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Sample records for including cross protection

  1. Listeria monocytogenes shows temperature-dependent and -independent responses to salt stress, including responses that induce cross-protection against other stresses.

    PubMed

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Bowen, Barbara; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-04-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes experiences osmotic stress in many habitats, including foods and the gastrointestinal tract of the host. During transmission, L. monocytogenes is likely to experience osmotic stress at different temperatures and may adapt to osmotic stress in a temperature-dependent manner. To understand the impact of temperature on the responses this pathogen uses to adapt to osmotic stress, we assessed genome-wide changes in the L. monocytogenes H7858 transcriptome during short-term and long-term adaptation to salt stress at 7°C and 37°C. At both temperatures, the short-term response to salt stress included increased transcript levels of sigB and SigB-regulated genes, as well as mrpABCDEFG, encoding a sodium/proton antiporter. This antiporter was found to play a role in adaptation to salt stress at both temperatures; ΔmrpABCDEFG had a significantly longer lag phase than the parent strain in BHI plus 6% NaCl at 7°C and 37°C. The short-term adaptation to salt stress at 7°C included increased transcript levels of two genes encoding carboxypeptidases that modify peptidoglycan. These carboxypeptidases play a role in the short-term adaptation to salt stress only at 7°C, where the deletion mutants had significantly different lag phases than the parent strain. Changes in the transcriptome at both temperatures suggested that exposure to salt stress could provide cross-protection to other stresses, including peroxide stress. Short-term exposure to salt stress significantly increased H(2)O(2) resistance at both temperatures. These results provide information for the development of knowledge-based intervention methods against this pathogen, as well as provide insight into potential mechanisms of cross-protection.

  2. 49 CFR 236.384 - Cross protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross protection. 236.384 Section 236.384 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.384 Cross protection. Cross protection shall be tested at least once every six months....

  3. 49 CFR 236.384 - Cross protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross protection. 236.384 Section 236.384 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.384 Cross protection. Cross protection shall be tested at least once every six months....

  4. 49 CFR 236.384 - Cross protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross protection. 236.384 Section 236.384 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.384 Cross protection. Cross protection shall be tested at least once every six...

  5. Organ protection during aortic cross-clamping.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Kak Khee; Groeneveld, Menno; Lu, Joyce Ja-Ning; van Diemen, Pepijn; Jongkind, Vincent; Wisselink, Willem

    2016-09-01

    Open surgical repair of an aortic aneurysm requires aortic cross-clamping, resulting in temporary ischemia of all organs and tissues supplied by the aorta distal to the clamp. Major complications of open aneurysm repair due to aortic cross-clamping include renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and postoperative colonic ischemia in case of supra- and infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair. Ischemia-reperfusion injury results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species and in oxidative stress, which can lead to multiple organ failure. Several perioperative protective strategies have been suggested to preserve renal function during aortic cross-clamping, such as pharmacotherapy and therapeutic hypothermia of the kidneys. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury and the preventative measures that can be taken to avoid abdominal organ injury. Finally, techniques to minimize the risk of complications during and after open aneurysm repair will be presented. PMID:27650341

  6. 49 CFR 236.787 - Protection, cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection, cross. 236.787 Section 236.787 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Protection, cross. An arrangement to prevent the improper operation of a signal, switch, movable-point...

  7. 49 CFR 236.787 - Protection, cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection, cross. 236.787 Section 236.787 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Protection, cross. An arrangement to prevent the improper operation of a signal, switch, movable-point...

  8. 49 CFR 236.787 - Protection, cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection, cross. 236.787 Section 236.787 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Protection, cross. An arrangement to prevent the improper operation of a signal, switch, movable-point...

  9. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... allegations of child abuse and neglect, abandonment, and conditions that may require referrals (such as mental... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective services include? Protective services provided to a child, family or elderly person will be documented...

  10. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... allegations of child abuse and neglect, abandonment, and conditions that may require referrals (such as mental... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective services include? Protective services provided to a child, family or elderly person will be documented...

  11. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of child abuse and neglect, abandonment, and conditions that may require referrals (such as mental or... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective services include? Protective services provided to a child, family or elderly person will be documented in the...

  12. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for assistance in solving the social problems of individuals, families, and children. (5) Coordinating.../services, including Child Protection, and/or establishing Multi-Disciplinary Teams. (b) Must include, where... account holder; (ii) Developing, as necessary and as permitted under 25 CFR 115, a one-time or an...

  13. Cross-protection between experimental anti-leptospirosis bacterins

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Cristina Corsi; Gonçales, Amane Paldês; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Miraglia, Fabiana; Abreu, Patricia Antonia Estima; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the existence of cross-protection between two anti-leptospirosis monovalent experimental bacterins produced with two strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona: Fromm strain of serovar Kennewicky, isolated from pigs in the United States, and strain GR6 of serovar Pomona isolated from pigs in Brazil. Both were added of aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Experimental bacterins were tested with the hamster potency test in order to assess protection provided against the disease and against the establishment of kidney infection. Controls were polyvalent commercial vaccine produced with Leptospira strains isolated outside Brazil, which included a representative of Pomona serovar, or Sorensen solution added of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The challenge was performed with cross-strains of serogroup Pomona tested in accordance with international standards established for the potency test. After 21 days of the challenge, survivors were killed to evaluate the condition of Leptospira renal carrier. Experimental bacterins protected hamsters against homologous and heterologous strains, demonstrating the existence of cross-protection. The commercial vaccine protected the hamsters challenged with both strains, but there was a high proportion of animals diagnosed as renal carriers when the challenge was performed with strain GR6, isolated from pigs in Brazil. PMID:25477946

  14. A DIVA vaccine for cross-protection against Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., a leading cause of human bacterial foodborne disease. Vaccination against Salmonella is effective for protection of animal health and enhancement of food safety. However, current vaccines for swine may only offer limited cross-protection agai...

  15. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  16. Differential two-body compound nuclear cross section, including the width-fluctuation corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Herman, M.

    2014-09-02

    We figure out the compound angular differential cross sections, following mainly Fröbrich and Lipperheide, but with the angular momentum couplings that make sense for optical model work. We include the width-fluctuation correction along with calculations.

  17. Oscillatory dynamics in a bacterial cross-protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsev, Eugene Anatoly; Conwill, Arolyn; Gore, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between microbes can enable microbial communities to survive in harsh environments. Enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, a common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, is a cooperative behavior that can allow resistant cells to protect sensitive cells from antibiotics. Understanding how bacterial populations survive antibiotic exposure is important both clinically and ecologically, yet the implications of cooperative antibiotic deactivation on the population and evolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood, particularly in the presence of more than one antibiotic. Here, we show that two Escherichia coli strains can form an effective cross-protection mutualism, protecting each other in the presence of two antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) so that the coculture can survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either strain alone. Moreover, we find that daily dilutions of the coculture lead to large oscillations in the relative abundance of the two strains, with the ratio of abundances varying by nearly four orders of magnitude over the course of the 3-day period of the oscillation. At modest antibiotic concentrations, the mutualistic behavior enables long-term survival of the oscillating populations; however, at higher antibiotic concentrations, the oscillations destabilize the population, eventually leading to collapse. The two strains form a successful cross-protection mutualism without a period of coevolution, suggesting that similar mutualisms may arise during antibiotic treatment and in natural environments such as the soil. PMID:27194723

  18. Oscillatory dynamics in a bacterial cross-protection mutualism.

    PubMed

    Yurtsev, Eugene Anatoly; Conwill, Arolyn; Gore, Jeff

    2016-05-31

    Cooperation between microbes can enable microbial communities to survive in harsh environments. Enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, a common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, is a cooperative behavior that can allow resistant cells to protect sensitive cells from antibiotics. Understanding how bacterial populations survive antibiotic exposure is important both clinically and ecologically, yet the implications of cooperative antibiotic deactivation on the population and evolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood, particularly in the presence of more than one antibiotic. Here, we show that two Escherichia coli strains can form an effective cross-protection mutualism, protecting each other in the presence of two antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) so that the coculture can survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either strain alone. Moreover, we find that daily dilutions of the coculture lead to large oscillations in the relative abundance of the two strains, with the ratio of abundances varying by nearly four orders of magnitude over the course of the 3-day period of the oscillation. At modest antibiotic concentrations, the mutualistic behavior enables long-term survival of the oscillating populations; however, at higher antibiotic concentrations, the oscillations destabilize the population, eventually leading to collapse. The two strains form a successful cross-protection mutualism without a period of coevolution, suggesting that similar mutualisms may arise during antibiotic treatment and in natural environments such as the soil. PMID:27194723

  19. An X-Ray Analysis Database of Photoionization Cross Sections Including Variable Ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ping; Cohen, David H.; MacFarlane, Joseph J.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of research efforts in the following areas are discussed: review of the major theoretical and experimental data of subshell photoionization cross sections and ionization edges of atomic ions to assess the accuracy of the data, and to compile the most reliable of these data in our own database; detailed atomic physics calculations to complement the database for all ions of 17 cosmically abundant elements; reconciling the data from various sources and our own calculations; and fitting cross sections with functional approximations and incorporating these functions into a compact computer code.Also, efforts included adapting an ionization equilibrium code, tabulating results, and incorporating them into the overall program and testing the code (both ionization equilibrium and opacity codes) with existing observational data. The background and scientific applications of this work are discussed. Atomic physics cross section models and calculations are described. Calculation results are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical data. The functional approximations used for fitting cross sections are outlined and applications of the database are discussed.

  20. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located....

  1. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located....

  2. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located....

  3. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located....

  4. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located....

  5. Bayesian Evaluation Including Covariance Matrices of Neutron-induced Reaction Cross Sections of {sup 181}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Leeb, H. Schnabel, G.; Srdinko, Th.; Wildpaner, V.

    2015-01-15

    A new evaluation of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 181}Ta using a consistent procedure based on Bayesian statistics is presented. Starting point of the evaluation is the description of nuclear reactions via nuclear models implemented in TALYS 1.4. A retrieval of experimental data was performed and covariance matrices of the experiments were generated from an extensive study of the corresponding literature. All reaction channels required for a transport file up to 200 MeV have been considered and the covariance matrices of cross section uncertainties for the most important channels are determined. The evaluation has been performed in one step including all available experimental data. A comparison of the evaluated cross sections and spectra with experimental data and available evaluations is performed. In general the evaluated cross section reflect our best knowledge and give a fair description of the observables. However, there are few deviations from expectation which clearly indicate the impact of the prior and the need to account for model defects. Using the results of the evaluation a complete ENDF-file similarly to those of the TENDL library is generated.

  6. Cross Protective Mucosal Immunity Mediated by Memory Th17 Cells against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Yongli; Li, Wenchao; Tian, Ying; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Weiser, Jeffery N.; Ni, Xin; Shen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) remains a leading cause of serious illness and death worldwide. Immunization with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine has lowered the colonization rate and consequently invasive diseases by inducing serotype-specific antibodies. However, many of current pneumonia cases result from infection by serotype strains not included in the vaccine. In this study, we asked if cross-protection against lung infection by heterologous strains can be induced and investigated the underlying immune mechanism. We found that immune mice recovered from a prior infection were protected against heterologous Sp strains in the pneumonia challenge model, as evident by accelerated bacterial clearance, reduced pathology and apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Sp infection in the lung induced strong Th17 responses at the lung mucosal site. Transfer of CD4+ T cells from immune mice provided heterologous protection against pneumonia, and this protection was abrogated by IL-17A blockade. Transfer of memory CD4+ T cells from IL-17A knockout mice failed to provide protection. These results indicate that memory Th17 cells played a key role in providing protection against pneumonia in a serotype independent manner and suggest the feasibility of developing a broadly protective vaccine against bacterial pneumonia by targeting mucosal Th17 T cells. PMID:27118490

  7. Baculovirus Displaying Hemagglutinin Elicits Broad Cross-Protection against Influenza in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Baik Lin; Nguyen, Huan Huu; Chang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The widespread influenza virus infection further emphasizes the need for novel vaccine strategies that effectively reduce the impact of epidemic as well as pandemic influenza. Conventional influenza vaccines generally induce virus neutralizing antibody responses which are specific for a few antigenically related strains within the same subtype. However, antibodies directed against the conserved stalk domain of HA could neutralize multiple subtypes of influenza virus and thus provide broad-spectrum protection. In this study, we designed and constructed a recombinant baculovirus-based vaccine, rBac-HA virus, that expresses full-length HA of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (A/California/04/09) on the viral envelope. We demonstrated that repeated intranasal immunizations with rBac-HA virus induced HA stalk-specific antibody responses and protective immunity against homologous as well as heterosubtypic virus challenge. The adoptive transfer experiment shows that the cross-protection is conferred by the immune sera which contain HA stalk-specific antibodies. These results warrant further development of rBac-HA virus as a broad-protective vaccine against influenza. The vaccine induced protection against infection with the same subtype as well as different subtype, promising a potential universal vaccine for broad protection against different subtypes to control influenza outbreaks including pandemic. PMID:27023684

  8. Cross-Protection by Infectious Bronchitis Viruses Under Controlled Experimental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Ghetas, A M; Joiner, K S

    2015-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) cross-protection trials were performed in healthy chickens maintained under controlled environmental conditions. Chickens primed or primed and boosted with a Massachusetts (Mass)-type attenuated vaccine were subsequently challenged with either IBV Arkansas (Ark) or GA13-type virulent strains. In addition, Ark-vaccinated chickens were challenged with IBV GA13. Spike protein 1 (S1) amino acid identities between IBV vaccine and challenge strains varied from 76.0% to 77.3%. Contrary to expectations, assessments of clinical signs, viral load, and histopathology indicated a significant level of cross-protection among these antigenically distant IBV strains. Moreover, prime and booster vaccination with Mass protected against GA13 and improved protection against Ark when compared with Mass single vaccination. These results emphasize the need to include both single vaccination control groups and control groups primed and boosted with a single serotype when testing the efficacy of IBV protectotypes and/or novel IBV vaccine combinations against heterologous serotypes under controlled experimental conditions. Such controls are of distinct importance in experiments supporting the introduction of attenuated IBV vaccine strains exotic to regions, since these exotic strains may provide new genetic material for recombination and emergence of novel IBV strains. PMID:26629628

  9. NORs inheritance analysis in crossings including individuals from two stocks of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Oliveira, Claudio; Tabata, Yara Aiko; Rigolino, Marcos Guilherme; Foresti, Fausto

    2002-01-01

    Silver nitrate staining of rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chromosomes, for the identification of the nucleolar organizing regions (NORs), revealed that in individuals from Núcleo Experimental de Salmonicultura de Campos do Jordão (Brazil) NORs were located in the long arms of submetacentric pair while in specimens from Mount Shasta (USA) NORs were located in the short arms of a submetacentric pair. Cytogenetic analysis of the offspring, obtained through artificial crosses including individuals from both stocks, allowed the identification of NORs in two submetacentric chromosomes, one in the short arms and the other in the long arms, confirming the effectiveness of the hybridization process. Complementary results obtained using the FISH technique with 18S and 5S rDNA probes showed that NOR-bearing chromosomes exhibited a cluster of 5S genes located in tandem with the 18S gene cluster in both stocks. The results allow us to suggest that the difference in NOR-bearing chromosomes found between the two stocks is likely to be due to pericentric inversion involving the chromosome segment where 18S and 5S rDNA genes are located. The presence of ribosomal genes in the long arms of a submetacentric chromosome is apparently a particular characteristic of the rainbow trout stock of Campos do Jordão and might be used as a chromosome marker in studies of controlled crosses in this species.

  10. Cross-protection study of the nine serovars of Haemophilus paragallinarum in the Kume haemagglutinin scheme.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Edgardo V; Garduño, Manuel Longinos; Téllez, Guillermo; Rosas, Pomposo Fernández; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Blackall, Patrick J

    2004-10-01

    The cross-protection and haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies present in chickens vaccinated with one of the nine currently recognized Kume haemagglutinin serovars of Haemophilus paragallinarum were investigated. The results confirmed the widely accepted dogma that serogroups A, B, and C represent three distinct immunovars. Within Kume serogroup A, there was generally good cross-protection among all four serovars. However, within Kume serogroup C, there was evidence of a reduced level of cross-protection between some of the four serovars. The haemagglutination-inhibition antibody levels generally showed the same trend as with the cross-protection results. This study suggests that some apparent field failures of infectious coryza vaccines may be due to a lack of cross-protection between the vaccine strains and the field strains. Our results will help guide the selection of strains for inclusion in infectious coryza vaccines.

  11. Passive immune cross-protection in mice produced by rabbit antisera against different serotypes of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Rimler, R B

    1996-05-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) and fowl cholera (FC) are specific diseases caused by certain serotypes of Pasteurella multocida. Strains that usually cause HS in cattle and water buffalo do not produce FC in avian species, and strains that cause FC do not produce HS in cattle and water buffalo. A variety of P. multocida serotypes, including unusual strains which can cause HS in wild ruminants, were evaluated in passive immune protection studies to determine the immunological relationship between strains associated with HS and FC. Various degrees of cross-protection were seen among the strains. Antiserum against a serotype B:3,4 strain protected against strains capable of causing HS (serotypes B:1, B:2, B:3,4, B:4 and E:2) and FC (serotypes A:1, A:3 and A:5). Antiserum against an FC strain (serotype A:5) similarly protected against strains capable of causing HS and FC. Antigenic analyses indicated that cross-protection was not necessarily induced by serotype-specific capsular (beta) or somatic (gamma) antigens or major porin protein. SDS-PAGE and immunoblots of whole cell lysates of the different HS and FC strains showed many protein-staining bands with similar mobilities and antigenic activity. These cross-reactive antigenic bands occurred in the 20- to 120-kDa range. Adsorption of antiserum with a heterologous serotype removed its reactivity with most of these bands, as well as its ability to cross-protect.

  12. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host Range and Sorghum Resistance Including Cross-Resistance From Greenbug Sources.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Rooney, William L; Peterson, Gary C; Villenueva, Raul T; Brewer, Michael J; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States.

  13. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host Range and Sorghum Resistance Including Cross-Resistance From Greenbug Sources.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Rooney, William L; Peterson, Gary C; Villenueva, Raul T; Brewer, Michael J; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States. PMID:26470168

  14. Immunogenicity and Cross-Protective Efficacy Induced by Outer Membrane Proteins from Salmonella Typhimurium Mutants with Truncated LPS in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Xinxin; Liu, Tian; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Kong, Qingke

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major virulence factor present in the outer membrane of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from Salmonella show high immunogenicity and provide protection against Salmonella infection, and truncated LPS alters the outer membrane composition of the cell wall. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Salmonella mutants carrying truncated LPS failed to induce strong immune responses and cross-reaction to other enteric bacteria, due to their high attenuation and low colonization in the host. Therefore, we plan to investigate whether outer membrane proteins from Salmonella mutants with truncated LPS resulting from a series of nonpolar mutations, including ∆waaC12, ∆waaF15, ∆waaG42, ∆rfaH49, ∆waaI43, ∆waaJ44, ∆waaL46, ∆wbaP45 and ∆wzy-48, affect immunogenicity and provide protection against diverse Salmonella challenge. In this study, the immunogenicity and cross-protection efficiency of purified OMPs from all mutants were investigated to explore a potential OMP vaccine to protect against homologous or heterologous serotype Salmonella challenge. The results demonstrated that OMPs from three Salmonella mutants (∆waaC12, ∆waaJ44 and ∆waaL46) induced higher immune responses and provided good protection against homologous S. Typhimurium. The OMPs from these three mutants were also selected to determine the cross-protective efficacy against homologous and heterologous serotype Salmonella. Our results indicated that the mutant ∆waaC12 can elicit higher cross-reactivity and can provide good protection against S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis infection and that the cross-reactivity may be ascribed to an antigen of approximately 18.4–30 kDa. PMID:27011167

  15. Thermostable Cross-Protective Subunit Vaccine against Brucella Species

    PubMed Central

    Barabé, Nicole D.; Grigat, Michelle L.; Lee, William E.; Poirier, Robert T.; Jager, Scott J.; Berger, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 105 CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. PMID:25320267

  16. Cross Section Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Including Secondary Neutron Energy and Angular Distributions.

    1991-03-12

    Version 00 SUSD calculates sensitivity coefficients for one- and two-dimensional transport problems. Variance and standard deviation of detector responses or design parameters can be obtained using cross-section covariance matrices. In neutron transport problems, this code can perform sensitivity-uncertainty analysis for secondary angular distribution (SAD) or secondary energy distribution (SED).

  17. Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes–2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names

    PubMed Central

    Wijayawardene, Nalin N.; Crous, Pedro W.; Kirk, Paul M.; Hawksworth, David L.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Braun, Uwe; Dai, Dong-Qin; D’souza, Melvina J.; Diederich, Paul; Dissanayake, Asha; Doilom, Mingkhuan; Hongsanan, Singang; Jones, E. B.Gareth; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Lawrey, James D.; Liu, Jian-Kui; Lücking, Robert; Madrid, Hugo; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S.; Muggia, Lucia; Nelsen, Matthew P.; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Suetrong, Satinee; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Thambugala, Kasun M.; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Wikee, Saowanee; Zhang, Ying; Aptroot, André; Ariyawansa, H. A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Bhat, D. Jayarama; Gueidan, Cécile; Chomnunti, Putarak; De Hoog, G. Sybren; Knudsen, Kerry; Li, Wen-Jing; McKenzie, Eric H. C.; Miller, Andrew N.; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Piątek, Marcin; Raja, Huzefa A.; Shivas, Roger S.; Slippers, Bernad; Taylor, Joanne E.; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yong; Woudenberg, Joyce H. C.; Cai, Lei; Jaklitsch, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and nonpleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data. PMID:27284275

  18. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  19. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention. PMID:26818736

  20. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention. PMID:26818736

  1. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... minimum, your proposed measures to: (1) Prevent or control fires; (2) Prevent soil erosion; (3) Protect... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  2. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... minimum, your proposed measures to: (1) Prevent or control fires; (2) Prevent soil erosion; (3) Protect... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  3. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimum, your proposed measures to: (1) Prevent or control fires; (2) Prevent soil erosion; (3) Protect... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  4. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... minimum, your proposed measures to: (1) Prevent or control fires; (2) Prevent soil erosion; (3) Protect... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  5. Near resonant bubble acoustic cross-section corrections, including examples from oceanography, volcanology, and biomedical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Michael A; Leighton, Timothy G

    2009-11-01

    The scattering cross-section sigma(s) of a gas bubble of equilibrium radius R(0) in liquid can be written in the form sigma(s)=4piR(0) (2)[(omega(1) (2)omega(2)-1)(2)+delta(2)], where omega is the excitation frequency, omega(1) is the resonance frequency, and delta is a frequency-dependent dimensionless damping coefficient. A persistent discrepancy in the frequency dependence of the contribution to delta from radiation damping, denoted delta(rad), is identified and resolved, as follows. Wildt's [Physics of Sound in the Sea (Washington, DC, 1946), Chap. 28] pioneering derivation predicts a linear dependence of delta(rad) on frequency, a result which Medwin [Ultrasonics 15, 7-13 (1977)] reproduces using a different method. Weston [Underwater Acoustics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series Vol. II, 55-88 (1967)], using ostensibly the same method as Wildt, predicts the opposite relationship, i.e., that delta(rad) is inversely proportional to frequency. Weston's version of the derivation of the scattering cross-section is shown here to be the correct one, thus resolving the discrepancy. Further, a correction to Weston's model is derived that amounts to a shift in the resonance frequency. A new, corrected, expression for the extinction cross-section is also derived. The magnitudes of the corrections are illustrated using examples from oceanography, volcanology, planetary acoustics, neutron spallation, and biomedical ultrasound. The corrections become significant when the bulk modulus of the gas is not negligible relative to that of the surrounding liquid.

  6. EVALUATION OF TUNGSTEN ISOTOPES IN THE FAST NEUTRON RANGE INCLUDING CROSS-SECTION COVARIANCE ESTIMATION.

    SciTech Connect

    CAPOTE,R.; SIN, M.; TRKOV, A.; HERMAN, M.; CARLSON, B.V.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2007-04-22

    New evaluations for the tungsten isotopes {sup 180,182,183,184,186}W in the neutron energy range up to 60 MeV were produced. In the resonance range only minor adjustments to the resonance parameters were made due to a lack of adequate experimental data. Evaluations in the fast energy region were based on nuclear model calculations using the EMPIRE-2.19 code. Recently derived dispersive coupled-channel optical model potentials for W and Ta isotopes were instrumental to achieve a very good description of the available microscopic cross-section database. Model covariance data were generated with the Monte Carlo technique to produce a prior estimate for the covariance matrix. Experimental data were introduced through the GANDR system. The evaluated files were tested on selected fusion neutronics benchmarks and showed marked improvement compared to other existing evaluations.

  7. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bernd; Hauke, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1. PMID:24991253

  8. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative

    PubMed Central

    Hauke, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1. PMID:24991253

  9. 10 CFR 709.26 - Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. 709.26 Section 709.26 Energy... Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. (a) DOE owns all CI evaluation records, including polygraph examination records...

  10. 10 CFR 709.26 - Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. 709.26 Section 709.26 Energy... Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. (a) DOE owns all CI evaluation records, including polygraph examination records...

  11. 10 CFR 709.26 - Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. 709.26 Section 709.26 Energy... Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. (a) DOE owns all CI evaluation records, including polygraph examination records...

  12. 10 CFR 709.26 - Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. 709.26 Section 709.26 Energy... Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. (a) DOE owns all CI evaluation records, including polygraph examination records...

  13. A Novel IL-17 Dependent Mechanism of Cross Protection: Respiratory Infection with Mycoplasma Protects Against a Secondary Listeria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sieve, Amy N.; Meeks, Karen D.; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Lee, Suheung; Kolls, Jay K.; Simecka, Jerry W.; Berg, Rance E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Immune responses to pathogens occur within the context of current and previous infections. Cross protection refers to the phenomena where infection with a particular pathogen provides enhanced resistance to a subsequent unrelated pathogen in an antigen independent manner. Proposed mechanisms of antigen-independent cross protection have involved the secretion of IFN-γ, which activates macrophages thus providing enhanced innate immunity against the secondary viral or bacterial pathogen. Here we provide evidence that a primary infection with the chronic respiratory pathogen, Mycoplasma pulmonis, provides a novel form of cross protection against a secondary infection with Listeria monocytogenes that is not mediated by IFN-γ, but instead relies upon IL-17 and mobilization of neutrophils. Mice infected with M. pulmonis have enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes from the spleen and liver which is associated with increased numbers of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells and higher levels of IL-17. This enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes was absent in mice depleted of Gr-1+ cells or in mice deficient in the IL-17 receptor. Additionally, both the IL-17 receptor and neutrophils were essential for optimal clearance of M. pulmonis. Thus, a natural component of the immune response directed against M. pulmonis was able to enhance clearance of L. monocytogenes. PMID:19180464

  14. Evaluation of cross-protection of bluetongue virus serotype 4 with other serotypes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zulu, Gcwalisile B; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious disease of sheep and other domestic and wild ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). Currently 26 serotypes of the virus have been identified. In South Africa, 22 serotypes have been identified and BT is controlled mainly by annual vaccinations using a freeze-dried live attenuated polyvalent BTV vaccine. The vaccine is constituted of 15 BTV serotypes divided into three separate bottles and the aim is to develop a vaccine using fewer serotypes without compromising the immunity against the disease. This study is based on previously reported cross-neutralisation of specific BTV serotypes in in vitro studies. Bluetongue virus serotype 4 was selected for this trial and was tested for cross-protection against serotype 4 (control), 1 (unrelated serotype), 9, 10 and 11 in sheep using the serum neutralisation test. The purpose of the study was to determine possible cross-protection of different serotypes in sheep. Of those vaccinated with BTV-4 and challenged with BTV-1, which is not directly related to BTV-4, 20% were completely protected and 80% showed clinical signs, but the reaction was not as severe as amongst the unvaccinated animals. In the group challenged with BTV-10, some showed good protection and some became very sick. Those challenged with BTV-9 and BTV-11 had good protection. The results showed that BTV-4 does not only elicit a specific immune response but can also protect against other serotypes. PMID:25686101

  15. The Langley thermal protection system test facility: A description including design operating boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Langley thermal protection system test facility is presented. This facility was designed to provide realistic environments and times for testing thermal protection systems proposed for use on high speed vehicles such as the space shuttle. Products from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures, having a maximum total enthalpy of 10.3 MJ/kg, are used as a test medium. Test panels with maximum dimensions of 61 cm x 91.4 cm are mounted in the side wall of the test region. Static pressures in the test region can range from .005 to .1 atm and calculated equilibrium temperatures of test panels range from 700 K to 1700 K. Test times can be as long as 1800 sec. Some experimental data obtained while using combustion products of methane-air mixtures are compared with theory, and calibration of the facility is being continued to verify calculated values of parameters which are within the design operating boundaries.

  16. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transmission facilities, may not purchase or receive non-power goods and services from a market-regulated power... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  17. Stability of sublethal acid stress adaptaion and induced cross protection against lauric arginate in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stability of acid stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes and its induced cross protection effect against GRAS (generally recognized as safe) antimicrobial compounds has never been investigated before. In the present study, the acid stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was initially induced...

  18. Iterative protecting group-free cross-coupling leading to chiral multiply arylated structures

    PubMed Central

    Crudden, Cathleen M.; Ziebenhaus, Christopher; Rygus, Jason P. G.; Ghozati, Kazem; Unsworth, Phillip J.; Nambo, Masakazu; Voth, Samantha; Hutchinson, Marieke; Laberge, Veronique S.; Maekawa, Yuuki; Imao, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    The Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling is one of the most often utilized reactions in the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds and conjugated materials. In its most common form, the reaction joins two sp2-functionalized carbon atoms to make a biaryl or diene/polyene unit. These substructures are widely found in natural products and small molecules and thus the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling has been proposed as the key reaction for the automated assembly of such molecules, using protecting group chemistry to affect iterative coupling. We present herein, a significant advance in this approach, in which multiply functionalized cross-coupling partners can be employed in iterative coupling without the use of protecting groups. To accomplish this, the orthogonal reactivity of different boron substituents towards the boron-to-palladium transmetalation reaction is exploited. The approach is illustrated in the preparation of chiral enantioenriched compounds, which are known to be privileged structures in active pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:27040494

  19. Oral Fluids as a Live-Animal Sample Source for Evaluating Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protection following Intranasal Influenza A Virus Vaccination in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Holly R; Vincent, Amy L; Brockmeier, Susan L; Gauger, Phillip C; Pena, Lindomar; Santos, Jefferson; Braucher, Douglas R; Perez, Daniel R; Loving, Crystal L

    2015-10-01

    In North American swine, there are numerous antigenically distinct H1 influenza A virus (IAV) variants currently circulating, making vaccine development difficult due to the inability to formulate a vaccine that provides broad cross-protection. Experimentally, live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines demonstrate increased cross-protection compared to inactivated vaccines. However, there is no standardized assay to predict cross-protection following LAIV vaccination. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody in serum is the gold standard correlate of protection following IAV vaccination. LAIV vaccination does not induce a robust serum HI antibody titer; however, a local mucosal antibody response is elicited. Thus, a live-animal sample source that could be used to evaluate LAIV immunogenicity and cross-protection is needed. Here, we evaluated the use of oral fluids (OF) and nasal wash (NW) collected after IAV inoculation as a live-animal sample source in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to predict cross-protection in comparison to traditional serology. Both live-virus exposure and LAIV vaccination provided heterologous protection, though protection was greatest against more closely phylogenetically related viruses. IAV-specific IgA was detected in NW and OF samples and was cross-reactive to representative IAV from each H1 cluster. Endpoint titers of cross-reactive IgA in OF from pigs exposed to live virus was associated with heterologous protection. While LAIV vaccination provided significant protection, LAIV immunogenicity was reduced compared to live-virus exposure. These data suggest that OF from pigs inoculated with wild-type IAV, with surface genes that match the LAIV seed strain, could be used in an ELISA to assess cross-protection and the antigenic relatedness of circulating and emerging IAV in swine.

  20. Dye lasing arrangement including an optical assembly for altering the cross-section of its pumping beam and method

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, Richard W.; Sweatt, William C.

    1992-01-01

    An optical assembly is disclosed herein along with a method of operation for use in a dye lasing arrangement, for example a dye laser oscillator or a dye amplifier, in which a continuous stream of dye is caused to flow through a given zone in a cooperating dye chamber while the zone is being illuminated by light from a pumping beam which is directed into the given zone. This in turn causes the dye therein to lase and thereby produce a new dye beam in the case of a dye laser oscillator or amplify a dye beam in the case of a dye amplifier. The optical assembly so disclosed is designed to alter the pump beam such that the beam enters the dye chamber with a different cross-sectional configuration, preferably one having a more uniform intensity profile, than its initially produced cross-sectional configuration. To this end, the assembly includes a network of optical components which first act on the beam while the latter retains its initially produced cross-sectional configuration for separating it into a plurality of predetermined segments and then recombines the separated components in a predetermined way which causes the recombined beam to have the different cross-sectional configuration.

  1. Including Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Research: Scientists' Perceptions of Risks and Protections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.; Nelms, Sandra L.; Parker, Michael R.; Kimmel, Ali; Keys, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    Social and cognitive characteristics of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) place them at risk for inappropriate inclusion in or exclusion from research participation. As we grapple with how to include adults with ID in research in order to secure their right to contribute to scientific advancements and be positioned to derive benefit from…

  2. Development of the model of protected cross-border information interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biyashev, R. G.; Nyssanbayeva, S. E.; Begimbayeva, Ye. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates a proposed model of cross-border exchange and information security in the cross-border interaction in the integration system. A structural scheme of protected cross-border information exchange is proposed. Cross-border interaction of sides for information exchange in the integrated system is provided by the creation and use of the integration segment and national segments. The main tasks of a trusted third party are formulated. The model of sides' interaction scheme of the integration system using the integration gateway is presented. In this paper, a model of modified nonconventional digital signature system based on the scheme of the Digital Signature Algorithm and nonpositional polynomial number systems (NPNs) are described. Application of NPNs allows creating effective cryptographic systems of high reliability, which enables the confidentiality, authentication, integrity of stored and transmitted information.

  3. 10 CFR 709.26 - Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. 709.26 Section 709.26 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM Safeguarding Privacy and Employee Rights §...

  4. Arthritis protective regulatory potential of self–heat shock protein cross-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    van Eden, Willem; Wendling, Uwe; Paul, Liesbeth; Prakken, Berent; van Kooten, Peter; van der Zee, Ruurd

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with heat shock proteins has protective effects in models of induced arthritis. Analysis has shown a reduced synovial inflammation in such protected animals. Adoptive transfer and immunization with selected T cell epitopes (synthetic peptides) have indicated the protection to be mediated by T cells directed to conserved hsp epitopes. This was shown first for mycobacterial hsp60 and later for mycobacterial hsp70. Fine specificity analysis showed that such T cells were cross-reactive with the homologous self hsp. Therefore protection by microbial hsp reactive T cells can be by cross-recognition of self hsp overexpressed in the inflamed tissue. Preimmunization with hsp leads to a relative expansion of such self hsp cross-responsive T cells. The regulatory nature of such T cells may originate from mucosal tolerance maintained by commensal flora derived hsp or from partial activation through recognition of self hsp as a partial agonist (Altered Peptide Ligand) or in the absence of proper costimulation. Recently, we reported the selective upregulation of B7.2 on microbial hsp60 specific T cells in response to self hsp60. Through a preferred interaction with CTLA-4 on proinflammatory T cells this may constitute an effector mechanism of regulation. Also, regulatory T cells produced IL10. PMID:11189451

  5. Cross-species protection: Schistosoma mansoni Sm-p80 vaccine confers protection against Schistosoma haematobium in hamsters and baboons.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Souvik; Zhang, Weidong; Ahmad, Gul; Torben, Workineh; Alam, Mayeen U; Le, Loc; Damian, Raymond T; Wolf, Roman F; White, Gary L; Carey, David W; Carter, Darrick; Reed, Steven G; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2014-03-01

    The ability of the Schistosoma mansoni antigen, Sm-p80, to provide cross-species protection against Schistosoma haematobium challenge was evaluated in hamster and baboon models. Pronounced reduction in worm burden (48%) and in tissue egg load (64%) was observed in hamsters vaccinated with recombinant Sm-p80 admixed with glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE). Similarly, in baboons, the Sm-p80/GLA-SE vaccine produced a 25% reduction in S. haematobium adult worms and decreased the egg load in the urinary bladder by 64%. A 40% and 53% reduction in fecal and urine egg output, respectively, was observed in vaccinated baboons. A balanced pro-inflammatory (Th17 and Th1) and Th2 type of response was generated after vaccination and appears indicative of augmented prophylactic efficacy. These data on cross-species protection coupled with the prophylactic, therapeutic and antifecundity efficacy against the homologous parasite, S. mansoni, reinforces Sm-p80 as a promising vaccine candidate. It is currently being prepared for GMP-compliant manufacture and for further pre-clinical development leading to human clinical trials. These results solidify the expectation that the Sm-p80 vaccine will provide relief for both the intestinal and the urinary schistosomiasis and thus will be greatly beneficial in reducing the overall burden of schistosomiasis.

  6. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy.

  7. Stability of sublethal acid stress adaptation and induced cross protection against lauric arginate in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qian; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna

    2015-06-16

    The stability of acid stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes and its induced cross protection effect against GRAS (generally recognized as safe) antimicrobial compounds has never been investigated before. In the present study, the acid stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was initially induced in pH 5.0 tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract (TSB-YE) at 37 °C. Subsequently, the stability of acid stress adaptation, which was defined as the capacity to maintain its acquired acid adaptation after induction in the absence of sublethal acid stress, was determined at 37 °C, 22 °C or 4 °C in broth and in different food substrates. Then, the acid stress adaptation induced cross protection against lauric arginate (LAE) and its stability was investigated in TSB-YE, milk and carrot juice. Our findings show that the acid stress adaptation was stable at 4 °C up to 24h but was reversed at 37 °C or 22 °C within 2h. In the cross protection assay with LAE, the acid stress adapted cells had approximately 2 log CFU/ml greater survival than non-adapted cells in broth at 22 °C or in milk and carrot juice at 4 °C. The acid adaptation induced cross protection against LAE in L. monocytogenes was reversible within 1h at 4 °C in the absence of sublethal acid stress. Our findings suggest that the stability of acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes under cold conditions should be taken into account when the risk analysis is performed during food processing.

  8. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Understanding Risk, Protection, and Substance Use among High-Risk Youth. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…

  9. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard F.; Keremane, Manjunath L.

