; Brouwer, Piet W.; Eisert, Jens; von Oppen, Felix

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate the distribution of Drude weights D of many-body states in disordered one-dimensional interacting electron systems across the transition to a many-body localized phase. Drude weights are proportional to the spectral curvatures induced by magnetic fluxes in mesoscopic rings. They offer a method to relate the transition to the many-body localized phase to transport properties. In the delocalized regime, we find that the Drude weight distribution at a fixed disorder configuration agrees well with the random-matrix-theory prediction P (D ) ∝(γ2+D2) -3 /2 , although the distribution width γ strongly fluctuates between disorder realizations. A crossover is observed towards a distribution with different large-D asymptotics deep in the many-body localized phase, which however differs from the commonly expected Cauchy distribution. We show that the average distribution width <γ >, rescaled by L Δ ,Δ being the average level spacing in the middle of the spectrum and L the systems size, is an efficient probe of the many-body localization transition, as it increases (vanishes) exponentially in the delocalized (localized) phase.

  8. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-09-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women's bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women's body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD's Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women's positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state.

  9. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-01-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women’s bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women’s body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD’s Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women’s positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state. PMID:26478750

  10. Body weight and metabolic level in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Keller, J

    1977-01-01

    Body weight and metabolic level in growing chickens. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1977, 28 (6): 575-583. In the investigations carried out on 128 White Rock chicken the metabolic level was determined under standard conditions in chickens characterising by different growth rate resulted from different feeding levels. It was shown that the feeding level of growing chicken has an essential influence on the character of the regression between the metabolic level and body weight. It was also found that this regression is not necessarily ot the character of Kleiber's function H = aWb. The differences in the metabolic level between the chickens maintained on different feeding levels did not disappear even after 4 days of starvation. In the light of the obtained results and recent investigations by other authors the usefulness of the so-called metabolic unit of the body size based on W0.75 in context to growing animals within one species has bee criticized.

  11. Actual Body Weight and the Parent’s Perspective of Child’s Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A.; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent’s perception of their child’s weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child’s weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child’s height and weight and rated their child’s weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent’s perception of child’s weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child’s BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child’s weight status. PMID:27527235

  12. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.

  13. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  14. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  15. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  16. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  17. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  18. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Accurately interpreting other’s emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories—“neutral vs. happy” (Experiment 1) and “neutral vs. sad” (Experiment 2). As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold) and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold) compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant’s own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are. PMID:27870892

  19. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  20. Age-related factors in the relationship between foot measurements and living stature and body weight.

    PubMed

    Atamturk, Derya; Duyar, Izzet

    2008-11-01

    The measurements of feet and footprints are especially important in forensic identification, as they have been used to predict the body height and weight of victims or suspects. It can be observed that the subjects of forensic-oriented studies are generally young adults. That is to say, researchers rarely take into consideration the body's proportional changes with age. Hence, the aim of this study is to generate equations which take age and sex into consideration, when stature and body weight are estimated from foot and footprints dimensions. With this aim in mind, we measured the stature, body weight, foot length and breadth, heel breadth, footprint length and breadth, and footprint heel breadth of 516 volunteers (253 males and 263 females) aged between 17.6 and 82.9 years using standard measurement techniques. The sample population was divided randomly into two groups. Group 1, the study group, consisted of 80% of the sample (n = 406); the remaining 20% were assigned to the cross-validation group or Group 2 (n = 110). In the first stage of the study, we produced equations for estimating stature and weight using a stepwise regression technique. Then, their reliability was tested on Group 2 members. Statistical analyses showed that the ratios of foot dimensions to stature and body weight change considerably with age and sex. Consequently, the regression equations which include these variables yielded more reliable results. Our results indicated that age and sex should be taken into consideration when predicting human body height and weight for forensic purposes.

  1. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M

    2013-12-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models.

  2. Does smoking affect body weight and obesity in China?

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A

    2009-12-01

    An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.

  3. Body weight gain rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka M; Mariani, Claudio; Landi, Andrea; Vairo, Antonella; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated body weight changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to clinical improvement. Thirty PD patients who received STN DBS were included (22 men, 8 women; mean age, 60.0 +/- 7.1 years; mean PD duration, 13.5 +/- 3.7 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 21.6 +/- 3.0 kg/m2). Body weight, physical activity, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were noted before and 3 and 12 months after the procedure. Significant weight gain occurred in 29 patients; the mean increase was 14.8 +/- 9.8% of initial body weight in 1 year. Of the patients, 46.5% reported weight gain in the first 3 months, 21.4% gradual weight gain in the first 6 months, and 32.1% a slow increase for 1 year. Mean BMI increased up to 24.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. After 1 year, mean UPDRS motor score improved significantly in off and in on; and therapy complications improved by 91.0 +/- 17.0%. BMI changes at 3 and 12 months were significantly correlated to dyskinesia score changes, and levodopa dosage was not. In PD, STN DBS produces not only symptom control, but also weight gain. DBS candidates should be given nutritional counseling before the intervention to prevent rapid and/or excessive weight gain.

  4. The liver: Key in regulating appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Fam, Barbara C; Joannides, Christos N; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos

    2012-10-01

    Liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulatory enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is elevated by obesity and dietary fat intake. Whether FBPase functions only in glucose metabolism or has other metabolic roles is currently unclear. In our recently published study, we examined the importance of liver FBPase in body weight regulation by performing a series of comprehensive physiological and biochemical assessments of energy balance and specific intervention studies in our transgenic mouse line that overexpresses FBPase specifically in the liver. Compared with negative littermates, these FBPase transgenic mice weighed 10% less, had 50% less adiposity, ate 15% less food but did not have altered energy expenditure. Increased circulating leptin and cholecystokinin levels, elevated fatty acid oxidation and reduced appetite stimulating neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP), underpinned this phenotype. Blocking the action of FBPase returned food intake and body weight to those of the negative littermates. Our study is the first to identify liver FBPase as a previously unknown regulator of appetite and adiposity. Importantly, this work recognizes the liver as an important organ in appetite and body weight regulation. This commentary will provide further insight and expand on this novel concept that the liver does in fact play an important role in adiposity.

  5. A treasure trove of hypothalamic neurocircuitries governing body weight homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Claudia R; Coppari, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Changes in physical activities and feeding habits have transformed the historically rare disease of obesity into a modern metabolic pandemic. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. This energy imbalance significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and as such represents an enormous socioeconomic burden and health threat. To combat obesity, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitries underlying normal body weight homeostasis is required. In the 1940s, pioneering lesion experiments unveiled the importance of medial and lateral hypothalamic structures. In the 1980s and 1990s, several neuropeptides and peripheral hormones critical for appropriate feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and hence body weight homeostasis were identified. In the 2000s, results from metabolic analyses of genetically engineered mice bearing mutations only in selected neuronal groups greatly advanced our knowledge of the peripheral/brain feedback-loop modalities by which central neurons control energy balance. In this review, we will summarize these recent progresses with particular emphasis on the biochemical identities of hypothalamic neurons and molecular components underlying normal appetite, energy expenditure, and body weight homeostasis. We will also parse which of those neurons and molecules are critical components of homeostatic adaptive pathways against obesity induced by hypercaloric feeding.

  6. Challenging body weight: evidence from a community-based intervention on weight, behaviour and motivation.

    PubMed

    Blais, Louise T; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M

    2016-12-21

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12 week weight loss intervention within a commercial fitness centre on body weight, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), dietary intake, and behavioural regulations for exercise and healthy eating. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group received weekly coaching sessions and bi-weekly seminars designed to increase MVPA and improve dietary intake. Outcome variables were assessed at three time points over a six month period. Results showed a significant interaction for body weight (p = .04) and dietary changes (p < .05) following the weight loss challenge but were not maintained across the six month period. Changes in behavioural regulations favoured the intervention condition. Results imply that a 12 week weight loss challenge within a commercial fitness centre may be effective at prompting short-term weight loss and support the internalization of behavioural regulations specific to healthy eating and exercise.

  7. Wheel running, food intake, and body weight in male rats.

    PubMed

    Looy, H; Eikelboom, R

    1989-02-01

    The acquisition of wheel running, its effects on food intake and body weight, and the effects of wheel deprivation, were examined in male rats. Running increased during the first 15 days of access, then plateaued. When wheels were unlocked after 10 days of deprivation, running was reduced, but quickly recovered to original levels. Animals first given wheel access 49 days into the study ran little, with no increase over days. Food intake dropped each time with wheel access, but recovered to control levels over 10-14 days. Wheel deprivation resulted in a temporary hyperphagia. With wheel access, weight initially dropped and was then maintained at a reduced percentage of homecage-housed animals. In male rats wheel access appears to have temporary effects on food intake, and long term effects on weight. Marked differences in the activity of same-age rats suggest that wheel running is in part a function of housing history.

  8. Association between Indices of Body Composition and Abnormal Metabolic Phenotype in Normal-Weight Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lili; Dong, Fen; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Ke; Liu, Fen; Pan, Li; Zhang, Ling; Yan, Yuxiang; Gaisano, Herbert; He, Yan; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-07

    We aimed to determine the association of indices of body composition with abnormal metabolic phenotype, and to examine whether the strength of association was differentially distributed in different age groups in normal-weight Chinese adults. A total of 3015 normal-weight adults from a survey of Chinese people encompassing health and basic physiological parameters was included in this cross-sectional study. We investigated the association of body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and conventional body indices with metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUHNW) adults, divided by age groups and gender. Associations were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found abnormal metabolism in lean Chinese adults to be associated with higher adiposity indices (body mass index, BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat), lower skeletal muscle %, and body water %. Body composition was differentially distributed in age groups within the metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW)/MUHNW groups. The impact of factors related to MUHNW shows a decreasing trend with advancing age in females and disparities of factors (BMI, body fat %, skeletal muscle %, and body water %) associated with the MUHNW phenotype in the elderly was noticed. Those factors remained unchanged in males throughout the age range, while the association of BMI, body fat %, skeletal muscle %, and body water % to MUHNW attenuated and grip strength emerged as a protective factor in elderly females. These results suggest that increased adiposity and decreased skeletal muscle mass are associated with unfavorable metabolic traits in normal-weight Chinese adults, and that MUHNW is independent of BMI, while increased waist circumference appears to be indicative of an abnormal metabolic phenotype in elderly females.

  9. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

  10. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women.

  11. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew F.; Soldin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups. PMID:27429267

  12. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed. PMID:27713277

  13. Body size perception and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Nansel, Tonja R.; Liu, Danping; Lipsky, Leah M.; Due, Pernille; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine nine-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. Methods Socio-demographic characteristics, body size perception, and dieting for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/02, 2005/06, 2009/10). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents, and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence, and country level of development. Body mass index was only included in models examining dieting for weight loss. Results Country-level overweight prevalence increased over time (11.6% to 14.7%). Compared to Time 1, overweight adolescents had greater odds of body size underestimation at Time 3 (OR=1.68 for girls, OR=1.10 for boys), while non-overweight adolescents had lower odds of body size overestimation at Time 3 (OR=0.87 for girls, OR=0.89 for boys). Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence attenuated these relationships. Compared to Time 1, overweight and non-overweight boys were 10% more likely to diet at Time 3, while overweight and non-overweight girls were 19% and 16%, respectively, less likely to diet at Time 3. Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss. Additionally, the association of self-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. Conclusions Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight

  14. Do weight management interventions delivered by online social networks effectively improve body weight, body composition, and chronic disease risk factors? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Currently, no systematic review/meta-analysis has examined studies that used online social networks (OSN) as a primary intervention platform. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions delivered through OSN. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched (January 1990-November 2015) for studies with data on the effect of OSNs on weight loss. Only primary source articles that utilized OSN as the main platform for delivery of weight management/healthy lifestyle interventions, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals, and reported outcome data on weight were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Five articles were included in this review. Results One-hundred percent of the studies ( n = 5) reported a reduction in baseline weight. Three of the five studies (60%) reported significant decreases in body weight when OSN was paired with health educator support. Only one study reported a clinical significant weight loss of ≥5%. Conclusion Using OSN for weight management is in its early stages of development and, while these few studies show promise, more research is needed to acquire information about optimizing these interventions to increase their efficacy.

  15. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials

  16. Psychobiological effects observed in obese men experiencing body weight loss plateau.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Hetherington, Marion; Lemieux, Simone; Provencher, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the psychobiological impact associated with resistance to further weight loss in obese men. Anthropometric and body composition measurements, resting metabolic rate (RMR) measurement, appetite sensation markers, and three questionnaires [Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)] were assessed at baseline and after 1 month of body weight loss plateau induced by a supervised diet and exercise clinical intervention in 11 obese men. The weight loss plateau corresponded to 11.2% of initial body weight (93.9% from fat stores). However, this amount of weight loss induced a significant decrease in RMR (P <.05) and a significant increase in hunger (P <.05) and desire to eat (P <.05). Using the SF-36 Health Survey, physical and mental health were shown to be unchanged at plateau as compared to baseline. The TFEQ showed that cognitive dietary restraint increased (P <.001) compared to baseline. Finally, depression risk as measured by the BDI significantly increased at plateau (P <.01) compared to baseline. Weight loss until resistance to further weight loss may be detrimental for some psychobiological variables including depression, which emphasizes the relevance of caution and reasonable objectives when prescribing a weight reduction program for obese individuals.

  17. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  18. Ribose Accelerates Gut Motility and Suppresses Mouse Body Weight Gaining

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Li, Tong-Ruei R; Xu, Cong; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is closely related to excessive energy consumption. Clinical intervention of energy intake is an attractive strategy to fight obesity. However, the current FDA-approved weight-loss drugs all have significant side effects. Here we show that ribose upregulates gut motility and suppresses mice body weight gain. Ribokinase, which is encoded by Rbks gene, is the first enzyme for ribose metabolism in vivo. Rbks mutation resulted in ribose accumulation in the small intestine, which accelerated gut movement. Ribose oral treatment in wild type mice also enhanced bowel motility and rendered mice resistance to high fat diets. The suppressed weight gain was resulted from enhanced ingested food excretion. In addition, the effective dose of ribose didn't cause any known side effects (i.e. diarrhea and hypoglycemia). Overall, our results show that ribose can regulate gut motility and energy homeostasis in mice, and suggest that administration of ribose and its analogs could regulate gastrointestinal motility, providing a novel therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal dysfunction and weight control. PMID:27194947

  19. Monocarboxylate transporters: new players in body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, L; Pellerin, L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last two decades, several genes have been identified that appear to play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight. For a small subset of them, a reduction or an absence of expression confers a resistance to the development of obesity. Recently, a knockin mouse for a member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, MCT1, was demonstrated to exhibit a typical phenotype of resistance to diet-induced obesity and a protection from its associated metabolic perturbations. Such findings point out at MCTs as putatively new therapeutic targets in the context of obesity. Here, we will review what is known about MCTs and their possible metabolic roles in different organs and tissues. Based on the description of the phenotype of the MCT1 knockin mouse, we will also provide some insights about their putative roles in weight gain regulation.

  20. Birth weight modifies the association between central nervous system gene variation and adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-03-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified ~100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study, and were based on genotype data on 20 BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth weight, weight at age 18 and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1 and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient=-0.045 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and -0.055 (95% CI -0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth weight ⩾3200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient=0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction=0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction<0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1 and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low-birth weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation.

  1. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  2. Roles of orexins in the regulation of body weight homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Lateral hypothalamic neuropeptides, orexins, have been recognized as one of the most important regulators of sleep/wakefulness states. Besides, these peptides are also regarded as an important factor that regulates feeding behavior, owing to their localization within the lateral hypothalamic area, the classic "feeding center", pharmacological activities, and the fact that prepro-orexin mRNA is upregulated when animals are fasted. This review summarizes the role of orexins in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight homeostasis in relation to other systems that involve orexinergic neurotransmission.

  3. Gestation length, metabolic rate, and body and brain weights in primates: epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Little, B B

    1989-10-01

    The relationship of brain and body weights can be expressed in log-log regression: log (brain weight) = log (A) + B log (body weight). To investigate further the weights' similarity, gestation length and brain and body weights were determined from the literature for 46 primate genera. The results of allometric and path regression analyses suggest that the relationship between brain and body weights may not be mainly pleiotropic in the order Primates. The correlation between brain and body weights appears to be due to epigenetic factors in hyperplastic growth related to time constraint by gestation length and to energy utilization limitations imposed by metabolic rate.

  4. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  5. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat.

  6. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  7. Hypersonic blunt body computations including real gas effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Klopfer, G. H.; Vinokur, M.

    1988-01-01

    The recently developed second-order explicit and implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) shock-capturing methods of the Harten and Yee, Yee, and van Leer types in conjunction with a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver of Vinokur and the generalized flux-vector splittings of Vinokur and Montagne for two-dimensional hypersonic real gas flows are studied. A previous study on one-dimensional unsteady problems indicated that these schemes produce good shock-capturing capability and that the state equation does not have a large effect on the general behavior of these methods for a wide range of flow conditions for equilibrium air. The objective of this paper is to investigate the applicability and shock resolution of these schemes for two-dimensional steady-state hypersonic blunt body flows. The main contribution of this paper is to identify some of the elements and parameters which can affect the convergence rate for high Mach numbers or real gases but have negligible effect for low Mach number cases for steady-state inviscid blunt body flows.

  8. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  9. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  10. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haibo; Gao, Ying; Tu, Youying

    2016-12-07

    Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.

  11. Brain regulation of energy balance and body weight.

    PubMed

    Rui, Liangyou

    2013-12-01

    Body weight is determined by a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Multiple neural circuits in the brain have evolved to process information about food, food-related cues and food consumption to control feeding behavior. Numerous gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce and secrete satiety hormones in response to food consumption and digestion. These hormones suppress hunger and promote satiation and satiety mainly through hindbrain circuits, thus governing meal-by-meal eating behavior. In contrast, the hypothalamus integrates adiposity signals to regulate long-term energy balance and body weight. Distinct hypothalamic areas and various orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons have been identified to homeostatically regulate food intake. The hypothalamic circuits regulate food intake in part by modulating the sensitivity of the hindbrain to short-term satiety hormones. The hedonic and incentive properties of foods and food-related cues are processed by the corticolimbic reward circuits. The mesolimbic dopamine system encodes subjective "liking" and "wanting" of palatable foods, which is subjected to modulation by the hindbrain and the hypothalamic homeostatic circuits and by satiety and adiposity hormones. Satiety and adiposity hormones also promote energy expenditure by stimulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. They stimulate BAT thermogenesis mainly by increasing the sympathetic outflow to BAT. Many defects in satiety and/or adiposity hormone signaling and in the hindbrain and the hypothalamic circuits have been described and are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of energy imbalance and obesity.

  12. Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal birth weight* #

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meng-kai; Ge, Li-ya; Zhou, Meng-lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-yue; Chen, Dan-qing

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2). The NBW differences were tested among the four groups, and then deeper associations among maternal pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P<0.05), except overweight to obesity (P>0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (P<0.05). Compared with normal pre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (P<0.05). NBW is positively affected by both maternal pre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese. PMID:28271662

  13. The Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Body Weight among Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Sik; Ko, Kyung Og; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We performed to reveal the association between the Helicobacter pylori infection and body weight among children. Methods Out retrospective study included patients who underwent the H. pylori immunoglobulin G testing at Konyang University Hospital between March 2011 and June 2014. These patients were classified as seropositive (28 boys, 27 girls; mean age: 9.89±3.28 years) or seronegative (55 boys, 54 girls; mean age: 9.84±3.02 years). Next, we compared various characteristics between the seropositive and negative groups, as well as between obese children (body weight ≥90th percentile) and non-obese children (body weight <90th percentile). Furthermore, we compared the change in body weight after 2 months of treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole among the 55 seropositive children (14 treated children and 41 non-treated children). Results There were no differences in the weights and laboratory data for the 55 seropositive children and 109 seronegative children (weight; 40.96±18.11 kg vs. 36.85±13.72 kg, respectively; p=0.14). And, there was no difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection among the 29 obese and 135 non-obese children (p=0.581). However, after 2 months of eradication, the 14 treated patients exhibited a significant weight gain (+0.91±0.52 kg), compared to the 41 non-treated patients (-0.29±1.16 kg, p=0.025). Conclusion Our findings present that obesity was not associated with the H. pylori infection, although H. pylori eradication led to significant increase in body weight. PMID:27437187

  14. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  15. Hypersonic blunt body computations including real gas effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Klopfer, G. H.; Vinokur, M.

    1989-01-01

    Various second-order explicit and implicit TVD shock-capturing methods, a generalization of Roe's approximate Riemann solver, and a generalized flux-vector splitting scheme are used to study two-dimensional hypersonic real-gas flows. Special attention is given to the identification of some of the elements and parameters which can affect the convergence rate for high Mach numbers or real gases, but have negligible effect for low Mach numbers, for cases involving steady-state inviscid blunt flows. Blunt body calculations at Mach numbers of greater than 15 are performed to treat real-gas effects, and impinging shock results are obtained to test the treatment of slip surfaces and complex structures. Even with the addition of improvements, the convergence rate of algorithms in the hypersonic flow regime is found to be generally slower for a real gas than for a perfect gas.

  16. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  17. [Promoting sustainable behavior change in body weight control].

    PubMed

    Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; do Carmo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion of macronutrients, meal frequency, among others. The same applies to the area of physical activity recommendation for weight control. As a correlate of this scenario of incertitude, there is a proliferation of interventions and there is a clear need to integrate the scientific and clinical evidence. This paper presents a narrative literature review of key issues of clinical practice in obesity, regarding a set of actions that, in the overall, have as main purpose the promotion of reduction and/or control of body weight. The role of the health professional is highlighted as a facilitator of acquisition of habits that favor weight control, by integrating the professional's scientific knowledge with the patient's readiness for and capacity to change.

  18. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys’ teasing, 67.1% of girls’ teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08–7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53– 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  19. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys' teasing, 67.1% of girls' teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08-7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53- 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  20. Chronic psychological stress alters body weight and blood chemistry in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Awerman, J L; Romero, L M

    2010-05-01

    One hallmark of chronic stress is a decrease in body weight that rebounds once chronic stress is alleviated. We applied chronic psychological stress by exposing European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a previously validated chronic stress protocol (CSP) consisting of 4 different randomly applied stressors per day. Experimental design consisted of a 21 day CSP (CSP1), a 60day recovery (R1), a second 14 day CSP (CSP2), and a second 30 day recovery (R2). Body weight decreased by approximately 5% during CSP1, but overshot to 5-10% above initial body weight during R1. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we periodically measured 12 biochemical analytes, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), bile acids, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, uric acid, calcium (Ca(++)), phosphorus (PHOS), potassium (K(+)), and sodium (Na(+)). AST and CK increased at the beginning of CSP1, suggesting muscle breakdown. Additionally, decreases in albumin and total protein paired with stable uric acid, but no associated change in glucose, suggested protein breakdown as a secondary energy source. Changes in blood parameters that occurred during CSP1 did not reverse during R1. During CSP2 and R2, weight loss and gain occurred in different proportions. CSP2 produced an approximate 15% decrease in body weight, but R2 resulted in only re-gaining 5% of this weight, although this was equivalent to the pre-CSP1 weight. In summary, protein metabolism appeared to mediate weight loss during chronic stress, but over-gaining weight was not a good indicator of recovery.

  1. Effects of Body Weight Reduction on Serum Irisin and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, Satoshi; Shinno, Hiromi; Thi Thu, Ha Cao; Takao, Nana; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Takaaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Kimura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes. Methods The subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m2) who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Blood parameters, body composition, exercise tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum irisin were determined before and after intervention, and relationships among changes in these data were examined. Results There were significant decreases in body weight and BMI after the intervention. Irisin before the intervention was significantly positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.434, P<0.05). The mean irisin level showed no significant change after the intervention in all participants. However, improvements in % body fat, subcutaneous fat area, triglycerides, and fasting glucose were significantly greater in patients with an increase in irisin compared to those with a decrease in irisin after the intervention. Patients with an increase in irisin also had significantly lower fasting insulin (9.7±4.8 vs. 16.4±8.2, P<0.05) and HOMA-IR (2.2±1.1 vs. 3.7±1.6, P<0.05) after the intervention, compared to patients with a decrease in irisin. Conclusion Body weight reduction did not alter irisin levels. However, irisin may play important roles in fat and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and the effects of body weight reduction on irisin kinetics may be a key for obesity treatment. PMID:27766246

  2. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  3. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  4. Effect of excess body weight on quality of life and satisfaction with body image among middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city.

    PubMed

    Baceviciene, Migle; Reklaitiene, Regina; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of overweight, obesity, and conditions related to body weight on quality of life and to assess the relationship between body weight and satisfaction with body image between middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A random sample of 1403 Kaunas men and women, aged 35-64 years and stratified by age and sex, was examined in 2001-2002. Response rate was 62.4%. Examination included physical measurements and information on risk factors related to lifestyle. Quality of life was assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life 100 questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the effect of excess body weight and conditions linked to body weight on quality of life. RESULTS. Less than three-fourths (73%) of men and women had excess body weight (body mass index, > or =25.0 kg/m(2)). Obesity in a complex with other analyzed factors had a negative effect on men's quality of life in the independence domain as compared to ones with BMI of <25.0 kg/m(2) (OR=1.87; 95% CI=1.08-3.26). Obesity for women increased the odds of having worse quality of life in the psychological and independence domains. Mean scores of body image and appearance facet for men with normal body mass were 73.5, for overweigh ones 72.2, and for obese 66.8 (for women 69.9, 63.3, and 52.9, respectively; P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Among women excess body weight was associated with impaired quality of life. Men with excess body weight reported better overall quality of life. Obese persons were less satisfied with their body image as compared to ones with normal body weight.

