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Sample records for including cross protection

  1. Listeria monocytogenes shows temperature-dependent and -independent responses to salt stress, including responses that induce cross-protection against other stresses.

    PubMed

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Bowen, Barbara; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-04-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes experiences osmotic stress in many habitats, including foods and the gastrointestinal tract of the host. During transmission, L. monocytogenes is likely to experience osmotic stress at different temperatures and may adapt to osmotic stress in a temperature-dependent manner. To understand the impact of temperature on the responses this pathogen uses to adapt to osmotic stress, we assessed genome-wide changes in the L. monocytogenes H7858 transcriptome during short-term and long-term adaptation to salt stress at 7°C and 37°C. At both temperatures, the short-term response to salt stress included increased transcript levels of sigB and SigB-regulated genes, as well as mrpABCDEFG, encoding a sodium/proton antiporter. This antiporter was found to play a role in adaptation to salt stress at both temperatures; ΔmrpABCDEFG had a significantly longer lag phase than the parent strain in BHI plus 6% NaCl at 7°C and 37°C. The short-term adaptation to salt stress at 7°C included increased transcript levels of two genes encoding carboxypeptidases that modify peptidoglycan. These carboxypeptidases play a role in the short-term adaptation to salt stress only at 7°C, where the deletion mutants had significantly different lag phases than the parent strain. Changes in the transcriptome at both temperatures suggested that exposure to salt stress could provide cross-protection to other stresses, including peroxide stress. Short-term exposure to salt stress significantly increased H(2)O(2) resistance at both temperatures. These results provide information for the development of knowledge-based intervention methods against this pathogen, as well as provide insight into potential mechanisms of cross-protection.

  2. Include heuristics in protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kobyakov, A.I. )

    1993-02-01

    Automatic systems based on interlock principles are the most popular method of protecting plants from hazards. Nevertheless, such systems have specific shortcomings. The major one comes from the fact that protection controls are activated at the stage of break down mode development, and not at the moments of pre-fault status origin. It is possible to design protection controls that account for information relating to pre-fault status, causes, locations, and potential danger severity. A method of recreating automatic protection systems (APS) with functioning and structural organization is based on the accepted strategy of potentially hazardous plant protection. APS features these basic functions: pre-fault status classification and diagnostic providing protection controls that depend on pre-fault status type and cause, and suppression process analysis and protection controls correction. The system functions as a parallel/series process. Pre-fault status location data with related classification and diagnostics are based on current startup information. A protection control vector is formed that guarantees pre-fault status suppression. This paper describes these features.

  3. Microwaves (including radar) and protection against radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossel, F.

    1982-08-01

    A directive by the Commission of the European Communities for protection against microwaves is outlined, and the nature of microwaves, and possible protection methods are discussed. Devices which utilize microwaves are reviewed. The health risks from these forms of radiation are discussed, and safety limits are considered. A limit value of 10 mw/sqcm is specified.

  4. 49 CFR 236.787 - Protection, cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection, cross. 236.787 Section 236.787 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Protection, cross. An arrangement to prevent the improper operation of a signal, switch, movable-point...

  5. 49 CFR 236.787 - Protection, cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection, cross. 236.787 Section 236.787 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Protection, cross. An arrangement to prevent the improper operation of a signal, switch, movable-point...

  6. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective services include? Protective services provided to a child, family or elderly person will be documented in... protective services; (2) Providing services to children, elderly, and families, including referrals...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class I... cylinder). (a) Identification. A simulatan (including crossed cylinder) is a device that is a set of...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class I... cylinder). (a) Identification. A simulatan (including crossed cylinder) is a device that is a set of...

  9. HPV vaccine cross-protection: Highlights on additional clinical benefit.

    PubMed

    De Vincenzo, Rosa; Ricci, Caterina; Conte, Carmine; Scambia, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are administered in vaccination programs, targeted at young adolescent girls before sexual exposure, and in catch-up programs for young women in some countries. All the data indicate that HPV-virus-like particles (VLPs) effectively prevent papillomavirus infections with a high level of antibodies and safety. Since non-vaccine HPV types are responsible for about 30% of cervical cancers, cross-protection would potentially enhance primary cervical cancer prevention efforts. High levels of specific neutralizing antibodies can be generated after immunization with HPV VLPs. Immunity to HPV is type-specific. However, if we consider the phylogenetic tree including the different HPV types, we realize that a certain degree of cross-protection is possible, due to the high homology of some viral types with vaccine ones. The assessment of cross-protective properties of HPV vaccines is an extremely important matter, which has also increased public health implications and could add further value to their preventive potential. The impact of cross-protection is mostly represented by a reduction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN2-3 more than what expected. In this article we review the mechanisms and the effectiveness of Bivalent (HPV-16/-18) and Quadrivalent (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18) HPV vaccine cross-protection, focusing on the critical aspects and the potential biases in clinical trials, in order to understand how cross-protection could impact on clinical outcomes and on the new perspectives in post-vaccine era.

  10. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... allegations of child abuse and neglect, abandonment, and conditions that may require referrals (such as mental... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective services include? Protective services provided to a child, family or elderly person will be documented...

  11. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... allegations of child abuse and neglect, abandonment, and conditions that may require referrals (such as mental... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective services include? Protective services provided to a child, family or elderly person will be documented...

  12. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of child abuse and neglect, abandonment, and conditions that may require referrals (such as mental or... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective services include? Protective services provided to a child, family or elderly person will be documented in the...

  13. Cross-protection among feline caliciviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Povey, C; Ingersoll, J

    1975-01-01

    Each of five groups of specific-pathogen-free and conventionally reared cats was infected with a different strain of feline calicivirus. Two of the strains were pathogenic, producing characteristically fever, depression, loss of appetite, buccal ulceration, and occasionally increased ocular and nasal secretion. Two of the other strains were midly pathogenic and associated with fever or buccal ulceration or both; the fifth strain was nonpathogenic. The two pathogenic strains plus three others shown also to be pathogenic were used 3 months after the initial infection to challenge the cats in rearranged groupings. Of the 28 conventional cats challenged six (21.4%) showed at least a febrile response, although none of the 30 specific-pathogen-free cats showed any clinical signs. After challenge, virus was recovered from throat swabs of 37 or the 58 cats (63.8%) including the six which showed symptoms, but the duration of the excretion of virus was significantly less than that seen with the initial infection. The homologous and heterotypic antibody responses correlated well with the clinical protection, or lack of it, seen on challenge. The results provide further evidence for significant cross-relationships between feline caliciviruses. PMID:1173064

  14. Cross-protection between experimental anti-leptospirosis bacterins

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Cristina Corsi; Gonçales, Amane Paldês; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Miraglia, Fabiana; Abreu, Patricia Antonia Estima; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the existence of cross-protection between two anti-leptospirosis monovalent experimental bacterins produced with two strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona: Fromm strain of serovar Kennewicky, isolated from pigs in the United States, and strain GR6 of serovar Pomona isolated from pigs in Brazil. Both were added of aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Experimental bacterins were tested with the hamster potency test in order to assess protection provided against the disease and against the establishment of kidney infection. Controls were polyvalent commercial vaccine produced with Leptospira strains isolated outside Brazil, which included a representative of Pomona serovar, or Sorensen solution added of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The challenge was performed with cross-strains of serogroup Pomona tested in accordance with international standards established for the potency test. After 21 days of the challenge, survivors were killed to evaluate the condition of Leptospira renal carrier. Experimental bacterins protected hamsters against homologous and heterologous strains, demonstrating the existence of cross-protection. The commercial vaccine protected the hamsters challenged with both strains, but there was a high proportion of animals diagnosed as renal carriers when the challenge was performed with strain GR6, isolated from pigs in Brazil. PMID:25477946

  15. Cross-protection between experimental anti-leptospirosis bacterins.

    PubMed

    Dib, Cristina Corsi; Gonçales, Amane Paldês; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Miraglia, Fabiana; Abreu, Patricia Antonia Estima; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the existence of cross-protection between two anti-leptospirosis monovalent experimental bacterins produced with two strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona: Fromm strain of serovar Kennewicky, isolated from pigs in the United States, and strain GR6 of serovar Pomona isolated from pigs in Brazil. Both were added of aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Experimental bacterins were tested with the hamster potency test in order to assess protection provided against the disease and against the establishment of kidney infection. Controls were polyvalent commercial vaccine produced with Leptospira strains isolated outside Brazil, which included a representative of Pomona serovar, or Sorensen solution added of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The challenge was performed with cross-strains of serogroup Pomona tested in accordance with international standards established for the potency test. After 21 days of the challenge, survivors were killed to evaluate the condition of Leptospira renal carrier. Experimental bacterins protected hamsters against homologous and heterologous strains, demonstrating the existence of cross-protection. The commercial vaccine protected the hamsters challenged with both strains, but there was a high proportion of animals diagnosed as renal carriers when the challenge was performed with strain GR6, isolated from pigs in Brazil.

  16. Expanding marine protected areas to include degraded coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Abelson, A; Nelson, P A; Edgar, G J; Shashar, N; Reed, D C; Belmaker, J; Krause, G; Beck, M W; Brokovich, E; France, R; Gaines, S D

    2016-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a commonly applied solution to coral reef degradation, yet coral reefs continue to decline worldwide. We argue that expanding the range of MPAs to include degraded reefs (DR-MPA) could help reverse this trend. This approach requires new ecological criteria for MPA design, siting, and management. Rather than focusing solely on preserving healthy reefs, our approach focuses on the potential for biodiversity recovery and renewal of ecosystem services. The new criteria would help identify sites with the highest potential for recovery and the greatest resistance to future threats (e.g., increased temperature and acidification) and sites that contribute to MPA connectivity. The DR-MPA approach is a compliment rather than a substitute for traditional MPA design approaches. We believe that the DR-MPA approach can enhance the natural, or restoration-assisted, recovery of DRs and their ecosystem services; increase total reef area available for protection; promote more resilient and better-connected MPA networks; and improve conditions for human communities dependent on MPA ecosystem services.

  17. New protection method for HVDC lines including cables

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, H.; Ayakawa, H.; Tsumenaga, N.; Sanpei, M.

    1995-10-01

    For the third project of the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link in Japan, called the HVDC Link III project (rated at 250 kVdc-1,200 A-300 MW), the authors developed an HVDC transmission line protection method based on a new working principle that allows high-speed and highly sensitive detection of faults, enhancing reliability in the supply of electric power. In general, increasing the sensitivity of relays will lead to an increased likelihood of undesired operation whereas lowering the sensitivity will impair the responsiveness of the relays. The proposed method meets these apparently incompatible requirements very well. Basically classified as a differential scheme, the HVDC transmission line protection method compensates for a charging and discharging current that flows through the line-to-ground capacitance at times of voltage variations caused by a line fault or by the operation of dc power systems. The developed protection method is also characterized in that it uses current changes induced by voltage variations to restrain the operation of a relay. This configuration has made the proposed method far superior in responsiveness and sensitivity to the conventional protection method. A simulation using an EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) was conducted on this method. Developed relay equipment embodying the new protection method was subjected to various verification tests, where this equipment was connected to a power system simulator, before being delivered to the HVDC Link III facility.

  18. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.403 What do protective... identified under paragraph (b)(1) of this section that are within the competence of social services workers... for assistance in solving the social problems of individuals, families, and children. (5)...

  19. A DIVA vaccine for cross-protection against Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., a leading cause of human bacterial foodborne disease. Vaccination against Salmonella is effective for protection of animal health and enhancement of food safety. However, current vaccines for swine may only offer limited cross-protection agai...

  20. The need to include animal protection in public health policies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-11-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development.

  1. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  2. [Animal protection in constitutional law?--On the necessity of including animal protection in the constitution].

    PubMed

    Caspar, J

    1998-03-01

    The inclusion of animal protection in the constitution poses a lengthy legal-political demand, which is again being vehemently discussed at the present time. Under consideration of juristic aspects, the following treatise attempts to clarify the legal requirements which presently exist for anchoring animal protection in constitutional law. It is therefore necessary in the first instance to explain the present situation regarding animal protection law. The legal situation in this respect is marked by a fundamental collision between special democratic rights guaranteed by the constitution on the one hand, and the norms of animal protection law on the other hand, which tend to restrict these rights. Based on concrete examples taken from court decisions, it is shown that constitutional vacuum surrounding a major part of animal protection law greatly complicates or even renders impossible the application and enforcement of the latter in practice. A prerequisite for a proper legal framework for animal protection is that the different special basic democratic rights governing animal use must be counterpoised by animal protection laws backed up by the constitution. Only by this means it is possible to prevent the ineffectiveness of animal protection legislative norms in the long term.

  3. Global Gene Expression Analysis of Cross-Protected Phenotype of Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Kwenda, Stanford; Petrova, Olga; Osipova, Elena; Gogolev, Yuri; Moleleki, Lucy N

    2017-01-01

    The ability to adapt to adverse conditions permits many bacterial species to be virtually ubiquitous and survive in a variety of ecological niches. This ability is of particular importance for many plant pathogenic bacteria that should be able to exist, except for their host plants, in different environments e.g. soil, water, insect-vectors etc. Under some of these conditions, bacteria encounter absence of nutrients and persist, acquiring new properties related to resistance to a variety of stress factors (cross-protection). Although many studies describe the phenomenon of cross-protection and several regulatory components that induce the formation of resistant cells were elucidated, the global comparison of the physiology of cross-protected phenotype and growing cells has not been performed. In our study, we took advantage of RNA-Seq technology to gain better insights into the physiology of cross-protected cells on the example of a harmful phytopathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba) that causes crop losses all over the world. The success of this bacterium in plant colonization is related to both its virulence potential and ability to persist effectively under various stress conditions (including nutrient deprivation) retaining the ability to infect plants afterwards. In our previous studies, we showed Pba to be advanced in applying different adaptive strategies that led to manifestation of cell resistance to multiple stress factors. In the present study, we determined the period necessary for the formation of cross-protected Pba phenotype under starvation conditions, and compare the transcriptome profiles of non-adapted growing cells and of adapted cells after the cross-protective effect has reached the maximal level. The obtained data were verified using qRT-PCR. Genes that were expressed differentially (DEGs) in two cell types were classified into functional groups and categories using different approaches. As a result, we portrayed physiological features

  4. Global Gene Expression Analysis of Cross-Protected Phenotype of Pectobacterium atrosepticum

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Kwenda, Stanford; Petrova, Olga; Osipova, Elena; Gogolev, Yuri; Moleleki, Lucy N.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to adapt to adverse conditions permits many bacterial species to be virtually ubiquitous and survive in a variety of ecological niches. This ability is of particular importance for many plant pathogenic bacteria that should be able to exist, except for their host plants, in different environments e.g. soil, water, insect-vectors etc. Under some of these conditions, bacteria encounter absence of nutrients and persist, acquiring new properties related to resistance to a variety of stress factors (cross-protection). Although many studies describe the phenomenon of cross-protection and several regulatory components that induce the formation of resistant cells were elucidated, the global comparison of the physiology of cross-protected phenotype and growing cells has not been performed. In our study, we took advantage of RNA-Seq technology to gain better insights into the physiology of cross-protected cells on the example of a harmful phytopathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba) that causes crop losses all over the world. The success of this bacterium in plant colonization is related to both its virulence potential and ability to persist effectively under various stress conditions (including nutrient deprivation) retaining the ability to infect plants afterwards. In our previous studies, we showed Pba to be advanced in applying different adaptive strategies that led to manifestation of cell resistance to multiple stress factors. In the present study, we determined the period necessary for the formation of cross-protected Pba phenotype under starvation conditions, and compare the transcriptome profiles of non-adapted growing cells and of adapted cells after the cross-protective effect has reached the maximal level. The obtained data were verified using qRT-PCR. Genes that were expressed differentially (DEGs) in two cell types were classified into functional groups and categories using different approaches. As a result, we portrayed physiological features

  5. Differential two-body compound nuclear cross section, including the width-fluctuation corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Herman, M.

    2014-09-02

    We figure out the compound angular differential cross sections, following mainly Fröbrich and Lipperheide, but with the angular momentum couplings that make sense for optical model work. We include the width-fluctuation correction along with calculations.

  6. Oscillatory dynamics in a bacterial cross-protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsev, Eugene Anatoly; Conwill, Arolyn; Gore, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between microbes can enable microbial communities to survive in harsh environments. Enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, a common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, is a cooperative behavior that can allow resistant cells to protect sensitive cells from antibiotics. Understanding how bacterial populations survive antibiotic exposure is important both clinically and ecologically, yet the implications of cooperative antibiotic deactivation on the population and evolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood, particularly in the presence of more than one antibiotic. Here, we show that two Escherichia coli strains can form an effective cross-protection mutualism, protecting each other in the presence of two antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) so that the coculture can survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either strain alone. Moreover, we find that daily dilutions of the coculture lead to large oscillations in the relative abundance of the two strains, with the ratio of abundances varying by nearly four orders of magnitude over the course of the 3-day period of the oscillation. At modest antibiotic concentrations, the mutualistic behavior enables long-term survival of the oscillating populations; however, at higher antibiotic concentrations, the oscillations destabilize the population, eventually leading to collapse. The two strains form a successful cross-protection mutualism without a period of coevolution, suggesting that similar mutualisms may arise during antibiotic treatment and in natural environments such as the soil. PMID:27194723

  7. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  8. Sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host range and sorghum resistance including cross-resistance from greenbug sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The graminous host range, and sources of sorghum plant resistance including cross resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) sorghums, [Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench], were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari, (Zehntner) in greenhouse no-choice experiments and ...

  9. Prophylactic cross-face nerve flap for muscle protection prior to facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Koshima, Isao; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Mihara, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Iida, Takuya; Uchida, Gentaro

    2011-02-01

    The facial muscles of a 28-year-old woman with left acoustic neuroma were successfully protected with a vascularised cross-face nerve flap using a vascularised lateral femoral cutaneous nerve along with a perforator of the lateral circumflex femoral system. It was transferred as a vascularised cross-face nerve flap to bridge a 15-cm-long defect between the bilateral buccal branches. Three months after the nerve flap transfer, the total tumour including the facial nerve was resected. Postoperatively, rapid nerve sprouting through the nerve flap and excellent facial reanimation were obtained 3-6 months after resection. This method is a one-stage reconstruction procedure, has minimal donor-site morbidity and results in strong postoperative muscle contraction. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a prophylactic cross-face nerve flap technique for the protection of facial muscles before facial nerve transection, and also the usefulness of vascularised lateral femoral cutaneous nerve flap.

  10. An X-Ray Analysis Database of Photoionization Cross Sections Including Variable Ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ping; Cohen, David H.; MacFarlane, Joseph J.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of research efforts in the following areas are discussed: review of the major theoretical and experimental data of subshell photoionization cross sections and ionization edges of atomic ions to assess the accuracy of the data, and to compile the most reliable of these data in our own database; detailed atomic physics calculations to complement the database for all ions of 17 cosmically abundant elements; reconciling the data from various sources and our own calculations; and fitting cross sections with functional approximations and incorporating these functions into a compact computer code.Also, efforts included adapting an ionization equilibrium code, tabulating results, and incorporating them into the overall program and testing the code (both ionization equilibrium and opacity codes) with existing observational data. The background and scientific applications of this work are discussed. Atomic physics cross section models and calculations are described. Calculation results are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical data. The functional approximations used for fitting cross sections are outlined and applications of the database are discussed.

  11. Do employers voluntarily include patient protections in self-insured managed care plans?

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Janice S; Hall, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Managed care patient protection laws passed by states do not apply to health plans sponsored by self-insured employers, although 54% of workers who receive health insurance coverage through their employer are in self-insured plans. In-depth interviews conducted in five states with employers offering self-insured health benefits and with other knowledgeable market informants provide evidence that self-insured managed care plans nonetheless include important features that strengthen subscribers' access to medical providers. Less common in these plans were features providing for independent external appeal of coverage denials and for protecting network providers from undue influence by plan administrators.

  12. Bayesian Evaluation Including Covariance Matrices of Neutron-induced Reaction Cross Sections of {sup 181}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Leeb, H. Schnabel, G.; Srdinko, Th.; Wildpaner, V.

    2015-01-15

    A new evaluation of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 181}Ta using a consistent procedure based on Bayesian statistics is presented. Starting point of the evaluation is the description of nuclear reactions via nuclear models implemented in TALYS 1.4. A retrieval of experimental data was performed and covariance matrices of the experiments were generated from an extensive study of the corresponding literature. All reaction channels required for a transport file up to 200 MeV have been considered and the covariance matrices of cross section uncertainties for the most important channels are determined. The evaluation has been performed in one step including all available experimental data. A comparison of the evaluated cross sections and spectra with experimental data and available evaluations is performed. In general the evaluated cross section reflect our best knowledge and give a fair description of the observables. However, there are few deviations from expectation which clearly indicate the impact of the prior and the need to account for model defects. Using the results of the evaluation a complete ENDF-file similarly to those of the TENDL library is generated.

  13. Cross Protective Mucosal Immunity Mediated by Memory Th17 Cells against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Yongli; Li, Wenchao; Tian, Ying; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Weiser, Jeffery N.; Ni, Xin; Shen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) remains a leading cause of serious illness and death worldwide. Immunization with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine has lowered the colonization rate and consequently invasive diseases by inducing serotype-specific antibodies. However, many of current pneumonia cases result from infection by serotype strains not included in the vaccine. In this study, we asked if cross-protection against lung infection by heterologous strains can be induced and investigated the underlying immune mechanism. We found that immune mice recovered from a prior infection were protected against heterologous Sp strains in the pneumonia challenge model, as evident by accelerated bacterial clearance, reduced pathology and apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Sp infection in the lung induced strong Th17 responses at the lung mucosal site. Transfer of CD4+ T cells from immune mice provided heterologous protection against pneumonia, and this protection was abrogated by IL-17A blockade. Transfer of memory CD4+ T cells from IL-17A knockout mice failed to provide protection. These results indicate that memory Th17 cells played a key role in providing protection against pneumonia in a serotype independent manner and suggest the feasibility of developing a broadly protective vaccine against bacterial pneumonia by targeting mucosal Th17 T cells. PMID:27118490

  14. NORs inheritance analysis in crossings including individuals from two stocks of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Oliveira, Claudio; Tabata, Yara Aiko; Rigolino, Marcos Guilherme; Foresti, Fausto

    2002-01-01

    Silver nitrate staining of rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chromosomes, for the identification of the nucleolar organizing regions (NORs), revealed that in individuals from Núcleo Experimental de Salmonicultura de Campos do Jordão (Brazil) NORs were located in the long arms of submetacentric pair while in specimens from Mount Shasta (USA) NORs were located in the short arms of a submetacentric pair. Cytogenetic analysis of the offspring, obtained through artificial crosses including individuals from both stocks, allowed the identification of NORs in two submetacentric chromosomes, one in the short arms and the other in the long arms, confirming the effectiveness of the hybridization process. Complementary results obtained using the FISH technique with 18S and 5S rDNA probes showed that NOR-bearing chromosomes exhibited a cluster of 5S genes located in tandem with the 18S gene cluster in both stocks. The results allow us to suggest that the difference in NOR-bearing chromosomes found between the two stocks is likely to be due to pericentric inversion involving the chromosome segment where 18S and 5S rDNA genes are located. The presence of ribosomal genes in the long arms of a submetacentric chromosome is apparently a particular characteristic of the rainbow trout stock of Campos do Jordão and might be used as a chromosome marker in studies of controlled crosses in this species.

  15. Cross-species infection of hepatitis E virus in a zoo-like location, including birds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Shen, Q; Mou, J; Yang, Z B; Yuan, C L; Cui, L; Zhu, J G; Hua, X G; Xu, C M; Hu, J

    2008-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animals are considered to be reservoirs. Thirty-eight faecal samples, obtained from 22 species of animals including birds in a wildlife first-aid centre in Eastern China, were tested for HEV RNA. Our survey revealed that in total 28.9% (95% confidence interval 14.5-43.4) of the faecal samples from various mammals and birds were HEV RNA positive. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolates demonstrated that all sequences clustered in genotype 4 with 96-100% identity to each other. In addition, serum samples from seven animal handlers have shown that five (71.4%) were seropositive. The findings imply that cross-species infection of HEV had probably occurred in this zoo-like location, and moreover, birds can be infected naturally with mammalian HEV.

  16. Cross-protection study of the nine serovars of Haemophilus paragallinarum in the Kume haemagglutinin scheme.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Edgardo V; Garduño, Manuel Longinos; Téllez, Guillermo; Rosas, Pomposo Fernández; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Blackall, Patrick J

    2004-10-01

    The cross-protection and haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies present in chickens vaccinated with one of the nine currently recognized Kume haemagglutinin serovars of Haemophilus paragallinarum were investigated. The results confirmed the widely accepted dogma that serogroups A, B, and C represent three distinct immunovars. Within Kume serogroup A, there was generally good cross-protection among all four serovars. However, within Kume serogroup C, there was evidence of a reduced level of cross-protection between some of the four serovars. The haemagglutination-inhibition antibody levels generally showed the same trend as with the cross-protection results. This study suggests that some apparent field failures of infectious coryza vaccines may be due to a lack of cross-protection between the vaccine strains and the field strains. Our results will help guide the selection of strains for inclusion in infectious coryza vaccines.

  17. Evaluation of prescriptions of medicines not included in Iran medicine list: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA) has the mission to regulate all aspects of pharmaceutical market including registration of the new medicines. Iran Drug Selection Committee has the responsibility to maintain and revise Iran Medicine List (IML). The National law has banned production, importation, distribution, and prescription of medicines not included in IML. Although, IFDA policy makers have created a mechanism to provide medicines not included in the list but might be essential for the treatment of specific patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on prescription of out of IML medicines during the year 2015. This study was conducted on a total of 1375 application forms received by Secretariat of Iran Drug Selection Committee for prescription of out of IML medicines. Findings: It has been shown that among 402 specialist physicians, the most out of IML medicine were prescribed by oncologist/hematologist. Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents were the most frequently prescribed medicines both in terms of number and diversity. According to the collected data, more than 76% of all medicines were supplied by only 4 out of 25 pharmaceutical companies in 1 year. Conclusion: Results of this study show that despite its early intention this mechanism is easily abused by some pharmaceutical companies as an unethical way of induced demand and marketing of their products. Therefore, IFDA decision makers should revise this mechanism and decide based on its real benefits and harms both to the patients and Iran national health system. PMID:27843958

  18. Hot DA white dwarf model atmosphere calculations: including improved Ni PI cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Badnell, N. R.; Hubeny, I.; Holberg, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    To calculate realistic models of objects with Ni in their atmospheres, accurate atomic data for the relevant ionization stages need to be included in model atmosphere calculations. In the context of white dwarf stars, we investigate the effect of changing the Ni IV-VI bound-bound and bound-free atomic data on model atmosphere calculations. Models including photoionization cross-section (PICS) calculated with AUTOSTRUCTURE show significant flux attenuation of up to ˜80 per cent shortward of 180 Å in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region compared to a model using hydrogenic PICS. Comparatively, models including a larger set of Ni transitions left the EUV, UV, and optical continua unaffected. We use models calculated with permutations of these atomic data to test for potential changes to measured metal abundances of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS were found to change the abundances of N and O by as much as ˜22 per cent compared to models using hydrogenic PICS, but heavier species were relatively unaffected. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS caused the abundances of N/O IV and V to diverge. This is because the increased opacity in the AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS model causes these charge states to form higher in the atmosphere, more so for N/O V. Models using an extended line list caused significant changes to the Ni IV-V abundances. While both PICS and an extended line list cause changes in both synthetic spectra and measured abundances, the biggest changes are caused by using AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS for Ni.

  19. Substructure procedure for including tile flexibility in stress analysis of shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A substructure procedure to include the flexibility of the tile in the stress analysis of the shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is described. In this procedure, the TPS is divided into substructures of (1) the tile which is modeled by linear finite elements and (2) the SIP which is modeled as a nonlinear continuum. This procedure was applied for loading cases of uniform pressure, uniform moment, and an aerodynamic shock on various tile thicknesses. The ratios of through-the-thickness stresses in the SIP which were calculated using a flexible tile compared to using a rigid tile were found to be less than 1.05 for the cases considered.

  20. DOPA, a Digital Observatory for Protected Areas including Monitoring and Forecasting Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Gregoire; Hartley, Andrew; Peedell, Stephen; de Jesus, Jorge; Ó Tuama, Éamonn; Cottam, Andrew; May, Ian; Fisher, Ian; Nativi, Stefano; Bertrand, Francis

    2010-05-01

    The Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA) is a biodiversity information system currently developed as an interoperable web service at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in collaboration with other international organizations, including GBIF, UNEP-WCMC, Birdlife International and RSPB. DOPA is designed to assess the state and pressure of Protected Areas (PAs) and to prioritize them accordingly, in order to support decision making and fund allocation processes. To become an operational web service allowing the automatic monitoring of protected areas, DOPA needs to be able to capture the dynamics of spatio-temporal changes in habitats and anthropogenic pressure on PAs as well as the changes in the species distributions. Because some of the most valuable natural ecosystems and species on the planet cover large areas making field monitoring methods very difficult for a large scale assessment, the automatic collection and processing of remote sensing data are processes at the heart of the problem. To further be able to forecast changes due to climate change, DOPA has to rely on an architecture that enables it to communicate with the appropriate modeling web services. The purpose of this presentation is to present the architecture of the DOPA with special attention to e-Habitat, its web processing service designed for assessing the irreplaceability of habitats as well as for the modeling of habitats under different climate change scenarios. The use of open standards for spatial data and of open source programming languages for the development of the core functionalities of the system are expected to encourage the participation of the scientific community beyond the current partnerships and to favour the sharing of such an observatory which could be installed at any other location. Acknowledgement: Part of this work is funded under the 7th Framework Programme by the EuroGEOSS (www.eurogeoss.eu) project of the European Commission. The views

  1. Extending the actor-partner interdependence model to include cross-informant data.

    PubMed

    van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Goncy, Elizabeth A

    2010-12-01

    This paper illustrates an extension of the APIM technique within a path analysis framework by using cross-informant data on the outcome variable. Data for the current study were derived from a sample of young adult heterosexual couples who had been in a romantic relationship for at least four months (N = 115 couples). The findings from the current study indicate that romantic relationship satisfaction is associated with externalizing behavior problems among both females and males, but that both dyadic data and cross-informant reports are needed to understand this association. Not considering dyadic or cross-informant data may lead to different, and potentially misleading, claims. The findings from the current study provide clear evidence that incorporating cross-informant data in dyadic data analyses provides important new insights into understanding the association between romantic relationship functioning and individual outcomes.