    2013-01-01

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid) in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed. PMID:24046764

  10. Cross-clade protective immunity of H5N1 influenza vaccines in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shin; Iwasa, Ayaka; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Ito, Mutsumi; Kiso, Maki; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato; Nidom, Chairul A.; Mai, Le Quynh; Yamada, Shinya; Imai, Hirotaka; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Horimoto, Taisuke

    2008-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses evolved into several clades, leading to appreciably distinct antigenicities of their hemagglutinins. As such, candidate H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccines for human use should be sought. Here, to evaluate fundamental immunogenic variations between H5N1 vaccines, we prepared four inactivated H5N1 test vaccines from different phylogenetic clades (clade 1, 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3.4) in accordance with the WHO recommendation, and tested their cross-clade immunity in a mouse model by vaccination followed by challenge with heterologous virulent viruses. All H5N1 vaccines tested provided full or partial cross-clade protective immunity, except one clade 2.2-based vaccine, which did not protect mice from clade 2.3.4 virus challenge. Among the test vaccines, a clade 2.1-based vaccine possessed the broadest-spectrum cross-immunity. These results suggest that currently stockpiled pre-pandemic vaccines, especially clade 2.1-based vaccines, will likely be useful as backup vaccines in a pandemic situation, even one involving antigenic-drifted viruses. PMID:18804131

  11. Development of Cross-Protective Influenza A Vaccines Based on Cellular Responses

    PubMed Central

    Soema, Peter Christiaan; van Riet, Elly; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza vaccines provide protection against matching influenza A virus (IAV) strains mainly through the induction of neutralizing serum IgG antibodies. However, these antibodies fail to confer a protective effect against mismatched IAV. This lack of efficacy against heterologous influenza strains has spurred the vaccine development community to look for other influenza vaccine concepts, which have the ability to elicit cross-protective immune responses. One of the concepts that is currently been worked on is that of influenza vaccines inducing influenza-specific T cell responses. T cells are able to lyse infected host cells, thereby clearing the virus. More interestingly, these T cells can recognize highly conserved epitopes of internal influenza proteins, making cellular responses less vulnerable to antigenic variability. T cells are therefore cross-reactive against many influenza strains, and thus are a promising concept for future influenza vaccines. Despite their potential, there are currently no T cell-based IAV vaccines on the market. Selection of the proper antigen, appropriate vaccine formulation and evaluation of the efficacy of T cell vaccines remains challenging, both in preclinical and clinical settings. In this review, we will discuss the current developments in influenza T cell vaccines, focusing on existing protein-based and novel peptide-based vaccine formulations. Furthermore, we will discuss the feasibility of influenza T cell vaccines and their possible use in the future. PMID:26029218

  12. A design assessment of multiwall, metallic stand-off, and RSI reusable thermal protection systems including space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Dixon, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and assessment of reusable surface insulation (RSI), metallic stand off and multiwall thermal protection systems (TPS) is discussed. Multiwall TPS is described in some detail, and analyses useful for design of multiwall are included. Results indicate that multiwall has the potential to satisfy the TPS design goals better than the other systems. The total mass of the stand-off TPS and of the metallic systems require less primary structure mass than the RSI system, since the nonbuckling skin criteria required for RSI may be removed. Continued development of multiwall TPS is required to verify its potential and to provide the necessary data base for design.

  13. Neutron, Proton, and Photonuclear Cross Sections for Radiation Therapy and Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.

    1998-09-10

    The authors review recent work at Los Alamos to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross section up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. For radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments, and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

  14. The Campylobacter jejuni Ferric Uptake Regulator Promotes Acid Survival and Cross-Protection against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Askoura, Momen; Sarvan, Sabina; Couture, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The mechanisms by which C. jejuni survives stomach acidity remain undefined. In the present study, we demonstrated that the C. jejuni ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays an important role in C. jejuni acid survival and acid-induced cross-protection against oxidative stress. A C. jejuni Δfur mutant was more sensitive to acid than the wild-type strain. Profiling of the acid stimulon of the C. jejuni Δfur mutant allowed us to uncover Fur-regulated genes under acidic conditions. In particular, Fur was found to upregulate genes involved in flagellar and cell envelope biogenesis upon acid stress, and mutants with deletions of these genes were found to be defective in surviving acid stress. Interestingly, prior acid exposure of C. jejuni cross-protected against oxidative stress in a catalase (KatA)- and Fur-dependent manner. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of KatA upon acid stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that the binding affinity between Fur and the katA promoter is reduced in vitro under conditions of low pH, rationalizing the higher levels of expression of katA under acidic conditions. Strikingly, the Δfur mutant exhibited reduced virulence in both human epithelial cells and the Galleria mellonella infection model. Altogether, this is the first study showing that, in addition to its role in iron metabolism, Fur is an important regulator of C. jejuni acid responses and this function cross-protects against oxidative stress. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate Fur's important role in C. jejuni pathogenesis. PMID:26883589

  15. Gut Catalase-Positive Bacteria Cross-Protect Adjacent Bifidobacteria from Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Eva; Peirotén, Ángela; Landete, José María; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria isolated from infant gut and breast milk exhibited different abilities to grow under microaerobic conditions, alone or in the presence of added catalase. In the present study, we demonstrated that some Bifidobacterium strains unable to grow under microaerobic conditions were cross-protected on solid media from oxidative stress by adjacent colonies of gut catalase-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis or Escherichia coli, but not by a catalase-deficient E. coli. The results of this study support the possible contribution of catalase-positive bacteria to the establishment of certain bifidobacteria in non-anaerobic human niches of the infant gastrointestinal tract or mammary gland.

  16. Gut Catalase-Positive Bacteria Cross-Protect Adjacent Bifidobacteria from Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Eva; Peirotén, Ángela; Landete, José María; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria isolated from infant gut and breast milk exhibited different abilities to grow under microaerobic conditions, alone or in the presence of added catalase. In the present study, we demonstrated that some Bifidobacterium strains unable to grow under microaerobic conditions were cross-protected on solid media from oxidative stress by adjacent colonies of gut catalase-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis or Escherichia coli, but not by a catalase-deficient E. coli. The results of this study support the possible contribution of catalase-positive bacteria to the establishment of certain bifidobacteria in non-anaerobic human niches of the infant gastrointestinal tract or mammary gland. PMID:26040451

  17. Gut Catalase-Positive Bacteria Cross-Protect Adjacent Bifidobacteria from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Eva; Peirotén, Ángela; Landete, José María; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria isolated from infant gut and breast milk exhibited different abilities to grow under microaerobic conditions, alone or in the presence of added catalase. In the present study, we demonstrated that some Bifidobacterium strains unable to grow under microaerobic conditions were cross-protected on solid media from oxidative stress by adjacent colonies of gut catalase-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis or Escherichia coli, but not by a catalase-deficient E. coli. The results of this study support the possible contribution of catalase-positive bacteria to the establishment of certain bifidobacteria in non-anaerobic human niches of the infant gastrointestinal tract or mammary gland. PMID:26040451

  18. Is religiosity a protective factor against attempted suicide: a cross-cultural case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Kolves, Kairi; Bertolote, Jose M; Bolhari, Jafar; Botega, Neury J; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigates whether religiosity assessed in three dimensions has a protective effect against attempted suicide. Community controls (n = 5484) were more likely than suicide attempters (n = 2819) to report religious denomination in Estonia (OR = 0.5) and subjective religiosity in four countries: Brazil (OR = 0.2), Estonia (OR = 0.5), Islamic Republic of Iran (OR = 0.6), and Sri Lanka (OR = 0.4). In South Africa, the effect was exceptional both for religious denomination (OR = 5.9) and subjective religiosity (OR = 2.7). No effects were found in India and Vietnam. Organizational religiosity gave controversial results. In particular, subjective religiosity (considering him/herself as religious person) may serve as a protective factor against non-fatal suicidal behavior in some cultures. PMID:20112143

  19. Cysticercosis vaccine: cross protecting immunity with T. solium antigens against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Trueba, L; Lemus, D; Montoya, R M; Diaz, M L; Govezensky, T; Lomeli, C; Tapia, G; Larralde, C

    1990-11-01

    Vaccination of mice with an antigen extract from Taenia solium cysticerci induced protection against challenge with T. crassiceps cysticerci as successfully as did antigen extracts from T. crassiceps. Vaccination was more effective in male than in female mice and in the resistant strain (BALB/B) more so than in the susceptible strain (BALB/c). While only the resistant strain was completely protected by vaccination, the parasite load of the susceptible strain was significantly reduced by vaccination. Cross immunity between the human and murine parasites establishes murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis as a convenient laboratory model in which to test promising T. solium antigens aimed at vaccine development against T. solium cysticercosis. Further, results point to strong interactions of the immune system with sexual and histocompatibility factors in the host's dealing with cysticercosis.

  20. A pandemic H1N1 influenza virus-like particle vaccine induces cross-protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Inn, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Gi-Ja; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) represent promising alternative vaccines. However, it is necessary to demonstrate that influenza VLPs confer cross-protection against antigenically distinct viruses. In this study, a VLP vaccine comprising hemagglutinin (HA) and M1 from the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) were used and its ability to induce cross-protective efficacy against heterologous viruses A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) in mice was assessed. Vaccination with 2009 H1 VLPs induced significantly higher levels of IgG cross-reactive with these heterologous viruses after the second boost compared to after the prime or first boost. Lung virus titers also decreased significantly and the lung cross-reactive IgG response after lethal virus challenge was significantly greater in immunized mice compared to naïve mice. Vaccinated mice showed 100% protection against A/PR/8/34 and A/Caledonia/20/99 viruses with only moderate body weight loss and induction of cross-reactive recall, IgG antibody-secreting cell responses. The variations in HA amino acid sequences and antigenic sites were determined and correlated with induction of cross-protective immunity. These results indicate that VLPs can be used as an effective vaccine that confers cross-protection against antigenically distinct viruses.

  1. Studies of Seedling Yellows Amelioration of Citrus tristeza virus Strain Mixtures to Elucidate Mechanisms of Cross Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cross-protection involves a mild strain of CTV preventing or interfering with infection or symptom expression by a severe strain. It is used to protect citrus when virulent stem pitting strains of CTV and efficient aphid vectors are endemic. However, the mode of action ...

  2. Child Protective Services: A Bibliography with Partial Annotation and Cross-Indexing -- 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, M. James; And Others

    Contained in the bibliography are citations for 1500 publications concerned with child abuse and neglect of which 700 include abstracts. Titles are listed alphabetically by author under the following broad subjects or child protective service case types: generalized abuse/neglect, generalized abuse, generalized neglect, physical abuse, physical…

  3. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside.

  4. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside. PMID:15833876

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale for Brazilian nurses 1

    PubMed Central

    Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Ramos, Aline Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to adapt culturally and validate the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale for Brazilian nurses. Method: methodological study carried out with 153 nurses from two hospitals in the South region of Brazil, one public and the other philanthropic. The cross-cultural adaptation of the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale was performed according to international standards, and its validation was carried out for use in the Brazilian context, by means of factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha as measure of internal consistency. Results: by means of evaluation by a committee of experts and application of pre-test, face validity and content validity of the instrument were considered satisfactory. From the factor analysis, five constructs were identified: negative implications of the advocacy practice, advocacy actions, facilitators of the advocacy practice, perceptions that favor practice advocacy and barriers to advocacy practice. The instrument showed satisfactory internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.70 to 0.87. Conclusion: it was concluded that the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale - Brazilian version, is a valid and reliable instrument for use in the evaluation of beliefs and actions of health advocacy, performed by Brazilian nurses in their professional practice environment. PMID:26444169

  6. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of lectins to marker enzymes: protection of binding site by specific sugars.

    PubMed

    Appukuttan, P S; Chacko, B K; Geetha, M; Annamma, K I; Mathai, J

    2000-04-01

    The role of bound specific sugars in protecting the sugar binding activity of several galactose binding proteins during their covalent conjugation to horse radish peroxidase by glutaraldehyde-mediated cross-linking was examined by: a) affinity matrix binding of the conjugate, b) enzyme linked lectin assay and c) hemagglutination assay. During conjugation using 1% glutaraldehyde, protection of jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) lectin (jacalin) activity depended on concentration of specific sugar present during conjugation; optimum protection was offered by 50 mM galactose. This indicated the presence of one or more primary groups at the binding site of jacalin, which is (are) essential for sugar binding. On the other hand, such essential amino group(s) was not indicated at the sugar binding site of the peanut lectin, bovine heart galectin or of the human serum anti alpha-galactoside antibody, since exclusion of sugar during their conjugation to HRP did not diminish sugar binding activity. The differential behavior is discussed in the light of reported differences in sugar specificities. Results indicated that sugar mediated blocking of active site may be used in characterization of the latter in lectins.

  7. Oral fluids as a live-animal sample for evaluating cross-reactivity and cross-protection following intranasal influenza A virus vaccination in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In North American swine there are numerous antigenically distinct influenza A virus (IAV) H1 subtypes currently circulating, making vaccine development difficult due to the inability to formulate a vaccine that provides broad cross-protection. Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines provide ...

  8. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the superscaling model including quasielastic, pion production and meson-exchange contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Megias, G. D.; González-Jiménez, R.; Moreno, O.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-08-01

    Charged current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections are evaluated using the superscaling model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region. The contribution of two-particle-two-hole vector meson-exchange current excitations is also considered within a fully relativistic model tested against electron scattering data. The results are compared with the inclusive neutrino-nucleus data from the T2K and SciBooNE experiments. For experiments where < {E}ν > ∼ 0.8 {{GeV}}, the three mechanisms considered in this work provide good agreement with the data. However, when the neutrino energy is larger, effects from beyond the Δ also appear to be playing a role. The results show that processes induced by vector two-body currents play a minor role in the inclusive cross sections at the kinematics considered.

  9. Qualitative analysis of the level of cross-protection between epidemic waves of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Rios-Doria, D; Chowell, G

    2009-12-21

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was composed of multiple waves within a period of nine months in several regions of the world. Increasing our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this multi-wave profile has important public health implications. We model the transmission dynamics of two strains of influenza interacting via cross-immunity to simulate two temporal waves of influenza and explore the impact of the basic reproduction number, as a measure of transmissibility associated to each influenza strain, cross-immunity and the timing of the onset of the second influenza epidemic on the pandemic profile. We use time series of case notifications during the 1918 influenza pandemic in Geneva, Switzerland, for illustration. We calibrate our mathematical model to the initial wave of infection to estimate the basic reproduction number of the first wave and the corresponding timing of onset of the second influenza variant. We use this information to explore the impact of cross-immunity levels on the dynamics of the second wave of influenza. Our results for the 1918 pandemic in Geneva, Switzerland, indicate that a second wave can occur whenever R 01 < 1.5 or when cross-immunity levels are less than 0.58 for our estimated R 02 of 2.4. We also explore qualitatively profiles of two-wave pandemics and compare them with real temporal profiles of the 1918 influenza pandemic in other regions of the world including several Scandinavian cities, New York City, England and Wales, and Sydney, Australia. Pandemic profiles are classified into three broad categories namely "right-handed", "left-handed", and "M-shape". Our results indicate that avoiding a second influenza epidemic is plausible given sufficient levels of cross-protection are attained via natural infection during an early (herald) wave of infection or vaccination campaigns prior to a second wave. Furthermore, interventions aimed at mitigating the first pandemic wave may be counterproductive by increasing the

  10. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

  11. Long-Lasting Cross-Protection Against Influenza A by Neuraminidase and M2e-based immunization strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schotsaert, Michael; Ysenbaert, Tine; Smet, Anouk; Schepens, Bert; Vanderschaeghe, Dieter; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Vogel, Thorsten U.; Callewaert, Nico; Fiers, Walter; Saelens, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that in the absence of neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive T cells provide protection against pandemic influenza viruses. Here, we compared protection and CD8+ T cell responses following challenge with H1N1 2009 pandemic and H3N2 viruses of mice that had been immunized with hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and the extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) fused to a virus-like particle (VLP). Mice were challenged a first time with a sublethal dose of H1N1 2009 pandemic virus and, four weeks later, challenged again with an H3N2 virus. Mice that had been vaccinated with HA, NA, NA + M2e-VLP and HA + NA + M2e-VLP were protected against homologous H1N1 virus challenge. Challenged NA and NA + M2e-VLP vaccinated mice mounted CD8+ T cell responses that correlated with protection against secondary H3N2 challenge. HA-vaccinated mice were fully protected against challenge with homologous H1N1 2009 virus, failed to mount cross-reactive CD8+ T cells and succumbed to the second challenge with heterologous H3N2 virus. In summary, NA- and M2e-based immunity can protect against challenge with (homologous) virus without compromising the induction of robust cross-reactive CD8+ T cell responses upon exposure to virus. PMID:27072615

  12. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers. PMID:26093199

  13. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Itshak; Elbar, Ori; Tsedek, Irit; Oddsson, Lars IE

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136). Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88) with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training). Voluntary step reaction times

  14. Cross-Protection against Marburg Virus Strains by Using a Live, Attenuated Recombinant Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Ströher, Ute; Hensley, Lisa E.; Grolla, Allen; Fritz, Elizabeth A.; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) has been associated with sporadic episodes of hemorrhagic fever, including a recent highly publicized outbreak in Angola that produced severe disease and significant mortality in infected patients. MARV is also considered to have potential as a biological weapon. Recently, we reported the development of a promising attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against MARV based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the glycoprotein of the Musoke strain of MARV (VSVΔG/MARVGP-Musoke). We used this vaccine to demonstrate complete protection of cynomolgus monkeys against a homologous MARV challenge. While these results are highly encouraging, an effective vaccine would need to confer protection against all relevant strains of MARV. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the VSVΔG/MARVGP-Musoke vaccine against two heterologous MARV strains, the seemingly more pathogenic Angola strain and the more distantly related Ravn strain. In this study, seven cynomolgus monkeys were vaccinated with the VSVΔG/MARVGP-Musoke vector. Three of these animals were challenged with the Angola strain, three with the Ravn strain, and a single animal with the Musoke strain of MARV. Two animals served as controls and were each injected with a nonspecific VSV vector; these controls were challenged with the Angola and Ravn strains, respectively. Both controls succumbed to challenge by day 8. However, none of the specifically vaccinated animals showed any evidence of illness either from the vaccination or from the MARV challenges and all of these animals survived. These data suggest that the VSVΔG/MARVGP-Musoke vaccine should be sufficient to protect against all known MARV strains. PMID:16973570

  15. Molecular characterization of Cirus tristeza virus isolates associated with stem pitting CTV cross-protection in Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Peruvian citrus industry was destroyed by severe Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains spread by the brown citrus aphid. The Topara Nursery, located 180 km south of Lima Peru, selected and identified CTV isolates that confer cross-protection against virulent stem...

  16. Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains in Cross-Protective Immunotherapy Against Leishmania amazonensis Murine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4+ T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1–103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104–198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199–314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-α or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8+ mediated immune responses

  17. Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains in Cross-Protective Immunotherapy Against Leishmania amazonensis Murine Infection.

    PubMed

    Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4(+) T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1-103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104-198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199-314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-α or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8(+) mediated immune responses

  18. Protective environments and health status: cross-talk between human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Singer, Burton; Friedman, Elliot; Seeman, Teresa; Fava, Giovanni A; Ryff, Carol D

    2005-12-01

    Although aging populations tend to have increased prevalence of a diversity of diseases and disabilities, there are substantial numbers of people who, nevertheless, maintain good health into old age. Human studies frequently demonstrate associations between environmental factors, particularly supportive social environments, and positive states of health. Identifying the pathways from protective social environments to reduced disease risk necessitates the use of animal models as a basis of explanation and a source of suggestions for further human research. We present two examples of this kind of cross-talk: (i) the possibility that the success of well-being therapy following pharmacological treatment for depression as a means of preventing recurrent depressive episodes is based on the stimulation of enrichment of dendritic networks in the hippocampus and spine retraction in the basolateral amygdala; (ii) the possibility that the release of intracerebral oxytocin is a mediating factor between persistently supportive social environments and reduced disease in later life, as exemplified by low levels of allostatic load. PMID:16213626

  19. Duration of cross-protection between subtypes A and B avian pneumovirus in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Van de Zande, S; Nauwynck, H; Naylor, C; Pensaert, M

    2000-07-29

    The degree and duration of clinical and virological cross-protection between avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B were examined in two-week-old pneumovirus antibody-free turkeys. The turkeys were inoculated with either a virulent subtype A (Belgian isolate A/T6/96), a virulent subtype B (Belgian isolate B/T9/96), an attenuated subtype A or an attenuated subtype B, and challenged homologously and heterologously with virulent avian pneumovirus two, five and 11 weeks after inoculation. Birds inoculated with virulent A or B virus showed typical respiratory signs from three to seven days after inoculation. After challenge, no clinical signs were observed in any of the groups, and no virus was isolated from the turkeys that had been initially inoculated with a virulent strain. Virulent virus was recovered from the birds that had been initially inoculated with attenuated subtypes and challenged five and/or 11 weeks later with a heterologous virulent strain. Birds challenged after five weeks showed a serological booster reaction only when they had been inoculated initially with a virulent or attenuated subtype B and challenged with subtype A. Seroconversion was observed in all the groups challenged after 11 weeks except when they had been inoculated initially with attenuated subtype B and challenged with subtype B.

  20. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that

  1. [Current problems of hospital health including the AIDS problem. "Protection of patients and staff--legal status"].

    PubMed

    Gallwas, H U

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of HIV infection in hospital, if at all possible, is a general legal obligation. For that reason, special preventive measures against infection are required for blood transfusions, transplantations or semen donations. On the other hand, comprehensive information on the risks of infection and the permanent reminder of hygienic directions are considered to be sufficient for the protection of physicians and nursing staffs. However, the arguments for such a careless handling are not convincing. HIV testing of patients for the protection of the medical staff must not be relinquished. However, the current jurisdiction does not permit to carry out HIV tests without the patients' consent following comprehensive information; furthermore, the consequences resulting from a positive as well as a negative test have to be explained to the patients. In case of established infection further transmission must be prevented by all means.

  2. Track and Field Guide including Cross Country, Pentathlon Scoring Tables and Rules for Intercollegiate Meets and Championships with Official Rules. Janauary 1974-January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donnis H., Ed.

    This guide includes information on cross country running, pentathlon scoring tables, and rules for intercollegiate meets and championships, following an introductory portion on the organization's credo and standards. The first section covers track activities for children, coaching techniques, the benefits of weight training, and some practical…

  3. Cross-protective immunity can account for the alternating epidemic pattern of dengue virus serotypes circulating in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Adams, B; Holmes, E C; Zhang, C; Mammen, M P; Nimmannitya, S; Kalayanarooj, S; Boots, M

    2006-09-19

    Dengue virus, the causative agent of dengue fever and its more serious manifestation dengue hemorrhagic fever, is widespread throughout tropical and subtropical regions. The virus exists as four distinct serotypes, all of which have cocirculated in Bangkok for several decades with epidemic outbreaks occurring every 8-10 years. We analyze time-series data of monthly infection incidence, revealing a distinctive pattern with epidemics of serotypes 1, 2, and 3 occurring at approximately the same time and an isolated epidemic of serotype 4 occurring in the intervening years. Phylogenetic analysis of virus samples collected over the same period shows that clade replacement events are linked to the epidemic cycle and indicates that there is an interserotypic immune reaction. Using an epidemic model with stochastic seasonal forcing showing 8- to 10-year epidemic oscillations, we demonstrate that moderate cross-protective immunity gives rise to persistent out-of-phase oscillations similar to those observed in the data, but that strong or weak cross-protection or cross-enhancement only produces in-phase patterns. This behavior suggests that the epidemic pattern observed in Bangkok is the result of cross-protective immunity and may be significantly altered by changes in the interserotypic immune reaction.

  4. Effects of vaccination against paratuberculosis on tuberculosis in goats: diagnostic interferences and cross-protection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most countries carrying out campaigns of bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication impose a ban on the use of mycobacterial vaccines in cattle. However, vaccination against paratuberculosis (PTB) in goats is often allowed even when its effect on TB diagnosis has not been fully evaluated. To address this issue, goat kids previously vaccinated against PTB were experimentally infected with TB. Results Evaluation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion induced by avian and bovine tuberculins (PPD) showed a predominant avian PPD-biased response in the vaccinated group from week 4 post-vaccination onward. Although 60% of the animals were bovine reactors at week 14, avian PPD-biased responses returned at week 16. After challenge with M. caprae, the IFN-γ responses radically changed to show predominant bovine PPD-biased responses from week 18 onward. In addition, cross-reactions with bovine PPD that had been observed in the vaccinated group at week 14 were reduced when using the M. tuberculosis complex-specific antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10 and Rv3615c as new DIVA (differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals) reagents, which further maintained sensitivity post-challenge. Ninety percent of the animals reacted positively to the tuberculin cervical comparative intradermal test performed at 12 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, post-mortem analysis showed reductions in tuberculous lesions and bacterial burden in some vaccinated animals, particularly expressed in terms of the degree of extrapulmonary dissemination of TB infection. Conclusions Our results suggest a degree of interference of PTB vaccination with current TB diagnostics that can be fully mitigated when using new DIVA reagents. A partial protective effect associated with vaccination was also observed in some vaccinated animals. PMID:23072619

  5. Protecting group-free, selective cross-coupling of alkyltrifluoroborates with borylated aryl bromides via photoredox/nickel dual catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yohei; Tellis, John C; Molander, Gary A

    2015-09-29

    Orthogonal reactivity modes offer substantial opportunities for rapid construction of complex small molecules. However, most strategies for imparting orthogonality to cross-coupling reactions rely on differential protection of reactive sites, greatly reducing both atom and step economies. Reported here is a strategy for orthogonal cross-coupling wherein a mechanistically distinct activation mode for transmetalation of sp(3)-hybridized organoboron reagents enables C-C bond formation in the presence of various protected and unprotected sp(2)-hybridized organoborons. This manifold has the potential for broad application, because orthogonality is inherent to the activation mode itself. The diversification potential of this platform is shown in the rapid elaboration of a trifunctional lynchpin through various transition metal-catalyzed processes without nonproductive deprotection or functional group manipulation steps.

  6. Protecting group-free, selective cross-coupling of alkyltrifluoroborates with borylated aryl bromides via photoredox/nickel dual catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yohei; Tellis, John C.; Molander, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal reactivity modes offer substantial opportunities for rapid construction of complex small molecules. However, most strategies for imparting orthogonality to cross-coupling reactions rely on differential protection of reactive sites, greatly reducing both atom and step economies. Reported here is a strategy for orthogonal cross-coupling wherein a mechanistically distinct activation mode for transmetalation of sp3-hybridized organoboron reagents enables C-C bond formation in the presence of various protected and unprotected sp2-hybridized organoborons. This manifold has the potential for broad application, because orthogonality is inherent to the activation mode itself. The diversification potential of this platform is shown in the rapid elaboration of a trifunctional lynchpin through various transition metal-catalyzed processes without nonproductive deprotection or functional group manipulation steps. PMID:26371299

  7. Cross-Reactivity, Epitope Spreading, and De Novo Immune Stimulation Are Possible Mechanisms of Cross-Protection of Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Recipients of HPV Therapeutic Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayumi; Greenfield, William; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea; Coleman, Hannah N

    2015-07-01

    Numerous versions of human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines designed to treat individuals with established HPV infection, including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are in development because approved prophylactic vaccines are not effective once HPV infection is established. As human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is the most commonly detected type worldwide, all versions of HPV therapeutic vaccines contain HPV-16, and some also contain HPV-18. While these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases, there are other high-risk HPV types known to cause malignancy. Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. Data available from a few clinical trials that enrolled subjects with CINs regardless of the HPV type(s) present demonstrated clinical responses, as measured by CIN regression, in subjects with both vaccine-matched and nonvaccine HPV types. The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed.

  8. Outer membrane vesicles from flagellin-deficient Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium induce cross-reactive immunity and provide cross-protection against heterologous Salmonella challenge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Xiangmin; Curtiss, Roy; Kong, Qingke

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) isolated from Salmonella Typhimurium are potentially useful for developing subunit vaccines because of high immunogenicity and protective efficacy. However, flagella might remain in OMV pellets following OMV purification, resulting in non-essential immune responses and counteraction of bacterial protective immune responses when developing a vaccine against infection of multiple serotypes Salmonella. In this study, a flagellin-deficient S. Typhimurium mutant was constructed. Lipopolysaccharide profiles, protein profiles and cryo-electron microscopy revealed that there were no significant differences between the wild-type and mutant OMVs, with the exception of a large amount of flagellin in the wild-type OMVs. Neither the wild-type OMVs nor the non-flagellin OMVs were toxic to macrophages. Mice immunized with the non-flagellin OMVs produced high concentrations of IgG. The non-flagellin OMVs elicited strong mucosal antibody responses in mice when administered via the intranasal route in addition to provoking higher cross-reactive immune responses against OMPs isolated from S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis. Both intranasal and intraperitoneal immunization with the non-flagellin OMVs provided efficient protection against heterologous S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis challenge. Our results indicate that the flagellin-deficient OMVs may represent a new vaccine platform that could be exploited to facilitate the production of a broadly protective vaccine. PMID:27698383

  9. Biogenesis of influenza a virus hemagglutinin cross-protective stem epitopes.

    PubMed

    Magadán, Javier G; Altman, Meghan O; Ince, William L; Hickman, Heather D; Stevens, James; Chevalier, Aaron; Baker, David; Wilson, Patrick C; Ahmed, Rafi; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2014-06-01

    Antigenic variation in the globular domain of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) precludes effective immunity to this major human pathogen. Although the HA stem is highly conserved between influenza virus strains, HA stem-reactive antibodies (StRAbs) were long considered biologically inert. It is now clear, however, that StRAbs reduce viral replication in animal models and protect against pathogenicity and death, supporting the potential of HA stem-based immunogens as drift-resistant vaccines. Optimally designing StRAb-inducing immunogens and understanding StRAb effector functions require thorough comprehension of HA stem structure and antigenicity. Here, we study the biogenesis of HA stem epitopes recognized in cells infected with various drifted IAV H1N1 strains using mouse and human StRAbs. Using a novel immunofluorescence (IF)-based assay, we find that human StRAbs bind monomeric HA in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and trimerized HA in the Golgi complex (GC) with similar high avidity, potentially good news for producing effective monomeric HA stem immunogens. Though HA stem epitopes are nestled among several N-linked oligosaccharides, glycosylation is not required for full antigenicity. Rather, as N-linked glycans increase in size during intracellular transport of HA through the GC, StRAb binding becomes temperature-sensitive, binding poorly to HA at 4°C and well at 37°C. A de novo designed, 65-residue protein binds the mature HA stem independently of temperature, consistent with a lack of N-linked oligosaccharide steric hindrance due to its small size. Likewise, StRAbs bind recombinant HA carrying simple N-linked glycans in a temperature-independent manner. Chemical cross-linking experiments show that N-linked oligosaccharides likely influence StRAb binding by direct local effects rather than by globally modifying the conformational flexibility of HA. Our findings indicate that StRAb binding to HA is precarious, raising the possibility that

  10. SPI1 defective mutants of Salmonella enterica induce cross-protective immunity in chickens against challenge with serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Babak, Vladimir; Rychlik, Ivan

    2013-06-28

    In this study we were interested in the serovar cross-protection potential of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1) attenuated vaccine strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium and immune response of vaccinated and naive chickens to Salmonella infection. The immune response was characterized by real time PCR quantifying transcripts of interleukins IL1β, IL17, IL22, interferon gamma (IFNγ), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), immunoglobulins IgM, IgA, IgY and Ig light chain, and six genes of acute phase response including avidin, serum amyloid A, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP), immune responsive gene 1, chemokine AH221 and trappin-6. Vaccination with SPI1 mutants of both serovars protected chickens against Salmonella infection, independent of the serovar used for the challenge and the time post infection. However, expressions of all interleukins, iNOS and Ex-FABP showed that protection against homologous serovars was significantly higher than against heterologous serovars after intravenous challenge at 4 days post infection. The vaccination with a mixture of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium SPI1 mutants induced an intermediate protection against challenge with both serovars, i.e. the mixed vaccine provided an additional protective effect when compared with the chickens vaccinated with a vaccine formed by only a single Salmonella serovar. PMID:23684831

  11. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affiliate cross-subsidization. (a) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy. No wholesale sale of electric energy may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and a market... affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  12. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  13. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K; McGuire, Peter M; Lanyon, Janet M

    2010-03-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  14. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K; McGuire, Peter M; Lanyon, Janet M

    2010-03-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals. PMID:21565032

  15. Cross-protection conferred by filovirus virus-like particles containing trimeric hybrid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Martins, Karen; Carra, John H; Cooper, Christopher L; Kwilas, Steven A; Robinson, Camenzind G; Shurtleff, Amy C; Schokman, Rowena D; Kuehl, Kathleen A; Wells, Jay B; Steffens, Jesse T; van Tongeren, Sean A; Hooper, Jay W; Bavari, Sina

    2015-02-01

    Filoviruses are causative agents of hemorrhagic fever, and to date no effective vaccine or therapeutic has been approved to combat infection. Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) is the critical immunogenic component of filovirus vaccines, eliciting high levels of antibody after successful vaccination. Previous work has shown that protection against both Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) can be achieved by vaccinating with a mixture of virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing either EBOV GP or MARV GP. In this study, the potential for eliciting effective immune responses against EBOV, Sudan virus, and MARV with a single GP construct was tested. Trimeric hybrid GPs were produced that expressed the sequence of Marburg GP2 in conjunction with a hybrid GP1 composed EBOV and Sudan virus GP sequences. VLPs expressing these constructs, along with EBOV VP40, provided comparable protection against MARV challenge, resulting in 75 or 100% protection. Protection from EBOV challenge differed depending upon the hybrid used, however, with one conferring 75% protection and one conferring no protection. By comparing the overall antibody titers and the neutralizing antibody titers specific for each virus, it is shown that higher antibody responses were elicited by the C terminal region of GP1 than by the N terminal region, and this correlated with protection. These data collectively suggest that GP2 and the C terminal region of GP1 are highly immunogenic, and they advance progress toward the development of a pan-filovirus vaccine.

  16. A prospective cross-over field trial shows protection of lemon eucalyptus extract against tick bites.

    PubMed

    Gardulf, Ann; Wohlfart, Ingrid; Gustafson, Rolf

    2004-11-01

    Ixodes ricinus can transmit several microorganisms, out of which Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus are the most important pathogens in humans. A lemon eucalyptus extract (Citriodiol) has been shown to be a natural repellent against mosquitoes, stable flies, and midges. We have investigated whether the use of the extract would reduce the number of attached I. ricinus ticks in humans. A volunteer sample of 111 individuals was recruited among healthy, outdoor active adults living in two highly I. ricinus-infested areas. They were randomly divided into two groups: one group applied the Citriodiol spray daily for 2 wk to the lower extremities, whereas the other group was instructed not to use any type of repellent on any part of the body. After 2 wk, the scheme was reversed. All volunteers filled in a daily diary, giving information about outdoor activities and the number of observed, attached, or not yet attached ticks, including the anatomical location of the ticks found. Forty-two attached ticks were reported during the weeks when the Citriodiol spray was used, and 112 were reported when it was not. The median number of reported attached ticks per person decreased from 1.5 (range, 0-9) to 0.5 (range, 0-2; P < 0.05) during the weeks when the repellent was used. The number of reported attached ticks noted below the waist was 13/42 (31%) during the period when the spray was used and 73/112 (65%) when no spray was used (P < 0.001). No evident redistribution of attached ticks from protected areas to unprotected areas was seen. Citriodiol may become a useful means in reducing the number of tick bites and thereby tick-borne infections, although additional studies are warranted. PMID:15605645

  17. Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  18. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  19. A live attenuated human metapneumovirus vaccine strain provides complete protection against homologous viral infection and cross-protection against heterologous viral infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Shu, Zhou; Qin, Xian; Dou, Ying; Zhao, Yao; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    A live attenuated vaccine candidate strain (M2) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was generated by removing the N-linked carbohydrate at amino acid 172 in the fusion (F) protein. Previously, replication of M2 in mouse lungs could be detected by molecular assays but not by viral titration. In the present study, the protective effects of M2 against infection by homologous or heterologous viruses were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Immunization with M2 produced a high titer of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice at 4 and 8 weeks postimmunization, with the titers against the homologous virus being higher than those against the heterologous virus. Challenges at 4 and 8 weeks postinoculation with M2 or wild-type virus led to no replication when mice were challenged with a homologous virus and extremely reduced replication when mice were challenged with a heterologous virus, as determined by the detection of viral genomic RNA copies in the lungs, as well as significantly milder pulmonary pathology. Thus, M2, with only one N-linked carbohydrate removed in the F protein, provides complete protection from homologous virus infection and substantial cross-protection from heterologous virus infection for at least 56 days after inoculation. This vaccine strain may therefore be a candidate for further preclinical study. Furthermore, this attenuating strategy (changing the glycosylation of a major viral protein) may be useful in the development of other viral vaccines.

  20. Limited susceptibility of mice to Usutu virus (USUV) infection and induction of flavivirus cross-protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Petrovic, Tamas; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Flaviviruses are RNA viruses that constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. In Europe, West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks have dramatically increased in number and severity in recent years, with dozens of human and horse deaths and a high avian mortality across the continent. Besides WNV, the only clinically relevant mosquito-borne flavivirus detected so far in Europe has been the Usutu virus (USUV), which after being reported for the first time in Austria in 2001, quickly spread across Europe, causing a considerable number of bird deaths and neurological disorders in a few immunocompromised patients. Even though USUV infects multiple avian species that develop antibodies, there is little information about USUV susceptibility, pathogenicity and cross-reactive immunity. Here, the susceptibility of suckling and adult mice to USUV infection and the induction of cross-protective immunity against WNV challenge have been addressed.