  5. Effect of Shilianhua extract and its fractions on body weight of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Zuberi, Aamir; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping

    2008-07-01

    Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated body weight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet. To investigate the bioactive components in the SLH tablet, the wild SLH plant (Sinocrassula indica Berge) was collected from China and used to make a variety of extracts including aqueous extract, ethanol extract (SLH-E), and subfraction F100. In the study of metabolic activities, the extracts were administrated through food intake by incorporating them into the diet. A rigorous evaluation of the extracts on body weight was conducted in 2 animal models. The aqueous extract and SLH-E were tested in dietary obese mice, while F100 together with SLH-E was tested in KK-Ay mice, a genetic diabetic model. In the 12- to 16-week study, body weight was not significantly altered by the SLH extracts in the 2 animal models. The results suggest that neither the total extract nor the purified components from the SLH plant have a clear effect in the regulation of body weight. The weight reduction observed with the over-the-counter SLH tablet in the pilot studies may be secondary to other components in the tablet, but not from the SLH extract.

  6. Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Cummings, David E

    2006-08-30

    Ghrelin, an acylated upper gastrointestinal peptide, is the only known orexigenic hormone. Considerable evidence implicates ghrelin in mealtime hunger and meal initiation. Circulating levels decrease with feeding and increase before meals, achieving concentrations sufficient to stimulate hunger and food intake. Preprandial ghrelin surges occur before every meal on various fixed feeding schedules and also among individuals initiating meals voluntarily without time- or food-related cues. Ghrelin injections stimulate food intake rapidly and transiently, primarily by increasing appetitive feeding behaviors and the number of meals. Preprandial ghrelin surges are probably triggered by sympathetic nervous output. Postprandial suppression is not mediated by nutrients in the stomach or duodenum, where most ghrelin is produced. Rather, it results from post-ingestive increases in lower intestinal osmolarity (information probably relayed to the foregut via enteric nervous signaling), as well as from insulin surges. Consequently, ingested lipids suppress ghrelin poorly compared with other macronutrients. Beyond a probable role in meal initiation, ghrelin also fulfills established criteria for an adiposity-related hormone involved in long-term body-weight regulation. Ghrelin levels circulate in relation to energy stores and manifest compensatory changes in response to body-weight alterations. Ghrelin crosses the blood-brain barrier and stimulates food intake by acting on several classical body-weight regulatory centers, including the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and mesolimbic reward system. Chronic ghrelin administration increases body weight via diverse, concerted actions on food intake, energy expenditure, and fuel utilization. Congenital ablation of the ghrelin or ghrelin-receptor gene causes resistance to diet-induced obesity, and pharmacologic ghrelin blockade reduces food intake and body weight. Ghrelin levels are high in Prader-Willi syndrome and low after gastric bypass

  7. Low-dose recombinant human growth hormone increases body weight and lean body mass in patients with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ellegård, L; Bosaeus, I; Nordgren, S; Bengtsson, B A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effects of low dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on body composition and absorptive capacity in patients with short bowel syndrome from Crohn's disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with short bowel syndrome usually are malnourished because of malabsorption. The anabolic effects of high doses of rhGH have been tested in different clinical catabolic conditions, recently including patients with short bowel syndrome. The authors have investigated the effects of low-dose rhGH in short bowel syndrome in a placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. METHODS: Ten patients were treated with daily subcutaneous doses of rhGH/placebo (0.5 international units/kg-1 per week-1 = 0.024 mg/kg-1 per day-1) for 8 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial with a minimum of 12 weeks wash-out. Absorptive capacity and biochemical parameters were investigated in a metabolic ward before treatment and during first and last week of treatment. Body composition was determined by DEXA-Scan (Lunar DPX, Scanexport Medical, Helsingborg, Sweden), impedance analysis, and whole body potassium counting. RESULTS: Low-dose rhGH doubled serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and increased body weight, lean body mass, and total body potassium by 5% (p < 0.05). Fat-free mass and total body water increased by 6% (p = 0.008). Increases in IGF-1 levels correlated with increases in fat-free mass (r = 0.77, p < 0.02). No significant changes in absorptive capacity of water, energy, or protein were detected. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of low-dose rhGH treatment leads to increases in body weight, lean body mass, and fat-free mass in patients with short bowel syndrome, correlated to increases in IGF-1 levels. PMID:8998124

  8. Plasma BDNF Levels Vary in Relation to Body Weight in Females

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Anilkumar; Bruno, Davide; Sarreal, Antero S.; Hernando, Raymundo T.; Saint-Louis, Leslie A.; Nierenberg, Jay; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Pomara, Nunzio; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Buckley, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression as well as neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies show a role of BDNF in energy metabolism and body weight regulation. We examined BDNF levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from age matched elderly depressed and control subjects. Also, the association of BDNF levels with age, gender, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and cognitive performance was evaluated. We did not find any significant differences in plasma and CSF BDNF levels between depressed and control subjects. Plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with age (but not with BMI and body weight), when analyses were performed including both depressed and control subjects. A significant reduction in plasma BDNF levels was observed in females as compared to male subjects, and the change in BDNF levels were significantly and positively related to body weight in females. Furthermore, significant increases in Total Recall and Delayed Recall values were found in females as compared to males. In conclusion, the lower BDNF levels observed in females suggest that changes in peripheral BDNF levels are likely secondary to an altered energy balance. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted. PMID:22768299

  9. Satiety and body weight control. Promise and compromise. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, France; Tremblay, Angelo

    2011-12-01

    Satiety is a complex psycho-physiological mechanism that allows the adjustment of energy intake to expenditures. As such, it plays an important role among the numerous interacting mechanisms contributing to body weight control. Booth and Nouwen rightfully stress that satiety claims can be misleading and even dangerous when they are misrepresented or misinterpreted as slimming claims. Indeed, a substance that might enhance satiety, especially by affecting sensations on the short term, will not necessarily help to decrease energy intake on the longer term or facilitate weight loss. While denouncing abusive claims, the article by Booth and Nouwen also refers to numerous contributions of satiety mechanisms that could potentially affect intake and weight control over the long term. We propose that multi-step proofs of concepts could be useful in this field. Satiety effects are one early step in a complex demonstration of how a substance could affect short-term intake, hormonal mechanisms, and medium or long term changes in body weight. An example of such a step-wise process is described (beneficial effects of calcium and dairy products on appetite and weight change). Booth and Nouwen insist that satiety effects should be evaluated in the context of the local socio-cultural meal pattern and lifestyle. This wise advice supports the use of multi-step proofs of concept, perhaps including the use of biomarkers as well as behavioural measures, before any satiety enhancement claim can be considered to have any actual impact on body weight control.

  10. Body weight, diet and water intake in preventing stone disease.

    PubMed

    Meschi, Tiziana; Schianchi, Tania; Ridolo, Erminia; Adorni, Giuditta; Allegri, Franca; Guerra, Angela; Novarini, Almerico; Borghi, Loris

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of nephrolithiasis, i.e. calcium (calcium oxalate and phosphate) and uric acid stone disease. For this reason, dietary measures are the first level of intervention in primary prevention, as well as in secondary prevention of recurrences. An unbalanced diet or particular sensitivity to various foods in stone formers can lead to urinary alterations such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and an excessively acid urinary pH. Over the course of time, these conditions contribute to the formation or recurrence of kidney stones, due to the effect they exert on the lithogenous salt profile. The fundamental aspects of the nutritional approach to the treatment of idiopathic nephrolithiasis are body weight, diet and water intake. This paper will present data resulting from our own investigations and the most significant evidence in literature.

  11. Olfactory and gustatory functions and its relation to body weight.

    PubMed

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Zschieschang, Romy

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the influence of body weight as defined by BMI on gustatory and olfactory perception. A total of 66 healthy adults (41 females; 25 males) participated in psychophysical measurements using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test and "Taste Strips" test. Odor thresholds as well as discrimination and identification performance were determined. Tests of gustatory function involved the identification and thresholds of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter taste. In this study, all subjects were healthy participants in a middle age range (between 20 and 56 years of age). Persons with an extreme BMI value were excluded. Subjects were classified according to their BMI in four groups: (1) 15-19.9 kg/m, (2) 20-24.9 kg/m, (3) 25-29.9 kg/m, and (4) >30 kg/m. We did not observe an overall effect of BMI on general sensory sensitivity. There was a significant influence of BMI on olfactory thresholds (F(3,62)=2.79; p<0.047) which increased with increasing BMI. In a similar line, the gustatory thresholds for "salty" were significantly higher with higher BMI (F(3,62)=3.06; p<0.035). Olfactory discrimination and identification was not affected by BMI. Thresholds for odor and sweet or salty taste were also correlated. Our data show that body weight influences gustatory and olfactory perception in healthy adults. Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in olfactory and taste sensitivity. These findings may have implications for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients.

  12. Influence of Body Mass Index on the Association of Weight Changes with Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Rodriguez, Iván; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Zoccali, Carmine; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jürgen; London, Gérard; Locatelli, Francesco; Gorriz, José Luis; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Memmos, Dimitrios; Ferreira, Anibal; Covic, Adrian; Teplan, Vladimir; Bos, Willem-Jan; Kramar, Reinhard; Pavlovic, Drasko; Goldsmith, David; Nagy, Judit; Benedik, Miha; Verbeelen, Dierik; Tielemans, Christian; Wüthrich, Rudolf P.; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; Fernández-Martín, José Luis; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and Objectives A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Short-term weight gains and losses are also related to lower and higher mortality risk, respectively. The implications of weight gain or loss may, however, differ between obese individuals and their nonobese counterparts. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements The Current Management of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Multicenter Observational Study (COSMOS) is an observational study including 6797 European hemodialysis patients recruited between February 2005 and July 2007, with prospective data collection every 6 months for 3 years. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regressions assessed the effect of BMI and weight changes on mortality. Analyses were performed after patient stratification according to their starting BMI. Results Among 6296 patients with complete data, 1643 died. At study entry, 42% of patients had a normal weight (BMI, 20–25 kg/m2), 11% were underweight, 31% were overweight, and 16% were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Weight loss or gain (<1% or >1% of body weight) was strongly associated with higher rates of mortality or survival, respectively. After stratification by BMI categories, this was true in nonobese categories and especially in underweight patients. In obese patients, however, the association between weight loss and mortality was attenuated (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74 to 2.14]), and no survival benefit of gaining weight was seen (hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.62]). Conclusions Assuming that these weight changes were unintentional, our study brings attention to rapid weight variations as a clinical sign of health monitoring in hemodialysis patients. In addition, a patient’s BMI modifies the strength of the association between weight changes with mortality. PMID:24009217

  13. Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kathy Schiro

    2006-07-01

    Several formulas for calculating desirable body weight are used in chronic kidney failure patients. Ideal body weight (IBW) derived from Metropolitan Life Insurance tables has been available since the 1950s. The Hamwi formula was proposed in the 1960s as a simple tool for quickly estimating desirable body weight, especially in people with diabetes. Since the 1970s, National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys I, II, and III have provided an in-depth evaluation of the average body weights of Americans. These standard body weights (SBW) are often interpreted to be normal and healthy weight goals. Body mass index (BMI) has also been studied for decades and is used internationally as the standard for determining healthy weight, especially in relationship to obesity. These 4 methods are discussed and compared along with a brief review of the history of using the adjusted body weight (ABW) formulas, followed by recommendations for clinical practice.

  14. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  15. Excess Body Weight and Colorectal Cancer Survival: The Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Harmon, Brook E.; Little, Melissa A.; Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Wilkens, Lynne R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Excess body weight is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and may also adversely affect survival in CRC patients. Methods This study examined the relation of body mass index (BMI), which was self-reported at cohort entry and after 5.7±0.8 years, with CRC-specific and all-cause survival among 4,204 incident cases of invasive CRC in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Cox regression analysis with age as time metric and BMI as time-varying exposure was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) while adjusting for relevant covariates. Results Over 6.0±4.7 years of follow-up, 1,976 all-cause and 1,095 CRC-specific deaths were recorded. The mean time interval between cohort entry and diagnosis was 7.6±4.7 years. No association with CRC-specific survival was detected in men (HR5units=0.94; 95%CI 0.84–1.04) or women (HR5units=0.98; 95%CI 0.89–1.08). In men, all-cause survival also showed no relation with BMI (HR5unit=0.97; 95%CI 0.90–1.06), whereas it was reduced in women (HR5units=1.10; 95%CI 1.03–1.18). Interactions of BMI with ethnicity were only significant for obesity. Obese Latino and overweight Native Hawaiian men as well as overweight African American women, experienced significantly better CRC-specific survival than whites. Overweight Japanese men and African American women had better all-cause survival and obese Latino women had the lowest all-cause survival (HRobese=1.74; 95%CI 1.08–2.80). Conclusions This analysis detected little evidence for an adverse effect of excess body weight on CRC-specific survival, but all-cause survival was reduced in women. These findings suggest that adiposity may be less important for CRC survival than as an etiologic factor. PMID:26358830

  16. [Comparison of 2 methods of determining excessive body weight in relation to spirometric indicators].

    PubMed

    Kolarzyk, E; Kieć, E; Tychanowicz-Raczak, T; Targosz, D

    1985-01-01

    In a sample of the male population (1087 men) aged 25-60, who made hard physical labour, groups of normal body mass and overweight were isolated. The overweighted group had a body weight of 125% of suitable body mass (according to Lorentz). Overweighted men were divided into two groups: a) with excessively developed muscular tissue, b) with excessively developed adipose tissue. This division was based on two indices: W--including height, present body mass and age, Wot--including height, present body mass and skin-folds thickness. In these subgroups the values of spirometric indices were studied and VC and FEV1 of all overweighted men and those of normal body mass were compared. In the case of W index the VC and FEV1 values of muscular men and fat men were practically the same and very near to the values of all those overweighted but lower than the values of men with normal body mass. In the case of Wot index the following tendencies were observed: muscular men had higher VC and FEV1 values than fat men and all those overweighted; these values were similar to those of men with normal body mass. fat men had significantly lower VC and FEV1 values than overweighted men and those with normal body mass.

  17. The extension of the variable-flux-weighting method to multidimensional problems including gravity and capillarity

    SciTech Connect

    Lasseter, T.J.

    1985-02-01

    The variable-flux-weighting method has been shown to largely eliminate numerical diffusion at saturation discontinuities in two-phase flow in two-dimensional problems. The method has been extended to multidimensional problems including gravity and capillarity. The method is derived from fractional flow theory and involves the computation of a variable weighting factor for the interface fractional flow between grid blocks. In order to eliminate numerical diffusion at shocks, the appropriate weighting has been found to be downstream weighting just ahead of the shock and upstream weighting otherwise. In one-dimension, the saturation distribution for two-phase flow including gravity has been solved and compared with the analytical solution. The comparison is very good with no numerical diffusion apparent at the saturation discontinuity. Problems including capillarity have also been solved. In this case there is no saturation discontinuity, but the method introduces downstream weighting at the upstream edge of the capillary fringe which effectively eliminates any significant numerical diffusion. Two- and three-dimensional problems have also been solved which demonstrate the accuracy of the method. For three-dimensional problems, the current implementation of the VFW method is ten times slower than an upstream-weighting IMPES method.

  18. [Analysis of systematic environmental and genetic effects on body weight and body measurements in German shepherd dogs].

    PubMed

    Dammann, Melanie; Hamann, Henning; Stock, Kathrin Friederike; Distl, Ottmar

    2009-01-01

    In dog breeding permission for breeding is only given when the body measurements of the dog are within the lower and upper limits which are defined in the breed standard. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyse the systematic and genetic effects on body weight and body measurements recorded at licensing in German shepherd dogs (GSD) over a period of 10 years. The data included withers and chest height, chest circumference and body weight from 36,028 breeding dogs born between 1992 and 2003. Birth year, month of birth and region were significant for the traits analysed. Age at breeding approval was significant for the body measurements withers height and chest height and only significant for male dogs for chest circumference. Inbreeding coefficient was significant as a nonlinear covariate for withers and chest height. The genetic parameters were estimated in linear animal models using residual maximum likelihood (REML) and the relationship matrix of 53,429 dogs. Uni- and bivariate analyses were performed for both sexes together and separately for males and females. Heritability estimates for both sexes together were 0.41 +/- 0.01 for withers height and 0.27 +/- 0.01 for body weight. For the other traits studied, heritability estimates were lower with values of 0.20 +/- 0.01 for chest height and 0.13 +/- 0.01 for chest circumference. In the separate analyses for male and female dogs, heritability estimates were higher for females. Additive genetic correlations were at 0.91 to 0.98 between corresponding traits in males and females. The high genetic correlations indicate that selection for conformation traits equally affects both sexes and does not increase sexual dimorphism in dogs.

  19. Dynamic modeling of methylprednisolone effects on body weight and glucose regulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing; DuBois, Debra C.; He, Yang; Almon, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Influences of methylprednisolone (MPL) and food consumption on body weight (BW), and the effects of MPL on glycemic control including food consumption and the dynamic interactions among glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were evaluated in normal male Wistar rats. Six groups of animals received either saline or MPL via subcutaneous infusions at the rate of 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/h for different treatment periods. BW and food consumption were measured twice a week. Plasma concentrations of MPL and corticosterone (CST) were determined at animal sacrifice. Plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA were measured at various times after infusion. Plasma MPL concentrations were simulated by a two-compartment model and used as the driving force in the pharmacodynamic (PD) analysis. All data were modeled using ADAPT 5. The MPL treatments caused reduction of food consumption and body weights in all dosing groups. The steroid also caused changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations. Hyper-insulinemia was achieved rapidly at the first sampling time of 6 h; significant elevations of FFA were observed in all drug treatment groups; whereas only modest increases in plasma glucose were observed in the low dosing groups (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg/h). Body weight changes were modeled by dual actions of MPL: inhibition of food consumption and stimulation of weight loss, with food consumption accounting for the input of energy for body weight. Dynamic models of glucose and insulin feedback interactions were extended to capture the major metabolic effects of FFA: stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. These models of body weight and glucose regulation adequately captured the experimental data and reflect significant physiological interactions among glucose, insulin, and FFA. These mechanism-based PD models provide further insights into the multi-factor control of this essential metabolic system. PMID:21394487

  20. Analysis of the lifted weight including height and frequency factors for workers in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Robinson, Luisa; Quintana, Leonardo A J; Fortunato Leal, Luis Díaz; Niño, María

    2012-01-01

    Factors related to the height of the load and the frequency of handling have become a way to predict the acceptable standard weight lifted for workers whose main task is the manual lifting of materials and measuring the conditions is important to determine a maximum weight lifted. This study was conducted to twenty (20) workers between eighteen (18) and forty (40) years old with a minimum six months experience and belonging to the warehouse and packaging area of a dairy products company. Consideration was given to three different heights such as knuckle, shoulder and total height as well as frequencies of 2, 4 and 6 times per minute. Average values for lifted weight were 17.9306 ± 2.37 kg. The conclusions and recommendations included a review of legislation related to Colombian maximum acceptable weight of lifting due to the current law does not match the acceptable weight handled in this research.

  1. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered.

  2. Nutrigenomics of body weight regulation: a rationale for careful dissection of individual contributors.

    PubMed

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2014-10-21

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual's genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.

  3. Body weight divided by squared knee height as an alternative to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Weight/height(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. Height, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with height loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with height loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal height or height at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two heights has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate height from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee height (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated height=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current height by their equations. Maximal height cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal height does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-height ratio; weight/height(2); the Quetelet's index. Height is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current height could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with height loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.

  4. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  5. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on body weight: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Monami, Matteo; Dicembrini, Ilaria; Marchionni, Niccolò; Rotella, Carlo M; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for "exenatide," "liraglutide," "albiglutide," "semaglutide," and "lixisenatide" was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients) and 7 (2,416 patients) trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of -1.0 [-1.3; -0.6] kg/m(2). Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m(2)) these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction.

  6. Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Body Weight: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monami, Matteo; Dicembrini, Ilaria; Marchionni, Niccolò; Rotella, Carlo M.; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for “exenatide,” “liraglutide,” “albiglutide,” “semaglutide,” and “lixisenatide” was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients) and 7 (2,416 patients) trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of −1.0 [−1.3; −0.6] kg/m2. Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m2) these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction. PMID:22675341

  7. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  8. Effect of habitual aerobic exercise on body weight and arterial function in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Yoshizawa, Mutsuko; Misono, Maiko; Saito, Yoko; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Maeng-Kyu; Nakata, Yoshio; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2009-09-15

    The effect of habitual exercise on vascular function, including central arterial distensibility and endothelial function, in obese subjects has not yet been clarified. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training affects central arterial distensibility and endothelial function in middle-age overweight and obese men. A total of 21 overweight and obese men (age 50 +/- 2 years, body mass index 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) completed a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention. Aerobic exercise training significantly reduced their body weight and resulted in a significant decrease in body mass index. After the weight-reduction exercise program, carotid arterial compliance (determined by simultaneous B-mode ultrasonography and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery) significantly increased; and the beta-stiffness index, an index of arterial compliance adjusted for distending pressure, significantly decreased. The concentrations of plasma endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly decreased and plasma nitric oxide (measured as the stable end product [nitrite/nitrate]), a potent vasodilator produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly increased after the weight-reduction exercise program. In conclusion, weight reduction by aerobic exercise training in overweight and obese men increased the central arterial distensibility. This increase might contribute to the improvement in endothelial function, as assessed by a decrease in endothelin-1 and an increase in nitric oxide, after exercise training-induced weight loss.

  9. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  10. Maternal body weight gain and fetus development of rats fed a moderately altered olive oil.

    PubMed

    López-Varela, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Pérez-Granados, A M; Cuesta, C

    1998-03-01

    The present study examines whether the consumption of a moderately altered olive oil influenced body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of pregnant rats as well as placental and fetal development. Olive oil used for frying 15 times undergoes a relatively slight alteration involving a statistically significant increase in polar content (9.0+/-0.1 mg/100 mg oil vs 2.0+/-0.1 mg/100 mg oil; p < 0.001). The methyl ester content also increased (5.1+/-0.8 mg/100 mg oil vs 1.8+/-0.5 mg/100 mg oil; p < 0.02), while the linoleic acid and oleic acid contents decreased significantly (6.2+/-0.6% oil vs 7.2+/-0.2% oil and 75.8+/-0.6% vs 78.9+/-0.2%, respectively, both p < 0.05). Wistar rats were divided into four groups, two of which included pregnant rats (P1 and P2) and the other two, non-pregnant rats (NP1 and NP2). Groups NP1 and P1 received a diet containing 15% of fat as unused olive oil, while groups NP2 and P2 were fed a diet with a fat content of 15% as the olive oil used in 15 fryings. Pregnancy increased food intake, body weight, weight gain and food efficiency ratio (P1 vs NP1, and P2 vs NP1), while consumption of the used olive oil diet with respect to the unused oil diet did not alter food intake, body weight, weight gain and food efficiency ratio, placental weight, fetal weight and the number of fetuses in P2 rats with respect to P1 ones. These results suggest that in pregnant rats consumption of olive oil with a moderate level of alteration, as the only dietary fat source, exerts no detrimental effects on the mother weight gain or conceptus development.

  11. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  12. Body composition and Vo2max of exceptional weight-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Fahey, T D; Akka, L; Rolph, R

    1975-10-01

    The maximal oxygen uptake and body composition of 30 exceptional athletes who have trained extensively with weights was measured. The sample included 3 world record holders, 8 other world class athletes, and 19 national class competitors. The sports represented were shot-putting, discus throwing, body building, power lifting, wrestling, and olympic lifting. Vo2max as determined on a bicycle ergometer by the open-circuit method was 4.6 +/- 0.7 1-min-1 (mean +/- SD) (48.8 +/- 7 ml-kg-1., 56.4 +/- 8.6 ml-(kg LBW)-1). The mean maximal heart rate was 185.3 +/- 11.6 beats-min-1. The subjects attained a work rate of 1,728.2 +/- 223 kpm-min-1 on a continuous progressive bicycle ergometer test and had mean maximal ventilations of 152.5 +/- 27.7 1-min-1 BTPS. Body composition was determined by densitometry. Body weight averaged 96.0 +/- 14.9 kg, with mean percent fat of 13.8 +/- 4.5. The results of this study indicate that exceptional weight-trained athletes are within the normal college-age population range in body fat and of somewhat higher physical working capacity.

  13. [Methods for early detection of predisposition to abnormal increases in body weight of children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, S N

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a special method designed for the early identification of children's and adolescents' propensity for abnormal weight gain. The basis of this technique is the principle of monitoring the actual values of body mass index for each child or young person at the age of dynamic changes in the index of the normal range. The weekly body weight of each child or adolescent who participates in the study is measured and the results are included in a special registry. Measurement of the body weight of the children and adolescents occurs in the morning at the same hour on an empty stomach after use of the toilet and performance of necessary hygiene. Afterwards, the obtained values of their body mass indices are compared with those considered normal for age, according to official data. In cases when the resulting body mass index of a child or young person exceeds the range of normal-for-age values, an in-depth medical examination of the child or adolescent is conducted together with the nature of their food intake and mode of physical activity, which may then be corrected.