  2. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... minimum, your proposed measures to: (1) Prevent or control fires; (2) Prevent soil erosion; (3) Protect surface or ground water; (4) Protect fish and wildlife; (5) Protect cultural, visual, and other natural... operations to ensure that they comply with the requirements of § 3200.4, and applicable noise, air, and...

  3. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (p<0.001). Forty-nine percent indicated having solely interictal headache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (p<0.001), and the occurrence of tension-type headaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy.

  4. Protected zone ventilation and reduced personal exposure to airborne cross-infection.

    PubMed

    Cao, G; Nielsen, P V; Jensen, R L; Heiselberg, P; Liu, L; Heikkinen, J

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the performance of protected zone ventilation (PZV) and hybrid protected zone ventilation (HPZV) to reduce the direct exposure to exhaled air from others' breathing. Experimental measurements are carried out to test the performance of PZV in a full-scale office room with two breathing thermal manikins. The measurements were performed under three configurations, including two standing manikins at different distances: 0.35, 0.5, and 1.1 m. When the supply air velocity is increased to 4 m/s in the downward plane jet, the dimensionless concentration is 40% lower than for fully mixed ventilation, which can be considered as a measure of protection from the zoning condition. The measurement results showed that in both the PZV and the HPZV system it is possible to decrease the transmission of tracer gas from one manikin to the opposite manikin; therefore, it probably would reduce the risk of air borne cross-infection between two people at the same relative positions. The results suggest that PZV and HPZV may be used to reduce the exposure of people in a protected zone from indoor pollutants emitted in a source zone.

  5. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    PubMed Central

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our “recipe” for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

  6. Parametrizations and dynamical analysis of angle-integrated cross sections for double photoionization including nondipole effects

    SciTech Connect

    Istomin, Andrei Y.; Starace, Anthony F.; Manakov, N. L.; Meremianin, A. V.; Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, Igor

    2005-11-15

    Similarly to differential cross sections for one-electron photoionization, the doubly differential cross section for double photoionization (DPI) may be conveniently described by four parameters: the singly differential (with respect to energy sharing) cross section ({sigma}{sub 0}), the dipole asymmetry parameter ({beta}), and two nondipole asymmetry parameters ({gamma} and {delta}). Here we derive two model-independent representations for these parameters for DPI from a {sup 1}S{sub 0} atomic bound state: (i) in terms of one-dimensional integrals of the polarization-invariant DPI amplitudes and (ii) in terms of the exact two-electron reduced matrix elements. For DPI of He at excess energies, E{sub exc}, of 100 eV, 450 eV, and 1 keV, we present numerical results for the asymmetry parameters within the framework of the convergent close-coupling theory and compare them with results of lowest-order (in the interelectron interaction) perturbation theory (LOPT). The results for E{sub exc}=1 keV exhibit a nondipole asymmetry that is large enough to be easily measured experimentally. We find excellent agreement between our LOPT results and other theoretical predictions and experimental data for total cross sections and ratios of double to single ionization cross sections for K-shell DPI from several multielectron atoms.

  7. 10 CFR 709.26 - Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records and other pertinent documentation. 709.26 Section 709.26 Energy... Protection of confidentiality of CI evaluation records to include polygraph examination records and...

  8. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    PubMed

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation.

  9. Extending the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to Include Cross-Informant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Goncy, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates an extension of the APIM technique within a path analysis framework by using cross-informant data on the outcome variable. Data for the current study were derived from a sample of young adult heterosexual couples who had been in a romantic relationship for at least four months (N = 115 couples). The findings from the current…

  10. Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes–2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names

    PubMed Central

    Wijayawardene, Nalin N.; Crous, Pedro W.; Kirk, Paul M.; Hawksworth, David L.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Braun, Uwe; Dai, Dong-Qin; D’souza, Melvina J.; Diederich, Paul; Dissanayake, Asha; Doilom, Mingkhuan; Hongsanan, Singang; Jones, E. B.Gareth; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Lawrey, James D.; Liu, Jian-Kui; Lücking, Robert; Madrid, Hugo; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S.; Muggia, Lucia; Nelsen, Matthew P.; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Suetrong, Satinee; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Thambugala, Kasun M.; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Wikee, Saowanee; Zhang, Ying; Aptroot, André; Ariyawansa, H. A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Bhat, D. Jayarama; Gueidan, Cécile; Chomnunti, Putarak; De Hoog, G. Sybren; Knudsen, Kerry; Li, Wen-Jing; McKenzie, Eric H. C.; Miller, Andrew N.; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Piątek, Marcin; Raja, Huzefa A.; Shivas, Roger S.; Slippers, Bernad; Taylor, Joanne E.; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yong; Woudenberg, Joyce H. C.; Cai, Lei; Jaklitsch, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and nonpleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data. PMID:27284275

  11. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Flow Axis Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new test bed for Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy at the University of New Hampshire (UNH-CORE) was used to evaluate the performance of different cross-flow axis hydrokinetic turbines, and investigate the effects of waves and turbulence on these devices. The test bed was designed and built to operate in the UNH tow and wave tank, which has a cross section of 3.67m (width) x 2.44m (depth). In the present configuration, tow speeds of up to 3 m/s can be achieved for smaller turbine models, and up to 1.5 m/s for large turbine models with low gear ratio. It features a flap style wave maker at one end that is capable of producing waves with 1-5 s periods up to 0.4 m wave height. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power output (torque, angular velocity) were measured at tow speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for two cross-flow axis MHK turbines: a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical turbine (LST). Both were provided by Lucid Energy Technologies, LLP, and have frontal areas of 1.3 (GHT) and 1.0 (LST) square meters, respectively. GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in the wake of a cylinder, installed upstream at various cross-stream locations. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust (drag) coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law efficiency, or kinetic exergy efficiency, was defined to calculate what fraction of the kinetic energy removed from the flow is converted to usable shaft work by each turbine. The exergy efficiency varies with tip speed ratio but approaches 90% for the optimum operating conditions for each turbine. The fraction of kinetic energy removed from the fluid that is not converted to shaft work is redistributed into turbulent kinetic energy in the wake. Quantifying the kinetic energy flowing out of the turbine is important for modeling of environmental transport processes and for predicting performance when turbines are used in arrays

  13. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing

    2016-01-28

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention.

  14. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention. PMID:26818736

  15. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimum, your proposed measures to: (1) Prevent or control fires; (2) Prevent soil erosion; (3) Protect... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  16. Antibody-Mediated Protection Against SHIV Challenge Includes Systemic Clearance of Distal Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyan; Ghneim, Khader; Sok, Devin; Bosche, William J.; Li, Yuan; Chipriano, Elizabeth; Berkemeier, Brian; Oswald, Kelli; Borducchi, Erica; Cabral, Crystal; Peter, Lauren; Brinkman, Amanda; Shetty, Mayuri; Jimenez, Jessica; Mondesir, Jade; Lee, Benjamin; Giglio, Patricia; Chandrashekar, Abishek; Abbink, Peter; Colantonio, Arnaud; Gittens, Courtney; Baker, Chantelle; Wagner, Wendeline; Lewis, Mark G.; Li, Wenjun; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Burton, Dennis R.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can protect rhesus monkeys against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, the site of antibody interception of virus and the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection remain unclear. We administered a fully protective dose of the bNAb PGT121 to rhesus monkeys and challenged them intravaginally with SHIV-SF162P3. In PGT121 treated animals, we detected low levels of viral RNA and viral DNA in distal tissues for several days following challenge. Viral RNA positive tissues showed transcriptomic changes indicative of innate immune activation, and cells from these tissues initiated infection following adoptive transfer into naïve hosts. These data demonstrate that bNAb mediated protection against a mucosal virus challenge can involve clearance of infectious virus in distal tissues. PMID:27540005

  17. Viscoelastic Model of Cross-Linked Polyethylene Including Effects of Temperature and Crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasz, L.; Gudmundson, P.

    2005-12-01

    Characterization of the mechanical behavior of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) commonly used in high voltage cable insulation was performed by an extensive set of isothermal uniaxial tensile relaxation tests. Tensile relaxation experiments were complemented by pressure-volume-temperature experiments as well as density and crystallinity measurements. Based on the experimental results, a viscoelastic power law model with four parameters was formulated, incorporating temperature and crystallinity dependence. It was found that a master curve can be developed by both horizontal and vertical shifting of the relaxation curves. The model was evaluated by making comparisons of the predicted stress responses with the measured responses in relaxation tests with transient temperature histories.

  18. The Acetic Acid Tolerance Response induces cross-protection to salt stress in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Greenacre, E J; Brocklehurst, T F

    2006-10-15

    Salmonella typhimurium induces an Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) upon exposure to mildly acidic conditions in order to protect itself against severe acid shock. This response can also induce cross-protection to other stresses such as heat and salt. We investigated whether both the acetic acid induced and lactic acid induced ATR in S. typhimurium provided cross-protection to a salt stress at 20 degrees C. Acid-adapted cells were challenged with both a sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) shock and their ability to survive ascertained. Acetic acid adaptation provided cells with protection against both NaCl and KCl stress. However, lactic acid adaptation did not protect against either osmotic stressor and rendered cells hypersensitive to NaCl. These results have implications for the food industry where hurdle technology means multiple sub-lethal stresses such as mild pH and low salt are commonly used in the preservation of products.

  19. Adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines and perpetual viral metamorphosis: the importance of cross-protection.

    PubMed

    Ansaldi, Filippo; Canepa, Paola; Parodi, Valentina; Bacilieri, Sabrina; Orsi, Andrea; Compagnino, Federica; Icardi, Giancarlo; Durando, Paolo

    2009-05-26

    Vaccination is considered the most effective means of reducing influenza burden, providing substantial benefits in terms of reduction of morbidity, complications, hospitalizations and deaths, even if vaccines have been associated with a reduced immune response and lower effectiveness in older adults, in particular when a mismatch between the vaccine and the circulating virus strains occurred. Several strategies have been proposed to enhance vaccine protection against drifted strains, including the use of adjuvants. Among oil-emulsion adjuvants, MF-59 was approved for human use more than a decade ago and it is largely used for adjuvantation of influenza vaccine. Recent studies have demonstrated that addition of the MF-59 to subunit influenza vaccine can lead to higher haemagglutination-inhibiting seroprotection rates and to higher neutralization antibody titers against drifted strains not included in the vaccine respect to non-adjuvanted vaccine. Promising results were obtained using a new generation of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants, named AS, offering cross-protection against heterologous challenge in ferrets.

  20. A new formulation for the ionospheric cross polar cap potential including saturation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    It is known that the ionospheric cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturates when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz becomes very large. Few studies have offered physical explanations as to why the polar cap potential saturates. We present 13 events in which the reconnection electric field (REF) goes above 12mV/m at some time. When these events are examined as typically done in previous studies, all of them show some signs of saturation (i.e., over-prediction of the CPCP based on a linear relationship between the IMF and the CPCP). We show that by taking into account the size of the magnetosphere and the fact that the post-shock magnetic field strength is strongly dependent upon the solar wind Mach number, we can better specify the ionospheric CPCP. The CPCP (Φ) can be expressed as Φ=(10-4v2+11.7B(1-e-Ma/3)sin3(θ/2)) {rms/9 (where v is the solar wind velocity, B is the combined Y and Z components of the interplanetary magnetic field, Ma is the solar wind Mach number, θ=acos(Bz/B), and rms is the stand-off distance to the magnetopause, assuming pressure-balance between the solar wind and the magnetosphere). This is a simple modification of the original Boyle et al. (1997) formulation.

  1. Protection of folic acid through encapsulation in mesoporous silica particles included in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rico, María; Pérez-Esteve, Édgar; Lerma-García, María J; Marcos, María D; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Barat, José M

    2017-03-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a synthetic vitamin commonly used for food fortification. However, its vulnerability to processing and storage implies loss of efficiency, which would induce over-fortification by processors to obtain a minimum dose upon consumption. Recent studies have indicated potential adverse effects of FA overdoses, and FA protection during processing and storage could lead to more accurate fortification. In addition, sustained vitamin release after consumption would help improve its metabolism. The objective of this work was to study controlled FA delivery and stability in fruit juices to reduce potential over-fortification risks by using gated mesoporous silica particles (MSPs). The obtained results indicated that FA encapsulation in MSPs significantly improved its stability and contributed to controlled release after consumption by modifying vitamin bioaccessibility. These results confirmed the suitability of MSPs as support for controlled release and protection of bioactive molecules in food matrices in different food production and storage stages.

  2. A Holistic Approach Including Biological and Geological Criteria for Integrative Management in Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Lorena; Monge-Ganuzas, Manu; Onaindia, Miren; De Manuel, Beatriz Fernández; Mendia, Miren

    2017-02-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and geosites are indivisible parts of natural heritage. Therefore, an adequate spatial delimitation and understanding of both and their linkages are necessary in order to be able to establish conservation policies. Normally, biodiversity hotspots are a typical target for those policies but, generally, geosites are not taken into account. Thus, this paper aims to fill this gap by providing an easily replicable method for the identification and integration of the geosites and the biodiversity hotspots in a Network for Integrative Nature Conservation that highlights their linkages. The method here presented has been applied to Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve situated in southeastern of the Bay of Biscay. The obtained results indicate that some geosites that are not directly related with biodiversity hotspots remain unprotected. Thus, from the study carried out, it can be stated that we conserving just the biodiversity hotspots is not enough to conserve the whole natural heritage of a protected area, as some plots interesting due to their relevant geoheritage remain unprotected. Therefore, it is necessary to fully integrate geosites into the planning documents of protected areas as a part of an ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach recognizes the integrity of abiotic and biotic elements in nature conservation policies. Moreover, the proposed framework and the innovative methodology can be used as an easy input to identify priority areas for conservation, to improve the protected areas conservation planning, and to demonstrate the linkages between biodiversity hotspots and geosites.

  3. A Holistic Approach Including Biological and Geological Criteria for Integrative Management in Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Peña, Lorena; Monge-Ganuzas, Manu; Onaindia, Miren; De Manuel, Beatriz Fernández; Mendia, Miren

    2017-02-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and geosites are indivisible parts of natural heritage. Therefore, an adequate spatial delimitation and understanding of both and their linkages are necessary in order to be able to establish conservation policies. Normally, biodiversity hotspots are a typical target for those policies but, generally, geosites are not taken into account. Thus, this paper aims to fill this gap by providing an easily replicable method for the identification and integration of the geosites and the biodiversity hotspots in a Network for Integrative Nature Conservation that highlights their linkages. The method here presented has been applied to Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve situated in southeastern of the Bay of Biscay. The obtained results indicate that some geosites that are not directly related with biodiversity hotspots remain unprotected. Thus, from the study carried out, it can be stated that we conserving just the biodiversity hotspots is not enough to conserve the whole natural heritage of a protected area, as some plots interesting due to their relevant geoheritage remain unprotected. Therefore, it is necessary to fully integrate geosites into the planning documents of protected areas as a part of an ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach recognizes the integrity of abiotic and biotic elements in nature conservation policies. Moreover, the proposed framework and the innovative methodology can be used as an easy input to identify priority areas for conservation, to improve the protected areas conservation planning, and to demonstrate the linkages between biodiversity hotspots and geosites.

  4. Microneedle delivery of trivalent influenza vaccine to the skin induces long-term cross-protection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Su-Hwa; Choi, Won-Hyung; Choi, Hyo-Jick; Goo, Tae-Won; Lee, Ju-Hie; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2016-12-01

    A painless self-immunization method with effective and broad cross-protection is urgently needed to prevent infections against newly emerging influenza viruses. In this study, we investigated the cross-protection efficacy of trivalent influenza vaccine containing inactivated A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) and B/Lee/40 after skin vaccination using microneedle patches coated with this vaccine. Microneedle vaccination of mice in the skin provided 100% protection against lethal challenges with heterologous pandemic strain influenza A/California/04/09, heterogeneous A/Philippines/2/82 and B/Victoria/287 viruses 8 months after boost immunization. Cross-reactive serum IgG antibody responses against heterologous influenza viruses A/California/04/09, A/Philippines/2/82 and B/Victoria/287 were induced at high levels. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were also maintained at high levels against these heterogeneous viruses. Microneedle vaccination induced substantial levels of cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in the lung and cellular immune responses, as well as cross-reactive antibody-secreting plasma cells in the spleen. Viral loads in the lung were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. All mice survived after viral challenges. These results indicate that skin vaccination with trivalent vaccine using a microneedle array could provide protection against seasonal epidemic or new pandemic strain of influenza viruses.

  5. Evaluation of cross-protection of bluetongue virus serotype 4 with other serotypes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zulu, Gcwalisile B; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-10-16

    Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious disease of sheep and other domestic and wild ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). Currently 26 serotypes of the virus have been identified. In South Africa, 22 serotypes have been identified and BT is controlled mainly by annual vaccinations using a freeze-dried live attenuated polyvalent BTV vaccine. The vaccine is constituted of 15 BTV serotypes divided into three separate bottles and the aim is to develop a vaccine using fewer serotypes without compromising the immunity against the disease. This study is based on previously reported cross-neutralisation of specific BTV serotypes in in vitro studies. Bluetongue virus serotype 4 was selected for this trial and was tested for cross-protection against serotype 4 (control), 1 (unrelated serotype), 9, 10 and 11 in sheep using the serum neutralisation test. The purpose of the study was to determine possible cross-protection of different serotypes in sheep. Of those vaccinated with BTV-4 and challenged with BTV-1, which is not directly related to BTV-4, 20% were completely protected and 80% showed clinical signs, but the reaction was not as severe as amongst the unvaccinated animals. In the group challenged with BTV-10, some showed good protection and some became very sick. Those challenged with BTV-9 and BTV-11 had good protection. The results showed that BTV-4 does not only elicit a specific immune response but can also protect against other serotypes.

  6. The Langley thermal protection system test facility: A description including design operating boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Langley thermal protection system test facility is presented. This facility was designed to provide realistic environments and times for testing thermal protection systems proposed for use on high speed vehicles such as the space shuttle. Products from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures, having a maximum total enthalpy of 10.3 MJ/kg, are used as a test medium. Test panels with maximum dimensions of 61 cm x 91.4 cm are mounted in the side wall of the test region. Static pressures in the test region can range from .005 to .1 atm and calculated equilibrium temperatures of test panels range from 700 K to 1700 K. Test times can be as long as 1800 sec. Some experimental data obtained while using combustion products of methane-air mixtures are compared with theory, and calibration of the facility is being continued to verify calculated values of parameters which are within the design operating boundaries.

  7. A theoretical and experimental study of planing surfaces including effects of cross section and plan form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuford, Charles L , Jr

    1957-01-01

    A summary is given of the background and present status of pure-planing theory. Data for models having sharp chines have been obtained for a rectangular flat plate and two V-bottom surfaces having constant angles of dead rise of 20 degrees and 40 degrees and also for rectangular-flat-plate surfaces having very slightly rounded chines. The theory presented in NACA Technical Note 3233 for a rectangular flat plate is revised and extended to include triangular flat plates planing with base forward and V-shaped prismatic surfaces having a constant angle of dead rise, horizontal chine flare, or vertical chine strips. The agreement between the results calculated by the proposed theory and the experimental data is satisfactory for engineering calculations of lift and center-of-pressure location.

  8. Immediate pigment darkening: its evolutionary roles may include protection against folate photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Moan, Johan; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Juzeniene, Asta

    2012-03-01

    The evolution of dark human skin colors in tropical areas is possibly related to photoprotection of folates. However, natural folates absorb mainly UVB radiation, and too little UVB can penetrate down to folates in dermal vessels to cause serious damage. However, endogenous photosensitizers, like riboflavin and uroporphyrin, absorbing UVA and visible light, can cause photosensitization of folates. Immediate pigment darkening (IPD), generated by UVA, has an absorption spectrum covering those of the endogenous photosensitizers. IPD is most prominent for darker skin types, which were typical for populations living under tropical solar fluences. We here propose that the biological role of IPD is protection of folates against photodegradation, which would be of large evolutionary importance for early hominids.

  9. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND TARIFFS Cross-Subsidization Restrictions on Affiliate Transactions § 35.44 Protections against.... (b) Non-power goods or services. (1) Unless otherwise permitted by Commission rule or order, and except as permitted by paragraph (b)(4) of this section, sales of any non-power goods or services by...

  10. Stability of sublethal acid stress adaptaion and induced cross protection against lauric arginate in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stability of acid stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes and its induced cross protection effect against GRAS (generally recognized as safe) antimicrobial compounds has never been investigated before. In the present study, the acid stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was initially induced...

  11. Iterative protecting group-free cross-coupling leading to chiral multiply arylated structures

    PubMed Central

    Crudden, Cathleen M.; Ziebenhaus, Christopher; Rygus, Jason P. G.; Ghozati, Kazem; Unsworth, Phillip J.; Nambo, Masakazu; Voth, Samantha; Hutchinson, Marieke; Laberge, Veronique S.; Maekawa, Yuuki; Imao, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    The Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling is one of the most often utilized reactions in the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds and conjugated materials. In its most common form, the reaction joins two sp2-functionalized carbon atoms to make a biaryl or diene/polyene unit. These substructures are widely found in natural products and small molecules and thus the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling has been proposed as the key reaction for the automated assembly of such molecules, using protecting group chemistry to affect iterative coupling. We present herein, a significant advance in this approach, in which multiply functionalized cross-coupling partners can be employed in iterative coupling without the use of protecting groups. To accomplish this, the orthogonal reactivity of different boron substituents towards the boron-to-palladium transmetalation reaction is exploited. The approach is illustrated in the preparation of chiral enantioenriched compounds, which are known to be privileged structures in active pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:27040494

  12. Oral Fluids as a Live-Animal Sample Source for Evaluating Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protection following Intranasal Influenza A Virus Vaccination in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Holly R; Vincent, Amy L; Brockmeier, Susan L; Gauger, Phillip C; Pena, Lindomar; Santos, Jefferson; Braucher, Douglas R; Perez, Daniel R; Loving, Crystal L

    2015-10-01

    In North American swine, there are numerous antigenically distinct H1 influenza A virus (IAV) variants currently circulating, making vaccine development difficult due to the inability to formulate a vaccine that provides broad cross-protection. Experimentally, live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines demonstrate increased cross-protection compared to inactivated vaccines. However, there is no standardized assay to predict cross-protection following LAIV vaccination. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody in serum is the gold standard correlate of protection following IAV vaccination. LAIV vaccination does not induce a robust serum HI antibody titer; however, a local mucosal antibody response is elicited. Thus, a live-animal sample source that could be used to evaluate LAIV immunogenicity and cross-protection is needed. Here, we evaluated the use of oral fluids (OF) and nasal wash (NW) collected after IAV inoculation as a live-animal sample source in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to predict cross-protection in comparison to traditional serology. Both live-virus exposure and LAIV vaccination provided heterologous protection, though protection was greatest against more closely phylogenetically related viruses. IAV-specific IgA was detected in NW and OF samples and was cross-reactive to representative IAV from each H1 cluster. Endpoint titers of cross-reactive IgA in OF from pigs exposed to live virus was associated with heterologous protection. While LAIV vaccination provided significant protection, LAIV immunogenicity was reduced compared to live-virus exposure. These data suggest that OF from pigs inoculated with wild-type IAV, with surface genes that match the LAIV seed strain, could be used in an ELISA to assess cross-protection and the antigenic relatedness of circulating and emerging IAV in swine.

  13. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  14. Dye lasing arrangement including an optical assembly for altering the cross-section of its pumping beam and method

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, Richard W.; Sweatt, William C.

    1992-01-01

    An optical assembly is disclosed herein along with a method of operation for use in a dye lasing arrangement, for example a dye laser oscillator or a dye amplifier, in which a continuous stream of dye is caused to flow through a given zone in a cooperating dye chamber while the zone is being illuminated by light from a pumping beam which is directed into the given zone. This in turn causes the dye therein to lase and thereby produce a new dye beam in the case of a dye laser oscillator or amplify a dye beam in the case of a dye amplifier. The optical assembly so disclosed is designed to alter the pump beam such that the beam enters the dye chamber with a different cross-sectional configuration, preferably one having a more uniform intensity profile, than its initially produced cross-sectional configuration. To this end, the assembly includes a network of optical components which first act on the beam while the latter retains its initially produced cross-sectional configuration for separating it into a plurality of predetermined segments and then recombines the separated components in a predetermined way which causes the recombined beam to have the different cross-sectional configuration.

  15. Development of the model of protected cross-border information interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biyashev, R. G.; Nyssanbayeva, S. E.; Begimbayeva, Ye. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates a proposed model of cross-border exchange and information security in the cross-border interaction in the integration system. A structural scheme of protected cross-border information exchange is proposed. Cross-border interaction of sides for information exchange in the integrated system is provided by the creation and use of the integration segment and national segments. The main tasks of a trusted third party are formulated. The model of sides' interaction scheme of the integration system using the integration gateway is presented. In this paper, a model of modified nonconventional digital signature system based on the scheme of the Digital Signature Algorithm and nonpositional polynomial number systems (NPNs) are described. Application of NPNs allows creating effective cryptographic systems of high reliability, which enables the confidentiality, authentication, integrity of stored and transmitted information.

  16. Protective Role of Cross-Reactive CD8 T Cells Against Dengue Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Elong Ngono, Annie; Chen, Hui-Wen; Tang, William W; Joo, Yunichel; King, Kevin; Weiskopf, Daniela; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-11-01

    Infection with one of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) presumably leads to lifelong immunity against the infecting serotype but not against heterotypic reinfection, resulting in a greater risk of developing Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) during secondary infection. Both antibodies and T cell responses have been implicated in DHF/DSS pathogenesis. According to the T cell-based hypothesis termed "original antigenic sin," secondary DENV infection is dominated by non-protective, cross-reactive T cells that elicit an aberrant immune response. The goal of our study was to compare the roles of serotype-specific and cross-reactive T cells in protection vs. pathogenesis during DENV infection in vivo. Specifically, we utilized IFN-α/βR(-/-) HLA*B0702 transgenic mice in the context of peptide vaccination with relevant human CD8 T cell epitopes. IFN-α/βR(-/-) HLA*B0702 transgenic mice were immunized with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2)-specific epitopes or variants found in any of the other three serotypes (DENV1, DENV3 or DENV4), followed by challenge with DENV. Although cross-reactive T cell responses were lower than responses elicited by serotype-specific T cells, immunization with either serotype-specific or variant peptide epitopes enhanced viral clearance, demonstrating that both serotype-specific and cross-reactive T cells can contribute to protection in vivo against DENV infection.

  17. Outer membrane vesicles derived from Salmonella Typhimurium mutants with truncated LPS induce cross-protective immune responses against infection of Salmonella enterica serovars in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Liu, Tian; Roland, Kenneth L; Jiang, Yanlong; Kong, Qingke

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella enterica cause diarrheal and systemic diseases and are of considerable concern worldwide. Vaccines that are cross-protective against multiple serovars could provide effective control of Salmonella-mediated diseases. Bacteria-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are highly immunogenic and are capable of eliciting protective immune responses. Alterations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) length can result in outer membrane remodeling and composition of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) changing. In this study, we investigated the impact of truncated LPS on both the production and immunogenicity of Salmonella OMVs, including the ability of OMVs to elicit cross-protection against challenge by heterologous Salmonella strains. We found that mutations in waaJ and rfbP enhanced vesiculation, while mutations in waaC, waaF and waaG inhibited this process. Animal experiments indicated that OMVs from waaC, rfaH and rfbP mutants induced stronger serum immune responses compared to OMVs from the parent strain, while all elicited protective responses against the wild-type S. Typhimurium challenge. Furthermore, intranasal or intraperitoneal immunization with OMVs derived from the waaC and rfbP mutants elicited significantly higher cross-reactive IgG responses and provided enhanced cross-protection against S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis challenge than the wild-type OMVs. These results indicate that truncated-LPS OMVs are capable of conferring cross protection against multiple serotypes of Salmonella infection.

  18. Arthritis protective regulatory potential of self–heat shock protein cross-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    van Eden, Willem; Wendling, Uwe; Paul, Liesbeth; Prakken, Berent; van Kooten, Peter; van der Zee, Ruurd

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with heat shock proteins has protective effects in models of induced arthritis. Analysis has shown a reduced synovial inflammation in such protected animals. Adoptive transfer and immunization with selected T cell epitopes (synthetic peptides) have indicated the protection to be mediated by T cells directed to conserved hsp epitopes. This was shown first for mycobacterial hsp60 and later for mycobacterial hsp70. Fine specificity analysis showed that such T cells were cross-reactive with the homologous self hsp. Therefore protection by microbial hsp reactive T cells can be by cross-recognition of self hsp overexpressed in the inflamed tissue. Preimmunization with hsp leads to a relative expansion of such self hsp cross-responsive T cells. The regulatory nature of such T cells may originate from mucosal tolerance maintained by commensal flora derived hsp or from partial activation through recognition of self hsp as a partial agonist (Altered Peptide Ligand) or in the absence of proper costimulation. Recently, we reported the selective upregulation of B7.2 on microbial hsp60 specific T cells in response to self hsp60. Through a preferred interaction with CTLA-4 on proinflammatory T cells this may constitute an effector mechanism of regulation. Also, regulatory T cells produced IL10. PMID:11189451

  19. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy.