  1. Vectors Based on Modified Vaccinia Ankara Expressing Influenza H5N1 Hemagglutinin Induce Substantial Cross-Clade Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Annett; Schwendinger, Michael; Holzer, Georg W.; Orlinger, Klaus K.; Coulibaly, Sogue; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Zips, Marie-Luise; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Ehrlich, Hartmut J.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2011-01-01

    Background New highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses are continuing to evolve with a potential threat for an influenza pandemic. So far, the H5N1 influenza viruses have not widely circulated in humans and therefore constitute a high risk for the non immune population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-protective potential of the hemagglutinins of five H5N1 strains of divergent clades using a live attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings The replication-deficient MVA virus was used to express influenza hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. Specifically, recombinant MVA viruses expressing the HA genes of the clade 1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN/1203), the clade 2.1.3 virus A/Indonesia/5/2005 (IN5/05), the clade 2.2 viruses A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (TT01/05) and A/chicken/Egypt/3/2006 (CE/06), and the clade 2.3.4 virus A/Anhui/1/2005 (AH1/05) were constructed. These experimental live vaccines were assessed in a lethal mouse model. Mice vaccinated with the VN/1203 hemagglutinin-expressing MVA induced excellent protection against all the above mentioned clades. Also mice vaccinated with the IN5/05 HA expressing MVA induced substantial protection against homologous and heterologous AH1/05 challenge. After vaccination with the CE/06 HA expressing MVA, mice were fully protected against clade 2.2 challenge and partially protected against challenge of other clades. Mice vaccinated with AH1/05 HA expressing MVA vectors were only partially protected against homologous and heterologous challenge. The live vaccines induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies, mainly directed against the homologous challenge virus, and high levels of HA-specific IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T-cells against epitopes conserved among the H5 clades and subclades. Conclusions/Significance The highest level of cross-protection was induced by the HA derived from the VN/1203 strain, suggesting that pandemic H5 vaccines utilizing MVA vector

  2. Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

    2013-09-01

    Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their

  3. Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

    2013-09-01

    Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their

  4. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These crossspecies microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  5. Yersinia pestis Caf1 Protein: Effect of Sequence Polymorphism on Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, Serological Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protectivity of Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Kopylov, Pavel Kh; Platonov, Mikhail E; Ablamunits, Vitaly G; Kombarova, Tat'yana I; Ivanov, Sergey A; Kadnikova, Lidiya A; Somov, Aleksey N; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V; Uversky, Vladimir N; Anisimov, Andrey P

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis Caf1 is a multifunctional protein responsible for antiphagocytic activity and is a key protective antigen. It is generally conserved between globally distributed Y. pestis strains, but Y. pestis subsp. microtus biovar caucasica strains circulating within populations of common voles in Georgia and Armenia were reported to carry a single substitution of alanine to serine. We investigated polymorphism of the Caf1 sequences among other Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains, which have a limited virulence in guinea pigs and in humans. Sequencing of caf1 genes from 119 Y. pestis strains belonging to different biovars within subsp. microtus showed that the Caf1 proteins exist in three isoforms, the global type Caf1NT1 (Ala48 Phe117), type Caf1NT2 (Ser48 Phe117) found in Transcaucasian-highland and Pre-Araks natural plague foci #4-7, and a novel Caf1NT3 type (Ala48 Val117) endemic in Dagestan-highland natural plague focus #39. Both minor types are the progenies of the global isoform. In this report, Caf1 polymorphism was analyzed by comparing predicted intrinsic disorder propensities and potential protein-protein interactivities of the three Caf1 isoforms. The analysis revealed that these properties of Caf1 protein are minimally affected by its polymorphism. All protein isoforms could be equally detected by an immunochromatography test for plague at the lowest protein concentration tested (1.0 ng/mL), which is the detection limit. When compared to the classic Caf1NT1 isoform, the endemic Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 had lower immunoreactivity in ELISA and lower indices of self- and cross-protection. Despite a visible reduction in cross-protection between all Caf1 isoforms, our data suggest that polymorphism in the caf1 gene may not allow the carriers of Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 variants escaping from the Caf1NT1-mediated immunity to plague in the case of a low-dose flea-borne infection. PMID:27606595

  6. Yersinia pestis Caf1 Protein: Effect of Sequence Polymorphism on Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, Serological Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protectivity of Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Pavel Kh.; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Ablamunits, Vitaly G.; Kombarova, Tat’yana I.; Ivanov, Sergey A.; Kadnikova, Lidiya A.; Somov, Aleksey N.; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis Caf1 is a multifunctional protein responsible for antiphagocytic activity and is a key protective antigen. It is generally conserved between globally distributed Y. pestis strains, but Y. pestis subsp. microtus biovar caucasica strains circulating within populations of common voles in Georgia and Armenia were reported to carry a single substitution of alanine to serine. We investigated polymorphism of the Caf1 sequences among other Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains, which have a limited virulence in guinea pigs and in humans. Sequencing of caf1 genes from 119 Y. pestis strains belonging to different biovars within subsp. microtus showed that the Caf1 proteins exist in three isoforms, the global type Caf1NT1 (Ala48 Phe117), type Caf1NT2 (Ser48 Phe117) found in Transcaucasian-highland and Pre-Araks natural plague foci #4–7, and a novel Caf1NT3 type (Ala48 Val117) endemic in Dagestan-highland natural plague focus #39. Both minor types are the progenies of the global isoform. In this report, Caf1 polymorphism was analyzed by comparing predicted intrinsic disorder propensities and potential protein-protein interactivities of the three Caf1 isoforms. The analysis revealed that these properties of Caf1 protein are minimally affected by its polymorphism. All protein isoforms could be equally detected by an immunochromatography test for plague at the lowest protein concentration tested (1.0 ng/mL), which is the detection limit. When compared to the classic Caf1NT1 isoform, the endemic Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 had lower immunoreactivity in ELISA and lower indices of self- and cross-protection. Despite a visible reduction in cross-protection between all Caf1 isoforms, our data suggest that polymorphism in the caf1 gene may not allow the carriers of Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 variants escaping from the Caf1NT1-mediated immunity to plague in the case of a low-dose flea-borne infection. PMID:27606595

  7. "Rickettsia amblyommii" induces cross protection against lethal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Lucas S; Mendell, Nicole L; Walker, David H; Bouyer, Donald H

    2014-08-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a severe illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which there is no available vaccine. We hypothesize that exposure to the highly prevalent, relatively nonpathogenic "Rickettsia amblyommii" protects against R. rickettsii challenge. To test this hypothesis, guinea pigs were inoculated with "R. amblyommii." After inoculation, the animals showed no signs of illness. When later challenged with lethal doses of R. rickettsii, those previously exposed to "R. amblyommii" remained well, whereas unimmunized controls developed severe illness and died. We conclude that "R. amblyommii" induces an immune response that protects from illness and death in the guinea pig model of RMSF. These results provide a basis for exploring the use of low-virulence rickettsiae as a platform to develop live attenuated vaccine candidates to prevent severe rickettsioses.

  8. Vaccination with Adjuvanted Recombinant Neuraminidase Induces Broad Heterologous, but Not Heterosubtypic, Cross-Protection against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wohlbold, Teddy John; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Xu, Haoming; Tan, Gene S.; Hirsh, Ariana; Brokstad, Karl A.; Cox, Rebecca J.; Palese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In an attempt to assess the cross-protective potential of the influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) as a vaccine antigen, different subtypes of recombinant NA were expressed in a baculovirus system and used to vaccinate mice prior to lethal challenge with homologous, heterologous, or heterosubtypic viruses. Mice immunized with NA of subtype N2 were completely protected from morbidity and mortality in a homologous challenge and displayed significantly reduced viral lung titers. Heterologous challenge with a drifted strain resulted in morbidity but no mortality. Similar results were obtained for challenge experiments with N1 NA. Mice immunized with influenza B virus NA (from B/Yamagata/16/88) displayed no morbidity when sublethally infected with the homologous strain and, importantly, were completely protected from morbidity and mortality when lethally challenged with the prototype Victoria lineage strain or a more recent Victoria lineage isolate. Upon analyzing the NA content in 4 different inactivated-virus vaccine formulations from the 2013-2014 season via Western blot assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay quantification, we found that the amount of NA does indeed vary across vaccine brands. We also measured hemagglutinin (HA) and NA endpoint titers in pre- and postvaccination human serum samples from individuals who received a trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine from the 2004-2005 season; the induction of NA titers was statistically less pronounced than the induction of HA titers. The demonstrated homologous and heterologous protective capacity of recombinant NA suggests that supplementing vaccine formulations with a standard amount of NA may offer increased protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:25759506

  9. Lung-protective Ventilation in Patients with Brain Injury: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Study and Questionnaire Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Hu, Ying-Hong; Cao, Xiang-Yuan; Kang, Yan; Liu, Li-Ping; Wang, Shou-Hong; Yu, Rong-Guo; Yu, Xiang-You; Zhang, Xia; Li, Bao-Shan; Ma, Zeng-Xiang; Weng, Yi-Bing; Zhang, Heng; Chen, De-Chang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Wen-Jin; Chen, Xiu-Mei; Du, Bin; Duan, Mei-Li; Hu, Jin; Huang, Yun-Feng; Jia, Gui-Jun; Li, Li-Hong; Liang, Yu-Min; Qin, Bing-Yu; Wang, Xian-Dong; Xiong, Jian; Yan, Li-Mei; Yang, Zheng-Ping; Dong, Chen-Ming; Wang, Dong-Xin; Zhan, Qing-Yuan; Fu, Shuang-Lin; Zhao, Lin; Huang, Qi-Bing; Xie, Ying-Guang; Huang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Guo-Bin; Xu, Wang-Bin; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Ya-Ling; Zhao, He-Ling; Sun, Rong-Qing; Sun, Ming; Cheng, Qing-Hong; Qu, Xin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Ming; Shi, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Han; He, Xuan; Yang, Yan-Lin; Chen, Guang-Qiang; Sun, Xiu-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the years, the mechanical ventilation (MV) strategy has changed worldwide. The aim of the present study was to describe the ventilation practices, particularly lung-protective ventilation (LPV), among brain-injured patients in China. Methods: This study was a multicenter, 1-day, cross-sectional study in 47 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) across China. Mechanically ventilated patients (18 years and older) with brain injury in a participating ICU during the time of the study, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, postoperation with intracranial tumor, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, intracranial infection, and idiopathic epilepsy, were enrolled. Demographic data, primary diagnoses, indications for MV, MV modes and settings, and prognoses on the 60th day were collected. Multivariable logistic analysis was used to assess factors that might affect the use of LPV. Results: A total of 104 patients were enrolled in the present study, 87 (83.7%) of whom were identified with severe brain injury based on a Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8 points. Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) was the most frequent ventilator mode, accounting for 46.2% of the entire cohort. The median tidal volume was set to 8.0 ml/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 7.0–8.9 ml/kg) of the predicted body weight; 50 (48.1%) patients received LPV. The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was set to 5 cmH2O (IQR, 5–6 cmH2O). No PEEP values were higher than 10 cmH2O. Compared with partially mandatory ventilation, supportive and spontaneous ventilation practices were associated with LPV. There were no significant differences in mortality and MV duration between patients subjected to LPV and those were not. Conclusions: Among brain-injured patients in China, SIMV was the most frequent ventilation mode. Nearly one-half of the brain-injured patients received LPV. Patients under supportive and spontaneous ventilation were more likely to receive LPV. Trial Registration: Clinical

  10. Cross-Face Nerve Grafting with Infraorbital Nerve Pathway Protection: Anatomic and Histomorphometric Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Catapano, Joseph; Demsey, Daniel R.B.; Ho, Emily S.; Zuker, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Smiling is an important aspect of emotional expression and social interaction, leaving facial palsy patients with impaired social functioning and decreased overall quality of life. Although there are several techniques available for facial reanimation, staged facial reanimation using donor nerve branches from the contralateral, functioning facial nerve connected to a cross-face nerve graft (CFNG) is the only technique that can reliably reproduce an emotionally spontaneous smile. Although CFNGs provide spontaneity, they typically produce less smile excursion than when the subsequent free functioning muscle flap is innervated with the motor nerve to the masseter muscle. This may be explained in part by the larger number of donor motor axons when using the masseter nerve, as studies have shown that only 20% to 50% of facial nerve donor axons successfully cross the nerve graft to innervate their targets. As demonstrated in our animal studies, increasing the number of donor axons that grow into and traverse the CFNG to innervate the free muscle transfer increases muscle movement, and this phenomenon may provide patients with the benefit of improved smile excursion. We have previously shown in animal studies that sensory nerves, when coapted to a nerve graft, improve axonal growth through the nerve graft and improve muscle excursion. Here, we describe the feasibility of and our experience in translating these results clinically by coapting the distal portion of the CFNG to branches of the infraorbital nerve. PMID:27757349

  11. A Kinetic Modeling study on the Oxidation of Primary Reference Fuel?Toluene Mixtures Including Cross Reactions between Aromatics and Aliphatics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y; Miyoshi, A; Koshi, M; Pitz, W J

    2008-01-09

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the mixtures of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF: n-heptane and iso-octane) and toluene has been proposed. This model is divided into three parts; a PRF mechanism [T. Ogura et al., Energy & Fuels 21 (2007) 3233-3239], toluene sub-mechanism and cross reactions between PRF and toluene. Toluene sub-mechanism includes the low temperature kinetics relevant to engine conditions. A chemical kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [Proc. the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Combust. Institute (2001)] was used as a starting model and modified by updating rate coefficients. Theoretical estimations of rate coefficients were performed for toluene and benzyl radical reactions important at low temperatures. Cross-reactions between alkane, alkene, and aromatics were also included in order to account for the acceleration by the addition of toluene into iso-octane recently found in the shock tube study of the ignition delay [Y. Sakai et al, SAE 2007-01-4014 (2007)]. Validations of the model were performed with existing shock tube and flow tube data. The model well predicts the ignition characteristics of toluene and PRF/Toluene mixtures under the wide range of temperatures (500-1700 K) and pressures (2-50 atm). It is found that reactions of benzyl radical with oxygen molecule determine the reactivity of toluene at low temperature. Although the effect of toluene addition to iso-octane is not fully resolved, the reactions of alkene with benzyl radical have the possibility to account for the kinetic interactions between PRF and toluene.

  12. Cross Protection against Influenza A Virus by Yeast-Expressed Heterologous Tandem Repeat M2 Extracellular Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Jongsang; Kim, Cheol; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    The influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) is well conserved across human influenza A subtypes, but there are few residue changes among avian and swine origin influenza A viruses. We expressed a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e sequences (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses using the yeast expression system. Intramuscular immunization of mice with AS04-adjuvanted M2e5x protein vaccines was effective in inducing M2e-specific antibodies reactive to M2e peptide and native M2 proteins on the infected cells with human, swine, or avian influenza virus, mucosal and systemic memory cellular immune responses, and cross-protection against H3N2 virus. Importantly, M2e5x immune sera were found to confer protection against different subtypes of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses in naïve mice. Also, M2e5x-immune complexes of virus-infected cells stimulated macrophages to secrete cytokines via Fc receptors, indicating a possible mechanism of protection. The present study provides evidence that M2e5x proteins produced in yeast cells could be developed as a potential universal influenza vaccine. PMID:26366729

  13. "Protect Your Loved Ones From Fataki": Discouraging Cross-Generational Sex in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Tsang, Samantha W; Mooney, Alyssa; McCartney-Melstad, Anna; Mushi, Adiel K; Kamala, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The Fataki campaign aired in Tanzania via radio from 2008 to 2011 to address cross-generational sex, a major driver of HIV in the region. The campaign sought to incite social disapproval of men who engage in such relationships, generate dialogue around the issue, and encourage community interventions in these relationships through social learning. Using qualitative methods, we explored campaign reactions, use of the term Fataki to describe men in relationships with much younger women, and the nature of discussions spurred by the campaign. We conducted focus group discussions and individual interviews in Iringa and Pwani regions with young women, older men, and community leaders. Results showed that the Fataki term was widely used and had negative connotations reflecting social disapproval of men who participate in such relationships. Dialogue spurred by the campaign, primarily directed toward young women, focused on reasons for avoiding these relationships. We conclude with suggestions for relevant future interventions.

  14. DNA-based vaccine against La Crosse virus: protective immune response mediated by neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Schuh, T; Schultz, J; Moelling, K; Pavlovic, J

    1999-07-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV)-mediated encephalitis is the most frequently reported arboviral disease in the United States, but to date no vaccine against this virus is available. We have established a new animal model, genetically targeted mice lacking a functional interferon type I receptor (IFNAR-1). These mice show an age-independent susceptibility to LACV and develop an acute encephalitis within 6 days of infection, thereby allowing the evaluation of vaccines against LACV. Taking advantage of this knockout mouse model, we have assessed the feasibility of DNA vaccination against this viral disease. Plasmid DNAs, encoding either the virus surface glycoproteins G1 and G2 or the internal nucleocapsid protein N, were used to immunize IFNAR-1-deficient mice. Mice vaccinated with DNA encoding the glycoproteins G1 and G2 produced neutralizing antibodies and exhibited a high degree of protection against challenge with high doses of LACV. Depletion of CD4+ T cells in mice vaccinated with DNA encoding G1/G2 reduced their capacity to control the infection. Virus titration and immunohistological analysis revealed that the protected mice showed no evidence of LACV particles in the brain. This indicates that the vaccine-induced immune response efficiently blocked viral spreading from the primary replication site to the brain. In contrast, immunization with DNA encoding protein N yielded only a partial protective effect that can be attributed to the cellular immune response. Taken together, this study shows that DNA vaccines can be designed to efficiently induce a protective immune response based on neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ T cells.

  15. Combined Alphavirus Replicon Particle Vaccine Induces Durable and Cross-Protective Immune Responses against Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Pamela J.; Bakken, Russell R.; Barth, James F.; Lind, Cathleen M.; da Silva, Luis; Hart, Mary Kate; Rayner, Jonathan; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Dudek, Jeanne; Owens, Gary; Kamrud, Kurt I.; Parker, Michael D.; Smith, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alphavirus replicons were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) when given individually or in combination (V/W/E) to mice or cynomolgus macaques. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in mice to their respective alphavirus. Protection from either subcutaneous or aerosol challenge with VEEV, WEEV, or EEEV was demonstrated out to 12 months after vaccination in mice. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in macaques and demonstrated good protection against aerosol challenge with an epizootic VEEV-IAB virus, Trinidad donkey. Similarly, the EEEV replicon and V/W/E combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against EEEV and protected against aerosol exposure to a North American variety of EEEV. Both the WEEV replicon and combination V/W/E vaccination, however, elicited poor neutralizing antibodies to WEEV in macaques, and the protection conferred was not as strong. These results demonstrate that a combination V/W/E vaccine is possible for protection against aerosol challenge and that cross-interference between the vaccines is minimal. IMPORTANCE Three related viruses belonging to the genus Alphavirus cause severe encephalitis in humans: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Normally transmitted by mosquitoes, these viruses can cause disease when inhaled, so there is concern that these viruses could be used as biological weapons. Prior reports have suggested that vaccines for these three viruses might interfere with one another. We have developed a combined vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis expressing the

  16. Altered bone material properties in HLA-B27 rats include reduced mineral to matrix ratio and altered collagen cross-links.

    PubMed

    Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Srivastava, Apurva K; Wergedal, Jon E; Zwerina, Jochen; Klaushofer, Klaus; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2014-11-01

    Spondyloarthropathy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are often associated with severe osteopenia/osteoporosis in both children and adults. HLA-B27 transgenic rats present a phenotype that includes severe colitis and severely accelerated alveolar bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long bone density status, systemic bone metabolic markers, and intrinsic bone material properties in HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats, and compare them with those of age- and sex-matched wild-type (WT) animals. The results indicate that in the HLA-B27 rat, an animal susceptible to both alveolar bone loss (ABL) and long bone osteopenia, there is a statistically significant negative correlation between ABL and long bone bone mineral density (BMD), as well as mineral/matrix ratio at active bone-forming trabecular surfaces. The TG animals had a lower mineral/matrix ratio and higher relative proteoglycan and advanced glycation end product (ϵ-N-Carboxymethyl-L-lysine) content and pyridinoline/divalent collagen cross-link ratio compared with WT. These results may provide better understanding of the interrelationship between osteoporosis and oral bone loss, the underlying causes of the inferior bone strength in the HLA-B27 transgenic animals, and could prove to be a useful model in the elucidation of the pathophysiology of spondyloarthropathy and IBD-associated osteopenia/osteoporosis and in the evaluation of pharmacological intervention(s) against such conditions. PMID:24771481

  17. Bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and fungal uptake of external RNAs confer plant protection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Weiberg, Arne; Lin, Feng-Mao; Thomma, Bart P H J; Huang, Hsien-Da; Jin, Hailing

    2016-09-19

    Aggressive fungal pathogens such as Botrytis and Verticillium spp. cause severe crop losses worldwide. We recently discovered that Botrytis cinerea delivers small RNAs (Bc-sRNAs) into plant cells to silence host immunity genes. Such sRNA effectors are mostly produced by Botrytis cinerea Dicer-like protein 1 (Bc-DCL1) and Bc-DCL2. Here we show that expressing sRNAs that target Bc-DCL1 and Bc-DCL2 in Arabidopsis and tomato silences Bc-DCL genes and attenuates fungal pathogenicity and growth, exemplifying bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and sRNA trafficking between plants and fungi. This strategy can be adapted to simultaneously control multiple fungal diseases. We also show that Botrytis can take up external sRNAs and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Applying sRNAs or dsRNAs that target Botrytis DCL1 and DCL2 genes on the surface of fruits, vegetables and flowers significantly inhibits grey mould disease. Such pathogen gene-targeting RNAs represent a new generation of environmentally friendly fungicides.

  18. Bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and fungal uptake of external RNAs confer plant protection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Weiberg, Arne; Lin, Feng-Mao; Thomma, Bart P H J; Huang, Hsien-Da; Jin, Hailing

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive fungal pathogens such as Botrytis and Verticillium spp. cause severe crop losses worldwide. We recently discovered that Botrytis cinerea delivers small RNAs (Bc-sRNAs) into plant cells to silence host immunity genes. Such sRNA effectors are mostly produced by Botrytis cinerea Dicer-like protein 1 (Bc-DCL1) and Bc-DCL2. Here we show that expressing sRNAs that target Bc-DCL1 and Bc-DCL2 in Arabidopsis and tomato silences Bc-DCL genes and attenuates fungal pathogenicity and growth, exemplifying bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and sRNA trafficking between plants and fungi. This strategy can be adapted to simultaneously control multiple fungal diseases. We also show that Botrytis can take up external sRNAs and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Applying sRNAs or dsRNAs that target Botrytis DCL1 and DCL2 genes on the surface of fruits, vegetables and flowers significantly inhibits grey mould disease. Such pathogen gene-targeting RNAs represent a new generation of environmentally friendly fungicides. PMID:27643635

  19. Characterization of a Bivalent Vaccine Capable of Inducing Protection Against Both Ebola and Cross-clade H5N1 Influenza in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a lethal pathogen that causes up to 90% mortality in humans, whereas H5N1 avian influenza has a 60% fatality rate. Both viruses are considered pandemic threats. The objective was to evaluate the protective efficacy of a bivalent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine expressing both the A/Hanoi/30408/2005 H5N1 hemagglutinin and the EBOV glycoprotein (VSVΔG-HA-ZGP) in a lethal mouse model of infection. Methods. Mice were vaccinated 28 days before or 30 minutes after a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted EBOV or selected H5N1 influenza viruses from clades 0, 1, and 2. Animals were monitored for weight loss and survival, in addition to humoral and cell-mediated responses after immunization. Results. A single VSVΔG-HA-ZGP injection was efficacious when administered 28 days before a homologous H5N1 and/or mouse-adapted EBOV challenge, as well as a heterologous H5N1 challenge. Postexposure protection was only observed in vaccinated animals challenged with homologous H5N1 and/or mouse-adapted EBOV. Analysis of the adaptive immune response postvaccination revealed robust specific T- and B-cell responses, including a potent hemagglutinin inhibition antibody response against all H5N1 strains tested. Conclusions. The results highlight the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus–vectored vaccines to rapidly confer protection against 2 unrelated pathogens and stimulate cross-protection against H5N1 influenza viruses. PMID:26022441

  20. Comparison of representative strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by serological neutralization and cross protection assays

    SciTech Connect

    Engelking, H.M.; Leong, J.C. ); Harry, J.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen of young salmon and trout. Viral epizootics among these fish in private and public rearing facilities have been a problem in the northwestern United States from California to Alaska, and an IHNV vaccine has been sought by the aquaculture experts. Since an IHNV vaccine must be designed to immunize against all viral serotypes, an analysis of IHNV serotypes was made. A large number of viruses from widely separated geographic locations and different fish species had already been placed in one of five electropherotypes by the migration of the virion proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Also, there was evidence that some of these virus isolates had differences in virulence for chinook salmon, rainbow trout, or kokanee salmon. An extensive comparison was made of 10 different IHNV isolates representing the five electropherotypes. This report shows that the glycoprotein from a single isolate of IHNV can induce a protective immune response in vivo to the five IHNV electropherotypes. Plaque reduction neutralization assays indicated that there was only one serotype. Thus, despite the differences observed in the migration of the structural proteins for IHNV isolated from separate geographic locations and different fish species, only one neutralizing virus type was identified.

  1. Cross-protective efficacy from a immunogen firstly identified in Leishmania infantum against tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Martins, V T; Lage, D P; Duarte, M C; Costa, L E; Chávez-Fumagalli, M A; Roatt, B M; Menezes-Souza, D; Tavares, C A P; Coelho, E A F

    2016-02-01

    Experimental vaccine candidates have been evaluated to prevent leishmaniasis, but no commercial vaccine has been proved to be effective against more than one parasite species. LiHyT is a Leishmania-specific protein that was firstly identified as protective against Leishmania infantum. In this study, LiHyT was evaluated as a vaccine to against two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL): Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis. BALB/c mice were immunized with rLiHyT plus saponin and lately challenged with promastigotes of the two parasite species. The immune response generated was evaluated before and 10 weeks after infection, as well as the parasite burden at this time after infection. The vaccination induced a Th1 response, which was characterized by the production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF, as well as by high levels of IgG2a antibodies, after in vitro stimulation using both the protein and parasite extracts. After challenge, vaccinated mice showed significant reductions in their infected footpads, as well as in the parasite burden in the tissue and organs evaluated, when compared to the control groups. The anti-Leishmania Th1 response was maintained after infection, being the IFN-γ production based mainly on CD4(+) T cells. We described one conserved Leishmania-specific protein that could compose a pan-Leishmania vaccine.

  2. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  3. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 marker vaccine induces cross-protection against bubaline herpesvirus type 1 in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Montagnaro, Serena; De Martinis, Claudio; Iovane, Valentina; Ciarcia, Roberto; Damiano, Sara; Nizza, Sandra; De Martino, Luisa; Iovane, Giuseppe; Pagnini, Ugo

    2014-09-01

    Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are susceptible to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and a species-specific herpesvirus, bubaline herpesvirus type 1 (BuHV-1). In this study, an attenuated marker BoHV-1 based vaccine against BuHV-1 challenge was evaluated to determine whether it induces protection from viral replication. One group of water buffalo calves was immunized with an attenuated BoHV-1 marker vaccine. A second group was not vaccinated and used as the control. During the post-vaccination period, we monitored the humoral immune response. The efficacy of the vaccine was tested after intranasal challenge of the calves with a BuHV-1 strain. The experiment showed that after vaccination, BuHV-1 replication was significantly reduced by approximately three titer points compared to the controls. The control animals showed high levels of viral shedding and mild signs associated with BuHV-1 infection. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the existence of cross-protection between BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 in buffalo calves.

  4. Intranasal DNA vaccination induces potent mucosal and systemic immune responses and cross-protective immunity against influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Torrieri-Dramard, Lea; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Ferreira, Helena Lage; Van den Berg, Thierry; Klatzmann, David; Bellier, Bertrand

    2011-03-01

    The induction of potent virus-specific immune responses at mucosal surfaces where virus transmission occurs is a major challenge for vaccination strategies. In the case of influenza vaccination, this has been achieved only by intranasal delivery of live-attenuated vaccines that otherwise pose safety problems. Here, we demonstrate that potent mucosal and systemic immune responses, both cellular and humoral, are induced by intranasal immunization using formulated DNA. We show that formulation with the DNA carrier polyethylenimine (PEI) improved by a 1,000-fold the efficiency of gene transfer in the respiratory track following intranasal administration of luciferase-coding DNA. Using PEI formulation, intranasal vaccination with DNA-encoding hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza A H5N1 or (H1N1)2009 viruses induced high levels of HA-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that were detected in bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) and the serum. No mucosal responses could be detected after parenteral or intranasal immunization with naked-DNA. Furthermore, intranasal DNA vaccination with HA from a given H5N1 virus elicited full protection against the parental strain and partial cross-protection against a distinct highly pathogenic H5N1 strain that could be improved by adding neuraminidase (NA) DNA plasmids. Our observations warrant further investigation of intranasal DNA as an effective vaccination route.

  5. Lack of cross-protection against Mycoplasma haemofelis infection and signs of enhancement in "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis"-recovered cats.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Julia; Novacco, Marilisa; Willi, Barbara; Riond, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Boretti, Felicitas S; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-09-24

    "Mycoplasma haemofelis" and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" are feline hemoplasmas that induce hemolytic anemia. Protection from homologous re-challenge was recently demonstrated in cats recovered from primary infection. Here, we determined if cats recovered from "Cand. M. turicensis" infection were protected against infections with the more pathogenic M. haemofelis. Ten specified pathogen-free cats were exposed to M. haemofelis. Five of the ten cats had recovered from "Cand. M. turicensis" bacteremia (group A), and five cats were naïve controls (group B). No cross-protection was observed. By contrast, the "Cand. M. turicensis"-recovered cats displayed faster M. haemofelis infection onset (earlier PCR-positive and anemic) than the controls. No "Cand. M. turicensis" was detected in any cat. M. haemofelis shedding was observed in saliva, feces and urine. In both groups, evidence of a Th1 response was observed (high IFN-γ, low IL-4), but IL-10 levels were also high. In group A, total, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased within days after M. haemofelis exposure. At times of maximal bacteremia, macrocytic hypochromic anemia, neutropenia, monocytosis and a decrease in leukocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte counts and subsets thereof (B- and T-cells, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD25+ cells) were particularly significant in group A. Moreover, an increase in protein concentrations, hypoalbuminemia and a polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia were observed. Five of ten M. haemofelis-infected cats subsequently cleared bacteremia without antibiotic treatment. In conclusion, the study suggests that a previous hemoplasma infection, even when the cat has ostensibly recovered, may influence subsequent infections, lead to an enhancement phenomenon and other differences in infection kinetics.

  6. A global-local higher order theory including interlaminar stress continuity and C0 plate bending element for cross-ply laminated composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Wu; Wanji, Chen

    2010-04-01

    A C0-type global-local higher order theory including interlaminar stress continuity is proposed for the cross-ply laminated composite and sandwich plates in this paper, which is able to a priori satisfy the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. Moreover, total number of unknowns involved in the model is independent of number of layers. Compared to other higher-order theories satisfying the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces, merit of the proposed model is that the first derivatives of transverse displacement w have been taken out from the in-plane displacement fields, so that the C0 interpolation functions is only required during its finite element implementation. To verify the present model, a C0 three-node triangular element is used for bending analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates. It ought to be shown that all variables involved in present model are discretized by only using linear interpolation functions within an element. Numerical results show that the C0 plate element based on the present theory may accurately calculate transverse shear stresses without any postprocessing, and the present results agree well with those obtained from the C1-type higher order theory. Compared with the C1 plate bending element, the present finite element is simple, convenient to use and accurate enough.

  7. Physiological and transcriptional responses and cross protection of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 under acid stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renhui; Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Tao, Xueying; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Acid tolerance responses (ATR) in Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 were investigated at physiological and molecular levels. A comparison of composition of cell membrane fatty acids (CMFA) between acid-challenged and unchallenged cells showed that acid adaptation evoked a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and cyclopropane fatty acids in acid-challenged than in unchallenged cells. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis in acid-adapted cells at different pH values (ranging from 3.0 to 4.0) indicated that several genes were differently regulated, including those related to proton pumps, amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and class I and class III stress response pathways. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and production of alkali was significantly upregulated. Upon exposure to pH 4.5 for 2 h, a higher survival rate (higher viable cell count) of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 was achieved following an additional challenge to 40 mM hydrogen peroxide for 60 min, but no difference in survival rate of cells was found with further challenge to heat, ethanol, or salt. Therefore, we concluded that the physiological and metabolic changes of acid-treated cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 help the cells resist damage caused by acid, and further initiated global response signals to bring the whole cell into a state of defense to other stress factors, especially hydrogen peroxide.

  8. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  9. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  10. Supplementation of H1N1pdm09 split vaccine with heterologous tandem repeat M2e5x virus-like particles confers improved cross-protection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Music, Nedzad; Reber, Adrian J; Kim, Min-Chul; York, Ian A; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-01-20

    Current influenza vaccines induce strain-specific immunity to the highly variable hemagglutinin (HA) protein. It is therefore a high priority to develop vaccines that induce broadly cross-protective immunity to different strains of influenza. Since influenza A M2 proteins are highly conserved among different strains, five tandem repeats of the extracellular peptide of M2 in a membrane-anchored form on virus-like particles (VLPs) have been suggested to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine. In this study, ferrets were intramuscularly immunized with 2009 H1N1 split HA vaccine ("Split") alone, influenza split vaccine supplemented with M2e5x VLP ("Split+M2e5x"), M2e5x VLP alone ("M2e5x"), or mock immunized. Vaccine efficacy was measured serologically and by protection against a serologically distinct viral challenge. Ferrets immunized with Split+M2e5x induced HA strain specific and conserved M2e immunity. Supplementation of M2e5x VLP to split vaccination significantly increased the immunogenicity of split vaccine compared to split alone. The Split+M2e5x ferret group showed evidence of cross-reactive protection, including faster recovery from weight loss, and reduced inflammation, as inferred from changes in peripheral leukocyte subsets, compared to mock-immunized animals. In addition, ferrets immunized with Split+M2e5x shed lower viral nasal-wash titers than the other groups. Ferrets immunized with M2e5x alone also show some protective effects, while those immunized with split vaccine alone induced no protective effects compared to mock-immunized ferrets. These studies suggest that supplementation of split vaccine with M2e5x-VLP may provide broader and improved cross-protection than split vaccine alone. PMID:26709639

  11. Variations in risk and protective factors for life satisfaction and mental wellbeing with deprivation: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving life satisfaction (LS) and mental wellbeing (MWB) is important for better public health. Like other health issues, LS and MWB are closely related to deprivation (i.e. lack of resources). Developing public health measures that reduce inequalities in wellbeing requires an understanding of how factors associated with high and low LS and MWB vary with deprivation. Here, we examine such variations and explore which public health measures are likely to improve wellbeing while reducing related inequalities. Methods A self-administered questionnaire measuring LS and MWB was used with a cross-sectional sample of adults from the North West of England (n = 15,228). Within deprivation tertiles, analyses examined how demographics, health status, employment, relationships and behaviours (alcohol, tobacco, physical exercise) were associated with LS and MWB. Results Deprivation was strongly related to low LS and MWB with, for instance, 17.1 % of the most deprived tertile having low LS compared to 8.9 % in the most affluent. After controlling for confounders, across all deprivation tertiles, better self-assessed health status and being in a relationship were protective against low LS and MWB. Unemployment increased risks of low LS across all tertiles but only risks of low MWB in the deprived tertile. For this tertile, South Asian ethnicity and higher levels of exercise were protective against low MWB. In the middle tertile retired individuals had a reduced risk of low MWB and an increased chance of high LS even in comparison to those in employment. Alcohol’s impact on LS was limited to the most deprived tertile where heavy drinkers were at most risk of poor outcomes. Conclusions In this study, positive outcomes for LS and MWB were strongly associated with lower deprivation and good health status. Public health measures already developed to promote these issues are likely to improve LS and MWB. Efforts to increase engagement in exercise are also likely

  12. Proton pump inhibitors protect mice from acute systemic inflammation and induce long-term cross-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Balza, E; Piccioli, P; Carta, S; Lavieri, R; Gattorno, M; Semino, C; Castellani, P; Rubartelli, A

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of sepsis is increasing, representing a tremendous burden for health-care systems. Death in acute sepsis is attributed to hyperinflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We report here that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which block gastric acid secretion, selectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated human monocytes in vitro, in the absence of toxic effects. Remarkably, the oversecretion of IL-1β that represents a hallmark of monocytes from patients affected by cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome is also blocked. Based on these propaedeutic experiments, we tested the effects of high doses of PPIs in vivo in the mouse model of endotoxic shock. Our data show that a single administration of PPI protected mice from death (60% survival versus 5% of untreated mice) and decreased TNF-α and IL-1β systemic production. PPIs were efficacious even when administered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. PPI-treated mice that survived developed a long-term cross-tolerance, becoming resistant to LPS- and zymosan-induced sepsis. In vitro, their macrophages displayed impaired TNF-α and IL-1β to different TLR ligands. PPIs also prevented sodium thioglycollate-induced peritoneal inflammation, indicating their efficacy also in a non-infectious setting independent of TLR stimulation. Lack of toxicity and therapeutic effectiveness make PPIs promising new drugs against sepsis and other severe inflammatory conditions. PMID:27441656

  13. An inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-ADVAX) formulated with delta inulin adjuvant provides robust heterologous protection against West Nile encephalitis via cross-protective memory B cells and neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Larena, Maximilian; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Prow, Natalie A; Hall, Roy A; Lobigs, Mario; Morrey, John

    2013-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), currently the cause of a serious U.S. epidemic, is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and member of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) serocomplex. There is currently no approved human WNV vaccine, and treatment options remain limited, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity from human infection. Given the availability of approved human JE vaccines, this study asked whether the JE-ADVAX vaccine, which contains an inactivated cell culture JE virus antigen formulated with Advax delta inulin adjuvant, could provide heterologous protection against WNV infection in wild-type and β2-microglobulin-deficient (β2m(-/-)) murine models. Mice immunized twice or even once with JE-ADVAX were protected against lethal WNV challenge even when mice had low or absent serum cross-neutralizing WNV titers prior to challenge. Similarly, β2m(-/-) mice immunized with JE-ADVAX were protected against lethal WNV challenge in the absence of CD8(+) T cells and prechallenge WNV antibody titers. Protection against WNV could be adoptively transferred to naive mice by memory B cells from JE-ADVAX-immunized animals. Hence, in addition to increasing serum cross-neutralizing antibody titers, JE-ADVAX induced a memory B-cell population able to provide heterologous protection against WNV challenge. Heterologous protection was reduced when JE vaccine antigen was administered alone without Advax, confirming the importance of the adjuvant to induction of cross-protective immunity. In the absence of an approved human WNV vaccine, JE-ADVAX could provide an alternative approach for control of a major human WNV epidemic.

  14. Cross-Protection of Influenza A Virus Infection by a DNA Aptamer Targeting the PA Endonuclease Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuofeng; Zhang, Naru; Singh, Kailash; Shuai, Huiping; Chu, Hin; Zhou, Jie; Chow, Billy K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid residues in the N-terminal of the PA subunit (PAN) of the influenza A virus polymerase play critical roles in endonuclease activity, protein stability, and viral RNA (vRNA) promoter binding. In addition, PAN is highly conserved among different subtypes of influenza virus, which suggests PAN to be a desired target in the development of anti-influenza agents. We selected DNA aptamers targeting the intact PA protein or the PAN domain of an H5N1 virus strain using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The binding affinities of selected aptamers were measured, followed by an evaluation of in vitro endonuclease inhibitory activity. Next, the antiviral effects of enriched aptamers against influenza A virus infections were examined. A total of three aptamers targeting PA and six aptamers targeting PAN were selected. Our data demonstrated that all three PA-selected aptamers neither inhibited endonuclease activity nor exhibited antiviral efficacy, whereas four of the six PAN-selected aptamers inhibited both endonuclease activity and H5N1 virus infection. Among the four effective aptamers, one exhibited cross-protection against infections of H1N1, H5N1, H7N7, and H7N9 influenza viruses, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of around 10 nM. Notably, this aptamer was identified at the 5th round but disappeared after the 10th round of selection, suggesting that the identification and evaluation of aptamers at early rounds of selection may be highly helpful for screening effective aptamers. Overall, our study provides novel insights for screening and developing effective aptamers for use as anti-influenza drugs. PMID:25918143

  15. Cutting edge: rapid boosting of cross-reactive memory CD8 T cells broadens the protective capacity of the Flumist vaccine.