  14. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  15. Fear of Vomiting and Low Body Weight in Two Pediatric Patients: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Charlotte; Couturier, Jennifer; Grant, Christina; Johnson, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Fear of vomiting can be a symptom associated with several disorders, including Eating Disorders (ED), Specific Phobia (Emetophobia), Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), making proper diagnosis challenging. At this time the literature exploring this symptom is limited, and to our knowledge very few cases have been described in the child and adolescent population. We report here the cases of one child and one adolescent presenting with significant weight loss, food restriction and fear of vomiting. The child’s fear of vomiting masked a concurrent desire to achieve fitness and weight loss, which was uncovered following weight restoration. The adolescent patient, although significantly underweight and food avoidant, also expressed no concerns with body image, until weight restored. The history, course in hospital and management of these patients is discussed, along with several challenges that complicated the diagnosis. PMID:28331505

  16. Fear of Vomiting and Low Body Weight in Two Pediatric Patients: Diagnostic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Charlotte; Couturier, Jennifer; Grant, Christina; Johnson, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Fear of vomiting can be a symptom associated with several disorders, including Eating Disorders (ED), Specific Phobia (Emetophobia), Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), making proper diagnosis challenging. At this time the literature exploring this symptom is limited, and to our knowledge very few cases have been described in the child and adolescent population. We report here the cases of one child and one adolescent presenting with significant weight loss, food restriction and fear of vomiting. The child's fear of vomiting masked a concurrent desire to achieve fitness and weight loss, which was uncovered following weight restoration. The adolescent patient, although significantly underweight and food avoidant, also expressed no concerns with body image, until weight restored. The history, course in hospital and management of these patients is discussed, along with several challenges that complicated the diagnosis.

  17. Evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of changes in eating frequency for body weight management.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2014-11-01

    In self-reported diets of free living individuals, frequent eating is associated with higher energy intake, yet beliefs about the possible beneficial effect of higher eating frequency for managing body weight persist. Prospective cohort studies and controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency published by 31 December 2012 were reviewed to assess whether variation in eating frequency may be an adjunct to weight management. Four prospective cohort studies were identified; 2 of these included adults followed for 10 y and 2 followed pre-adolescent/adolescent girls for 6 or 10 y. Within each age category, the findings of the 2 studies were contradictory. Six controlled trials with adult subjects serving as their own controls found no significant changes in body weight due to manipulation of eating frequency interventions lasting 6-8 wk. In 6 additional intervention trials of 8-52 wk duration, free-living adults were counseled to change the eating frequency of self-selected food intake with no significant differences in weight loss attributable to eating frequency. Overall, the consistency of the null findings from controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency for promoting weight loss suggests that beliefs about the role of higher eating frequency in adult weight management are not supported by evidence. Interpretation of the evidence from published observational studies is complicated by differences in definition of eating frequency and limited knowledge of systematic and random errors in measurement of eating frequency.

  18. The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Sabia, Joseph J; Swigert, Jeffrey; Young, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effects of medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on body weight, physical wellness, and exercise. Using data from the 1990 to 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a difference-in-difference approach, we find that the enforcement of MMLs is associated with a 2% to 6% decline in the probability of obesity. We find some evidence of age-specific heterogeneity in mechanisms. For older individuals, MML-induced increases in physical mobility may be a relatively important channel, while for younger individuals, a reduction in consumption of alcohol, a substitute for marijuana, appears more important. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that MMLs may be more likely to induce marijuana use for health-related reasons among older individuals, and cause substitution toward lower-calorie recreational 'highs' among younger individuals. Our estimates suggest that MMLs induce a $58 to $115 per-person annual reduction in obesity-related medical costs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Association between Marital Transitions, Body Mass Index, and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dinour, Lauren; Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Khan, Sahar; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between different marital transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) and body weight. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. Longitudinal studies were included if they compared dependent variables, such as BMI or weight, before and after a change in marital status. Results. Twenty articles were included: 4 articles described only transitions into marriage and/or cohabitation, 2 articles described only transitions out of marriage and/or cohabitation, and 14 articles described both. Overall, transitions into marriage were associated with weight gain, whereas transitions out of marriage were associated with weight loss. No major differences were observed between genders or across specific marital transition states. Conclusions. Additional research is warranted to better understand this phenomenon and the impact of marital transitions on obesity and obesity-related behaviors. This paper highlights potential opportunities to incorporate programs, practices, and policies that aim to promote and support healthy weights and lifestyles upon entering or leaving a marriage or cohabiting relationship. PMID:23050125

  20. The Effects of Intensive Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Serum Hormones in Female Fitness Competitors.

    PubMed

    Hulmi, Juha J; Isola, Ville; Suonpää, Marianna; Järvinen, Neea J; Kokkonen, Marja; Wennerström, Annika; Nyman, Kai; Perola, Markus; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    Worries about the potential negative consequences of popular fat loss regimens for aesthetic purposes in normal weight females have been surfacing in the media. However, longitudinal studies investigating these kinds of diets are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 4-month fat-loss diet in normal weight females competing in fitness-sport. In total 50 participants finished the study with 27 females (27.2 ± 4.1 years) dieting for a competition and 23 (27.7 ± 3.7 years) acting as weight-stable controls. The energy deficit of the diet group was achieved by reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing aerobic exercise while maintaining a high level of protein intake and resistance training in addition to moderate fat intake. The diet led to a ~12% decrease in body weight (P < 0.001) and a ~35-50% decrease in fat mass (DXA, bioimpedance, skinfolds, P < 0.001) whereas the control group maintained their body and fat mass (diet × group interaction P < 0.001). A small decrease in lean mass (bioimpedance and skinfolds) and in vastus lateralis muscle cross-sectional area (ultrasound) were observed in diet (P < 0.05), whereas other results were unaltered (DXA: lean mass, ultrasound: triceps brachii thickness). The hormonal system was altered during the diet with decreased serum concentrations of leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), testosterone (P < 0.001), and estradiol (P < 0.01) coinciding with an increased incidence of menstrual irregularities (P < 0.05). Body weight and all hormones except T3 and testosterone returned to baseline during a 3-4 month recovery period including increased energy intake and decreased levels aerobic exercise. This study shows for the first time that most of the hormonal changes after a 35-50% decrease in body fat in previously normal-weight females can recover within 3-4 months of increased energy intake.

  1. The Effects of Intensive Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Serum Hormones in Female Fitness Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Hulmi, Juha J.; Isola, Ville; Suonpää, Marianna; Järvinen, Neea J.; Kokkonen, Marja; Wennerström, Annika; Nyman, Kai; Perola, Markus; Ahtiainen, Juha P.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-01-01

    Worries about the potential negative consequences of popular fat loss regimens for aesthetic purposes in normal weight females have been surfacing in the media. However, longitudinal studies investigating these kinds of diets are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 4-month fat-loss diet in normal weight females competing in fitness-sport. In total 50 participants finished the study with 27 females (27.2 ± 4.1 years) dieting for a competition and 23 (27.7 ± 3.7 years) acting as weight-stable controls. The energy deficit of the diet group was achieved by reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing aerobic exercise while maintaining a high level of protein intake and resistance training in addition to moderate fat intake. The diet led to a ~12% decrease in body weight (P < 0.001) and a ~35–50% decrease in fat mass (DXA, bioimpedance, skinfolds, P < 0.001) whereas the control group maintained their body and fat mass (diet × group interaction P < 0.001). A small decrease in lean mass (bioimpedance and skinfolds) and in vastus lateralis muscle cross-sectional area (ultrasound) were observed in diet (P < 0.05), whereas other results were unaltered (DXA: lean mass, ultrasound: triceps brachii thickness). The hormonal system was altered during the diet with decreased serum concentrations of leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), testosterone (P < 0.001), and estradiol (P < 0.01) coinciding with an increased incidence of menstrual irregularities (P < 0.05). Body weight and all hormones except T3 and testosterone returned to baseline during a 3–4 month recovery period including increased energy intake and decreased levels aerobic exercise. This study shows for the first time that most of the hormonal changes after a 35–50% decrease in body fat in previously normal-weight females can recover within 3–4 months of increased energy intake. PMID:28119632

  2. Number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) crossbred gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate. The genital organs from 316 gilts were examined for gross abnormalities, and those with normal cyclic ovaries (n=155, 307 ± 4.1 days of age, 148 ± 1.6 kg body weight) were included in the analyses. Number of ovulations was defined by a count of the corpora lutea (CL) from both ovaries. On average, the number of ovulations in LY gilts was 15.9 ± 0.3 (range 4 to 27). The number of ovulations correlated with the body weight (r=0.31, P<0.001) and growth rate (r=0.20, P=0.015) of the gilts, but not with their age (P>0.05). Gilts with a body weight of 141 to 150 kg (17.0 CL, n=31) ovulated more than those with a body weight ≤130 kg (14.1 CL, P=0.014, n=23). In conclusion, both the body weight and growth rate of the gilts were significantly correlated with the number of ovulations. The maximum number of ovulations was found in gilts at a body weight of above 141 kg.

  3. The Effect of Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Strength in High School Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejna, William F.; And Others

    A study assessed the relationship of weight reduction to the strength of various muscle groups in conjunction with a pre-season and in-season training and conditioning program. Twenty-nine high school wrestlers, with an average age of 16 years 4 months, significantly reduced their body weight. In the process, there were losses in lean body weight.…

  4. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  5. Dose-response trend tests for tumorigenesis, adjusted for body weight.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, D W; Kodell, R L

    1999-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between rodent body weight and tumor incidence for some tissue/organ sites. It is not uncommon for a chemical tested for carcinogenicity to also affect body weight. In such cases, comparisons of tumor incidence may be biased by body-weight differences across dose groups. A simple procedure was investigated for reducing this bias. This procedure divides the animals into a few groups based on body weight. Body weight at 12 months was used, before the appearance of a tumor was likely to affect body weight. Statistics for dose-response trend tests are calculated within body weight strata and pooled to obtain an overall dose-response trend test. This procedure is analogous to that currently used, of stratifying animals, based on their age at the time of removal from a study. Age stratification is used to account for differences in animal age across dose groups, which can affect comparisons of tumor incidence. Several examples were investigated where the high-dose group had reduced body weights and associated reductions in tumor incidence. When the data were analyzed by body-weight strata, some positive dose-response trends for tumor incidence were demonstrated. In one case, the weight-adjusted analysis indicated that a negative dose-response trend in tumor incidence was a real effect, in addition to a body weight reduction. These examples indicate that it is important to consider the effects of body weight changes as low as 10%, and perhaps below, that were caused by chemicals in 2-year bioassays for carcinogenesis. The simple procedure of analyzing tumor incidence within body-weight strata can reduce the bias introduced by weight differences across dose groups.

  6. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  7. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of X-irradiated rat spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Gianola, D; Chapman, A B; Rutledge, J J

    1977-08-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450r per generation of ancestral spermatogonial X irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6, and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines.

  8. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  9. Abnormal Weight and Body Mass Index in Children with Juvenile Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica K.; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Crane, Kaitlin; Dawson, Jeffrey; Nopoulos, Peg

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate anthropometric measures of growth and development (height, weight, body mass index (BMI)) in a group of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with Juvenile Onset Huntington’s Disease (JHD). Methods Growth measures for 18 JHD patients, documented prior to or shortly after diagnosis, were obtained through medical records. JHD growth measures were compared to a large sample (n=274) of healthy children, as well as the Center for Disease Control (CDC) growth norms. Results After controlling for sex and age, the JHD subjects had no significant differences in height. However, they were an average of 10% lower than controls in weight and BMI. Using CDC norms, the JHD subjects had the same pattern of normal height but decrement in weight. Length of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat in the huntingtin gene was significantly correlated to measures of weight with longer CAG repeats being associated with more severe weight reduction. A subset of 4 subjects had measures that pre-dated onset of any symptom and were therefore prodromal JHD (preJHD). These subjects also had a significant decrement in BMI compared to CDC norms. Conclusions Children with JHD have normal height, but significantly reduced weight and BMI, indicative of a specific deficit in body weight. As the preJHD subjects were also low in BMI, this suggests that these changes are directly due to the effect of the mutated gene on development, rather than symptom manifestation of the disease itself. Potential mechanisms of the weight decrement include energy deficiency due to mitochondrial dysfunction during development. PMID:26443925

  10. Body weight and mortality among adults who never smoked.

    PubMed

    Singh, P N; Lindsted, K D; Fraser, G E

    1999-12-01

    In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative indicators (weight change relative to 17 years before baseline, death during early follow-up) of pre-existing illness, the authors found a direct positive relation between BMI and all-cause mortality among middle-aged men (minimum risk at BMI (kg/m2) 15-22.3, older men (minimum risk at BMI 13.5-22.3), middle-aged women (minimum risk at BMI 13.9-20.6), and older women who had undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement (minimum risk at BMI 13.4-20.6). Among older women who had not undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement, the authors found a J-shaped relation (minimum risk at BMI 20.7-27.4) in which BMI <20.7 was associated with a twofold increase in mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 3.5) that was primarily due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. These findings not only identify adiposity as a risk factor among adults, but also raise the possibility that very lean older women can experience an increased mortality risk that may be due to their lower levels of adipose tissue-derived estrogen.

  11. Prednisone dosing per body weight or body surface area in children with nephrotic syndrome: is it equivalent?

    PubMed

    Feber, Janusz; Al-Matrafi, Jamila; Farhadi, Elham; Vaillancourt, Régis; Wolfish, Norman

    2009-05-01

    The current guidelines recommend a dosage of prednisone of 60 mg/m(2) body surface area per day (BSA PRED) for the initial therapy of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Alternatively, a dosage of 2 mg/kg body weight per day (W PRED) can be used. We hypothesized that the BSA PRED and W PRED are not equivalent and analyzed the differences between BSA PRED calculated with various formulas for body surface area (BSA), W PRED and the dose of prednisone prescribed for our patients. We performed a retrospective chart review of the patients at their initial presentation of NS. Thirty-three children were included, of median age 3.34 years at presentation. The W PRED was significantly lower than BSA PRED (P < 0.05), with a median W PRED:BSA PRED ratio of 0.85 [interquartile range (IQR) 0.8 to 0.9]. The difference between W PRED and BSA PRED decreased proportionally to patients' weights up to 30 kg. No differences were noted between the various BSA formulas using both weight and height for the calculation of BSA. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a proportional error between W PRED and BSA PRED up to the average daily dose of 60 mg, with a mean bias of 0.86 (95% limits of agreement = 0.68 to 1.05). Ten out of the 33 patients (30%) were given a lower than recommended BSA PRED dose by more than 5 mg/day. In conclusion, the dosage of prednisone at 2 mg/kg per day versus 60 mg/m(2) per day is not equivalent for patients with weights <30 kg and/or dose <60 mg/day.

  12. Rapid changes of body weight after a headstand: a metrological analysis.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Espinoza, Alejandro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent rules from amateur wrestling sport-governing bodies intended to discourage extreme weight loss measures, wrestling culture still includes varied methods to make weight, including holding a headstand position immediately before stepping on the scale. The procedure, according to the notion, will reduce reported mass anywhere between 250 and 500 g (weight between 2.45 and 4.89 N). The aim of this study was to compare any possible differences between the headstand procedure (HS) and a normal (CON) weight measure, using a metrological approach defined by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes. Seventeen adult men were weighed on a force plate before and after doing a headstand or standing normally for 30s. The order of treatment application was assigned randomly. Post-test weight was significantly larger than pre-test (mean ± s.d.) (640.7 ± 62.8 N and 640.3 ± 62.7 N, respectively, p < 0.0001) under both treatments. No treatment vs. time of test interaction was found. No significant difference was found between CON and HS weight (640.6 ± 62.8 N and 640.9 ± 62.9 N, respectively, p=0.3815). The metrological tests suggest that the statistical differences found are related to the force plate measuring errors in every pre-established time interval. The 45 g (0.44 N) difference found between pretest and post-test lies within the uncertainty range identified for the equipment (± 110 g or 1.08 N). In conclusion, a 30-second headstand has no significant effect on registered body weight. The small variations obtained were due to equipment-associated measuring errors. This experiment offers systematic empirical evidence to aid in the elimination of this unjustified practice among the wrestling community.

  13. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tepaamorndech, Surapun; Kirschke, Catherine P; Huang, Liping

    2014-08-01

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and body fat accumulation is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight and fat deposit and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that link zinc metabolism to growth and adiposity, we conducted a genome-wide mapping study using male F2 Znt7 KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with a mixed 129P1/ReJ and C57BL/6J genetic background. The mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing 30-mg Zn/kg diet at weaning. Body weights and fat pad weights including epididymal, retroperitoneal, and femoral subcutaneous fat pads were measured at 16 weeks of age. We detected two significant QTLs (p < 0.05) for body weight and fat deposit. One was in the F2 Znt7 KO population and the other in the F2 WT population. In Znt7 KO mice, the body weight and fat deposit was significantly linked to a locus on chromosome 7 ranging from 64.3 to 78.3 Mb. In WT mice, a significant linkage of retroperitoneal fat mass was found on chromosome 8 between 14.5 and 63.5 Mb. In addition, several other suggestive QTLs (p < 0.63) for body weight and fat accumulation were detected in Znt7 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, the QTLs identified in this study may provide new hints to uncover the genes linking cellular zinc status to growth and body fat accumulation.

  14. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  15. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  16. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  17. Use of starting condition score to estimate changes in body weight and composition during weight loss in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    German, A J; Holden, S L; Bissot, T; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2009-10-01

    Prior to starting a weight loss programme, target weight (TW) is often estimated, using starting body condition score (BCS). The current study assessed how well such estimates perform in clinical practice. Information on body weight, BCS and body composition was assessed before and after weight loss in 28 obese, client-owned dogs. Median decrease in starting weight per BCS unit was 10% (5-15%), with no significant difference between dogs losing moderate (1-2 BCS points) or marked (3-4 BCS points) amounts of weight (P=0.627). Mean decrease in body fat per BCS unit change was 5% (3-9%). A model based on a change of 10% of starting weight per unit of BCS above ideal (5/9) most closely estimated actual TW, but marked variability was seen. Therefore, although such calculations may provide a guide to final TW in obese dogs, they can either over- or under-estimate the appropriate end point of weight loss.

  18. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight and egg production traits in Mazandaran native chicken.

    PubMed

    Niknafs, Shahram; Nejati-Javaremi, Ardeshir; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Fatemi, Seyed Abolghasem

    2012-10-01

    Native chicken breeding station of Mazandaran was established in 1988 with two main objectives: genetic improvement through selection programs and dissemination of indigenous Mazandarani birds. (Co)variance components and genetic parameters for economically important traits were estimated using (bi) univariate animal models with ASREML procedure in Mazandarani native chicken. The data were from 18 generations of selection (1988-2009). Heritability estimates for body weight at different ages [at hatch (bw1), 8 (bw8), 12 (bw12) weeks of ages and sex maturation (wsm)] ranged from 0.24 ± 0.00 to 0.47 ± 0.01. Heritability for reproductive traits including age at sex maturation (asm); egg number (en); weight of first egg (ew1); average egg weight at 28 (ew28), 30 (ew30), and 32 (ew32) weeks of age; their averages (av); average egg weight for the first 12 weeks of production (ew12); egg mass (em); and egg intensity (eint) varied from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 0.43 ± 0.01. Generally, the magnitudes of heritability for the investigated traits were moderate. However, egg production traits showed smaller heritability compared with growth traits. Genetic correlations among egg weight at different ages were mostly higher than 0.8. On the one hand, body weight at different ages showed positive and relatively moderate genetic correlations with egg weight traits (ew1, ew28, ew30, ew32, ew12, and av) and varied from 0.30 ± 0.03 to 0.59 ± 0.02. On the other hand, low negative genetic correlations were obtained between body weight traits (bw1, bw8, bw12, and wsm) and egg number (en). Also, there is low negative genetic correlation (-24 ± 0.04 to -29 ± 0.05) between egg number and egg weight. Therefore, during simultaneous selection process for both growth and egg production traits, probable reduction in egg production due to low reduction in egg number may be compensated by increases in egg weight.

  20. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

  1. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.

  2. Does this book make me look fat? The effect of protagonist body weight and body esteem on female readers' body esteem.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Melissa J; Magee, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their body weight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's body weight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image.

  3. The impact of weight, sex, and race/ethnicity on body dissatisfaction among urban children.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S; Borradaile, Kelley E; Hayes, Sharon; Sherman, Sandy; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Grundy, Karen M; Nachmani, Joan; Foster, Gary D

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative contributions of weight status, race/ethnicity, sex, and age on body dissatisfaction in a large group of diverse children. Participants were 4th-6th graders (N=1212) in ten inner-city schools who participated in an obesity prevention study previously published. Children completed the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and weight status was assessed by measured weights and heights. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Relative weight status was the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction, followed by race/ethnicity, and sex. Body dissatisfaction was greatest in obese, Asian, and female children. Overall, results indicated that children's body dissatisfaction varies based on relative weight status, as well as race/ethnicity and sex among urban children. Results highlight the strong need for additional research so that more definitive conclusions may be drawn regarding the development of body image among diverse groups of children.

  4. Exercise, weight loss, and changes in body composition in mice: phenotypic relationships and genetic architecture.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Scott A; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2011-02-24

    The regulation of body weight and composition is complex, simultaneously affected by genetic architecture, the environment, and their interactions. We sought to analyze the complex phenotypic relationships between voluntary exercise, food consumption, and changes in body weight and composition and simultaneously localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits. A large (n = 815) murine advanced intercross line (G(4)) was created from a reciprocal cross between a high-running line and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. Body weight and composition (% fat, % lean) were measured at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. After measurements at 8 wk of age, mice were given access to running wheels, during which food consumption was quantified and after which body weight and composition were assessed to evaluate exercise-induced changes. Phenotypic correlations indicated that the relationship between exercise and overall change in weight and adiposity depended on body composition before the initiation of exercise. Interval mapping revealed QTL for body weight, % fat, and % lean at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. Furthermore, QTL were observed for food consumption and changes in weight, % fat, and % lean in response to short-term exercise. Here we provide some clarity for the relationship between weight loss, reduction in adiposity, food consumption, and exercise. Simultaneously, we reinforce the genetic basis for body weight and composition with some independent loci controlling growth at different ages. Finally, we present unique QTL providing insight regarding variation in weight loss and reduction in adiposity in response to exercise.

  5. Near-Perfect Synaptic Integration by Nav1.7 in Hypothalamic Neurons Regulates Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Branco, Tiago; Tozer, Adam; Magnus, Christopher J; Sugino, Ken; Tanaka, Shinsuke; Lee, Albert K; Wood, John N; Sternson, Scott M

    2016-06-16

    Neurons are well suited for computations on millisecond timescales, but some neuronal circuits set behavioral states over long time periods, such as those involved in energy homeostasis. We found that multiple types of hypothalamic neurons, including those that oppositely regulate body weight, are specialized as near-perfect synaptic integrators that summate inputs over extended timescales. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are greatly prolonged, outlasting the neuronal membrane time-constant up to 10-fold. This is due to the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 (Scn9a), previously associated with pain-sensation but not synaptic integration. Scn9a deletion in AGRP, POMC, or paraventricular hypothalamic neurons reduced EPSP duration, synaptic integration, and altered body weight in mice. In vivo whole-cell recordings in the hypothalamus confirmed near-perfect synaptic integration. These experiments show that integration of synaptic inputs over time by Nav1.7 is critical for body weight regulation and reveal a mechanism for synaptic control of circuits regulating long term homeostatic functions.

  6. Snord116 is critical in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Purtell, Louise; Fu, Melissa; Lee, Nicola J; Aepler, Julia; Zhang, Lei; Loh, Kim; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Baldock, Paul A; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Campbell, Lesley V; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-01-04

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the predominant genetic cause of obesity in humans. Recent clinical reports have suggested that micro-deletion of the Snord116 gene cluster can lead to PWS, however, the extent of the contributions of the encoded snoRNAs is unknown. Here we show that mice lacking Snord116 globally have low birth weight, increased body weight gain, energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Consistent with this, microarray analysis of hypothalamic gene expression revealed a significant alteration in feeding related pathways that was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Importantly, selective deletion of Snord116 only from NPY expressing neurons mimics almost exactly the global deletion phenotype including the persistent low birth weight, increased body weight gain in early adulthood, increased energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Mechanistically, the lack of Snord116 in NPY neurons leads to the upregulation of NPY mRNA consistent with the hyperphagic phenotype and suggests a critical role of Snord116 in the control of NPY neuronal functions that might be dysregulated in PWS.

  7. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  8. Adaptive thermogenesis in human body weight regulation: more of a concept than a measurable entity?

    PubMed

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y

    2012-12-01

    According to Lavoisier, 'Life is combustion'. But to what extent humans adapt to changes in food intake through adaptive thermogenesis--by turning down the rate of heat production during energy deficit (so as to conserve energy) or turning it up during overnutrition (so as to dissipate excess calories)--has been one of the most controversial issues in nutritional sciences over the past 100 years. The debate nowadays is not whether adaptive thermogenesis exists or not, but rather about its quantitative importance in weight homoeostasis and its clinical relevance to the pathogenesis and management of obesity. Such uncertainties are likely to persist in the foreseeable future primarily because of limitations to unobtrusively measure changes in energy expenditure and body composition with high enough accuracy and precision, particularly when even small inter-individual variations in thermogenesis can, in dynamic systems and over the long term, be important in the determining weight maintenance in some and obesity and weight regain in others. This paper reviews the considerable body of evidence, albeit fragmentary, suggesting the existence of quantitatively important adaptive thermogenesis in several compartments of energy expenditure in response to altered food intake. It then discusses the various limitations that lead to over- or underestimations in its assessment, including definitional and semantics, technical and methodological, analytical and statistical. While the role of adaptive thermogenesis in human weight regulation is likely to remain more a concept than a strictly 'quantifiable' entity in the foreseeable future, the evolution of this concept continues to fuel exciting hypothesis-driven mechanistic research which contributes to advance knowledge in human metabolism and which is bound to result in improved strategies for the management of a healthy body weight.