  20. A Multivalent and Cross-Protective Vaccine Strategy against Arenaviruses Associated with Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kotturi, Maya F.; Botten, Jason; Sidney, John; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Giancola, Lori; Maybeno, Matt; Babin, Josie; Oseroff, Carla; Pasquetto, Valerie; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Peters, Bjoern; Ting, Joey; Do, Danh; Vang, Lo; Alexander, Jeff; Grey, Howard; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Sette, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Arenaviruses are the causative pathogens of severe hemorrhagic fever and aseptic meningitis in humans, for which no licensed vaccines are currently available. Pathogen heterogeneity within the Arenaviridae family poses a significant challenge for vaccine development. The main hypothesis we tested in the present study was whether it is possible to design a universal vaccine strategy capable of inducing simultaneous HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against 7 pathogenic arenaviruses (including the lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Lassa, Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Whitewater Arroyo viruses), either through the identification of widely conserved epitopes, or by the identification of a collection of epitopes derived from multiple arenavirus species. By inoculating HLA transgenic mice with a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) expressing the different arenavirus proteins, we identified 10 HLA-A02 and 10 HLA-A03-restricted epitopes that are naturally processed in human antigen-presenting cells. For some of these epitopes we were able to demonstrate cross-reactive CD8+ T cell responses, further increasing the coverage afforded by the epitope set against each different arenavirus species. Importantly, we showed that immunization of HLA transgenic mice with an epitope cocktail generated simultaneous CD8+ T cell responses against all 7 arenaviruses, and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, the set of identified epitopes allows broad, non-ethnically biased coverage of all 7 viral species targeted by our studies. PMID:20019801

  1. Yeast adapts to a changing stressful environment by evolving cross-protection and anticipatory gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Riddhiman; Sägesser, Rudolf; Weikert, Christian; Wagner, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against future environmental change. An example is cross-protection, where physiological adaptation against a present environmental stressor can protect an organism against a future stressor. Another is anticipation, where an organism uses information about its present environment to trigger gene expression and other physiological changes adaptive in future environments. "Predictive" abilities like this exist in organisms that have been exposed to periodic changes in environments. It is unknown how readily they can evolve. To answer this question, we carried out laboratory evolution experiments in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Specifically, we exposed three replicate populations of yeast to environments that varied cyclically between two stressors, salt stress and oxidative stress, every 10 generations, for a total of 300 generations. We evolved six replicate control populations in only one of these stressors for the same amount of time. We analyzed fitness changes and genome-scale expression changes in all these evolved populations. Our populations evolved asymmetric cross protection, where oxidative stress protects against salt stress but not vice versa. Gene expression data also suggest the evolution of anticipation and basal gene expression changes that occur uniquely in cyclic environments. Our study shows that highly complex physiological states that are adaptive in future environments can evolve on very short evolutionary time scales.

  2. Development of a Salmonella cross-protective vaccine for food animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Heithoff, Douglas M; House, John K; Thomson, Peter C; Mahan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is associated with increased Salmonella exposure, transmission, animal disease, and contamination of food and water supplies. Modified live Salmonella enterica vaccines that lack a functional DNA adenine methylase (Dam) confer cross-protection to a diversity of salmonellae in experimental models of murine, avian, ovine, and bovine models of salmonellosis. However, the commercial success of any vaccine is dependent upon the therapeutic index, the ratio of safety/efficacy. Herein, secondary virulence-attenuating mutations targeted to genes involved in intracellular and/or systemic survival were introduced into Salmonella dam vaccines to screen for vaccine candidates that were safe in the animal and the environment, while maintaining the capacity to confer cross-protective immunity to pathogenic salmonellae serotypes. Salmonella dam mgtC, dam sifA, and dam spvB vaccine strains exhibited significantly improved vaccine safety as evidenced by the failure to give rise to virulent revertants during the infective process, contrary to the parental Salmonella dam vaccine. Further, these vaccines exhibited a low grade persistence in host tissues that was associated with reduced vaccine shedding, reduced environmental persistence, and induction of cross-protective immunity to pathogenic serotypes derived from infected livestock. These data indicate that Salmonella dam double mutant vaccines are suitable for commercial applications against salmonellosis in livestock production systems. Reducing pre-harvest salmonellae load through vaccination will promote the health and productivity of livestock and reduce contamination of livestock-derived food products, while enhancing overall food safety.

  3. Lack of cross-protection against Bordetella holmesii after pertussis vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuqing; Weyrich, Laura S; Lavine, Jennie S; Karanikas, Alexia T; Harvill, Eric T

    2012-11-01

    Bordetella holmesii, a species closely related to B. pertussis, has been reported sporadically as a cause of whooping cough-like symptoms. To investigate whether B. pertussis-induced immunity is protective against infection with B. holmesii, we conducted an analysis using 11 human respiratory B. holmesii isolates collected during 2005-2009 from a highly B. pertussis-vaccinated population in Massachusetts. Neither whole-cell (wP) nor acellular (aP) B. pertussis vaccination conferred protection against these B. holmesii isolates in mice. Although T-cell responses induced by wP or aP cross-reacted with B. holmesii, vaccine-induced antibodies failed to efficiently bind B. holmesii. B. holmesii-specific antibodies provided in addition to wP were sufficient to rapidly reduce B. holmesii numbers in mouse lungs. Our findings suggest the established presence of B. holmesii in Massachusetts and that failure to induce cross-reactive antibodies may explain poor vaccine-induced cross-protection.

  4. Fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear fragmentation studies, historically driven by the interest of the nuclear physicists, are nowadays the subject of great attention for the hadrontherapy and the space radiation protection communities. In both fields, fragmentation cross sections are needed to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the patient's and the astronaut's body. Indeed, the the Monte Carlo codes used in planning tumor treatments and space missions must be tuned and validated by experimental data. However, only a limited set of fragmentation cross sections are available in literature, especially at Fermi energies. Therefore we have studied the production of secondary fragments in the 12C+12C and 12C+ 197Au reactions at 62 AMeV. Some of the measured cross sections are presented in this work.

  5. Identification of Zika virus epitopes reveals immunodominant and protective roles for dengue virus cross-reactive CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jinsheng; Tang, William Weihao; Sheets, Nicholas; Ellison, Julia; Sette, Alessandro; Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2017-03-13

    CD8(+) T cells play an important role in controlling Flavivirus infection, including Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we have identified 25 HLA-B*0702-restricted epitopes and 1 HLA-A*0101-restricted epitope using interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in ZIKV-infected IFN-α/β receptor-deficient HLA transgenic mice. The cross-reactivity of ZIKV epitopes to dengue virus (DENV) was tested using IFN-γ-ELISPOT and IFN-γ-ICS on CD8(+) T cells from DENV-infected mice, and five cross-reactive HLA-B*0702-binding peptides were identified by both assays. ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive CD8(+) T cells in DENV-immune mice expanded post ZIKV challenge and dominated in the subsequent CD8(+) T cell response. ZIKV challenge following immunization of mice with ZIKV-specific and ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive epitopes elicited CD8(+) T cell responses that reduced infectious ZIKV levels, and CD8(+) T cell depletions confirmed that CD8(+) T cells mediated this protection. These results identify ZIKV-specific and ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive epitopes and demonstrate both an altered immunodominance pattern in the DENV-immune setting relative to naive, as well as a protective role for epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells against ZIKV. These results have important implications for ZIKV vaccine development and provide a mouse model for evaluating anti-ZIKV CD8(+) T cell responses of human relevance.

  6. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Understanding Risk, Protection, and Substance Use among High-Risk Youth. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…

  7. Starvation-induced cross protection against heat or H2O2 challenge in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D E; Schultz, J E; Matin, A

    1988-09-01

    Glucose- or nitrogen-starved cultures of Escherichia coli exhibited enhanced resistance to heat (57 degrees C) or H2O2 (15 mM) challenge, compared with their exponentially growing counterparts. The degree of resistance increased with the time for which the cells were starved prior to the challenge, with 4 h of starvation providing the maximal protection. Protein synthesis during starvation was essential for these cross protections, since chloramphenicol addition at the onset of starvation prevented the development of thermal or oxidative resistance. Starved cultures also demonstrated stronger thermal and oxidative resistance than did growing cultures adapted to heat, H2O2, or ethanol prior to the heat or H2O2 challenge. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 35S-pulse-labeled proteins showed that subsets of the 30 glucose starvation proteins were also synthesized during heat or H2O2 adaptation; three proteins were common to all three stresses. Most of the common proteins were among the previously identified Pex proteins (J.E. Schultz, G. I. Latter, and A. Matin, J. Bacteriol. 170:3903-3909, 1988), which are independent of cyclic AMP positive control for their induction during starvation. Induction of starvation proteins dependent on cyclic AMP was not important in these cross protections, since a delta cya strain of E. coli K-12 exhibited the same degree of resistance to heat or H2O2 as the wild-type parent did during both growth and starvation.

  8. A design assessment of multiwall, metallic stand-off, and RSI reusable thermal protection systems including space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Dixon, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and assessment of reusable surface insulation (RSI), metallic stand off and multiwall thermal protection systems (TPS) is discussed. Multiwall TPS is described in some detail, and analyses useful for design of multiwall are included. Results indicate that multiwall has the potential to satisfy the TPS design goals better than the other systems. The total mass of the stand-off TPS and of the metallic systems require less primary structure mass than the RSI system, since the nonbuckling skin criteria required for RSI may be removed. Continued development of multiwall TPS is required to verify its potential and to provide the necessary data base for design.

  9. Coverage of related pathogenic species by multivalent and cross-protective vaccine design: arenaviruses as a model system.

    PubMed

    Botten, Jason; Sidney, John; Mothé, Bianca R; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro; Kotturi, Maya F

    2010-06-01

    The arenaviruses are a family of negative-sense RNA viruses that cause severe human disease ranging from aseptic meningitis to hemorrhagic fever syndromes. There are currently no FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of arenavirus disease, and therapeutic treatment is limited to the use of ribavirin and/or immune plasma for a subset of the pathogenic arenaviruses. The considerable genetic variability observed among the seven arenaviruses that are pathogenic for humans illustrates one of the major challenges for vaccine development today, namely, to overcome pathogen heterogeneity. Over the past 5 years, our group has tested several strategies to overcome pathogen heterogeneity, utilizing the pathogenic arenaviruses as a model system. Because T cells play a prominent role in protective immunity following arenavirus infection, we specifically focused on the development of human vaccines that would induce multivalent and cross-protective cell-mediated immune responses. To facilitate our vaccine development and testing, we conducted large-scale major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II epitope discovery on murine, nonhuman primate, and human backgrounds for each of the pathogenic arenaviruses, including the identification of protective HLA-restricted epitopes. Finally, using the murine model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, we studied the phenotypic characteristics associated with immunodominant and protective T cell epitopes. This review summarizes the findings from our studies and discusses their application to future vaccine design.

  10. Neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross-sections for radiation therapy and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, M B

    1998-12-01

    I review recent work at Los Alamos undertaken to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross-sections up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. In radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross-section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

  11. The Campylobacter jejuni Ferric Uptake Regulator Promotes Acid Survival and Cross-Protection against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Askoura, Momen; Sarvan, Sabina; Couture, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The mechanisms by which C. jejuni survives stomach acidity remain undefined. In the present study, we demonstrated that the C. jejuni ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays an important role in C. jejuni acid survival and acid-induced cross-protection against oxidative stress. A C. jejuni Δfur mutant was more sensitive to acid than the wild-type strain. Profiling of the acid stimulon of the C. jejuni Δfur mutant allowed us to uncover Fur-regulated genes under acidic conditions. In particular, Fur was found to upregulate genes involved in flagellar and cell envelope biogenesis upon acid stress, and mutants with deletions of these genes were found to be defective in surviving acid stress. Interestingly, prior acid exposure of C. jejuni cross-protected against oxidative stress in a catalase (KatA)- and Fur-dependent manner. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of KatA upon acid stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that the binding affinity between Fur and the katA promoter is reduced in vitro under conditions of low pH, rationalizing the higher levels of expression of katA under acidic conditions. Strikingly, the Δfur mutant exhibited reduced virulence in both human epithelial cells and the Galleria mellonella infection model. Altogether, this is the first study showing that, in addition to its role in iron metabolism, Fur is an important regulator of C. jejuni acid responses and this function cross-protects against oxidative stress. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate Fur's important role in C. jejuni pathogenesis. PMID:26883589

  12. Gut Catalase-Positive Bacteria Cross-Protect Adjacent Bifidobacteria from Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Eva; Peirotén, Ángela; Landete, José María; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria isolated from infant gut and breast milk exhibited different abilities to grow under microaerobic conditions, alone or in the presence of added catalase. In the present study, we demonstrated that some Bifidobacterium strains unable to grow under microaerobic conditions were cross-protected on solid media from oxidative stress by adjacent colonies of gut catalase-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis or Escherichia coli, but not by a catalase-deficient E. coli. The results of this study support the possible contribution of catalase-positive bacteria to the establishment of certain bifidobacteria in non-anaerobic human niches of the infant gastrointestinal tract or mammary gland.

  13. Gut Catalase-Positive Bacteria Cross-Protect Adjacent Bifidobacteria from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Eva; Peirotén, Ángela; Landete, José María; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria isolated from infant gut and breast milk exhibited different abilities to grow under microaerobic conditions, alone or in the presence of added catalase. In the present study, we demonstrated that some Bifidobacterium strains unable to grow under microaerobic conditions were cross-protected on solid media from oxidative stress by adjacent colonies of gut catalase-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis or Escherichia coli, but not by a catalase-deficient E. coli. The results of this study support the possible contribution of catalase-positive bacteria to the establishment of certain bifidobacteria in non-anaerobic human niches of the infant gastrointestinal tract or mammary gland. PMID:26040451

  14. Cross-protection induced by Toxoplasma gondii virus-like particle vaccine upon intraperitoneal route challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Ah-Ra; Lee, Su-Hwa; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2016-12-01

    The inner membrane complex sub-compartment has a critical role in Toxoplasma gondii endodyogeny. In this study, we investigated the protection upon intraperitoneal route (IP) challenge induced by the virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing Toxoplasma gondii IMC ISP (RH strain) (Type I). Intranasal immunization with the VLPs in mice elicited enhanced systemic and mucosal Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgA antibody responses, and CD4+ and CD8+ responses. Immunized mice significantly reduced T. gondii cyst burden and size in brain, resulting in cross-protection upon T. gondii (ME49) (Type II) challenge infection. These results indicate that the IP route challenge infection induced by T. gondii IMC ISP VLPs might be a very good target for vaccination representing novel approach to reduce infection.

  15. Atypical adaptive and cross-protective responses against peroxide killing in a bacterial plant pathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2003-10-01

    Physiological adaptive and cross-protection responses to oxidants were investigated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Exposure of A. tumefaciens to sublethal concentrations of H2O2 induced adaptive protection to lethal concentrations of H2O2. Similar treatments with organic peroxide and menadione did not produce adaptive protection to subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of these oxidants. Pretreatment of A. tumefaciens with an inducing concentration of menadione conferred cross-protection against H2O2, but not to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH), killing. The menadione induced cross-protection to H2O2 was due to the compound's ability to highly induce the peroxide scavenging enzyme, catalase. The levels of catalase directly correlated with the bacterium's ability to survive H2O2 treatment. Some aspects of the oxidative stress response of A. tumefaciens differ from other bacteria, and these differences may be important in plant/microbe interactions.

  16. Anthocyanin and flavonoid production from Perilla frutescens: pilot plant scale processing including cross-flow microfiltration and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Linghua; Lozano, Yves; Bombarda, Isabelle; Gaydou, Emile; Li, Bin

    2006-06-14

    Extraction and concentration at a pilot plant scale of anthocyanins and flavonoids from Perilla frutescens var. frutescens harvested in the Guangzhou area of China were investigated. The study of extraction efficiency using mineral acids and organic acids showed that 0.01 mol/L nitric acid was the most suitable to extract flavonoids from this slightly red leaf cultivar. The red extract contained 12 mg/L (as cyanidin equivalent) anthocyanins and other flavones. The multistep process included cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) with a ceramic type membrane, reverse osmosis (RO), and rotating evaporation (RE). The filtration fluxes were high and constant for CFM (150 L/h/m2 at 0.6 b) and for RO (22 L/h/m2 at 40 b). The red extract was concentrated 9.4 times by RO and then 5.4 times by RE. It contained 422 mg/L anthocyanins, representing 77% of the total extracted anthocyanin. The proportion of flavonoids was found unchanged during processing. The concentrated extract showed a pH of 2.7, and its free acidity was found to be 46% of the acidity added for extraction, because of the buffering capacity of the extract. At the concentration level reached, a crystallized deposit occurred and was identified as tartrate.

  17. Processing Narratives Concerning Protected Values: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Neural Correlates.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonas T; Gimbel, Sarah I; Dehghani, Morteza; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Sagae, Kenji; Wong, Jennifer D; Tipper, Christine M; Damasio, Hanna; Gordon, Andrew S; Damasio, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Narratives are an important component of culture and play a central role in transmitting social values. Little is known, however, about how the brain of a listener/reader processes narratives. A receiver's response to narration is influenced by the narrator's framing and appeal to values. Narratives that appeal to "protected values," including core personal, national, or religious values, may be particularly effective at influencing receivers. Protected values resist compromise and are tied with identity, affective value, moral decision-making, and other aspects of social cognition. Here, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying reactions to protected values in narratives. During fMRI scanning, we presented 78 American, Chinese, and Iranian participants with real-life stories distilled from a corpus of over 20 million weblogs. Reading these stories engaged the posterior medial, medial prefrontal, and temporo-parietal cortices. When participants believed that the protagonist was appealing to a protected value, signal in these regions was increased compared with when no protected value was perceived, possibly reflecting the intensive and iterative search required to process this material. The effect strength also varied across groups, potentially reflecting cultural differences in the degree of concern for protected values.

  18. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside.

  19. Single- and multiple-clade influenza A H5N1 vaccines induce cross protection in ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Heather L.; Khalenkov, Alexey M.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Giudice, Giuseppe Del; Webster, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid evolution, genetic diversity, broad host range, and increasing human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses highlight the need for an efficacious cross-clade vaccine. Using the ferret model, we compared induction of cross-reactive immunity and protective efficacy of three single-clade H5N1 vaccines and a novel multiple-clade H5N1 vaccine, with and without MF59 adjuvant. Reverse genetics (rg) was used to generate vaccine viruses containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase genes of wild-type H5N1 viruses. Ferrets received 2 doses of inactivated whole-virus vaccine separated by 3 weeks. Single-clade vaccines (7.5 μg HA per dose) included rg-A/Vietnam/1203/04 (clade 1), rg-A/Hong Kong/213/03 (clade 1), and rg-A/Japanese white eye/Hong Kong/1038/06 (clade 2.3). The multiple-clade vaccine contained 3.75 μg HA per dose of each single-clade vaccine and of rg-A/Whooper Swan/Mongolia/244/05 (clade 2.2). Two doses of vaccine were required to substantially increase anti-HA and virus neutralizing antibody titers to H5N1 viruses. MF59 adjuvant enhanced induction of clade-specific and cross-clade serum antibody responses, reduced frequency of infection (as determined by upper respiratory tract virus shedding and seroconversion data), and eliminated disease signs. The rg-A/Hong Kong/213/03 vaccine induced the highest antibody titers to homologous and heterologous H5N1 viruses, while rg-A/Japanese white eye/Hong Kong/1038/06 vaccine induced the lowest. The multiple-clade vaccine was broadly immunogenic against clade 1 and 2 viruses. The rg-A/Vietnam/1203/04 vaccine (the currently stockpiled H5N1 vaccine) most effectively reduced upper respiratory tract virus shedding after challenge with clade 1 and 2 viruses. Importantly, all vaccines protected against lethal challenge with A/Vietnam/1203/04 virus and provided cross-clade protection. PMID:19406182

  20. Oral fluids as a live-animal sample for evaluating cross-reactivity and cross-protection following intranasal influenza A virus vaccination in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In North American swine there are numerous antigenically distinct influenza A virus (IAV) H1 subtypes currently circulating, making vaccine development difficult due to the inability to formulate a vaccine that provides broad cross-protection. Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines provide ...

  1. Qualitative analysis of the level of cross-protection between epidemic waves of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Rios-Doria, D; Chowell, G

    2009-12-21

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was composed of multiple waves within a period of nine months in several regions of the world. Increasing our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this multi-wave profile has important public health implications. We model the transmission dynamics of two strains of influenza interacting via cross-immunity to simulate two temporal waves of influenza and explore the impact of the basic reproduction number, as a measure of transmissibility associated to each influenza strain, cross-immunity and the timing of the onset of the second influenza epidemic on the pandemic profile. We use time series of case notifications during the 1918 influenza pandemic in Geneva, Switzerland, for illustration. We calibrate our mathematical model to the initial wave of infection to estimate the basic reproduction number of the first wave and the corresponding timing of onset of the second influenza variant. We use this information to explore the impact of cross-immunity levels on the dynamics of the second wave of influenza. Our results for the 1918 pandemic in Geneva, Switzerland, indicate that a second wave can occur whenever R 01 < 1.5 or when cross-immunity levels are less than 0.58 for our estimated R 02 of 2.4. We also explore qualitatively profiles of two-wave pandemics and compare them with real temporal profiles of the 1918 influenza pandemic in other regions of the world including several Scandinavian cities, New York City, England and Wales, and Sydney, Australia. Pandemic profiles are classified into three broad categories namely "right-handed", "left-handed", and "M-shape". Our results indicate that avoiding a second influenza epidemic is plausible given sufficient levels of cross-protection are attained via natural infection during an early (herald) wave of infection or vaccination campaigns prior to a second wave. Furthermore, interventions aimed at mitigating the first pandemic wave may be counterproductive by increasing the

  2. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

  3. Cross-protective immunity against multiple influenza virus subtypes by a novel modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Brewoo, Joseph N; Powell, Tim D; Jones, Jeremy C; Gundlach, Nancy A; Young, Ginger R; Chu, Haiyan; Das, Subash C; Partidos, Charalambos D; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2013-04-03

    Development of an influenza vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity remains a challenge. Candidate vaccines based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector expressing antigens from influenza (MVA/Flu) viruses were constructed. A vaccine candidate, designated MVA/HA1/C13L/NP, that expresses the hemagglutinin from pandemic H1N1 (A/California/04/09) and the nucleoprotein (NP) from highly pathogenic H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04) fused to a secretory signal sequence from vaccinia virus was highly protective. The vaccine elicited strong antibody titers to homologous H1N1 viruses while cross-reactive antibodies to heterologous viruses were not detectable. In mice, this MVA/HA1/C13L/NP vaccine conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1), A/Norway/3487-2/09 (pandemic H1N1) or A/Influenza/Puerto Rico/8/34 (seasonal H1N1) and partial protection (57.1%) against challenge with seasonal H3N2 virus (A/Aichi/68). The protective efficacy of the vaccine was not affected by pre-existing immunity to vaccinia. Our findings highlight MVA as suitable vector to express multiple influenza antigens that could afford broad cross-protective immunity against multiple subtypes of influenza virus.

  4. Effect of cross-diffusion on the stationary problem of a prey-predator model with a protection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeda, Kazuhiro

    This paper is concerned with the stationary problem of a prey-predator cross-diffusion system with a protection zone for the prey. We discuss the existence and non-existence of coexistence states of the two species by using the bifurcation theory. As a result, it is shown that the cross-diffusion for the prey has beneficial effects on the survival of the prey when the intrinsic growth rate of the predator is positive. We also study the asymptotic behavior of positive stationary solutions as the cross-diffusion coefficient of the prey tends to infinity.

  5. In vivo cross-protection to African horse sickness Serotypes 5 and 9 after vaccination with Serotypes 8 and 6.

    PubMed

    von Teichman, Beate F; Dungu, Baptiste; Smit, Theresa K

    2010-09-07

    The polyvalent African horsesickness (AHS) attenuated live virus (AHS-ALV) vaccine produced at Onderstepoort Biological Products incorporates 7 of the 9 known serotypes circulating in southern Africa. Serological cross-reaction has been shown in vitro to Serotypes 5 and 9 by Serotypes 8 and 6 respectively, but the degree of in vivo cross-protection between these serotypes in vaccinated horses has not previously been reported. Due to the increasing incidence of AHS Serotypes 5 and 9 in the field, over the last 3-4 seasons of AHS in South Africa, and the absence of Serotypes 5 and 9 in the AHS-ALV vaccine, it was necessary to conduct a vaccination-challenge study to determine in vivo cross-protection of vaccine-incorporated Serotypes 8 and 6 respectively. Groups of horses were vaccinated with either the polyvalent AHS-ALV vaccine or a monovalent Serotype 6 (vAHSV6) or 8 (vAHSV8) vaccine to determine the cross-protection of vaccinated horses following challenge with virulent AHS virus (AHSV) of either Serotype 5, 6, 8 or 9. Serial vaccination of naive horses with the polyvalent AHS-ALV vaccine generated a broad neutralizing antibody response to all vaccine strains as well as cross-neutralizing antibodies to Serotypes 5 and 9. Booster vaccination of horses with monovalent vaccine vAHSV6 or vAHSV8 induced an adequate protective immune response to challenge with homologous and heterologous virulent virus. In vivo cross-protection between AHSV6 and AHSV9 and AHSV8 and AHSV5 respectively, was demonstrated.

  6. Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains in Cross-Protective Immunotherapy Against Leishmania amazonensis Murine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4+ T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1–103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104–198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199–314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-α or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8+ mediated immune responses

  7. Immunization of N terminus of enterovirus 71 VP4 elicits cross-protective antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease. Large epidemics of EV71 infection have been recently reported in the Asian-Pacific region. Currently, no vaccine is available to prevent EV71 infection. Results The peptide (VP4N20) consisting of the first 20 amino acids at the N-terminal of VP4 of EV71 genotype C4 were fused to hepatitis B core (HBcAg) protein. Expression of fusion proteins in E. coli resulted in the formation of chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs). Mice immunized with the chimeric VLPs elicited anti-VP4N20 antibody response. In vitro microneutralization experiments showed that anti-chimeric VLPs sera were able to neutralize not only EV71 of genotype C4 but also EV71 of genotype A. Neonatal mice model confirmed the neutralizing ability of anti-chimeric VLPs sera. Eiptope mapping led to the identification of a “core sequence” responsible for antibody recognition within the peptide. Conclusions Immunization of chimeric VLPs is able to elicit antibodies displaying a broad neutralizing activity against different genotypes of EV71 in vitro. The “core sequence” of EV71-VP4 is highly conserved across EV71 genotypes. The chimeric VLPs have a great potential to be a novel vaccine candidate with a broad cross-protection against different EV71 genotypes. PMID:24320792

  8. Cross-Species Protection Mediated by a Bordetella bronchiseptica Strain Lacking Antigenic Homologs Present in Acellular Pertussis Vaccines▿

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Neelima; Sloan, Gina Parise; Conover, Matt S.; Love, Cheraton F.; Mattoo, Seema; Kock, Nancy D.; Deora, Rajendar

    2010-01-01

    The Bordetella species are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that are characterized by long-term colonization of the mammalian respiratory tract and are causative agents of respiratory diseases in humans and animals. Despite widespread and efficient vaccination, there has been a world-wide resurgence of pertussis, which remains the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in developed countries. It has been proposed that current acellular vaccines (Pa) composed of only a few bacterial proteins may be less efficacious because of vaccine-induced antigenic shifts and adaptations. To gain insight into the development of a newer generation of vaccines, we constructed a Bordetella bronchiseptica strain (LPaV) that does not express the antigenic homologs included in any of the Pa vaccines currently in use. This strain also lacks adenylate cyclase toxin, an essential virulence factor, and BipA, a surface protein. While LPaV colonized the mouse nose as efficiently as the wild-type strain, it was highly deficient in colonization of the lower respiratory tract and was attenuated in induction of inflammation and injury to the lungs. Strikingly, to our surprise, we found that in an intranasal murine challenge model, LPaV elicited cross-species protection against both B. bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis. Our data suggest the presence of immunogenic protective components other than those included in the pertussis vaccine. Combined with the whole-genome sequences of many Bordetella spp. that are available, the results of this study should serve as a platform for strategic development of the next generation of acellular pertussis vaccines. PMID:20176797

  9. Cross-protection against Vibrio cholerae infection by monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hee; Cha, Sun-Shin; Lee, Chang-Seop; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Woo, Hye Ryun; Chung, Kyung Min

    2016-11-01

    Gram-negative Vibrio species secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity of mAbs against V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv was evaluated. Passive administration of any of these mAbs (21RA, 24RA, 46RA, 47RA and 50RA) provided strong protection against lethal V. cholerae infection. Interestingly, 24RA and 46RA, which map to the cysteine protease domain of V. cholerae MARTXVc , inhibited CPD autocleavage in vitro; this process is involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. These results generate new insight into the development of broadly protective mAbs and/or vaccines against Vibrio species with MARTX toxins.

  10. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that

  11. Track and Field Guide including Cross Country, Pentathlon Scoring Tables and Rules for Intercollegiate Meets and Championships with Official Rules. Janauary 1974-January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donnis H., Ed.