    PubMed

    Slütter, Bram; Pewe, Lecia L; Lauer, Peter; Harty, John T

    2013-04-15

    Memory CD8 T cells recognizing conserved proteins from influenza A virus (IAV), such as nucleoprotein, have the potential to provide protection in individuals who lack the proper neutralizing Abs. In this study, we show that the most potent CD8 T cell-inducing influenza vaccine on the market (Flumist) does not induce sufficient numbers of cross-reactive CD8 T cells to provide substantial protection against lethal nonhomologous IAV challenge. However, Flumist-primed CD8 T cells rapidly acquire memory characteristics and can respond to short-interval boosting to greatly enlarge the IAV-specific memory pool, which is sufficient to protect mice from nonhomologous IAV challenge. Thus, a current vaccine strategy, Flumist, may serve as a priming platform for the rapid induction of large numbers of memory CD8 T cells with the capacity for broad protection against influenza.

  16. Rapid boosting of cross-reactive memory CD8 T-cells broadens the protective capacity of the Flumist® vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Slütter, Bram; Pewe, Lecia L.; Lauer, Peter; Harty, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Memory CD8 T-cells recognizing conserved proteins from influenza A virus (IAV) such as nucleoprotein (NP), have the potential to provide protection in individuals who lack the proper neutralizing antibodies. Here we show that the most potent CD8 T-cell inducing influenza vaccine on the market (Flumist®), does not induce sufficient numbers of cross-reactive CD8 T-cells to provide substantial protection against lethal non-homologous IAV challenge. However, Flumist primed CD8 T-cells rapidly acquire memory characteristics and can respond to short interval boosting to greatly enlarge the IAV specific memory pool, sufficient to protect mice from non-homologous IAV challenge. Thus, a current vaccine strategy, Flumist, may serve as a priming platform for rapid induction of large numbers of memory CD8 T-cells with the capacity for broad protection against influenza. PMID:23467935

  17. Evaluation of Cross-Protection of a Lineage 1 West Nile Virus Inactivated Vaccine against Natural Infections from a Virulent Lineage 2 Strain in Horses, under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Papanastassopoulou, Maria; Banos, Georgios; Dovas, Chrysostomos I

    2015-09-01

    Although experimental data regarding cross-protection of horse West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines against lineage 2 infections exist, the cross-protective efficacy of these vaccines under field conditions has not been demonstrated. This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of an inactivated lineage 1 vaccine (Equip WNV) to protect against natural infections from the Nea Santa-Greece-2010 lineage 2 strain. In total, 185 WNV-seronegative horses in Thessaloniki, Greece, were selected during 2 consecutive years (2011 and 2012); 140 were immunized, and 45 were used as controls. Horses were examined for signs compatible with WNV infection. Neutralizing antibody titers against the Greek strain and the PaAn001/France lineage 1 strain were determined in immunized horses. WNV circulation was detected during both years in the study area. It was estimated that 37% and 27% of the horses were infected during 2011 and 2012, respectively. Three control animals developed clinical signs, and the WNV diagnosis was confirmed. Signs related to WNV infection were not observed in the vaccinated animals. The nonvaccinated animals had a 7.58% ± 1.82% higher chance of exhibiting signs than immunized animals (P < 0.05). Neutralizing antibodies raised against both strains in all immunized horses were detectable 1 month after the initial vaccination course. The cross-protective capacity of the lowest titer (1:40) was evident in 19 animals which were subsequently infected and did not exhibit signs. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable until the annual booster, when strong anamnestic responses were observed (geometrical mean titer ratio [GMTR] for lineage 1 of 30.2; GMTR for lineage 2 of 27.5). The results indicate that Equip WNV is capable of inducing cross-protection against natural infections from a virulent lineage 2 WNV strain in horses.

  18. Evaluation of Cross-Protection of a Lineage 1 West Nile Virus Inactivated Vaccine against Natural Infections from a Virulent Lineage 2 Strain in Horses, under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chaintoutis, Serafeim C.; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Papanastassopoulou, Maria; Banos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Although experimental data regarding cross-protection of horse West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines against lineage 2 infections exist, the cross-protective efficacy of these vaccines under field conditions has not been demonstrated. This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of an inactivated lineage 1 vaccine (Equip WNV) to protect against natural infections from the Nea Santa-Greece-2010 lineage 2 strain. In total, 185 WNV-seronegative horses in Thessaloniki, Greece, were selected during 2 consecutive years (2011 and 2012); 140 were immunized, and 45 were used as controls. Horses were examined for signs compatible with WNV infection. Neutralizing antibody titers against the Greek strain and the PaAn001/France lineage 1 strain were determined in immunized horses. WNV circulation was detected during both years in the study area. It was estimated that 37% and 27% of the horses were infected during 2011 and 2012, respectively. Three control animals developed clinical signs, and the WNV diagnosis was confirmed. Signs related to WNV infection were not observed in the vaccinated animals. The nonvaccinated animals had a 7.58% ± 1.82% higher chance of exhibiting signs than immunized animals (P < 0.05). Neutralizing antibodies raised against both strains in all immunized horses were detectable 1 month after the initial vaccination course. The cross-protective capacity of the lowest titer (1:40) was evident in 19 animals which were subsequently infected and did not exhibit signs. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable until the annual booster, when strong anamnestic responses were observed (geometrical mean titer ratio [GMTR] for lineage 1 of 30.2; GMTR for lineage 2 of 27.5). The results indicate that Equip WNV is capable of inducing cross-protection against natural infections from a virulent lineage 2 WNV strain in horses. PMID:26178384

  19. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A.

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  20. Method for Calculation of Laminar Heat Transfer in Air Flow Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section (including Large Temperature Differences and Transpiration Cooling)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R; Livingood, John N B

    1953-01-01

    The solution of heat-transfer problems has become vital for many aeronautical applications. The shapes of objects to be cooled can often be approximated by cylinders of various cross sections with flow normal to the axis as, for instance heat transfer on gas-turbine blades and on air foils heated for deicing purposes. A laminar region always exists near the stagnation point of such objects. A method previously presented by E. R. G. Eckert permits the calculation of local heat transfer around the periphery of cylinders of arbitrary cross section in the laminar region for flow of a fluid with constant property values with an accuracy sufficient for engineering purposes. The method is based on exact solutions of the boundary-layer equations for incompressible wedge-type flow and on the postulate that at any point on the cylinder the boundary-layer growth is the same as that on a wedge with comparable flow conditions. This method is extended herein to take into account the influence of large temperature differences between the cylinder wall and the flow as well as the influence of transpiration cooling when the same medium as the outside flow is used as coolant.

  1. Emerging importance of mismatch repair components including UvrD helicase and their cross-talk with the development of drug resistance in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Moaz; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Human malaria is an important parasitic infection responsible for a significant number of deaths worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The recent scenario has worsened mainly because of the emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites having the potential to spread across the world. Drug-resistant parasites possess a defective mismatch repair (MMR); therefore, it is essential to explore its mechanism in detail to determine the underlying cause. Recently, artemisinin-resistant parasites have been reported to exhibit nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in MMR pathways such as MutL homolog (MLH) and UvrD. Plasmodium falciparum MLH is an endonuclease required to restore the defective MMR in drug-resistant W2 strain of P. falciparum. Although the role of helicases in eukaryotic MMR has been questioned, the identification and characterization of the UvrD helicase and their cross-talk with MLH in P. falciparum suggests the possible involvement of UvrD in MMR. A comparative genome-wide analysis revealed the presence of the UvrD helicase in Plasmodium species, while it is absent in human host. Therefore, PfUvrD may emerge as a suitable drug target to control malaria. This review study is focused on recent developments in MMR biochemistry, emerging importance of the UvrD helicase, possibility of its involvement in MMR and the emerging cross-talk between MMR components and drug resistance in malaria parasite. PMID:25771870

  2. Intranasal immunization with a formalin-inactivated human influenza A virus whole-virion vaccine alone and intranasal immunization with a split-virion vaccine with mucosal adjuvants show similar levels of cross-protection.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuoka, Sumiko; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Haredy, Ahmad M; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Akagi, Takami; Akashi, Mitsuru; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2012-07-01

    The antigenicity of seasonal human influenza virus changes continuously; thus, a cross-protective influenza vaccine design needs to be established. Intranasal immunization with an influenza split-virion (SV) vaccine and a mucosal adjuvant induces cross-protection; however, no mucosal adjuvant has been assessed clinically. Formalin-inactivated intact human and avian viruses alone (without adjuvant) induce cross-protection against the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. However, it is unknown whether seasonal human influenza formalin-inactivated whole-virion (WV) vaccine alone induces cross-protection against strains within a subtype or in a different subtype of human influenza virus. Furthermore, there are few reports comparing the cross-protective efficacy of the WV vaccine and SV vaccine-mucosal adjuvant mixtures. Here, we found that the intranasal human influenza WV vaccine alone induced both the innate immune response and acquired immune response, resulting in cross-protection against drift variants within a subtype of human influenza virus. The cross-protective efficacy conferred by the WV vaccine in intranasally immunized mice was almost the same as that conferred by a mixture of SV vaccine and adjuvants. The level of cross-protective efficacy was correlated with the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titer in the nasal wash and bronchoalveolar fluids. However, neither the SV vaccine with adjuvant nor the WV vaccine induced cross-reactive virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity. These results suggest that the intranasal human WV vaccine injection alone is effective against variants within a virus subtype, mainly through a humoral immune response, and that the cross-protection elicited by the WV vaccine and the SV vaccine plus mucosal adjuvants is similar.

  3. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of the Cross Flow Over a Cantilevered and Longitudinally Vibrating Circular Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yong; Lu, De-Tang; Liu, Yang; Xu, You-Sheng

    2009-03-01

    The multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is implemented to numerically simulate the cross flow over a longitudinal vibrating circular cylinder. This research is carried out on a three-dimensional (3D) finite cantilevered cylinder to investigate the effect of forced vibration on the wake characteristics and the 3D effect of a cantilevered cylinder. To meet the accuracy of this method, the present calculation is carried out at a low Reynolds number Re = 100, as well as to make the vibration obvious, we make the vibration strong enough. The calculation results indicate that the vibration has significant influence on the wake characteristics. When the vibrating is big enough, our early works show that the 2D vortex shedding would be locked up by vibration. Contrarily, this phenomenon would not appear in the present 3D case because of the end effect of the cantilevered cylinder.

  4. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: A new mammalian circadian oscillator model including the cAMP module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Wei; Zhou, Tian-Shou

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a new mathematical model for the mammalian circadian clock, which incorporates both transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs) and a cAMP-mediated feedback loop. The model shows that TTFLs and cAMP signalling cooperatively drive the circadian rhythms. It reproduces typical experimental observations with qualitative similarities, e.g. circadian oscillations in constant darkness and entrainment to light-dark cycles. In addition, it can explain the phenotypes of cAMP-mutant and Rev-erbα-/--mutant mice, and help us make an experimentally-testable prediction: oscillations may be rescued when arrhythmic mice with constitutively low concentrations of cAMP are crossed with Rev-erbα-/- mutant mice. The model enhances our understanding of the mammalian circadian clockwork from the viewpoint of the entire cell.

  5. rBCG30-induced immunity and cross-protection against Mycobacterium leprae challenge are enhanced by boosting with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30-kilodalton antigen 85B.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Thomas P; Tullius, Michael V; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2014-09-01

    Leprosy remains a major global health problem and typically occurs in regions in which tuberculosis is endemic. Vaccines are needed that protect against both infections and do so better than the suboptimal Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Here, we evaluated rBCG30, a vaccine previously demonstrated to induce protection superior to that of BCG against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis challenge in animal models, for efficacy against Mycobacterium leprae challenge in a murine model of leprosy. rBCG30 overexpresses the M. tuberculosis 30-kDa major secretory protein antigen 85B, which is 85% homologous with the M. leprae homolog (r30ML). Mice were sham immunized or immunized intradermally with BCG or rBCG30 and challenged 2.5 months later by injection of viable M. leprae into each hind footpad. After 7 months, vaccine efficacy was assessed by enumerating the M. leprae bacteria per footpad. Both BCG and rBCG30 induced significant protection against M. leprae challenge. In the one experiment in which a comparison between BCG and rBCG30 was feasible, rBCG30 induced significantly greater protection than did BCG. Immunization of mice with purified M. tuberculosis or M. leprae antigen 85B also induced protection against M. leprae challenge but less so than BCG or rBCG30. Notably, boosting rBCG30 with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B significantly enhanced r30ML-specific immune responses, substantially more so than boosting BCG, and significantly augmented protection against M. leprae challenge. Thus, rBCG30, a vaccine that induces improved protection against M. tuberculosis, induces cross-protection against M. leprae that is comparable or potentially superior to that induced by BCG, and boosting rBCG30 with antigen 85B further enhances immune responses and protective efficacy.

  6. Cross-protective efficacies of highly-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 vaccines against a recent H5N8 virus.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Jin; Si, Young-Jae; Kim, Jihye; Song, Min-Suk; Kim, Se-Mi; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Ok-Jun; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Chul-Joong; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-11-01

    To investigate cross-protective vaccine efficacy of highly-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses against a recent HPAI H5N8 virus, we immunized C57BL/6 mice and ferrets with three alum-adjuvanted inactivated whole H5N1 vaccines developed through reverse-genetics (Rg): [Vietnam/1194/04xPR8 (clade 1), Korea/W149/06xPR8 (clade 2.2), and Korea/ES223N/03xPR8 (clade 2.5)]. Although relatively low cross-reactivities (10-40 HI titer) were observed against heterologous H5N8 virus, immunized animals were 100% protected from challenge with the 20 mLD50 of H5N8 virus, with the exception of mice vaccinated with 3.5μg of Rg Vietnam/1194/04xPR8. Of note, the Rg Korea/ES223N/03xPR8 vaccine provided not only effective protection, but also markedly inhibited viral replication in the lungs and nasal swabs of vaccine recipients within five days of HPAI H5N8 virus challenge. Further, we demonstrated that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of an antibody-coated target cell by cytotoxic effector cells also plays a role in the heterologous protection of H5N1 vaccines against H5N8 challenge. PMID:27543757

  7. Inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide™ Gel 01 ST elicits virus-specific cross-protective inter-genotypic response in piglets.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kairat; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Tulemissova, Zhanara; Tabynov, Kaissar; Dhakal, Santosh; Samoltyrova, Aigul; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay

    2016-08-30

    The efficacy of a novel BEI-inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) candidate vaccine in pigs, developed at RIBSP Republic of Kazakhstan and delivered with an adjuvant Montanide™ Gel 01 ST (D/KV/ADJ) was compared with a commercial killed PRRSV vaccine (NVDC-JXA1, C/KV/ADJ) used widely in swine herds of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Clinical parameters (body temperature and respiratory disease scores), virological and immunological profiles [ELISA and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody titers], macroscopic lung lesions and viral load in the lungs (quantitative real-time PCR and cell culture assay) were assessed in vaccinated and both genotype 1 and 2 PRRSV challenged pigs. Our results showed that the commercial vaccine failed to protect pigs adequately against the clinical disease, viremia and lung lesions caused by the challenged field isolates, Kazakh strains of PRRSV type 1 and type 2 genotypes. In contrast, clinical protection, absence of viremia and lung lesions in D/KV/ADJ vaccinated pigs was associated with generation of VN antibodies in both homologous vaccine strain LKZ/2010 (PRRSV type 2) and a heterogeneous type 1 PRRSV strain (CM/08) challenged pigs. Thus, our data indicated the induction of cross-protective VN antibodies by D/KV/ADJ vaccine, and importantly demonstrated that an inactivated PRRSV vaccine could also induce cross-protective response across the viral genotype. PMID:27527768

  8. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-01

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  9. o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption: syntheses and uncaging cross-sections for one- and two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Aujard, Isabelle; Benbrahim, Chouaha; Gouget, Marine; Ruel, Odile; Baudin, Jean-Bernard; Neveu, Pierre; Jullien, Ludovic

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated the o-nitrobenzyl platform for designing photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption that could be photolyzed upon one- and two-photon excitation. Several synthetic pathways to build different conjugated o-nitrobenzyl backbones, as well as to vary the benzylic position, are reported. Relative to the reference 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl group, several o-nitrobenzyl derivatives exhibit a large and red-shifted one-photon absorption within the near-UV range. Uncaging after one-photon excitation was studied by measuring UV-visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence emission on model caged ethers and esters. In the whole series investigated, the caged substrates were released cleanly upon photolysis. Quantum yields of uncaging after one-photon absorption lie within the 0.1-1 % range. We observed that these drop as the maximum wavelength absorption of the o-nitrobenzyl protecting group is increased. A new method based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) after two-photon excitation was used to measure the action uncaging cross section for two-photon excitation. The series of o-nitrobenzyl caged fluorescent coumarins investigated exhibit values within the 0.1-0.01 Goeppert-Mayer (GM) range. Such results are in line with the low quantum yields of uncaging associated with cross-sections of 1-50 GM for two-photon absorption. Although the cross-sections for one- and two-photon absorption of o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups can be readily improved, we emphasize the difficulty in enlarging the corresponding action uncaging cross-sections in view of the observed trend of their quantum yield of uncaging.

  10. o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption: syntheses and uncaging cross-sections for one- and two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Aujard, Isabelle; Benbrahim, Chouaha; Gouget, Marine; Ruel, Odile; Baudin, Jean-Bernard; Neveu, Pierre; Jullien, Ludovic

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated the o-nitrobenzyl platform for designing photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption that could be photolyzed upon one- and two-photon excitation. Several synthetic pathways to build different conjugated o-nitrobenzyl backbones, as well as to vary the benzylic position, are reported. Relative to the reference 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl group, several o-nitrobenzyl derivatives exhibit a large and red-shifted one-photon absorption within the near-UV range. Uncaging after one-photon excitation was studied by measuring UV-visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence emission on model caged ethers and esters. In the whole series investigated, the caged substrates were released cleanly upon photolysis. Quantum yields of uncaging after one-photon absorption lie within the 0.1-1 % range. We observed that these drop as the maximum wavelength absorption of the o-nitrobenzyl protecting group is increased. A new method based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) after two-photon excitation was used to measure the action uncaging cross section for two-photon excitation. The series of o-nitrobenzyl caged fluorescent coumarins investigated exhibit values within the 0.1-0.01 Goeppert-Mayer (GM) range. Such results are in line with the low quantum yields of uncaging associated with cross-sections of 1-50 GM for two-photon absorption. Although the cross-sections for one- and two-photon absorption of o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups can be readily improved, we emphasize the difficulty in enlarging the corresponding action uncaging cross-sections in view of the observed trend of their quantum yield of uncaging. PMID:16763952

  11. A Chimeric 18L1-45RG1 Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Cross-Protects against Oncogenic Alpha-7 Human Papillomavirus Types

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Jindra, Christoph; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) types causes all cervical and a subset of other anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Four high-risk (hr) mucosal types HPV16, 18, 45, or 59 cause almost all cervical adenocarcinomas (AC), a subset of cervical cancer (CxC). Although the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has dramatically decreased following introduction of Papanicolaou (PAP) screening, the proportion of AC has relatively increased. Cervical SCC arise mainly from the ectocervix, whereas AC originate primarily from the endocervical canal, which is less accessible to obtain viable PAP smears. Licensed (bivalent and quadrivalent) HPV vaccines comprise virus-like particles (VLP) of the most important hr HPV16 and 18, self-assembled from the major capsid protein L1. Due to mainly type-restricted efficacy, both vaccines do not target 13 additional hr mucosal types causing 30% of CxC. The papillomavirus genus alpha species 7 (α7) includes a group of hr types of which HPV18, 45, 59 are proportionally overrepresented in cervical AC and only partially (HPV18) targeted by current vaccines. To target these types, we generated a chimeric vaccine antigen that consists of a cross-neutralizing epitope (homologue of HPV16 RG1) of the L2 minor capsid protein of HPV45 genetically inserted into a surface loop of HPV18 L1 VLP (18L1-45RG1). Vaccination of NZW rabbits with 18L1-45RG1 VLP plus alum-MPL adjuvant induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies against homologous HPV18, that cross-neutralized non-cognate hr α7 types HPV39, 45, 68, but not HPV59, and low risk HPV70 in vitro, and induced a robust L1-specific cellular immune response. Passive immunization protected mice against experimental vaginal challenge with pseudovirions of HPV18, 39, 45 and 68, but not HPV59 or the distantly related α9 type HPV16. 18L1-45RG1 VLP might be combined with our previously described 16L1-16RG1 VLP to develop a second generation bivalent vaccine

  12. ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE6 Protects Arabidopsis Desiccating and Germinating Seeds from Stress and Mediates Cross Talk between Reactive Oxygen Species, Abscisic Acid, and Auxin1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changming; Letnik, Ilya; Hacham, Yael; Dobrev, Petre; Ben-Daniel, Bat-Hen; Vanková, Radomíra; Amir, Rachel; Miller, Gad

    2014-01-01

    A seed’s ability to properly germinate largely depends on its oxidative poise. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is controlled by a large gene network, which includes the gene coding for the hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme, cytosolic ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE6 (APX6), yet its specific function has remained unknown. In this study, we show that seeds lacking APX6 accumulate higher levels of ROS, exhibit increased oxidative damage, and display reduced germination on soil under control conditions and that these effects are further exacerbated under osmotic, salt, or heat stress. In addition, ripening APX6-deficient seeds exposed to heat stress displayed reduced germination vigor. This, together with the increased abundance of APX6 during late stages of maturation, indicates that APX6 activity is critical for the maturation-drying phase. Metabolic profiling revealed an altered activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, changes in amino acid levels, and elevated metabolism of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin in drying apx6 mutant seeds. Further germination assays showed an impaired response of the apx6 mutants to ABA and to indole-3-acetic acid. Relative suppression of abscisic acid insensitive3 (ABI3) and ABI5 expression, two of the major ABA signaling downstream components controlling dormancy, suggested that an alternative signaling route inhibiting germination was activated. Thus, our study uncovered a new role for APX6, in protecting mature desiccating and germinating seeds from excessive oxidative damage, and suggested that APX6 modulate the ROS signal cross talk with hormone signals to properly execute the germination program in Arabidopsis. PMID:25049361

  13. ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE6 protects Arabidopsis desiccating and germinating seeds from stress and mediates cross talk between reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid, and auxin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changming; Letnik, Ilya; Hacham, Yael; Dobrev, Petre; Ben-Daniel, Bat-Hen; Vanková, Radomíra; Amir, Rachel; Miller, Gad

    2014-09-01

    A seed's ability to properly germinate largely depends on its oxidative poise. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is controlled by a large gene network, which includes the gene coding for the hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme, cytosolic ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE6 (APX6), yet its specific function has remained unknown. In this study, we show that seeds lacking APX6 accumulate higher levels of ROS, exhibit increased oxidative damage, and display reduced germination on soil under control conditions and that these effects are further exacerbated under osmotic, salt, or heat stress. In addition, ripening APX6-deficient seeds exposed to heat stress displayed reduced germination vigor. This, together with the increased abundance of APX6 during late stages of maturation, indicates that APX6 activity is critical for the maturation-drying phase. Metabolic profiling revealed an altered activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, changes in amino acid levels, and elevated metabolism of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin in drying apx6 mutant seeds. Further germination assays showed an impaired response of the apx6 mutants to ABA and to indole-3-acetic acid. Relative suppression of abscisic acid insensitive3 (ABI3) and ABI5 expression, two of the major ABA signaling downstream components controlling dormancy, suggested that an alternative signaling route inhibiting germination was activated. Thus, our study uncovered a new role for APX6, in protecting mature desiccating and germinating seeds from excessive oxidative damage, and suggested that APX6 modulate the ROS signal cross talk with hormone signals to properly execute the germination program in Arabidopsis. PMID:25049361

  14. A water-based training program that includes perturbation exercises improves speed of voluntary stepping in older adults: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Elbar, Ori; Tzedek, Irit; Vered, Elisha; Shvarth, Gali; Friger, Michael; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a water exercise training program that includes perturbation exercises (WEP) to improve the speed of voluntary stepping reaction in older adults. Speed of voluntary stepping considered as an important skill to prevent a fall when balance is lost. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a crossover design thirty-six independent old adults (64-88 years old) were divided into two groups. Group A received WEP for the first 12 weeks, followed by no intervention for the second 12 weeks. Group B did not receive intervention for the first 12 weeks and received WEP for the second 12 weeks. Voluntary Step Execution Test and postural stability in upright standing (eyes open and closed conditions) were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A significant interaction effect between group and time was found for the step execution, due to improvement in initiation phase and swing phase durations in the WEP group. Also significant improvement in postural stability parameters in eyes open and closed conditions is noted. The present results indicate that the primary benefit of WEP that include perturbations to induce stepping, was a reduction in voluntary stepping times. The WEP generalized to a better control of balance in up-right standing. PMID:22951028

  15. A water-based training program that includes perturbation exercises improves speed of voluntary stepping in older adults: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Elbar, Ori; Tzedek, Irit; Vered, Elisha; Shvarth, Gali; Friger, Michael; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a water exercise training program that includes perturbation exercises (WEP) to improve the speed of voluntary stepping reaction in older adults. Speed of voluntary stepping considered as an important skill to prevent a fall when balance is lost. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a crossover design thirty-six independent old adults (64-88 years old) were divided into two groups. Group A received WEP for the first 12 weeks, followed by no intervention for the second 12 weeks. Group B did not receive intervention for the first 12 weeks and received WEP for the second 12 weeks. Voluntary Step Execution Test and postural stability in upright standing (eyes open and closed conditions) were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A significant interaction effect between group and time was found for the step execution, due to improvement in initiation phase and swing phase durations in the WEP group. Also significant improvement in postural stability parameters in eyes open and closed conditions is noted. The present results indicate that the primary benefit of WEP that include perturbations to induce stepping, was a reduction in voluntary stepping times. The WEP generalized to a better control of balance in up-right standing.

  16. Cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haixue; Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Jin, Ye; Zhu, Zixiang; Guo, Jianhong; Cao, Weijun; Liu, Huanan; He, Jijun; Zhang, Keshan; Li, Dan; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Recently, a series of outbreaks of type A FMDV occurred in Southeast Asian countries, China, the Russia Federation, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and South Korea. The FMD virus (A/GDMM/CHA/2013) from China's Guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in VP1 protein with the epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 from Wuhan, China in 2009. Both of isolates belong to the Sea-97 genotype of ASIA topotype. Therefore, the application of a new vaccine strain with cross-protective efficacy is of fundamental importance to control the spread of the two described pandemic strains. A chimeric strain rA/P1-FMDV constructed by our lab previously through replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09, has been demonstrated to exhibit good growth characteristics in culture, and the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine can provide protection against epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 in cattle. However, it is still unclear whether the vaccine produces efficient protection against the new pandemic strain (A/GDMM/CHA/2013). Here, vaccine matching and pig 50% protective dose (PD50) tests were performed to assess the vaccine potency. The vaccine matching test showed cross-reactivity of sera from full dose vaccine vaccinated pigs with A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 isolates, with average r1 values of 0.94±0.12 and 0.68±0.06 (r1≥0.3), which indicates that the rA/P1-FMDV vaccine is likely to confer good cross-protection against the two isolates. When challenged with two pandemic isolates A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 strain, the vaccine achieved 12.51 PD50 and 10.05 PD50 per dose (2.8μg), respectively. The results indicated that the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine could protect pigs against both A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 pandemic isolates.

  17. Effective treatment of glioblastoma requires crossing the blood-brain barrier and targeting tumors including cancer stem cells: The promise of nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Harford, Joe B; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Chang, Esther H

    2015-12-18

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal type of brain tumor. Both therapeutic resistance and restricted permeation of drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) play a major role in the poor prognosis of GBM patients. Accumulated evidence suggests that in many human cancers, including GBM, therapeutic resistance can be attributed to a small fraction of cancer cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been shown to have stem cell-like properties that enable them to evade traditional cytotoxic therapies, and so new CSC-directed anti-cancer therapies are needed. Nanoparticles have been designed to selectively deliver payloads to relevant target cells in the body, and there is considerable interest in the use of nanoparticles for CSC-directed anti-cancer therapies. Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine offer new possibilities for overcoming CSC-mediated therapeutic resistance and thus significantly improving management of GBM. In this review, we will examine the current nanomedicine approaches for targeting CSCs and their therapeutic implications. The inhibitory effect of various nanoparticle-based drug delivery system towards CSCs in GBM tumors is the primary focus of this review.

  18. Interspecies difference in placement of developing teeth and its relationship with cross-sectional geometry of the mandibular symphysis in four primate species including modern humans.

    PubMed

    Fukase, Hitoshi

    2012-02-01

    The form of the anthropoid mandibular symphysis has recently been addressed in association with spatial requirements for the forming anterior teeth. To evaluate potential relationships between the symphyseal shape and teeth further, the growth patterns of the symphyseal region and the positioning of the tooth crypts were examined using CT data, comparing four primate species (modern humans, chimpanzees, Japanese monkeys, and hamadryas baboons) with varied symphyseal curvature and tooth size. First, results showed that interspecies differences in overall mandibular shape including symphyseal inclination and bicanine width are consistently expressed throughout postnatal ontogeny, although local symphyseal configurations related to the superior transverse torus (STT) tended to change considerably during growth in chimpanzees. Second, the four species were found to exhibit differentiated formation positions of the incisor and canine crypts. In particular, I2 developed between I1 and C in humans with a broad bicanine space and small teeth, whereas it was positioned posterior to I1 and above C in the cercopithecines with an extremely narrow bicanine space. In chimpanzees, despite the large bicanine width, I1 and I2 grew with a large antero-posterior overlap owing to their large size. These results indicate that the dental positioning is determined in concert with the size balance of the available mandibular space and forming teeth. Finally, the positions/contours of I2 crypt were shown to correspond strongly with the STT across the taxa. This suggests that interspecies differences in symphyseal shape should be interpreted partially by the species-specific positional relationships of the developing anterior teeth.

  19. Effect of small versus large clusters of fish school on the yield of a purse-seine small pelagic fishery including a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Brochier, Timothée; Tri, Nguyen-Huu; Auger, Pierre; Brehmer, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    We consider a fishery model with two sites: (1) a marine protected area (MPA) where fishing is prohibited and (2) an area where the fish population is harvested. We assume that fish can migrate from MPA to fishing area at a very fast time scale and fish spatial organisation can change from small to large clusters of school at a fast time scale. The growth of the fish population and the catch are assumed to occur at a slow time scale. The complete model is a system of five ordinary differential equations with three time scales. We take advantage of the time scales using aggregation of variables methods to derive a reduced model governing the total fish density and fishing effort at the slow time scale. We analyze this aggregated model and show that under some conditions, there exists an equilibrium corresponding to a sustainable fishery. Our results suggest that in small pelagic fisheries the yield is maximum for a fish population distributed among both small and large clusters of school.

  20. Cross-Reactive, Cell-Mediated Immunity and Protection of Chickens from Lethal H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Hong Kong Poultry Markets

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Heui; Webster, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, avian H5N1 influenza virus transmitted from chickens to humans resulted in 18 confirmed infections. Despite harboring lethal H5N1 influenza viruses, most chickens in the Hong Kong poultry markets showed no disease signs. At this time, H9N2 influenza viruses were cocirculating in the markets. We investigated the role of H9N2 influenza viruses in protecting chickens from lethal H5N1 influenza virus infections. Sera from chickens infected with an H9N2 influenza virus did not cross-react with an H5N1 influenza virus in neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. Most chickens primed with an H9N2 influenza virus 3 to 70 days earlier survived the lethal challenge of an H5N1 influenza virus, but infected birds shed H5N1 influenza virus in their feces. Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes or CD8+ T cells from inbred chickens (B2/B2) infected with an H9N2 influenza virus to naive inbred chickens (B2/B2) protected them from lethal H5N1 influenza virus. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that T lymphocytes or CD8+ T cells from chickens infected with an H9N2 influenza virus recognized target cells infected with either an H5N1 or H9N2 influenza virus in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that cross-reactive cellular immunity induced by H9N2 influenza viruses protected chickens from lethal infection with H5N1 influenza viruses in the Hong Kong markets in 1997 but permitted virus shedding in the feces. Our findings are the first to suggest that cross-reactive cellular immunity can change the outcome of avian influenza virus infection in birds in live markets and create a situation for the perpetuation of H5N1 influenza viruses. PMID:11222674

  1. Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Wu, Yun; Lee, Ly James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1–Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-γ+ lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible. PMID:24493925

  2. Cross-reactive, cell-mediated immunity and protection of chickens from lethal H5N1 influenza virus infection in Hong Kong poultry markets.

    PubMed

    Seo, S H; Webster, R G

    2001-03-01

    In 1997, avian H5N1 influenza virus transmitted from chickens to humans resulted in 18 confirmed infections. Despite harboring lethal H5N1 influenza viruses, most chickens in the Hong Kong poultry markets showed no disease signs. At this time, H9N2 influenza viruses were cocirculating in the markets. We investigated the role of H9N2 influenza viruses in protecting chickens from lethal H5N1 influenza virus infections. Sera from chickens infected with an H9N2 influenza virus did not cross-react with an H5N1 influenza virus in neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. Most chickens primed with an H9N2 influenza virus 3 to 70 days earlier survived the lethal challenge of an H5N1 influenza virus, but infected birds shed H5N1 influenza virus in their feces. Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes or CD8(+) T cells from inbred chickens (B(2)/B(2)) infected with an H9N2 influenza virus to naive inbred chickens (B(2)/B(2)) protected them from lethal H5N1 influenza virus. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that T lymphocytes or CD8(+) T cells from chickens infected with an H9N2 influenza virus recognized target cells infected with either an H5N1 or H9N2 influenza virus in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that cross-reactive cellular immunity induced by H9N2 influenza viruses protected chickens from lethal infection with H5N1 influenza viruses in the Hong Kong markets in 1997 but permitted virus shedding in the feces. Our findings are the first to suggest that cross-reactive cellular immunity can change the outcome of avian influenza virus infection in birds in live markets and create a situation for the perpetuation of H5N1 influenza viruses.

  3. Characterization of a novel citrus tristeza virus genotype within three cross-protecting source GFMS12 sub-isolates in South Africa by means of Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zablocki, Olivier; Pietersen, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    Tristeza disease (caused by citrus tristeza virus, CTV) is currently controlled in South Africa by means of cross-protection. In this study, we characterized the CTV populations of three grapefruit mild strain 12 (GFMS12) single-aphid-transmission-derived sub-isolates at the whole-genome level using Illumina sequencing technology. A novel South African isolate (CT-ZA3, of the T68 genotype) was shown to be the dominant genotype in all GFMS12 sub-isolates tested, along with reads unique to various other genotypes occurring as minor components. Uncertainty remains as to the significance of these minor components. PMID:24623089

  4. A microacoustic analysis including viscosity and thermal conductivity to model the effect of the protective cap on the acoustic response of a MEMS microphone

    PubMed Central

    Homentcovschi, D.; Miles, R. N.; Loeppert, P. V.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the effect of the protective cover on the acoustic response of a miniature silicon microphone. The microphone diaphragm is contained within a small rectangular enclosure and the sound enters through a small hole in the enclosure's top surface. A numerical model is presented to predict the variation in the sound field with position within the enclosure. An objective of this study is to determine up to which frequency the pressure distribution remains sufficiently uniform so that a pressure calibration can be made in free space. The secondary motivation for this effort is to facilitate microphone design by providing a means of predicting how the placement of the microphone diaphragm in the package affects the sensitivity and frequency response. While the size of the package is typically small relative to the wavelength of the sounds of interest, because the dimensions of the package are on the order of the thickness of the viscous boundary layer, viscosity can significantly affect the distribution of sound pressure around the diaphragm. In addition to the need to consider viscous effects, it is shown here that one must also carefully account for thermal conductivity to properly represent energy dissipation at the system's primary acoustic resonance frequency. The sound field is calculated using a solution of the linearized system consisting of continuity equation, Navier-Stokes equations, the state equation and the energy equation using a finite element approach. The predicted spatial variation of both the amplitude and phase of the sound pressure is shown over the range of audible frequencies. Excellent agreement is shown between the predicted and measured effects of the package on the microphone's sensitivity. PMID:24701031

  5. Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Nazki, Salik; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Eun-Jin; Sun, Dong; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-01-01

    One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3-4 and ORFs 5-6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains. PMID:27556483

  6. Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Nazki, Salik; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Eun-Jin; Sun, Dong; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-01-01

    One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3–4 and ORFs 5–6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains. PMID:27556483

  7. Cross protection against fowl cholera disease with the use of recombinant Pasteurella multocida FHAB2 peptides vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that fhaB2 (filamentous hemagglutinin) is an important virulence factor for P. multocida in development of fowl cholera disease and that recombinant FHAB2 peptides derived from P. multocida, Pm-1059, protect turkeys against Pm-1059 challenge. To test the hypothesis that rFHA...

  8. Informing Food Protection Education: A Project to Define and Classify Resources for a Cross-Disciplinary Expert Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; Pierquet, Jennifer; McClellan, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the September 2001 attacks, the U.S. government founded the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with responsibility to develop a National Infrastructure Protection Plan for securing critical infrastructures and key resources. DHS established interdisciplinary networks of academic expertise administered through Centers of…

  9. Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies Directed against Pandemic H1N1 2009 Virus Are Protective in a Highly Sensitive DBA/2 Mouse Influenza Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Adrianus C. M.; deBeauchamp, Jennifer; Krauss, Scott; Rubrum, Adam; Webb, Ashley D.; Webster, Robert G.; McElhaney, Janet; Webby, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to rapidly respond to an emerging influenza pandemic is hampered somewhat by the lack of a susceptible small-animal model. To develop a more sensitive model, we pathotyped 18 low-pathogenic non-mouse-adapted influenza A viruses of human and avian origin in DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice. The majority of the isolates (13/18) induced severe morbidity and mortality in DBA/2 mice upon intranasal challenge with 1 million infectious doses. Also, at a 100-fold-lower dose, more than 50% of the viruses induced severe weight loss, and mice succumbed to the infection. In contrast, only two virus strains were pathogenic for C57BL/6 mice upon high-dose inoculation. Therefore, DBA/2 mice are a suitable model to validate influenza A virus vaccines and antiviral therapies without the need for extensive viral adaptation. Correspondingly, we used the DBA/2 model to assess the level of protection afforded by preexisting pandemic H1N1 2009 virus (H1N1pdm) cross-reactive human antibodies detected by a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Passive transfer of these antibodies prior to infection protected mice from H1N1pdm-induced pathogenicity, demonstrating the effectiveness of these cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in vivo. PMID:20484500

  10. Cost-effectiveness of the prophylactic HPV vaccine: an application to the Netherlands taking non-cervical cancers and cross-protection into account.