  9. The role of the "Healthy Weight" discourse in body image and eating concerns: An extension of sociocultural theory.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F

    2016-08-01

    Sociocultural models of body image and eating concerns have highlighted the role of the social discourse in promoting the pursuit of the thin-ideal. Recently, another weight-focused social discourse has gained ground, focused on the goal of maintaining body weight within the boundaries of a weight-range defined as "Healthy." This discourse is somewhat different to the promotion of the thin-ideal; however, it might also be implicated in the development of body image and eating concerns. The present study aimed to extend sociocultural theories of the development of body image and eating concerns by (1) proposing a theoretical model accounting for pressure to maintain a "Healthy Weight", and (2) reviewing the existing evidence for the pathways included in this model. In the proposed model, pressure to maintain a Healthy Weight leads to the internalization of anti-fat attitudes and the need to control weight as well as beliefs in the controllability of weight through diet and exercise. These beliefs may then lead to body preoccupation and disordered eating. The extant literature provides initial support for these relationships; however, empirical testing of this model is necessary to determine its usefulness as an explanatory model and in providing intervention targets for future prevention and intervention efforts.

  10. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens.

  11. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2016-11-29

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  12. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  13. Fermented kimchi reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; An, So-Yeon; Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-06-01

    Kimchi is a traditional fermented Korean food that has garnered international interest due to its various beneficial effects. Focusing on the effect of fermentation, this study hypothesized that consumption of fermented kimchi would have more beneficial effects compared with that of fresh kimchi on metabolic parameters that are related to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risks in overweight and obese subjects. Twenty-two overweight and obese patients with body mass indexes greater than 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to two 4-week diet phases separated by a 2-week washout period (crossover design). During each diet phase, the subjects consumed either fresh or fermented kimchi. Anthropometric data showed significant decreases in body weight, body mass index, and body fat in both groups, and the fermented kimchi group showed a significant decrease in the waist-hip ratio and fasting blood glucose. Net differences in the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, percent body fat, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol in the fermented kimchi group were significantly greater than those in the fresh kimchi group. There was also a tendency for a decrease in fasting insulin after consumption of fermented kimchi. Therefore, the ingestion of fermented kimchi had positive effects on various factors associated with metabolic syndrome, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures, percent body fat, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol, compared with the fresh kimchi. These results suggest that the maturity of kimchi (fresh vs fermented) may affect obesity, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory processes.

  14. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  15. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men.

  16. The effect of dietary and exercise interventions on body weight in prostate cancer patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Hamdan; McNeill, Geraldine; Haseen, Farhana; N'Dow, James; Craig, Leone C A; Heys, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer prognosis may therefore be improved by maintaining healthy weight through diet and physical activity. This systematic review looked at the effect of diet and exercise interventions on body weight among men treated for prostate cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from the earliest record to August 2013. Randomized controlled trials of diet and exercise interventions in prostate cancer patients that reported body weight or body composition changes were included. A total of 20 trials were included in the review. Because of the heterogeneity of intervention components, a narrative review was conducted. Interventions were categorized as diet (n = 6), exercise (n = 8), or a combination of both diet and exercise (n = 6). The sample size ranged from 8 to 155 and the duration from 3 wk to 4 yr. Four diet interventions and 1 combined diet and exercise intervention achieved significant weight loss with mean values ranging from 0.8 kg to 6.1 kg (median 4.5 kg). Exercise alone did not lead to weight loss, though most of these trials aimed to increase fitness and quality of life rather than decrease body weight. Diet intervention, alone or in combination with exercise, can lead to weight loss in men treated for prostate cancer.

  17. CHANGE IN KNEE CONTACT FORCE WITH SIMULATED CHANGE IN BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Knarr, Brian A.; Higginson, Jill S.; Zeni, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between obesity, weight gain and progression of knee osteoarthritis is well supported, suggesting that excessive joint loading may be a mechanism responsible for cartilage deterioration. Examining the influence of weight gain on joint compressive forces is difficult, as both muscles and ground reaction forces can have a significant impact on the forces experienced during gait. While previous studies have examined the relationship between body weight and knee forces, these studies have used models that were not validated using experimental data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in body weight and changes in knee joint contact forces for an individual’s gait pattern using musculoskeletal modeling that is validated against known internal compressive forces. Optimal weighting constants were determined for 3 subjects to generate valid predictions of knee contact forces using in vivo data collection with instrumented total knee arthroplasty. A total of five simulations per walking trial were generated for each subject, from 80–120% body weight in 10% increments, resulting in fifty total simulations. The change in peak knee contact force with respect to body weight was found to be constant and subject-specific, predominantly determined by the peak force during the baseline condition at 100% body weight. This relationship may be further altered by any change in kinematics or body mass distribution that may occur as a result of a change in body weight or exercise program. PMID:25760517

  18. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  19. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  20. Progress in the molecular understanding of central regulation of body weight by estrogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogens can act in the brain to prevent body weight gain. Tremendous research efforts have been focused on estrogen physiology in the brain in the context of body weight control; estrogen receptors and the related signals have been attractive targets for development of new obesity therapies. The o...

  1. The influence of photoperiod on body weight gain, body composition, nutrient intake and hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Tucker, H A; Petitclerc, D; Zinn, S A

    1984-12-01

    Increasing daily light exposure from 8 to 16 h increases average daily body weight gains of sheep and Holstein cattle but reduces gains of white-tailed doe fawns. Some of these effects on average daily gain in sheep are the result of increased gut fill and pelt weight. Increasing daily exposure to light increases feed intake when sheep or cattle are fed ad libitum. However, increased feed intake is not a prerequisite for the anabolic effects of long duration exposures to light because increased growth occurs in the animals given 16 h light:8 h dark (16L:8D) even when feed intake is restricted. The anabolic effects of increased duration photoperiods in sheep are independent of the gonads, whereas in cattle they are dependent on the gonads. Consistent increases in average daily gains of cattle in response to longer duration photoperiods have not always been achieved. The lack of consistency may be associated with sexual maturity or rate of fattening of the animal. For example, the stimulatory effects of 16L:8D photoperiods on live weight gain are not readily manifested in immature prepubertal heifers, but occur primarily during the peripubertal period. Short days are conducive to deposition of fat, which may account for the stimulatory effects of short days on live weight gain of white-tailed doe fawns and excessively fattened Holsteins. In contrast, long duration photoperiods stimulate protein accretion in cattle. The hormonal signals that mediate the anabolic effects of increasing exposure to light are not associated with change in insulin, thyroxine or growth hormone concentrations in the blood. Glucocorticoid concentrations in serum decrease with longer duration photoperiods which is consistent with an anabolic effect. Increasing daily light exposure to 16 h/d hastens the increase in concentrations of progesterone and testosterone in sera of peripubertal heifers and prepubertal bulls, respectively. Thus, change in secretion of reproductive hormones in the

  2. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  3. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Yokoyama, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ≥4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported. Two investigators independently extracted data using predetermined fields. Estimates of body weight change, comparing intervention groups to untreated control groups, were derived using a random effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference. To quantify effects on body weight of baseline weight, sex, age, study duration, study goals, type of diet, and study authorship, additional analyses examined within-group changes for all studies reporting variance data. We identified 15 trials (17 intervention groups), of which 4 included untreated controls. Prescription of vegetarian diets was associated with a mean weight change of -3.4 kg (95% CI -4.4 to -2.4; P<0.001) in an intention-to-treat analysis and -4.6 kg (95% CI -5.4 to -3.8; P<0.001) in a completer analysis (omitting missing post-intervention values). Greater weight loss was reported in studies with higher baseline weights, smaller proportions of female participants, older participants, or longer durations, and in studies in which weight loss was a goal. Using baseline data for missing values, I(2) equaled 52.3 (P=0.10), indicating moderate heterogeneity. When missing data were omitted, I(2) equaled 0 (P=0.65), indicating low heterogeneity. Studies are relatively few, with variable quality. The prescription of vegetarian diets reduces mean body

  5. The Light Weight Body Structure Technologies of Lexus LFA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT Lexus LFAs CFRP body structure has been developed from the ground level within Toyota...The development team has spent countless hours on technical discussions, especially as most of the member were not experienced at all in CFRP material...better, the key characteristics of the composite material. In fact, Toyota is one of the few automotive companies who manufacture CFRP body structure

  6. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    PubMed

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  7. Allometric scaling in the dentition of primates and prediction of body weight from tooth size in fossils.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, P D; Smith, B H; Rosenberg, K

    1982-05-01

    Tooth size varies exponentially with body weight in primates. Logarithmic transformation of tooth crown area and body weight yields a linear model of slope 0.67 as an isometric (geometric) baseline for study of dental allometry. This model is compared with that predicted by metabolic scaling (slope = 0.75). Tarsius and other insectivores have larger teeth for their body size than generalized primates do and they are not included in this analysis. Among generalized primates, tooth size is highly correlated with body size. Correlations of upper and lower cheek teeth with body size range from 0.90-0.97, depending on tooth position. Central cheek teeth (P44 and M11) have allometric coefficients ranging from 0.57-0.65, falling well below geometric scaling. Anterior and posterior cheek teeth scale at or above metabolic scaling. Considered individually or as a group, upper cheek teeth scale allometrically with lower coefficients than corresponding lower cheek teeth; the reverse is true for incisors. The sum of crown areas for all upper cheek teeth scales significantly below geometric scaling, while the sum of crown areas for all lower cheek teeth approximates geometric scaling. Tooth size can be used to predict the body weight of generalized fossil primates. This is illustrated for Aegyptopithecus and other Eocene, Oligocene, and miocene primates. Regressions based on tooth size in generalized primates yield reasonable estimates of body weight, but much remains to be learned about tooth size and body size scaling in more restricted systematic groups and dietary guilds.

  8. Body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscle among boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-01-01

    This study examined factors that influence body image and strategies to either lose weight or increase muscle among children. Participants were 237 boys and 270 girls. Body mass index (BMI), body dissatisfaction, cognitions and behaviors to both lose weight and increase muscles, as well as self-esteem and positive and negative affect, were evaluated. Self-esteem was associated with body satisfaction, positive affect predicted strategies to lose weight and increase muscles, and negative affect predicted body dissatisfaction and cognitions to lose weight and increase muscles. Boys were more likely to focus on changing muscles. Respondents with higher BMIs were more focused on losing weight butnot muscle. The discussion focuses on health risk behaviors related to eating and exercise among children.

  9. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  10. Anthropometry and body composition status during Ramadan among higher institution learning centre staffs with different body weight status.

    PubMed

    Rohin, Mohd Adzim Khalili; Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Abdullah, Shaharudin; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference.

  11. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  12. Feeding behavior and body weight development: lessons from rats subjected to gastric bypass surgery or high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Furnes, M W; Zhao, C-M; Stenstrom, B; Arum, C-J; Tommeras, K; Kulseng, B; Chen, D

    2009-12-01

    Weight loss treatments include diets, drugs, physical training, and surgery, namely bariatric or obesity surgery. The current standard for bariatric surgery is gastric bypass. There are common beliefs that gastric bypass induces body weight loss because of a reduced food intake and that high-fat diet induces overweight and obesity because of overnutrition. The principal aim of the studies on rats summarized herein was to better understand the physiological mechanisms by which gastric bypass achieves body weight loss and by which high-fat diet induces obesity. The results indicated that gastric bypass efficiently reduced body weight, particularly the fat compartment, which was unlikely to be caused by early satiety, reduced food intake or malabsorption, and that large meal size, but not overnutrition, was mainly responsible for high-fat diet-induced obesity. It was unclear whether gastric ghrelin, obestatin and/or amine in the A-like cells were involved in this context.

  13. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.

  14. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  15. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P < 0·001) in the presence of energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  16. Single rapamycin administration induces prolonged downward shift in defended body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Mark; Licursi, Maria; Jensen, Brittany; Baker, Ashley; Milway, Steve; Malsbury, Charles; Grant, Virginia L; Adamec, Robert; Hirasawa, Michiru; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of body weight set point may be an effective weight loss and maintenance strategy as the homeostatic mechanism governing energy balance remains intact even in obese conditions and counters the effort to lose weight. However, how the set point is determined is not well understood. We show that a single injection of rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, is sufficient to shift the set point in rats. Intraperitoneal RAP decreased food intake and daily weight gain for several days, but surprisingly, there was also a long-term reduction in body weight which lasted at least 10 weeks without additional RAP injection. These effects were not due to malaise or glucose intolerance. Two RAP administrations with a two-week interval had additive effects on body weight without desensitization and significantly reduced the white adipose tissue weight. When challenged with food deprivation, vehicle and RAP-treated rats responded with rebound hyperphagia, suggesting that RAP was not inhibiting compensatory responses to weight loss. Instead, RAP animals defended a lower body weight achieved after RAP treatment. Decreased food intake and body weight were also seen with intracerebroventricular injection of RAP, indicating that the RAP effect is at least partially mediated by the brain. In summary, we found a novel effect of RAP that maintains lower body weight by shifting the set point long-term. Thus, RAP and related compounds may be unique tools to investigate the mechanisms by which the defended level of body weight is determined; such compounds may also be used to complement weight loss strategy.

  17. The effect of exercise training on body weight and peptide hormone patterns in normal weight college-age men.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R S; Bossetti, B M; O'Dorisio, T M; Tenison, E B; Welch, M A; Rice, R R

    1991-03-01

    Resting and peak glucose, insulin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels were evaluated pretraining, 3 weeks and 10 weeks posttraining in seven college age males. The exercise consisted of thrice weekly session of jogging at 70% VO2max for 20 minutes plus warmup and cool down. Following the 10 weeks, VO2max increased significantly. Body weight remained constant and body fat decreased significantly. Fasting and peak blood glucose levels were normal at the beginning of the study yet improved with training. As expected, fasting and peak insulin levels decreased significantly with training. Although GIP did not change significantly with training, an uncoupling of GIP and insulin peak responses was observed. Glucagon levels were essentially unchanged. Fasting and peak PP levels increased slightly as training occurred. These hormone responses suggest that perhaps body weight and/or changes in body fat stores and fuel use might influence peptide hormone responses with training.

  18. Genetic analysis of body weights of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Selapa, N W; Nephawe, K A; Maiwashe, A; Norris, D

    2012-02-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weights of individually fed beef bulls measured at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models. Weekly body weights of Bonsmara bulls (N = 2919) tested between 1999 and 2003 were available for the analyses. The model included a fixed regression of the body weights on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, and 84) for starting age and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test were included for additive genetic effects and additional uncorrelated random effects of the weaning-herd-year and the permanent environment of the animal. Residual effects were assumed to be independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test day. Variance ratios for additive genetic, permanent environment and weaning-herd-year for weekly body weights at different test days ranged from 0.26 to 0.29, 0.37 to 0.44 and 0.26 to 0.34, respectively. The weaning-herd-year was found to have a significant effect on the variation of body weights of bulls despite a 28-day adjustment period. Genetic correlations amongst body weights at different test days were high, ranging from 0.89 to 1.00. Heritability estimates were comparable to literature using multivariate models. Therefore, random regression model could be applied in the genetic evaluation of body weight of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa.

  19. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  20. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  1. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

  2. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  3. A Psychosocial Analysis of the Effect of Body-Contouring Surgery on Patients After Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Khalid J.; Kattan, Abdullah E.; Alsaleh, Saud A.; Murad, Khalid A.; Alghamdi, Bader A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives (Background): Patients are often bothered by excess skin laxity and redundancy after weight loss. Body-contouring surgery offers a solution. This study assessed the psychosocial impact of body-contouring surgery on patients after weight loss. Methods (Settings, Design): In this cross-sectional study, a specifically designed questionnaire developed in collaboration with psychiatric department for our research was used for 43 patients who underwent body-contouring surgery. Data were collected during single visit to the plastic surgery clinic. All the patients had lost 20 kg or less before the surgery and were interviewed at least 6 months after the surgery. The questionnaire was used to compare the psychosocial status of the patients before and after surgery. Data were analyzed appropriately using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: The participants’ mean age was 34 ± 10 years; the sample included 24 (55.8%) women and 19 (44.2%) men (total N = 43). The patients’ quality of life improved significantly in the areas of social life (P < .001), job performance (P < .002), and sexual activity (P < .001). Moreover, while 17 (39.5%) patients suffered symptoms of depression before surgery, only 1 (2.3%) patient suffered symptoms of depression after surgery. The overall satisfaction was found to be 62.8%, with mammoplasty being the procedure with the highest satisfaction (66.6%). Conclusion: Body-contouring surgery after weight loss has shown to improve both psychological and social aspects of the patients’ lives. Recall bias is the main limitation in our study.

  4. Scaling of sexual dimorphism in body weight and canine size in primates.

    PubMed

    Leutenegger, W

    1982-01-01

    Among primates sexual dimorphism in both body weight and canine size increases exponentially with increasing body size. This suggests that a full explanation of the variance in sexual dimorphism can only be attained if, in addition to sexual selection, parental investment, and various ecological factors, the influence of body size is taken into account. Positive allometry in both body weight dimorphism and canine size dimorphism is demonstrated to be associated with polygyny. In monogamous species the two dimorphisms not only remain constant throughout the size range but actually are minimal or lacking at any given body size.

  5. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  7. Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

  8. Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on appetite and body weight: focus on the CNS.

    PubMed

    van Bloemendaal, L; Ten Kulve, J S; la Fleur, S E; Ijzerman, R G; Diamant, M

    2014-04-01

    The delivery of nutrients to the gastrointestinal tract after food ingestion activates the secretion of several gut-derived mediators, including the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), such as exenatide and liraglutide, are currently employed successfully in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1RA improve glycaemic control and stimulate satiety, leading to reductions in food intake and body weight. Besides gastric distension and peripheral vagal nerve activation, GLP-1RA induce satiety by influencing brain regions involved in the regulation of feeding, and several routes of action have been proposed. This review summarises the evidence for a physiological role of GLP-1 in the central regulation of feeding behaviour and the different routes of action involved. Also, we provide an overview of presently available data on pharmacological stimulation of GLP-1 pathways leading to alterations in CNS activity, reductions in food intake and weight loss.

  9. UV radiation impacts body weight, oxygen consumption, and shelter selection in the intertidal vertebrate Girella laevifrons.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, José; Waldisperg, Melany; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Maturana, Diego; Pulgar, Victor M; Aldana, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    The amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to ozone layer depletion, and this fact represents an opportunity to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of animals to this global-scale stressor. The transitory fish Girella laevifrons inhabits pools in the upper intertidal zone, which is characterized by exposure to a wide range of stressors, including UV radiation. We documented the field magnitude and the impact of UV radiation on oxygen consumption, body mass variations, and shelter (rocky and algae) selection by G. laevifrons. UV-exposed animals showed increased oxygen consumption, slower body weight increase, and active rocky shelter selection. Control fish showed increased body weight and no evident shelter selection. The results indicated that UV exposure affects fish energetic balance and habitat selection to favor greater protection against radiation. Increased UV exposure in transitory intertidal animals at levels observed in upper intertidal pools may alter the residency time of fish before leaving for the subtidal zone. Therefore, UV-induced energetic changes may determine animal performance and ontogenetic physiological itineraries, whereas shelter quality might determine habitat use.

  10. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  11. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness.

  12. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  13. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Treadmill Training and Body Weight Support in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Diane L.; DeJong, Stacey L.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Purpose Given the extensive literature on body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in adult rehabilitation, a systematic review was undertaken to explore the strength, quality and conclusiveness of the scientific evidence supporting the use of treadmill training and body weight support in those with pediatric motor disabilities. A secondary goal was to ascertain whether sufficient protocol guidelines for BWSTT are as yet available to guide pediatric physical therapy practice. Methods The database search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), Cochrane Library databases, and ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) from January 1, 1980 until May 31, 2008 for all articles that included treadmill training and body weight support alone or in combination for individuals under 21 years of age, with or at risk for having a motor disability. We identified 277 unique articles from which 29 met all inclusion criteria Results Efficacy of treadmill training in accelerating walking development in Down syndrome has been well-demonstrated. Evidence supporting the efficacy or effectiveness of BWSTT in pediatric practice for improving gait impairments and level of activity and participation in those with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, and other central nervous system disorders remains insufficient even though many studies noted positive, yet small, effects. Increased use of randomized designs, studies with treadmill training only groups, and dosage studies are needed before practice guidelines can be formulated. Neural changes in response to training warrant greater exploration, especially given the capacity for change in developing nervous systems. Discussion and Conclusion Large scale controlled trials are critically needed to support the use of BWSTT in specific pediatric patient sub-groups and to define optimal protocol parameters. PMID:19265768

  14. Efficiency of food utilization during body weight gain in dormice (Glis glis).

    PubMed

    Melnyk, R B; Boshes, M

    1980-06-01

    During spontaneous body weight gain in dormice, Glis glis, progressive increases in the efficiency of food utilization as defined by weight gain (g)/food intake (g), and parallel increases in mean daily food intake were observed. Towards the end of the weight gain period, there was an abrupt drop in feeding efficiency with no significant change in food intake even when the latter was expressed relative to an index of each animal's "metabolic mass" (body weightkg0.62). Animals whose body weight increases followed a return to ad lib feeding after prolonged food restriction showed marked decreases in feeding efficiency from initially high values which were independent of changes in food intake. These results are discussed in relation to the sliding set point concept of body weight regulation in hibernators.

  15. Body weight changes during the menstrual cycle among university students in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Majid; Ghoreishi, Mahdiye; Soroor, Farshad; Shirani, Fatemeh

    2014-07-01

    Weight changes during menstrual cycle may be a cause of concern about body weight among most women. Limited data are available linking menstrual cycle and body weight changes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between menstrual cycles and body weight changes among university students in Ahvaz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 Iranian female students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric indices were measured according to standard protocols. During a complete menstrual cycle, weights of participants were measured each morning. Seventy eight percent of participants had normal weight (Body Mass Index: 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2)). Body weight increased only slightly during the three days before beginning of the menstruation. By using repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences were found in weigh during menstrual cycle (p-value = 0.301). No statistically significant changes were found in body weight during women's menstrual cycle in a group of healthy non-obese Iranian young women. Further studies on overweight and obese women are suggested.

  16. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild.

  17. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account.

  18. Salicylate as a partial inhibitor of emotional fever and body weight set-point in rats: behavioral and neuroendocrine study.

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Frankham, P; Cabanac, M

    2003-03-01

    In this article, we report findings from behavioral and neuroendocrine experiments in rats under pharmacologically induced antipyretic conditions. Endpoints included emotional fever, body weight setpoint, and in situ corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA (CRHmRNA) expression. Nine male Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 0.04 g/kg ip in vehicle. On alternating days, all rats received saline (0.9% w/v) as a control. ASA was selected chiefly for its antipyretic and also for effects on metabolism. It has been demonstrated that gentle handling affects body weight and body temperature in rats. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether blocking emotional fever by ASA treatment would inhibit the lowering of the body weight setpoint induced by handling of the rats. Rats were exposed to a daily food-hoarding session under handling stress, and their body weight setpoints were calculated from the hoarding measurements. As rats received ASA and saline in an alternating manner, two setpoints were calculated. In Experiment 2, we performed neuroendocrine analyses of CRHmRNA expression in the same group of animals from Experiment 1. CRHmRNA was determined by in situ hybridization. Results indicated that ASA treatment in rats significantly decreased the body weight setpoint (P=.02) and significantly prevented increases in body temperature due to emotional fever (P=.03) when compared to their control values. Findings also revealed that hypothalamic CRH expression was increased when rats were treated with ASA. ASA did partially block fever induced by handling, but it is difficult to confirm whether emotion was also inhibited by treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that salicylates affect energy balance and might be a good inhibitor of body weight gain in rats.

  19. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  20. Direct and maternal (co)variance components and heritability estimates for body weights in Chokla sheep.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, B P; Mandal, A; Arora, A L; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Notter, D R

    2009-08-01

    Estimates of (co)variance components were obtained for weights at birth, weaning and 6, 9 and 12 months of age in Chokla sheep maintained at the Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India, over a period of 21 years (1980-2000). Records of 2030 lambs descended from 150 rams and 616 ewes were used in the study. Analyses were carried out by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) fitting an animal model and ignoring or including maternal genetic or permanent environmental effects. Six different animal models were fitted for all traits. The best model was chosen after testing the improvement of the log-likelihood values. Direct heritability estimates were inflated substantially for all traits when maternal effects were ignored. Heritability estimates for weight at birth, weaning and 6, 9 and 12 months of age were 0.20, 0.18, 0.16, 0.22 and 0.23, respectively in the best models. Additive maternal and maternal permanent environmental effects were both significant at birth, accounting for 9% and 12% of phenotypic variance, respectively, but the source of maternal effects (additive versus permanent environmental) at later ages could not be clearly identified. The estimated repeatabilities across years of ewe effects on lamb body weights were 0.26, 0.14, 0.12, 0.13, and 0.15 at birth, weaning, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, respectively. These results indicate that modest rates of genetic progress are possible for all weights.

  1. Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Münzberg, H; Laque, A; Yu, S; Rezai-Zadeh, K; Berthoud, H-R

    2015-02-01

    Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycaemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery-induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models.