    This guide includes information on cross country running, pentathlon scoring tables, and rules for intercollegiate meets and championships, following an introductory portion on the organization's credo and standards. The first section covers track activities for children, coaching techniques, the benefits of weight training, and some practical…

  12. Cross-protective efficacy of dendritic cells targeting conserved influenza virus antigen expressed by Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Gui-Lian; Jiang, Yan-Long; Zhao, Liang; Li, Yu; Wang, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect birds and mammals, including humans, and are thus a serious threat to public health. Vaccination is vital for controlling AIV circulation. In this study, we generated a recombinant lactobacillus expressing the NP-M1-DCpep of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluated the activation effect of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep on dendritic cells (DCs) in a mouse model. The specific mucosal antibody responses and B and T cell responses in lymphoid tissues were also characterized. Importantly, we confirmed that specific CD8 T cells presented in vitro and antigen-specific cytotoxicity (activated the expression of CD107a) and in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxicity after vaccination. The adoptive transfer of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep-primed CD8+ T cells into NOD-SCID mice resulted in effective protection against mouse-adapted AIV infection. In addition, we observed protection in immunized mice challenged with mouse-adapted H9N2 AIV and H1N1 influenza virus, as evidenced by reductions in the lung virus titers, improvements in lung pathology, and weight loss and complete survival. Our data are promising for the generation of effective, non-traditional influenza vaccines against AIVs. PMID:28004787

  13. Cross-protection between controlled acid-adaptation and thermal inactivation for 48 Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Haberbeck, Leticia Ungaretti; Wang, Xiang; Michiels, Chris; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2017-01-16

    Given the importance of pH reduction and thermal treatment in food processing and food preservation strategies, the cross-protection between acid adaptation and subsequent thermal inactivation for 48 Escherichia coli strains was investigated. Those strains were selected among 188 E. coli strains according to their odds of growth under low pH conditions as determined by Haberbeck et al. (2015) [Haberbeck, L.U., Oliveira, R.C., Vivijs, B., Wenseleers, T., Aertsen, A., Michiels, C., Geeraerd, A.H., 2015. Variability in growth/no growth boundaries of 188 different Escherichia coli strains reveals that approximately 75% have a higher growth probability under low pH conditions than E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43888. Food Microbiol. 45, 222-230]. E. coli cells were acid and nonacid-adapted during overnight growth in controlled acidic pH (5.5) and neutral pH (7.0), respectively, in buffered Lysogenic Broth (LB). Then, they were heat inactivated at 58°C in non-buffered LB adjusted to pH6.2 and 7.0. Thus, four conditions were tested in total by combining the different pH values during growth/thermal inactivation: 5.5/6.2, 5.5/7.0, 7.0/6.2 and 7.0/7.0. Acid adaptation in buffered LB at pH5.5 increased the heat resistance of E. coli strains in comparison with nonacid-adaptation at pH7.0. For instance, the median D58-value of strains inactivated at pH7.0 was approximately 6 and 4min for acid-adapted and nonacid-adapted strains, respectively. For the nonacid-adapted strains, the thermal inactivation at pH6.2 and 7.0 was not significantly (p=0.06) different, while for the acid-adapted strains, the thermal treatment at pH6.2 showed a higher heat resistance than at pH7.0. The correlation between the odds of growth under low pH previously determined and the heat resistance was significant (p<0.05). Remarkably, a great variability in heat resistance among the strains was observed for all pH combinations, with D58-values varying between 1.0 and 69.0min. In addition, highly heat

  14. Protective mAbs and Cross-Reactive mAbs Raised by Immunization with Engineered Marburg Virus GPs.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Cassan, Robyn; Biggins, Julia E; Murin, Charles D; Warfield, Kelly L; Li, Sheng; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Olinger, Gene G; Kim, Do H; Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry; Ward, Andrew B; Nykiforuk, Cory; Aman, M Javad; Berry, Jody D; Berry, Jody; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-06-01

    The filoviruses, which include the marburg- and ebolaviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks among humans this decade. Antibodies against the filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP) have been shown to provide life-saving therapy in nonhuman primates, but such antibodies are generally virus-specific. Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described against Ebola virus. In contrast, relatively few have been described against Marburg virus. Here we present ten mAbs elicited by immunization of mice using recombinant mucin-deleted GPs from different Marburg virus (MARV) strains. Surprisingly, two of the mAbs raised against MARV GP also cross-react with the mucin-deleted GP cores of all tested ebolaviruses (Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Reston), but these epitopes are masked differently by the mucin-like domains themselves. The most efficacious mAbs in this panel were found to recognize a novel "wing" feature on the GP2 subunit that is unique to Marburg and does not exist in Ebola. Two of these anti-wing antibodies confer 90 and 100% protection, respectively, one hour post-exposure in mice challenged with MARV.

  15. Protecting group-free, selective cross-coupling of alkyltrifluoroborates with borylated aryl bromides via photoredox/nickel dual catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yohei; Tellis, John C.; Molander, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal reactivity modes offer substantial opportunities for rapid construction of complex small molecules. However, most strategies for imparting orthogonality to cross-coupling reactions rely on differential protection of reactive sites, greatly reducing both atom and step economies. Reported here is a strategy for orthogonal cross-coupling wherein a mechanistically distinct activation mode for transmetalation of sp3-hybridized organoboron reagents enables C-C bond formation in the presence of various protected and unprotected sp2-hybridized organoborons. This manifold has the potential for broad application, because orthogonality is inherent to the activation mode itself. The diversification potential of this platform is shown in the rapid elaboration of a trifunctional lynchpin through various transition metal-catalyzed processes without nonproductive deprotection or functional group manipulation steps. PMID:26371299

  16. Cross-Reactivity, Epitope Spreading, and De Novo Immune Stimulation Are Possible Mechanisms of Cross-Protection of Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Recipients of HPV Therapeutic Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayumi; Greenfield, William; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea; Coleman, Hannah N

    2015-07-01

    Numerous versions of human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines designed to treat individuals with established HPV infection, including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are in development because approved prophylactic vaccines are not effective once HPV infection is established. As human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is the most commonly detected type worldwide, all versions of HPV therapeutic vaccines contain HPV-16, and some also contain HPV-18. While these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases, there are other high-risk HPV types known to cause malignancy. Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. Data available from a few clinical trials that enrolled subjects with CINs regardless of the HPV type(s) present demonstrated clinical responses, as measured by CIN regression, in subjects with both vaccine-matched and nonvaccine HPV types. The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed.

  17. Does intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation provide equivalent myocardial protection compared to cardioplegia in patients undergoing bypass graft revascularisation?

    PubMed

    Scarci, Marco; Fallouh, Hazem B; Young, Christopher P; Chambers, David J

    2009-11-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: does intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation provide equivalent myocardial protection compared to cardioplegia in patients undergoing bypass graft revascularisation? Altogether, 58 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. We identified 13 studies, of which eight were randomised prospective trials. None of these studies found increased mortality, seven analyzed serum cardiac enzymes and showed that intermittent ischemic arrest provides equal or better protection compared to cardioplegic techniques. Two studies found an increased usage of inotropes and intra aortic balloon pump (IABP) in the intermittent ischemic arrest group. We conclude that intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation is a versatile and cost-effective method of myocardial protection, with the immediate postoperative outcome comparable to cardioplegic arrest in first-time coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The ischaemic duration associated with intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation is invariably shorter than that associated with cardioplegic arrest, and this may be one explanation for the comparable outcomes. There may also be an element of preconditioning protection during the intermittent cross-clamp fibrillation method, as has been shown experimentally. During elective CABG in patients with no clinical evidence of aortic or cerebro-vascular disease, the incidence of peri-operative microemboli (ME) and postoperative neuropsychological disturbances are shown to be comparable with both techniques of myocardial preservation.

  18. Outer membrane vesicles from flagellin-deficient Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium induce cross-reactive immunity and provide cross-protection against heterologous Salmonella challenge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Xiangmin; Curtiss, Roy; Kong, Qingke

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) isolated from Salmonella Typhimurium are potentially useful for developing subunit vaccines because of high immunogenicity and protective efficacy. However, flagella might remain in OMV pellets following OMV purification, resulting in non-essential immune responses and counteraction of bacterial protective immune responses when developing a vaccine against infection of multiple serotypes Salmonella. In this study, a flagellin-deficient S. Typhimurium mutant was constructed. Lipopolysaccharide profiles, protein profiles and cryo-electron microscopy revealed that there were no significant differences between the wild-type and mutant OMVs, with the exception of a large amount of flagellin in the wild-type OMVs. Neither the wild-type OMVs nor the non-flagellin OMVs were toxic to macrophages. Mice immunized with the non-flagellin OMVs produced high concentrations of IgG. The non-flagellin OMVs elicited strong mucosal antibody responses in mice when administered via the intranasal route in addition to provoking higher cross-reactive immune responses against OMPs isolated from S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis. Both intranasal and intraperitoneal immunization with the non-flagellin OMVs provided efficient protection against heterologous S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis challenge. Our results indicate that the flagellin-deficient OMVs may represent a new vaccine platform that could be exploited to facilitate the production of a broadly protective vaccine. PMID:27698383

  19. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  20. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affiliate cross-subsidization. (a) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy. No wholesale sale of electric energy may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and a market... affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  1. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affiliate cross-subsidization. (a) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy. No wholesale sale of electric energy may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and a market... affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  2. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... affiliate cross-subsidization. (a) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy. No wholesale sale of electric energy may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and a market... affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  3. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K; McGuire, Peter M; Lanyon, Janet M

    2010-03-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  4. Pheromone dispensers, including organic polymer fibers, described in the crop protection literature: comparison of their innovation potential.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S; Eisinger, M-T

    2013-01-01

    parameters, they hold considerable promise for future pest control against a variety of pest insects. In combination with well known synthetic sex pheromones, they can be used for communication disruption studies. One example, the pheromone of the European grape vine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in combination with Ecoflex fibers, has been thoroughly tested in vineyards of Freiburg, Southwest Germany, with promising results. Seven weeks of communication disruption have been achieved, long enough to cover any one of several flights of this multivoltine grape pest. Disruption effects of around 95% have been achieved which are statistically indistinguishable from positive controls tested simultaneously with Isonet LE fibers, while an untreated negative control is significantly different. Ecoflex is a cheap organic co-polyester and completely biodegradable within half a year. Thus, an extra recovery step as with some other dispensers is unnecessary. This co-polyester is also of proven non-toxicity. The extension of the seven week disruption period towards half a year (the entire duration of all 3 Lobesia flights combined) is desirable and is under additional investigation in the near future. The discovery of suitable mesofibers is protected by European and US patents. The pheromone literature appearing between 1959 and today contains more than 25,000 references. This wealth of information is immediately applicable to pest management. It has major impacts on chemical ecology and IPM. In this paper, an attempt is made to compare the systems described in the literature and to derive some predictions about their prospective innovation potential. Special emphasis is given to the new development of organic biodegradable microfibers. To this end, a new electronic searching algorithm is introduced for reviewing the entries to be found in 4 specific databases. Its prominent features will be described. Surprisingly we found no previous entries in the literature linking

  5. Cross-protection conferred by filovirus virus-like particles containing trimeric hybrid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Martins, Karen; Carra, John H; Cooper, Christopher L; Kwilas, Steven A; Robinson, Camenzind G; Shurtleff, Amy C; Schokman, Rowena D; Kuehl, Kathleen A; Wells, Jay B; Steffens, Jesse T; van Tongeren, Sean A; Hooper, Jay W; Bavari, Sina

    2015-02-01

    Filoviruses are causative agents of hemorrhagic fever, and to date no effective vaccine or therapeutic has been approved to combat infection. Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) is the critical immunogenic component of filovirus vaccines, eliciting high levels of antibody after successful vaccination. Previous work has shown that protection against both Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) can be achieved by vaccinating with a mixture of virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing either EBOV GP or MARV GP. In this study, the potential for eliciting effective immune responses against EBOV, Sudan virus, and MARV with a single GP construct was tested. Trimeric hybrid GPs were produced that expressed the sequence of Marburg GP2 in conjunction with a hybrid GP1 composed EBOV and Sudan virus GP sequences. VLPs expressing these constructs, along with EBOV VP40, provided comparable protection against MARV challenge, resulting in 75 or 100% protection. Protection from EBOV challenge differed depending upon the hybrid used, however, with one conferring 75% protection and one conferring no protection. By comparing the overall antibody titers and the neutralizing antibody titers specific for each virus, it is shown that higher antibody responses were elicited by the C terminal region of GP1 than by the N terminal region, and this correlated with protection. These data collectively suggest that GP2 and the C terminal region of GP1 are highly immunogenic, and they advance progress toward the development of a pan-filovirus vaccine.

  6. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  7. Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  8. Chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing shuffled multiple envelope genes confers cross-protection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Debin; Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Opriessnig, Tanja; Cao, Dianjun; Piñeyro, Pablo; Yugo, Danielle M; Overend, Christopher; Cao, Qian; Lynn Heffron, C; Halbur, Patrick G; Pearce, Douglas S; Calvert, Jay G; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    The extensive genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains is a major obstacle for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that chimeric PRRSVs in which a single envelope gene (ORF3, ORF4, ORF5 or ORF6) was shuffled via DNA shuffling had an improved heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. In this study, we incorporate all of the individually-shuffled envelope genes together in different combinations into an infectious clone backbone of PRRSV MLV Fostera(®) PRRS. Five viable progeny chimeric viruses were rescued, and their growth characteristics were characterized in vitro. In a pilot pig study, two chimeric viruses (FV-SPDS-VR2,FV-SPDS-VR5) were found to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination/challenge study in 72 pigs revealed that chimeric virus FV-SPDS-VR2 and parental virus conferred partial cross-protection when challenged with heterologous strains NADC20 or MN184B. The results have important implications for future development of an effective PRRSV vaccine that confers heterologous protection.

  9. Role of sigma B factor in the alkaline tolerance response of Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and cross-protection against subsequent ethanol and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Giotis, Efstathios S; Julotok, Mudcharee; Wilkinson, Brian J; Blair, Ian S; McDowell, David A

    2008-07-01

    Many of the considerable abilities of Listeria monocytogenes to persist and grow in a wide range of adverse environmental conditions are thought to be at least partly under the control of the alternative sigma factor (sigmaB), encoded by the sigB gene. However, little is known about the role of this master regulon in the impressive ability of Listeria to persist and grow under conditions of alkaline pH. In this study, Northern blot analysis of parent Listeria mRNA revealed that alkali adaptation (pH 9.5 for 1 h) significantly increased the expression of sigB-derived mRNA. The study included a comparison of the relative survival of mid-exponential populations of adapted and nonadapted parent type (sigmaB expressing) and mutant (not sigmaB expressing, deltasigB) Listeria strains during subsequent alkaline (pH 12.0), osmotic (25% NaCl, wt/vol), or ethanol (16.5%) stress. Alkali-adapted parent strains were more resistant to pH 12.0 than were adapted deltasigB type strains, but both alkali-adapted parent and deltasigB strains were more resistant to pH 12.0 than were nonadapted strains. Alkali-adapted parent strains were more resistant to osmotic stress than were adapted deltasigB type strains. No significant differences in viability were observed between alkali-adapted parent and deltasigB strains after ethanol stress, suggesting that cross-protection against osmotic stress is mediated by sigmaB whereas cross-protection against ethanol is sigmaB independent. Overall, alkali-induced cross-protection against osmotic and ethanol challenges may have serious implications for food safety and human health because such stress conditions are routinely used as part of food preservation and surface cleaning processes.

  10. A live attenuated human metapneumovirus vaccine strain provides complete protection against homologous viral infection and cross-protection against heterologous viral infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Shu, Zhou; Qin, Xian; Dou, Ying; Zhao, Yao; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    A live attenuated vaccine candidate strain (M2) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was generated by removing the N-linked carbohydrate at amino acid 172 in the fusion (F) protein. Previously, replication of M2 in mouse lungs could be detected by molecular assays but not by viral titration. In the present study, the protective effects of M2 against infection by homologous or heterologous viruses were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Immunization with M2 produced a high titer of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice at 4 and 8 weeks postimmunization, with the titers against the homologous virus being higher than those against the heterologous virus. Challenges at 4 and 8 weeks postinoculation with M2 or wild-type virus led to no replication when mice were challenged with a homologous virus and extremely reduced replication when mice were challenged with a heterologous virus, as determined by the detection of viral genomic RNA copies in the lungs, as well as significantly milder pulmonary pathology. Thus, M2, with only one N-linked carbohydrate removed in the F protein, provides complete protection from homologous virus infection and substantial cross-protection from heterologous virus infection for at least 56 days after inoculation. This vaccine strain may therefore be a candidate for further preclinical study. Furthermore, this attenuating strategy (changing the glycosylation of a major viral protein) may be useful in the development of other viral vaccines.

  11. Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

    2013-09-01

    Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their

  12. Protective effect of Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) on collagen glycation and cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Babu, Pon Velayutham Anandh; Gokulakrishnan, Adikesavan; Dhandayuthabani, Rajendra; Ameethkhan, Dowlath; Kumar, Chandrasekara Vimal Pradeep; Ahamed, Md Iqbal Niyas

    2007-06-01

    Modification of collagen such as non-enzymatic glycation and cross-linking plays an important role in diabetic complications and age-related diseases. We evaluate the effect of Withania somnifera on glucose-mediated collagen glycation and cross-linking in vitro. Extent of glycation, viscosity, collagen-linked fluorescence and pepsin solubility were assessed in different experimental procedures to investigate the effect of W. somnifera. Tail tendons obtained from rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 250-275 g were incubated with 50 mM glucose and 100 mg of metformin or Withania root powder or ethanolic extract of Withania under physiological conditions of temperature and pH for 30 days. Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) was measured by fluorescent method whereas the cross-linking of collagen was assessed by pepsin digestion and viscosity measurements. Tendon collagen incubated with glucose showed an increase in glycation, AGE and cross-linking of collagen. The collagen incubated with W. somnifera and metformin ameliorates these modifications. The ethanolic extract of Withania showed more prominent effect than Withania root powder. The activity of ethanolic extract of Withania is comparable to metformin, a known antiglycating agent. In conclusion, Withania could have therapeutic role in the prevention of glycation induced pathogenesis in diabetes mellitus and aging.

  13. Immune mechanisms associated with enhanced influenza A virus disease versus cross-protection in vaccinated pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) has been described in pigs vaccinated with whole-inactivated influenza virus (WIV) following infection with heterologous influenza A virus (IAV). WIV vaccination elicits production of cross-reactive, non-neutralizing antibody to the challenge I...

  14. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These crossspecies microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  15. Yersinia pestis Caf1 Protein: Effect of Sequence Polymorphism on Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, Serological Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protectivity of Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Pavel Kh.; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Ablamunits, Vitaly G.; Kombarova, Tat’yana I.; Ivanov, Sergey A.; Kadnikova, Lidiya A.; Somov, Aleksey N.; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis Caf1 is a multifunctional protein responsible for antiphagocytic activity and is a key protective antigen. It is generally conserved between globally distributed Y. pestis strains, but Y. pestis subsp. microtus biovar caucasica strains circulating within populations of common voles in Georgia and Armenia were reported to carry a single substitution of alanine to serine. We investigated polymorphism of the Caf1 sequences among other Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains, which have a limited virulence in guinea pigs and in humans. Sequencing of caf1 genes from 119 Y. pestis strains belonging to different biovars within subsp. microtus showed that the Caf1 proteins exist in three isoforms, the global type Caf1NT1 (Ala48 Phe117), type Caf1NT2 (Ser48 Phe117) found in Transcaucasian-highland and Pre-Araks natural plague foci #4–7, and a novel Caf1NT3 type (Ala48 Val117) endemic in Dagestan-highland natural plague focus #39. Both minor types are the progenies of the global isoform. In this report, Caf1 polymorphism was analyzed by comparing predicted intrinsic disorder propensities and potential protein-protein interactivities of the three Caf1 isoforms. The analysis revealed that these properties of Caf1 protein are minimally affected by its polymorphism. All protein isoforms could be equally detected by an immunochromatography test for plague at the lowest protein concentration tested (1.0 ng/mL), which is the detection limit. When compared to the classic Caf1NT1 isoform, the endemic Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 had lower immunoreactivity in ELISA and lower indices of self- and cross-protection. Despite a visible reduction in cross-protection between all Caf1 isoforms, our data suggest that polymorphism in the caf1 gene may not allow the carriers of Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 variants escaping from the Caf1NT1-mediated immunity to plague in the case of a low-dose flea-borne infection. PMID:27606595

  16. Cross-protective efficacy of recombinant transferrin-binding protein A of Haemophilus parasuis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yu; Fu, Yuguang; Ji, Yanhong; Lian, Kaiqi; Zheng, Haixue; Wei, Jianzhong; Cai, Xuepeng; Zhu, Qiyun

    2013-06-01

    The causative agent of Glasser's disease in swine is Haemophilus parasuis. Commercial bacterins are widely used for protection of the swine population. However, cross protection is limited because H. parasuis has more than 15 serovars. Transferrin-binding protein A has shown potential as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate against homologous and heterologous strains. Here we amplified the full-length tbpA gene from an H. parasuis serovar 13 isolate and cloned it into a pET-SUMO expression vector. We then expressed and purified the TbpA protein by Ni affinity chromatography. First, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the protein were evaluated in guinea pigs by two subcutaneous immunizations with different doses of Montanide IMS 206 VG adjuvant. The immunized guinea pigs were, respectively, challenged on week 3 after a booster immunization with homologous strain LJ3 (serovar 13) and heterologous strain FX1 (serovar 4), and vaccine-inoculated groups were compared with nonvaccinated controls. All immunized groups showed serum antibody titers higher than those of negative-control groups. Furthermore, the cytokine and chemokine levels were evaluated at the transcriptional level by the real-time PCR analysis of six cytokines and chemokines. Gamma interferon and interleukin-5 in groups immunized with 100 μg were elevated more than 15-fold over those in negative-control groups. The protection rates were 80 and 60% after a challenge with strains LJ3 and FX1, respectively, in the groups vaccinated with 100 μg of recombinant TbpA protein. Subsequently, the data showed that guinea pigs immunized with a single dose (100 μg) were protected at levels of 80, 80, and 60% against LJ3, FX1, and another heterologous strain, SZ (serovar 14), respectively. The results indicate for the first time that TbpA protein cross protects guinea pigs against serovars 13, 4, and 14 of H. parasuis. Taken together, these results suggest that the recombinant TbpA protein is a promising

  17. Cross-presenting CD103+ dendritic cells are protected from influenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Helft, Julie; Manicassamy, Balaji; Guermonprez, Pierre; Hashimoto, Daigo; Silvin, Aymeric; Agudo, Judith; Brown, Brian D.; Schmolke, Mirco; Miller, Jennifer C.; Leboeuf, Marylene; Murphy, Kenneth M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Merad, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are critical for viral clearance from the lungs upon influenza virus infection. The contribution of antigen cross-presentation by DCs to the induction of anti-viral cytotoxic T cells remains controversial. Here, we used a recombinant influenza virus expressing a nonstructural 1–GFP (NS1-GFP) reporter gene to visualize the route of antigen presentation by lung DCs upon viral infection in mice. We found that lung CD103+ DCs were the only subset of cells that carried intact GFP protein to the draining LNs. Strikingly, lung migratory CD103+ DCs were not productively infected by influenza virus and thus were able to induce virus-specific CD8+ T cells through the cross-presentation of antigens from virally infected cells. We also observed that CD103+ DC resistance to infection correlates with an increased anti-viral state in these cells that is dependent on the expression of type I IFN receptor. These results show that efficient cross-priming by migratory lung DCs is coupled to the acquisition of an anti-viral status, which is dependent on the type I IFN signaling pathway. PMID:23041628

  18. "Rickettsia amblyommii" induces cross protection against lethal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Lucas S; Mendell, Nicole L; Walker, David H; Bouyer, Donald H

    2014-08-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a severe illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which there is no available vaccine. We hypothesize that exposure to the highly prevalent, relatively nonpathogenic "Rickettsia amblyommii" protects against R. rickettsii challenge. To test this hypothesis, guinea pigs were inoculated with "R. amblyommii." After inoculation, the animals showed no signs of illness. When later challenged with lethal doses of R. rickettsii, those previously exposed to "R. amblyommii" remained well, whereas unimmunized controls developed severe illness and died. We conclude that "R. amblyommii" induces an immune response that protects from illness and death in the guinea pig model of RMSF. These results provide a basis for exploring the use of low-virulence rickettsiae as a platform to develop live attenuated vaccine candidates to prevent severe rickettsioses.

  19. Cross-protection provided by live Shigella mutants lacking major antigens.

    PubMed

    Szijártó, Valéria; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Eva; Emődy, Levente; Pál, Tibor; Nagy, Gábor

    2013-05-01

    The immune response elicited by Shigella infections is dominated by serotype-specific antibodies recognizing the LPS O-antigens. Although a marked antibody response to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa-s) shared by all virulent strains is also induced, the varying level of immunity elicited by natural infections is serotype-restricted. Previous vaccines have tried to mimic and achieve this serotype-specific, infection-induced immunity. As, however, the four Shigella species can express 50 different types of O-antigens, current approaches with the aim to induce a broad coverage use a mixture of the most common O-antigens combined in single vaccines. In the current study we present data on an alternative approach to generate immunity protective against multiple serotypes. Mutants lacking both major immune-determinant structures (i.e. the Ipa and O-antigens) were not only highly attenuated, but, unlike their avirulent counterparts still expressing these antigens, elicited a protective immune response to heterologous serotypes in a murine model. Evidence is provided that protection was mediated by the enhanced immunogenic potential of minor conserved antigens. Furthermore, the rough, non-invasive double mutants triggered an immune response different from that induced by the smooth, invasive strains regarding the isotype of antibodies generated. These non-invasive, rough mutants may represent promising candidates for further development into live vaccines for the prophylaxis of bacillary dysentery in areas with multiple endemic serotypes.

  20. Foetal cross-protection experiments between type 1 and type 2 bovine viral diarrhoea virus in pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Paton, D J; Sharp, G; Ibata, G

    1999-01-01

    A flock of 82 non-pregnant ewes was split into three immunisation groups and given an intranasal dose of either cell culture medium, or a type 1 or a type 2 bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV-1 or BVDV-2). Two months later the flock was reconstituted and after a further three weeks, the ewes were bred to pestivirus negative rams after synchronisation of oestrus using progesterone sponges. Fifty-five ewes were segregated into three challenge groups, each of which comprised ewes from different immunisation groups. At 7 weeks gestation, one challenge group was given an intranasal dose of cell culture medium, whilst the other two were given intranasal doses of either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2, using the same inocula as for the immunisations. Three weeks later, the ewes were killed and their foetuses tested for the presence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. The results showed that immunisation of six ewes without subsequent challenge did not lead to infection of any of their 11 foetuses. Challenge with BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 in the absence of immunisation lead to 15 out of 15 or 11 out of 14 foetuses becoming infected, respectively. Immunisation with the homologous virus to that used for challenge resulted in complete protection of 32 foetuses from 15 ewes. Heterologous protection was one way. All 12 foetuses from ewes immunised with BVDV-1 were protected from challenge with BVDV-2, whereas 18 foetuses from ewes immunised with BVDV-2 were all infected after challenge with BVDV-1. This provides evidence that a recent exposure to infection with one pestivirus does not necessarily induce foetal protection against another. The one-way result suggests that factors other than antigenic differences are involved in cross-protection.

  1. A Kinetic Modeling study on the Oxidation of Primary Reference Fuel?Toluene Mixtures Including Cross Reactions between Aromatics and Aliphatics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y; Miyoshi, A; Koshi, M; Pitz, W J

    2008-01-09

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the mixtures of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF: n-heptane and iso-octane) and toluene has been proposed. This model is divided into three parts; a PRF mechanism [T. Ogura et al., Energy & Fuels 21 (2007) 3233-3239], toluene sub-mechanism and cross reactions between PRF and toluene. Toluene sub-mechanism includes the low temperature kinetics relevant to engine conditions. A chemical kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [Proc. the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Combust. Institute (2001)] was used as a starting model and modified by updating rate coefficients. Theoretical estimations of rate coefficients were performed for toluene and benzyl radical reactions important at low temperatures. Cross-reactions between alkane, alkene, and aromatics were also included in order to account for the acceleration by the addition of toluene into iso-octane recently found in the shock tube study of the ignition delay [Y. Sakai et al, SAE 2007-01-4014 (2007)]. Validations of the model were performed with existing shock tube and flow tube data. The model well predicts the ignition characteristics of toluene and PRF/Toluene mixtures under the wide range of temperatures (500-1700 K) and pressures (2-50 atm). It is found that reactions of benzyl radical with oxygen molecule determine the reactivity of toluene at low temperature. Although the effect of toluene addition to iso-octane is not fully resolved, the reactions of alkene with benzyl radical have the possibility to account for the kinetic interactions between PRF and toluene.

  2. A novel inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine can elicit cross-protective immunity against coxsackievirus A16 in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Yajing; Li, Shuxuan; Zhao, Huan; Lin, Qiaona; Yu, Hai; Huang, Xiumin; Zheng, Qingbing; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-21

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease that mainly affects infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major pathogens of HFMD. Two EV71 vaccines were recently licensed in China and the administration of the EV71 vaccines is believed to significantly reduce the number of HFMD-related severe or fatal cases. However, a monovalent EV71 vaccine cannot cross-protect against CA16 infection, this may result in that it cannot effectively control the overall HFMD epidemic. In this study, a chimeric EV71, whose VP1/210-225 epitope was replaced by that of CA16, was constructed using a reverse genetics technique to produce a candidate EV71/CA16 bivalent vaccine strain. The chimeric EV71 was infectious and showed similar growth characteristics as its parental strain. The replacement of the VP1/210-225 epitope did not significantly affect the antigenicity and immunogenicity of EV71. More importantly, the chimeric EV71 could induce protective immunity against both EV71 and CA16, and protect neonatal mice against either EV71 or CA16 lethal infections, the chimeric EV71 constructed in this study was shown to be a feasible and promising candidate bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16. The construction of a chimeric enterovirus also provides an alternative platform for broad-spectrum HFMD vaccines development.