    PubMed

    Luttjeboer, J; Westra, T A; Wilschut, J C; Nijman, H W; Daemen, T; Postma, M J

    2013-08-20

    Despite an effective screening programme, 600-700 women are still diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Netherlands each year. In 2009 a prophylactic vaccine against HPV-type 16 and 18 was implemented in the national immunisation programme to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. There is evidence that infections with several oncogenic HPV types other than the vaccine types 16 and 18 are also prevented by vaccination, also known as cross-protection. Besides cervical cancer, HPV can also cause cancers at other sites such as the oropharynx, vulva, vagina and the anus/anal area. In this study we estimated the maximum health and economic benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls against infection with HPV, taking cross-protection and non-cervical cancers into account. In the base-case, we found an incremental cost ratio (ICER) of €5815 per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Robustness of this result was examined in sensitivity analysis. The ICER proved to be most sensitive to vaccine price, discounting rates, costs of cervical cancer and to variation in the disutility of cervical cancer.

  11. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  12. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens.

  13. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  14. Intentions to Perform Non-Pharmaceutical Protective Behaviors during Influenza Outbreaks in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study following a Mass Vaccination Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Strömgren, Magnus; Ekberg, Joakim; Pilemalm, Sofie; Karlsson, David; Hinkula, Jorma; Holm, Einar

    2014-01-01

    Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45–85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non

  15. Brominated 7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyls: Photolabile protecting groups with biologically useful cross-sections for two photon photolysis

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Toshiaki; Wang, Samuel S.-H.; Dantzker, Jami L.; Dore, Timothy M.; Bybee, Wendy J.; Callaway, Edward M.; Denk, Winfried; Tsien, Roger Y.

    1999-01-01

    Photochemical release (uncaging) of bioactive messengers with three-dimensional spatial resolution in light-scattering media would be greatly facilitated if the photolysis could be powered by pairs of IR photons rather than the customary single UV photons. The quadratic dependence on light intensity would confine the photolysis to the focus point of the laser, and the longer wavelengths would be much less affected by scattering. However, previous caged messengers have had very small cross sections for two-photon excitation in the IR region. We now show that brominated 7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyl esters and carbamates efficiently release carboxylates and amines on photolysis, with one- and two-photon cross sections up to one or two orders of magnitude better than previously available. These advantages are demonstrated on neurons in brain slices from rat cortex and hippocampus excited by glutamate uncaged from N-(6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethoxycarbonyl)-l-glutamate (Bhc-glu). Conventional UV photolysis of Bhc-glu requires less than one-fifth the intensities needed by one of the best previous caged glutamates, γ-(α-carboxy-2-nitrobenzyl)-l-glutamate (CNB-glu). Two-photon photolysis with raster-scanned femtosecond IR pulses gives the first three-dimensionally resolved maps of the glutamate sensitivity of neurons in intact slices. Bhc-glu and analogs should allow more efficient and three-dimensionally localized uncaging and photocleavage, not only in cell biology and neurobiology but also in many technological applications. PMID:9990000

  16. Microneedle delivery of an M2e-TLR5 ligand fusion protein to skin confers broadly cross-protective influenza immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Zhong; Gill, Harvinder S; He, Cheng; Ou, Changbo; Wang, Li; Wang, Ying-Chun; Feng, Hao; Zhang, Han; Prausnitz, Mark R; Compans, Richard W

    2014-03-28

    Influenza vaccines with broad cross-protection are urgently needed to prevent an emerging influenza pandemic. A fusion protein of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5-agonist domains from flagellin and multiple repeats of the conserved extracellular domain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) was constructed, purified and evaluated as such a vaccine. A painless vaccination method suitable for possible self-administration using coated microneedle arrays was investigated for skin-targeted delivery of the fusion protein in a mouse model. The results demonstrate that microneedle immunization induced strong humoral as well as mucosal antibody responses and conferred complete protection against homo- and heterosubtypic lethal virus challenges. Protective efficacy with microneedles was found to be significantly better than that seen with conventional intramuscular injection, and comparable to that observed with intranasal immunization. Because of its advantages for administration, safety and storage, microneedle delivery of M2e-flagellin fusion protein is a promising approach for an easy-to-administer universal influenza vaccine. PMID:24417966

  17. Cross-Reactive Protection against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection by Enteropathogenic E. coli in a Mouse Model ▿

    PubMed Central

    Calderon Toledo, Carla; Arvidsson, Ida; Karpman, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are related attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. The genes responsible for the A/E pathology are carried on a chromosomal pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Both pathogens share a high degree of homology in the LEE and additional O islands. EHEC prevalence is much lower in areas where EPEC is endemic. This may be due to the development of antibodies against common EPEC and EHEC antigens. This study investigated the hypothesis that EPEC infections may protect against EHEC infections. We used a mouse model to inoculate BALB/c mice intragastrically, first with EPEC and then with EHEC (E. coli O157:H7). Four control groups received either a nonpathogenic E. coli (NPEC) strain followed by EHEC (NPEC/EHEC), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) followed by EHEC (PBS/EHEC), EPEC/PBS, or PBS/PBS. Mice were monitored for weight loss and symptoms. EPEC colonized the intestine after challenge, and mice developed serum antibodies to intimin and E. coli secreted protein B (encoded in the LEE). Prechallenge with an EPEC strain had a protective effect after EHEC infection, as only a few mice developed mild symptoms, from which they recovered. These mice had an increase in body weight similar to that in control animals, and tissue morphology exhibited mild intestinal changes and normal renal histology. All mice that were not prechallenged with the EPEC strain developed mild to severe symptoms after EHEC infection, with weight loss as well as intestinal and renal histopathological changes. These data suggest that EPEC may protect against EHEC infection in this mouse model. PMID:21402761

  18. Evaluation of the antigenic relatedness and cross-protective immunity of the neuraminidase between human influenza A (H1N1) virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuhua; Liu, Feng; Zeng, Hui; Sheu, Tiffany; Achenbach, Jenna E; Veguilla, Vic; Gubareva, Larisa V; Garten, Rebecca; Smith, Catherine; Yang, Hua; Stevens, James; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2014-04-01

    To determine the genetic and antigenic relatedness as well as the cross-protective immunity of human H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza virus neuraminidase (NA), we immunized rabbits with either a baculovirus-expressed recombinant NA from A/Beijing/262/95 (BJ/262) H1N1 or A/Hong Kong/483/97 (HK/483) H5N1 virus. Cross-reactive antibody responses were evaluated by multiple serological assays and cross-protection against H5N1 virus challenge was evaluated in mice. In a neuraminidase inhibition (NI) test, the antisera exhibited substantial inhibition of NA activity of the homologous virus, but failed to inhibit the NA activity of heterologous virus. However, these antisera exhibited low levels of cross-reactivity measured by plaque size reduction, replication inhibition, single radial hemolysis, and ELISA assays. Passive immunization with HK/483 NA-specific antisera significantly reduced virus replication and disease, and afforded almost complete protection against lethal homologous virus challenge in mice. However, passive immunization with BJ/262 (H1N1) NA-specific antisera was ineffective at providing cross-protection against lethal H5N1 virus challenge and only slightly reduced weight loss. Substantial amino acid variation among the NA antigenic sites was observed between BJ/262 and HK/483 virus, which was consistent with the lack of cross-reactive NI activity by the antibody and limited cross-protective immunity in mice. These results show a strong correlation between the lack of cross-protective immunity and low structural similarities of NA from a human seasonal H1N1 virus and an avian H5N1 influenza virus.

  19. Protection against Lethal Enterovirus 71 Challenge in Mice by a Recombinant Vaccine Candidate Containing a Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Epitope within the VP2 EF Loop

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Li, Zhiqun; Zheng, Jun; Yang, Lisheng; Yu, Miao; Yu, Hai; Chen, Yixin; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with several severe neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. Here, we evaluated that while passive transfer of neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMAb) against the VP2 protein protect against lethal EV71 infection in BALB/c mice. Protective nMAb were mapped to residues 141-155 of VP2 by peptide ELISA. High-resolution structural analysis showed that the epitope is part of the VP2 EF loop, which is the “puff” region that forms the “southern rim” of the canyon. Moreover, a three-dimensional structural characterization for the puff region with prior neutralizing epitopes and receptor-binding sites that can serve to inform vaccine strategies. Interestingly, using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, we demonstrated that the cross-neutralizing EV71 antibodies were induced, and the VP2 epitope immunized mice serum also conferred 100% in vivo passive protection. The mechanism of in vivo protection conferred by VP2 nMAb is in part attributed to the in vitro neutralizing titer and ability to bind authentic viral particles. Importantly, the anti-VP2(aa141-155) antibodies could inhibit the binding of human serum to EV71 virions showed that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant. Collectively, our results suggest that a broad-spectrum vaccine strategy targeting the high-affinity epitope of VP2 EF loop may elicits effective immune responses against EV71 infection. PMID:24669278

  20. Concurrent and cross-season protection of inactivated influenza vaccine against A(H1N1)pdm09 illness among young children: 2012-2013 case-control evaluation of influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chuanxi; Xu, Jianxiong; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Ming; Li, Kuibiao; Ge, Jing; Thompson, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    In 2012-2013, we examined 1729 laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza cases matched 1:1 with healthy controls and estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) to be 67% (95% confidence interval=58-74%) for ages 8 months to 6 years old. Among children aged 8-35 months old, VE for fully vaccinated children (73%, 60-81%) was significantly higher than VE for partially vaccinated children (55%, 33-70%). Significant cross-season protection from prior IIV3 was noted, including VE of 31% (8-48%) from IIV3 received in 2010-2011 against influenza illness in 2012--2013 without subsequent boosting doses.

  1. In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging of Influenza A Virus Infection and Characterization of Novel Cross-Protective Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Nicholas S.; Leyva-Grado, Victor H.; Tan, Gene S.; Eggink, Dirk; Hai, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a major human pathogen responsible for seasonal epidemics as well as pandemic outbreaks. Due to the continuing burden on human health, the need for new tools to study influenza virus pathogenesis as well as to evaluate new therapeutics is paramount. We report the development of a stable, replication-competent luciferase reporter influenza A virus that can be used for in vivo imaging of viral replication. This imaging is noninvasive and allows for the longitudinal monitoring of infection in living animals. We used this tool to characterize novel monoclonal antibodies that bind the conserved stalk domain of the viral hemagglutinin of H1 and H5 subtypes and protect mice from lethal disease. The use of luciferase reporter influenza viruses allows for new mechanistic studies to expand our knowledge of virus-induced disease and provides a new quantitative method to evaluate future antiviral therapies. PMID:23698304

  2. Protection of a Single Dose West Nile Virus Recombinant Subviral Particle Vaccine against Lineage 1 or 2 Strains and Analysis of the Cross-Reactivity with Usutu Virus

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Cañas-Arranz, Rodrigo; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus. High WNV virulence was mainly associated with lineage 1 strains, but recent outbreaks have unveiled circulation of highly virulent lineage 2 strains. Co-expression of flavivirus prM and E glycoproteins drives the assembly of recombinant subviral particles (RSPs) that share antigenic features with virions. Mouse immunization with lineage 1 WNV RSPs induced a potent humoral response against WNV with production of neutralizing antibodies. A single inoculation of RSPs formulated with Al(OH)3 as adjuvant protected mice against a lethal challenge with WNV strains from lineage 1 or 2. The cross-reactivity of the response elicited by these RSPs was analyzed against the related flavivirus Usutu virus (USUV), which shares multiple ecological and antigenic features with WNV. Immunization with WNV-RSPs increased specific, although low, antibody titers found upon subsequent USUV infection. PMID:25229345

  3. Protection of a single dose west nile virus recombinant subviral particle vaccine against lineage 1 or 2 strains and analysis of the cross-reactivity with Usutu virus.

    PubMed

    Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Cañas-Arranz, Rodrigo; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus. High WNV virulence was mainly associated with lineage 1 strains, but recent outbreaks have unveiled circulation of highly virulent lineage 2 strains. Co-expression of flavivirus prM and E glycoproteins drives the assembly of recombinant subviral particles (RSPs) that share antigenic features with virions. Mouse immunization with lineage 1 WNV RSPs induced a potent humoral response against WNV with production of neutralizing antibodies. A single inoculation of RSPs formulated with Al(OH)3 as adjuvant protected mice against a lethal challenge with WNV strains from lineage 1 or 2. The cross-reactivity of the response elicited by these RSPs was analyzed against the related flavivirus Usutu virus (USUV), which shares multiple ecological and antigenic features with WNV. Immunization with WNV-RSPs increased specific, although low, antibody titers found upon subsequent USUV infection.

  4. A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2012-08-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.

  5. HIPAA Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act--IRS. Notice of proposed rulemaking by cross-reference to temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    1998-10-27

    Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the IRS is issuing temporary regulations relating to minimum hospital length-of-stay requirements imposed on group health plans with respect to mothers and newborns. The hospital length-of-stay requirements were added to the Internal Revenue Code by section 1531 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. The IRS is issuing the temporary regulations at the same time that the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor and the Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations relating to hospital length-of-stay requirements added by the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1996 to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Public Health Service Act. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers and group health plans relating to the new hospital length-of-stay requirements. The text of those temporary regulations also serves as the text of these proposed regulations.

  6. Cross-species coherence in effects and modes of action in support of causality determinations in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Meredith Gooding; Owens, Elizabeth Oesterling; Patel, Molini M; Kirrane, Ellen; Madden, Meagan; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Hines, Erin Pias; Davis, J Allen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Dubois, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    The peer-reviewed literature on the health and ecological effects of lead (Pb) indicates common effects and underlying modes of action across multiple organisms for several endpoints. Based on such observations, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) applied a cross-species approach in the 2013 Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead for evaluating the causality of relationships between Pb exposure and specific endpoints that are shared by humans, laboratory animals, and ecological receptors (i.e., hematological effects, reproductive and developmental effects, and nervous system effects). Other effects of Pb (i.e., cardiovascular, renal, and inflammatory responses) are less commonly assessed in aquatic and terrestrial wildlife limiting the application of cross-species comparisons. Determinations of causality in ISAs are guided by a framework for classifying the weight of evidence across scientific disciplines and across related effects by considering aspects such as biological plausibility and coherence. As illustrated for effects of Pb where evidence across species exists, the integration of coherent effects and common underlying modes of action can serve as a means to substantiate conclusions regarding the causal nature of the health and ecological effects of environmental toxicants.

  7. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? Methods We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12–19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Results Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Conclusions Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring

  8. Cross-Protective Immunity to Leishmania amazonensis is Mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ Epitopes of Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Alves-Silva, Marcus Vinícius; Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Morrot, Alexandre; Bahia, Diana; Palatnik, Marcos; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2014-01-01

    The nucleoside hydrolase (NH) of Leishmania donovani (NH36) is a phylogenetic marker of high homology among Leishmania parasites. In mice and dog vaccination, NH36 induces a CD4+ T cell-driven protective response against Leishmania chagasi infection directed against its C-terminal domain (F3). The C-terminal and N-terminal domain vaccines also decreased the footpad lesion caused by Leishmania amazonensis. We studied the basis of the crossed immune response using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin for mice prophylaxis against L. amazonensis. The F1 (amino acids 1-103) and F3 peptide (amino acids 199-314) vaccines enhanced the IgG and IgG2a anti-NH36 antibodies to similar levels. The F3 vaccine induced the strongest DTH response, the highest proportions of NH36-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after challenge and the highest expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α. The F1 vaccine, on the other hand, induced a weaker but significant DTH response and a mild enhancement of IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. The in vivo depletion with anti-CD4 or CD8 monoclonal antibodies disclosed that cross-protection against L. amazonensis infection was mediated by a CD4+ T cell response directed against the C-terminal domain (75% of reduction of the size of footpad lesion) followed by a CD8+ T cell response against the N-terminal domain of NH36 (57% of reduction of footpad lesions). Both vaccines were capable of inducing long-term cross-immunity. The amino acid sequence of NH36 showed 93% identity to the sequence of the NH A34480 of L. amazonensis, which also showed the presence of completely conserved predicted epitopes for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in F1 domain, and of CD4+ epitopes differing by a single amino acid, in F1 and F3 domains. The identification of the C-terminal and N-terminal domains as the targets of the immune response to NH36 in the model of L. amazonensis infection represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine against

  9. Determinants and protective behaviours regarding tick bites among school children in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States and Europe. The incidence is 13.4 per 100,000 inhabitants in the United States and more than 300 per 100,000 inhabitants in Europe. Children are at highest risk of LB. In the Netherlands in 2007, the incidence of tick bites in children between 10–14 years varied from 7,000 -11,000 per 100,000, depending on age. This study among Dutch school children aimed to examine the knowledge, perceived threat, and perceived importance of protective behaviour in relation to tick bites and their potential consequences. Methods In April 2012, the municipal health services (MHS) contacted primary schools to recruit children 9–13 years by telephone, e-mail, or advertisement in MHS newsletters. In total, 1,447 children from 40 schools participated in this study by completing a specifically developed and pretested compact paper questionnaire. Regression models were used to determine which covariates (e.g. forest cover, previous education, knowledge) are associated with our response variables. Results 70% (n = 1,015) of the children answered at least six out of seven knowledge questions correctly. The vast majority (93%; n = 1345) regarded body checks as very or somewhat important, 18% (n = 260) was routinely checked by their parents. More frequent body checks were associated with good knowledge about ticks and tick-borne diseases and knowing persons who got ill after tick bite. Children in areas with a higher forest cover were more likely to be checked frequently. Conclusions Most children have a good knowledge of ticks and the potential consequences of tick bites. Knowing persons who personally got ill after tick-bite is associated with a good knowledge score and leads to higher susceptibility and better appreciation of the need for body checks. Perceived severity is associated with a good knowledge score and with knowing persons who got ill after tick-bite. Is seems to be

  10. A Recombinant Chimeric La Crosse Virus Expressing the Surface Glycoproteins of Jamestown Canyon Virus Is Immunogenic and Protective against Challenge with either Parental Virus in Mice or Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, R. S.; Gresko, A. K.; Nelson, J. T.; Murphy, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), family Bunyaviridae, are mosquito-borne viruses that are endemic in North America and recognized as etiologic agents of encephalitis in humans. Both viruses belong to the California encephalitis virus serogroup, which causes 70 to 100 cases of encephalitis a year. As a first step in creating live attenuated viral vaccine candidates for this serogroup, we have generated a recombinant LACV expressing the attachment/fusion glycoproteins of JCV. The JCV/LACV chimeric virus contains full-length S and L segments derived from LACV. For the M segment, the open reading frame (ORF) of LACV is replaced with that derived from JCV and is flanked by the untranslated regions of LACV. The resulting chimeric virus retained the same robust growth kinetics in tissue culture as observed for either parent virus, and the virus remains highly infectious and immunogenic in mice. Although both LACV and JCV are highly neurovirulent in 21 day-old mice, with 50% lethal dose (LD50) values of 0.1 and 0.5 log10 PFU, respectively, chimeric JCV/LACV is highly attenuated and does not cause disease even after intracerebral inoculation of 103 PFU. Parenteral vaccination of mice with 101 or 103 PFU of JCV/LACV protected against lethal challenge with LACV, JCV, and Tahyna virus (TAHV). The chimeric virus was infectious and immunogenic in rhesus monkeys and induced neutralizing antibodies to JCV, LACV, and TAHV. When vaccinated monkeys were challenged with JCV, they were protected against the development of viremia. Generation of highly attenuated yet immunogenic chimeric bunyaviruses could be an efficient general method for development of vaccines effective against these pathogenic viruses. PMID:22013033

  11. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  12. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 107 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10−4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  13. Sterilizing immunity elicited by Neisseria meningitidis carriage shows broader protection than predicted by serum antibody cross-reactivity in CEACAM1-humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Johswich, Kay O; McCaw, Shannon E; Strobel, Lea; Frosch, Matthias; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis asymptomatically colonizes the human upper respiratory tract but is also the cause of meningitis and severe septicemia. Carriage or disease evokes an immune response against the infecting strain. Hitherto, we have known little about the breadth of immunity induced by natural carriage of a single strain or its implications for subsequent infectious challenge. In this study, we establish that transgenic mice expressing human CEACAM1 support nasal colonization by a variety of strains of different capsular types. Next, we nasally challenged these mice with either of the N. meningitidis strains H44/76 (serogroup B, ST-32) and 90/18311 (serogroup C, ST-11), while following the induction of strain-specific immunoglobulin. When these antisera were tested for reactivity with a diverse panel of N. meningitidis strains, very low levels of antibody were detected against all meningococcal strains, yet a mutually exclusive "fingerprint" of high-level cross-reactivity toward certain strains became apparent. To test the efficacy of these responses for protection against subsequent challenge, CEACAM1-humanized mice exposed to strain 90/18311 were then rechallenged with different N. meningitidis strains. As expected, the mice were immune to challenge with the same strain and with a closely related ST-11 strain, 38VI, while H44/76 (ST-32) could still colonize these animals. Notably, however, despite the paucity of detectable humoral response against strain 196/87 (ST-32), this strain was unable to colonize the 90/18311-exposed mice. Combined, our data suggest that current approaches may underestimate the actual breadth of mucosal protection gained through natural exposure to N. meningitidis strains. PMID:25368118

  14. Exposure to low UVA doses increases KatA and KatB catalase activities, and confers cross-protection against subsequent oxidative injuries in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Tribelli, Paula M; Pizarro, Ramón A; López, Nancy I; Costa, Cristina S

    2016-05-01

    Solar UVA radiation is one of the main environmental stress factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exposure to high UVA doses produces lethal effects by the action of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) it generates. P. aeruginosa has several enzymes, including KatA and KatB catalases, which provide detoxification of ROS. We have previously demonstrated that KatA is essential in defending P. aeruginosa against high UVA doses. In order to analyse the mechanisms involved in the adaptation of this micro-organism to UVA, we investigated the effect of exposure to low UVA doses on KatA and KatB activities, and the physiological consequences. Exposure to UVA induced total catalase activity; assays with non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels showed that both KatA and KatB activities were increased by radiation. This regulation occurred at the transcriptional level and depended, at least partly, on the increase in H2O2 levels. We demonstrated that exposure to low UVA produced a protective effect against subsequent lethal doses of UVA, sodium hypochlorite and H2O2. Protection against lethal UVA depends on katA, whilst protection against sodium hypochlorite depends on katB, demonstrating that different mechanisms are involved in the defence against these oxidative agents, although both genes can be involved in the global cellular response. Conversely, protection against lethal doses of H2O2 could depend on induction of both genes and/or (an)other defensive factor(s). A better understanding of the adaptive response of P. aeruginosa to UVA is relevant from an ecological standpoint and for improving disinfection strategies that employ UVA or solar irradiation. PMID:26940049

  15. Prediction of Protection against Asian Enterovirus 71 Outbreak Strains by Cross-neutralizing Capacity of Serum from Dutch Donors, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Sabine M G; Koen, Gerrit; van Eijk, Hetty; Koekkoek, Sylvie M; de Jong, Menno D; Wolthers, Katja C

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in Asia are related to high illness and death rates among children. To gain insight into the potential threat for the population of Europe, we determined the neutralizing activity in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) batches and individual serum samples from donors in the Netherlands against EV-71 strains isolated in Europe and in Asia. All IVIg batches and 41%, 79%, and 65% of serum samples from children ≤5 years of age, women of childbearing age, and HIV-positive men, respectively, showed high neutralizing activity against a Dutch C1 strain, confirming widespread circulation of EV-71 in the Netherlands. Asian B3-4 and C4 strains were efficiently cross-neutralized, predicting possible protection against extensive circulation and associated outbreaks of those types in Europe. However, C2 and C5 strains that had few mutations in the capsid region consistently escaped neutralization, emphasizing the importance of monitoring antigenic diversity among circulating EV-71 strains. PMID:27533024

  16. Prediction of Protection against Asian Enterovirus 71 Outbreak Strains by Cross-neutralizing Capacity of Serum from Dutch Donors, The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Gerrit; van Eijk, Hetty; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Wolthers, Katja C.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in Asia are related to high illness and death rates among children. To gain insight into the potential threat for the population of Europe, we determined the neutralizing activity in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) batches and individual serum samples from donors in the Netherlands against EV-71 strains isolated in Europe and in Asia. All IVIg batches and 41%, 79%, and 65% of serum samples from children ≤5 years of age, women of childbearing age, and HIV-positive men, respectively, showed high neutralizing activity against a Dutch C1 strain, confirming widespread circulation of EV-71 in the Netherlands. Asian B3–4 and C4 strains were efficiently cross-neutralized, predicting possible protection against extensive circulation and associated outbreaks of those types in Europe. However, C2 and C5 strains that had few mutations in the capsid region consistently escaped neutralization, emphasizing the importance of monitoring antigenic diversity among circulating EV-71 strains. PMID:27533024

  17. The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8,900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children without Disabilities across 30 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, Hannah; Monteath-van Dok, Adrienne; Wing, Kevin; Danquah, Lisa; Evans, Jenny; Zuurmond, Maria; Gallinetti, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities are widely believed to be less likely to attend school or access health care, and more vulnerable to poverty. There is currently little large-scale or internationally comparable evidence to support these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disability on the lives of children sponsored by Plan International across 30 countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 907,734 children aged 0–17 participating in the Plan International Sponsorship Programme across 30 countries in 2012. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardised questionnaires including information on: age, sex, health, education, poverty, and water and sanitation facilities. Disability was assessed through a single question and information was collected on type of impairment. The dataset included 8,900 children with reported disabilities across 30 countries. The prevalence of disability ranged from 0.4%–3.0% and was higher in boys than girls in 22 of the 30 countries assessed – generally in the range of 1.3–1.4 fold higher. Children with disabilities were much less likely to attend formal education in comparison to children without disabilities in each of the 30 countries, with age-sex adjusted odds ratios exceeding 10 for nearly half of the countries. This relationship varied by impairment type. Among those attending school, children with disabilities were at a lower level of schooling for their age compared to children without disabilities. Children with disabilities were more likely to report experiencing a serious illness in the last 12 months, except in Niger. There was no clear relationship between disability and poverty. Conclusions Children with disabilities are at risk of not fulfilling their educational potential and are more vulnerable to serious illness. This exclusion is likely to have a long-term deleterious impact on their lives unless services are adapted to promote their

  18. Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu; De Hert, Karl; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are natural hosts for the same influenza virus subtypes as humans and are a valuable model for cross-protection studies with influenza. In this study, we have used the pig model to examine the extent of virological protection between a) the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus and three different European H1 swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages, and b) these H1 viruses and a European H3N2 SIV. Pigs were inoculated intranasally with representative strains of each virus lineage with 6- and 17-week intervals between H1 inoculations and between H1 and H3 inoculations, respectively. Virus titers in nasal swabs and/or tissues of the respiratory tract were determined after each inoculation. There was substantial though differing cross-protection between pH1N1 and other H1 viruses, which was directly correlated with the relatedness in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. Cross-protection against H3N2 was almost complete in pigs with immunity against H1N2, but was weak in H1N1/pH1N1-immune pigs. In conclusion, infection with a live, wild type influenza virus may offer substantial cross-lineage protection against viruses of the same HA and/or NA subtype. True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. We discuss our findings in the light of the zoonotic and pandemic risks of SIVs. PMID:26404790

  19. Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu; De Hert, Karl; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2015-09-24

    Pigs are natural hosts for the same influenza virus subtypes as humans and are a valuable model for cross-protection studies with influenza. In this study, we have used the pig model to examine the extent of virological protection between a) the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus and three different European H1 swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages, and b) these H1 viruses and a European H3N2 SIV. Pigs were inoculated intranasally with representative strains of each virus lineage with 6- and 17-week intervals between H1 inoculations and between H1 and H3 inoculations, respectively. Virus titers in nasal swabs and/or tissues of the respiratory tract were determined after each inoculation. There was substantial though differing cross-protection between pH1N1 and other H1 viruses, which was directly correlated with the relatedness in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. Cross-protection against H3N2 was almost complete in pigs with immunity against H1N2, but was weak in H1N1/pH1N1-immune pigs. In conclusion, infection with a live, wild type influenza virus may offer substantial cross-lineage protection against viruses of the same HA and/or NA subtype. True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. We discuss our findings in the light of the zoonotic and pandemic risks of SIVs.

  20. Expression and characterization of genetically engineered human immunodeficiency virus-like particles containing modified envelope glycoproteins: implications for development of a cross-protective AIDS vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rovinski, B; Haynes, J R; Cao, S X; James, O; Sia, C; Zolla-Pazner, S; Matthews, T J; Klein, M H

    1992-07-01

    Noninfectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruslike particles containing chimeric envelope glycoproteins were expressed in mammalian cells by using inducible promoters. We engineered four expression vectors in which a synthetic oligomer encoding gp120 residues 306 to 328 (amino acids YNKRKRIHIGP GRAFYTTKNIIG) from the V3 loop of the MN viral isolate was inserted at various positions within the endogenous HIV-1LAI env gene. Expression studies revealed that insertion of the heterologous V3(MN) loop segment at two different locations within the conserved region 2 (C2) of gp120, either 173 or 242 residues away from the N terminus of the mature subunit, resulted in the secretion of fully assembled HIV-like particles containing chimeric LAI/MN envelope glycoproteins. Both V3 loop epitopes were recognized by loop-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, insertion of the V3(MN) loop segment into other regions of gp120 led to the production of envelope-deficient viruslike particles. Immunization with HIV-like particles containing chimeric envelope proteins induced specific antibody responses against both the autologous and heterologous V3 loop epitopes, including cross-neutralizing antibodies against the HIV-1LAI and HIV-1MN isolates. This study, therefore, demonstrates the feasibility of genetically engineering optimized HIV-like particles capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:1602531

  1. Characterization of Escherichia coli K1 colominic acid-specific murine antibodies that are cross-protective against Neisseria meningitidis groups B, C, and Y.

    PubMed

    Park, In Ho; Lin, Jisheng; Choi, Ji Eun; Shin, Jeon-Soo

    2014-06-01

    The capsular polysaccharide (PS) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (NMGB) is α(2-8)-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which is almost identical to the O-acetylated colominic acid (CA) of Escherichia coli K1 Although E. coli K1 has long been known to elicit cross-protective antibodies against NMGB, limited information on these highly cross-reactive antibodies is available. In the present study, six new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to both E. coli K1 CA and NMGB PS were produced by immunizing Balb/c mice with E. coli K1, and their serological and molecular properties were characterized, together with 12 previously reported hybridoma mAbs. Among the bactericidal mAbs against NMGB, both HmenB5 and HmenB18, which are genetically identical though of different mouse origins, were able to kill serogroup C and Y meningococci. Based on SPR sensograms, the binding affinity of HmenB18 for PS was suggested to be associated with at least two different binding forces: the polyanionicity of Neu5Ac and an interaction with the O-acetyl groups of Neu5Ac. Molecular analysis showed that similar to most mAbs presenting a few restricted V region germline genes, the V region genes of HmenB18 were 979% and 986% identical to the closest IGHV1-1401 and IGLV15-10301 germline gene alleles, respectively, and V-D-J editing in this mAb generated an unusually long VH-CDR3 sequence (17 amino acid residues), containing one basic arginine, two hydrophobic isoleucine residues and a 'YAMDY' motif. Models of the mAb combining sites demonstrate that most of the mAbs exhibited a wide, shallow groove with a high overall positive charge, as seen in mAb735, which is specific for a polyanionic helical epitope. In contrast, the combining site of HmenB18 was shown to be wide but to present a relatively weak positive charge, consistent with the extensive recognition by HmenB18 of the various structural epitopes formed with the Neu5Ac residue and its O-acetylation.

  2. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system. PMID:24711701

  3. Physical activity as a protective factor against depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community: result from a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in

  4. VirR-Mediated Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes against Food Antimicrobials and Cross-Protection Induced by Exposure to Organic Acid Salts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jihun; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    Formulations of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with antimicrobial compounds constitute an important safety measure against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. While the efficacy of many commercially available antimicrobial compounds has been demonstrated in a variety of foods, the current understanding of the resistance mechanisms employed by L. monocytogenes to counteract these stresses is limited. In this study, we screened in-frame deletion mutants of two-component system response regulators associated with the cell envelope stress response for increased sensitivity to commercially available antimicrobial compounds (nisin, lauric arginate, ε-polylysine, and chitosan). A virR deletion mutant showed increased sensitivity to all antimicrobials and significantly greater loss of membrane integrity when exposed to nisin, lauric arginate, or ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). The VirR-regulated operon, dltABCD, was shown to be the key contributor to resistance against these antimicrobial compounds, whereas another VirR-regulated gene, mprF, displayed an antimicrobial-specific contribution to resistance. An experiment with a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion with the dlt promoter indicated that nisin does not specifically induce VirR-dependent upregulation of dltABCD. Lastly, prior exposure of L. monocytogenes parent strain H7858 and the ΔvirR mutant to 2% potassium lactate enhanced subsequent resistance against nisin and ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that VirRS-mediated regulation of dltABCD is the major resistance mechanism used by L. monocytogenes against cell envelope-damaging food antimicrobials. Further, the potential for cross-protection induced by other food-related stresses (e.g., organic acids) needs to be considered when applying these novel food antimicrobials as a hurdle strategy for RTE foods. PMID:25911485

  5. VirR-Mediated Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes against Food Antimicrobials and Cross-Protection Induced by Exposure to Organic Acid Salts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihun; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J; Bergholz, Teresa M

    2015-07-01

    Formulations of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with antimicrobial compounds constitute an important safety measure against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. While the efficacy of many commercially available antimicrobial compounds has been demonstrated in a variety of foods, the current understanding of the resistance mechanisms employed by L. monocytogenes to counteract these stresses is limited. In this study, we screened in-frame deletion mutants of two-component system response regulators associated with the cell envelope stress response for increased sensitivity to commercially available antimicrobial compounds (nisin, lauric arginate, ε-polylysine, and chitosan). A virR deletion mutant showed increased sensitivity to all antimicrobials and significantly greater loss of membrane integrity when exposed to nisin, lauric arginate, or ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). The VirR-regulated operon, dltABCD, was shown to be the key contributor to resistance against these antimicrobial compounds, whereas another VirR-regulated gene, mprF, displayed an antimicrobial-specific contribution to resistance. An experiment with a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion with the dlt promoter indicated that nisin does not specifically induce VirR-dependent upregulation of dltABCD. Lastly, prior exposure of L. monocytogenes parent strain H7858 and the ΔvirR mutant to 2% potassium lactate enhanced subsequent resistance against nisin and ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that VirRS-mediated regulation of dltABCD is the major resistance mechanism used by L. monocytogenes against cell envelope-damaging food antimicrobials. Further, the potential for cross-protection induced by other food-related stresses (e.g., organic acids) needs to be considered when applying these novel food antimicrobials as a hurdle strategy for RTE foods. PMID:25911485

  6. VirR-Mediated Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes against Food Antimicrobials and Cross-Protection Induced by Exposure to Organic Acid Salts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihun; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J; Bergholz, Teresa M

    2015-07-01

    Formulations of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with antimicrobial compounds constitute an important safety measure against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. While the efficacy of many commercially available antimicrobial compounds has been demonstrated in a variety of foods, the current understanding of the resistance mechanisms employed by L. monocytogenes to counteract these stresses is limited. In this study, we screened in-frame deletion mutants of two-component system response regulators associated with the cell envelope stress response for increased sensitivity to commercially available antimicrobial compounds (nisin, lauric arginate, ε-polylysine, and chitosan). A virR deletion mutant showed increased sensitivity to all antimicrobials and significantly greater loss of membrane integrity when exposed to nisin, lauric arginate, or ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). The VirR-regulated operon, dltABCD, was shown to be the key contributor to resistance against these antimicrobial compounds, whereas another VirR-regulated gene, mprF, displayed an antimicrobial-specific contribution to resistance. An experiment with a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion with the dlt promoter indicated that nisin does not specifically induce VirR-dependent upregulation of dltABCD. Lastly, prior exposure of L. monocytogenes parent strain H7858 and the ΔvirR mutant to 2% potassium lactate enhanced subsequent resistance against nisin and ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that VirRS-mediated regulation of dltABCD is the major resistance mechanism used by L. monocytogenes against cell envelope-damaging food antimicrobials. Further, the potential for cross-protection induced by other food-related stresses (e.g., organic acids) needs to be considered when applying these novel food antimicrobials as a hurdle strategy for RTE foods.

  7. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance.

  8. Sun protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin from the sun. This includes using sunscreen and other protective measures. Avoid sun exposure, particularly ... the sun. This is in addition to applying sunscreen. Suggestions for clothing include: Long-sleeve shirts and ...

  9. Situational Awareness and Health Protective Responses to Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Qiuyan; Cowling, Benjamin; Lam, Wing Tak; Ng, Man Wai; Fielding, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background Whether information sources influence health protective behaviours during influenza pandemics or other emerging infectious disease epidemics is uncertain. Methodology Data from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,001 Hong Kong adults in June, 2009 were tested against theory and data-derived hypothesized associations between trust in (formal/informal) information, understanding, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and worry, and hand hygiene and social distancing using Structural Equation Modelling with multigroup comparisons. Principal Findings Trust in formal (government/media) information about influenza was associated with greater reported understanding of A/H1N1 cause (β = 0.36) and A/H1N1 prevention self-efficacy (β = 0.25), which in turn were associated with more hand hygiene (β = 0.19 and β = 0.23, respectively). Trust in informal (interpersonal) information was negatively associated with perceived personal A/H1N1 susceptibility (β = −0.21), which was negatively associated with perceived self-efficacy (β = −0.42) but positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.44). Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.16) which was in turn associated with greater social distancing (β = 0.36). Multigroup comparisons showed gender differences regarding paths from trust in formal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, trust in informal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, and understanding of A/H1N1 cause to perceived self-efficacy. Conclusions/Significance Trust in government/media information was more strongly associated with greater self-efficacy and handwashing, whereas trust in informal information was strongly associated with perceived health threat and avoidance behaviour. Risk communication should consider the effect of gender differences. PMID:20967280

  10. Structural analysis and cross-protective efficacy of recombinant 87 kDa outer membrane protein (Omp87) of Pasteurella multocida serogroup B:2.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhinendra; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan A; Viswas, K N; Shivachandra, Sathish B

    2013-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida serogroup B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffalo especially in tropical regions of Asian and African countries, is known to possess several outer membrane proteins (OMPs) as immunogenic antigens. In the present study, omp87 gene encoding for 87 kDa OMP (Omp87) protein of P. multocida serogroup B:2 strain P52, has been amplified (∼2304 bp), cloned in to pET32a vector and over-expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli as fusion protein. The recombinant Omp87 protein (∼102 kDa) including N-terminus hexa-histidine tag was purified under denaturing condition. Immunization of mice with rOmp87 resulted in increased antigen specific IgG titres in serum and provided protection of 66.6 and 83.3% following homologous (B:2) and heterologous (A:1) challenge, respectively. A homology model of Omp87 revealed the presence of two distinct domains; N-terminal domain with four POTRA repeats in the periplasmic space and a pore forming C-terminal β-barrel domain (β1- β16) in the outer membrane of P. multocida, which belong to Omp85-TpsB transporter superfamily of OMPs. The study indicated the potential possibilities to use rOmp87 protein along with suitable adjuvant in developing subunit vaccine for haemorrhagic septicaemia and pasteurellosis in livestock.