  2. Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Münzberg, Heike; Laque, Amanda; Yu, Sangho; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and T2DM and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation, and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. PMID:25614206

  3. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length

  4. Muscle-specific interleukin-6 deletion influences body weight and body fat in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Señarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis.

  5. Overconcern with weight and shape is not the same as body dissatisfaction: evidence from a prospective study of pre-adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil J; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2008-09-01

    Overconcern with weight and shape and body dissatisfaction have both emerged as significant predictors of disordered eating. However, it is unclear how these constructs relate to each other, and if each has different antecedents and consequences. This study aimed to identify prospective predictors of each construct and to determine their relative importance in predicting dietary restraint and binge eating. Eight- to 13-year-old boys and girls (N=259) were assessed at baseline and one-year follow-up, using a range of measures that included the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Psychosocial variables predicted overconcern with weight and shape whilst objective weight predicted body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern predicted restraint, and weight and shape concern and restraint predicted binge eating. Findings provide support for the theoretical differences between body dissatisfaction and overconcern with weight and shape, and highlight the importance of focusing on specific body image variables.

  6. A multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design including local and system buckling constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.

  7. GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification.

  8. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies.

  9. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-02-01

    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year.

  10. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, W.

    2016-11-01

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of `bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, MICROMEGAS detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  12. The relationships between active transport to work or school and cardiovascular health or body weight: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2013-07-01

    To systematically examine the relationships between active transport to work or school and cardiovascular health, body weight, or other health outcomes, a systematic review of the literature was conducted in September 2012 using 3 electronic databases. A total of 3887 articles were screened, 30 full text articles were retrieved, and 19 articles were identified. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of each article. The review found that active transport to work or school was significantly associated with improved cardiovascular health and lower body weight. However, the strength of the evidence varied from weak (mental health and cancer), moderate (body weight), to strong (cardiovascular health). The evidence was limited by lack of comparability of study outcomes, weak study designs, small sample sizes, and lack of experimental studies. Further research is needed to examine the effect of active transport on health using stronger research designs, including randomized controlled trials or longitudinal studies.

  13. A mathematical model of murine metabolic regulation by leptin: energy balance and defense of a stable body weight

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Joshua; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We have developed a physiologically-based mathematical model, with parameters derived from published experimental data, to simulate the regulatory effects of the leptin pathway on murine energy homeostasis. Model outcomes are consistent with data reported in the literature, and reproduce key characteristics of the energy regulatory system, including compensatory responses that counteract changes in body weight, and the failure of this ability when the leptin pathway is disrupted. Our model revealed the possibility of multiple steady states for body weight. It also provided a unified theoretical framework for two historically antagonistic hypotheses regarding body weight regulation (“set-point” vs. “settling point”). Finally, our model has identified potential avenues for future investigations. PMID:19117546

  14. Adipose tissue hormones and appetite and body weight regulators in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Daniela Iv; Orbetzova, Maria M; Atanassova, Pepa K

    2013-01-01

    Impaired sensitivity to insulin (the so called insulin resistance, IR) occurs in a number of genetic and acquired conditions, including obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS). In this review we discuss the correlation between IR, the adipose tissue hormones and appetite and body weight regulators. Leptin acts as a major adipostat: it suppresses food intake and activates catabolic pathways associated with increased energy production. It improves the peripheral insulin sensitivity and affects beta-cell function. Adiponectin is the only adipocytokine discovered so far that has anti-atherogenic properties. There is a reverse correlation between the serum adiponectin levels and the degree of obesity, IR, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Ghrelin stimulates food intake; of all circulating orexigenic hormones ghrelin is the most thoroughly studied. Ghrelin levels are decreased in MS and PCOS patients as this hormone is negatively correlated with body mass. Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissues; a growing body of evidence suggests that it might be implicated in the link between obesity and diabetes. It has been found that the hormone's levels are significantly higher in obese people than those in normal body mass people. The recently discovered adipose tissue hormones, vaspin, visfatin, omentin-1 and their effect on IR development, have been increasingly researched.

  15. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women.

  16. Body weight and food intake in Parkinson's disease. A review of the association to non-motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffella I

    2015-01-01

    Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the metabolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cognitive domains have been frequently reported among these patients. Interestingly, even if different non-motor symptoms may characterize the course of the disease, their contribution to weight and food preference has been poorly investigated. This review describes body weight alterations and eating habits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including those who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery. In particular, the review considers the link between non-motor symptoms, affecting sensory perception, cognition, mood and motivation, and food intake and weight alterations. The take home message is twofold. First, we recommend a comprehensive approach in order to develop effective strategies in the management of patients' weight. Second, we also suggest that investigating this issue in patients with Parkinson's disease may provide some useful information about the mechanisms underlying food and weight regulation in healthy subjects.

  17. Body weight, body image, and eating behaviours: relationships with ethnicity and acculturation in a community sample of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kylie; Kenardy, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on body weight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered.

  18. Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.

    PubMed

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa.

  19. Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling food intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Elmquist, Joel K; Coppari, Roberto; Balthasar, Nina; Ichinose, Masumi; Lowell, Bradford B

    2005-12-05

    The past decade has greatly increased our understanding and appreciation of the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate food intake and body weight. This was spearheaded by the discovery of key molecules regulating body weight homeostasis. It is now also apparent that the CNS, especially the hypothalamus, plays a primary role in directly regulating glucose homeostasis, independently of effects on body weight. These discoveries are important given the increasing incidences of obesity and type II diabetes in Western societies. In this article, we will highlight recent data from genetically modified mice. These data and other models have helped to dissect the CNS pathways regulating body weight and glucose homeostasis. Finally, although these studies have been illustrative, they also underscore our relative lack of knowledge and highlight the need for more definitive approaches to unravel the functional significance of these pathways.

  20. Anxiety level and body weight changes in rats living in overpopulated cages.

    PubMed

    Knyazeva, S I; Loginova, N A; Loseva, E V

    2012-11-01

    Behavioral indicators of anxiety and body weight dynamics were compared in rats kept under standard conditions (4-5 animals per cage) and in overpopulated cages (17 rats per cage). The behavior of rats exposed to overcrowding for a short and long period was evaluated in the open field, light-darkness, and elevated plus-maze tests. The anxiety parameters of animals increased only in the light-darkness test during the acute period of overcrowding and in all tests during chronic overcrowding. Behavioral tests had a negative impact on body weight gain in controls and rats living in overpopulated cages. If the behavioral tests were carried out at the beginning of the experiment, body weight ceased to increase in animals exposed to overcrowding and continued to increase in the controls. Overcrowding without behavioral tests had no effects on the body weight dynamics. The model of chronic (but not acute) overcrowding may be used for evaluation of anxiolytic effects of drugs.

  1. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  2. Assessing stability of body weight in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kristie E; Bizo, Lewis A; Starkey, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    When conducting controlled laboratory studies with non-traditional laboratory animals it is important that methods for determining body weight stability are reliable. This helps ensure the health and welfare of animals when they are maintained during periods of free feeding or food restriction. This study compared different methods for determining body weight stability in six common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) maintained on a free-feeding diet under laboratory conditions. A criterion of five consecutive weighings with less than ±2.5% change across days and no more than two consecutive days of weight loss or weight gain was judged to be the most suitable criteria for determining stability. It is important to study non-traditional animals, especially endangered or pest species, under controlled laboratory conditions and to have robust methods for establishing body weight stability.

  3. Validity of weight loss to estimate improvement in body composition in individuals attending a wellness center

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Paulina; Johnson, Bruce D.; Karpinski, Susan C.; Limoges, Katherine A.; Warren, Beth A.; Olsen, Kerry D.; Somers, Virend K.; Jensen, Michael D.; Clark, Matthew M.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of weight loss in estimating successful changes in body composition (BC), namely fat mass loss, is not known and was addressed in our study. To assess the correlation between change in body weight and change in fat mass (FM), fat % and fat-free mass (FFM), 465 participants (41% male; 41±13years), who met the criteria for weight change at a wellness center, underwent air-displacement plethysmography. Body weight and BC were measured at the same time. We categorized the change in body weight, FM and FFM as an increase if there was >1 kg gain, a decrease if there was >1 kg loss and no change if the difference was ≤ 1 kg. We estimated the diagnostic performance of weight change to identify improvement in BC. After a median time of 132 days, 255 people who lost >1 kg of weight, 216(84.7%) had lost >1 kg of FM, but 69(27.1%) had lost >1 kg of FFM. Of the 143 people with no weight change, 42(29.4%) had actually lost >1kg of FM. Of the 67 who gained >1 kg of weight at follow-up, in 23(34.3%) this was due to an increase in FFM but not in FM. Weight change had a NPV of 73%. Mean weight change was 2.4 kg. Our results indicate that favorable improvements in BC may go undetected in almost 1/3 of people whose weight remains the same and in 1/3 of people who gain weight after attending a wellness center. These results underscore the potential role of BC measurements in people attempting lifestyle changes. PMID:21566566

  4. Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, T R; Tong, J; Datta, R; Culler, M; Tschöp, M H

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. These qualities have fostered the idea that ghrelin-based compounds may have therapeutic utility in treating malnutrition and wasting induced by various sub-acute and chronic disorders. Conversely, compounds that inhibit ghrelin action may be useful for the prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, impaired lipid metabolism or insulin resistance. In recent years, the effects of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis, memory function and gastrointestinal motility have attracted considerable amount of attention and revealed novel therapeutic targets in treating a wide range of pathologic conditions. Furthermore, discovery of ghrelin O-acyltransferase has also opened new research opportunities that could lead to major understanding of ghrelin physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies.

  5. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  6. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake—Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M.; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs. PMID:28042853

  7. Physical Activity, Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    exercised frequently. More pronounced were results obtained from the model examining the joint effects of early-life physical activity and net lifetime...Number: DAMD17-97-1-7235 TITLE:. Physical Activity , Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Suzanne...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Physical Activity , Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer: DAMD 17-97-1-7235 Risk: Fellowship 6. AUTHORIS

  8. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth; Carosone-Line, Phyllis; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-10-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice that is a model for postmenopausal women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice were fed with a high-fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared with OVX mice fed with a high-fat diet without CLA. Although CLA was effective in slowing down body weight gain of both sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these 2 groups of mice. Treatment with CLA did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an antiobesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women and that the antiobesity effect of CLA is not estrogen related.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice which is a model for postmenopaual women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice fed with a high fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared to OVX mice fed with a high fat diet without CLA. While CLA was effective in slowing down of body weight gain of both Sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these two groups of mice. CLA treatment did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an anti-obesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women, and the anti-obesity effect of CLA is not estrogen-related. PMID:21056287

  11. SNPs of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associated with body weight in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.

  12. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    PubMed

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity.

  13. The Role of Body Weight on Bone in Anorexia Nervosa: A HR-pQCT Study.

    PubMed

    Frølich, Jacob; Hansen, Stinus; Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Andresen, Andreas K; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Støving, René K

    2017-02-21

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture and estimated failure load in weight-bearing vs. non-weight-bearing bones in AN. We included twenty-five females with AN, and twenty-five female controls matched on age and height. Bone geometry, vBMD and trabecular microarchitecture were assessed using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the distal radius and tibia. At both sites, cortical perimeter and total bone area were similar in patients and controls. Total vBMD was lower in the AN group in the tibia (p < 0.0005) but not in the radius. In the tibia, cortical thickness was approximately 25% lower (p < 0.0005) in the AN group, whereas there was no significant difference in the radius. In terms of trabecular microarchitecture, all indices [bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV); trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp.)] were impaired in AN in the tibia (p values range < 0.01-0.0001). In the radius, BV/TV and Tb.N were lower (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively); Tb.Sp. was higher (p < 0.001), whereas Tb.Th. did not differ, compared to controls. Estimated failure load was lower in patients in both the radius and the tibia (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.0001, respectively), most pronounced in the tibia. In conclusion, the impairment of cortical thickness and estimated failure load were significantly more pronounced in the weight-bearing tibia, compared to the non-weight-bearing radius, implying a direct effect of low body weight on bone loss in AN.

  14. Expression of TRPV1 in rabbits and consuming hot pepper affects its body weight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi; Wang, Yanli; Yu, Ying; Li, Yafeng; Zhao, Sihai; Chen, Yulong; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2012-07-01

    The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), is an important membrane receptor that has been implicated in obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The rabbit model is considered excellent for studying cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, however, the tissue expression of TRPV1 and physiological functions of its ligand capsaicin on diet-induced obesity have not been fully defined in this model. In the current study, we investigated the tissue expression of TRPV1 in normal rabbits using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Rabbit TRPV1 mRNA was highly expressed in a variety of organs, including the kidneys, adrenal gland, spleen and brain. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of rabbit TRPV1 was closer to human TRPV1 than rodent TRPV1. To examine the effect of capsaicin (a pungent compound in hot pepper) on body weight, rabbits were fed with either a high fat diet (as control) or high fat diet containing 1% hot pepper. We found that the body weight of the hot pepper-fed rabbits was significantly lower than the control group. We conclude that the intake of capsaicin can prevent diet-induced obesity and rabbit model is useful for the study of TRPV1 function in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  15. The skinny on cocaine: insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2013-12-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery.

  16. Body Satisfaction, Weight Gain, and Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419

  17. Chronic disease trends due to excess body weight in Australia.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, E; Lange, K; Wittert, G A

    2009-09-01

    Trends in chronic diseases provide insights into strategies required to improve population health. The authors determined prevalence and multiple-adjusted population attributable risk (PAR) estimates of chronic diseases because of lifestyle factors among Australian adults between 1989-90 and 2004-5, accounting for demographic factors. Between 1989-90 and 2004-5, prevalence increased for diabetes (3.8-6.0%, P < 0.001) and high cholesterol (11.3-13.9%, P < 0.001), but decreased for high blood pressure (21.4-20.4%, P = 0.003) and cardiovascular disease (CVD, 6.2-5.4%, P < 0.001). Prevalence increased for body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 (30.3-34.9%, P < 0.001), BMI 30-34.9 (7.4-13.5%, P < 0.001) and BMI 35+ (2.1-5.4%, P < 0.001), but decreased for metabolic equivalent-hours per week (MET-hr/week) 0 (36.8-33.1%, P < 0.001) and current smokers (27.6-24.4%, P < 0.001). Diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure burden increased mostly for 60+ years, lowest income quintiles and high BMI (30-34.9 and 35+). Diabetes and CVD burden increased mostly for MET-hr/week 0. Many chronic disease cases would have been theoretically prevented if adults had no prior exposure to BMI 25-29.9 (PAR 9-17%), BMI 30+ (PAR 1-14%) and MET-hr/week 0 (PAR 6-14%). Reducing exposure to lifestyle hazards across the lifespan is required for reversing the rising burden of chronic diseases. Decreases in CVD and high blood pressure prevalence were likely due to targeted improvements in health care, indicating that more can and should be done.

  18. Method‐of‐use study of naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR on body weight in individuals with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Kevin; Walsh, Brandon; Gilder, Kye; Fujioka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the effects of 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) on body weight in adults with obesity, with comprehensive lifestyle intervention (CLI), for 78 weeks. Methods In this phase 3b, randomized, open‐label, controlled study, subjects received NB + CLI or usual care (standard diet/exercise advice) for 26 weeks. NB subjects not achieving 5% weight loss at week 16 were discontinued, as indicated by product labeling. After week 26, usual care subjects began NB + CLI. Assessments continued through week 78. The primary end point was percent change in weight from baseline to week 26 in the per protocol population. Other end points included percentage of subjects achieving ≥5%, ≥10%, and ≥15% weight loss, percent change in weight at week 78, and adverse events (AEs) necessitating study medication discontinuation. Results NB + CLI subjects lost significantly more weight than usual care subjects at week 26 (8.52% difference; P < 0.0001). Weight loss persisted through 78 weeks. In total, 20.7% of subjects discontinued medication for AEs, including 7.0% for nausea. Conclusions Treatment with NB, used as indicated by prescribing information and with CLI, significantly improved weight loss over usual care alone. NB‐facilitated weight loss was sustained for 78 weeks and was deemed safe and well tolerated. PMID:28026920

  19. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (Δ weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P<0.01), while the correlation was absent in the moderate altitude group (r=0.296, P>0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate

  20. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared.

  1. My Body, My Weight: Body Perception Among African American and Caucasian First-Graders and Their Parents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    behaviors toward weight, body shape, and eating: drive for thinness, bulimia , and body dissatisfaction. For the purposes of this investigation, only...American Mothers’ Eating Behavior and Acculturation (n=29). EDI Thinness Bulimia Body TEEQ-R DEBQ DEBQ-R AAAS Total -.10 p=.61 .02 p= .92 -.07 p= .73...5.91 (7.22) F(1,49)= 6.33* (.693) [.114] Bulimia 1.48 (2.84) 1.09 (2.45) F(1,49)= .27, p= .61 (.080) [.005] TFEQ-R Restraint 24.97 (7.75

  2. Thin is "in" and stout is out" what animated cartoons tell viewers about body weight.

    PubMed

    Klein, H; Shiffman, K S

    2005-06-01

    Relying upon a content analysis of one specific type of medium to which young people are exposed beginning at an early age, on a regular basis, and for many years (i.e., animated cartoons), the present study examines what types of messages are provided about being underweight, overweight and normal weight. This research examines the following issues: (1) How prevalent is weight-related content in animated cartoons? (2) Has this prevalence changed over time? (3) What "types" of characteristics tend to be associated with being thinner-than-normal or heavier-than normal? Results indicate that the prevalence of both underweight and overweight characters has changed dramatically over the course of the past several decades. These relationships are both curvilinear in nature, but in recent decades have demonstrated a significant increase in the proportion of all cartoons showing characters that are underweight and a simultaneous decrease in the prevalence of characters that are overweight. Many variables were found to differ based on cartoon characters' body weight including gender, age, intelligence, physical attractiveness, emotional states experienced, prosocial behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and overall goodness/badness. Whenever differences were found, the overriding tendency was for cartoons to provide positive messages about being thin and negative messages about being overweight.

  3. Multimodal Body Representation of Obese Children and Adolescents before and after Weight-Loss Treatment in Comparison to Normal-Weight Children

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Helene; Dammann, Dirk; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin; Junne, Florian; Enck, Paul; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Mack, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether obese children and adolescents have a disturbed body representation as compared to normal-weight participants matched for age and gender and whether their body representation changes in the course of an inpatient weight-reduction program. Methods Sixty obese (OBE) and 27 normal-weight (NW) children and adolescents (age: 9–17) were assessed for body representation using a multi-method approach. Therefore, we assessed body size estimation, tactile size estimation, heartbeat detection accuracy, and attitudes towards one’s own body. OBE were examined upon admission and before discharge of an inpatient weight-reduction program. NW served as cross-sectional control group. Results Body size estimation and heartbeat detection accuracy were similar in OBE and NW. OBE overestimated sizes in tactile size estimation and were more dissatisfied with their body as compared to NW. In OBE but not in NW, several measures of body size estimation correlated with negative body evaluation. After weight-loss treatment, OBE had improved in heartbeat detection accuracy and were less dissatisfied with their body. None of the assessed variables predicted weight-loss success. Conclusions Although OBE children and adolescents generally perceived their body size and internal status of the body accurately, weight reduction improved their heartbeat detection accuracy and body dissatisfaction. PMID:27875563

  4. Glutamatergic Preoptic Area Neurons That Express Leptin Receptors Drive Temperature-Dependent Body Weight Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Jiang, Yanyan; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Morrison, Christopher D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The preoptic area (POA) regulates body temperature, but is not considered a site for body weight control. A subpopulation of POA neurons express leptin receptors (LepRbPOA neurons) and modulate reproductive function. However, LepRbPOA neurons project to sympathetic premotor neurons that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, suggesting an additional role in energy homeostasis and body weight regulation. We determined the role of LepRbPOA neurons in energy homeostasis using cre-dependent viral vectors to selectively activate these neurons and analyzed functional outcomes in mice. We show that LepRbPOA neurons mediate homeostatic adaptations to ambient temperature changes, and their pharmacogenetic activation drives robust suppression of energy expenditure and food intake, which lowers body temperature and body weight. Surprisingly, our data show that hypothermia-inducing LepRbPOA neurons are glutamatergic, while GABAergic POA neurons, originally thought to mediate warm-induced inhibition of sympathetic premotor neurons, have no effect on energy expenditure. Our data suggest a new view into the neurochemical and functional properties of BAT-related POA circuits and highlight their additional role in modulating food intake and body weight. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brown adipose tissue (BAT)-induced thermogenesis is a promising therapeutic target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. The preoptic area (POA) controls body temperature by modulating BAT activity, but its role in body weight homeostasis has not been addressed. LepRbPOA neurons are BAT-related neurons and we show that they are sufficient to inhibit energy expenditure. We further show that LepRbPOA neurons modulate food intake and body weight, which is mediated by temperature-dependent homeostatic responses. We further found that LepRbPOA neurons are stimulatory glutamatergic neurons, contrary to prevalent models, providing a new view on thermoregulatory neural circuits. In summary, our study

  5. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  6. Rural urban differences in weight, body image, and dieting behavior among adolescent Egyptian schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert T; Rashed, Motaza; Saad-Eldin, Rawia

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescents is increasing worldwide and may be associated with increased risk for the development of obesity and chronic diseases in adulthood. Dissatisfaction with weight and body shapes is a contributor to the growing incidence of adolescent eating disorders. Our purpose was to compare the relationship between body weight and body image in a convenience sample of rural and urban girls. We also wanted to examine the influence of the mothers on their daughters by asking the girls how their mothers would classify their body shapes. Three hundred and forty adolescent Egyptian schoolgirls representing Cairo and surrounding rural areas were studied. The girls were from private and public schools. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Body image was determined by asking participants to indicate which of five silhouettes of a female body most closely resembled her own current body size. We also asked them to select the silhouette that closely resembled their mothers' current body size. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards, 35% of the girls were > or = 85th percentile, while 13% were > or = 95th percentile. Overweight was more prevalent in urban than rural girls and in those with higher socio-economic status than in lower socio-economic status girls. Girls' perceptions of how their mothers viewed their bodies differed from how the girls viewed their own bodies. From a policy point of view, these data underscore the need to consider not only the health risks associated with overweight and its distribution on the body, but also the weight and body image of the target audience in the design of clinical and public health intervention programs worldwide.

  7. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  8. Derivation of Anthropometry Based Body Fat Equations for the Army’s Weight Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Histogram comparing male group means of % -* body fat by three methods as a function of BMI groupings 33 "Figure Sb. Histogram comparing female...group means of % body fat by three methods as a function of BMI groupings 33 .pi •’. iv 0O 9 LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO. Table 1. Age and ethnic distributions...index ( BMI ) (also referred to as quetelet index) (weight/height 2 ) or Ponderal Index (weight 1/ 3 /height). The correlation between BMI and % body fat

  9. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions.

  10. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  11. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  12. Body composition and weight dynamics of wintering greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    Adult greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) wintering in southern Oregon and California increased or maintained body weight in autumn, lost weight from autumn through winter, and rapidly increased in weight before spring migration in late April. We documented significant annual differences in body weights for both sexes. We related seasonal changes in body weight to changes in lipid levels, which were lowest (12-13% of wet wt in M and F) in mid-March and highest in late April (24% in F). Greater white-fronted geese maintained lipid levels during winter similar to those reported for large subspecies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), and greater than those reported for small subspecies of Canada geese and other small species of geese. Protein content of carcasses varied significantly in females; i.e., lowest in early October and highest in late October and late April. Differences among species in patterns of weight change and body composition during winter seem to be related to social organization, body size, food type, and foraging behavior. Females left spring staging areas weighing relatively less than most other species of geese and may have benefited from foraging opportunities on the nesting grounds.

  13. Body weight-associated differences in ovarian morphology in captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Scheerer-Bernhard, J U; Tkachenko, O Y; Heistermann, M; Gründker, C; Nayudu, P L

    2015-06-01

    In captivity, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) is on average heavier than their wild-living counterparts, and has a tendency to produce triplet litters rather than the normal twins. To provide initial basic information about possible weight-related differences among the ovaries, a morphometric study of follicular phase ovaries from 48 young adult marmosets has been carried out. Nearly 90% of these ovaries were found to contain some degree of luteal tissue composed of large and/or small cells. The luteal structures, follicles of all stages, and stroma were subjected to morphometric analysis, and these results were compared with body weight, circulating triglyceride, androstenedione, and total estrogens. Where only large luteal cells were present, the median body weight was the highest (only this group included animals over 500 g) compared with mixed, or only small luteal cells, or absence of luteal cells. Furthermore, in this group plasma triglycerides were significantly higher compared to other groups, suggesting possible role of triglycerides in promoting luteinisation. Plasma androstenedione was also a critical discriminating factor, and was elevated where large luteal cells were present even as a mixture with small cells suggesting the large luteal cells to be the likely major ovarian source of this hormone and its metabolites. Additionally, the ovaries with large luteal cells compared to those containing only small or no luteal cells, had lower primordial follicle reserve associated with high levels of atresia and luteinisation among growing non-ovulatory follicles, indicating an accelerated activation, but at the same time a suboptimal environment for follicular growth.