  3. Cross-Face Nerve Grafting with Infraorbital Nerve Pathway Protection: Anatomic and Histomorphometric Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Catapano, Joseph; Demsey, Daniel R.B.; Ho, Emily S.; Zuker, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Smiling is an important aspect of emotional expression and social interaction, leaving facial palsy patients with impaired social functioning and decreased overall quality of life. Although there are several techniques available for facial reanimation, staged facial reanimation using donor nerve branches from the contralateral, functioning facial nerve connected to a cross-face nerve graft (CFNG) is the only technique that can reliably reproduce an emotionally spontaneous smile. Although CFNGs provide spontaneity, they typically produce less smile excursion than when the subsequent free functioning muscle flap is innervated with the motor nerve to the masseter muscle. This may be explained in part by the larger number of donor motor axons when using the masseter nerve, as studies have shown that only 20% to 50% of facial nerve donor axons successfully cross the nerve graft to innervate their targets. As demonstrated in our animal studies, increasing the number of donor axons that grow into and traverse the CFNG to innervate the free muscle transfer increases muscle movement, and this phenomenon may provide patients with the benefit of improved smile excursion. We have previously shown in animal studies that sensory nerves, when coapted to a nerve graft, improve axonal growth through the nerve graft and improve muscle excursion. Here, we describe the feasibility of and our experience in translating these results clinically by coapting the distal portion of the CFNG to branches of the infraorbital nerve. PMID:27757349

  4. Cross-protection against Salmonella Typhimurium infection conferred by a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a genetically engineered live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine was evaluated for its ability to protect against Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) infection in chickens. The birds were orally primed with the vaccine on the 1st day of life and given an oral booster at 5 wk of age. Control birds were orally inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. Both groups of birds were orally challenged with a virulent ST strain at 9 wk of age. Compared with the control chickens, the vaccinated chickens had significantly higher levels of systemic IgG and mucosal IgA against specific ST antigens and a significantly greater lymphoproliferative response to ST antigens. The excretion of ST into the feces was significantly lower in the vaccinated group than in the control group on days 9 and 13 d after challenge. In addition, the vaccinated group had significantly fewer pronounced gross lesions in the liver and spleen and lower bacterial counts in the internal organs than the control group after challenge. These data indicate that genetically engineered live attenuated SE may induce humoral and cellular immune responses against ST antigens and may confer protection against virulent ST challenge.

  5. Cross-protection against Salmonella Typhimurium infection conferred by a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Nandre, Rahul M.; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a genetically engineered live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine was evaluated for its ability to protect against Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) infection in chickens. The birds were orally primed with the vaccine on the 1st day of life and given an oral booster at 5 wk of age. Control birds were orally inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. Both groups of birds were orally challenged with a virulent ST strain at 9 wk of age. Compared with the control chickens, the vaccinated chickens had significantly higher levels of systemic IgG and mucosal IgA against specific ST antigens and a significantly greater lymphoproliferative response to ST antigens. The excretion of ST into the feces was significantly lower in the vaccinated group than in the control group on days 9 and 13 d after challenge. In addition, the vaccinated group had significantly fewer pronounced gross lesions in the liver and spleen and lower bacterial counts in the internal organs than the control group after challenge. These data indicate that genetically engineered live attenuated SE may induce humoral and cellular immune responses against ST antigens and may confer protection against virulent ST challenge. PMID:25673904

  6. Cross-Protection against Lethal H5N1 Challenge in Ferrets with an Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Baras, Benoît; Stittelaar, Koert J.; Simon, James H.; Thoolen, Robert J. M. M.; Mossman, Sally P.; Pistoor, Frank H. M.; van Amerongen, Geert; Wettendorff, Martine A.; Hanon, Emmanuel; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Unprecedented spread between birds and mammals of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype has resulted in hundreds of human infections with a high fatality rate. This has highlighted the urgent need for the development of H5N1 vaccines that can be produced rapidly and in sufficient quantities. Potential pandemic inactivated vaccines will ideally induce substantial intra-subtypic cross-protection in humans to warrant the option of use, either prior to or just after the start of a pandemic outbreak. In the present study, we evaluated a split H5N1 A/H5N1/Vietnam/1194/04, clade 1 candidate vaccine, adjuvanted with a proprietary oil-in- water emulsion based Adjuvant System proven to be well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in the human (Leroux-Roels et al. (2007) The Lancet 370:580–589), for its ability to induce intra-subtypic cross-protection against clade 2 H5N1/A/Indonesia/5/05 challenge in ferrets. Methodology and Principal Findings All ferrets in control groups receiving non-adjuvanted vaccine or adjuvant alone failed to develop specific or cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies and all died or had to be euthanized within four days of virus challenge. Two doses of adjuvanted split H5N1 vaccine containing ≥1.7 µg HA induced neutralizing antibodies in the majority of ferrets to both clade 1 (17/23 (74%) responders) and clade 2 viruses (14/23 (61%) responders), and 96% (22/23) of vaccinees survived the lethal challenge. Furthermore lung virus loads and viral shedding in the upper respiratory tract were reduced in vaccinated animals relative to controls suggesting that vaccination might also confer a reduced risk of viral transmission. Conclusion These protection data in a stringent challenge model in association with an excellent clinical profile highlight the potential of this adjuvanted H5N1 candidate vaccine as an effective tool in pandemic preparedness. PMID:18167560

  7. SU-E-T-138: Automated Chart Review Module Including Cross-Vendor Data Transfer Verification Developed for IHE-RO Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, M; Gordon, C; Tien, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To follow the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise - Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO) initiative of proper cross-vendor technology integration, an automated chart checker (ACC) was developed. ACC compares extracted data from an approved patient plan in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) against data existing in the Mosaiq treatment management system (TMS). ACC automatically analyzes these parameters using built-in quality checklists to provide further aid in chart review. Methods: Eclipse TPS data are obtained using Eclipse scripting API (ESAPI) while Mosaiq TMS data are obtained from a radiotherapy-treatment-planning (RTP) file. Using this information, ACC identifies TPS-TMS discrepancies in 18 primary beam parameters including MU, energy, jaw positions, gantry angle, table angle, accessories, and bolus for up to 31 beams. Next, approximately 40 items from traditional quality checklists are evaluated such as prescription consistency, DRR graticule placement, plan approval status, global max dose, and dose tracking coefficients. Parameters were artificially modified to determine if ACC would detect an error in data transfer and to test each component of quality checklists. Results: Using ESAPI scripting and RTP file-processing, ACC was able to properly aggregate data from TPS and TMS for up to 31 beams. Errors were artificially introduced into each plan parameter, and ACC was able to successfully detect all of them within seconds. Next, ACC was able to successfully detect mistakes in the chart by identifying deviations with its quality checklists, within seconds. Conclusion: ACC effectively addresses the potential issue of faulty cross-vendor data transfer, as described by IHE-RO. In addition, ACC was also able to detect deviations from its built-in quality checklists. ACC is already an invaluable tool for efficient and standardized chart review and will continue to improve as its incorporated checklists become more comprehensive.

  8. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Odd; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Strender, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP), comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing >3 weeks. Methods One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P < 0.05). The results are shown as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR) 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6). Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2); Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3); Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4); Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2); and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8). Conclusions As most of the living conditions have previously been insufficiently studied, our findings might contribute a wider knowledge of risk factors for long-term sick-listing for NSP. As the cross-sectional design makes causal conclusions impossible, our study

  9. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies › Pets Pets Your Plan Should Include All Family Members The best way to protect your household ... Cabinet Red Cross Stories Governance Career Opportunities Military Families Disaster Relief What We Do Disaster Relief Health ...

  10. Bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and fungal uptake of external RNAs confer plant protection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Weiberg, Arne; Lin, Feng-Mao; Thomma, Bart; Huang, Hsien-Da; Jin, Hailing

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive fungal pathogens such as Botrytis and Verticillium spp. cause severe crop losses worldwide. We recently discovered that Botrytis cinerea delivers small RNAs (Bc-sRNAs) into plant cells to silence host immunity genes. Such sRNA effectors are mostly produced by B. cinerea Dicer-like protein 1 (Bc-DCL1) and Bc-DCL2. Here we show that expressing sRNAs that target Bc-DCL1 and Bc-DCL2 in Arabidopsis and tomato silences Bc-DCL genes and attenuates fungal pathogenicity and growth, exemplifying bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and sRNA trafficking between plants and fungi. This strategy can be adapted to simultaneously control multiple fungal diseases. We also show that Botrytis can take up external sRNAs and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Applying sRNAs or dsRNAs that target Botrytis DCL1 and DCL2 genes on the surface of fruits, vegetables, and flowers significantly inhibits gray mold disease. Such pathogen gene-targeting RNAs represent a new generation of environmentally-friendly fungicides. PMID:27643635

  11. Cross-protection of the Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Against Variants of Genetically Related High-Risk HPV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Ariana; Chen, Zigui; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Hildesheim, Allan; Porras, Carolina; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Panagiotou, Orestis A.; Befano, Brian; Burk, Robert D.; Schiffman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background. Results from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) demonstrated partial cross-protection by the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which targets HPV-16 and HPV-18, against HPV-31, -33, and -45 infection and an increased incidence of HPV-51 infection. Methods. A study nested within the CVT intention-to-treat cohort was designed to assess high-risk HPV variant lineage–specific vaccine efficacy (VE). The 2 main end points were (1) long-term incident infections persisting for ≥2 years and/or progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ie, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 [CIN 2/3]) and (2) incident transient infections lasting for <2 years. For efficiency, incident infections due to HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -45, and -51 resulting in persistent infection and/or CIN 2/3 were matched (ratio, 1:2) to the more-frequent transient viral infections, by HPV type. Variant lineages were determined by sequencing the upstream regulatory region and/or E6 region. Results. VEs against persistent or transient infections with HPV-16, -18, -33, -35, -45, and -51 did not differ significantly by variant lineage. As the possible exception, VEs against persistent infection and/or CIN 2/3 due to HPV-31 A/B and HPV-31C variants were −7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], −33.9% to 0%) and 86.4% (95% CI, 65.1%–97.1%), respectively (P = .02 for test of equal VE). No difference in VE was observed by variant among transient HPV-31 infections (P = .68). Conclusions. Overall, sequence variation at the variant level does not appear to explain partial cross-protection by the bivalent HPV vaccine. PMID:26518044

  12. Feasibility of reconstructed ancestral H5N1 influenza viruses for cross-clade protective vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Mariette F.; Bahl, Justin; Griffin, Yolanda; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Franks, John; Barman, Subrata; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Webb, Ashley; Guan, Yi; Webster, Robert G.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Webby, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the reemergence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in humans in 2003, these viruses have spread throughout avian species in Asia, Europe, and Africa. Their sustained circulation has resulted in the evolution of phylogenetically diverse lineages. Viruses from these lineages show considerable antigenic variation, which has confounded vaccine planning efforts. We reconstructed ancestral protein sequences at several nodes of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene phylogenies that represent ancestors to diverse H5N1 virus clades. By using the same methods that have been used to generate currently licensed inactivated H5N1 vaccines, we were able to produce a panel of replication competent influenza viruses containing synthesized HA and NA genes representing the reconstructed ancestral proteins. We identified two of these viruses that showed promising in vitro cross-reactivity with clade 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.4, and 4 viruses. To confirm that vaccine antigens derived from these viruses were able to elicit functional antibodies following immunization, we created whole-virus vaccines and compared their protective efficacy versus that of antigens from positive control, naturally occurring, and broadly reactive H5N1 viruses. The ancestral viruses’ vaccines provided robust protection against morbidity and mortality in ferrets challenged with H5N1 strains from clades 1, 2.1, and 2.2 in a manner similar to those based on the control strains. These findings provide proof of principle that viable, computationally derived vaccine seed viruses can be constructed within the context of currently licensed vaccine platforms. Such technologies should be explored to enhance the cross reactivity and availability of H5N1 influenza vaccines. PMID:21173241

  13. Cross-protective efficacy from a immunogen firstly identified in Leishmania infantum against tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Martins, V T; Lage, D P; Duarte, M C; Costa, L E; Chávez-Fumagalli, M A; Roatt, B M; Menezes-Souza, D; Tavares, C A P; Coelho, E A F

    2016-02-01

    Experimental vaccine candidates have been evaluated to prevent leishmaniasis, but no commercial vaccine has been proved to be effective against more than one parasite species. LiHyT is a Leishmania-specific protein that was firstly identified as protective against Leishmania infantum. In this study, LiHyT was evaluated as a vaccine to against two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL): Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis. BALB/c mice were immunized with rLiHyT plus saponin and lately challenged with promastigotes of the two parasite species. The immune response generated was evaluated before and 10 weeks after infection, as well as the parasite burden at this time after infection. The vaccination induced a Th1 response, which was characterized by the production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF, as well as by high levels of IgG2a antibodies, after in vitro stimulation using both the protein and parasite extracts. After challenge, vaccinated mice showed significant reductions in their infected footpads, as well as in the parasite burden in the tissue and organs evaluated, when compared to the control groups. The anti-Leishmania Th1 response was maintained after infection, being the IFN-γ production based mainly on CD4(+) T cells. We described one conserved Leishmania-specific protein that could compose a pan-Leishmania vaccine.

  14. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  15. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 marker vaccine induces cross-protection against bubaline herpesvirus type 1 in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Montagnaro, Serena; De Martinis, Claudio; Iovane, Valentina; Ciarcia, Roberto; Damiano, Sara; Nizza, Sandra; De Martino, Luisa; Iovane, Giuseppe; Pagnini, Ugo

    2014-09-01

    Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are susceptible to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and a species-specific herpesvirus, bubaline herpesvirus type 1 (BuHV-1). In this study, an attenuated marker BoHV-1 based vaccine against BuHV-1 challenge was evaluated to determine whether it induces protection from viral replication. One group of water buffalo calves was immunized with an attenuated BoHV-1 marker vaccine. A second group was not vaccinated and used as the control. During the post-vaccination period, we monitored the humoral immune response. The efficacy of the vaccine was tested after intranasal challenge of the calves with a BuHV-1 strain. The experiment showed that after vaccination, BuHV-1 replication was significantly reduced by approximately three titer points compared to the controls. The control animals showed high levels of viral shedding and mild signs associated with BuHV-1 infection. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the existence of cross-protection between BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 in buffalo calves.

  16. Lack of cross-protection against Mycoplasma haemofelis infection and signs of enhancement in "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis"-recovered cats.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Julia; Novacco, Marilisa; Willi, Barbara; Riond, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Boretti, Felicitas S; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-09-24

    "Mycoplasma haemofelis" and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" are feline hemoplasmas that induce hemolytic anemia. Protection from homologous re-challenge was recently demonstrated in cats recovered from primary infection. Here, we determined if cats recovered from "Cand. M. turicensis" infection were protected against infections with the more pathogenic M. haemofelis. Ten specified pathogen-free cats were exposed to M. haemofelis. Five of the ten cats had recovered from "Cand. M. turicensis" bacteremia (group A), and five cats were naïve controls (group B). No cross-protection was observed. By contrast, the "Cand. M. turicensis"-recovered cats displayed faster M. haemofelis infection onset (earlier PCR-positive and anemic) than the controls. No "Cand. M. turicensis" was detected in any cat. M. haemofelis shedding was observed in saliva, feces and urine. In both groups, evidence of a Th1 response was observed (high IFN-γ, low IL-4), but IL-10 levels were also high. In group A, total, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased within days after M. haemofelis exposure. At times of maximal bacteremia, macrocytic hypochromic anemia, neutropenia, monocytosis and a decrease in leukocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte counts and subsets thereof (B- and T-cells, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD25+ cells) were particularly significant in group A. Moreover, an increase in protein concentrations, hypoalbuminemia and a polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia were observed. Five of ten M. haemofelis-infected cats subsequently cleared bacteremia without antibiotic treatment. In conclusion, the study suggests that a previous hemoplasma infection, even when the cat has ostensibly recovered, may influence subsequent infections, lead to an enhancement phenomenon and other differences in infection kinetics.

  17. Cross-protective vaccine efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine against HPV31 is associated with humoral immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J.; Pan, David Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Cortes, Bernal; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiller, John T.; Gonzalez, Paula; Penrose, Kerri; Lowy, Douglas R.; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We investigated the role of antibody responses as potential mechanism for the cross-protective vaccine-efficacies (VE) observed from randomized clinical trials of the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine. Results: HPV31 cases had lower HPV16 antibody levels than controls (OR4th quartile compared with 1st quartile = 0.63; 95%CI: 0.36–1.08; p-trend = 0.03). HPV31 cases were also less likely to have detectable HPV31 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity than controls. No statistically significant differences by HPV18 antibody or HPV45 neutralization were observed among HPV45 cases and controls. Protection against HPV58 was not associated with any of the markers, confirming the specificity of our findings. Methods: Samples are from three-dose HPV vaccine recipients from the Costa Rica HPV16/18 vaccine trial. Women with a new HPV31, HPV45, or HPV58 infections over four years of follow-up were compared with randomly selected control women—with no new infection with HPV31/45/58—with respect to HPV16 and HPV18 antibody, HPV31, HPV45, and HPV58 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity. Conclusions: High HPV16 levels and avidity, and the ability to neutralize HPV31 were associated with protection against newly detected HPV31 infections, suggesting that the partial VE demonstrated for HPV31 is likely to be mediated at least in part through antibodies induced by HPV16/18 vaccination. PMID:23571174

  18. Protection from Secondary Dengue Virus Infection in a Mouse Model Reveals the Role of Serotype Cross-reactive B and T cells1,2

    PubMed Central

    Zompi, Simona; Santich, Brian H.; Beatty, P. Robert; Harris, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes cause dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Although severe disease has been associated with heterotypic secondary DENV infection, most secondary DENV infections are asymptomatic or result in classic DF. The role of cross-reactive immunity in mediating cross-protection against secondary heterotypic DENV infection is not well-understood. DENV infection of interferon-α/β and -γ receptor-deficient (AG129) mice reproduces key features of human disease. We previously demonstrated a role in cross-protection for pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies, maintained by long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). Here we use a sequential infection model, infecting AG129 mice with DENV-1 followed by DENV-2 6–8 weeks later. We find that increased DENV-specific avidity during acute secondary heterotypic infection is mediated by cross-reactive memory B cells, as evidenced by increased numbers of DENV-1-specific cells by ELISPOT and higher avidity against DENV-1 of supernatants from polyclonally-stimulated splenocytes isolated from mice experiencing secondary DENV-2 infection. However, increased DENV-specific avidity is not associated with increased DENV-specific neutralization, which appears to be mediated by naïve B cells. Adoptive transfer of DENV-1-immune B and T cells into naïve mice prior to secondary DENV-2 infection delayed mortality. Mice depleted of T cells developed signs of disease but recovered after secondary DENV infection. Overall, we found that protective cross-reactive antibodies are secreted by both LLPCs and memory B cells and that both cross-reactive B cells and T cells provide protection against a secondary heterotypic DENV infection. Understanding the protective immunity that develops naturally against DENV infection may help design future vaccines. PMID:22131327

  19. Priming Cross-Protective Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Specific Immunity Using Live-Vectored Mosaic Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xin; Waghela, Suryakant D.; Bray, Jocelyn; Njongmeta, Leo M.; Herring, Andy; Abdelsalam, Karim W.; Chase, Christopher; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2017-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy. We generated three novel mosaic polypeptide chimeras, designated NproE2123; NS231; and NS232, which incorporate protective determinants that are highly conserved among BVDV-1a, 1b, and BVDV-2 genotypes. In addition, strain-specific protective antigens from disparate BVDV strains were included to broaden coverage. We confirmed that adenovirus constructs expressing these antigens were strongly recognized by monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal sera, and IFN-γ-secreting T cells generated against diverse BVDV strains. In a proof-of-concept efficacy study, the multi-antigen proto-type vaccine induced higher, but not significantly different, IFN-γ spot forming cells and T-cell proliferation compared to a commercial MLV vaccine. In regards to the humoral response, the prototype vaccine induced higher BVDV-1 specific neutralizing antibody titers, whereas the MLV vaccine induced higher BVDV-2 specific neutralizing antibody titers. Following BVDV type 2a (1373) challenge, calves immunized with the proto-type or the MLV vaccine had lower clinical scores compared to naïve controls. These results support the hypothesis that a broadly protective subunit vaccine can be generated using mosaic polypeptides that incorporate rationally selected and validated protective determinants from diverse BVDV strains. Furthermore, regarding biosafety of using a

  20. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  1. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: Rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  2. Physiological and transcriptional responses and cross protection of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 under acid stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renhui; Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Tao, Xueying; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Acid tolerance responses (ATR) in Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 were investigated at physiological and molecular levels. A comparison of composition of cell membrane fatty acids (CMFA) between acid-challenged and unchallenged cells showed that acid adaptation evoked a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and cyclopropane fatty acids in acid-challenged than in unchallenged cells. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis in acid-adapted cells at different pH values (ranging from 3.0 to 4.0) indicated that several genes were differently regulated, including those related to proton pumps, amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and class I and class III stress response pathways. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and production of alkali was significantly upregulated. Upon exposure to pH 4.5 for 2 h, a higher survival rate (higher viable cell count) of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 was achieved following an additional challenge to 40 mM hydrogen peroxide for 60 min, but no difference in survival rate of cells was found with further challenge to heat, ethanol, or salt. Therefore, we concluded that the physiological and metabolic changes of acid-treated cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 help the cells resist damage caused by acid, and further initiated global response signals to bring the whole cell into a state of defense to other stress factors, especially hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Supplementation of H1N1pdm09 split vaccine with heterologous tandem repeat M2e5x virus-like particles confers improved cross-protection in ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Music, Nedzad; Reber, Adrian J.; Kim, Min-Chul; York, Ian A.; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines induce strain-specific immunity to the highly variable hemagglutinin (HA) protein. It is therefore a high priority to develop vaccines that induce broadly cross-protective immunity to different strains of influenza. Since influenza A M2 proteins are highly conserved among different strains, five tandem repeats of the extracellular peptide of M2 in a membrane-anchored form on virus-like particles (VLPs) have been suggested to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine. In this study, ferrets were intramuscularly immunized with 2009 H1N1 split HA vaccine (“Split”) alone, influenza split vaccine supplemented with M2e5x VLP (“Split+M2e5x”), M2e5x VLP alone (“M2e5x”), or mock immunized. Vaccine efficacy was measured serologically and by protection against a serologically distinct viral challenge. Ferrets immunized with Split+M2e5x induced HA strain specific and conserved M2e immunity. Supplementation of M2e5x VLP to split vaccination significantly increased the immunogenicity of split vaccine compared to split alone. The Split+M2e5x ferret group showed evidence of cross-reactive protection, including faster recovery from weight loss, and reduced inflammation, as inferred from changes in peripheral leukocyte subsets, compared to mock-immunized animals. In addition, ferrets immunized with Split+M2e5x shed lower viral nasal-wash titers than the other groups. Ferrets immunized with M2e5x alone also show some protective effects, while those immunized with split vaccine alone induced no protective effects compared to mock-immunized ferrets. These studies suggest that supplementation of split vaccine with M2e5x-VLP may provide broader and improved cross-protection than split vaccine alone. PMID:26709639

  4. Cross-priming of long lived protective CD8+ T cells against Trypanosoma cruzi infection: importance of a TLR9 agonist and CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Bruna C G; Araújo, Adriano F S; Penido, Marcus L O; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2007-08-10

    We recently described that vaccination of mice with a glutathione S transferase fusion protein representing amino acids 261-500 of the Amastigote Surface Protein-2 efficiently cross-primed protective CD8+ T cells against a lethal challenge with the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In this study, we initially established that this protective immunity was long lived. Subsequently, we studied the importance of TLR9 agonist CpG ODN 1826, TLR4 and CD4+ T cells for the generation of these protective CD8+ T cells. We found that: (i) the TLR9 agonist CpG ODN 1826 improved the efficiency of protective immunity; (ii) TLR4 is not relevant for priming of specific CD8+ T cells; (iii) CD4+ T cells are critical for priming of memory/protective CD8+ T cells.

  5. Gadd45a and Gadd45b protect hematopoietic cells from UV-induced apoptosis via distinct signaling pathways, including p38 activation and JNK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mamta; Gupta, Shiv Kumar; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2006-06-30

    Gadd45a, Gadd45b, and Gadd45g (Gadd45/MyD118/CR6) are genes that are rapidly induced by genotoxic stress and have been implicated in genotoxic stress-induced responses, notably in apoptosis. Recently, using myeloid-enriched bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from wild-type (WT), Gadd45a-deficient, and Gadd45b-deficient mice, we have shown that in hematopoietic cells Gadd45a and Gadd45b play a survival function to protect hematopoietic cells from DNA-damaging agents, including ultra violet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to decipher the molecular paths that mediate the survival functions of Gadd45a and Gadd45b against genotoxic stress induced by UV radiation. It is shown that in hematopoietic cells exposed to UV radiation Gaddd45a and Gadd45b cooperate to promote cell survival via two distinct signaling pathways involving activation of the GADD45a-p38-NF-kappaB-mediated survival pathway and GADD45b-mediated inhibition of the stress response MKK4-JNK pathway.

  6. Proton pump inhibitors protect mice from acute systemic inflammation and induce long-term cross-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Balza, E; Piccioli, P; Carta, S; Lavieri, R; Gattorno, M; Semino, C; Castellani, P; Rubartelli, A

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of sepsis is increasing, representing a tremendous burden for health-care systems. Death in acute sepsis is attributed to hyperinflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We report here that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which block gastric acid secretion, selectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated human monocytes in vitro, in the absence of toxic effects. Remarkably, the oversecretion of IL-1β that represents a hallmark of monocytes from patients affected by cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome is also blocked. Based on these propaedeutic experiments, we tested the effects of high doses of PPIs in vivo in the mouse model of endotoxic shock. Our data show that a single administration of PPI protected mice from death (60% survival versus 5% of untreated mice) and decreased TNF-α and IL-1β systemic production. PPIs were efficacious even when administered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. PPI-treated mice that survived developed a long-term cross-tolerance, becoming resistant to LPS- and zymosan-induced sepsis. In vitro, their macrophages displayed impaired TNF-α and IL-1β to different TLR ligands. PPIs also prevented sodium thioglycollate-induced peritoneal inflammation, indicating their efficacy also in a non-infectious setting independent of TLR stimulation. Lack of toxicity and therapeutic effectiveness make PPIs promising new drugs against sepsis and other severe inflammatory conditions. PMID:27441656

  7. Classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses confer cross protection from swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice and ferrets.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Young; Chen, Grace L; Santos, Celia; Lamirande, Elaine W; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Subbarao, Kanta

    2010-12-05

    The hemagglutinin of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus is a derivative of and is antigenically related to classical swine but not to seasonal human H1N1 viruses. We compared the A/California/7/2009 (CA/7/09) virus recommended by the WHO as the reference virus for vaccine development, with two classical swine influenza viruses A/swine/Iowa/31 (sw/IA/31) and A/New Jersey/8/1976 (NJ/76) to establish the extent of immunologic cross-reactivity and cross-protection in animal models. Primary infection with 2009 pandemic or NJ/76 viruses elicited antibodies against the CA/7/09 virus and provided complete protection from challenge with this virus in ferrets; the response in mice was variable and conferred partial protection. Although ferrets infected with sw/IA/31 virus developed low titers of cross-neutralizing antibody, they were protected from pulmonary replication of the CA/7/09 virus. The data suggest that prior exposure to antigenically related H1N1 viruses of swine-origin provide some protective immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.

  8. Lack of cross-protection against invasive pneumonia caused by heterologous strains following murine Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonisation despite whole cell ELISAs showing significant cross-reactive IgG.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan M; Wilson, Robert; Shah, Pranali; Baxendale, Helen E; Brown, Jeremy S

    2013-05-01

    Prior exposure to intact Streptococcus pneumoniae can induce a protective antibody response to proteins antigens, which prevents subsequent invasive disease. This may be achieved either by colonisation with live bacteria or by immunisation with killed cells. Such approaches could provide novel vaccine strategies that overcome the serotype restriction of conjugate vaccines, and would aim to prevent disease caused by all strains of S. pneumoniae. Serum antibody is required to prevent invasive disease, but which in vitro measure of antibody response correlates best with protective immunity has not been established for protein antigens. Using a model of homologous protection induced through D39 colonisation of CD1 mice, we investigate the potential for heterologous protection against two distinct serotype strains and its serological correlates. Serum IgG from colonised mice bound to heterologous strains in whole cell ELISA at titres similar to the homologous D39. However, no cross-protection was observed, correlating with lack of surface binding of IgG to whole bacteria as measured by flow cytometry. Serum antibody binding to pre-lysed and untreated bacteria in the whole cell ELISA was similar suggesting that ELISA does not discriminate between surface and subcapsular antigens, unlike the flow cytometric approach. Thus, flow cytometric binding to whole bacteria maybe a more reliable correlate of cross-protection for novel species-wide vaccines than whole cell ELISA.

  9. Impact of wash water quality on sensory and microbial quality, including Escherichia coli cross-contamination, of fresh-cut escarole.