  11. Time dependent quantum dynamics study of the Ne + H2(+)(v0 = 0-4, j0 = 1) → NeH(+) + H proton transfer reaction, including the Coriolis coupling. A system with oscillatory cross sections.

    PubMed

    Gamallo, Pablo; Defazio, Paolo; González, Miguel

    2011-10-27

    The Ne + H(2)(+)(v(0) = 0-4, j(0) = 1) proton transfer reaction has been studied in a wide collision energy (E(col)) interval, using the time dependent real wave packet method and taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC-RWP method) and employing a recent ab initio potential energy surface, widely extending the reaction conditions previously explored at the CC level. The reaction probability shows a strong oscillatory behavior vs E(col) and the presence of sharp resonances, arising from metastable NeH(2)(+) states. The behavior of the reaction cross section σ vs E(col) depends on the vibrational level and can in general be interpreted in terms of the late barrier character of the potential energy surface and the existence (or not) of threshold energy. The situation is particularly complex for v(0) = 2, as σ(v0=2, j0=1) presents significant oscillations with E(col) up to ≈0.33 eV, which probably reflect the resonances found in the reaction probability. Hence, it would be particularly interesting to investigate the Ne + H(2)(+)(v(0) = 2, j(0) = 1) reaction experimentally, as some resonances survive the partial wave summation. The state selected cross sections compare well with previous CC quantum and experimental results, and although the previous centrifugal sudden RWP cross sections are reasonable, the inclusion of the Coriolis coupling is important to achieve a quantitative description of this and similar systems.

  12. Characterization of a type O foot-and-mouth disease virus re-emerging in the year 2011 in free areas of the Southern Cone of South America and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; Malirat, Viviana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Benitez, Elizabeth Oviedo; Pedemonte, Andrea; Seki, Cristina; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Balette, Cristina I; D'Aloia, Ricardo; La Torre, José L; Mattion, Nora; Toledo, Jorge Rodríguez; Bergmann, Ingrid E

    2013-03-23

    Molecular, antigenic and vaccine matching studies, including protective response in vivo, were conducted with a foot-and-mouth disease type O virus isolated during the outbreak in September 2011 in San Pedro, Paraguay, country internationally recognized as free with vaccination in 1997. The phylogenetic tree derived from complete VP(1) sequences as well as monoclonal antibody profiling indicated that this isolate was related to viruses responsible for previous emergencies in free areas of the Southern Cone of South America occurring sporadically between the years 2000 and 2006. Marked differences with the vaccine strain O(1)/Campos, including the loss of reactivity with neutralizing MAbs, were recognized. Levels of protective antibodies induced by the vaccine containing the O(1)/Campos strain against the San Pedro virus and the virus responsible for the previous emergency in 2006 in the Southern Cone assessed by in vitro vaccine matching studies pointed to an insufficient protective response 30 days after vaccination (DPV), which was properly attained at 79 DPV or after revaccination. In agreement with the in vitro assessment, the in vivo challenge in the Protection against Podal Generalization test in cattle indicated appropriate protection for the San Pedro strain at 79 DPV or after revaccination. The complementary conclusions that can be derived from vaccine matching tests designed differently to fit the various objectives intended: prophylaxis, emergency vaccination or incorporation of new field strains into antigen banks, is evaluated. This is the first report of the antigenic and immunogenic characterization of the variants responsible for emergencies in the Southern Cone of South America and the putative impact of the changes on the cross protection conferred by the vaccine strain.

  13. Matrix M H5N1 Vaccine Induces Cross-H5 Clade Humoral Immune Responses in a Randomized Clinical Trial and Provides Protection from Highly Pathogenic Influenza Challenge in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Rebecca J.; Major, Diane; Pedersen, Gabriel; Pathirana, Rishi D.; Hoschler, Katja; Guilfoyle, Kate; Roseby, Sarah; Bredholt, Geir; Assmus, Jörg; Breakwell, Lucy; Campitelli, Laura; Sjursen, Haakon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Methods Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses constitute a pandemic threat and the development of effective vaccines is a global priority. Sixty adults were recruited into a randomized clinical trial and were intramuscularly immunized with two virosomal vaccine H5N1 (NIBRG-14) doses (21 days apart) of 30μg HA alone or 1.5, 7.5 or 30μg HA adjuvanted with Matrix M. The kinetics and longevity of the serological responses against NIBRG-14 were determined by haemagglutination inhibition (HI), single radial haemolysis (SRH), microneutralization (MN) and ELISA assays. The cross-H5 clade responses in sera were determined by HI and the antibody-secreting (ASC) cell ELISPOT assays. The protective efficacy of the vaccine against homologous HPAI challenge was evaluated in ferrets. Results The serological responses against the homologous and cross-reactive strains generally peaked one week after the second dose, and formulation with Matrix M augmented the responses. The NIBRG-14-specific seroprotection rates fell significantly by six months and were low against cross-reactive strains although the adjuvant appeared to prolong the longevity of the protective responses in some subjects. By 12 months post-vaccination, nearly all vaccinees had NIBRG-14-specific antibody titres below the protective thresholds. The Matrix M adjuvant was shown to greatly improve ASC and serum IgG responses following vaccination. In a HPAI ferret challenge model, the vaccine protected the animals from febrile responses, severe weight loss and local and systemic spread of the virus. Conclusion Our findings show that the Matrix M-adjuvanted virosomal H5N1 vaccine is a promising pre-pandemic vaccine candidate. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00868218 PMID:26147369

  14. Comparative assessment of a DNA and protein Leishmania donovani gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase vaccine to cross-protect against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major or L. mexicana infection.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S A; Alawa, J; Doro, B; Henriquez, F L; Roberts, C W; Nok, A; Alawa, C B I; Alsaadi, M; Mullen, A B; Carter, K C

    2012-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem and it is estimated that 12 million people are currently infected. A vaccine which could cross-protect people against different Leishmania spp. would facilitate control of this disease as more than one species of Leishmania may be present. In this study the ability of a DNA vaccine, using the full gene sequence for L. donovani gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γGCS) incorporated in the pVAX vector (pVAXγGCS), and a protein vaccine, using the corresponding recombinant L. donovani γGCS protein (LdγGCS), to protect against L. major or L. mexicana infection was evaluated. DNA vaccination gave transient protection against L. major and no protection against L. mexicana despite significantly enhancing specific antibody titres in vaccinated infected mice compared to infected controls. Vaccination with the LdγGCS protected against both species but only if the protein was incorporated into non-ionic surfactant vesicles for L. mexicana. The results of this study indicate that a L. donovani γGCS vaccine could be used to vaccinate against more than one Leishmania species but only if the recombinant protein is used.

  15. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Suppression of Nonlinear Patterning Effect in Wavelength Conversion Based on Transient Cross-Phase Modulation in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Assisted with a Detuning Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, En-Bo; Zhang, Xin-Liang; Yu, Yu; Huang, De-Xiu

    2009-03-01

    Nonlinear patterning (NLP) effect in wavelength conversion based on transient cross-phase modulation (XPM) in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) assisted with a detuning filter is theoretically investigated. A non-adiabatic model is used to estimate the ultrafast dynamics of gain, phase and electron temperature in the SOA. Simulation results show that the NLP can be greatly suppressed by introducing an assist light, especially for the probe wavelength distant from gain peak. Furthermore, the results also indicate that the improvement is more evident for long wavelength probe light and assist light in counter-propagating configuration.

  16. A Cross-national Comparison of Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Drug Use and Delinquency in the United States and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David; Steketee, Majone; Jonkman, Harrie; Brown, Eric C.; Moll, Marit; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared associations between risk and protective factors and adolescent drug use and delinquency in the Netherlands and the United States. Data were collected from students between the ages of 12 and 17 using the same school-administered survey instrument in both countries. Levels of exposure to risk and protective factors were generally similar in both countries. The same risk and protective factors shown to be associated with U.S. adolescents’ drug use and delinquency were related significantly to Dutch youth’s drug use and delinquency. One important exception was that Dutch students perceived their parents’ attitudes to be more favorable toward alcohol use; these attitudes also were more predictive of adolescents’ regular drinking in the Netherlands compared to the United States. The findings indicate that the risk and protective factors measured in this study can be important targets for prevention of health-compromising behaviors among young people in the Netherlands and the United States. PMID:26166843

  17. A cationic liposome-DNA complexes adjuvant (JVRS-100) enhances the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of pre-pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccine in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Xiangjie; Fairman, Jeffery; Lewis, David B; Katz, Jacqueline M; Levine, Min; Tumpey, Terrence M; Lu, Xiuhua

    2016-05-01

    Influenza A (H5N1) viruses continue to pose a public health threat. As inactivated H5N1 vaccines are poorly immunogenic, adjuvants are needed to improve the immunogenicity of H5N1 vaccine in humans. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy in ferrets of a clade 2.2-derived vaccine with addition of JVRS-100, an adjuvant consisting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC). After the first vaccination, significantly higher levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing antibody titers were detected in ferrets immunized with adjuvanted vaccine compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. Following a second dose of adjuvanted vaccine, HAI antibody titers of ≥ 40 were detected against viruses from multiple H5N1 clades. HAI antibodies against newly isolated H5N2 and H5N8 viruses were also augmented by JVRS-100. Ferrets were challenged with a heterologous H5N1 virus. All ferrets that received two doses of adjuvanted vaccine exhibited mild illness, significantly reduced nasal wash virus titers and protection from lethal challenge. In contrast, ferrets that received unadjuvanted vaccine showed greater weight loss, high viral titers and 3 of 6 animals succumbed to the lethal challenge. Our results indicate that the addition of JVRS-100 to H5N1 vaccine enhanced immunogenicity and cross-protection against lethal H5N1 virus disease in ferrets. JVRS-100 warrants further investigation as a potential adjuvant for influenza vaccines. PMID:26967975

  18. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  19. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  20. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  1. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  2. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  3. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  4. Recombinant baculovirus vaccine containing multiple M2e and adjuvant LTB induces T cell dependent, cross-clade protection against H5N1 influenza virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Fan, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Jiao; Huang, Jian-Ni; Ye, Yu; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-27

    H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza poses, a threat to animal and human health. Rapid changes in H5N1 viruses require periodic reformulation of the conventional strain-matched vaccines, thus emphasizing the need for a broadly protective influenza vaccine. Here, we constructed BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB, a recombinant baculovirus based on baculovirus display and BacMam technology. BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB harbors a gene cassette expressing three tandem copies of the highly conserved extracellular domain of influenza M2 protein (M2e) and the mucosal adjuvant, LTB. We showed that BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB displayed the target protein (M2e/LTB) on the baculoviral surface and expressed it in transduced mammalian cells. BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB, when delivered nasally in mice, was highly immunogenic and induced superior levels of anti-M2e IgA than the non-adjuvanted baculovirus (BV-Dual-3M2e). Importantly, after challenge with different H5N1 clades (clade 0, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.4 and 4), mice inoculated with BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB displayed improved survival and decreased lung virus shedding compared with mice inoculated with BV-Dual-3M2e. The enhanced protection from BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB is mediated by T cell immunity and is primarily based on CD8(+) T cells, while mucosal antibodies alone were insufficient for protection from lethal H5N1 challenge. These results suggest that BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB has potential to protect against a broad range of H5N1 strains thereby providing a novel direction for developing broadly protective vaccines based on cellular immunity. PMID:26724200

  5. Protective efficacy of a broadly cross-reactive swine influenza DNA vaccine encoding M2e, cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope and consensus H3 hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pigs have been implicated as mixing reservoir for the generation of new pandemic influenza strains, control of swine influenza has both veterinary and public health significance. Unlike human influenza vaccines, strains used for commercially available swine influenza vaccines are not regularly replaced, making the vaccines provide limited protection against antigenically diverse viruses. It is therefore necessary to develop broadly protective swine influenza vaccines that are efficacious to both homologous and heterologous virus infections. In this study, two forms of DNA vaccines were constructed, one was made by fusing M2e to consensus H3HA (MHa), which represents the majority of the HA sequences of H3N2 swine influenza viruses. Another was made by fusing M2e and a conserved CTL epitope (NP147-155) to consensus H3HA (MNHa). Their protective efficacies against homologous and heterologous challenges were tested. Results BALB/c mice were immunized twice by particle-mediated epidermal delivery (gene gun) with the two DNA vaccines. It was shown that the two vaccines elicited substantial antibody responses, and MNHa induced more significant T cell-mediated immune response than MHa did. Then two H3N2 strains representative of different evolutional and antigenic clusters were used to challenge the vaccine-immunized mice (homosubtypic challenge). Results indicated that both of the DNA vaccines prevented homosubtypic virus infections completely. The vaccines’ heterologous protective efficacies were further tested by challenging with a H1N1 swine influenza virus and a reassortant 2009 pandemic strain. It was found that MNHa reduced the lung viral titers significantly in both challenge groups, histopathological observation showed obvious reduction of lung pathogenesis as compared to MHa and control groups. Conclusions The combined utility of the consensus HA and the conserved M2e and CTL epitope can confer complete and partial protection against homologous and

  6. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  7. Cross-sectional Pilot Study of Antibiotic Resistance in Propionibacterium Acnes Strains in Indian Acne Patients Using 16S-RNA Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Comparison Among Treatment Modalities Including Antibiotics, Benzoyl Peroxide, and Isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Gupta, Tanvi; Kumar, Bipul; Gautam, Hemant K; Garg, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem in acne patients due to regional prescription practices, patient compliance, and genomic variability in Propionibacterium acnes, though the effect of treatment on the resistance has not been comprehensively analyzed. Aims: Our primary objective was to assess the level of antibiotic resistance in the Indian patients and to assess whether there was a difference in the resistance across common treatment groups. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional, institutional based study was undertaken and three groups of patients were analyzed, treatment naïve, those on antibiotics and patients on benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and/isotretinoin. The follicular content was sampled and the culture was verified with 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction, genomic sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment was done for erythromycin (ERY), azithromycin (AZI), clindamycin (CL), tetracycline (TET), doxycycline (DOX), minocycline (MINO), and levofloxacin (LEVO). The four groups of patients were compared for any difference in the resistant strains. Results: Of the 52 P. acnes strains isolated (80 patients), high resistance was observed to AZI (100%), ERY (98%), CL (90.4%), DOX (44.2%), and TETs (30.8%). Low resistance was observed to MINO (1.9%) and LEVO (9.6%). Statistical difference was seen in the resistance between CL and TETs; DOX/LEVO and DOX/MINO (P < 0.001). High MIC90 (≥256 μg/ml) was seen with CL, macrolides, and TETs; moreover, low MIC90 was observed to DOX (16 μg/ml), MINO (8 μg/ml), and LEVO (4 μg/ml). Though the treatment group with isotretinoin/BPO had the least number of resistant strains there was no statistical difference in the antibiotic resistance among the various groups of patients. Conclusions: High resistance was seen among the P. acnes strains to macrolides-lincosamides (AZI and CL) while MINO and LEVO resistance was low. PMID:26955094

  8. Chiral oxime ethers in asymmetric synthesis. O-(1-Phenylbutyl)benzyloxyacetaldoxime, a versatile reagent for the asymmetric synthesis of protected 1,2-aminoalcohols, alpha-amino acid derivatives, and 2-hydroxymethyl nitrogen heterocycles including iminosugars.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Tracey S; Larigo, Alexander S; Laurent, Pierre; Moody, Christopher J; Takle, Andrew K

    2005-04-01

    Addition of a range of organolithium and Grignard reagents to (E)-O-(1-phenylbutyl)benzyloxyacetaldoxime 1 in the presence of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate is highly diastereoselective. The resulting hydroxylamines undergo N-O bond cleavage upon treatment with zinc-acetic acid or molybdenum hexacarbonyl to give, after N-protection, protected 1,2-aminoalcohols 3 in high enantiomeric purity. Debenzylation of 3a and 3d gave N-Boc (R)-alaninol and (S)-phenylalaninol respectively. The hydroxylamines 2 also serve as alpha-amino acid precursors, 2i being converted into N-formyl-(R)-alaninyl-(S)-(4-bromo)phenylalanine ester 7, the N-terminal dipeptide of a natural depsipeptide. The versatility of the 1,2-aminoalcohol derivatives was further illustrated by their conversion into 5-, 6- and 7-membered 2-hydroxymethyl nitrogen heterocycles 15-19 in high enantiomeric excess by a ring-closing metathesis reaction. Further reaction of the dihydropyrrole 15 gave the iminosugar 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol. PMID:15785815

  9. Mouse models for assessing the cross-protective efficacy of oral non-typhoidal Salmonella vaccine candidates harbouring in-frame deletions of the ATP-dependent protease lon and other genes.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hidenori; Fukiya, Satoru; Kodama-Akaboshi, Chie; Eguchi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2015-03-01

    In BALB/c mouse models of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, a single oral immunization with a mutant strain with an insertion of the chloramphenicol resistance gene into the ATP-dependent protease clpP or lon gene decreased the number of salmonellae in each tissue sample 5 days after oral challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium at weeks 26 and 54 post-immunization. These data suggested that an oral immunization with the ClpP- or Lon-disrupted S. Typhimurium strain could provide long-term protection against oral challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium. Accordingly, recombinant oral non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) vaccines were constructed by incorporating mutants of both S. Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis harbouring stable in-frame markerless deletions of the clpP-lon-sulA (suppressor of lon), lon-sulA or lon-msbB (acyltransferase) genes. Amongst these orally administered vaccine candidates, those with the lon-sulA gene deletion mutants of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis protected BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice against oral challenge with both virulent S. Typhimurium and virulent S. Enteritidis. Therefore, the in-frame markerless lon-sulA gene deletion mutant of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis could be a promising cross-protective NTS live vaccine candidate for practical use in humans.

  10. Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Infection and Vaccination in Humans Induces Cross-Protective Antibodies that Target the Hemagglutinin Stem

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, C. A.; Wang, Y.; Jackson, L. M.; Olson, M.; Wang, W.; Liavonchanka, A.; Keleta, L.; Silva, V.; Diederich, S.; Jones, R. B.; Gubbay, J.; Pasick, J.; Petric, M.; Jean, François; Allen, V. G.; Brown, E. G.; Rini, J. M.; Schrader, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Most monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from humans infected or vaccinated with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) influenza virus targeted the hemagglutinin (HA) stem. These anti-HA stem mAbs mostly used IGHV1-69 and bound readily to epitopes on the conventional seasonal influenza and pdmH1N1 vaccines. The anti-HA stem mAbs neutralized pdmH1N1, seasonal influenza H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza viruses by inhibiting HA-mediated fusion of membranes and protected against and treated heterologous lethal infections in mice with H5N1 influenza virus. This demonstrated that therapeutic mAbs could be generated a few months after the new virus emerged. Human immunization with the pdmH1N1 vaccine induced circulating antibodies that when passively transferred, protected mice from lethal, heterologous H5N1 influenza infections. We observed that the dominant heterosubtypic antibody response against the HA stem correlated with the relative absence of memory B cells against the HA head of pdmH1N1, thus enabling the rare heterosubtypic memory B cells induced by seasonal influenza and specific for conserved sites on the HA stem to compete for T-cell help. These results support the notion that broadly protective antibodies against influenza would be induced by successive vaccination with conventional influenza vaccines based on subtypes of HA in viruses not circulating in humans. PMID:22586427

  11. Mucosal Immunization with Recombinant Fusion Protein DnaJ-ΔA146Ply Enhances Cross-Protective Immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Mice via Interleukin 17A

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yusi; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Shuai; Zeng, Lingbin; Xu, Xiuyu; Wu, Kaifeng; Wang, Wei; Yin, Nanlin; Song, Zhixin

    2014-01-01

    Pneumolysin (Ply) and its variants are protective against pneumococcal infections in animal models, and as a Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, pneumolysin has been reported to be a mucosal adjuvant. DnaJ has been approved as a useful candidate vaccine protein; we therefore designed novel fusion proteins of DnaJ with a form of Ply that has a deletion of A146 (ΔA146Ply-DnaJ [the C terminus of ΔA146Ply connected with the N terminus of DnaJ] and DnaJ-ΔA146Ply [the C terminus of DnaJ connected with the N terminus of ΔA146Ply]) to test whether they are protective against focal and lethal pneumococcal infections and their potential protective mechanisms. The purified proteins were used to intranasally immunize the animals without additional adjuvant. Immunization with DnaJ-ΔA146Ply or DnaJ plus ΔA146Ply (Ply with a single deletion of A146) could significantly reduce S. pneumoniae colonization in the nasopharynx and lung relative with DnaJ alone. Additionally, we observed the best protection for DnaJ-ΔA146Ply-immunized mice after challenge with lethal doses of S. pneumoniae strains, which was comparable to that achieved by PPV23. Mice immunized with DnaJ-ΔA146Ply produced significantly higher levels of anti-DnaJ IgG in serum and secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva than those immunized with DnaJ alone. The production of IL-17A was also striking in DnaJ-ΔA146Ply-immunized mice. IL-17A knockout (KO) mice did not benefit from DnaJ-ΔA146Ply immunization in colonization experiments, and sIgA production was impaired in IL-17A KO mice. Collectively, our results indicate a mucosal adjuvant potential for ΔA146Ply and that, without additional adjuvant, DnaJ-ΔA146Ply fusion protein exhibits extensive immune stimulation and is effective against pneumococcal challenges, properties which are partially attributed to the IL-17A-mediated immune responses. PMID:24491576

  12. Undergraduate Cross Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.

    This report discusses various aspects of undergraduate cross-registration procedures, including the dimensions, values, roles and functions, basic assumptions, and facilitating and encouragment of cross-registration. Dimensions of cross-registration encompass financial exchange, eligibility, program limitations, type of grade and credit; extent of…

  13. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  14. Successful cross-protective efficacy induced by heat-adapted live attenuated nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus derived from a natural recombinant strain.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae-Hyun; Youn, Ha-Na; Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Hong, Woo-Tack; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Jung-Ah; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2015-12-16

    A natural recombinant nephropathogenic K40/09 strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was heat-adapted for possible future use as live attenuated vaccine. The K40/09 strain was selected during successive serial passages in specific-pathogen free (SPF) embryonated eggs at sub-optimal higher temperature (56°C). Unlike the parental strain, the attenuated strain, designated K40/09 HP50, was found to be safe in 1-day-old SPF chicks, which showed neither mortality nor signs of morbidity, and rarely induced ciliostasis or histological changes in the trachea and kidney after intraocular and fine-spray administration. K40/09 HP50 provided almost complete protection against two distinct subgroups of a nephropathogenic strain (KM91-like and QX-like subgroup) and elicited the production of high titers of neutralizing antibody (neutralization index of 3.6). We conclude that the K40/09 HP50 vaccine virus is rapidly attenuated by heat adaptation and exhibits the desired level of attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy required for a live attenuated vaccine. These results indicate that the K40/09 vaccine could be helpful for the reduction of economic losses caused by recently emergent nephropathogenic IBV infection in many countries.

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and the related compound 1,8-cineole do not induce direct or cross-protection in Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 cultivated in meat broth.

    PubMed

    Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Luz, Isabelle Silva; Honório, Wanessa Gonçalves; Tavares, Adassa Gama; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has the capability of adapting to 1 or more antimicrobial compounds or procedures applied by the food industry to control the growth and survival of microorganisms in foods. In this study, the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (EO) and the related compound 1,8-cineole on the inhibition of the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were determined. The ability of the R. officinalis EO and 1,8-cineole to induce direct and cross-protection of bacteria against various stresses (lactic acid, pH 5.2; NaCl, 3 g/100 mL; high temperature, 45 °C) was also determined. At all concentrations tested (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ½ MIC, and ¼ MIC), both compounds inhibited the cell viability of L. monocytogenes over 120 min of exposure. Overnight exposure of L. monocytogenes to sublethal amounts of either the R. officinalis EO or 1,8-cineole in meat broth revealed no induction of direct or cross-protection against lactic acid, NaCl, or high temperature. Similarly, cells subjected to 24 h cycles of adaptation with increasing amounts (½ MIC to 2× MIC) of the EO and 1,8-cineole showed no increase in direct tolerance, as they were able to survive in growth medium containing up to ½ MIC of either substance. These results show the antimicrobial efficacy of R. officinalis EO and 1,8-cineole for use in systems, particularly as anti-L. monocytogenes compounds.

  16. Vaccine Potential of Two Previously Uncharacterized African Swine Fever Virus Isolates from Southern Africa and Heterologous Cross Protection of an Avirulent European Isolate.

    PubMed

    Souto, R; Mutowembwa, P; van Heerden, J; Fosgate, G T; Heath, L; Vosloo, W

    2016-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a mostly fatal viral infection of domestic pigs for which there is no vaccine available. The disease is endemic to most of sub-Saharan Africa, causes severe losses and threatens food security in large parts of the continent. Naturally occurring attenuated ASF viruses have been tested as vaccine candidates, but protection was variable depending on the challenge virus. In this study, the virulence of two African isolates, one from a tick vector and the other from an indigenous pig, was determined in domestic pigs to identify a potential vaccine strain for southern Africa. Neither isolate was suitable as the tick isolate was moderately virulent and the indigenous pig virus was highly virulent. The latter was subsequently used as heterologous challenge in pigs first vaccinated with a naturally attenuated isolate previously isolated in Portugal. Although a statistically significant reduction in death rate and virus load was observed compared with unvaccinated pigs post-challenge, all pigs succumbed to infection and died.

  17. The protective role of long-term meditation on the decline of the executive component of attention in aging: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sperduti, Marco; Makowski, Dominique; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy is constantly increasing. However, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, even normal aging is associated with a decline in different cognitive functions. It has been proposed that a central mechanism that could contribute to this widespread cognitive decline is an ineffective inhibitory attentional control. Meditation, to the other hand, has been associated, in young adults, to enhancement of several attentional processes. Nevertheless, attention is not a unitary construct. An influent model proposed the distinction of three subsystems: the alerting (the ability to reach and maintain a vigilance state), the orienting (the capacity of focusing attention on a subset of stimuli), and the conflict resolution or executive component (the ability to resolve conflict or allocate limited resources between competing stimuli). Here, we investigated, employing the Attentional Network Task (ANT), the specific impact of age on these three subcomponents, and the protective role of long-term meditation testing a group of older adults naïve to meditation, a group of age-matched adults with long-term practice of meditation, and a group of young adults with no previous meditation experience. We reported a specific decline of the efficiency of the executive component in elderly that was not observed in age-matched meditators. Our results are encouraging for the investigation of the potential beneficial impact of meditation on other cognitive processes that decline in aging such as memory. Moreover, they could inform geriatric healthcare prevention and intervention strategies, proposing a new approach for cognitive remediation in elderly populations. PMID:26982654

  18. The protective role of long-term meditation on the decline of the executive component of attention in aging: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sperduti, Marco; Makowski, Dominique; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy is constantly increasing. However, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, even normal aging is associated with a decline in different cognitive functions. It has been proposed that a central mechanism that could contribute to this widespread cognitive decline is an ineffective inhibitory attentional control. Meditation, to the other hand, has been associated, in young adults, to enhancement of several attentional processes. Nevertheless, attention is not a unitary construct. An influent model proposed the distinction of three subsystems: the alerting (the ability to reach and maintain a vigilance state), the orienting (the capacity of focusing attention on a subset of stimuli), and the conflict resolution or executive component (the ability to resolve conflict or allocate limited resources between competing stimuli). Here, we investigated, employing the Attentional Network Task (ANT), the specific impact of age on these three subcomponents, and the protective role of long-term meditation testing a group of older adults naïve to meditation, a group of age-matched adults with long-term practice of meditation, and a group of young adults with no previous meditation experience. We reported a specific decline of the efficiency of the executive component in elderly that was not observed in age-matched meditators. Our results are encouraging for the investigation of the potential beneficial impact of meditation on other cognitive processes that decline in aging such as memory. Moreover, they could inform geriatric healthcare prevention and intervention strategies, proposing a new approach for cognitive remediation in elderly populations.

  19. Cross-functional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

  20. Cross-protective immunity against influenza A/H1N1 virus challenge in mice immunized with recombinant vaccine expressing HA gene of influenza A/H5N1 virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza virus undergoes constant antigenic evolution, and therefore influenza vaccines must be reformulated each year. Time is necessary to produce a vaccine that is antigenically matched to a pandemic strain. A goal of many research works is to produce universal vaccines that can induce protective immunity to influenza A viruses of various subtypes. Despite intensive studies, the precise mechanisms of heterosubtypic immunity (HSI) remain ambiguous. Method In this study, mice were vaccinated with recombinant virus vaccine (rL H5), in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza A/H5N1 virus was inserted into the LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine strain. Following a challenge with influenza A/H1N1 virus, survival rates and lung index of mice were observed. The antibodies to influenza virus were detected using hemagglutination inhibition (HI). The lung viral loads, lung cytokine levels and the percentages of both IFN-γ+CD4+ and IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells in spleen were detected using real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry respectively. Results In comparison with the group of mice given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), the mice vaccinated with rL H5 showed reductions in lung index and viral replication in the lungs after a challenge with influenza A/H1N1 virus. The antibody titer in group 3 (H1N1-H1N1) was significantly higher than that in other groups which only low levels of antibody were detected. IFN-γ levels increased in both group 1 (rL H5-H1N1) and group 2 (rL H5 + IL-2-H1N1). And the IFN-γ level of group 2 was significantly higher than that of group 1. The percentages of both IFN-γ+CD4+ and IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells in group 1 (rL H5-H1N1) and group 2 (rL H5 + IL-2-H1N1) increased significantly, as measured by flow cytometry. Conclusion After the mice were vaccinated with rL H5, cross-protective immune response was induced, which was against heterosubtypic influenza A/H1N1 virus. To some extent, cross-protective immune response can

  1. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  2. 75 FR 22681 - Supplemental Guidance on Overdraft Protection Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... goals, including building long term customer relationships, cross selling additional products, and... Guidance on Overdraft Protection Programs (Overdraft Guidance) OTS issued February 18, 2005 (70 FR 8428). OTS issued the Overdraft Guidance after notice and comment. See 69 FR 31858 (June 7, 2004)....

  3. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  4. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... account holder; (ii) Developing, as necessary and as permitted under 25 CFR 115, a one-time or an annual... of abuse, neglect or exploitation out of the home to assure safety while the allegations are...

  5. 40 CFR 35.3575 - Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters). 35.3575 Section 35.3575 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds §...

  6. 40 CFR 57.808 - Opportunity for cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunity for cross-examination. 57.808 Section 57.808 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Reduction Technology § 57.808 Opportunity for cross-examination. (a) Request for cross-examination....

  7. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  8. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  9. Humoral and cellular responses raised against the human HER2 oncoprotein are cross-reactive with the homologous product of the new proto-oncogene, but do not protect rats against B104 tumors expressing mutated neu.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Gerder, M; Moros, Z; Feldmann, M

    1996-03-01

    The neu proto-oncogene encodes a plasma membrane protein belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor family. The cell line B104, derived from BDIX rat neuroblastoma, carries a point mutation in neu, and forms a tumor when injected into these rats. The human homologue of the neu oncogene (here called HER2) is overexpressed in certain types of cancer. Rats were immunized with HER2 protein (HER2) to investigate a possible cross-reaction between the homologous proteins which could protect them against subsequent inoculation with B104. Specific antibody in the serum was measured by cell-based enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and fluorescence immunocytochemistry, and delayed-type hypersensitivity by an ear assay. Sera from animals immunized with the HER2 extracellular domain (HER2-ECD) reacted with both HER2- and neu-expressing cells. In the ear assay, a significant cellular response to both HER-ECD (P < 0.05) and neu protein (P < 0.001) was observed in HER2-ECD-immunized rats. However, the growth of B104 tumors in rats was not affected by preimmunization with HER2-ECD. The results indicate that an autoreactive immune response to neu was induced by immunization with HER2-ECD, but was too weak to affect the growth of the neu-bearing tumor.

  10. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  11. Cross-Country Skiing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  12. False Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The asterism formed by the four stars δ and κ Velorum, and ɛ and ι Carinae, all of the second magnitude, which make up a cross of about 10°×6°. It is so named because it is sometimes mistaken for the Southern Cross (Crux) by observers unfamiliar with the southern sky. There is a superficial resemblance, but Crux is more compact (about 7°×5°) and comprises rather brighter stars. The two crosses ca...

  13. Partial protection against four species of chicken coccidia induced by multivalent subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaokai; Gao, Yunlu; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a multivalent subunit vaccine was designed to protect chickens against simultaneous infection by several Eimeria species. This vaccine contains recombinant proteins from four Eimeria species - E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina and E. maxima - and was evaluated for efficacy in animals. To produce this vaccine, candidate antigens from each Eimeria species were first screened in chickens via intramuscular inoculation and subsequent challenge. Antigens tested include recombinant proteins TA4 and SO7 from E. tenella, NA4 and NPmz19 from E. necatrix, LDH, 3-1E and MIF from E. acervulina, and Em6 and Em8 (two portions of EmTFP250) from E. maxima. A homologous challenge was then performed to identify which antigen from each species conferred the best protection. The antigens identified as most protective against its species were then challenged by heterologous species. Finally, the selected recombinant proteins from each of the four respective species were mixed with the final concentration of 400 μg/ml (100 μg of each protein/ml) to form the multivalent subunit vaccine, which was tested for efficacy in animals. The results indicated that TA4 from E. tenella, NA4 from E. necatrix, LDH from E. acervulina, and Em8 from E. maxima each induced the most effective protection from homologous challenge. Cross-protection results showed that TA4 provided partial cross-protection against E. necatrix, NA4 provided partial cross-protection against E. tenella and E. acervulina, LDH provided partial cross-protection against E. tenella and E. necatrix, and Em8 provided partial cross-protection against E. tenella and E. acervulina. The multivalent subunit vaccine provided partial protection against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina and E. maxima challenge, and resulted in ACIs of more than 170. These results suggest that our candidate multivalent vaccine could protect chickens against simultaneous infection by several Eimeria species.

  14. Head-to-head comparison of an intradermal and a virosome influenza vaccine in patients over the age of 60: evaluation of immunogenicity, cross-protection, safety and tolerability.

    PubMed

    Ansaldi, Filippo; Orsi, Andrea; de Florentiis, Daniela; Parodi, Valentina; Rappazzo, Emanuela; Coppelli, Martina; Durando, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2013-03-01

    In the present study we first compare immunogenicity against vaccine and heterologous circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 strains, tolerability and safety of intradermal Intanza 15 μg and of virosomal adjuvanted, intramuscularly delivered influenza vaccine, Inflexal V, in healthy elderly volunteers. Five-hundred participants were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the two vaccine groups to receive either one dose of Intanza 15 μg or Inflexal V vaccine. All subjects reported solicited local and systemic reactions occurred within 7 d after vaccination and unsolicited adverse events up to 21 d post-immunization and any serious adverse event appeared during the study. A subset of 55 participants was randomly selected for immunogenicity and cross-protection evaluations. Serum samples were collected before and 1 and 3 mo after immunization. Antibody responses were measured using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) against all viruses used in the study and neutralization (NT) assays against A(H1N1)pdm09 strains. At least one of the CHMP criteria for influenza vaccine approval in the elderly was met by virosomal vaccine against all the tested viruses; intradermal vaccine met all criteria against all strains. Several parameters of immune response against strains with a different antigenic pattern from that of vaccine A/California/04/09(H1N1)pdm09 were significantly higher in the intradermal vaccine group compared with the virosomal group. Safety and systemic tolerability of both vaccines were excellent, but injection site reactions occurred significantly more frequently in the intradermal vaccination group. Immunogenicity of Intanza 15 μg intradermal vaccine tended to be higher than that of Inflexal V against heterologous strains in healthy elderly.

  15. 40 CFR 62.14442 - What must my inspection include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must my inspection include? 62.14442 Section 62.14442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for...

  16. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  17. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

  18. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  19. Electrical overstress protection of submicron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinone, R. J.; Young, P. A.

    1984-09-01

    The objective of this program was to further define the electrical overstress (EOS) sensitivity characterization procedures for microelectric devices and to investigate the EOS sensitivity of micron and submicron linewidth circuit structures. Another objective was to investigate improved EOS protection schemes and evaluate their benefits versus performance and cost penalties. The approach chosen to achieve these objectives was to attempt to design input protection networks which would protect an MOS device fabricated from a submicron process from an electrostatic discharge (ESD) threat. The program included the definition of ESD threats, examination of the characteristics of existing input protection networks, a study of the factors which limit the effectiveness of protection networks, and consideration of alternate approaches to achieve ESD hardness. The limiting factors which are expected to determine the electrical overstress sensitivity of micron and submicron design rule microcircuit technologies were investigated using computer-aided modeling techiques. Network analysis codes were used to exercise lumped circuit analogs of the electrical and thermal properties of the devices under study when subjected to ESD stress. Simple time domain network analysis codes suitable for microcomputers were used and are discussed in the report. The minimum cross-sectional areas of aluminum and polysilicon interconnects and semiconductor devices which are capable of withstanding an ESD event were established. Two candidate submicron technologies were considered in this study, CMOS and NMOS.

  20. Protective sheath for a continuous measurement thermocouple

    DOEpatents

    Phillippi, R.M.

    1991-12-03

    Disclosed is a protective thermocouple sheath of a magnesia graphite refractory material for use in continuous temperature measurements of molten metal in a metallurgical ladle and having a basic slag layer thereon. The sheath includes an elongated torpedo-shaped sheath body formed of a refractory composition and having an interior borehole extending axially therethrough and adapted to receive a thermocouple. The sheath body includes a lower end which is closed about the borehole and forms a narrow, tapered tip. The sheath body also includes a first body portion integral with the tapered tip and having a relatively constant cross section and providing a thin wall around the borehole. The sheath body also includes a second body portion having a relatively constant cross section larger than the cross section of the first body portion and providing a thicker wall around the borehole. The borehole terminates in an open end at the second body portion. The tapered tip is adapted to penetrate the slag layer and the thicker second body portion and its magnesia constituent material are adapted to withstand chemical attack thereon from the slag layer. The graphite constituent improves thermal conductivity of the refractory material and, thus, enhances the thermal responsiveness of the device. 4 figures.