  14. Brain serotonin system in the coordination of food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Lam, Daniel D; Garfield, Alastair S; Marston, Oliver J; Shaw, Jill; Heisler, Lora K

    2010-11-01

    An inverse relationship between brain serotonin and food intake and body weight has been known for more than 30 years. Specifically, augmentation of brain serotonin inhibits food intake, while depletion of brain serotonin promotes hyperphagia and weight gain. Through the decades, serotonin receptors have been identified and their function in the serotonergic regulation of food intake clarified. Recent refined genetic studies now indicate that a primary mechanism through which serotonin influences appetite and body weight is via serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) and serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT(1B)R) influencing the activity of endogenous melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists at the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R). However, other mechanisms are also possible and the challenge of future research is to delineate them in the complete elucidation of the complex neurocircuitry underlying the serotonergic control of appetite and body weight.

  15. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  16. Neural network-based visual body weight estimation for drug dosage finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Christian; May, Stefan; Nüchter, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Body weight adapted drug dosages are important for emergency treatments: Inaccuracies in body weight estimation may lead to inaccurate drug dosing. This paper describes an improved approach to estimating the body weight of emergency patients in a trauma room, based on images from an RGB-D and a thermal camera. The improvements are specific to several aspects: Fusion of RGB-D and thermal camera eases filtering and segmentation of the patient's body from the background. Robustness and accuracy is gained by an artificial neural network, which considers geometric features from the sensors as input, e.g. the patient's volume, and shape parameters. Preliminary experiments with 69 patients show an accuracy close to 90 percent, with less than 10 percent relative error and the results are compared with the physician's estimate, the patient's statement and an established anthropometric method.

  17. Calorie Labeling in Chain Restaurants and Body Weight: Evidence from New York.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Brandon J

    2016-07-24

    This study analyzes the impact of local mandatory calorie labeling laws implemented by New York jurisdictions on body weight. The analysis indicates that on average the point-of-purchase provision of calorie information on chain restaurant menus reduced body mass index (BMI) by 1.5% and lowered the risk of obesity by 12%. Quantile regression results indicate that calorie labeling has similar impacts across the BMI distribution. An analysis of heterogeneity suggests that calorie labeling has a larger impact on the body weight of lower income individuals, especially lower income minorities. The estimated impacts of calorie labeling on physical activity, smoking, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages, fruits, and vegetables are small in magnitude, which suggests that other margins of adjustment drive the body-weight impacts estimated here. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (P<0.001). Ten subjects had a BMI of < or = 10th age percentile. Post hoc comparisons revealed that BMI percentiles were (a) reduced to a similar extent in patients with schizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  19. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  20. Comparison of the acute metabolic responses to traditional resistance, body-weight, and battling rope exercises.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Rosenberg, Joseph G; Klei, Samantha; Dougherty, Brian M; Kang, Jie; Smith, Charles R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the acute metabolic responses to resistance exercise protocols comprising free-weight, body-weight, and battling rope (BR) exercises. Ten resistance-trained men (age = 20.6 ± 1.3 years) performed 13 resistance exercise protocols on separate days in random order consisting of only one exercise per session. For free-weight exercise protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of their 1 repetition maximum. For the push-up (PU) and push-up on a BOSU ball protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 20 repetitions. For the burpee and PU with lateral crawl protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions. For the plank and BR circuit protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 30-second bouts. A standard 2-minute rest interval (RI) was used in between all sets for each exercise. Data were averaged for the entire protocol including work and RIs. Mean oxygen consumption was significantly greatest during the BR (24.6 ± 2.6 ml·kg·min) and burpee (22.9 ± 2.1 ml·kg·min) protocols. For the free-weight exercises, highest mean values were seen in the squat (19.6 ± 1.8 ml·kg·min), deadlift (18.9 ± 3.0 ml·kg·min), and lunge (17.3 ± 2.6 ml·kg·min). No differences were observed between PUs performed on the floor vs. on a BOSU ball. However, adding a lateral crawl to the PU significantly increased mean oxygen consumption (19.5 ± 2.9 ml·kg·min). The lowest mean value was seen during the plank exercise (7.9 ± 0.7 ml·kg·min). These data indicate performance of exercises with BRs and a body-weight burpee exercise elicit relatively higher acute metabolic demands than traditional resistance exercises performed with moderately heavy loading.

  1. Adaptive thermogenesis can make a difference in the ability of obese individuals to lose body weight.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Royer, M-M; Chaput, J-P; Doucet, E

    2013-06-01

    The decrease in energy expenditure that occurs during weight loss is a process that attenuates over time the impact of a restrictive diet on energy balance up to a point beyond which no further weight loss seems to be possible. For some health professionals, such a diminished energy expenditure is the normal consequence of a progressive decrease in the motivation to exercise over the course of a weight-reducing program. Another explanation of decreased energy needs during weight loss is the decrease in body energy stores (that is, fat mass and muscle mass) and its related obligatory costs of living. Many studies have also documented the existence of adaptive thermogenesis in the context of weight loss, which represents a greater-than-predicted decrease in energy expenditure. In this paper, we pursue the analysis of this phenomenon by demonstrating that an adaptive decrease in thermogenesis can have a major role in the occurrence of resistance to further lose fat in weight-reduced obese individuals. Evidence is also presented to support the idea of greater hunger sensations in individuals displaying more pronounced thermogenic changes. Finally, as the decrease in thermogenesis persists over time, it is also likely associated with a greater predisposition to body-weight regain after weight loss. Globally, these observations suggest that the adaptive reduction in thermogenesis that accompanies a prolonged negative energy balance is a major determinant of the ability to spontaneously lose body fat.

  2. A randomised pilot and feasibility study examining body weight tracking frequency and psychosocial health indicators.

    PubMed

    Linde, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Daily weight tracking may enhance weight loss, but experimental data are scarce. This study tested feasibility of delivering varying weight tracking instructions, assessed adherence, and monitored psychosocial changes. Thirty adults were enrolled and randomised to daily or weekly tracking for 6 months. Study retention was 100%. Adherence averaged 97.5% with no group differences (p=.15). There were no group differences and minimal changes for depression, anxiety, and body image (p=.41-.82). Daily trackers reported fewer barriers (p<.01) at 3 months. The study was highly successful at delivering weight tracking instructions without adverse effects or diminished adherence.

  3. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity.

  4. Brazilian adolescents' body weight misperception and the Human Development Index of the cities where they live.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adolescents' body weight misperception and the Human Development Index (HDI) of the cities in which they live in Brazil. Data from a large national survey that included 60,973 boys and girls between 13 and 15 yr. (M = 14.2, SD = 1.1; 47.5% boys, 52.5% girls) were analyzed. Regression analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors such as population density, income inequality, nutritional status (BMI), and mothers' education. In both sexes, the relationship between perceived underweight showed an inverse relationship with HDI. The highest prevalences of participants who perceived themselves as overweight for girls were found in cities with high HDI.

  5. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  6. Parents' education and child body weight in France: The trajectory of the gradient in the early years.

    PubMed

    Apouey, Bénédicte H; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the relationship between parental education and offspring body weight in France. Using two large datasets spanning the 1991-2010 period, we examine the existence of inequalities in maternal and paternal education and reported child body weight measures, as well as their evolution across childhood. Our empirical specification is flexible and allows this evolution to be non-monotonic. Significant inequalities are observed for both parents' education--maternal (respectively paternal) high education is associated with a 7.20 (resp. 7.10) percentage points decrease in the probability that the child is reported to be overweight or obese, on average for children of all ages. The gradient with respect to parents' education follows an inverted U-shape across childhood, meaning that the association between parental education and child body weight widens from birth to age 8, and narrows afterward. Specifically, maternal high education is correlated with a 5.30 percentage points decrease in the probability that the child is reported to be overweight or obese at age 2, but a 9.62 percentage points decrease at age 8, and a 1.25 percentage point decrease at age 17. The figures for paternal high education are respectively 5.87, 9.11, and 4.52. This pattern seems robust, since it is found in the two datasets, when alternative variables for parental education and reported child body weight are employed, and when controls for potential confounding factors are included. The findings for the trajectory of the income gradient corroborate those of the education gradient. The results may be explained by an equalization in actual body weight across socioeconomic groups during youth, or by changes in reporting styles of height and weight.

  7. Whole-Body Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Nadine; Thörmer, Gregor; Sorge, Ina; Ritter, Lutz; Schuster, Volker; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis/ chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CRMO/ CNO) is a rare auto-inflammatory disease and typically manifests in terms of musculoskeletal pain. Because of a high frequency of musculoskeletal disorders in children/ adolescents, it can be quite challenging to distinguish CRMO/ CNO from nonspecific musculosketetal pain or from malignancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visibility of CRMO lesions in a whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique and its potential clinical value to better characterize MR-visible lesions. Material and Methods Whole-body imaging at 3T was performed in 16 patients (average: 13 years) with confirmed CRMO. The protocol included 2D Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) imaging in coronal and axial orientation as well as diffusion-weighted imaging in axial orientation. Visibility of lesions in DWI and STIR was evaluated by two readers in consensus. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured for every lesion and corresponding reference locations. Results A total of 33 lesions (on average 2 per patient) visible in STIR and DWI images (b = 800 s/mm2 and ADC maps) were included, predominantly located in the long bones. With a mean value of 1283 mm2/s in lesions, the ADC was significantly higher than in corresponding reference regions (782 mm2/s). By calculating the ratio (lesion to reference), 82% of all lesions showed a relative signal increase of 10% or higher and 76% (25 lesions) showed a signal increase of more than 15%. The median relative signal increase was 69%. Conclusion This study shows that WB-DWI can be reliably performed in children at 3T and predominantly, the ADC values were substantially elevated in CRMO lesions. WB-DWI in conjunction with clinical data is seen as a promising technique to distinguish benign inflammatory processes (in terms of increased ADC values) from particular malignancies. PMID:26799970

  8. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls.

  9. Orthotic Body-Weight Support Through Underactuated Potential Energy Shaping with Contact Constraints.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ge; Gregg, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Body-weight support is an effective clinical tool for gait rehabilitation after neurological impairment. Body-weight supported training systems have been developed to help patients regain mobility and confidence during walking, but conventional systems constrain the patient's treatment in clinical environments. We propose that this challenge could be addressed by virtually providing patients with body-weight support through the actuators of a powered orthosis (or exoskeleton) utilizing potential energy shaping control. However, the changing contact conditions and degrees of underactuation encountered during human walking present significant challenges to consistently matching a desired potential energy for the human in closed loop. We therefore introduce a generalized matching condition for shaping Lagrangian systems with holonomic contact constraints. By satisfying this matching condition for four phases of gait, we derive control laws to achieve virtual body-weight support through a powered knee-ankle orthosis. We demonstrate beneficial effects of virtual body-weight support in simulations of a human-like biped model, indicating the potential clinical value of this proposed control approach.

  10. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  11. Orthotic Body-Weight Support Through Underactuated Potential Energy Shaping with Contact Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ge; Gregg, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Body-weight support is an effective clinical tool for gait rehabilitation after neurological impairment. Body-weight supported training systems have been developed to help patients regain mobility and confidence during walking, but conventional systems constrain the patient's treatment in clinical environments. We propose that this challenge could be addressed by virtually providing patients with body-weight support through the actuators of a powered orthosis (or exoskeleton) utilizing potential energy shaping control. However, the changing contact conditions and degrees of underactuation encountered during human walking present significant challenges to consistently matching a desired potential energy for the human in closed loop. We therefore introduce a generalized matching condition for shaping Lagrangian systems with holonomic contact constraints. By satisfying this matching condition for four phases of gait, we derive control laws to achieve virtual body-weight support through a powered knee-ankle orthosis. We demonstrate beneficial effects of virtual body-weight support in simulations of a human-like biped model, indicating the potential clinical value of this proposed control approach. PMID:26900254

  12. [Relationship between body weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro

    2014-11-30

    Body weight status has been linked to other health parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body weight status and self-concept in a sample of 216 students (9.26 ± 1.26 years) from schools of the Southeast of Spain. BMI (Body-mass index) was used to evaluate the body weight status. Subjects were classified into normal weight, overweight and obesity according to international standards. The six dimensions of self-concept (intellectual, behavioral, physical, lack of anxiety, social and life satisfaction) were assessed using the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. The results showed significant associations between BMI and intellectual self-concept, life satisfaction, global self-concept and physical self. Subjects categorized as overweight or obese were those who showed lower scores on the self-concept scale. Interventions focused on improving the body weight status are needed in order to achieve better self-concept levels and health among young people.

  13. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    DOE PAGES

    Mao, Jian -Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; ...

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However,more » 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. As a result, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.« less

  14. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jian -Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. As a result, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.

  15. [Body weight, nutritional factors and physical activity--their influence on prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Weitzen, Rony; Tichler, Thomas; Kaufman, Bella; Catane, Raphael; Shpatz, Yael

    2006-11-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association between body weight, nutritional factors, physical activity and the risk for primary breast cancer. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the associations between these issues and the recurrence of the disease and cure of the primary tumor. Today, three areas of focus are actively being researched for breast cancer survivors: body weight, diet composition and physical activity with specific emphasis on the risk for recurrence, survival and quality of life. Increased body weight or BMI (Body Mass Index) at diagnosis was found to be a significant risk factor for recurrent disease, decreased survival, or both. Overall obesity has been shown to adversely affect prognosis. Appropriate weight control may be particularly beneficial for breast cancer survivors. Breast cancer survivors should be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Limiting fat intake can reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. Increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits seems to have possible beneficial effects during and after treatments. To date physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis has been found to reduce the risk of death. The greatest benefit occurred in women who performed the equivalent of walking 3-5 hours per week at an average pace. Safe weight loss via increased physical activity and healthful food choices should be encouraged for normal, overweight or obese breast cancer survivors in order to improve survival and life quality.

  16. Deletion of Lkb1 in adult mice results in body weight reduction and lethality.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Xiong, Yan; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-11-08

    Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) plays crucial roles in development, metabolism and survival. As constitutive knockout of Lkb1 in mice leads to embryonic lethality, whether Lkb1 is required for the growth and survival of adult mice is unclear. Here we address this question using a tamoxifen-inducible Lkb1 knockout (KO) mouse model: Rosa26-Cre(ER): Lkb1(flox/flox) (abbreviated as Rosa-Lkb1). The Rosa-Lkb1 mice exhibited body weight reduction and died within 6 weeks after tamoxifen induction. The body weight reduction was due to reduced weight of various tissues but the brown and white adipose tissues underwent much more pronounced weight reduction relative to the overall body weight reduction. Accordingly, the Rosa-Lkb1 mice had increased blood glucose levels and were intolerant to glucose challenge. Expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in adipose tissues were also dramatically reduced by Lkb1 deletion. Additionally, Lkb1 deletion reduced lipid deposition and increased expression of mitochondrial (Pgc1a, Cox5b and Cox7a) and hepatic gluconeogenesis related genes (Pepck) in liver. Finally, the Rosa-Lkb1 mice had much reduced oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and energy expenditure. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 plays an important role in maintaining body weight, liver and adipose tissue function, blood glucose homeostasis and survival in adult mice.

  17. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

  18. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  19. Weight gain, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, and postmenopausal breast cancer in a large prospective study.

    PubMed

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Jonas, Carolyn R; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2004-02-01

    Excess adiposity and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are important contributors to postmenopausal breast cancer risk. HRT has been shown to modify the association between body weight and breast cancer risk, although few studies are sufficiently large to examine the risk of breast cancer associated with body mass index (BMI) and weight gain separately among current HRT users and nonusers. This study includes 1,934 incident breast cancer cases occurring among 62,756 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of BMI and adult weight gain (since age 18 years) with breast cancer risk stratified by HRT use. Total adult weight gain strongly predicted breast cancer risk among former and never HRT users (P for trend < 0.0001). Weight gain of 21-30 pounds was associated with a rate ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.8); rates doubled among women gaining >70 pounds compared with women who maintained their weight within 5 pounds of their weight at age 18. After accounting for weight gain, neither recent BMI nor BMI at age 18 were independent predictors of risk. Among current HRT users, no association was seen between breast cancer and either BMI or weight gain. Adult weight gain is strongly associated with postmenopausal breast cancer only among non-HRT users in this study. These data illustrate the importance of examining breast cancer risk factors separately by HRT use; the effects of other risk factors may be attenuated or obscured among women taking HRT.

  20. Influence of dietary aflatoxin, zinc, and copper on bone size, organ weight, and body weight in hamsters and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Floyd, E.A.; Hoke, G.D.; Weekley, L.B.; Kimbrough, T.D.

    1985-08-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus have been shown to produce aflatoxins in stored foodstuffs such as peanuts, cottonseed meal, rice, and grains. Aflatoxin-treated animals, especially those that have not matured, fail to gain body weight as rapidly as controls and protein synthesis is reduced. Zinc is a necessary trace element in the diet. Slight deficiencies produce growth retardation, an inhibition of the animal's general well-being, and a reduction in feed efficiency. Many changes observed in bone of zinc deficient animals were similar to those observed with decreased feed intake. High levels of zinc are relatively non-toxic. Copper is required in the diet for prevention of anemia. It has been suggested to have a protective effect against several carcinogens, and is an essential component of many oxidative enzyme systems. In an effort to determine the potential effects of the interaction of metals and aflatoxins, these studies were initiated. Reported herein are body weights, organ weights, bone sizes and radiographic evaluations.

  1. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights. PMID:15793091

  2. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  3. Percentage of Body Fat and Weight Gain in Participants in the Tehran High School Wrestling Championship

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss in wrestling has been found to be an interesting issue for researchers. In this regard, complications of weight loss in wrestlers before the competitions and their weight gain in course of competitions have been debated in previous studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of weight gain and to estimate the percentage of body fat in participants in the Tehran high school male wrestling championship. Methods This study was a cross sectional survey. Subjects were participants of the Tehran high school male wrestling championship (n = 365). Weight gain in course of competitions and body fat levels (based on skin fold measurements) of subjects were measured. Results Between the first weigh-in of the wrestlers which was done one day before the competitions and the second weigh-in which was conducted immediately before the first round of their first competition (20 hours), 69% of subjects gained on average 1.3±0.9 kg (range: 0.1 to 6.10 kg) or 2.2±1.7% of the wrestler’s weight (range: 0.1 to 9.3). Among the subjects, the mean of fat body percentage was found to be 15.2%. Conclusions Rapid weight loss for matches was prevalent among subjects. It was also found that Iranian wrestlers have a relatively higher body fat percentage in comparison to American wrestlers. Therefore, it can be concluded that weight loss behavior of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss such as fat reduction methods. PMID:22942998

  4. Effects of hydroxyurea administration on the body weight, body composition and exercise performance of patients with sickle-cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hackney, A C; Hezier, W; Gulledge, T P; Jones, S; Strayhorn, D; Busby, M; Hoffman, E; Orringer, E P

    1997-05-01

    1. As an ancillary study carried out during the recently completed Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea, we examined the effect of hydroxyurea on the body weight, body composition and exercise capacity of adult patients with sickle-cell anaemia. 2. The subjects received either hydroxyurea (six males and four females) or placebo (eight males and six females). Data for each subject were generated during four separate 24 h admissions to the General Clinical Research Center. These admissions occurred at baseline and then at 6, 12 and 18 months after the start of study drug (hydroxyurea or placebo) administration. During each admission, body composition was measured by using a dual X-ray absorptiometer, and exercise testing was performed by cycle ergometry. Anaerobic performance was assessed according to a 'Wingate' protocol (20 s at maximal intensity against a cycling resistance of 7.5% body weight). Aerobic performance was examined using a steady state submaximal exercise protocol (10 min cycling time). 3. At baseline, no significant difference in any parameter was found between the hydroxyurea- and placebo-treated groups. At 18 months, the hydroxyurea-treated subjects exhibited an average weight gain of 3.16 kg. The mean weight gain in the placebo-treated subjects was 1.82 kg. Body composition analysis showed that the additional weight in both groups involved both lean and fat body mass components. In anaerobic performance, the subjects given hydroxyurea showed an increase in peak muscle power of 104.9 W. The placebo group also showed an increase, but theirs was a more modest gain of 57.7 W. The most marked improvement in anaerobic performance was observed in the hydroxyurea-treated men (P < 0.05). In aerobic performance, the hydroxyurea-treated subjects exhibited a decrease in peak heart rate response to a standardized workload of 15.2 beats/min, as compared with a decrease of only 4.3 beats/min in the placebo-treated patients. 4. Taken together, the overall weight gain

  5. The value of body weight measurement to assess dehydration in children.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Isabelle; Dubos, François; Chazard, Emmanuel; Hue, Valérie; Duhamel, Alain; Martinot, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis is one of the most common reasons for office visits and hospital admissions. The indicator most commonly used to estimate dehydration status is acute weight loss. Post-illness weight gain is considered as the gold-standard to determine the true level of dehydration and is widely used to estimate weight loss in research. To determine the value of post-illness weight gain as a gold standard for acute dehydration, we conducted a prospective cohort study in which 293 children, aged 1 month to 2 years, with acute diarrhea were followed for 7 days during a 3-year period. The main outcome measures were an accurate pre-illness weight (if available within 8 days before the diarrhea), post-illness weight, and theoretical weight (predicted from the child's individual growth chart). Post-illness weight was measured for 231 (79%) and both theoretical and post-illness weights were obtained for 111 (39%). Only 62 (21%) had an accurate pre-illness weight. The correlation between post-illness and theoretical weight was excellent (0.978), but bootstrapped linear regression analysis showed that post-illness weight underestimated theoretical weight by 0.48 kg (95% CI: 0.06-0.79, p<0.02). The mean difference in the fluid deficit calculated was 4.0% of body weight (95% CI: 3.2-4.7, p<0.0001). Theoretical weight overestimated accurate pre-illness weight by 0.21 kg (95% CI: 0.08-0.34, p = 0.002). Post-illness weight underestimated pre-illness weight by 0.19 kg (95% CI: 0.03-0.36, p = 0.02). The prevalence of 5% dehydration according to post-illness weight (21%) was significantly lower than the prevalence estimated by either theoretical weight (60%) or clinical assessment (66%, p<0.0001).These data suggest that post-illness weight is of little value as a gold standard to determine the true level of dehydration. The performance of dehydration signs or scales determined by using post-illness weight as a gold standard has to be reconsidered.

  6. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to <70th, 70th to <85th, and 85th to <98th. The assignments were 1) dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P < 0.45). The effect of the intervention did not differ by BMI percentile stratum. There was no difference in weight change between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Our findings that the dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  7. A novel body weight support system extension: initial concept and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Pennycott, Andrew; Vallery, Heike; Wyss, Dario; Spindler, Markus; Dewarrat, Antoine; Riener, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training is an approach to gait rehabilitation following a stroke or spinal cord injury. Although lateral control of balance is an important aspect of walking, many of the currently available body weight support systems have a fixed pulley configuration which can lead to lateral forces being developed in the supporting cables, interfering with the lateral balance task. In this paper, a novel extension for body weight support systems, used for treadmill walking, is presented which features a system of pulleys and trolleys. A model is developed for the device along with a basic feedback controller in order to enable simulation of the concept. The lateral forces induced by the novel system are greatly reduced in comparison to a fixed pulley system. This device has applications in balance training within gait rehabilitation programs.

  8. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Siew Ling; Brown, Rachel; Gray, Andrew; Chisholm, Alexandra; Delahunty, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219

  9. Molecular and neural bases underlying roles of BDNF in the control of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Vanevski, Filip; Xu, Baoji

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity that is fundamental to neural circuit formation and cognition. It is also involved in the control of appetite and body weight, with mutations in the genes for BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, resulting in remarkable hyperphagia and severe obesity in humans and mice. Recent studies have made significant progress in elucidating the source, action sites, and regulatory pathways of BDNF with regard to its role in the control of energy homeostasis, and have shed light on the relationships between BDNF and other molecules involved in the control of body weight. Here we provide a comprehensive review of evidence from pharmacological, genetic, and mechanistic studies, linking BDNF to the control of body weight. This review also aims to organize the main findings on this subject into a more refined framework and to discuss the future research directions necessary to advance the field. PMID:23519010

  10. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lívia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function. PMID:23209885

  11. From "overweight" to "about right": evidence of a generational shift in body weight norms.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary A; Heiland, Frank W; Nadler, Carl M

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we describe differences in the self-perception of weight status in the United States between the two most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods (1988-1994 and 1999-2004), and test the hypothesis that secular increases in adult mean BMI, adult obesity, and childhood obesity contributed to changes over time in weight perceptions. We find that the probability of self-classifying as overweight is significantly lower on average in the more recent survey, for both women and men, controlling for objective weight status and other factors. Among women, the decline in the tendency to self-classify as overweight is concentrated in the 17-35 age range, and is more pronounced among women with normal BMI than those with overweight BMI. Among men, the shift away from feeling overweight is roughly equal across age groups. Overweight men exhibit a sharper decline in feeling overweight than normal weight men. Despite the declines in feeling overweight between surveys, weight misperception did not increase significantly for men and decreased by a sizable margin among women. We interpret the findings as evidence of a generational shift in social norms related to body weight. As a result, people may be less likely to desire weight loss than previously, limiting the effectiveness of public health campaigns aimed at weight reduction. On the other hand, there may be health benefits associated with improved body image.

  12. Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared to normal weight persons, obese II/III persons (body mass index of 35 or higher) are more likely to report institutional and day-to-day interpersonal discrimination. Among obese II/III persons, professional workers are more likely than nonprofessionals to report employment discrimination and interpersonal mistreatment. Obese II/III persons report lower levels of self-acceptance than normal weight persons, yet this relationship is fully mediated by the perception that one has been discriminated against due to body weight or physical appearance. Our findings offer further support for the pervasive stigma of obesity and the negative implications of stigmatized identities for life chances.