    PubMed

    Allende, Ana; Selma, Maria V; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Villaescusa, Raquel; Gil, María I

    2008-12-01

    The influence of wash water quality on the microbial load and sensory quality of fresh-cut escarole was evaluated. Additionally, the degree of Escherichia coli cross-contamination between inoculated and uninoculated products after washing was also studied. Three types of wash water, i.e., potable water, diluted recirculated water, and recirculated water, containing different microbial counts and organic loads, were used. Results showed that microbial load (P > or = 0.02) and sensory quality (P > 0.625) of the product were not influenced by the water quality after washing and storage. Cross-contamination between inoculated and uninoculated products was observed after washing, as there was significant transmission of E. coli cells from the product to the wash water (P < 0.001). When fresh-cut escarole was contaminated at a high inoculum level (5.1 log CFU/g), wash water quality influenced the level of cross-contamination, as the highest E. coli load (P < 0.001) was shown in uninoculated fresh-cut escarole washed with recirculated water. However, when fresh-cut escarole was contaminated at a low inoculum level (3.2 log CFU/g), the wash water quality did not influence the level of cross-contamination, as E. coli slightly increased, although not at a statistically significant level, after the uninoculated product was washed with recirculated water (P > 0.035). Therefore, the contamination level may impact the effectiveness of water quality to reduce pathogen concentrations. It was clearly observed that cross-contamination of fresh-cut escarole with E. coli occurs, thereby suggesting that small amounts of contamination could impact the overall product and indicating the necessity of using wash water sanitizers to eliminate pathogens.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Wavelet Cross-Spectrum Analysis of Multi-Scale Disturbance Instability and Transition on Sharp Cone Hypersonic Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jian; Jiang, Nan

    2008-05-01

    Experimental measurement of hypersonic boundary layer stability and transition on a sharp cone with a half angle of 5° is carried out at free-coming stream Mach number 6 in a hypersonic wind tunnel. Mean and fluctuation surface-thermal-flux characteristics of the hypersonic boundary layer flow are measured by Pt-thin-film thermocouple temperature sensors installed at 28 stations on the cone surface along longitudinal direction. At hypersonic speeds, the dominant flow instabilities demonstrate that the growth rate of the second mode tends to exceed that of the low-frequency mode. Wavelet-based cross-spectrum technique is introduced to obtain the multi-scale cross-spectral characteristics of the fluctuating signals in the frequency range of the second mode. Nonlinear interactions both of the second mode disturbance and the first mode disturbance are demonstrated to be dominant instabilities in the initial stage of laminar-turbulence transition for hypersonic shear flow.

  11. Evaluation of Cross-Protection of a Lineage 1 West Nile Virus Inactivated Vaccine against Natural Infections from a Virulent Lineage 2 Strain in Horses, under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Papanastassopoulou, Maria; Banos, Georgios; Dovas, Chrysostomos I

    2015-09-01

    Although experimental data regarding cross-protection of horse West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines against lineage 2 infections exist, the cross-protective efficacy of these vaccines under field conditions has not been demonstrated. This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of an inactivated lineage 1 vaccine (Equip WNV) to protect against natural infections from the Nea Santa-Greece-2010 lineage 2 strain. In total, 185 WNV-seronegative horses in Thessaloniki, Greece, were selected during 2 consecutive years (2011 and 2012); 140 were immunized, and 45 were used as controls. Horses were examined for signs compatible with WNV infection. Neutralizing antibody titers against the Greek strain and the PaAn001/France lineage 1 strain were determined in immunized horses. WNV circulation was detected during both years in the study area. It was estimated that 37% and 27% of the horses were infected during 2011 and 2012, respectively. Three control animals developed clinical signs, and the WNV diagnosis was confirmed. Signs related to WNV infection were not observed in the vaccinated animals. The nonvaccinated animals had a 7.58% ± 1.82% higher chance of exhibiting signs than immunized animals (P < 0.05). Neutralizing antibodies raised against both strains in all immunized horses were detectable 1 month after the initial vaccination course. The cross-protective capacity of the lowest titer (1:40) was evident in 19 animals which were subsequently infected and did not exhibit signs. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable until the annual booster, when strong anamnestic responses were observed (geometrical mean titer ratio [GMTR] for lineage 1 of 30.2; GMTR for lineage 2 of 27.5). The results indicate that Equip WNV is capable of inducing cross-protection against natural infections from a virulent lineage 2 WNV strain in horses.

  12. Evaluation of Cross-Protection of a Lineage 1 West Nile Virus Inactivated Vaccine against Natural Infections from a Virulent Lineage 2 Strain in Horses, under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chaintoutis, Serafeim C.; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Papanastassopoulou, Maria; Banos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Although experimental data regarding cross-protection of horse West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines against lineage 2 infections exist, the cross-protective efficacy of these vaccines under field conditions has not been demonstrated. This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of an inactivated lineage 1 vaccine (Equip WNV) to protect against natural infections from the Nea Santa-Greece-2010 lineage 2 strain. In total, 185 WNV-seronegative horses in Thessaloniki, Greece, were selected during 2 consecutive years (2011 and 2012); 140 were immunized, and 45 were used as controls. Horses were examined for signs compatible with WNV infection. Neutralizing antibody titers against the Greek strain and the PaAn001/France lineage 1 strain were determined in immunized horses. WNV circulation was detected during both years in the study area. It was estimated that 37% and 27% of the horses were infected during 2011 and 2012, respectively. Three control animals developed clinical signs, and the WNV diagnosis was confirmed. Signs related to WNV infection were not observed in the vaccinated animals. The nonvaccinated animals had a 7.58% ± 1.82% higher chance of exhibiting signs than immunized animals (P < 0.05). Neutralizing antibodies raised against both strains in all immunized horses were detectable 1 month after the initial vaccination course. The cross-protective capacity of the lowest titer (1:40) was evident in 19 animals which were subsequently infected and did not exhibit signs. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable until the annual booster, when strong anamnestic responses were observed (geometrical mean titer ratio [GMTR] for lineage 1 of 30.2; GMTR for lineage 2 of 27.5). The results indicate that Equip WNV is capable of inducing cross-protection against natural infections from a virulent lineage 2 WNV strain in horses. PMID:26178384

  13. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A.

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  14. Emerging importance of mismatch repair components including UvrD helicase and their cross-talk with the development of drug resistance in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Moaz; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Human malaria is an important parasitic infection responsible for a significant number of deaths worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The recent scenario has worsened mainly because of the emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites having the potential to spread across the world. Drug-resistant parasites possess a defective mismatch repair (MMR); therefore, it is essential to explore its mechanism in detail to determine the underlying cause. Recently, artemisinin-resistant parasites have been reported to exhibit nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in MMR pathways such as MutL homolog (MLH) and UvrD. Plasmodium falciparum MLH is an endonuclease required to restore the defective MMR in drug-resistant W2 strain of P. falciparum. Although the role of helicases in eukaryotic MMR has been questioned, the identification and characterization of the UvrD helicase and their cross-talk with MLH in P. falciparum suggests the possible involvement of UvrD in MMR. A comparative genome-wide analysis revealed the presence of the UvrD helicase in Plasmodium species, while it is absent in human host. Therefore, PfUvrD may emerge as a suitable drug target to control malaria. This review study is focused on recent developments in MMR biochemistry, emerging importance of the UvrD helicase, possibility of its involvement in MMR and the emerging cross-talk between MMR components and drug resistance in malaria parasite.

  15. Method for Calculation of Laminar Heat Transfer in Air Flow Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section (including Large Temperature Differences and Transpiration Cooling)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R; Livingood, John N B

    1953-01-01

    The solution of heat-transfer problems has become vital for many aeronautical applications. The shapes of objects to be cooled can often be approximated by cylinders of various cross sections with flow normal to the axis as, for instance heat transfer on gas-turbine blades and on air foils heated for deicing purposes. A laminar region always exists near the stagnation point of such objects. A method previously presented by E. R. G. Eckert permits the calculation of local heat transfer around the periphery of cylinders of arbitrary cross section in the laminar region for flow of a fluid with constant property values with an accuracy sufficient for engineering purposes. The method is based on exact solutions of the boundary-layer equations for incompressible wedge-type flow and on the postulate that at any point on the cylinder the boundary-layer growth is the same as that on a wedge with comparable flow conditions. This method is extended herein to take into account the influence of large temperature differences between the cylinder wall and the flow as well as the influence of transpiration cooling when the same medium as the outside flow is used as coolant.

  16. Intranasal immunization with a formalin-inactivated human influenza A virus whole-virion vaccine alone and intranasal immunization with a split-virion vaccine with mucosal adjuvants show similar levels of cross-protection.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuoka, Sumiko; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Haredy, Ahmad M; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Akagi, Takami; Akashi, Mitsuru; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2012-07-01

    The antigenicity of seasonal human influenza virus changes continuously; thus, a cross-protective influenza vaccine design needs to be established. Intranasal immunization with an influenza split-virion (SV) vaccine and a mucosal adjuvant induces cross-protection; however, no mucosal adjuvant has been assessed clinically. Formalin-inactivated intact human and avian viruses alone (without adjuvant) induce cross-protection against the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. However, it is unknown whether seasonal human influenza formalin-inactivated whole-virion (WV) vaccine alone induces cross-protection against strains within a subtype or in a different subtype of human influenza virus. Furthermore, there are few reports comparing the cross-protective efficacy of the WV vaccine and SV vaccine-mucosal adjuvant mixtures. Here, we found that the intranasal human influenza WV vaccine alone induced both the innate immune response and acquired immune response, resulting in cross-protection against drift variants within a subtype of human influenza virus. The cross-protective efficacy conferred by the WV vaccine in intranasally immunized mice was almost the same as that conferred by a mixture of SV vaccine and adjuvants. The level of cross-protective efficacy was correlated with the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titer in the nasal wash and bronchoalveolar fluids. However, neither the SV vaccine with adjuvant nor the WV vaccine induced cross-reactive virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity. These results suggest that the intranasal human WV vaccine injection alone is effective against variants within a virus subtype, mainly through a humoral immune response, and that the cross-protection elicited by the WV vaccine and the SV vaccine plus mucosal adjuvants is similar.

  17. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: A new mammalian circadian oscillator model including the cAMP module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Wei; Zhou, Tian-Shou

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a new mathematical model for the mammalian circadian clock, which incorporates both transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs) and a cAMP-mediated feedback loop. The model shows that TTFLs and cAMP signalling cooperatively drive the circadian rhythms. It reproduces typical experimental observations with qualitative similarities, e.g. circadian oscillations in constant darkness and entrainment to light-dark cycles. In addition, it can explain the phenotypes of cAMP-mutant and Rev-erbα-/--mutant mice, and help us make an experimentally-testable prediction: oscillations may be rescued when arrhythmic mice with constitutively low concentrations of cAMP are crossed with Rev-erbα-/- mutant mice. The model enhances our understanding of the mammalian circadian clockwork from the viewpoint of the entire cell.

  18. Cu(I)-assisted click chemistry strategy for conjugation of non-protected cross-bridged macrocyclic chelators to tumour-targeting peptides.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhengxin; Li, Barbara T Y; Wong, Edward H; Weisman, Gary R; Anderson, Carolyn J

    2015-03-07

    Copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry has inherent challenges for copper-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. An azide-modified phosphonate-based cross-bridged macrocyclic chelator was synthesized for click chemistry conjugation with azide-modified Y3-TATE (a somatostatin analogue) on resin, without the need for protecting the chelator. The (64)Cu-labeled bioconjugate shows favourable in vitro and in vivo behaviour.

  19. rBCG30-induced immunity and cross-protection against Mycobacterium leprae challenge are enhanced by boosting with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30-kilodalton antigen 85B.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Thomas P; Tullius, Michael V; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2014-09-01

    Leprosy remains a major global health problem and typically occurs in regions in which tuberculosis is endemic. Vaccines are needed that protect against both infections and do so better than the suboptimal Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Here, we evaluated rBCG30, a vaccine previously demonstrated to induce protection superior to that of BCG against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis challenge in animal models, for efficacy against Mycobacterium leprae challenge in a murine model of leprosy. rBCG30 overexpresses the M. tuberculosis 30-kDa major secretory protein antigen 85B, which is 85% homologous with the M. leprae homolog (r30ML). Mice were sham immunized or immunized intradermally with BCG or rBCG30 and challenged 2.5 months later by injection of viable M. leprae into each hind footpad. After 7 months, vaccine efficacy was assessed by enumerating the M. leprae bacteria per footpad. Both BCG and rBCG30 induced significant protection against M. leprae challenge. In the one experiment in which a comparison between BCG and rBCG30 was feasible, rBCG30 induced significantly greater protection than did BCG. Immunization of mice with purified M. tuberculosis or M. leprae antigen 85B also induced protection against M. leprae challenge but less so than BCG or rBCG30. Notably, boosting rBCG30 with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B significantly enhanced r30ML-specific immune responses, substantially more so than boosting BCG, and significantly augmented protection against M. leprae challenge. Thus, rBCG30, a vaccine that induces improved protection against M. tuberculosis, induces cross-protection against M. leprae that is comparable or potentially superior to that induced by BCG, and boosting rBCG30 with antigen 85B further enhances immune responses and protective efficacy.

  20. Inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide™ Gel 01 ST elicits virus-specific cross-protective inter-genotypic response in piglets.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kairat; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Tulemissova, Zhanara; Tabynov, Kaissar; Dhakal, Santosh; Samoltyrova, Aigul; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay

    The efficacy of a novel BEI-inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) candidate vaccine in pigs, developed at RIBSP Republic of Kazakhstan and delivered with an adjuvant Montanide™ Gel 01 ST (D/KV/ADJ) was compared with a commercial killed PRRSV vaccine (NVDC-JXA1, C/KV/ADJ) used widely in swine herds of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Clinical parameters (body temperature and respiratory disease scores), virological and immunological profiles [ELISA and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody titers], macroscopic lung lesions and viral load in the lungs (quantitative real-time PCR and cell culture assay) were assessed in vaccinated and both genotype 1 and 2 PRRSV challenged pigs. Our results showed that the commercial vaccine failed to protect pigs adequately against the clinical disease, viremia and lung lesions caused by the challenged field isolates, Kazakh strains of PRRSV type 1 and type 2 genotypes. In contrast, clinical protection, absence of viremia and lung lesions in D/KV/ADJ vaccinated pigs was associated with generation of VN antibodies in both homologous vaccine strain LKZ/2010 (PRRSV type 2) and a heterogeneous type 1 PRRSV strain (CM/08) challenged pigs. Thus, our data indicated the induction of cross-protective VN antibodies by D/KV/ADJ vaccine, and importantly demonstrated that an inactivated PRRSV vaccine could also induce cross-protective response across the viral genotype.

  1. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-03

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  2. Substrate-Controlled Diastereoselectivity Reversal in NHC-Catalyzed Cross-Benzoin Reactions Using N-Boc-N-Bn-Protected α-Amino Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Haghshenas, Pouyan; Quail, J Wilson; Gravel, Michel

    2016-12-16

    The effectiveness of utilizing N-Bn-N-Boc-α-amino aldehydes in cross-benzoin reactions with heteroaromatic aldehydes is demonstrated. The reaction is both chemoselective and syn-selective, making it complementary to the anti-selective cross-benzoin reaction of NHBoc-α-amino aldehydes. Good diastereoselectivity is obtained for a variety of amino aldehydes, including nonhindered ones. A Felkin-Anh model can be used to rationalize the observed diastereoselectivity.

  3. o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption: syntheses and uncaging cross-sections for one- and two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Aujard, Isabelle; Benbrahim, Chouaha; Gouget, Marine; Ruel, Odile; Baudin, Jean-Bernard; Neveu, Pierre; Jullien, Ludovic

    2006-09-06

    We evaluated the o-nitrobenzyl platform for designing photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption that could be photolyzed upon one- and two-photon excitation. Several synthetic pathways to build different conjugated o-nitrobenzyl backbones, as well as to vary the benzylic position, are reported. Relative to the reference 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl group, several o-nitrobenzyl derivatives exhibit a large and red-shifted one-photon absorption within the near-UV range. Uncaging after one-photon excitation was studied by measuring UV-visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence emission on model caged ethers and esters. In the whole series investigated, the caged substrates were released cleanly upon photolysis. Quantum yields of uncaging after one-photon absorption lie within the 0.1-1 % range. We observed that these drop as the maximum wavelength absorption of the o-nitrobenzyl protecting group is increased. A new method based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) after two-photon excitation was used to measure the action uncaging cross section for two-photon excitation. The series of o-nitrobenzyl caged fluorescent coumarins investigated exhibit values within the 0.1-0.01 Goeppert-Mayer (GM) range. Such results are in line with the low quantum yields of uncaging associated with cross-sections of 1-50 GM for two-photon absorption. Although the cross-sections for one- and two-photon absorption of o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups can be readily improved, we emphasize the difficulty in enlarging the corresponding action uncaging cross-sections in view of the observed trend of their quantum yield of uncaging.

  4. Tubular bioreactor models that include Onsager-Curie scalar cross-phenomena to describe stress-dependent rates of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Belfiore, Laurence A; Karim, M Nazmul; Belfiore, Carol J

    2008-06-01

    The theory of heterogeneous catalysis in chemical reactors is employed to simulate laminar flow through tubes at large mass transfer Peclet numbers in which anchorage-dependent cells (i) adhere to a protein coating on the inner surface at r=R(wall), (ii) receive nutrients and oxygen from an aqueous medium via transverse diffusion toward the active wall, and (iii) proliferate in the presence of viscous shear at the cell/aqueous-medium interface. This process is modeled as convective diffusion in cylindrical coordinates with chemical reaction at the boundary, where chemical reaction describes the rate of nutrient consumption. The formalism of irreversible thermodynamics is employed to describe an unusual coupling between viscous shear, or velocity gradients at the cell/aqueous-medium interface, and rates of nutrient consumption. Linear transport laws in chemically reactive systems that obey Curie's theorem predict the existence of cross-phenomena between fluxes (i.e., scalar reaction rates) and driving forces (i.e., 2nd-rank velocity gradient tensor) whose tensorial ranks differ by an even integer-in this case, two. This methodology for stress-dependent chemical reactions yields an additional zeroth-order contribution, via the magnitude of the velocity gradient tensor, to heterogeneous kinetic rate expressions because nutrient consumption and cell proliferation are stress-sensitive. Computer simulations of nutrient consumption suggest that bioreactor designs should consider stress-sensitive reactions when the shear-rate-based Damköhler number (i.e., defined for the first time in this study as the stress-dependent zeroth-order rate of nutrient consumption relative to the rate of nutrient diffusion toward active cells adhered to the tube wall) is greater than 10-20% of the stress-free Damköhler number. Models of bioreactor performance are presented for simple 1st-order, simple 2nd-order, and complex chemical kinetic rate expressions, where the latter considers

  5. Effects of photoaging information and UV photo on sun protection intentions and behaviours: a cross-regional comparison.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Heike I M; Kulik, James A; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2013-01-01

    There is limited empirical evidence regarding differences in sun protection practices in different regions of the USA. This study examined whether there are regional differences in the efficacy of exposure to UV photographs and photoaging information (e.g. wrinkles and age spots) for increasing sun protection behaviours. Students attending a public university in either the Midwestern (Iowa) or Southwestern (Southern California) US reported baseline sun exposure and protection practices and were then randomly assigned to either receive information about photoaging, have a UV photo taken, both receive photoaging information and have a UV photo taken, or to receive neither intervention. Sun protection intentions were assessed immediately after the interventions, and both self-reported sun protection behaviours and an objective assessment (via spectrophotometry) of skin colour change were measured at the end of summer and one year following the interventions. The results showed a pervasive pattern of more risky UV exposure and less sun protection use at the Iowa site than at the Southern California site both prior to and following the interventions. Both interventions increased future sun protection intentions regardless of region. However, the intervention effects on skin colour and UV exposure differed across region, with generally more reliable effects at the Iowa site.

  6. A chimeric 18L1-45RG1 virus-like particle vaccine cross-protects against oncogenic alpha-7 human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Jindra, Christoph; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) types causes all cervical and a subset of other anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Four high-risk (hr) mucosal types HPV16, 18, 45, or 59 cause almost all cervical adenocarcinomas (AC), a subset of cervical cancer (CxC). Although the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has dramatically decreased following introduction of Papanicolaou (PAP) screening, the proportion of AC has relatively increased. Cervical SCC arise mainly from the ectocervix, whereas AC originate primarily from the endocervical canal, which is less accessible to obtain viable PAP smears. Licensed (bivalent and quadrivalent) HPV vaccines comprise virus-like particles (VLP) of the most important hr HPV16 and 18, self-assembled from the major capsid protein L1. Due to mainly type-restricted efficacy, both vaccines do not target 13 additional hr mucosal types causing 30% of CxC. The papillomavirus genus alpha species 7 (α7) includes a group of hr types of which HPV18, 45, 59 are proportionally overrepresented in cervical AC and only partially (HPV18) targeted by current vaccines. To target these types, we generated a chimeric vaccine antigen that consists of a cross-neutralizing epitope (homologue of HPV16 RG1) of the L2 minor capsid protein of HPV45 genetically inserted into a surface loop of HPV18 L1 VLP (18L1-45RG1). Vaccination of NZW rabbits with 18L1-45RG1 VLP plus alum-MPL adjuvant induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies against homologous HPV18, that cross-neutralized non-cognate hr α7 types HPV39, 45, 68, but not HPV59, and low risk HPV70 in vitro, and induced a robust L1-specific cellular immune response. Passive immunization protected mice against experimental vaginal challenge with pseudovirions of HPV18, 39, 45 and 68, but not HPV59 or the distantly related α9 type HPV16. 18L1-45RG1 VLP might be combined with our previously described 16L1-16RG1 VLP to develop a second generation bivalent vaccine

  7. Alcohol Consumption Has a Protective Effect against Hematological Malignancies: a Population-Based Study in Sweden Including 420,489 Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders12345

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of a few solid cancers, although studies that examined the association with hematological malignancies have shown inconsistent results. In this study, we examined the risk of hematological malignancies among individuals who had alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Sweden. METHODS: Individuals with AUDs were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of hematological malignancies, using those Swedes without AUDs as a reference. In addition, we used a quasi-experimental sibling design to investigate the odds ratios among sibling pairs who were discordant with AUDs. RESULTS: A total of 420,489 individuals were identified with AUDs. After more than 15 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 1755 individuals developed hematological malignancies demonstrating a low risk, i.e., SIR = 0.60 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.63). People with AUDs had low risks for developing specific types of malignancies. The lowest risk (0.51) was for leukemia, followed by myeloma (0.52), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.65), and Hodgkin disease (0.71). The risk was lower among AUDs identified at an older age. The low risks of hematological malignancies were also noted using sibling analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption has a protective effect against hematological malignancies. However, further studies are needed to identity the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of alcohol consumption against hematological malignancies. PMID:24783999

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis Protection Against Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in an Inner-City Outpatient Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sean B.; Kamath, Suneel; McConville, Thomas H.; Gray, Brett T.; Lowy, Franklin D.; Gordon, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) have been disproportionally affected by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and infection, in particular by clones USA300 and USA500. However, the contribution of epidemiological, bacterial, and immunological risk factors to the excess of S aureus in PLWH remain incompletely understood. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S aureus colonization in 93 PLWH attending an urban human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic. Participants completed a structured interview assessing demographic information and risk factors for MRSA. Swabs were obtained from the nose, throat, and groin and cultured for S aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Results. Most participants had well controlled HIV infection (89, 96% CD4 >200). Thirty-six (39%) individuals were colonized with S aureus at 1 or more body sites, including 6 (6%) with MRSA. Regular gym use was a risk factor for S aureus but not MRSA carriage. In contrast, S epidermidis was present in almost all individuals (n = 84, 90%), predominantly in the nares (n = 66, 71%). Using generalized estimating equation models, we observed that the odds of S aureus colonization were significantly and drastically reduced when S epidermidis was detected (P = .0001). After controlling for site, gender, and age, we identified that the odds of S aureus colonization were 80% less if S epidermidis was present (adjusted odds ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, .09–.45; P < .0001). Conclusions. Taken together, we observed a lower prevalence of S aureus and MRSA colonization than has been previously reported in PLWH. In this cohort, colonization with S epidermidis was protective against S aureus colonization. PMID:28018932

  9. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity.

    PubMed

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2010-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate crosslinker respectively, due to theirs thermosensitivity exhibit increase in protecting activity against UV radiation when heated to 45 degrees C. The MX microspheres have higher increase in terms of UV absorbance, comparing to DX microspheres, when heated in the 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C range. Studied microspheres have high potential for application as components of sun-screens used in elevated temperatures.

  10. Hydrogel microspheres for stabilization of an antioxidant enzyme: effect of emulsion cross-linking of a dual polysaccharide system on the protection of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Deh-Wei; Yu, Shu-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shin; Hsieh, Hao-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme abundant in natural resources. However, the enzyme is usually inactivated by gastric acid and digestive enzymes after oral ingestion. In this study, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate hydrogel microspheres have been prepared by an emulsion cross-linking technique to retain the activity of catalase in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Cross-linking reduced the swelling capability and increased the resistance toward hyaluronidase digestion of prepared HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres. Catalase entrapped in the hydrogel microspheres exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range (pH 2.0 and 6.0-8.0) as compared to the native enzyme. The entrapped catalase was also protected against degradation by digestive enzymes. Following the treatments, the catalase-loaded microspheres, in contrast to native catalase, could effectively decrease the intracellular H2O2 level and protect HT-29 colonic epithelial cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to preserve cell viability. These results suggested that the HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres can be used for entrapment, protection and intestinal delivery of catalase for H2O2 scavenging.

  11. Cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haixue; Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Jin, Ye; Zhu, Zixiang; Guo, Jianhong; Cao, Weijun; Liu, Huanan; He, Jijun; Zhang, Keshan; Li, Dan; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Recently, a series of outbreaks of type A FMDV occurred in Southeast Asian countries, China, the Russia Federation, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and South Korea. The FMD virus (A/GDMM/CHA/2013) from China's Guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in VP1 protein with the epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 from Wuhan, China in 2009. Both of isolates belong to the Sea-97 genotype of ASIA topotype. Therefore, the application of a new vaccine strain with cross-protective efficacy is of fundamental importance to control the spread of the two described pandemic strains. A chimeric strain rA/P1-FMDV constructed by our lab previously through replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09, has been demonstrated to exhibit good growth characteristics in culture, and the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine can provide protection against epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 in cattle. However, it is still unclear whether the vaccine produces efficient protection against the new pandemic strain (A/GDMM/CHA/2013). Here, vaccine matching and pig 50% protective dose (PD50) tests were performed to assess the vaccine potency. The vaccine matching test showed cross-reactivity of sera from full dose vaccine vaccinated pigs with A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 isolates, with average r1 values of 0.94±0.12 and 0.68±0.06 (r1≥0.3), which indicates that the rA/P1-FMDV vaccine is likely to confer good cross-protection against the two isolates. When challenged with two pandemic isolates A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 strain, the vaccine achieved 12.51 PD50 and 10.05 PD50 per dose (2.8μg), respectively. The results indicated that the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine could protect pigs against both A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 pandemic isolates.

  12. Effective treatment of glioblastoma requires crossing the blood-brain barrier and targeting tumors including cancer stem cells: The promise of nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Harford, Joe B; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Chang, Esther H

    2015-12-18

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal type of brain tumor. Both therapeutic resistance and restricted permeation of drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) play a major role in the poor prognosis of GBM patients. Accumulated evidence suggests that in many human cancers, including GBM, therapeutic resistance can be attributed to a small fraction of cancer cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been shown to have stem cell-like properties that enable them to evade traditional cytotoxic therapies, and so new CSC-directed anti-cancer therapies are needed. Nanoparticles have been designed to selectively deliver payloads to relevant target cells in the body, and there is considerable interest in the use of nanoparticles for CSC-directed anti-cancer therapies. Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine offer new possibilities for overcoming CSC-mediated therapeutic resistance and thus significantly improving management of GBM. In this review, we will examine the current nanomedicine approaches for targeting CSCs and their therapeutic implications. The inhibitory effect of various nanoparticle-based drug delivery system towards CSCs in GBM tumors is the primary focus of this review.

  13. Induction of cross-protection in mice against dolphin Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates with a swine commercial vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lacave, G; Cox, E; Hermans, J; Devriese, L; Goddeeris, B M

    2001-06-06

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is well known to cause disease in dolphins. This disease occurs either in an peracute way, leading to mortality even before clinical signs are observed or in a sub-acute way, characterized by rhomboidal skin lesions, that can be treated with penicillin or its derivatives. Commercial swine vaccines, containing inactivated serotype 2 strains, are currently used for vaccination but it is not known whether these vaccines induce protection against E. rhusiopathiae isolates from dolphins. In the present study, it was demonstrated in a mouse model that vaccination with a commercial swine vaccine (Eurovac Ery, Eurovet, Belgium) containing inactivated serotype 2 E. rhusiopathiae strains induced protection against challenge with three E. rhusiopathiae isolates from dolphins. The duration of the protection varied, depending on the challenging isolate, between 8 and >23 weeks. There was however no positive correlation between the amount of antibodies at the moment of challenge and the observed protection. In conclusion, vaccination trials in mice indicate that commercial serotype 2 swine Erysipelothrix vaccines induce protection against erysipelas caused by dolphin pathogenic isolates.