  1. Protective sheath for a continuous measurement thermocouple

    DOEpatents

    Phillippi, R. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a protective thermocouple sheath of a magnesia graphite refractory material for use in continuous temperature measurements of molten metal in a metallurgical ladle and having a basic slag layer thereon. The sheath includes an elongated torpedo-shaped sheath body formed of a refractory composition and having an interior borehole extending axially therethrough and adapted to receive a thermocouple. The sheath body includes a lower end which is closed about the borehole and forms a narrow, tapered tip. The sheath body also includes a first body portion integral with the tapered tip and having a relatively constant cross section and providing a thin wall around the borehole. The sheath body also includes a second body portion having a relatively constant cross section larger than the cross section of the first body portion and providing a thicker wall around the borehole. The borehole terminates in an open end at the second body portion. The tapered tip is adapted to penetrate the slag layer and the thicker second body portion and its magnesia constituent material are adapted to withstand chemical attack thereon from the slag layer. The graphite constituent improves thermal conductivity of the refractory material and, thus, enhances the thermal responsiveness of the device.

  2. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA.

  3. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  4. Evaluation of cross-protection between O1 Manisa and O1 Campos in cattle vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine incorporating different payloads of inactivated O1 Manisa antigen.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar; Madhanmohan, Muthukrishnan; Yuvaraj, Shanmugam; Parida, Satya; Di Nardo, Antonello; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Paton, David James

    2011-02-24

    Serology is used to predict vaccine induced protection against challenge with a heterologous strain of the same serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). To evaluate the accuracy of such predictions, we compared the protection afforded to cattle vaccinated with the O(1) Manisa strain of FMDV against challenge with either a homologous (O(1) Manisa) or a heterologous strain (O(1) Campos). Serology by virus neutralization test (VNT) using O(1) Manisa antiserum predicted an acceptable protection against such a challenge. Two experiments were carried out to compare the results for consistency. A total of 78 naïve cattle were vaccinated with different antigen payloads (60-0.94 μg) of O(1) Manisa. They were challenged by intradermolingual inoculation with live FMDV, either O(1) Manisa or O(1) Campos. Unvaccinated naïve control cattle (n=20) were also challenged with either the O(1) Manisa or O(1) Campos viruses and all developed generalized FMD. The protection results for the vaccinated cattle revealed that higher payloads of O(1) Manisa vaccine were needed to protect against heterologous challenge compared to that for homologous challenge. The 50% protective dose (PD(50)) values for the vaccine in experiments 1 and 2 were found to be 28.78 and 9.44 for the homologous challenge and 3.98 and 5.01 for heterologous challenge. Furthermore, protection against O(1) Campos required a higher level of vaccine-induced antibody against this virus compared to the level of O(1) Manisa neutralizing antibody associated with protection against homologous challenge. The 50% protective level of in vitro neutralizing antibody was found to be log(10)1.827 for O(1) Campos and log(10)0.954 for O(1) Manisa based on O(1) Manisa based virus neutralization test.

  5. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  6. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  7. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  8. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  9. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  10. Do social interactions explain ethnic differences in psychological distress and the protective effect of local ethnic density? A cross-sectional study of 226 487 adults in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Background A frequently proposed, but under-researched hypothesis is that ethnic density benefits mental health through increasing social interactions. We examined this hypothesis in 226 487 adults from 19 ethnic groups aged 45 years and older in Australia. Methods Multilevel logit regression was used to measure the association between ethnicity, social interactions, own-group ethnic density and scores of 22+ on the Kessler scale of psychological distress. Self-reported ancestry was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Measures of social interactions included a number of times in the past week were (i) spent with friends or family participants did not live with; (ii) talked to someone on the telephone; (iii) attended meetings of social groups and (iv) how many people could be relied upon outside their home, but within 1 h of travel. Per cent own-group ethnic density was measured at the Census Collection District scale. Results Psychological distress was reported by 11% of Australians born in Australia. The risk of experiencing psychological distress varied among ethnic minorities and by country of birth (eg, 33% for the Lebanese born in Lebanon and 4% for the Swiss born in Switzerland). These differences remained after full adjustment. Social interactions varied between ethnic groups and were associated with lower psychological distress and ethnic density. Ethnic density was associated with reduced psychological distress for some groups. This association, however, was explained by individual and neighbourhood characteristics and not by social interactions. Conclusions Social interactions are important correlates of mental health, but fully explain neither the ethnic differences in psychological distress nor the protective effect of own-group density. PMID:23645917

  11. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  12. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  13. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  14. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  15. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  16. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  17. 40 CFR 52.1606 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... include approvable procedures meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.305 and 51.307 for protection of... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1606 Section 52.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1606 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... include approvable procedures meeting the requirement of 40 CFR 51.307, New source review, for protection... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1606 Section 52.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1606 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... include approvable procedures meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.305 and 51.307 for protection of... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1606 Section 52.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  20. Association between health information, use of protective devices and occurrence of acute health problems in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Suárez, Berta; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Pollán, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper examines the association between use of protective devices, frequency of acute health problems and health-protection information received by participants engaged in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria, Spain. Methods We studied 133 seamen, 135 bird cleaners, 266 volunteers and 265 paid workers selected by random sampling, stratified by type of worker and number of working days. Information was collected by telephone interview conducted in June 2003. The association of interest was summarized, using odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression. Results Health-protection briefing was associated with use of protective devices and clothing. Uninformed subjects registered a significant excess risk of itchy eyes (OR:2.89; 95%CI:1.21–6.90), nausea/vomiting/dizziness (OR:2.25; 95%CI:1.17–4.32) and throat and respiratory problems (OR:2.30; 95%CI:1.15–4.61). There was a noteworthy significant excess risk of headaches (OR:3.86: 95%CI:1.74–8.54) and respiratory problems (OR:2.43; 95%CI:1.02–5.79) among uninformed paid workers. Seamen, the group most exposed to the fuel-oil, were the worst informed and registered the highest frequency of toxicological problems. Conclusion Proper health-protection briefing was associated with greater use of protective devices and lower frequency of health problems. Among seamen, however, the results indicate poorer dissemination of information and the need of specific guidelines for removing fuel-oil at sea. PMID:16390547

  1. Cross-Species Coherence in Effects and Modes of Action in Support of Causality Determinations in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peer-reviewed literature on the health and ecological effects of lead (Pb) indicates common effects and underlying modes of action across multiple organisms for several endpoints. Based on such observations, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) applied a cr...

  2. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  3. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  4. Cross-cutting environmental laws: A guide for federal/state project officers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Congress has passed a number of environmental laws which address the federal responsibility for protecting and conserving special resources. Examples of such laws are the Endangered Species Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, and the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) refers to these laws generally as 'cross-cutters' because the requirement to comply with them cuts across all federal programs. A list of cross-cutting environmental laws (other than those administered by EPA) is included at the end of the section. The cross-cutters require federal agencies to consider the impact that their programs and individual actions might have on particular resources and such consideration must be documented as part of the agency's decision-making process.

  5. Disciplinary Crossings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ilina

    2016-09-01

    Eighteen months ago, I left a permanent professorship in a generously interdisciplinary department of sociology and took an impermanent, lower-paying job at a university where I had to apply to something called the "Committee on Distinction" to retain the title of "Professor." Some people say, "That's what happens when Oxford calls." But it wasn't just that. It was the opportunity to engage in a groundbreaking experiment: to embed and integrate ethics within the Oxford Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. It's a dream job, for which I was willing to cross the disciplinary line into the medical sciences. In the United Kingdom, many bioethicists still work in departments outside science and medicine; similarly, those of us who work on neuroethics and psychiatric ethics tend to inhabit departments of philosophy, law, or sociology. I can report already that interdisciplinarity from this side feels and looks different. PMID:27649834

  6. Carnosine, a protective, anti-ageing peptide?

    PubMed

    Hipkiss, A R

    1998-08-01

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has protective functions additional to anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging roles. It extends cultured human fibroblast life-span, kills transformed cells, protects cells against aldehydes and an amyloid peptide fragment and inhibits, in vitro, protein glycation (formation of cross-links, carbonyl groups and AGEs) and DNA/protein cross-linking. Carnosine is an aldehyde scavenger, a likely lipofuscin (age pigment) precursor and possible modulator of diabetic complications, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Protective link for superconducting coil

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  8. Analyzing Eye Protection Needs in the Technology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudebush, Clair J.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a guide to what is needed for eye protection in the technology laboratory. Topics include low impact vs. high impact spectacles, side shield requirements, safety goggles, face protection, and eye protection vs. face protection. (JOW)

  9. Inherent overload protection for the series resonant converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. J.; Stuart, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The overload characteristics of the full bridge series resonant power converter are considered. This includes analyses of the two most common control methods presently in use. The first of these uses a current zero crossing detector to synchronize the control signals and is referred to as the alpha controller. The second is driven by a voltage controlled oscillator and is referred to as the gamma controller. It is shown that the gamma controller has certain reliability advantages in that it can be designed with inherent short circuit protection. Experimental results are included for an 86 kHz converter using power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  10. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  11. Rocket Motor Joint Construction Including Thermal Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal barrier for extremely high temperature applications consists of a carbon fiber core and one or more layers of braided carbon fibers surrounding the core. The thermal barrier is preferably a large diameter ring, having a relatively small cross-section. The thermal barrier is particularly suited for use as part of a joint structure in solid rocket motor casings to protect low temperature elements such as the primary and secondary elastomeric O-ring seals therein from high temperature gases of the rocket motor. The thermal barrier exhibits adequate porosity to allow pressure to reach the radially outward disposed O-ring seals allowing them to seat and perform the primary sealing function. The thermal barrier is disposed in a cavity or groove in the casing joint, between the hot propulsion gases interior of the rocket motor and primary and secondary O-ring seals. The characteristics of the thermal barrier may be enhanced in different applications by the inclusion of certain compounds in the casing joint, by the inclusion of RTV sealant or similar materials at the site of the thermal barrier, and/or by the incorporation of a metal core or plurality of metal braids within the carbon braid in the thermal barrier structure.

  12. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  13. Development of influenza H7N9 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine: homologous A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) protection and heterologous A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3) cross-protection in vaccinated mice challenged with H7N9 virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gale E; Flyer, David C; Raghunandan, Ramadevi; Liu, Ye; Wei, Ziping; Wu, Yingyun; Kpamegan, Eloi; Courbron, Denise; Fries, Louis F; Glenn, Gregory M

    2013-09-13

    The recent emergence of severe human illness caused by avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China has precipitated a global effort to rapidly develop and test vaccine candidates. To date, non-A(H7N9) H7 subtype influenza vaccine candidates have been poorly immunogenic and difficulties in production of A(H7N9) virus seed strains have been encountered. A candidate recombinant A(H7N9) vaccine consisting of full length, unmodified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) from the A/Anhui/1/2013 and the matrix 1 (M1) protein from the A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) were cloned into a baculovirus vector. Baculovirus infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells secreted virus like particles (VLP) composed of HA, NA, and M1 that resemble mature influenza virions. Genetic construction of vaccine from acquisition of an H7N9 genomic sequence to production of A(H7N9) VLP occurred in 26 days. The immunogenicity and efficacy of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) VLP vaccine administered on days 0 and 14 were evaluated in a lethal wild-type challenge Balb/c mouse model. Control groups included a non-homologous H7 vaccine (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3)-VLP), and A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1)-VLP, or placebo. All vaccines were administered with or without ISCOMATRIX. A(H7N9) VLP elicited hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) antibody titers of ≥ 1:64 against the homologous virus, cross-reactive HAI against the heterologous A(H7N3), and 3- to 4-fold higher HAI responses in corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. Similarly, all doses of H7N9 VLP elicited anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibody, with 3- to 4-fold higher responses measured in the corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. The non-homologous H7 vaccine induced both H7N3 and H7N9 HAI but no N9 anti-NA antibodies. A lethal murine wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) challenge demonstrated 100% survival of all animals receiving A(H7N9) and A(H7N3) vaccine, versus 0% survival in A(H5N1) vaccine and placebo groups. Together, the data demonstrate that

  14. Including Conflict in Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvin, Martin

    Conflict is the basis of all stories and thus should appear in some form in the first sentence. There are three kinds of conflict: people vs. people; people vs. nature; and people vs. themselves. Conflict must be repeated in all the various elements of the story's structure, including the plot, which is the plan of action telling what happens to…

  15. Family Living, Including Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlano, George

    This volume describes and evaluates 21 selected New York City Board of Education Umbrella Programs for the 1974-1975 school year. The programs include: (1) the parent resource center, (2) the teacher self-help program, (3) the East Harlem pre-kindergarten center, (4) the Brooklyn College volunteer tutoring program, (5) the parent education for…

  16. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  17. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  18. 40 CFR 52.2452 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... met because the plan does not include approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2452 Section 52.2452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2452 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... met because the plan does not include approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2452 Section 52.2452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1279 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... not include fully approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.308(d)(3) and 51.308(e... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1279 Section 52.1279 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  1. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  2. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  3. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  4. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  5. 14 CFR 17.9 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... protective orders addressing the treatment of protected information, including protected information in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective orders. 17.9 Section 17.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL...

  6. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  7. Apparatus for protecting subsea wells

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, T.J.; Krenek, M.J.; Piazza, A.L.

    1981-06-16

    Apparatus for protecting subsea structures, and in particular Christmas trees from damage by fishing nets, trawl boards, anchors and other marine equipment, includes a protective structure which is placed over the Christmas tree. The protective structure has an opening in the top portion to allow access to the Christmas tree when such access is needed and a protective cap which closes the opening to prevent damage from silt, sand, trash and overhead falling objects. The entire protective structure is secured in place by one or more piles which are driven into the sea floor or by cementing one or more steel piles in place in the sea floor. The protective structure and the cap are guided into place around the well by guide cables attached to the guide base of the well. A lifting device in the protective cap facilitates removal of the cap by a single cable.

  8. Crossing Borders/Border Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilman, Carrie

    2005-01-01

    Every year, thousands of immigrant and refugee students enter American schools. For schools, this usually means growing pains, lots of questions, and a crash course in multicultural literacy. Yet multicultural training for teachers frequently lags behind immigrant population growth. The result, educators say, can include harmful stereotypes,…

  9. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization.

    PubMed

    Sakes, Aimée; Regar, Evelyn; Dankelman, Jenny; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the "last frontier" of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualization, and the inability to actively navigate through the CTO. To improve the success rate and to identify future research pathways, this study systematically reviews the state-of-the-art of all existing and invented devices for crossing occlusions. The literature search was executed in the databases of Scopus and Espacenet using medical and instrument-related keyword combinations. The search yielded over 840 patents and 69 articles. After scanning for relevancy, 45 patents and 16 articles were included. The identified crossing devices were subdivided based on the determinant for the crossing path through the occlusion, which is either the device (straight and angled crossing), the environment (least resistance, tissue selective, centerline, and subintimal crossing) or the user (directly steered and sensor enhanced crossing). It was found that each crossing path is characterized by specific advantages and disadvantages. For a future crossing device, a combination of crossing paths is suggested were the interventionist is able to exert high forces on the CTO (as seen in the device approach) and actively steer through the CTO (user: directly steered crossing) aided by intravascular imaging (user: sensor enhanced crossing) or an intrinsically safe device following the centerline or path of least resistance (environment: centerline crossing or least resistance crossing) to reach the distal true lumen.

  10. Homologous and Heterologous Protection of Nonhuman Primates by Ebola and Sudan Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Dye, John M.; Wells, Jay B.; Unfer, Robert C.; Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Swenson, Dana L.; Bavari, Sina; Aman, M. Javad

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and virus-like particles (VLPs) have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV) following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system) and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV) and Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components. PMID:25793502

  11. Homologous and heterologous protection of nonhuman primates by Ebola and Sudan virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Dye, John M; Wells, Jay B; Unfer, Robert C; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Swenson, Dana L; Bavari, Sina; Aman, M Javad

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and virus-like particles (VLPs) have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV) following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system) and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV) and Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components.

  12. Hermes thermal protection system overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumette, Daniel; Cretenet, Jean-Claude

    The HERMES thermal protection system for the reentry is a new challenge for the designer. Compared to the system operational to day which is the U.S. Orbiter, the smaller size and higher cross range of HERMES are inducing higher working temperatures and a longer duration for the hot phase of the reentry. Hence the overall weight of the TPS system is comparatively more critical than on the Orbiter. On the other hand since the conception of the Orbiter a lot of new materials, namely ceramic composites, have been developped, and may lead to more efficient concepts of TPS. In the initial studies on HERMES TPS systems a lot of possibilites were considered, including External passive TPS, Hot structures, Active TPS. This selection has been now shortlisted to three basic concepts, with a number of variant or back ups still under consideration: • Ceramic composites hot structures for the nose, leading edges, fins and control surfaces • External insulation : composite ceramic shingles covering a lightweight thermal insulation (or rigid surface insulation (tiles) as a back up solution) for the hot undersurfaces and part of the upper surface. • Flexible surface insulation for the lower temperature upper surfaces. The paper presents details on the concepts being studied, the optimisation methods and the concept selection criteria.

  13. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  14. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  15. Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.

    2011-06-10

    In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  16. Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5 PMID:21267100

  17. Protecting Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  18. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James; Ludlow, J A; Lee, Teck - Ghee; Pindzola, M S; Robicheaux, F

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  19. Impact of Including Higher Actinides in Fast Reactor Transmutation Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    B. Forget; M. Asgari; R. Ferrer; S. Bays

    2007-09-01

    Previous fast reactor transmutation studies generally disregarded higher mass minor actinides beyond Cm-246 due to various considerations including deficiencies in nuclear cross-section data. Although omission of these higher mass actinides does not significantly impact the neutronic calculations and fuel cycle performance parameters follow-on neutron dose calculations related to fuel recycling, transportation and handling are significantly impacted. This report shows that including the minor actinides in the equilibrium fast reactor calculations will increase the predicted neutron emission by about 30%. In addition a sensitivity study was initiated by comparing the impact of different cross-section evaluation file for representing these minor actinides.

  20. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R.

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  1. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  2. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  3. Temporary agency contracts: what should they include?

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board committed to provide some tools to help our members with agency contracts. This article provides the sections for a contract and what they should include. Of course, the language will have to comply with your organization's requirements. To comply with HIPAA regulations for contracts, I've also included language for business associates. JCAHO requires that the following documentation be on file for all contracted personnel: 1. Hospital job description or formal contract outlining the job responsibilities. 2. All licenses, certifications and registrations are reviewed and a process is developed to ensure that they remain current. 3. Competency is evaluated and maintained. 4. Evidence that personnel received a general orientation. 5. Evidence that personnel received a departmental orientation. 6. Safety and infection control standards must be met. In order to aid with compliance when utilizing contracted personnel, my organization developed a Contractor Personnel Administrative Compliance Checklist, which identifies requirements for compliance, a reference for assistance, and places to record that the requirement has been met for each of the areas listed in the previous item. Our standard contract includes sections on general definition of engagement, credentials and work experience; health, including immunization and drug testing; corporation; JCAHO; terms of the contract; and, non-disclosure of information. A business associate agreement may be necessary to comply with HIPAA regulations. Using the template has made my job much easier than trying to read each contract that crosses my desk. If an agency refuses to sign our contract, then we do not conduct business with that company. If an agency requests changes to the contract, depending on the language, we may or may not agree to it. This information is not intended to be legal advice, but rather an educational overview. As with any contract, the reader should consult with legal counsel at his or her

  4. Temporary agency contracts: what should they include?

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board committed to provide some tools to help our members with agency contracts. This article provides the sections for a contract and what they should include. Of course, the language will have to comply with your organization's requirements. To comply with HIPAA regulations for contracts, I've also included language for business associates. JCAHO requires that the following documentation be on file for all contracted personnel: 1. Hospital job description or formal contract outlining the job responsibilities. 2. All licenses, certifications and registrations are reviewed and a process is developed to ensure that they remain current. 3. Competency is evaluated and maintained. 4. Evidence that personnel received a general orientation. 5. Evidence that personnel received a departmental orientation. 6. Safety and infection control standards must be met. In order to aid with compliance when utilizing contracted personnel, my organization developed a Contractor Personnel Administrative Compliance Checklist, which identifies requirements for compliance, a reference for assistance, and places to record that the requirement has been met for each of the areas listed in the previous item. Our standard contract includes sections on general definition of engagement, credentials and work experience; health, including immunization and drug testing; corporation; JCAHO; terms of the contract; and, non-disclosure of information. A business associate agreement may be necessary to comply with HIPAA regulations. Using the template has made my job much easier than trying to read each contract that crosses my desk. If an agency refuses to sign our contract, then we do not conduct business with that company. If an agency requests changes to the contract, depending on the language, we may or may not agree to it. This information is not intended to be legal advice, but rather an educational overview. As with any contract, the reader should consult with legal counsel at his or her

  5. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  6. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  7. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  8. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  9. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  10. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  11. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  12. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross Reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  13. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  14. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross Reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  15. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  16. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  17. Ablative Thermal Protection: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernie

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: Why ablative thermal protections - TPS. Ablative TPS chronology: strategic reentry systems, solid rocket motor nozzles, space (manned missions and planetary entry probes). Ablation mechanisms. Ablation material testing. Ablative material testing.

  18. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A.; Patel, Sonal J.; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R.; Frei, Julia C.; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K.; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L.; Froude, Jeffrey W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Warfield, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. IMPORTANCE Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus

  19. Physical basis of radiation protection in space travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-10-01

    The health risks of space radiation are arguably the most serious challenge to space exploration, possibly preventing these missions due to safety concerns or increasing their costs to amounts beyond what would be acceptable. Radiation in space is substantially different from Earth: high-energy (E) and charge (Z) particles (HZE) provide the main contribution to the equivalent dose in deep space, whereas γ rays and low-energy α particles are major contributors on Earth. This difference causes a high uncertainty on the estimated radiation health risk (including cancer and noncancer effects), and makes protection extremely difficult. In fact, shielding is very difficult in space: the very high energy of the cosmic rays and the severe mass constraints in spaceflight represent a serious hindrance to effective shielding. Here the physical basis of space radiation protection is described, including the most recent achievements in space radiation transport codes and shielding approaches. Although deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes can now describe well the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, more accurate double-differential nuclear cross sections are needed to improve the codes. Energy deposition in biological molecules and related effects should also be developed to achieve accurate risk models for long-term exploratory missions. Passive shielding can be effective for solar particle events; however, it is limited for galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Active shielding would have to overcome challenging technical hurdles to protect against GCR. Thus, improved risk assessment and genetic and biomedical approaches are a more likely solution to GCR radiation protection issues.

  20. Protecting Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines how one school district used a comprehensive plan, that included cooperation between parents, students, and local law enforcement, to effectively respond to the current furor over school security. The components and costs of the plan are highlighted. (GR)

  1. Protecting a pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.H ); Garcia-Lopez, M. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  2. Dual mechanism of protection by live attenuated Bordetella pertussis BPZE1 against Bordetella bronchiseptica in mice.

    PubMed

    Kammoun, Hana; Feunou, Pascal Feunou; Foligne, Benoit; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Raze, Dominique; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2012-08-31

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative bacterium, causes chronic respiratory tract infections in a wide variety of mammalian hosts, including man, and no human vaccine is currently available. Acellular pertussis vaccines protect poorly against B. bronchiseptica, although they contain cross-reactive antigens. We have recently developed Bordetella pertussis BPZE1, a novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine, currently completing phase I clinical trials in humans, and found that it protects against both B. pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in mice. Here, we show that a single nasal administration of BPZE1 protects mice against lethal infection with B. bronchiseptica. After challenge, the vaccinated animals displayed markedly reduced lung inflammation and tissue damage, decreased neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells in the lungs compared to non-immunized mice. Depletion of these cells abolished BPZE1-induced protection, indicating that BPZE1 protects against lethal inflammation through the recruitment of regulatory T cells. In addition, the B. bronchiseptica load was significantly decreased in the vaccinated animals. Using passive transfer experiments, protection was found to be essentially cell mediated, and BPZE1-induced Th1 and Th17 T cells recognize whole B. bronchiseptica extracts, although the participation of antibodies in protection cannot be discounted. Thus, a single administration of BPZE1 can confer protection against B. bronchiseptica in mice by a dual mechanism.

  3. 30 CFR 256.7 - Cross references.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... multiple use conflicts, see the Environmental Protection Agency listing of ocean dumping sites—40 CFR part... § 256.7 Cross references. (a) For Minerals Management Service regulations governing exploration, development and production on leases, see 30 CFR parts 250 and 270. (b) For MMS regulations governing...

  4. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Sandra M., Ed.; Mumford, Monica G., Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of training methods and exercises used by top trainers in the cross-cultural field contains resources essential for cross-cultural learning. This second volume of the collection includes articles by 34 leading cross-cultural trainers and covers new or divergent training methods for cross-cultural skill development and…

  5. Pesticide personal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

    1991-01-01

    A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of

  6. Pesticide personal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

    1991-01-01

    A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of

  7. Protective factors in adolescent health behavior.

    PubMed

    Jessor, R; Turbin, M S; Costa, F M

    1998-09-01

    The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence. PMID:9781412

  8. Observations of Planet Crossing Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.

    1999-01-01

    This grant funds the investigation of the Solar System's planet crossing asteroid population, principally the near Earth and trans-Neptunian objects, but also the Centaurs. Investigations include colorimetry at both visible and near infrared wavelengths, light curve photometry, astrometry, and a pilot project to find near Earth objects with small aphelion distances, which requires observations at small solar elongations.

  9. Child protective services and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Findlater, J E; Kelly, S

    1999-01-01

    Studies estimate that domestic violence is present in at least one-third of the families involved in child protective services (CPS). Yet, until recently, CPS has not directly addressed domestic violence in its handling of child abuse and neglect cases. By the same token, domestic violence programs have historically emphasized services for battered women, with limited understanding of the child safety goals of CPS. Despite these historical differences, collaborative efforts between CPS and domestic violence service programs are emerging based on a common goal of safety from violence for all family members. Innovative strategies include the use of domestic violence specialists in a variety of child protection settings for case consultation and for support to the battered women, direct referrals of battered women from domestic violence programs to family preservation services, and cross-training of CPS workers and domestic violence service providers. A survey of state CPS administrators and domestic violence coalition directors conducted for this article revealed that although there is mutual interest in greater collaboration, such efforts remain limited. New forums, such as CPS citizen review panels and community-based CPS partnerships, hold promise for further collaboration. Critical to successful strategies are supportive agency leadership, greater trust and understanding across systems, a recognition of common goals, and a willingness to change policies and practice.

  10. Caution -- Beam Crossing Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, Kenneth L.

    2008-04-02

    There are times when a laser beam needs to cross between tables or even go from one room to another. This presents an interesting traffic-flow and safety challenge to both the laser safety officer and laser user. Fortunately it is a challenge that has several solutions But the simplest solution may not be the best one. For example, the simplest way to get a beam from one optical table to another is just to put a sturdy tube around it. That's a permanent solution, and it completely contains the laser beam. While this is laser safe, there can be egress issues if it blocks a walkway. One comment this author often hears is, 'We can just duck under the tube.' The fire marshal, as well as the laser safety officer, might have issues with this. Especially in the case of a darkened lab, a blocked walkway can present a hazard of its own. One good solution is to transport the beam from Point A to Point B through a fiberoptic cable, when that is possible. One should easily be able to run the fiber up and over any walkway or down through a conduit on the floor. An important concern often overlooked with fibers is a label at the termination end indicating disconnection may expose one to laser radiation. Suppose there's an experiment that is usually confined to a single optical table, but sometimes needs to expand to a second table. It's inconvenient to install a permanent tube between the tables, so some sort of temporary arrangement is desirable. I have often seen people casually lay a beam tube across support arms, and remove it when it's not needed. The problem with this approach is that there's no mechanism to prevent the beam from crossing if somebody's forgotten the tube, or if the tube gets knocked out of place. A better solution is a mechanism that only allows the beam to cross when the beam protection is in place. A swing shutter, or a guillotine and swing arm, are examples (Figures 1 and 2). Another alternative is a sensor, maybe a little microswitch, that activates a

  11. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction measurements for the US Department of Energy nuclear programs which include waste disposal, fusion, safeguards, defense, fission, and personnel protection. These measurements are also useful to other energy programs which indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. The work includes the measurement of reference cross sections and related neutron data employing unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; the preservation of standard reference deposits and the development of improved neutron detectors and measurement methods. A related and essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the third year of this three-year interagency agreement. The proposed program and required budget for the following three years are also presented. The program continues the shifts in priority instituted in order to broaden the program base.

  12. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Right-of-way grant applications must include an identification of the operator of the pipeline. Each... responsibility transfers between a producing operator and a transporting operator. (3) General information as follows: (i) Description of cathodic protection system. If pipeline anodes are to be used, specify...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Right-of-way grant applications must include an identification of the operator of the pipeline. Each... responsibility transfers between a producing operator and a transporting operator. (3) General information as follows: (i) Description of cathodic protection system. If pipeline anodes are to be used, specify...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Right-of-way grant applications must include an identification of the operator of the pipeline. Each... responsibility transfers between a producing operator and a transporting operator. (3) General information as follows: (i) Description of cathodic protection system. If pipeline anodes are to be used, specify...

  15. Optical probe with light fluctuation protection

    DOEpatents

    Da Silva, Luiz B.; Chase, Charles L.

    2003-11-11

    An optical probe for tissue identification includes an elongated body. Optical fibers are located within the elongated body for transmitting light to and from the tissue. Light fluctuation protection is associated with the optical fibers. In one embodiment the light fluctuation protection includes a reflective coating on the optical fibers to reduce stray light. In another embodiment the light fluctuation protection includes a filler with very high absorption located within the elongated body between the optical fibers.

  16. Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive to Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Lalita; Quicke, Kendra M; Hudson, William H; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Mulligan, Mark J; Wilson, Patrick C; Ahmed, Rafi; Suthar, Mehul S; Wrammert, Jens

    2016-07-12

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations. PMID:27354515

  17. Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive to Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, Lalita; Quicke, Kendra M.; Hudson, William H.; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Mulligan, Mark J.; Wilson, Patrick C.; Ahmed, Rafi; Suthar, Mehul S.; Wrammert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations. PMID:27354515

  18. Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive to Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Lalita; Quicke, Kendra M; Hudson, William H; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Mulligan, Mark J; Wilson, Patrick C; Ahmed, Rafi; Suthar, Mehul S; Wrammert, Jens

    2016-07-12

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations.

  19. Insider protection: a report card

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is not focussing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. We discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. We also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel.

  20. Insider protection: A report card

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is now focusing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. The authors discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. They also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel.

  1. 40 CFR 52.2452 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... include approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.305 and 51.306 for protection of... approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.308(d)(3) and 51.308(e) with respect to... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2452...

  2. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  3. Incest Survivor Mothers: Protecting the Next Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…

  4. 40 CFR 1037.725 - What must I include in my application for certification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I include in my application for certification? 1037.725 Section 1037.725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Averaging,...

  5. 40 CFR 1051.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test data only for one grade unless the regulations of this part specify otherwise for your engine. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I include in my application? 1051.205 Section 1051.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  6. 40 CFR 1051.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test data only for one grade unless the regulations of this part specify otherwise for your engine. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I include in my application? 1051.205 Section 1051.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR 36.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 36.215 Section 36.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other...

  8. 40 CFR 36.205 - What must I include in my drug-free workplace statement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my drug-free workplace statement? 36.205 Section 36.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Other...

  9. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan? 262.105 Section 262.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  10. Force protection

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is concerned with rapid, continuous inspection of vehicles entering military facilities or compounds, searching for high explosives, or the rapid survey of facilities if it is found that security has been breached. The author reviews methods which are in use now, including: x-rays; x-ray tomography; thermal or fast neutrons; quadrupole resonance; trace detection; electron capture; chemiluminesence; ion mobility spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; antibodies; and layered, synergistic approaches. He then discusses the limitations of these methods and proposes new approaches which are a combination of old techniques such as weighing vehicles with technological advances in some present methods.

  11. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Blakely, E A; Fry, R J

    1995-08-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in our knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared with previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers, including space travelers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space. PMID:7480625

  12. Subsea wellhead protective enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.M.

    1980-09-02

    Method and apparatus for protecting subsea wellheads and christmas trees from damage by anchors, fishing nets, trawl boards, and other towed devices. The apparatus includes an annular, rigid protective enclosure with inner and outer walls that define a hollow annular chamber, and a plurality of bag-like containers spaced around and attached to the enclosure's outer wall. The annular chamber is in communication with the interiors of the containers by means of ports through the enclosure's outer wall, whereby when cement is pumped into the chamber it also flows into and fills the containers to form a smoothly contoured shield around the enclosure. Should an anchor or other device become fouled on this shield, the container or containers involved will break away and let the anchor continue on its way up and over the enclosure without damage to the wellhead or other well equipment.

  13. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  14. Studying possible cross-protection of Canada geese preexposed to North American low pathogenicity avian influenza virus strains (H3N8, H4N6, and H5N2) against an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza challenge.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Y; Leith, M; Embury-Hyatt, C; Neufeld, J; Babiuk, S; Hisanaga, T; Kehler, H; Hooper-McGrevy, K; Pasick, J

    2010-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections have caused unprecedented morbidity and mortality in different species of domestic and wild birds in Asia, Europe, and Africa. In our previous study, we demonstrated the susceptibility and potential epidemiologic importance of H5N1 HPAI virus infections in Canada geese. In this study, we investigated the potential of preexposure with North American lineage H3N8, H4N6, and H5N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses to cross-protect Canada geese against a lethal H5N1 HPAI virus challenge. Based on our results, birds that were primed and boosted with an H5N2 LPAI virus survived a lethal H5N1 challenge. In contrast, only two of five birds from the H3N8 group and none of the birds preexposed to H4N6 survived a lethal H5N1 challenge. In vitro cell proliferation assays demonstrated that peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from each group were no better stimulated by homologous vs. heterologous antigens.

  15. The role of ROS signaling in cross-tolerance: from model to crop.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ilse Barrios; Brown, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key signaling molecules produced in response to biotic and abiotic stresses that trigger a variety of plant defense responses. Cross-tolerance, the enhanced ability of a plant to tolerate multiple stresses, has been suggested to result partly from overlap between ROS signaling mechanisms. Cross-tolerance can manifest itself both as a positive genetic correlation between tolerance to different stresses (inherent cross-tolerance), and as the priming of systemic plant tolerance through previous exposure to another type of stress (induced cross-tolerance). Research in model organisms suggests that cross-tolerance could be used to benefit the agronomy and breeding of crop plants. However, research under field conditions has been scarce and critical issues including the timing, duration, and intensity of a stressor, as well as its interactions with other biotic and abiotic factors, remain to be addressed. Potential applications include the use of chemical stressors to screen for stress-resistant genotypes in breeding programs and the agronomic use of chemical inducers of plant defense for plant protection. Success of these applications will rely on improving our understanding of how ROS signals travel systemically and persist over time, and of how genetic correlations between resistance to ROS, biotic, and abiotic stresses are shaped by cooperative and antagonistic interactions within the underlying signaling pathways.

  16. Thermal cleavage of the fmoc protection group.

    PubMed

    Höck, Stefan; Marti, Roger; Riedl, Rainer; Simeunovice, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The Fmoc protection group is among the most commonly used protection groups for the amino function. A fast method for the thermal deavage of this protection group under base-free conditions without the need for dibenzofulvene scavengers is presented. The advantages of this method include straightforward testability by means of a simple high-temperature NMR experiment, usually high yields, and good selectivity towards the BOC protection group and t-butyl ethers.

  17. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  18. Bridge over Troubled Water: Guidance Crosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norm

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation at an international conference where the focus was cross-over career guidance. Simon and Garfunkel's popular song, "Bridge over troubled water", was used as a metaphor for exploring the cross-over theme. Some of the concepts under consideration included the working alliance, the importance of a…

  19. Dual Protection and Dual Methods in Women Living with HIV: The Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Regina María; Pinho, Adriana de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The cooccurrence of HIV and unintended pregnancy has prompted a body of work on dual protection, the simultaneous protection against HIV and unintended pregnancy. This study examines dual protection and dual methods as a risk-reduction strategy for women living with HIV. Data are from a cross-sectional sample of HIV-positive women attended in Specialized STI/AIDS Public Health Service Clinics in 13 municipalities from all five regions of Brazil 2003-2004 (N = 834). Descriptive techniques and logistic regression were used to examine dual protection among women living with HIV. We expand the definition of dual protection to include consistent condom use and reversible/irreversible contraceptive methods, we test the dual methods hypothesis that women who use dual methods will use condoms less consistently than women who use only condoms, and we identify predictors of dual protection. Dual protection is common in our sample. Women who use dual methods have lower odds of consistent condom use than women who only use condoms. Among dual method users, we find that women who use an irreversible method use condoms more consistently than women who use a reversible method. Women on ART and with an HIV-serodiscordant partner have greater odds of consistent condom use than their counterparts. PMID:26316959

  20. The role of flavon cross couplings in leptonic flavour mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoli, Silvia; Zhou, Ye-Ling

    2016-06-01

    In models with discrete flavour symmetries, flavons are critical to realise specific flavour structures. Leptonic flavour mixing originates from the misalignment of flavon vacuum expectation values which respect different residual symmetries in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors. Flavon cross couplings are usually forbidden, in order to protect these symmetries. Contrary to this approach, we show that cross couplings can play a key role and give raise to necessary corrections to flavour-mixing patterns, including a non-zero value for the reactor angle and CP violation. For definiteness, we present two models based on A 4. In the first model, all flavons are assumed to be real or pseudo-real, with 7 real degrees of freedom in the flavon sector in total. A sizable reactor angle associated with nearly maximal CP violation is achieved, and, as both originate from the same cross coupling, a sum rule results with a precise prediction for the value of the Dirac CP-violating phase. In the second model, the flavons are taken to be complex scalars, which can be connected with supersymmetric models and multi-Higgs models. The complexity properties of flavons provide new sources for generating the reactor angle. Models in this new approach introduce very few degrees of freedom beyond the Standard Model and can be more economical than those in the framework of extra dimension or supersymmetry.