  13. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  14. Observation of sympathomimetic effect of ear acupuncture stimulation for body weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ein-Yiao; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chang, Yung-Hsien; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2009-01-01

    Ear acupuncture stimulation has been used for body weight reduction as early as the 1970s. Several hypotheses have been proposed in literature regarding its mechanism of action, among which are the effects of the stimulation of the hypothalamic satiety center on decreased neuropeptide Y production. Here, we present another possible mechanism to account for the temporary and short-term effects of ear acupuncture stimulation in the treatment of obesity, the sympathetic effects of the autonomic nervous system. 14 female volunteers underwent a randomized clinical trial of the ear acupuncture stimulation. A prospective, sham-point control, crossover study was performed with two sequential four-week stimulation periods separated by a two-week washout interval. The clinical features of and effects on the autonomic nervous system were recorded and analyzed. Decreased body weight was observed in both the experimental and the control groups in the first 4 weeks of stimulation. Sympathomimetic effects were also noted in both groups. Whereas the sympathomimetic effects and body weight reduction were sustained in the experimental group in the second 4 weeks of stimulation, such effects were not observed in the control group. Some sympathomimetic effects were noted in both the experimental and the control groups initially. This effect remained apparent in the experimental group in sequential stimulation but was lost in the control group. Consequently, we believe that sympathomimetic effects may account for the reduction in body weight by temporarily increasing basal metabolic rate and decreasing appetite, but the body may regain weight after the termination of such effects. Accordingly, the combination of an optimal exercise and diet program with repeated acupoint therapy may be necessary to maintain a healthy body weight.

  15. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  16. Effects of age on recovery of body weight following REM sleep deprivation of rats.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Stewart, Craig V

    2006-01-30

    Chronically enforced rapid eye (paradoxical) movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to a host of pathologies, of which hyperphagia and loss of body weight are among the most readily observed. In recent years, the etiology of many REM-SD-associated pathologies have been elucidated, but one unexplored area is whether age affects outcomes. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 2, 6, and 12 months of age were REM sleep-deprived with the platform (flowerpot) method for 10-12 days. Two-month-old rats resided on 7-cm platforms, while 10-cm platforms were used for 6- and 12-month-old rats; rats on 15-cm platforms served as tank controls (TCs). Daily changes in food consumption (g/kg(0.67)) and body weight (g) during baseline, REM-SD or TCs, and post-experiment recovery in home cages were determined. Compared to TCs, REM-SD resulted in higher food intake and decreases in body weight. When returned to home cages, food intake rapidly declined to baseline levels. Of primary interest was that rates of body weight gain during recovery differed between the age groups. Two-month-old rats rapidly restored body weight to pre-REM-SD mass within 5 days; 6-month-old rats were extrapolated by linear regression to have taken about 10 days, and for 12-month-old rats, the estimate was about 35 days. The observation that restoration of body weight following its loss during REM-SD may be age-dependent is in general agreement with the literature on aging effects on how mammals respond to stress.

  17. Voglibose administration regulates body weight and energy intake in high fat-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Do, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taeon; Chung, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Ji Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-17

    We tested whether long-term administration of voglibose (VO) prevents diet induced obesity in addition to hypoglycemic effects in high fat fed mice and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which voglibose exerts its weight lowering effect. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with the control diet (CTL), high-fat diet (HFD) or the HFD with VO supplementations. Blood lipid profile, plasma leptin levels and hepatic triglyceride content, as well as expressions of genes involved in appetite and mitochondrial function were examined. The results showed that VO significantly reduced body weight, fat mass and energy intakes in high fat fed mice. VO showed improved metabolic profiles including blood glucose, triglyceride and free fatty acid. Elevated levels of plasma leptin in HFD were significantly reduced with the VO, furthermore, VO modulated the hypothalamic expressions of leptin receptors and appetite related genes. VO showed the upregulated expressions of PGC-1 in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. In conclusion, VO may exert antiobesity properties through reductions in energy intake and improvement in mitochondrial function, indicating that VO has potential therapeutic use in patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related complications.

  18. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Maria Teresa Bechere; Danti, Gabriel Vecchi; Garcia, Denise Maximo Lellis; Ferraro, Alexandre A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018) and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight. PMID:25789515

  19. Weight and Body Composition Compartments do Not Predict Therapeutic Thiopurine Metabolite Levels in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Darcy Q; Strauss, Boyd JG; Moore, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Thiopurine drugs are the most commonly used steroid-sparing therapies in moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Their complex metabolism and their narrow therapeutic windows means that optimal dosing is difficult. However, weight-based dosing is the norm. Similar antimetabolites are dosed by body composition parameters. In IBD, treatment response and toxicity has been shown to correlate with thiopurine metabolite levels. We sought to determine whether weight or body composition parameters predicted therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6TGN) or toxic 6-methylmercaptopurine (6MMP) levels. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study identified 66 IBD patients who had body composition analysis and thiopurine metabolite levels tested. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman correlation, Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney, and unpaired t tests and receiver-operator operating characteristic curves. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: No correlation was identified between 6TGN and any body composition parameters, absolute drug dose or drug dose/kg of fat mass, fat-free mass (FFM), subcutaneous adipose tissue area, or visceral adipose tissue area. However, 6MMP correlated with azathioprine dose, thiopurine dose/kg of body weight, and with several body composition parameters. CONCLUSIONS: No relationship was found between therapeutic metabolite levels and weight or body composition compartments. Higher thiopurine doses, especially in relation to FFM, are associated with higher levels of potentially hepatotoxic 6MMP and shunting toward this metabolite. Conventional weight-based dosing to attain therapeutic metabolite levels appears unreliable and may be replaced by metabolite level testing. PMID:27787512

  20. Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.

    PubMed

    Nissen, N K; Holm, L

    2015-02-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed.

  1. A short note on economic development and socioeconomic inequality in female body weight.

    PubMed

    Deuchert, Eva; Cabus, Sofie; Tafreschi, Darjusch

    2014-07-01

    The origin of the obesity epidemic in developing countries is still poorly understood. It has been prominently argued that economic development provides a natural interpretation of the growth in obesity. This paper tests the main aggregated predictions of the theoretical framework to analyze obesity. Average body weight and health inequality should be associated with economic development. Both hypotheses are confirmed: we find higher average female body weight in economically more advanced countries. In relatively nondeveloped countries, obesity is a phenomenon of the socioeconomic elite. With economic development, obesity shifts toward individuals with lower socioeconomic status.

  2. Responses to Selection for Body Weight in Descendants of X-Irradiated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Chapman, A. B.; Rutledge, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of X-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection-irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals. PMID:456888

  3. [24-hour energy metabolism in the human: circadian rhythm, relation to body weight and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Steiniger, J

    1985-04-15

    In 7 men with normal weight and 9 man with overweight and healthy metabolism the resting and fasting energy expenditure was indirectly calorimetrically pursued in the open system over 24 hours. The total energy expenditure over 24 hours revealed an ascertained dependence on body-weight and nutrition. The persons with overweight had a higher absolute energy expenditure, however, the activity of the energy metabolism of the body mass free from fat and the active body mass, respectively, decreased with increasing overweight. The resting and fasting energy expenditure showed in all measured parameters (oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient and nitrogen excretion in the urine) an ascertained daily periodicity (circadian rhythm), which was widely independent of body weight. Only the average daily level C0 (rhythm adjusted level) of the resting and fasting energy expenditure was positively correlated with the body weight and the food energy intake. A negative energy balance (reduction 1.2 MJ/d over 28 days) influenced only the total energy and substrate balance over 24 hours and the daily average level, respectively. The circadian conditions remained unchanged (Chossat's phenomenon). The variability in daily rhythm of the energy expenditure of nearly 25% of the daily average should be taken into consideration in the judgment of exogenically stimulated changes in the energy metabolism.

  4. Role of the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight and composition during energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Zhang, L

    2012-03-01

    Energy deficit in lean or obese animals or humans stimulates appetite, reduces energy expenditure and possibly also decreases physical activity, thereby contributing to weight regain. Often overlooked in weight loss trials for obesity, however, is the effect of energy restriction on neuroendocrine status. Negative energy balance in lean animals and humans consistently inhibits activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid, -gonadotropic and -somatotropic axes (or reduces circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 levels), while concomitantly activating the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with emerging evidence of similar changes in overweight and obese people during lifestyle interventions for weight loss. These neuroendocrine changes, which animal studies show may result in part from hypothalamic actions of orexigenic (e.g. neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide) and anorexigenic peptides (e.g. alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript), can adversely affect body composition by promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue (particularly central adiposity) and stimulating the loss of lean body mass and bone. As such, current efforts to maximize loss of excess body fat in obese people may inadvertently be promoting long-term complications such as central obesity and associated health risks, as well as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Future weight loss trials would benefit from assessment of the effects on body composition and key hormonal regulators of body composition using sensitive techniques.

  5. Kinematic assessment of treadmill running using different body-weight support harnesses.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane; Levy, Morris; Matack, Nicholas

    2006-10-01

    10 male collegiate runners (M age = 21.4, SD = 1.5 yr.) ran on a treadmill with no body-weight support (BWS), 20% BWS, and 40% BWS conditions. In addition, they wore three different commercially available harnesses at the 20% and 40% BWS conditions. The aim was to run on the treadmill at a fast speed while maintaining an adequate step length. The purpose was to investigate how each harness changed running gait, and the differences in running gait between the harnesses with various body-weight support. Analysis of variance indicated significant restriction of upper body torso rotation between the harnesses at the 40% BWS conditions. Body-weight support resulted in a longer stride, decreased cadence, less vertical displacement of the center of mass, and diminished hip and ankle joint excursions. These changes indicated that increased body-weight support results in longer steps with the foot contacting the belt for a shorter period of time with less leg angular changes throughout the running cycling.

  6. Why bodies? Twelve reasons for including bodily expressions in affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-12-12

    Why bodies? It is rather puzzling that given the massive interest in affective neuroscience in the last decade, it still seems to make sense to raise the question 'Why bodies' and to try to provide an answer to it, as is the goal of this article. There are now hundreds of articles on human emotion perception ranging from behavioural studies to brain imaging experiments. These experimental studies complement decades of reports on affective disorders in neurological patients and clinical studies of psychiatric populations. The most cursory glance at the literature on emotion in humans, now referred to by the umbrella term of social and affective neuroscience, shows that over 95 per cent of them have used faces as stimuli. Of the remaining 5 per cent, a few have used scenes or auditory information including human voices, music or environmental sounds. But by far the smallest number has looked into whole-body expressions. As a rough estimate, a search on PubMed today, 1 May 2009, yields 3521 hits for emotion x faces, 1003 hits for emotion x music and 339 hits for emotion x bodies. When looking in more detail, the body x emotion category in fact yields a majority of papers on well-being, nursing, sexual violence or organ donation. But the number of cognitive and affective neuroscience studies of emotional body perception as of today is lower than 20. Why then have whole bodies and bodily expressions not attracted the attention of researchers so far? The goal of this article is to contribute some elements for an answer to this question. I believe that there is something to learn from the historical neglect of bodies and bodily expressions. I will next address some historical misconceptions about whole-body perception, and in the process I intend not only to provide an impetus for this kind of work but also to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the affective dimension of behaviour, mind and brain as seen from the vantage point of bodily

  7. Pharmacological stimulation of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 decreases food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Aja, Susan; Landree, Leslie E; Kleman, Amy M; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; McFadden, Jill M; Aplasca, Andrea; Hyun, Jayson; Plummer, Erica; Daniels, Khadija; Kemm, Matthew; Townsend, Craig A; Thupari, Jagan N; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) is reported to decrease food intake and body weight in rats. Yet, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor and CPT-1 stimulator C75 produces hypophagia and weight loss when given to rodents intracerebroventricularly (icv). Thus roles and relative contributions of altered brain CPT-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation in these phenomena remain unclarified. We administered compounds that target FAS or CPT-1 to mice by single icv bolus and examined acute and prolonged effects on feeding and body weight. C75 decreased food intake rapidly and potently at all doses (1-56 nmol) and dose dependently inhibited intake on day 1. Dose-dependent weight loss on day 1 persisted through 4 days of postinjection monitoring. The FAS inhibitor cerulenin produced dose-dependent (560 nmol) hypophagia for 1 day, weight loss for 2 days, and weight regain to vehicle control by day 3. The CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir (32, 320 nmol) did not alter overall day 1 feeding. However, etomoxir attenuated the hypophagia produced by C75, indicating that CPT-1 stimulation is important for C75's effect. A novel compound, C89b, was characterized in vitro as a selective stimulator of CPT-1 that does not affect fatty acid synthesis. C89b (100, 320 nmol) decreased feeding in mice for 3 days and produced persistent weight loss for 6 days without producing conditioned taste aversion. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration decreased feeding and body weight without producing conditioned taste aversion. These results suggest a role for brain CPT-1 in the regulation of energy balance and implicate CPT-1 stimulation as a pharmacological approach to weight loss.

  8. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    PubMed

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7.

  9. Body size and longitudinal body weight changes do not increase mortality in incident peritoneal dialysis patients of the Brazilian peritoneal dialysis multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fernandes, Natália Maria; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Franco, Márcia Regina Gianotti; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Glória Lima, Maria; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the roles of body size and longitudinal body weight changes in the survival of incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 1911) older than 18 years of age recruited from 114 dialysis centers (Dec/2004-Oct/2007) and participating in the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Cohort Study were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected monthly (except if the patient received a transplant, recovered renal function, was transferred to hemodialysis, or died). RESULTS: Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards. Total follow-up was 34 months. The mean age was 59 years (54% female). The weight category percentages were as follows: underweight: 8%; normal: 51%; overweight: 29%; and obese 12%. The multivariate model showed a higher risk of death for a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, a neutral risk between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and a protective effect for an index >30 kg/m2. Patients were divided into five categories according to quintiles of body weight changes during the first year of dialysis: <−3.1%, −3.1 to+0.12%, +0.12 to <+3.1% (reference category), +3.1 to +7.1% and >+7.1%. Patients in the lowest quintile had significantly higher mortality, whereas no negative impact was observed in the other quintiles. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that overweight/obesity and a positive body weight variation during the first year of peritoneal dialysis therapy do not increase mortality in incident dialysis patients in Brazil. PMID:23420157

  10. Health technology assessment of non-invasive interventions for weight loss and body shape in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nojomi, Marzieh; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Velayati, Ashraf; Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Ahmad; Dadgostar, Haleh; Ghorabi, Gholamhossein; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases is increasing in Iran, and prevention and treatment strategies are needed to address this problem. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome, cost, safety and cost-consequence of non-invasive weight loss interventions in Iran. Methods: We performed a systematic review to compare non-invasive interventions (cryolipolysis and radiofrequency/ ultrasonic cavitation) with semi-invasive (lipolysis) and invasive (liposuction). A sensitive electronic searching was done to find available interventional studies. Reduction of abdomen circumference (cm), reduction in fat layer thickness (%) and weight reduction (kg) were outcomes of efficacy. Meta-analysis with random models was used for pooling efficacy estimates among studies with the same follow-up duration. Average cost per intervention was estimated based on the capital, maintenance, staff, consumable and purchase costs. Results: Of 3,111 studies identified in our reviews, 13 studies assessed lipolysis, 10 cryolipolysis and 8 considered radiofrequency. Nine studies with the same follow-up duration in three different outcome group were included in meta-analysis. Radiofrequency showed an overall pooled estimate of 2.7 cm (95% CI; 2.3-3.1) of mean reduction in circumference of abdomen after intervention. Pooled estimate of reduction in fat layer thickness was 78% (95% CI; 73%-83%) after Lipolysis and a pooled estimate of weight loss was 3.01 kg (95% CI; 2.3-3.6) after lipousuction. The cost analysis revealed no significant differences between the costs of these interventions. Conclusion: The present study showed that non-invasive interventions appear to have better clinical efficacy, specifically in the body shape measurement, and less cost compared to invasive intervention (liposuction) PMID:27390717

  11. Weight and body mass index in Parkinson's disease patients after deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    Tuite, Paul J; Maxwell, Robert E; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Kotz, Catherine M; Kotzd, Catherine M; Billington, Charles J; Billingtond, Charles J; Laseski, Maggie A; Thielen, Scott D

    2005-06-01

    A retrospective chart review characterizing changes in 17 male and 10 female Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery indicated that 6 mo before surgery, patients lost a mean of 5.1 lbs, whereas in the 6 mo after surgery, subjects gained a mean of 10.1 lbs; 22% gained more than 14 lbs. In 10 patients followed an additional 6 mo, weight gain continued. This weight gain may be associated with decreased energy expenditure due to subsidence of chronic tremor. The magnitude of gain underscores the need for proactive management of body weight in PD patients undergoing DBS.

  12. Exploratory Literature Meta-Analysis to Characterize the Relationship Between Early and Longer Term Body Weight Loss for Antiobesity Compounds.

    PubMed

    Plock, Nele; Bax, Leon; Lee, Douglas; DeManno, Deborah; Lahu, Gezim; Pfister, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The presented analysis was performed to characterize the relationship between treatment-related early (week 4) and longer term (3-6 months) weight loss to understand the potential utility of 4-week proof-of-mechanism studies in the early decision-making process during clinical development of new antiobesity compounds. A regression-based meta-analysis was performed leveraging publically available clinical outcomes data to (1) characterize the within-trial relationship between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss and (2) identify and quantify key covariate effects on this relationship. Data from 89 randomized clinical trials with 209 treatment arms, representing observations from 54 461 patients and 9 treatments, were available for the meta-analysis. Results indicated that (1) there is a correlation between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss (r > 0.9), (2) baseline body weight influences the relationship between early and longer term weight loss, whereas comorbidity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, class of drugs including GLP-1 analogues and the antiobesity compounds lorcaserin or phentermine/topiramate showed no significant effects on this relationship. The model was externally evaluated with data from the investigational compound beloranib, for which longer term weight loss could be successfully predicted based on early response data. Based on these results, the identified strong relationship between treatment-related early and longer term weight loss appears to be independent of mechanism of action. Thus, findings from this analysis can optimize design of clinical studies and facilitate development of new anti-obesity compounds.

  13. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  14. Managing type 2 diabetes: balancing HbA1c and body weight.

    PubMed

    Mavian, Annie A; Miller, Stephan; Henry, Robert R

    2010-05-01

    Most patients with type 2 diabetes present with comorbid overweight or obesity. Reaching and maintaining acceptable glycemic control is more difficult in overweight and obese patients, and these conditions are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Glycemic management for these patients is complicated by the fact that insulin and many of the oral medications available to treat type 2 diabetes produce additional weight gain. However, an increasing number of therapeutic options are available that are weight neutral or lead to weight loss in addition to their glycemic benefits. This article evaluates the evidence from clinical trials regarding the relative glycemic benefits, measured in terms of glycated hemoglobin change, versus the impact on body weight of each medication currently approved for type 2 diabetes. In general, the sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and D-phenylalanine derivatives have been shown to promote weight gain. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are weight neutral, while the biguanides, incretin mimetics, and amylin mimetics promote weight loss. Trials examining the glycemic benefits of the weight loss agents orlistat and sibutramine are also examined. Awareness of this evidence base can be used to inform medication selection in support of weight management goals for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Weight misperceptions and racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent female body mass index.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Ramona C; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.

  16. Novel modulators for body weight changes induced by fasting and re-feeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-01-09

    Catch-up weight gain after malnutrition is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Here we show that social isolation enhanced fasting-induced weight loss and suppressed weight gain induced by re-feeding for 6 days following a 24-h fast in prepubertal wild-type mice. These effects of social isolation on weight gain were not associated with significant changes in daily average food consumption. Under the same housing condition, genetic deletion of beta-endorphin reduced the fasting-induced weight loss and enhanced the re-feeding-induced weight gain in prepubertal mice. These effects of social isolation or genetic deletion of beta-endorphin on these weight changes were attenuated and reversed in postpubertal mice. Moreover, genetic deletion of beta-endorphin attenuated these effects of social isolation on the catch-up weight gain in prepubertal mice and reversed them in postpubertal mice. Thus, social isolation, endogenous beta-endorphin, and age can be novel modulators for body weight changes induced by fasting and re-feeding in mice.

  17. Enhanced amylin-mediated body weight loss in estradiol-deficient diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Trevaskis, James L; Turek, Victoria F; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Peter S; Wilson, Julie K; Reynolds, James M; Zhao, Yu; Mack, Christine M; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2010-12-01

    In rodents, ovariectomy (OVX) elicits weight gain and diminished responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Here we characterized the response of obese OVX rats to peripheral amylin. Rats received sham surgery (SHAM), OVX, or OVX with hormonal replacement (17β-estradiol, 2 μg per 4 d; OVX+E) and were infused with vehicle or amylin (50 μg/kg · d) for 28 d. Amylin reduced body weight (5.1 ± 1.1%) and food intake (10.9 ± 3.4%) in SHAM rats but was twice as efficacious in OVX rats in reducing weight (11.2 ± 1.9%) and food intake (23.0 ± 2.0%). There were no differences between amylin-treated SHAM and OVX+E rats. OVX decreased metabolic rate (∼24%) and increased respiratory exchange ratio relative to SHAM. Amylin partially normalized metabolic rate (13% increase) in OVX rats and decreased respiratory exchange ratio in OVX and SHAM rats. Regarding central mechanisms, amylin infusion corrected the OVX-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Additionally, amylin increased neurogenesis (∼2-fold) within the area postrema of OVX rats. To assess the contribution of endogenous leptin to amylin-mediated weight loss in OVX rats, amylin was administered to SHAM or OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In SHAM rats, amylin infusion reduced food intake but not body weight, whereas in OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats, food intake, body weight, and insulin were reduced. Overall, amylin induced greater body weight loss in the absence of estradiol via central and peripheral actions that did not require leptin. These findings support the clinical investigation of amylin in low estradiol (e.g. postmenopausal) states.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adults: body postures and weight changes interactions.

    PubMed

    Oksenberg, Arie; Dynia, Aida; Nasser, Khitam; Gadoth, Natan

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the relationship between changes of body posture dominance and changes of body weight overtime in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea. The participants were 112 non-treated adults with obstructive sleep apnoea who underwent two polysomnographic evaluations at our Sleep Disorders Unit during an average of 6.2years interval. Positional patients - having most of their breathing abnormalities in the supine posture and who became non-positional patients - had a significant gain in weight and a significant increase in apnoea-hypopnoea index, mainly in lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index. On the contrary, non-positional patients who became positional patients had a significant decrease in weight (but less than the increase in weight of positional patients who became non-positional patients) and showed a significant improvement in apnoea-hypopnoea index, again mainly in lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index. These non-positional patients who became positional patients initially had a less severe disease, as judged by apnoea-hypopnoea index, lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index and minimum SaO(2) during non-rapid eye movement sleep, and were less obese than non-positional patients who remained non-positional patients. The later were the patients who showed initially the worst disease and were more obese than the rest of the patients, and their condition did not change significantly over time. Non-positional patients who converted to positional patients showed a decrease in body weight and improvement of obstructive sleep apnoea, while positional patients who converted to non-positional patients showed an increase in body weight and worsening of obstructive sleep apnoea. It appears that weight changes have a modulatory effect on positional dominance, and lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index appears to be a sensitive parameter of these changes.

  19. Diet, lifestyle and body weight in Irish children: findings from Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance national surveys.

    PubMed

    Walton, Janette; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern globally. This review reports on levels of overweight and obesity in Irish children and examines some aspects of their diet and lifestyle proposed to promote or protect against increasing body fatness in children. While there is still some debate with regard to the most appropriate cut-off points to use when assessing body fatness in children, approximately one in five Irish children (aged 2-17 years) have been classified as overweight (including obese) according to two generally accepted approaches. Furthermore, comparison with previous data has shown an increase in mean body weight and BMI over time. On examining dietary patterns for Irish children, there was a noticeable transition from a less energy dense diet in pre-school children to a more energy dense diet in older children and teenagers, associated with a change to less favourable dietary intakes for fibre, fat, fruit and vegetables, confectionery and snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages as children got older. A significant proportion of school-aged children and teenagers reported watching more than 2 h television per day (35% on school-days and 65% on week-ends) compared with 13% of pre-school children. For children aged 5-12 years, eating out of the home contributed just 9% of energy intake but food eaten from outside the home was shown to contribute a higher proportion of energy from fat and to be less fibre-dense than food prepared at home. Improvements in dietary lifestyle are needed to control increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children in Ireland.

  20. Body mass index at early adulthood, subsequent weight change and cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Prizment, Anna E; Platz, Elizabeth A; Joshu, Corinne E

    2014-12-15

    Obesity later in adulthood is associated with increased risks of many cancers. However, the effect of body fatness in early adulthood, and change in weight from early to later adulthood on cancer risk later in life is less clear. We used data from 13,901 people aged 45-64 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort who at baseline (1987-1989) self-reported their weight at the age of 25 and had weight and height measured. Incident cancers were identified through 2006 and cancer deaths were ascertained through 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate body mass index (BMI) at age 25 and percent weight change from age 25 to baseline to cancer incidence and mortality. After adjusting for weight change from age 25 until baseline, a 5 kg/m(2) increment in BMI at age 25 was associated with a greater risk of incidence of all cancers in women [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.10 (1.02-1.20)], but not in men. Associations with incident endometrial cancer were strong [1.83 (1.47-2.26)]. After adjusting for BMI at age 25, a 5% increment in weight from age 25 to baseline was associated with a greater risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer [1.05 (1.02-1.07)] and endometrial cancer [1.09 (1.04-1.14)] in women and incident colorectal cancer [1.05 (1.00-1.10)] in men. Excess weight during young adulthood and weight gain from young to older adulthood may be independently associated with subsequent cancer risk. Excess weight and weight gain in early adulthood should be avoided.