  14. Modifications of the Helper Component-Protease of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus for Generation of Attenuated Mutants for Cross Protection Against Severe Infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Shun; Wu, Hui-Wen; Jan, Fuh-Jyh; Hou, Roger F; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2007-03-01

    ABSTRACT A nonpathogenic mild strain is essential for control of plant viruses by cross protection. Three amino acid changes, Arg(180)-->Ile(180) (GA mutation), Phe(205)-->Leu(205) (GB mutation), and Glu(396)-->Asn(396) (GC mutation), of the conserved motifs of the helper component-protease (HC-Pro) of a severe strain TW-TN3 of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus, were generated from an infectious cDNA clone that carried a green fluorescent protein reporter. The infectivity of individual mutants containing single, double, or triple mutations was assayed on local and systemic hosts. On Chenopodium quinoa plants, the GB mutant induced necrotic lesions; the GA, GC, and GBC mutants induced chlorotic spots; and the GAB and GAC mutants induced local infection only visualized by fluorescence microscopy. On squash plants, the GA, GB, GC, and GBC mutants caused milder mosaic; the GAC mutant induced slight leaf mottling followed by recovering; and the GAB mutant did not induce conspicuous symptoms. Also, the GAC mutant, but not the GAB mutant, conferred complete cross protection against the parental virus carrying a mite allergen as a reporter. When tested on transgene-silenced transgenic squash, the ability of posttranscriptional gene silencing suppression of the mutated HC-Pro of GAC was not significantly affected. We concluded that the mutations of the HC-Pro of ZYMV reduce the degrees of pathogenicity on squash and also abolish the ability for eliciting the hypersensitive reaction on C. quinoa, and that the mutant GAC is a useful mild strain for cross protection.

  15. Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Wu, Yun; Lee, Ly James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1–Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-γ+ lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible. PMID:24493925

  16. A microacoustic analysis including viscosity and thermal conductivity to model the effect of the protective cap on the acoustic response of a MEMS microphone

    PubMed Central

    Homentcovschi, D.; Miles, R. N.; Loeppert, P. V.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the effect of the protective cover on the acoustic response of a miniature silicon microphone. The microphone diaphragm is contained within a small rectangular enclosure and the sound enters through a small hole in the enclosure's top surface. A numerical model is presented to predict the variation in the sound field with position within the enclosure. An objective of this study is to determine up to which frequency the pressure distribution remains sufficiently uniform so that a pressure calibration can be made in free space. The secondary motivation for this effort is to facilitate microphone design by providing a means of predicting how the placement of the microphone diaphragm in the package affects the sensitivity and frequency response. While the size of the package is typically small relative to the wavelength of the sounds of interest, because the dimensions of the package are on the order of the thickness of the viscous boundary layer, viscosity can significantly affect the distribution of sound pressure around the diaphragm. In addition to the need to consider viscous effects, it is shown here that one must also carefully account for thermal conductivity to properly represent energy dissipation at the system's primary acoustic resonance frequency. The sound field is calculated using a solution of the linearized system consisting of continuity equation, Navier-Stokes equations, the state equation and the energy equation using a finite element approach. The predicted spatial variation of both the amplitude and phase of the sound pressure is shown over the range of audible frequencies. Excellent agreement is shown between the predicted and measured effects of the package on the microphone's sensitivity. PMID:24701031

  17. A microacoustic analysis including viscosity and thermal conductivity to model the effect of the protective cap on the acoustic response of a MEMS microphone.

    PubMed

    Homentcovschi, D; Miles, R N; Loeppert, P V; Zuckerwar, A J

    2014-02-01

    An analysis is presented of the effect of the protective cover on the acoustic response of a miniature silicon microphone. The microphone diaphragm is contained within a small rectangular enclosure and the sound enters through a small hole in the enclosure's top surface. A numerical model is presented to predict the variation in the sound field with position within the enclosure. An objective of this study is to determine up to which frequency the pressure distribution remains sufficiently uniform so that a pressure calibration can be made in free space. The secondary motivation for this effort is to facilitate microphone design by providing a means of predicting how the placement of the microphone diaphragm in the package affects the sensitivity and frequency response. While the size of the package is typically small relative to the wavelength of the sounds of interest, because the dimensions of the package are on the order of the thickness of the viscous boundary layer, viscosity can significantly affect the distribution of sound pressure around the diaphragm. In addition to the need to consider viscous effects, it is shown here that one must also carefully account for thermal conductivity to properly represent energy dissipation at the system's primary acoustic resonance frequency. The sound field is calculated using a solution of the linearized system consisting of continuity equation, Navier-Stokes equations, the state equation and the energy equation using a finite element approach. The predicted spatial variation of both the amplitude and phase of the sound pressure is shown over the range of audible frequencies. Excellent agreement is shown between the predicted and measured effects of the package on the microphone's sensitivity.

  18. Successful induction of protective antibody responses against Haemophilus influenzae type b and diphtheria after transcutaneous immunization with the glycoconjugate polyribosyl ribitol phosphate-cross-reacting material 197 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Peyre, Marisa; Beignon, Anne-Sophie; Frost, Laura; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino; Muller, Sylviane; Sesardic, Dorothea; Partidos, Charalambos D

    2004-09-15

    We examined the antibody responses elicited in rats after transcutaneous immunization (TCI) with the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) glycoconjugate vaccine coadministered with cholera toxin or mutants of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTK63 and LTR72) as adjuvants. The glycoconjugate vaccine was immunogenic, eliciting high antibody responses to the capsular polysaccharide of Hib and to diphtheria toxin. Passively transferred immune serum protected infant rats against challenge with the Hib Eagan strain and exhibited strong neutralizing activity against diphtheria toxin both in vitro and in vivo. The finding that TCI of rats can elicit antibody responses surpassing the minimum levels required for protective immunity against Hib and diphtheria suggests that this immunization strategy holds a lot of promise for future pediatric use. However, further studies are required to confirm the potential of TCI with glycoconjugate vaccines in humans.

  19. Cross protection against fowl cholera disease with the use of recombinant Pasteurella multocida FHAB2 peptides vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that fhaB2 (filamentous hemagglutinin) is an important virulence factor for P. multocida in development of fowl cholera disease and that recombinant FHAB2 peptides derived from P. multocida, Pm-1059, protect turkeys against Pm-1059 challenge. To test the hypothesis that rFHA...

  20. Informing Food Protection Education: A Project to Define and Classify Resources for a Cross-Disciplinary Expert Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; Pierquet, Jennifer; McClellan, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the September 2001 attacks, the U.S. government founded the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with responsibility to develop a National Infrastructure Protection Plan for securing critical infrastructures and key resources. DHS established interdisciplinary networks of academic expertise administered through Centers of…

  1. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and its majority compound 1,8-cineole at sublethal amounts induce no direct and cross protection in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538.

    PubMed

    Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Luz, Isabelle da Silva; Tavares, Adassa Gama; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the inhibitory efficacy of Rosmarinus officinalis essential L. (ROEO) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) in inhibiting the growth and survival of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and the induction of direct and bacterial cross protection (lactic acid pH 5.2; NaCl 100 g/L; high temperature 45°C) were evaluated following exposure to sublethal and increasing amounts of these treatments in meat broth. All of the concentrations of the ROEO and CIN examined in this study (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], 1/2 MIC, and 1/4 MIC) inhibited the viability of S. aureus throughout the 120 min of exposure. The overnight exposure of S. aureus to sublethal amounts of both ROEO or CIN in meat broth did not result in direct or cross protection. Cells progressively subcultured (24-h cycles) in meat broth with increasing amounts of ROEO or CIN showed no increased direct tolerance. These results reveal the antimicrobial efficacy of ROEO and CIN for use in food conservation systems as anti-S. aureus compounds given their efficacy at inhibiting bacterial growth, in addition to their lack of induction for the development of homologous and heterologous resistance.

  2. Cross-protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mediated by a CD4+ T-cell clone specific for an envelope glycoprotein epitope of Lassa virus.

    PubMed Central

    La Posta, V J; Auperin, D D; Kamin-Lewis, R; Cole, G A

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the Lassa virus (LV) envelope glycoprotein precursor, V-LSGPC, was used to study the basis of LV-induced cross-protective immunity against the closely related arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). C3H/HeJ mice primed with V-LSGPC developed neither circulating antibodies nor CD8+ cytotoxic T cells specific for LCMV, yet they resisted a normally lethal LCMV challenge. Spleen cells from such mice gave a proliferative response to LCMV in vitro that was inhibitable by anti-CD4 antibody. Synthetic peptides corresponding to predicted T-cell sites common to the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GP-C) of LV and that of LCMV were used to map the specificity of the proliferative response to an epitope located between amino acids 403 and 417 of LV GP-C. Several CD4+ T-cell clones specific for the 403-417 peptide were isolated and found to produce gamma interferon in response to both the peptide and LCMV. One of these clones, C9, was selected for further study. C9 lysed I-AK-bearing target cells, and when adoptively transferred to C3H/HeJ mice, it was capable of mediating both a peptide-specific delayed hypersensitivity reaction and resistance to lethal LCMV challenge. These collective findings demonstrate, for the first time, that CD4+ T cells can play a major role in arenavirus-specific cross-protective immunity. PMID:7684468

  3. Toll-like receptor 2- and 6-mediated stimulation by macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 induces lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cross tolerance in mice, which results in protection from tumor necrosis factor alpha but in only partial protection from lethal LPS doses.

    PubMed

    Deiters, Ursula; Gumenscheimer, Marina; Galanos, Chris; Mühlradt, Peter F

    2003-08-01

    Patients or experimental animals previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) become tolerant to further LPS challenge. We investigated the potential of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) to induce in vivo cross tolerance to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and LPS. MALP-2-induced tolerance could be of practical interest, as MALP-2 proved much less pyrogenic in rabbits than LPS. Whereas LPS signals via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MALP-2 uses TLR2 and TLR6. LPS-mediated cytokine release was studied in mice pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of MALP-2. No biologically active TNF-alpha could be detected in the serum of MALP-2-treated animals when challenged with LPS 24 or 72 h later, whereas suppression of LPS-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 lasted for only 24 h. Protection from lethal TNF-alpha shock was studied in galactosamine-treated mice. Dose dependently, MALP-2 prevented death from lethal TNF-alpha doses in TLR4(-/-) but not in TLR2(-/-) mice, with protection lasting from 5 to 24 h. To assay protection from LPS, mice were pretreated with MALP-2 doses of up to 10 micro g. Five and 24 h later, the animals were simultaneously sensitized and challenged by intravenous coinjection of galactosamine and a lethal dose of 50 ng of LPS. There was only limited protection (four of seven mice survived) when mice were challenged 5 h after MALP-2 pretreatment, and no protection when mice were challenged at later times. The high effectiveness of MALP-2 in suppressing TNF-alpha, the known ways of biological inactivation, and low pyrogenicity make MALP-2 a potential candidate for clinical use.

  4. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens.

  5. Immunogenicity and Cross Protection in Mice Afforded by Pandemic H1N1 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Containing Wild-Type Nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Isakova-Sivak, Irina; Petukhova, Galina; Korenkov, Daniil; Losev, Igor; Smolonogina, Tatiana; Tretiak, Tatiana; Donina, Svetlana; Shcherbik, Svetlana; Bousse, Tatiana; Rudenko, Larisa

    2017-01-01

    Since conserved viral proteins of influenza virus, such as nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 protein, are the main targets for virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), we hypothesized that introduction of the NP gene of wild-type virus into the genome of vaccine reassortants could lead to better immunogenicity and afford better protection. This paper describes in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies of two new reassortants of pandemic H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidates. One had the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/South Africa/3626/2013 H1N1 wild-type virus on the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus backbone (6 : 2 formulation) while the second had the HA, NA, and NP genes of the wild-type virus on the same backbone (5 : 3 formulation). Although both LAIVs induced similar antibody immune responses, the 5 : 3 LAIV provoked greater production of virus-specific CTLs than the 6 : 2 variant. Furthermore, the 5 : 3 LAIV-induced CTLs had higher in vivo cytotoxic activity, compared to 6 : 2 LAIV. Finally, the 5 : 3 LAIV candidate afforded greater protection against infection and severe illness than the 6 : 2 LAIV. Inclusion in LAIV of the NP gene from wild-type influenza virus is a new approach to inducing cross-reactive cell-mediated immune responses and cross protection against pandemic influenza. PMID:28210631

  6. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  7. Comparative studies of infectivity, immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccines containing nucleoprotein from cold-adapted or wild-type influenza virus in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Isakova-Sivak, Irina; Korenkov, Daniil; Smolonogina, Tatiana; Tretiak, Tatiana; Donina, Svetlana; Rekstin, Andrey; Naykhin, Anatoly; Shcherbik, Svetlana; Pearce, Nicholas; Chen, Li-Mei; Bousse, Tatiana; Rudenko, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to improve an existing live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) by including nucleoprotein (NP) from wild-type virus rather than master donor virus (MDV). H7N9 LAIV reassortants with 6:2 (NP from MDV) and 5:3 (NP from wild-type virus) genome compositions were compared with regard to their growth characteristics, induction of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and ability to protect mice against homologous and heterologous challenge viruses. Although, in general, the 6:2 reassortant induced greater cell-mediated immunity in C57BL6 mice than the 5:3 vaccine, mice immunized with the 5:3 LAIV were better protected against heterologous challenge. The 5:3 LAIV-induced CTLs also had better in vivo killing activity against target cells loaded with the NP366 epitope of recent influenza viruses. Modification of the genome of reassortant vaccine viruses by incorporating the NP gene from wild-type viruses represents a simple strategy to improve the immunogenicity and cross-protection of influenza vaccines. PMID:27829176

  8. Satellite tobacco mosaic virus sequence variants with only five Nucleotide differences can interfere with each other in a cross protection-like phenomenon in plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Dodds, J. Allan

    1994-01-01

    The type strain of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) contains two major variants, designated type 5 (T5) and type 6 (T6), which can be easily distinguished by RNase protection analyses. Clones containing cDNA of representative T5 and T6 STMV genomes have only five single-base differences in the entire 1059-nucleotide genome, and RNA transcribed from each clone is highly infectious when inoculated onto tobacco plants. The different RNase protection assay patterns can be used as genetic markers to identify individual STMV variants and to follow the interactions of variants and their progeny during coinfections in plants. The study described here investigated the effects of coinoculation and various delayed inoculations of T5 and T6 variants on the composition of the progeny STMV populations in systemically infected tobacco tissues. When T5 and T6 STMV RNAs were coinoculated or inoculated with 1-hr delays, the progeny from individual plants most often contained a mixture of T5 and T6 genomes. However, when there was a 24-hr delay between inoculations, the balance of T5 and T6 components in the progeny populations shifted toward predominance of the first variant inoculated. With delays of 3 or 7 days only the first variant was evident in the progeny populations, indicating that established replication of one STMV variant interferes with replication of another in a manner similar to the cross protection phenomenon.

  9. Microneedle delivery of an M2e-TLR5 ligand fusion protein to skin confers broadly cross-protective influenza immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Zhong; Gill, Harvinder S; He, Cheng; Ou, Changbo; Wang, Li; Wang, Ying-Chun; Feng, Hao; Zhang, Han; Prausnitz, Mark R; Compans, Richard W

    2014-03-28

    Influenza vaccines with broad cross-protection are urgently needed to prevent an emerging influenza pandemic. A fusion protein of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5-agonist domains from flagellin and multiple repeats of the conserved extracellular domain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) was constructed, purified and evaluated as such a vaccine. A painless vaccination method suitable for possible self-administration using coated microneedle arrays was investigated for skin-targeted delivery of the fusion protein in a mouse model. The results demonstrate that microneedle immunization induced strong humoral as well as mucosal antibody responses and conferred complete protection against homo- and heterosubtypic lethal virus challenges. Protective efficacy with microneedles was found to be significantly better than that seen with conventional intramuscular injection, and comparable to that observed with intranasal immunization. Because of its advantages for administration, safety and storage, microneedle delivery of M2e-flagellin fusion protein is a promising approach for an easy-to-administer universal influenza vaccine.

  10. Brominated 7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyls: Photolabile protecting groups with biologically useful cross-sections for two photon photolysis

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Toshiaki; Wang, Samuel S.-H.; Dantzker, Jami L.; Dore, Timothy M.; Bybee, Wendy J.; Callaway, Edward M.; Denk, Winfried; Tsien, Roger Y.

    1999-01-01

    Photochemical release (uncaging) of bioactive messengers with three-dimensional spatial resolution in light-scattering media would be greatly facilitated if the photolysis could be powered by pairs of IR photons rather than the customary single UV photons. The quadratic dependence on light intensity would confine the photolysis to the focus point of the laser, and the longer wavelengths would be much less affected by scattering. However, previous caged messengers have had very small cross sections for two-photon excitation in the IR region. We now show that brominated 7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyl esters and carbamates efficiently release carboxylates and amines on photolysis, with one- and two-photon cross sections up to one or two orders of magnitude better than previously available. These advantages are demonstrated on neurons in brain slices from rat cortex and hippocampus excited by glutamate uncaged from N-(6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethoxycarbonyl)-l-glutamate (Bhc-glu). Conventional UV photolysis of Bhc-glu requires less than one-fifth the intensities needed by one of the best previous caged glutamates, γ-(α-carboxy-2-nitrobenzyl)-l-glutamate (CNB-glu). Two-photon photolysis with raster-scanned femtosecond IR pulses gives the first three-dimensionally resolved maps of the glutamate sensitivity of neurons in intact slices. Bhc-glu and analogs should allow more efficient and three-dimensionally localized uncaging and photocleavage, not only in cell biology and neurobiology but also in many technological applications. PMID:9990000

  11. Cross-Reactive Protection against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection by Enteropathogenic E. coli in a Mouse Model ▿

    PubMed Central

    Calderon Toledo, Carla; Arvidsson, Ida; Karpman, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are related attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. The genes responsible for the A/E pathology are carried on a chromosomal pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Both pathogens share a high degree of homology in the LEE and additional O islands. EHEC prevalence is much lower in areas where EPEC is endemic. This may be due to the development of antibodies against common EPEC and EHEC antigens. This study investigated the hypothesis that EPEC infections may protect against EHEC infections. We used a mouse model to inoculate BALB/c mice intragastrically, first with EPEC and then with EHEC (E. coli O157:H7). Four control groups received either a nonpathogenic E. coli (NPEC) strain followed by EHEC (NPEC/EHEC), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) followed by EHEC (PBS/EHEC), EPEC/PBS, or PBS/PBS. Mice were monitored for weight loss and symptoms. EPEC colonized the intestine after challenge, and mice developed serum antibodies to intimin and E. coli secreted protein B (encoded in the LEE). Prechallenge with an EPEC strain had a protective effect after EHEC infection, as only a few mice developed mild symptoms, from which they recovered. These mice had an increase in body weight similar to that in control animals, and tissue morphology exhibited mild intestinal changes and normal renal histology. All mice that were not prechallenged with the EPEC strain developed mild to severe symptoms after EHEC infection, with weight loss as well as intestinal and renal histopathological changes. These data suggest that EPEC may protect against EHEC infection in this mouse model. PMID:21402761

  12. Evaluation of the antigenic relatedness and cross-protective immunity of the neuraminidase between human influenza A (H1N1) virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuhua; Liu, Feng; Zeng, Hui; Sheu, Tiffany; Achenbach, Jenna E; Veguilla, Vic; Gubareva, Larisa V; Garten, Rebecca; Smith, Catherine; Yang, Hua; Stevens, James; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2014-04-01

    To determine the genetic and antigenic relatedness as well as the cross-protective immunity of human H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza virus neuraminidase (NA), we immunized rabbits with either a baculovirus-expressed recombinant NA from A/Beijing/262/95 (BJ/262) H1N1 or A/Hong Kong/483/97 (HK/483) H5N1 virus. Cross-reactive antibody responses were evaluated by multiple serological assays and cross-protection against H5N1 virus challenge was evaluated in mice. In a neuraminidase inhibition (NI) test, the antisera exhibited substantial inhibition of NA activity of the homologous virus, but failed to inhibit the NA activity of heterologous virus. However, these antisera exhibited low levels of cross-reactivity measured by plaque size reduction, replication inhibition, single radial hemolysis, and ELISA assays. Passive immunization with HK/483 NA-specific antisera significantly reduced virus replication and disease, and afforded almost complete protection against lethal homologous virus challenge in mice. However, passive immunization with BJ/262 (H1N1) NA-specific antisera was ineffective at providing cross-protection against lethal H5N1 virus challenge and only slightly reduced weight loss. Substantial amino acid variation among the NA antigenic sites was observed between BJ/262 and HK/483 virus, which was consistent with the lack of cross-reactive NI activity by the antibody and limited cross-protective immunity in mice. These results show a strong correlation between the lack of cross-protective immunity and low structural similarities of NA from a human seasonal H1N1 virus and an avian H5N1 influenza virus.

  13. Protection against Lethal Enterovirus 71 Challenge in Mice by a Recombinant Vaccine Candidate Containing a Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Epitope within the VP2 EF Loop

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Li, Zhiqun; Zheng, Jun; Yang, Lisheng; Yu, Miao; Yu, Hai; Chen, Yixin; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with several severe neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. Here, we evaluated that while passive transfer of neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMAb) against the VP2 protein protect against lethal EV71 infection in BALB/c mice. Protective nMAb were mapped to residues 141-155 of VP2 by peptide ELISA. High-resolution structural analysis showed that the epitope is part of the VP2 EF loop, which is the “puff” region that forms the “southern rim” of the canyon. Moreover, a three-dimensional structural characterization for the puff region with prior neutralizing epitopes and receptor-binding sites that can serve to inform vaccine strategies. Interestingly, using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, we demonstrated that the cross-neutralizing EV71 antibodies were induced, and the VP2 epitope immunized mice serum also conferred 100% in vivo passive protection. The mechanism of in vivo protection conferred by VP2 nMAb is in part attributed to the in vitro neutralizing titer and ability to bind authentic viral particles. Importantly, the anti-VP2(aa141-155) antibodies could inhibit the binding of human serum to EV71 virions showed that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant. Collectively, our results suggest that a broad-spectrum vaccine strategy targeting the high-affinity epitope of VP2 EF loop may elicits effective immune responses against EV71 infection. PMID:24669278

  14. Protection against lethal enterovirus 71 challenge in mice by a recombinant vaccine candidate containing a broadly cross-neutralizing epitope within the VP2 EF loop.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Li, Zhiqun; Zheng, Jun; Yang, Lisheng; Yu, Miao; Yu, Hai; Chen, Yixin; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with several severe neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. Here, we evaluated that while passive transfer of neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMAb) against the VP2 protein protect against lethal EV71 infection in BALB/c mice. Protective nMAb were mapped to residues 141-155 of VP2 by peptide ELISA. High-resolution structural analysis showed that the epitope is part of the VP2 EF loop, which is the "puff" region that forms the "southern rim" of the canyon. Moreover, a three-dimensional structural characterization for the puff region with prior neutralizing epitopes and receptor-binding sites that can serve to inform vaccine strategies. Interestingly, using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, we demonstrated that the cross-neutralizing EV71 antibodies were induced, and the VP2 epitope immunized mice serum also conferred 100% in vivo passive protection. The mechanism of in vivo protection conferred by VP2 nMAb is in part attributed to the in vitro neutralizing titer and ability to bind authentic viral particles. Importantly, the anti-VP2(aa141-155) antibodies could inhibit the binding of human serum to EV71 virions showed that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant. Collectively, our results suggest that a broad-spectrum vaccine strategy targeting the high-affinity epitope of VP2 EF loop may elicits effective immune responses against EV71 infection.

  15. Cross-protective efficacy of Leishmania infantum LiHyD protein against tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis species.

    PubMed

    Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Tavares, Grasiele de Sousa Vieira; Ramos, Fernanda Fonseca; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Vaccination can be considered the most cost-effective strategy to control neglected diseases, but nowadays there is not an effective vaccine available against leishmaniasis. In the present study, a vaccine based on the combination of the Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHyD) with saponin was tested in BALB/c mice against infection caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis species. This antigen was firstly identified in Leishmania infantum and showed to be protective against infection of BALB/c mice using this parasite species. The immunogenicity of rLiHyD/saponin vaccine was evaluated, and the results showed that immunized mice produced high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with rLiHyD, as well as by using L. major or L. braziliensis protein extracts. After challenge, vaccinated animals showed significant reductions in the infected footpad swellings, as well as in the parasite burden in the infection site, liver, spleen, and infected paws draining lymph nodes, when compared to those that were inoculated with the vaccine diluent (saline) or immunized with saponin. The immunization of rLiHyD without adjuvant was not protective against both challenges. The partial protection obtained by the rLiHyD/saponin vaccine was associated with a parasite-specific IL-12-dependent IFN-γ secretion, which was produced mainly by CD4(+) T cells. In these animals, a decrease in the parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, associated with the presence of high levels of LiHyD- and parasite-specific IgG2a isotype antibodies, were also observed. The present study showed that a hypothetical protein that was firstly identified in L. infantum, when combined to a Th1 adjuvant, was able to confer a cross-protection against highly infective stationary-phase promastigotes of two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis.

  16. Concurrent and cross-season protection of inactivated influenza vaccine against A(H1N1)pdm09 illness among young children: 2012-2013 case-control evaluation of influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chuanxi; Xu, Jianxiong; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Ming; Li, Kuibiao; Ge, Jing; Thompson, Mark G

    2015-06-09

    In 2012-2013, we examined 1729 laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza cases matched 1:1 with healthy controls and estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) to be 67% (95% confidence interval=58-74%) for ages 8 months to 6 years old. Among children aged 8-35 months old, VE for fully vaccinated children (73%, 60-81%) was significantly higher than VE for partially vaccinated children (55%, 33-70%). Significant cross-season protection from prior IIV3 was noted, including VE of 31% (8-48%) from IIV3 received in 2010-2011 against influenza illness in 2012--2013 without subsequent boosting doses.

  17. Human rights protections and HIV prevalence among MSM who sell sex: Cross-country comparisons from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Catherine E; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-03-15

    Laws and policies can affect the HIV risk of key populations through a number of direct and indirect pathways. We investigated the association between HIV prevalence among men who engage in transactional sex and language in the penal code protecting sexual minorities, including men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers. HIV prevalence among men who engage in transactional sex was assessed through meta-analysis of published literature and country surveillance reports. Meta-regression was used to determine the association between HIV prevalence and protective laws for sexual minorities and sex workers. Sixty-six reports representing 28 countries and 31,924 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Controlling for multiple study- and country-level variables, legal protection for sexual minorities was associated with a 10.9% (95% CI: 3.8-18.0%) and sex workers associated with a 7.0% (95% CI: 1.3-12.8%) decrease in country-level HIV prevalence among men who engage in transactional sex. Laws that seek to actively protect sex workers and MSM may be necessary to decrease HIV risk for this key population.

  18. Protection of a Single Dose West Nile Virus Recombinant Subviral Particle Vaccine against Lineage 1 or 2 Strains and Analysis of the Cross-Reactivity with Usutu Virus

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Cañas-Arranz, Rodrigo; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus. High WNV virulence was mainly associated with lineage 1 strains, but recent outbreaks have unveiled circulation of highly virulent lineage 2 strains. Co-expression of flavivirus prM and E glycoproteins drives the assembly of recombinant subviral particles (RSPs) that share antigenic features with virions. Mouse immunization with lineage 1 WNV RSPs induced a potent humoral response against WNV with production of neutralizing antibodies. A single inoculation of RSPs formulated with Al(OH)3 as adjuvant protected mice against a lethal challenge with WNV strains from lineage 1 or 2. The cross-reactivity of the response elicited by these RSPs was analyzed against the related flavivirus Usutu virus (USUV), which shares multiple ecological and antigenic features with WNV. Immunization with WNV-RSPs increased specific, although low, antibody titers found upon subsequent USUV infection. PMID:25229345

  19. A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2012-08-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

  1. Identifying protective host gene expression signatures within the spleen during West Nile virus infection in the collaborative cross model.

    PubMed

    Green, Richard; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Sekine, Aimee; Ireton, Renee C; Ferris, Martin T; Hendrick, Duncan M; Voss, Kathleen; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Baric, Ralph; Heise, Mark; Gale, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Flaviviruses are hematophagous arthropod-viruses that pose global challenges to human health. Like Zika virus, West Nile Virus (WNV) is a flavivirus for which no approved vaccine exists [1]. The role host genetics play in early detection and response to WNV still remains largely unexplained. In order to capture the impact of genetic variation on innate immune responses, we studied gene expression following WNV infection using the collaborative cross (CC). The CC is a mouse genetics resource composed of hundreds of independently bred, octo-parental recombinant inbred mouse lines [2]. To accurately capture the host immune gene expression signatures of West Nile infection, we used the nanostring platform to evaluate expression in spleen tissue isolated from CC mice infected with WNV over a time course of 4, 7, and 12 days' post-infection [3]. Nanostring is a non-amplification based digital method to quantitate gene expression that uses color-coded molecular barcodes to detect hundreds of transcripts in a sample. Using this approach, we identified unique gene signatures in spleen tissue at days 4, 7, and 12 following WNV infection, which delineated distinct differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic CC lines. We also identified novel immune genes. Data was deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession GSE86000.