  1. Knowledge and practice of sun protection in schools in South Africa where no national sun protection programme exists.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reeder, Anthony I; Albers, Patricia N

    2016-04-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline information and investigated possible associations between strategies regarding sun protection in schools and students' responses to a questionnaire. Principals from randomly selected urban government schools in all nine South African provinces completed a questionnaire and 679 students were surveyed. The mean sun-related knowledge and behaviour scores of students were 4 (range: 1-7) and 3 (range-0-8) out of 9, respectively. The mean school sun protection effort score was 4 out of 14. There were no statistically significant correlations between students' knowledge or behaviour scores and their school score. The World Health Organization recommends an SSAP to address policy, practice and curriculum changes to support sun protection of students. This cross-sectional study demonstrates the feasibility of, and need for, a larger baseline study with longitudinal, multi-variable follow-up which includes other influential factors, such as parent support. Such research could quantify the impact of the SSAP and identify which key factors influence the sun-related knowledge and behaviours of students. PMID:26936482

  2. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  3. A Theoretical and Experimental Study of Planing Surfaces Including Effects of Cross Section and Plan Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuford, Charles L , Jr

    1958-01-01

    A summary is given of the background and present status of the pure-planing theory for rectangular flat plates and v-bottom surfaces. The equations reviewed are compared with experiment. In order to extend the range of available planing data, the principal planing characteristics for models having sharp bottom surfaces having constant angles of dead rise of 20 degrees and 40 degrees. Planing data were also obtained for flat-plate surfaces with very slightly rounded chines for which decreased lift and drag coefficients are obtained.

  4. Modeling cross-field transport of solar energetic particles including solar wind effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampa, Florian; Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Under consideration of solar wind effects, we have extended the Ruffolo's equation of focused transport for solar energetic particles to accommodate perpendicular transport in the ecliptic plane, and made a different approach concerning the reference frame. Numerically, the additional transport term is solved with the implicit and stable Laasonen scheme. In parameter studies and fits to observations for typical ratios κ⊥ /κ ranging between 0.02 and 0.1 at 1 AU as suggested in numerous studies (e.g. non-linear guiding-center theory) and a scaling of κ⊥ with r2 as suggested from the random walk of field lines as well as from numerical simulations, we find that azimuthal spread as well as the variation of maximum intensities with longitude is comparable to the ones inferred from multi-spacecraft observations. Implications for the interpretation of the observed intensity and anisotropy time profiles and consequences for our understanding of particle propagation and acceleration in space will be discussed.

  5. Boron nitride nanotubes included thermally cross-linked gelatin-glucose scaffolds show improved properties.

    PubMed

    Şen, Özlem; Culha, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are increasingly investigated for their medical and biomedical applications due to their unique properties such as resistance to oxidation, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. BNNTs can be used to enhance mechanical strength of biomedical structures such as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. In this study, we report the use of BNNTs and hydroxylated BNNTs (BNNT-OH) to improve the properties of gelatin-glucose scaffolds prepared with electrospinning technique. Human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells are used for the toxicity assessment and cell seeding studies. It is found that the addition of BNNTs into the scaffold does not influence cell viability, decreases the scaffold degradation rate, and improves cell attachment and proliferation compared to only-gelatin scaffold.

  6. Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Paula A.; Dunford, Robert W.; Holman, Ian P.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios in Europe. We show that single-sector studies misrepresent the spatial pattern, direction and magnitude of most impacts because they omit the complex interdependencies within human and environmental systems. The discrepancies are particularly pronounced for indicators such as food production and water exploitation, which are highly influenced by other sectors through changes in demand, land suitability and resource competition. Furthermore, the discrepancies are greater under different socio-economic scenarios than different climate scenarios, and at the sub-regional rather than Europe-wide scale.

  7. Dashing through the Snow--On Cross-Country Skis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Roger

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of factors to consider when developing a cross-country area for skiing includes consideration of the components of a successful cross-country operation and how the sport can be effectively promoted. (JD)

  8. Water-crossing design and installation manual

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-26

    PRC International (PRCI) has recognized the need for a reference guide to assist pipeline design personnel in the selection of the most environmentally appropriate and cost effective construction techniques for pipeline water and wetland crossings. Operating companies have already been developing, implementing, and perfecting water and wetland crossing techniques and associated preventative, mitigative, and monitoring procedures in order to minimize the impacts on water quality and associated habitat. However, these activities, to date have largely been performed on an individual basis with little transfer of technology or information, which has led to duplication of effort in many areas. This Manual, therefore, has been developed in order to aid in the assessment, design, construction, and restoration activities associated with pipeline water crossings. By adhering to a systematic approach and utilizing the most practical and effective crossing techniques and procedures, the industry can reduce costs and increase the level of environmental protection associated with pipeline water crossings. This document outlines relevant background studies and investigations, crossing technique selection and design, methods of prevention and mitigation, inspection and monitoring, restoration and the present regulatory framework under which pipeline watercourse crossings are assessed and constructed. While specific study contents and design procedures are outlined, they are presented as a guide only. They are not intended to serve as a substitute for the use of qualified company personnel or consultants, nor do they represent definitive plans. The contents are presented to serve as a base from which qualified personnel can develop specific programs and mitigative techniques.

  9. Protective Behavior and West Nile Virus Risk

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Susan J.; Gibson, Brian; Fearon, Margaret; Nosal, Robert; Drebot, Michael; D'Cuhna, Colin; Harrington, Daniel; Smith, Stephanie; George, Pauline; Eyles, John

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional, household survey in Oakville, Ontario, where an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 2002 led to an unprecedented number of cases of meningitis and encephalitis. Practicing >2 personal protective behavior traits reduced the risk for WNV infection by half. PMID:16229774

  10. Heterotypic protection to infectious bronchitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing a distinct spike (S) protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This recombinant vaccine technology confers cross-protection among different IBV strains. We also experimentally demonstrated that the recombinant construct main...

  11. Protecting our peoples.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F V

    1997-01-01

    In this speech, delivered at the Opening Ceremonies of the 4th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Philippines President Fidel Ramos called for international cooperation in seeking solutions to the universal problem posed by HIV/AIDS. The Philippines proclaimed 1997 as national AIDS prevention year, and the nation is aware that the disease is a socioeconomic and development problem, not merely a public health problem. This recognition has allowed the Philippines to craft a response to HIV/AIDS that is holistic and comprehensive, rather than isolationist. By pooling resources effectively, Asian countries should be able to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention efforts and, hopefully, to efforts to cure the disease. In the Philippines, nongovernmental organizations have shown how much can be accomplished through effective management of scarce resources. The Department of Health (DOH) also stretches its modest HIV/AIDS prevention and care budget through effort, enthusiasm, and networking. The Philippines National AIDS Council, an advisory body, includes a representative from an organization of people with HIV. The DOH has established a home for people with HIV/AIDS and hires HIV-positive patients to work as health educators. The government's labor policies also protect people with HIV/AIDS from discrimination. A proposed law will extend protection of the rights of HIV-positive individuals and will address prevention efforts. Asian-Pacific region countries must act collectively to meet the challenge of protecting their peoples from HIV/AIDS.

  12. Manifolds and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossitto, Franco; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Ongaro, Filippo

    During the past 40 years humans have travelled beyond Earth's atmosphere, orbiting the planets for extended periods of time and landing on the Moon. Humans have survived this overwhelming challenge but to assure future exploration of space further expertise in the long term survival in space must be obtained. The International Space Station (ISS) provides this opportunity and allows space scientist to fine-tune their knowledge and prepare for even bolder human space missions. In this work we focus on the aspect of radiation, perhaps the most complex one from a physical and physiological perspective. Travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere and especially to Moon and Mars requires a precise consideration of the radiation environment as radiation exposure could be a show-stopper. At the moment scientists have not yet developed complete and reliable systems for radiation protection. Most likely an adequate level of protection will be reached through an integrated countermeasure system which could include: shields, monitoring of the environment, drugs to protect from damage, etc.

  13. Sun protection in childhood.

    PubMed

    Truhan, A P

    1991-12-01

    There is compelling evidence that childhood is a particularly vulnerable time for the photocarcinogenic effects of sun exposure on the skin. Studies indicate that excessive sun exposure during the first 10-20 years of life greatly increases the risk of skin cancer. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma) has been associated with cumulative sun exposure, whereas melanoma has been associated with short, intense sun exposure or blistering sunburn. Under normal circumstances, children receive three times the annual sun exposure of adults; most of one's lifetime sun exposure occurs in childhood. Depletion of the earth's protective ozone layer adds to the photodamage problem. It is clear that sun protection is most vital in the early years. Those with fair skin are at highest risk. Photoprotective measures including sunscreen, clothing, and sun avoidance in childhood may significantly reduce the occurrence of melanoma and other skin cancer in later life. Regular use of sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 during the first 18 years of life could reduce the lifetime incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer by 78%. Pediatricians can play a major role in educating parents and children.

  14. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  15. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  16. New laser protective eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLear, Mark

    1996-04-01

    Laser technology has significantly impacted our everyday life. Lasers are now used to correct your vision, clear your arteries, and are used in the manufacturing of such diverse products as automobiles, cigarettes, and computers. Lasers are no longer a research tool looking for an application. They are now an integral part of manufacturing. In the case of Class IV lasers, this explosion in laser applications has exposed thousands of individuals to potential safety hazards including eye damage. Specific protective eyewear designed to attenuate the energy of the laser beam below the maximum permissible exposure is required for Class 3B and Class IV lasers according to laser safety standards.

  17. Dicyclopropylmethyl peptide backbone protectant.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Louis A; Nasr, Khaled; Abdel-Maksoud, Adel Ali; El-Faham, Ayman; Ionescu, Dumitru; Henklein, Peter; Wenschuh, Holger; Beyermann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Bienert, Michael

    2009-08-20

    The N-dicyclopropylmethyl (Dcpm) residue, introduced into amino acids via reaction of dicyclopropylmethanimine hydrochloride with an amino acid ester followed by sodium cyanoborohydride or triacetoxyborohydride reduction, can be used as an amide bond protectant for peptide synthesis. Examples which demonstrate the amelioration of aggregation effects include syntheses of the alanine decapeptide and the prion peptide (106-126). Avoidance of cyclization to the aminosuccinimide followed substitution of Fmoc-(Dcpm)Gly-OH for Fmoc-Gly-OH in the assembly of sequences containing the sensitive Asp-Gly unit.

  18. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elaine R.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population. PMID:23494491

  19. 1. WEIDER'S CROSSING STONE HOUSE. WEIDER'S CROSSING WAS ONCE A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEIDER'S CROSSING STONE HOUSE. WEIDER'S CROSSING WAS ONCE A SIZABLE COMMUNITY. THIS IS ONE OF ONLY TWO HOUSES REMAINING MARKING WEIDER'S CROSSING. - Weider's Crossing Stone House, Weissport, Carbon County, PA

  20. Cross-Referencing the Lab Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a table cross-referencing 12 physics laboratory manuals by topics. Topic areas include measurement and techniques, mechanics, molecular physics, waves and optics, electricity and magnetism, and quantum physics. (JN)

  1. Solar walk-off protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaya, H.; Bedard, R.

    1985-04-01

    A point-focus solar concentrator is normally pointed toward the sun during operations to direct concentrated solar flux into the aperture of the receiver. If solar-tracking control is lost, severe damage may occur when the concentrated solar beam moves, or walks off the aperture across the face of the receiver. Alternative methods of solar walk-off prevention/protection for a specific assumed generic dish module and electric plant design are identified. The cost of a baseline case (no walk-off prevention/protection) is first calculated, including initial capital; recurring operating, maintenance, and capital replacement costs; and the cost of restoring the plant to operation following a solar walk-off. The alternative cases (with walk-off prevention/protection) are then evaluated by increasing the solar plant cost as a function of specific walk-off prevention/protection design alternatives and decreasing the cost of walk-off events given the specific level of prevention or protection offered by the alternative cases. The alternative plant designs are then compared with the baseline case and against each other by annualizing all costs. No single walk-off protection solution is universally applicable. Decisions concerning solar walk-off prevention/protection for specific installations must be based on engineering evaluations that consider the alternative choices given a specific plant, dish module, and site.

  2. Solar walk-off protection

    SciTech Connect

    Awaya, H.; Bedard, R.

    1985-04-01

    A point-focus solar concentrator is normally pointed toward the sun during operations to direct concentrated solar flux into the aperture of the receiver. If solar-tracking control is lost, severe damage may occur when the concentrated solar beam moves, or ''walks off'' the aperture across the face of the receiver. Alternative methods of solar walk-off prevention/protection for a specific assumed generic dish module and electric plant design are identified. The cost of a baseline case (no walk-off prevention/protection) is first calculated, including initial capital; recurring operating, maintenance, and capital replacement costs; and the cost of restoring the plant to operation following a solar walk-off. The alternative cases (with walk-off prevention/protection) are then evaluated by increasing the solar plant cost as a function of specific walk-off prevention/protection design alternatives and decreasing the cost of walk-off events given the specific level of prevention or protection offered by the alternative cases. The alternative plant designs are then compared with the baseline case and against each other by annualizing all costs. No single walk-off protection solution is universally applicable. Decisions concerning solar walk-off prevention/protection for specific installations must be based on engineering evaluations that consider the alternative choices given a specific plant, dish module, and site.

  3. US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, Stuart L.; Sexton, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Because habitat loss is the main cause of extinction, where and how much society chooses to protect is vital for saving species. The United States is well positioned economically and politically to pursue habitat conservation should it be a societal goal. We assessed the US protected area portfolio with respect to biodiversity in the country. New synthesis maps for terrestrial vertebrates, freshwater fish, and trees permit comparison with protected areas to identify priorities for future conservation investment. Although the total area protected is substantial, its geographic configuration is nearly the opposite of patterns of endemism within the country. Most protected lands are in the West, whereas the vulnerable species are largely in the Southeast. Private land protections are significant, but they are not concentrated where the priorities are. To adequately protect the nation’s unique biodiversity, we recommend specific areas deserving additional protection, some of them including public lands, but many others requiring private investment. PMID:25847995

  4. US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Clinton N; Van Houtan, Kyle S; Pimm, Stuart L; Sexton, Joseph O

    2015-04-21

    Because habitat loss is the main cause of extinction, where and how much society chooses to protect is vital for saving species. The United States is well positioned economically and politically to pursue habitat conservation should it be a societal goal. We assessed the US protected area portfolio with respect to biodiversity in the country. New synthesis maps for terrestrial vertebrates, freshwater fish, and trees permit comparison with protected areas to identify priorities for future conservation investment. Although the total area protected is substantial, its geographic configuration is nearly the opposite of patterns of endemism within the country. Most protected lands are in the West, whereas the vulnerable species are largely in the Southeast. Private land protections are significant, but they are not concentrated where the priorities are. To adequately protect the nation's unique biodiversity, we recommend specific areas deserving additional protection, some of them including public lands, but many others requiring private investment.

  5. Tribal wellhead protection demonstration projects

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Preventing contamination is the key to keeping ground water supplies safe. Once a drinking water supply becomes contaminated, a tribe is faced with the difficult and costly task of installing treatment facilities or locating an alternative source. Wellhead Protection provides the tribes with an opportunity to protect their drinking water supplies through local community planning. The case studies described herein illustrate Tribal Wellhead Protection activities and highlight several concerns Tribes may have in implementing Wellhead Protection. These concerns include: Ground water recharge or wellhead protection areas that are located outside the boundaries of Tribal reservations; Intimate relationship between ground and surface water within the reservation; Difficulturies in implementing or enforcing a program in the absence of a Tribal judicial body. The case study details should be useful in assisting Tribes to develop a Wellhead Protection Program under the Safe Drinking Water Act that is tailored to their unique set of circumstances. Case studies of successful Tribal Wellhead Programs may include elements that are adaptable to other Tribal Programs.

  6. 40 CFR 52.61 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the plan does not include approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.306 for..., 2008, does not include fully approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.308(d)(3... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.61 Section...

  7. Cross resonant optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B

    2009-06-26

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  8. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  9. 40 CFR 270.110 - What must I include in my application for a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a RAP? 270.110 Section 270.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.110 What must I include in my application for a RAP? You must include the following information in your application for a RAP: (a) The name, address,...

  10. 40 CFR 270.110 - What must I include in my application for a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a RAP? 270.110 Section 270.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.110 What must I include in my application for a RAP? You must include the following information in your application for a RAP: (a) The name, address,...

  11. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  12. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  13. 40 CFR 270.110 - What must I include in my application for a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a RAP? 270.110 Section 270.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.110 What must I include in my application for a RAP? You must include the following information in your application for a RAP: (a) The name, address,...

  14. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  15. 40 CFR 270.110 - What must I include in my application for a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for a RAP? 270.110 Section 270.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.110 What must I include in my application for a RAP? You must include the following information in your application for a RAP: (a) The name, address,...

  16. 40 CFR 270.110 - What must I include in my application for a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for a RAP? 270.110 Section 270.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.110 What must I include in my application for a RAP? You must include the following information in your application for a RAP: (a) The name, address,...

  17. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  18. Phosphoinositide kinase signaling controls ER-PM cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Omnus, Deike J.; Manford, Andrew G.; Bader, Jakob M.; Emr, Scott D.; Stefan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipid dynamics must be precisely regulated for normal cellular function, and disruptions in lipid homeostasis are linked to the progression of several diseases. However, little is known about the sensory mechanisms for detecting membrane composition and how lipid metabolism is regulated in response to membrane stress. We find that phosphoinositide (PI) kinase signaling controls a conserved PDK-TORC2-Akt signaling cascade as part of a homeostasis network that allows the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to modulate essential responses, including Ca2+-regulated lipid biogenesis, upon plasma membrane (PM) stress. Furthermore, loss of ER-PM junctions impairs this protective response, leading to PM integrity defects upon heat stress. Thus PI kinase–mediated ER-PM cross-talk comprises a regulatory system that ensures cellular integrity under membrane stress conditions. PMID:26864629

  19. Photomultiplier circuit including means for rapidly reducing the sensitivity thereof. [and protection from radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A simple, reliable and inexpensive control circuit is described for rapidly reducing the bias voltage across one or more of the dynode stages of a photomultiplier, to substantially decrease its sensitivity to incoming light at those times where excess light intensity might damage the tube. The control circuit comprises a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), coupled between a pair of the electrodes in the tube, preferably the cathode and first dynode, or the first and second dynodes, the switching device operating in response to a trigger pulse applied to its gate to short circuit the two electrodes. To insure the desired reduction in sensitivity, two switching stages, the devices be employed between two of the electrode stages, the devices being operated simultaneously to short circuit both stages.

  20. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  1. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  2. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  3. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  4. 40 CFR 81.66 - Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.66 Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Minnesota-La Crosse (Wisconsin)...

  5. Vaccine-generated lung tissue–resident memory T cells provide heterosubtypic protection to influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Zens, Kyra D.; Chen, Jun Kui; Farber, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) are a recently defined, noncirculating subset with the potential for rapid in situ protective responses, although their generation and role in vaccine-mediated immune responses is unclear. Here, we assessed TRM generation and lung-localized protection following administration of currently licensed influenza vaccines, including injectable inactivated influenza virus (IIV, Fluzone) and i.n. administered live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV, FluMist) vaccines. We found that, while IIV preferentially induced strain-specific neutralizing antibodies, LAIV generated lung-localized, virus-specific T cell responses. Moreover, LAIV but not IIV generated lung CD4+ TRM and virus-specific CD8+ TRM, similar in phenotype to those generated by influenza virus infection. Importantly, these vaccine-generated TRM mediated cross-strain protection, independent of circulating T cells and neutralizing antibodies, which persisted long-term after vaccination. Interestingly, intranasal administration of IIV or injection of LAIV failed to elicit T cell responses or provide protection against viral infection, demonstrating dual requirements for respiratory targeting and a live-attenuated strain to establish TRM. The ability of LAIV to generate lung TRM capable of providing long-term protection against nonvaccine viral strains, as demonstrated here, has important implications for protecting the population against emergent influenza pandemics by direct fortification of lung-specific immunity. PMID:27468427

  6. Cross-Generational Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Thurston, Judy Kay

    2007-01-01

    What happens when you combine senior citizens, pre-service art teachers, and elementary students? Cross-generational connections based on sharing memories, ideas, skills, laughter, tears, and creativity. The authors describe the cross-generational book exchange project. This project was initiated when a group of Central Michigan University (CMU)…

  7. Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shuguang; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xu, Kai; Hu, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) describes a depression of oxidative metabolism glucose and blood flow in the cerebellum secondary to a supratentorial lesion in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. PET/MR has the potential to become a powerful tool for demonstrating and imaging intracranial lesions .We herein report 3 cases of CCD imaging using a tri-modality PET/CT–MR set-up for investigating the value of adding MRI rather than CT to PET in clinical routine. We describe 3 patients with CCD and neurological symptoms in conjunction with abnormal cerebral fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET/CT–MR) manifestations including arterial spin-labeling (ASL) and T2-weighted images. In all, 18FDG-PET/CT detected positive FDG uptake in supratentorial lesions, and hypometabolism with atrophy in the contralateral cerebellum. More than that, hybrid PET/MRI provided a more accurate anatomic localization and ASL indicated disruption of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway. Using pathology or long-term clinical follow-up to confirm the PET and ASL findings, the supratentorial lesions of the 3 patients were respectively diagnosed with cerebral infarction, recurrent glioma, and metastasis. The reports emphasize the significance of multimodality radiological examinations. Multimodality imaging contributes to proper diagnosis, management, and follow-up of supratentorial lesions with CCD. PMID:26765477

  8. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... representative label, or a cross-reference to the physical location of the actual or representative label... cross-reference to the physical location of such results; (l) Documentation at the time of performance that quality control personnel: (1) Reviewed the batch production record, including: (i) Review of...

  9. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress.

  10. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress. PMID:26747520

  11. Phantom Crossing DGP Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Koichi; Komiya, Zen

    2010-08-12

    We propose a phantom crossing Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model. In our model, the effective equation of state of the DGP gravity crosses the phantom divide line. We demonstrate crossing of the phantom divide does not occur within the framework of the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner. By extending their model, we construct a model that realizes crossing of the phantom divide. DGP models can account for late-time acceleration of the universe without dark energy. Phantom Crossing DGP model is more compatible with recent observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) than the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner.

  12. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  13. Handbook for Designing MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Jim; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Alan; Hyde, James; Lear, Dana; Liou, J.C.; Lyons, Frankel; Prior, Thomas; Studor, George; Ratliff, Martin; Ryan, Shannon; Giovane, Frank; Corsaro, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft are subject to micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impact damage which have the potential to degrade performance, shorten the mission, or result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. Specific MMOD protection requirements are established by NASA for each spacecraft early in the program/project life, to ensure the spacecraft meets desired safety and mission success goals. Both the design and operations influences spacecraft survivability in the MMOD environment, and NASA considers both in meeting MMOD protection requirements. The purpose of this handbook is to provide spacecraft designers and operations personnel with knowledge gained by NASA in implementing effective MMOD protection for the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and various science spacecraft. It has been drawn from a number of previous publications [10-14], as well as new work. This handbook documents design and operational methods to reduce MMOD risk. In addition, this handbook describes tools and equations needed to design proper MMOD protection. It is a living report, in that it will be updated and re-released periodically in future with additional information. Providing effective and efficient MMOD protection is essential for ensuring safe and successful operations of spacecraft and satellites. A variety of shields protect crew modules, external pressurized vessels and critical equipment from MMOD on the International Space Station (ISS). Certain Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle systems are hardened from MMOD impact, and operational rules are established to reduce the risk from MMOD (i.e., flight attitudes are selected and late inspection of sensitive thermal protection surfaces are conducted to reduce MMOD impacts). Science spacecraft include specific provisions to meet MMOD protection requirements in their design (for example, Stardust & GLAST). Commercial satellites such as Iridium and Bigelow Aerospace Genesis spacecraft incorporate MMOD protection. The development of low

  14. Protecting our patients by protecting ourselves

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Blake; Alsabbagh, Wasem; Houle, Sherilyn; Wenger, Lisa; Church, Dana; Waite, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background: With recent expansions to scope of practice that have allowed Canadian pharmacists to play a larger role in administering influenza vaccinations to the public, it is important that pharmacists themselves meet Canadian guidelines recommending that 80% of health care professionals and 100% of vaccinators receive an annual influenza vaccination. Unvaccinated health care professionals pose an infection risk to patients they serve and are at an increased risk of infection themselves. Methods: An online, anonymous survey was sent to Ontario community pharmacists to determine whether they had received the influenza vaccination during the 2013–2014 influenza season. All significant univariate chi-square analysis respondent characteristics were included in a multivariate regression analysis model to determine predictors of vaccination status. Results: A total of 780 pharmacists completed the survey (18.1% response rate), which showed that 7 in 10 Ontario community pharmacists received the influenza vaccine. Those certified to immunize were nearly 3 times more likely to have received the influenza vaccine than those not certified (81.6% versus 61.2%, respectively). Discussion: Having 70% of Ontario community pharmacists vaccinated against influenza is both an accomplishment and an opportunity to improve vaccination rates. While similar to the influenza immunization rates of other health care professions, Ontario community pharmacists did not meet Public Health Canada’s recommendations. Comprehensive worksite programs, including promotion, education and convenient access to influenza vaccination at no cost, could increase community pharmacist influenza vaccination rates. Conclusion: The authors issue a call to arms to encourage all pharmacists to receive the influenza vaccine to protect the public and themselves. PMID:27540407

  15. The CrossGrid project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, M.; CrossGrid Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    There are many large-scale problems that require new approaches to computing, such as earth observation, environmental management, biomedicine, industrial and scientific modeling. The CrossGrid project addresses realistic problems in medicine, environmental protection, flood prediction, and physics analysis and is oriented towards specific end-users: Medical doctors, who could obtain new tools to help them to obtain correct diagnoses and to guide them during operations; industries, that could be advised on the best timing for some critical operations involving risk of pollution; flood crisis teams, that could predict the risk of a flood on the basis of historical records and actual hydrological and meteorological data; physicists, who could optimize the analysis of massive volumes of data distributed across countries and continents. Corresponding applications will be based on Grid technology and could be complex and difficult to use: the CrossGrid project aims at developing several tools that will make the Grid more friendly for average users. Portals for specific applications will be designed, that should allow for easy connection to the Grid, create a customized work environment, and provide users with all necessary information to get their job done.

  16. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 5, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "The Japanese Concept of Hanashi-Kata and Its Potential Influence on Foreign Language Acquisition" by James R. Bowers; "Linguistic Relativity and Foreign Language Learning" by Ronald Taubitz; "On Being a Sansei English Teacher in Japan" by Ruth Sasaki; "Cross-Cultural Barriers to…

  17. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  18. Conditions that Influence Drivers' Yielding Behavior for Uncontrolled Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourquin, Eugene; Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrians with visual impairments need to cross streets where traffic signals and traffic signage are not present. This study examined the influences of several interventions, including a pedestrian's use of a mobility cane, on the behavior of drivers when they were expected to yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crossing.…

  19. 32 CFR 700.816 - The American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The American National Red Cross. 700.816 Section... Commanding Officers in General § 700.816 The American National Red Cross. (a) Pursuant to the request of the... Red Cross is authorized to conduct a program of welfare, including social, financial, medical...

  20. 32 CFR 700.816 - The American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The American National Red Cross. 700.816 Section... Commanding Officers in General § 700.816 The American National Red Cross. (a) Pursuant to the request of the... Red Cross is authorized to conduct a program of welfare, including social, financial, medical...

  1. 32 CFR 700.816 - The American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The American National Red Cross. 700.816 Section... Commanding Officers in General § 700.816 The American National Red Cross. (a) Pursuant to the request of the... Red Cross is authorized to conduct a program of welfare, including social, financial, medical...

  2. 32 CFR 700.816 - The American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The American National Red Cross. 700.816 Section... Commanding Officers in General § 700.816 The American National Red Cross. (a) Pursuant to the request of the... Red Cross is authorized to conduct a program of welfare, including social, financial, medical...

  3. Role in Allergic Diseases of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Allergens and Homologues of Parasite Proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Implied under the rubric of the hygiene hypothesis is that helminth infection can protect against allergic disease. It is well known that helminths induce processes associated with type 2 immune responses, but they also induce important regulatory responses that can modulate these type 2-associated responses-modulation that influences responses to bystander antigens including allergens. Indeed, most epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of helminth infection on atopy, but there are also convincing data to demonstrate that helminth infection can precipitate or worsen allergic inflammation/disease. Reasons for these disparate findings are much debated, but there is a school of thought that suggests that helminth-triggered type 2-associated responses, including IgE to cross-reactive aeroallergens, can offset the regulatory effects imposed by the same organisms. The cross-reactivity among helminths and allergenic tropomyosins dominated the antigen/allergen cross-reactivity field, but recent data suggest that cross-reactivity is much more common than previously appreciated. It has been demonstrated that a high degree of molecular similarity exists between allergens and helminth proteins. Thus, an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response induced by helminth infection and their impact on the induction of allergic disease in the host are critical for designing therapies using iatrogenic infections or parasite products to treat inflammatory diseases and for developing vaccines against helminth parasites. PMID:27480900

  4. Robust optimisation of railway crossing geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chang; Markine, Valeri; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for improving the crossing (frog) geometry through the robust optimisation approach, wherein the variability of the design parameters within a prescribed tolerance is included in the optimisation problem. Here, the crossing geometry is defined by parameterising the B-spline represented cross-sectional shape and the longitudinal height profile of the nose rail. The dynamic performance of the crossing is evaluated considering the variation of wheel profiles and track alignment. A multipoint approximation method (MAM) is applied in solving the optimisation problem of minimising the contact pressure during the wheel-rail contact and constraining the location of wheel transition at the crossing. To clarify the difference between the robust optimisation and the normal deterministic optimisation approaches, the optimisation problems are solved in both approaches. The results show that the deterministic optimum fails under slight change of the design variables; the robust optimum, however, has improved and robust performance.

  5. 41 CFR 50-204.7 - Personal protective equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment. 50-204.7 Section 50-204.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.7 Personal protective equipment. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective...

  6. Article having an improved platinum-aluminum-hafnium protective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraj, Bangalore Aswatha (Inventor); Williams, Jeffrey Lawrence (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An article protected by a protective coating has a substrate and a protective coating having an outer layer deposited upon the substrate surface and a diffusion zone formed by interdiffusion of the outer layer and the substrate. The protective coating includes platinum, aluminum, no more than about 2 weight percent hafnium, and substantially no silicon. The outer layer is substantially a single phase.

  7. Fire Protection. Honeywell Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A general discussion of fire alarms and protection is provided by a manufacturer of automated monitoring and control systems. Background information describes old and new fire alarm systems, comparing system components, wage savings, and cost analysis. Different kinds of automatic systems are listed, including--(1) local system, (2) auxiliary…

  8. 40 CFR 2.203 - Notice to be included in EPA requests, demands, and forms; method of asserting business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... at time of submission. 2.203 Section 2.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.203 Notice to be included in...

  9. 40 CFR 2.203 - Notice to be included in EPA requests, demands, and forms; method of asserting business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... at time of submission. 2.203 Section 2.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.203 Notice to be included in...

  10. 15 CFR 280.212 - Matter protected against disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... include obtaining security clearances or giving counsel for a party access to sensitive information and documents subject to assurances against further disclosure, including a protective order, if necessary....

  11. Bispecific Antibody Affords Complete Post-Exposure Protection of Mice from Both Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Julia C.; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K.; Zak, Samantha E.; Bakken, Russell R.; Chandran, Kartik; Dye, John M.; Lai, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg) cause severe hemorrhagic fever. There are five species of ebolavirus; among these, the Ebola (Zaire) and Sudan viruses (EBOV and SUDV, respectively) are highly pathogenic and have both caused recurring, large outbreaks. However, the EBOV and SUDV glycoprotein (GP) sequences are 45% divergent and thus antigenically distinct. Few antibodies with cross-neutralizing properties have been described to date. We used antibody engineering to develop novel bispecific antibodies (Bis-mAbs) that are cross-reactive toward base epitopes on GP from EBOV and SUDV. These Bis-mAbs exhibit potent neutralization against EBOV and SUDV GP pseudotyped viruses as well as authentic pathogens, and confer a high degree (in one case 100%) post-exposure protection of mice from both viruses. Our studies show that a single agent that targets the GP base epitopes is sufficient for protection in mice; such agents could be included in panfilovirus therapeutic antibody cocktails. PMID:26758505

  12. Planet-crossing asteroid survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    The planet-crossing asteroid survey was begun in 1973 in order to study those asteroids which may intersect the orbits of the inner planets. Throughout the history of the survey, many of the various classes of asteroids were investigated. The near-Earth objects including the Apollo, Amor, and Aten families were studied in addition to asteroids whose orbits cross that of Mars, and some objects which are generally confined to the main belt. Observing was done on the 18 inch Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Mtn. Observatory. Typically, two consecutive photographs of a favorable field are taken. The exposure times of the films are usually twenty minutes and ten minutes, respectively. The telescope is guided at sidereal rate, so that asteroids will leave short trailed images. The films are then scanned for trails. By comparing the two films, the direction and approximate rate of motion of an asteroid may be determined.

  13. Inline CBET Model Including SRS Backscatter

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David S.

    2015-06-26

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been used as a tool on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) since the first energetics experiments in 2009 to control the energy deposition in ignition hohlraums and tune the implosion symmetry. As large amounts of power are transferred between laser beams at the entrance holes of NIF hohlraums, the presence of many overlapping beat waves can lead to stochastic ion heating in the regions where laser beams overlap [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 195004 (2012)]. Using the CBET gains derived in this paper, we show how to implement these equations in a ray-based laser source for a rad-hydro code.

  14. Interrelationship between marine biofouling and cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.J.; Wagner, P.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Microorganisms colonize and form a gelatinous biofilm on all engineering materials exposed in natural marine environments, including cathodically protected surfaces. The impact of cathodic protection (CP) potentials on the chemical/biological composition of the biofilm and the impact of the biofilms on potentials required for CP have been the subject of many recent investigations. Literature on these subjects will be reviewed with emphasis on clarifying interactions between living and nonliving deposits on cathodically protected metal surfaces.

  15. HDL and endothelial protection

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Dinh, A; Diallo, D; Delbosc, S; Varela-Perez, L Maria; Dang, QB; Lapergue, B; Burillo, E; Michel, JB; Levoye, A; Martin-Ventura, JL; Meilhac, O

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) represent a family of particles characterized by the presence of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and by their ability to transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues back to the liver. In addition to this function, HDLs display pleiotropic effects including antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic or anti-proteolytic properties that account for their protective action on endothelial cells. Vasodilatation via production of nitric oxide is also a hallmark of HDL action on endothelial cells. Endothelial cells express receptors for apoA-I and HDLs that mediate intracellular signalling and potentially participate in the internalization of these particles. In this review, we will detail the different effects of HDLs on the endothelium in normal and pathological conditions with a particular focus on the potential use of HDL therapy to restore endothelial function and integrity. PMID:23488589

  16. Protection circuits for superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Wood, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    As the technology of controlled nuclear fusion progresses, plans for new experimental reactors include much longer duty cycles than those of earlier experiments. Many of the magnet systems for these reactors must be superconducting due to the prolonged or continuous high current levels required. The large initial investment of a superconducting magnet system justifies a protective dump circuit. This circuit must operate if the magnet goes normal or in the event of failure of some of the critical auxiliary equipment. This paper examines two applications of superconducting magnet protection for fusion experiments. A novel dc interrupter being developed especially for this purpose is also discussed.

  17. Crossing species boundaries.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jason Scott; Baylis, Françoise

    2003-01-01

    This paper critically examines the biology of species identity and the morality of crossing species boundaries in the context of emerging research that involves combining human and nonhuman animals at the genetic or cellular level. We begin with the notion of species identity, particularly focusing on the ostensible fixity of species boundaries, and we explore the general biological and philosophical problem of defining species. Against this backdrop, we survey and criticize earlier attempts to forbid crossing species boundaries in the creation of novel beings. We do not attempt to establish the immorality of crossing species boundaries, but we conclude with some thoughts about such crossings, alluding to the notion of moral confusion regarding social and ethical obligations to novel interspecies beings.

  18. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective equipment. Available at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/ppe . Accessed October 27, 2015. Holland MG, Cawthon D. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children. Emerg Med Clin N ...

  19. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  20. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 46

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  1. Medicare Rights and Protections

    MedlinePlus

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Rights & Protections This official government booklet has important information about: Your rights & protections in: ■ ■ Original Medicare ■ ■ Medicare Advantage Plan or other Medicare health ...

  2. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  3. Cross-Reactive and Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Human Survivors of Natural Ebolavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Shen, Xiaoli; Murin, Charles D; Turner, Hannah L; David, Joshua A; Fusco, Marnie L; Lampley, Rebecca; Kose, Nurgun; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Branchizio, Andre; King, Hannah; Brown, Leland; Bryan, Christopher; Davidson, Edgar; Doranz, Benjamin J; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Ward, Andrew B; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2016-01-28

    Recent studies have suggested that antibody-mediated protection against the Ebolaviruses may be achievable, but little is known about whether or not antibodies can confer cross-reactive protection against viruses belonging to diverse Ebolavirus species, such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). We isolated a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against BDBV glycoprotein (GP) using peripheral blood B cells from survivors of the 2007 BDBV outbreak in Uganda. We determined that a large proportion of mAbs with potent neutralizing activity against BDBV bind to the glycan cap and recognize diverse epitopes within this major antigenic site. We identified several glycan cap-specific mAbs that neutralized multiple ebolaviruses, including SUDV, and a cross-reactive mAb that completely protected guinea pigs from the lethal challenge with heterologous EBOV. Our results provide a roadmap to develop a single antibody-based treatment effective against multiple Ebolavirus infections. PMID:26806128

  4. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  5. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  6. Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-11-11

    As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

  7. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  8. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  9. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by 1980.'" In a…

  10. 40 CFR 52.2132 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... met because the plan does not include approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51... 40 CFR 51.308(d)(3) and 51.308(e) with respect to emissions of NOX and SO2 from electric generating... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2132...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1183 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the plan does not include approvable measures for meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.302, 51.305... CFR 51.308(d)(3) and 51.308(e) with respect to emissions of NOX and SO2 from electric generating units... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1183...

  12. Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

  13. Protecting Public-Access Computers in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Monica

    1999-01-01

    Describes one public library's development of a computer-security plan, along with helpful products used. Discussion includes Internet policy, physical protection of hardware, basic protection of the operating system and software on the network, browser dilemmas and maintenance, creating clear intuitive interface, and administering fair use and…

  14. 40 CFR 52.1488 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 52.1488 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...) The requirements of section 169A of the Clean Air Act are not met, because the plan does not include... the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management. (c) Long-term strategy....

  15. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.2901 Section 60.2901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Preconstruction Siting Analysis Waste Management Plan § 60.2901 What should I include in my waste management plan? A...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.3012 Section 60.3012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan?...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... management measures, taking into account the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures, the emission reductions expected to be achieved, and any other potential... include? 62.14431 Section 62.14431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management measures, taking into account the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures, the emission reductions expected to be achieved, and any other potential... include? 62.14431 Section 62.14431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.2065 Section 60.2065 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After... Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.2630 Section 60.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in...