  1. Birth weight, Early Life Course BMI, and Body Size Change: Chains of Risk to Adult Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.; McDade, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course predict high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly .3sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between .3–1sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American-and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  2. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  3. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  4. A delay in pubertal onset affects the covariation of body weight, estradiol, and bone size.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R

    2009-04-01

    The skeletal system functions as a locomotive organ and a mineral reservoir and combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the skeletal system. Although delayed puberty is associated with compromised bone mass, suppression of estrogen should be beneficial to cortical strength. The purpose was to employ path analysis to study bone strength and delayed puberty. Forty-five female rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 15) and an experimental group (n = 30) that received injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-a). Causal models were constructed by specifying directed paths between bone traits. The first model tested the hypothesis that the functional relationships between bone traits and body weight were altered by a delay in pubertal onset. GnRH-a injections during puberty altered the covariation between body weight and bone size. The second model was constructed to test the hypothesis that variability in stiffness was causally related to variability in body weight. The model also tested the relationship between the periosteal and endocortical surfaces and their relationship to stiffness. There was no change in the relationship between the surfaces in the GnRH-a group. The third model determined the effect of estradiol on both total area and relative cortical area in both groups. The relationship between periosteal surface and serum estradiol levels was only significant during estrogen suppression. These data suggest that increases in body weight during or prior to puberty may not be protective of bone strength.

  5. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  6. Heritability of sudden death syndrome and its associated correlations to ascites and body weight in broilers.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, H K; McMillan, I; Chambers, J R; Julian, R J; Tranchant, C C

    2005-02-01

    (1) Genetic parameters for the sudden death syndrome (SDS) were estimated in meat-type chickens. Data were collected over 11 generations of selection for body weight within two distinct breeds (Cornish and White Rock). (2) The animal model was used exclusively with linear methods (LM) to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability (h2) of SDS on the liability scale was 0.30 +/- 0.002 and 0.25 +/- 0.002 in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (3) A positive genetic correlation (r(g)) with ascites (AS) was determined (approximately 0.3 +/- 0.006). However, it was not possible to estimate the rg of SDS with body weight because of the low prevalence of the defect trait studied (1.8% in the Cornish and 1-5% in the White Rock). (4) Heritability of SDS calculated using male records only was 0.45 +/- 0.009 and 0.35 +/- 0.009, and r(g) with body weight was 0.30 +/- 0.010 and 0.27 +/- 0.009, in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (5) In conclusion, the heart defect investigated was heritable with a positive genetic correlation with AS and body weight.

  7. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  8. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  9. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

  10. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  11. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  12. PGC-1α and exercise in the control of body weight.

    PubMed

    Summermatter, S; Handschin, C

    2012-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities represents a major threat to human health globally. Pharmacological treatments exist to achieve weight loss, but the subsequent weight maintenance is prone to fail in the long run. Accordingly, efficient new strategies to persistently control body weight need to be elaborated. Exercise and dietary interventions constitute classical approaches to reduce and maintain body weight, yet people suffering from metabolic diseases are often unwilling or unable to move adequately. The administration of drugs that partially mimic exercise adaptation might circumvent this problem by easing and supporting physical activity. The thermogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) largely mediates the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and is a potential target for such interventions. Here, we review the role of PGC-1α in mediating exercise adaptation, coordinating metabolic circuits and enhancing thermogenic capacity in skeletal muscle. We suggest a combination of elevated muscle PGC-1α and exercise as a modified approach for the efficient long-term control of body weight and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions.

    PubMed

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of "reference and standard tables" of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of "reference and standard tables" of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives.

  14. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives. PMID:27313875

  15. Can the controversial relationship between dietary calcium and body weight be mechanistically explained by alterations in appetite and food intake?

    PubMed Central

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. Several mechanisms through which calcium or dairy products may affect body weight or fat have been suggested, including a possible effect on appetite and food intake. A recent study investigated to what extent people could compensate for increased energy intake from dairy products and found that a 7-day increase in dairy intake had no effect on appetite and no evidence of complete compensation for the raised energy intake. In another study, the effects of altered calcium content of a dairy-based test meal was evaluated in obese subjects; the findings indicated that although a higher calcium content of the meal reduced the extent of post-prandial chylomicron-associated triglyceridemia, there was no effect on appetite-related hormones (CCK, ghrelin, GLP-1, or PPY) or on energy intake from a subsequent ad libitum test meal. Thus, this new evidence does not support the hypothesis that high calcium or dairy intake reduces appetite or food intake. PMID:18826456

  16. Can the controversial relationship between dietary calcium and body weight be mechanistically explained by alterations in appetite and food intake?

    PubMed

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. Several mechanisms through which calcium or dairy products may affect body weight or fat have been suggested, including a possible effect on appetite and food intake. A recent study investigated to what extent people could compensate for increased energy intake from dairy products and found that a 7-day increase in dairy intake had no effect on appetite and no evidence of complete compensation for the raised energy intake. In another study, the effects of altered calcium content of a dairy-based test meal was evaluated in obese subjects; the findings indicated that although a higher calcium content of the meal reduced the extent of post-prandial chylomicron-associated triglyceridemia, there was no effect on appetite-related hormones (CCK, ghrelin, GLP-1, or PPY) or on energy intake from a subsequent ad libitum test meal. Thus, this new evidence does not support the hypothesis that high calcium or dairy intake reduces appetite or food intake.

  17. On operating deflection shapes of the violin body including in-plane motions.

    PubMed

    Runnemalm, A; Molin, N E; Jansson, E

    2000-06-01

    Earlier investigations have assumed only "out-of-plane" vibrations of the plates of the violin. The violin body can, however, be described as a thin-walled, double-arched shell structure and as such it may very well elongate in one direction as it contracts in another. Therefore, at least two orthogonal vibration components have to be included to describe the vibrations. The operating deflection shapes (ODSs) of a good, professionally made and carefully selected violin were therefore measured in several directions by TV holography to determine both "in-plane" and out-of-plane vibration components of the ODSs. The observations were limited to the frequency range 400-600 Hz, as this interval includes two most-prominent resonance peaks of bridge mobility and sound radiation as well as a third poorly radiating resonance. These three peaks clearly showed orthogonal vibration components in the ODSs. The vibration behavior of the violin body, sectioned in the bridge plane, was interpreted as the vibrations of an "elliptical tube" with nodal diameters. The number of nodal diameters increases from two to three in the selected frequency range. The TV holography measurements were supported by electrodynamical point measurements of bridge mobility, of air volume resonances, and by reciprocity, of radiation properties. Furthermore, a fourth mode, the air mode, A1, is involved indirectly in the sound radiation via influence on the body vibrations.

  18. Evaluation of an upper elementary school program to prevent body image, eating, and weight concerns.

    PubMed

    Kater, Kathy J; Rohwer, John; Londre, Karen

    2002-05-01

    Preparing young students to resist the sociocultural pressures that contribute to body image and eating problems in American culture poses a monumental challenge. This project determined if the 11-lesson "Healthy Body Image: Teaching Kids to Eat and Love Their Bodies Too!" curriculum would have a positive effect when presented to upper elementary school children. A controlled study with 415 students measured changes from pretest to posttest related to: 1) body image; 2) knowledge about the biology of size, shape, and restricted hunger or dieting; 3) body size prejudice; 4) media awareness; 5) self-image; and 6) lifestyle behavior. Boys and girls who completed the curriculum showed significant or notable improvement compared to a control group not exposed to the curriculum. Results suggest it is possible to provide children with a knowledge base to use as they face increasing pressures about appearance, weight, and eating in the critical middle school years.

  19. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF ABLATING AXISYMMETRIC BODIES INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF SHAPE CHANGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howser, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the transient response of an ablating axisymmetric body, including the effect of shape change. The governing differential equation, the boundary conditions for the analysis on which the computer program is based, and the method of solution of the resulting finite-difference equations are discussed in the documentation. Some of the features of the analysis and the associated program are (1) the ablation material is considered to be orthotropic with temperature-dependent thermal properties; (2) the thermal response of the entire body is considered simultaneously; (3) the heat transfer and pressure distribution over the body are adjusted to the new geometry as ablation occurs; (4) the governing equations and several boundary-condition options are formulated in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates for fixed points in a moving coordinate system; (5) the finite-difference equations are solved implicitly; and (6) other instantaneous body shapes can be displayed with a user-supplied plotting routine. The physical problem to be modeled with the analysis is described by FORTRAN input variables. For example, the external body geometry is described in the W, Z coordinates; material density is given; and the stagnation cold-wall heating rate is given in a time-dependent array. Other input variables are required which control the solution, specify boundary conditions, and determine output from the program. The equations have been programmed so that either the International System of Units or the U. S. Customary Units may be used. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 Series computer. This program was developed in 1972.

  20. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Noël P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstråle, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.

  1. [Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on appetite and body weight: preclinical and clinical data].

    PubMed

    Sesti, Giorgio

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological treatments of diabetes are mostly associated with weight gain, an undesirable event due to the fact that an increase in adiposity, especially visceral, is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, worse cardiovascular risk profile and decreased adherence to treatment. Analogues of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) represent a new therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes, which offer the advantage of combining beneficial effects on metabolic control with a significant reduction in body weight. In this review, we discuss data of preclinical studies and clinical trials that evaluated the effects of liraglutide and exenatide, the two analogues of GLP-1 currently available in Italy, on body weight.

  2. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  3. Evaluation of body weight, insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Aysegul; Bilgici, Birsen; Ecemis, Gulcin Cengiz; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan

    2013-12-01

    The effects of hyperprolactinemia on metabolic parameters are not clear and a few data evaluating adiponectin levels in prolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight, insulin resistance, beta cell function, and leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia. Forty premenopausal women with prolactinoma or idiopathic hyperprolactinemia were compared to 41 age-matched healthy premenopausal women with regard to body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index, beta cell function measured by HOMA-β index, leptin and adiponectin levels. Plasma insulin levels and HOMA indexes (both insulin resistance and beta indexes) were significantly higher in hyperprolactinemic women. The other parameters were similar between both groups. There was a positive correlation between prolactin levels and fasting plasma glucose in hyperprolactinemic women. The results of this study showed that high prolactin levels may be associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. This effect seems to be independent of body weight, leptin and adiponectin levels. High prolactin levels may directly stimulate insulin secretion from pancreas and directly cause hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance.

  4. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  5. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Treyzon, Leo; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Yan, Eric; Carpenter, Catherine L; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Wang, He-Jing; Elashoff, Robert; Li, Zhaoping

    2008-01-01

    Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM), this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR) on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack). One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1) 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP)] or 2) 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP). LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1). Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05) as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the standard and

  6. Impact of Orexin-A Treatment on Food Intake, Energy Metabolism and Body Weight in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Anne; Drouin, Gaëtan; Chaumontet, Catherine; Voisin, Thierry; Couvelard, Anne; Even, Patrick Christian; Couvineau, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides of 33 and 28-amino acids, which regulate many homeostatic systems including sleep/wakefulness states, energy balance, energy homeostasis, reward seeking and drug addiction. Orexin-A treatment was also shown to reduce tumor development in xenografted nude mice and is thus a potential treatment for carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore in healthy mice the consequences on energy expenditure components of an orexin-A treatment at a dose previously shown to be efficient to reduce tumor development. Physiological approaches were used to evaluate the effect of orexin-A on food intake pattern, energy metabolism body weight and body adiposity. Modulation of the expression of brain neuropeptides and receptors including NPY, POMC, AgRP, cocaine- and amphetamine related transcript (CART), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prepro-orexin (HCRT), and Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y, MC4 (melanocortin), OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors (Y2R, Y5R, MC4R, OX1R and OX2R, respectively) was also explored. Our results show that orexin-A treatment does not significantly affect the components of energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism but reduces intraperitoneal fat deposit, adiposity and the expression of several brain neuropeptide receptors suggesting that peripheral orexin-A was able to reach the central nervous system. These findings establish that orexin-A treatment which is known for its activity as an inducer of tumor cell death, do have minor parallel consequence on energy homeostasis control. PMID:28085909

  7. The role of growth hormone in lines of mice divergently selected on body weight.

    PubMed

    Hastings, I M; Bootland, L H; Hill, W G

    1993-04-01

    An understanding of the physiological and genetic changes which determine the response to selection is critical for both evolutionary theory and to assess the application of new molecular techniques to commercial animal breeding. We investigated an aspect of physiology, growth hormone (GH) metabolism, which might a priori have been expected to play a large part in the response of mouse lines selected for high or low body weight. Disruption of endogenous GH or addition of exogenous GH had similar proportionate effects on body weight in both lines of mice (although differences in body composition arose) suggesting that neither the production of GH nor receptor sensitivity to GH had been altered as a result of selection. This supports a 'pleiotropic model' of the response to selection: that many genes with diverse metabolic roles all contribute to the divergent phenotype. This result has significant commercial implications as it suggests that artificial selection, transgenic technology and environmental manipulation may be synergistic rather than antagonistic strategies.

  8. Low-fat dairy intake and body weight and composition changes in college students.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Kavita H; Hosig, Kathy W; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Anderson, Eileen S; Herbert, William G; Duncan, Susan E

    2009-08-01

    Dairy calcium may help prevent excess weight gain and obesity when consumed in adequate amounts (three or more servings per day) and combined with energy balance. This prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate dairy intake and examine the association between low-fat dairy intake and body weight and composition changes in college students. Seventy-six college students (65 women and 11 men; mean age+/-standard error [SE]=19.2+/-0.2 years) completed 7-day food records, body height (cm), weight (kg), and waist circumference (cm) measurements twice (September 2004 and April 2005). Percentage of truncal fat and percentage of total body fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. One-way multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted. Overall (mean+/-SE) total dairy (1.4+/-0.1 servings/day), low-fat dairy (0.5+/-0.1 servings/day), and calcium (815+/-41 mg/day) intakes were low. Subjects who consumed a higher amount of low-fat dairy products (mean+/-SE=0.8+/-0.1 servings/day) had better diet quality, gained less body weight, and had reductions in waist circumference, percentage truncal fat, and percentage total body fat compared to those with lower intake (mean+/-SE=0.1+/-0.0 servings/day). Low-fat dairy intake may be associated with better diet quality and weight management in college students. Nutrition interventions in young adults should promote low-fat dairy intake as part of an overall healthful lifestyle.

  9. Body and fleece weights of woollen sheep in veld communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Mvinjelwa, Sivuyile Alex; Mapekula, Monde; Maphosa, Viola; Muchenje, Voster

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the live weight, body condition scores (BCS) and fleece weight of sheep in four smallholder farming communities of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Among the four communities studied, two (Roxeni and Tyabane) were in sweetveld and other two (Luzi I and Luzi II) were in a sourveld. Roxeni and Luzi communities were also engaged in the ram exchange project with the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA). Sixty crossbred ewes and 20 non-descript ewes aged 2 to 3 years were randomly selected from the four communities studied and were measured during their annual shearing in October. They were assessed for average greasy fleece weight per head, body condition score and live weight after shearing. Roxeni sheep were heavier (39.9 ± 1.10 kg) than Tyabane sheep (29.8 ± 1.10 kg). Sheep from Tyabane had the lightest (P <0.05) fleece weight (1.0 ± 1.10 kg) than Roxeni sheep (3.1 ± 1.10 kg). The 2-year-old ewes had similar (P ≥ 0.05) live weight to that of the 3-year-old ewes. However, the 3-year-old ewes had higher (3.3 ± 0.11) (P < 0.05) body condition scores than the 2-year-old ewes (2.8 ± 0.10). Two-year-old ewes also had lower (1.9 ± 0.11 kg) (P < 0.05) fleece weight than the 3-year-old ewes (2.3 ± 0.10 kg). It was concluded that sheep that were raised in the sweetveld had higher live and fleece weights than the ones that were raised on the sourveld. The communities that were engaged on ram exchange project had sheep with higher live weights, body condition score and fleece weight.

  10. Physical activity, food intake, and body weight regulation: insights from doubly labeled water studies.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2010-03-01

    Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached.

  11. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake.

  12. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  13. Evaluation of total body weight and body mass index cut-offs for increased cefazolin dose for surgical prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Hites, Maya; Deprez, Guillaume; Wolff, Fleur; Ickx, Brigitte; Verleije, Anita; Closset, Jean; Loi, Patrizia; Prévost, Jessica; Taccone, Fabio S; Racapé, Judith; Cotton, Frédéric; Jacobs, Frédérique

    2016-12-01

    French and American guidelines recommend increased dosage regimens of cefazolin (CFZ) for surgical prophylaxis in patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2) or with a total body weight (TBW) ≥ 120 kg. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of these cut-offs in identifying patients who require CFZ dose adjustment. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in patients of varying TBW and BMI who received 2 g of CFZ intravenously for prophylaxis prior to digestive surgery. Adequacy of therapy, defined as a serum concentration of unbound CFZ (fCFZ) ≥ 4 mg/L, was evaluated 180 min (T180) and 240 min (T240) after the start of CFZ infusion. Possible factors associated with insufficient fCFZ levels were also assessed. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 63 patients were included in the study, categorised according to BMI (<35 kg/m(2), 20 patients; and ≥35 kg/m(2), 43 patients) and TBW (<120 kg, 41 patients; and ≥120 kg, 22 patients). All patients had adequate drug levels at T180 but only 40/63 patients (63%) had adequate levels at T240. At T240, therapy was adequate in 15/20 patients (75%) and 25/43 patients (58%) with BMI <35 kg/m(2) and ≥35 kg/m(2), respectively (P = 0.20), and in 28/41 patients (68%) and 12/22 patients (55%) with TBW <120 kg and ≥120 kg, respectively (P = 0.28). No factor associated with insufficient fCFZ was identified. In conclusion, current BMI and TBW cut-offs are poor indicators of which patients could benefit from increased CFZ dosage regimens.

  14. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2), male (25%) and female (75%) subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g) to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels. PMID:26829186

  15. Impact of the hypocaloric diet using food substitutes on the body weight and biochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Fisberg, Mauro; de Oliveira, Cecilia Lacroix; de Pádua Cintra, Isa; Losso, Gabriela; Bueno, Milena Baptista; Rhein, Samantha Ottani; Maximino, Priscila

    2004-12-01

    Recent studies using balanced hypocaloric diets with food substitutes in some meals, have presented positive results. There are no studies with the Brazilian population on the efficacy of using food substitute, together with a hypocaloric diet. Main objective of this study was to verify the effects of a hypocaloric diet using food substitutes as meal replacement on the body weight, lipid profile, and glucose and insulin plasma levels. Seventy eight subjects of both genders were selected, 20-50 years old, and a body weight index between 25 kg/m2 and 35 kg/m2. The study lasted for six months and it was divided in 2 phases of three months each- mass reduction for 3 months and 3 months for maintenance. The sample was randomly divided in two groups: Group A (control- 3 months of general nutritional and physical orientation followed by 3 months with 1 meal replacement) and Group B (intervention- 2 meals replacement a day plus nutritional and physical orientation for 3 months followed by 3 months with 1 meal replacement). Anthropometric measurements, percent body fat (%BF), biochemical profile and intake survey were performed at moments 0, 3 and 6 months. Both groups showed a significant decrease in %BF, weight, and consequently in their BMI, in the third and sixth month of follow up. However, weight loss in group B was higher than in group A. At the end of the treatment, 0 and 25.0% of the patients of the group A and B, respectively, presented a weight loss higher than 10% of the initial weight. Comparing the triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, between the beginning and after the three and six months of treatment, there was a significant reduction in the individuals only in group B. In conclusion, the use of food substitutes as meal replacement, together with a balanced, hypocaloric diet, proved to be efficient in weight loss for Brazilian overweighed individuals.

  16. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions.

  17. Cannabinoid receptor 1 in the vagus nerve is dispensable for body weight homeostasis but required for normal gastrointestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Claudia R; Donato, Jose; Rossi, Jari; Scott, Michael; Economides, Kyriakos; Gautron, Lauren; Pierpont, Stephanie; Elias, Carol F; Elmquist, Joel K

    2012-07-25

    The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)R) is required for body weight homeostasis and normal gastrointestinal motility. However, the specific cell types expressing CB(1)R that regulate these physiological functions are unknown. CB(1)R is widely expressed, including in neurons of the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve has been implicated in the regulation of several aspects of metabolism and energy balance (e.g., food intake and glucose balance), and gastrointestinal functions including motility. To directly test the relevance of CB(1)R in neurons of the vagus nerve on metabolic homeostasis and gastrointestinal motility, we generated and characterized mice lacking CB(1)R in afferent and efferent branches of the vagus nerve (Cnr1(flox/flox); Phox2b-Cre mice). On a chow or on a high-fat diet, Cnr1(flox/flox); Phox2b-Cre mice have similar body weight, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemia compared with Cnr1(flox/flox) control mice. Also, fasting-induced hyperphagia and after acute or chronic pharmacological treatment with SR141716 [N-piperidino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-3-pyrazole carboxamide] (CB(1)R inverse agonist) paradigms, mutants display normal body weight and food intake. Interestingly, Cnr1(flox/flox); Phox2b-Cre mice have increased gastrointestinal motility compared with controls. These results unveil CB(1)R in the vagus nerve as a key component underlying normal gastrointestinal motility.

  18. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  19. Effects of Changing Body Weight Distribution on Mediolateral Stability Control during Gait Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Caderby, Teddy; Yiou, Eric; Peyrot, Nicolas; de Viviés, Xavier; Bonazzi, Bruno; Dalleau, Georges

    2017-01-01

    During gait initiation, anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) precede the execution of the first step. It is generally acknowledged that these APA contribute to forward progression but also serve to stabilize the whole body in the mediolateral direction during step execution. Although previous studies have shown that changes in the distribution of body weight between both legs influence motor performance during gait initiation, it is not known whether and how such changes affect a person’s postural stability during this task. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of changing initial body weight distribution between legs on mediolateral postural stability during gait initiation. Changes in body weight distribution were induced under experimental conditions by modifying the frontal plane distribution of an external load located at the participants’ waists. Fifteen healthy adults performed a gait initiation series at a similar speed under three conditions: with the overload evenly distributed over both legs; with the overload strictly distributed over the swing-limb side; and with the overload strictly distributed over the stance-leg side. Our results showed that the mediolateral location of center-of-mass (CoM) during the initial upright posture differed between the experimental conditions, indicating modifications in the initial distribution of body weight between the legs according to the load distribution. While the parameters related to the forward progression remained unchanged, the alterations in body weight distribution elicited adaptive changes in the amplitude of APA in the mediolateral direction (i.e., maximal mediolateral shift of the center of pressure (CoP)), without variation in their duration. Specifically, it was observed that the amplitude of APA was modulated in such a way that mediolateral dynamic stability at swing foot-contact, quantified by the margin of stability (i.e., the distance between the base of support boundary and

  20. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    PubMed

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2).

  1. Indirect detection of gravitino dark matter including its three-body decays

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ki-Young; Restrepo, Diego; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Zapata, Oscar E-mail: restrepo@udea.edu.co E-mail: pfozapata@eia.edu.co

    2010-10-01

    It was recently pointed out that in supersymmetric scenarios with gravitino dark matter and bilinear R-parity violation, gravitinos with masses below M{sub W} typically decay with a sizable branching ratio into the 3-body final states W*l and Z*ν. In this paper we study the indirect detection signatures of gravitino dark matter including such final states. First, we obtain the gamma ray spectrum from gravitino decays, which features a monochromatic contribution from the decay into γν and a continuum contribution from the three-body decays. After studying its dependence on supersymmetric parameters, we compute the expected gamma ray fluxes and derive new constraints, from recent FERMI data, on the R-parity breaking parameter and on the gravitino lifetime. Indirect detection via antimatter searches, a new possibility brought about by the three-body final states, is also analyzed. For models compatible with the gamma ray observations, the positron signal is found to be negligible whereas the antiproton one can be significant.

  2. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  3. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  4. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female's motivation to interact with conspecifics.

  5. Does body mass index outperform body weight as a surrogate parameter in the calculation of size-specific dose estimates in adult body CT?

    PubMed Central

    Lanzman, Rotem S; Heusch, Philipp; Aissa, Joel; Schleich, Christoph; Thomas, Christoph; Sawicki, Lino M; Antoch, Gerald; Kröpil, Patric

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body weight as a surrogate parameter for the calculation of size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) in thoracoabdominal CT. Methods: 401 CT examinations in 235 patients (196 chest, 205 abdomen; 95 females, 140 males; age 62.5 ± 15.0 years) were analysed in regard to weight, height and BMI (kg m−2). Effective diameter (Deff, cm) was assessed on axial CT images. The correlation between BMI, weight and Deff was calculated. SSDEs were calculated based on Deff, weight and BMI and lookup tables were developed. Results: Overall height, weight, BMI and Deff were 172.5 ± 9.9 cm, 79.5 ± 19.1 kg, 26.6 ± 5.6 kg m−2 and 30.1 ± 4.3 cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between Deff and BMI as well as weight (r = 0.85 and r = 0.84; p < 0.05, respectively). Correlation was significantly better for BMI in abdominal CT (r = 0.89 vs r = 0.84; p < 0.05), whereas it was better for weight in chest CT (r = 0.87 vs r = 0.81; p < 0.05). Surrogated SSDEs did not differ significantly from the reference standard with a median absolute relative difference of 4.2% per patient (interquartile range 25–75: 3.1–7.89, range 0–25.3%). Co