  2. Development of a vaccine of cross-linked heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins that protects against Escherichia coli producing either enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Klipstein, F A; Engert, R F; Clements, J D

    1982-01-01

    A vaccine of cross-linked heat-stable (ST) and heat-labile (LT) toxins that protects against heterologous serotypes of strains of Escherichia coli which produce either the LT or ST enterotoxin was developed by conjugating ST to LT by the carbodiimide reaction. Three interrelated factors were found to affect the composition and properties of the final conjugate: (i) the amount of carbodiimide added to the toxins, (ii) the initial ratio of ST to LT, and (iii) the duration of the conjugation reaction. Optimal conjugation conditions were identified as a carbodiimide-to-toxin ratio of 10:1 by weight, an initial molar ratio of ST to LT of 100:1, and a conjugation reaction time of 96 h. This approach yielded a conjugate that contained 96% by moles and 36% by weight pure ST, determined with radioiodinated pure ST, and 34% by weight semi-pure ST, determined by the Lowry protein method. The retained antigenicities of the conjugated toxins, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, was greater than or equal to 82%, and their toxicities, as determined by the Y1 adrenal cell assay for LT and by the suckling mouse assay for ST, were reduced to less than or equal to 0.15%. Immunization of rats with this cross-linked ST-LT vaccine provided strong protection against challenge with either the LT or the ST toxin or with viable heterologous strains which produce these toxins, either singly or together. These observations indicate that conjugation of ST to LT results in a unique new immunogen in that ST acquires immunogenicity as a function of the reaction, LT retains most of its antigenicity, and the toxic properties of each individual toxin are greatly reduced. PMID:6749682

  3. Cross-Protective Potential of a Novel Monoclonal Antibody Directed against Antigenic Site B of the Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Reiko; Igarashi, Manabu; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Kishida, Noriko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Ito, Kimihito; Takada, Ayato

    2009-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A viruses has been classified into sixteen distinct subtypes (H1–H16) to date. The HA subtypes of influenza A viruses are principally defined as serotypes determined by neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition tests using polyclonal antisera to the respective HA subtypes, which have little cross-reactivity to the other HA subtypes. Thus, it is generally believed that the neutralizing antibodies are not broadly cross-reactive among HA subtypes. In this study, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to HA, designated MAb S139/1, which showed heterosubtypic cross-reactive neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition of influenza A viruses. This MAb was found to have broad reactivity to many other viruses (H1, H2, H3, H5, H9, and H13 subtypes) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We further found that MAb S139/1 showed neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition activities against particular strains of H1, H2, H3, and H13 subtypes of influenza A viruses. Mutant viruses that escaped neutralization by MAb S139/1 were selected from the A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), A/Adachi/2/57 (H2N2), and A/WSN/33 (H1N1) strains, and sequence analysis of the HA genes of these escape mutants revealed amino acid substitutions at positions 156, 158, and 193 (H3 numbering). A molecular modeling study showed that these amino acids were located on the globular head of the HA and formed a novel conformational epitope adjacent to the receptor-binding domain of HA. Furthermore, passive immunization of mice with MAb S139/1 provided heterosubtypic protection. These results demonstrate that MAb S139/1 binds to a common antigenic site shared among a variety of HA subtypes and neutralizes viral infectivity in vitro and in vivo by affecting viral attachment to cells. The present study supports the notion that cross-reactive antibodies play some roles in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus infection, and underscores the potential

  4. Cross-protective potential of a novel monoclonal antibody directed against antigenic site B of the hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Reiko; Igarashi, Manabu; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Kishida, Noriko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Ito, Kimihito; Takada, Ayato

    2009-03-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A viruses has been classified into sixteen distinct subtypes (H1-H16) to date. The HA subtypes of influenza A viruses are principally defined as serotypes determined by neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition tests using polyclonal antisera to the respective HA subtypes, which have little cross-reactivity to the other HA subtypes. Thus, it is generally believed that the neutralizing antibodies are not broadly cross-reactive among HA subtypes. In this study, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to HA, designated MAb S139/1, which showed heterosubtypic cross-reactive neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition of influenza A viruses. This MAb was found to have broad reactivity to many other viruses (H1, H2, H3, H5, H9, and H13 subtypes) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We further found that MAb S139/1 showed neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition activities against particular strains of H1, H2, H3, and H13 subtypes of influenza A viruses. Mutant viruses that escaped neutralization by MAb S139/1 were selected from the A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), A/Adachi/2/57 (H2N2), and A/WSN/33 (H1N1) strains, and sequence analysis of the HA genes of these escape mutants revealed amino acid substitutions at positions 156, 158, and 193 (H3 numbering). A molecular modeling study showed that these amino acids were located on the globular head of the HA and formed a novel conformational epitope adjacent to the receptor-binding domain of HA. Furthermore, passive immunization of mice with MAb S139/1 provided heterosubtypic protection. These results demonstrate that MAb S139/1 binds to a common antigenic site shared among a variety of HA subtypes and neutralizes viral infectivity in vitro and in vivo by affecting viral attachment to cells. The present study supports the notion that cross-reactive antibodies play some roles in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus infection, and underscores the potential

  5. Wounding induces resistance to pathogens with different lifestyles in tomato: role of ethylene in cross-protection.

    PubMed

    Francia, Doriana; Demaria, Daniele; Calderini, Ornella; Ferraris, Lucia; Valentino, Danila; Arcioni, Sergio; Tamietti, Giacomo; Cardinale, Francesca

    2007-11-01

    Many reports point to the existence of a network of regulatory signalling occurring in plants during the interaction with micro-organisms (biotic stress) and abiotic stresses such as wounding. However, the focus is on shared intermediates/components and/or common molecular outputs in differently triggered signalling pathways, and not on the degree and modes of effective influence between abiotic and biotic stresses nor the range of true plant-pathogen interactions open to such influence. We report on local and systemic wound-induced protection in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to four pathogens with a range of lifestyles (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Phytophthora capsici and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato). The role of ethylene (ET) in the phenomenon and in the induction by wounding of several markers of defense was investigated by using the never-ripe tomato mutant plants impaired in ET perception. We showed that PINIIb, PR1b, PR5, PR7 and peroxidase (POD) are influenced locally and/or systemically by wounding and, with the exception of POD activity, by ET perception. We also demonstrated that ET, although not essential, is positively (B. cinerea, P. capsici) or negatively (F. oxysporum, P. syringae pv. tomato) involved not only in basal but also in wound-induced resistance to each pathogen.

  6. Dirac Cone Protected by Non-Symmorphic Symmetry and highly dispersive 3D Dirac crossings in ZrSiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoop, Leslie; Ali, Mazhar; Strasser, Carola; Duppel, Viola; Parkin, Stuart; Lotsch, Bettina; Ast, Christian

    Materials harboring exotic quasiparticles, such as Dirac and Weyl fermions have garnered much attention from the physics and material science communities. Here, we show with angle resolved photoemission studies supported by ab initio calculations that the highly stable, non-toxic and earth-abundant material, ZrSiS, has an electronic band structure that hosts several Dirac cones which form a Fermi surface with a diamond-shaped line of Dirac nodes. We also experimentally show, for the first time, that the square Si lattice in ZrSiS is an excellent template for realizing the new types of 2D Dirac cones protected by non-symmophic symmetry and image an unforseen surface state that arises close to the 2D Dirac cone. Finally, we find that the energy range of the linearly dispersed bands is as high as 2 eV above and below the Fermi level; much larger than of any known Dirac material so far. We will discuss why these characteristics make ZrSiS very promising for future applications.

  7. A novel thiol antioxidant that crosses the blood brain barrier protects dopaminergic neurons in experimental models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bahat-Stroomza, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Offen, Daniel; Panet, Hana; Saada, Ann; Krool-Galron, Nili; Barzilai, Aari; Atlas, Daphne; Melamed, Eldad

    2005-02-01

    It is believed that oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) and that treatment with antioxidants might be neuroprotective. However, most currently available antioxidants cannot readily penetrate the blood brain barrier after systemic administration. We now report that AD4, the novel low molecular weight thiol antioxidant and the N-acytel cysteine (NAC) related compound, is capable of penetrating the brain and protects neurons in general and especially dopaminergic cells against various OS-generating neurotoxins in tissue cultures. Moreover, we found that treatment with AD4 markedly decreased the damage of dopaminergic neurons in three experimental models of PD. AD4 suppressed amphetamine-induced rotational behaviour in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA-induced nigral lesion. It attenuated the reduction in striatal dopamine levels in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). It also reduced the dopaminergic neuronal loss following chronic intrajugular administration of rotenone in rats. Our findings suggest that AD4 is a novel potential new neuroprotective drug that might be effective at slowing down nigral neuronal degeneration and illness progression in patients with PD.

  8. Cross-species coherence in effects and modes of action in support of causality determinations in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Meredith Gooding; Owens, Elizabeth Oesterling; Patel, Molini M; Kirrane, Ellen; Madden, Meagan; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Hines, Erin Pias; Davis, J Allen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Dubois, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    The peer-reviewed literature on the health and ecological effects of lead (Pb) indicates common effects and underlying modes of action across multiple organisms for several endpoints. Based on such observations, the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) applied a cross-species approach in the 2013 Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead for evaluating the causality of relationships between Pb exposure and specific endpoints that are shared by humans, laboratory animals, and ecological receptors (i.e., hematological effects, reproductive and developmental effects, and nervous system effects). Other effects of Pb (i.e., cardiovascular, renal, and inflammatory responses) are less commonly assessed in aquatic and terrestrial wildlife limiting the application of cross-species comparisons. Determinations of causality in ISAs are guided by a framework for classifying the weight of evidence across scientific disciplines and across related effects by considering aspects such as biological plausibility and coherence. As illustrated for effects of Pb where evidence across species exists, the integration of coherent effects and common underlying modes of action can serve as a means to substantiate conclusions regarding the causal nature of the health and ecological effects of environmental toxicants.

  9. Recombinant trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of Brugia malayi cross-reacts with human Wuchereria bancrofti immune sera and engenders a robust protective outcome in mice.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Susheela; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Jyoti; Soni, Vishal Kumar; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2012-11-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of Brugia malayi (Bm-TPP) represents an attractive vaccine candidate because it is present in all the major life stages of parasite, but is absent in mammals. We have previously cloned, purified and biochemically characterized Bm-TPP. In the present study, we investigated the cross-reactivity of recombinant Bm-TPP (r-Bm-TPP) with the sera of human bancroftian patients belonging to different disease categories. In silico study using bioinformatics tool demonstrated that Bm-TPP is highly immunogenic in nature. BALB/c mice administered with r-Bm-TPP alone or in combination with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) generated a strong IgG response. Further investigations on the antibody isotypes showed generation of a mixed T helper cell response which was marginally biased towards Th1 phenotype. r-Bm-TPP with or without adjuvant lead to significantly increased accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen of infected mice and increased the activation of peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, r-Bm-TPP enhanced the production of both proinflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines and mice immunized with r-Bm-TPP alone or in combination with FCA showed 54.5% and 67% protection respectively against B. malayi infective larvae challenge. Taken together, our findings suggest that Bm-TPP is protective in nature and might be a potential candidate for development of vaccine against lymphatic filarial infections.

  10. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? Methods We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12–19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Results Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Conclusions Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring

  11. Cross-Protective Immunity to Leishmania amazonensis is Mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ Epitopes of Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Alves-Silva, Marcus Vinícius; Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Morrot, Alexandre; Bahia, Diana; Palatnik, Marcos; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleoside hydrolase (NH) of Leishmania donovani (NH36) is a phylogenetic marker of high homology among Leishmania parasites. In mice and dog vaccination, NH36 induces a CD4+ T cell-driven protective response against Leishmania chagasi infection directed against its C-terminal domain (F3). The C-terminal and N-terminal domain vaccines also decreased the footpad lesion caused by Leishmania amazonensis. We studied the basis of the crossed immune response using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin for mice prophylaxis against L. amazonensis. The F1 (amino acids 1–103) and F3 peptide (amino acids 199–314) vaccines enhanced the IgG and IgG2a anti-NH36 antibodies to similar levels. The F3 vaccine induced the strongest DTH response, the highest proportions of NH36-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after challenge and the highest expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α. The F1 vaccine, on the other hand, induced a weaker but significant DTH response and a mild enhancement of IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. The in vivo depletion with anti-CD4 or CD8 monoclonal antibodies disclosed that cross-protection against L. amazonensis infection was mediated by a CD4+ T cell response directed against the C-terminal domain (75% of reduction of the size of footpad lesion) followed by a CD8+ T cell response against the N-terminal domain of NH36 (57% of reduction of footpad lesions). Both vaccines were capable of inducing long-term cross-immunity. The amino acid sequence of NH36 showed 93% identity to the sequence of the NH A34480 of L. amazonensis, which also showed the presence of completely conserved predicted epitopes for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in F1 domain, and of CD4+ epitopes differing by a single amino acid, in F1 and F3 domains. The identification of the C-terminal and N-terminal domains as the targets of the immune response to NH36 in the model of L. amazonensis infection represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine against

  12. Immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese bovine viral diarrhea virus 1a (BVDV 1a) vaccine cross protects from BVDV 1b infection in young calves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Yongwang; Li, Xiaoxin; Ji, Ye; Meng, Qingsen; Zhang, Shucheng; Wu, Hua

    2014-08-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 1b strains are the predominant subgenotypes in China. Because of the genetic and antigenic variability among different BVDV strains, a vaccine effective in one region may fail to protect against infections caused by different virus strains in another region. No BVDV vaccine developed with the predominant strains in China are available. In this study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese BVDV 1a NM01 vaccine strain was evaluated by challenging with a Chinese BVDV 1b JL strain. Ten 2-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine strain and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. The average titer of neutralization antibody to BVDV 1a and BVDV 1b of immunized calves reached 1:410 and 1:96, respectively, at 21 days post the second vaccination. Twenty-one days post the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with strain JL. The clinical signs, such as the temperature and leukopenia of the immunized calves and viral shedding, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves after challenging with the virulent BVDV 1b strain, indicating that the BVDV 1a vaccine strain elicited efficacious protection against the endemic BVDV 1b strain in China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an inactivated BVDV vaccine which demonstrated effective cross-protection against BVDV type 1b infection in China.

  13. Gas sensor protection device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, David; Magera, Craig

    2016-11-08

    A gas sensor includes a sensor housing and a sensing element located within the sensor housing. The sensing element has a distal end and defines an axis. The gas sensor also includes a sensor protection device coupled to the sensor housing and at least partially surrounding the distal end of the sensing element. The sensor protection device includes a first member coupled to the housing, the first member having a generally rectangular cross-sectional shape in a plane perpendicular to the axis. The first member includes a gas inlet and a gas outlet. The sensor protection device also includes a second member coupled to the housing.

  14. A recombinant chimeric La Crosse virus expressing the surface glycoproteins of Jamestown Canyon virus is immunogenic and protective against challenge with either parental virus in mice or monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bennett, R S; Gresko, A K; Nelson, J T; Murphy, B R; Whitehead, S S

    2012-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), family Bunyaviridae, are mosquito-borne viruses that are endemic in North America and recognized as etiologic agents of encephalitis in humans. Both viruses belong to the California encephalitis virus serogroup, which causes 70 to 100 cases of encephalitis a year. As a first step in creating live attenuated viral vaccine candidates for this serogroup, we have generated a recombinant LACV expressing the attachment/fusion glycoproteins of JCV. The JCV/LACV chimeric virus contains full-length S and L segments derived from LACV. For the M segment, the open reading frame (ORF) of LACV is replaced with that derived from JCV and is flanked by the untranslated regions of LACV. The resulting chimeric virus retained the same robust growth kinetics in tissue culture as observed for either parent virus, and the virus remains highly infectious and immunogenic in mice. Although both LACV and JCV are highly neurovirulent in 21 day-old mice, with 50% lethal dose (LD₅₀) values of 0.1 and 0.5 log₁₀ PFU, respectively, chimeric JCV/LACV is highly attenuated and does not cause disease even after intracerebral inoculation of 10³ PFU. Parenteral vaccination of mice with 10¹ or 10³ PFU of JCV/LACV protected against lethal challenge with LACV, JCV, and Tahyna virus (TAHV). The chimeric virus was infectious and immunogenic in rhesus monkeys and induced neutralizing antibodies to JCV, LACV, and TAHV. When vaccinated monkeys were challenged with JCV, they were protected against the development of viremia. Generation of highly attenuated yet immunogenic chimeric bunyaviruses could be an efficient general method for development of vaccines effective against these pathogenic viruses.

  15. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination.

    PubMed

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system.

  16. Sterilizing Immunity Elicited by Neisseria meningitidis Carriage Shows Broader Protection than Predicted by Serum Antibody Cross-Reactivity in CEACAM1-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, Shannon E.; Strobel, Lea; Frosch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis asymptomatically colonizes the human upper respiratory tract but is also the cause of meningitis and severe septicemia. Carriage or disease evokes an immune response against the infecting strain. Hitherto, we have known little about the breadth of immunity induced by natural carriage of a single strain or its implications for subsequent infectious challenge. In this study, we establish that transgenic mice expressing human CEACAM1 support nasal colonization by a variety of strains of different capsular types. Next, we nasally challenged these mice with either of the N. meningitidis strains H44/76 (serogroup B, ST-32) and 90/18311 (serogroup C, ST-11), while following the induction of strain-specific immunoglobulin. When these antisera were tested for reactivity with a diverse panel of N. meningitidis strains, very low levels of antibody were detected against all meningococcal strains, yet a mutually exclusive “fingerprint” of high-level cross-reactivity toward certain strains became apparent. To test the efficacy of these responses for protection against subsequent challenge, CEACAM1-humanized mice exposed to strain 90/18311 were then rechallenged with different N. meningitidis strains. As expected, the mice were immune to challenge with the same strain and with a closely related ST-11 strain, 38VI, while H44/76 (ST-32) could still colonize these animals. Notably, however, despite the paucity of detectable humoral response against strain 196/87 (ST-32), this strain was unable to colonize the 90/18311-exposed mice. Combined, our data suggest that current approaches may underestimate the actual breadth of mucosal protection gained through natural exposure to N. meningitidis strains. PMID:25368118

  17. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 107 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10−4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  18. Immunization with a DNA adenine methylase over-producing Yersinia pseudotuberculosis vaccine confers robust cross-protection against heterologous pathogenic serotypes.

    PubMed

    Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z; Heithoff, Douglas M; Ersoy, Selvi C; Shimp, William R; Mahan, Michael J

    2014-03-14

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne pathogen that can cause serious human illness. Although the source and route of transmission often remain obscure, livestock have been implicated in some cases. The diversity of yersiniae present on farms and their widespread distribution in animal and environmental reservoirs necessitates the use of broad prophylactic strategies that are efficacious against many serotypes simultaneously. Herein, immunization of mice with a modified, live attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis vaccine that overproduces the DNA adenine methylase (Dam(OP)) conferred robust protection against virulent challenge (150-fold LD50) with homologous and heterologous serotypes that have been associated with human disease (O:1, O:1a, O:3). Further, the dam gene was shown to be essential for cell viability in all (7 of 7) Y. pseudotuberculosis strains tested. Direct selection for the inheritance of dam mutant alleles in Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in dam strain variants that contained compensatory (second-site suppressor) mutations in genes encoding methyl-directed mismatch repair proteins (mutHLS) that are involved in suppression of the non-viable cell phenotype in all (19/19) strains tested. Such dam mutH variants exhibited a significant increase in virulence and spontaneous mutation frequency relative to that of a Dam(OP) vaccine strain. These studies indicate that Y. pseudotuberculosis Dam(OP) strains conferred potent cross-protective efficacy as well as decreased virulence and spontaneous mutation frequency relative to those that lack Dam, which have compensatory mutations in mutHLS loci. These data suggest that development of yersiniae livestock vaccines based on Dam overproduction is a viable mitigation strategy to reduce these potential foodborne contaminants.

  19. Exposure to low UVA doses increases KatA and KatB catalase activities, and confers cross-protection against subsequent oxidative injuries in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Tribelli, Paula M; Pizarro, Ramón A; López, Nancy I; Costa, Cristina S

    2016-05-01

    Solar UVA radiation is one of the main environmental stress factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exposure to high UVA doses produces lethal effects by the action of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) it generates. P. aeruginosa has several enzymes, including KatA and KatB catalases, which provide detoxification of ROS. We have previously demonstrated that KatA is essential in defending P. aeruginosa against high UVA doses. In order to analyse the mechanisms involved in the adaptation of this micro-organism to UVA, we investigated the effect of exposure to low UVA doses on KatA and KatB activities, and the physiological consequences. Exposure to UVA induced total catalase activity; assays with non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels showed that both KatA and KatB activities were increased by radiation. This regulation occurred at the transcriptional level and depended, at least partly, on the increase in H2O2 levels. We demonstrated that exposure to low UVA produced a protective effect against subsequent lethal doses of UVA, sodium hypochlorite and H2O2. Protection against lethal UVA depends on katA, whilst protection against sodium hypochlorite depends on katB, demonstrating that different mechanisms are involved in the defence against these oxidative agents, although both genes can be involved in the global cellular response. Conversely, protection against lethal doses of H2O2 could depend on induction of both genes and/or (an)other defensive factor(s). A better understanding of the adaptive response of P. aeruginosa to UVA is relevant from an ecological standpoint and for improving disinfection strategies that employ UVA or solar irradiation.

  20. Vaccination with NS1-truncated H3N2 swine influenza virus primes T cells and confers cross-protection against an H1N1 heterosubtypic challenge in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of contemporary swine influenza virus (SIV) strains impedes effective immunization of swine herds. Mucosally delivered, attenuated virus vaccines are one approach with potential to provide broad cross-protection. Reverse genetics-derived H3N2 SIV virus with truncated NS1 (NS1delta126 T...

  1. Prediction of Protection against Asian Enterovirus 71 Outbreak Strains by Cross-neutralizing Capacity of Serum from Dutch Donors, The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Gerrit; van Eijk, Hetty; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Wolthers, Katja C.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in Asia are related to high illness and death rates among children. To gain insight into the potential threat for the population of Europe, we determined the neutralizing activity in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) batches and individual serum samples from donors in the Netherlands against EV-71 strains isolated in Europe and in Asia. All IVIg batches and 41%, 79%, and 65% of serum samples from children ≤5 years of age, women of childbearing age, and HIV-positive men, respectively, showed high neutralizing activity against a Dutch C1 strain, confirming widespread circulation of EV-71 in the Netherlands. Asian B3–4 and C4 strains were efficiently cross-neutralized, predicting possible protection against extensive circulation and associated outbreaks of those types in Europe. However, C2 and C5 strains that had few mutations in the capsid region consistently escaped neutralization, emphasizing the importance of monitoring antigenic diversity among circulating EV-71 strains. PMID:27533024

  2. A Cross-Lagged Panel Model Examining Protective Behavioral Strategies: Are Types of Strategies Differentially Related to Alcohol Use and Consequences?

    PubMed Central

    Napper, Lucy E.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Lewis, Leslie J.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are skills that can be used to reduce the of risk alcohol-related negative consequences. Studies have shown that, in general, PBS are related to less alcohol consumption and fewer negative consequences; however, other studies have suggested that not all types of PBS (e.g., stopping/limiting drinking [SLD], manner of drinking [MOD] and serious harm reduction [SHR]) are equally effective at reducing alcohol risk. In addition, few studies have explored the longitudinal relationships among PBS, alcohol use and consequences. Using a sample of heavy drinking college students (N = 338), the current study examined PBS use, alcohol consumption and consequences across two time points three months apart. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that MOD predicted a reduction in alcohol use and negative consequences. SHR was longitudinally related to fewer negative consequences, but unrelated to alcohol use. SLD was not associated with drinking or consequences at follow-up. These results highlight the need for future research to examine the effects of different types of PBS and have implications for alcohol intervention programs that incorporate PBS skills training. PMID:24229842

  3. Beneficial cross-protection of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway eosinophilia using unrelated or a partial repertoire of allergen(s) implicated in experimental feline asthma.

    PubMed

    Reinero, Carol; Lee-Fowler, Tekla; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Cohn, Leah; Declue, Amy

    2012-06-01

    The study hypothesis was that in experimentally asthmatic cats rush immunotherapy (RIT) using allergens not completely matched with sensitizing allergen(s) would at least partially attenuate the asthmatic phenotype and modulate the aberrant immune response. In phase I, cats sensitized to Bermuda grass allergen (BGA), house dust mite allergen (HDMA) or placebo received BGA RIT. In phase II, cats dually sensitized to BGA and HDMA received RIT using BGA, HDMA or placebo. Efficacy of RIT was assessed using percentage bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophils. Additionally, a variety of immunologic assays were performed. Eosinophilic airway inflammation significantly decreased over time in asthmatic cats given RIT using sensitizing allergen or unrelated allergen (P<0.001). In dually sensitized cats, single allergen RIT but not placebo reduced airway eosinophilia (P=0.038). Differences in allergen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, in the number of IL-10 producing cells and in the percentage T regulatory cells were detected between asthmatic cats getting RIT and controls. Cross-protection manifested by reduced airway eosinophilia was noted in cats treated with RIT allergens which did not completely match allergen used in asthma induction. However, the mechanism of immunologic tolerance may differ when improperly matched allergens to the sensitizing allergens are used in RIT.

  4. Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu; De Hert, Karl; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2015-09-24

    Pigs are natural hosts for the same influenza virus subtypes as humans and are a valuable model for cross-protection studies with influenza. In this study, we have used the pig model to examine the extent of virological protection between a) the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus and three different European H1 swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages, and b) these H1 viruses and a European H3N2 SIV. Pigs were inoculated intranasally with representative strains of each virus lineage with 6- and 17-week intervals between H1 inoculations and between H1 and H3 inoculations, respectively. Virus titers in nasal swabs and/or tissues of the respiratory tract were determined after each inoculation. There was substantial though differing cross-protection between pH1N1 and other H1 viruses, which was directly correlated with the relatedness in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. Cross-protection against H3N2 was almost complete in pigs with immunity against H1N2, but was weak in H1N1/pH1N1-immune pigs. In conclusion, infection with a live, wild type influenza virus may offer substantial cross-lineage protection against viruses of the same HA and/or NA subtype. True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. We discuss our findings in the light of the zoonotic and pandemic risks of SIVs.

  5. A Chimera Containing CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes of the Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase (NH36) Optimizes Cross-Protection against Leishmania amazonesis Infection.

    PubMed

    Alves-Silva, Marcus Vinícius; Nico, Dirlei; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2017-01-01

    , the YPPEFKTKL epitope shows high amino acid identity with a multipotent PADRE sequence and stimulates simultaneously the CD4+, CD8+ T cell, and a probable T regulatory response. With this approach, we advanced in the design of a NH36 polytope vaccine capable of inducing cross-protection to cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  6. Physical activity as a protective factor against depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community: result from a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in

  7. A Chimera Containing CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes of the Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase (NH36) Optimizes Cross-Protection against Leishmania amazonesis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Silva, Marcus Vinícius; Nico, Dirlei; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2017-01-01

    , the YPPEFKTKL epitope shows high amino acid identity with a multipotent PADRE sequence and stimulates simultaneously the CD4+, CD8+ T cell, and a probable T regulatory response. With this approach, we advanced in the design of a NH36 polytope vaccine capable of inducing cross-protection to cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:28280494

  8. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system. PMID:24711701

  9. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance.

  10. VirR-Mediated Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes against Food Antimicrobials and Cross-Protection Induced by Exposure to Organic Acid Salts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jihun; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    Formulations of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with antimicrobial compounds constitute an important safety measure against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. While the efficacy of many commercially available antimicrobial compounds has been demonstrated in a variety of foods, the current understanding of the resistance mechanisms employed by L. monocytogenes to counteract these stresses is limited. In this study, we screened in-frame deletion mutants of two-component system response regulators associated with the cell envelope stress response for increased sensitivity to commercially available antimicrobial compounds (nisin, lauric arginate, ε-polylysine, and chitosan). A virR deletion mutant showed increased sensitivity to all antimicrobials and significantly greater loss of membrane integrity when exposed to nisin, lauric arginate, or ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). The VirR-regulated operon, dltABCD, was shown to be the key contributor to resistance against these antimicrobial compounds, whereas another VirR-regulated gene, mprF, displayed an antimicrobial-specific contribution to resistance. An experiment with a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion with the dlt promoter indicated that nisin does not specifically induce VirR-dependent upregulation of dltABCD. Lastly, prior exposure of L. monocytogenes parent strain H7858 and the ΔvirR mutant to 2% potassium lactate enhanced subsequent resistance against nisin and ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that VirRS-mediated regulation of dltABCD is the major resistance mechanism used by L. monocytogenes against cell envelope-damaging food antimicrobials. Further, the potential for cross-protection induced by other food-related stresses (e.g., organic acids) needs to be considered when applying these novel food antimicrobials as a hurdle strategy for RTE foods. PMID:25911485

  11. VirR-Mediated Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes against Food Antimicrobials and Cross-Protection Induced by Exposure to Organic Acid Salts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihun; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J; Bergholz, Teresa M

    2015-07-01

    Formulations of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with antimicrobial compounds constitute an important safety measure against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. While the efficacy of many commercially available antimicrobial compounds has been demonstrated in a variety of foods, the current understanding of the resistance mechanisms employed by L. monocytogenes to counteract these stresses is limited. In this study, we screened in-frame deletion mutants of two-component system response regulators associated with the cell envelope stress response for increased sensitivity to commercially available antimicrobial compounds (nisin, lauric arginate, ε-polylysine, and chitosan). A virR deletion mutant showed increased sensitivity to all antimicrobials and significantly greater loss of membrane integrity when exposed to nisin, lauric arginate, or ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). The VirR-regulated operon, dltABCD, was shown to be the key contributor to resistance against these antimicrobial compounds, whereas another VirR-regulated gene, mprF, displayed an antimicrobial-specific contribution to resistance. An experiment with a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion with the dlt promoter indicated that nisin does not specifically induce VirR-dependent upregulation of dltABCD. Lastly, prior exposure of L. monocytogenes parent strain H7858 and the ΔvirR mutant to 2% potassium lactate enhanced subsequent resistance against nisin and ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that VirRS-mediated regulation of dltABCD is the major resistance mechanism used by L. monocytogenes against cell envelope-damaging food antimicrobials. Further, the potential for cross-protection induced by other food-related stresses (e.g., organic acids) needs to be considered when applying these novel food antimicrobials as a hurdle strategy for RTE foods.

  12. Assessment of the cross-protective capability of recombinant capsid proteins derived from pig, rat, and avian hepatitis E viruses (HEV) against challenge with a genotype 3 HEV in pigs.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Brenton J; Opriessnig, Tanja; Kenney, Scott P; Dryman, Barbara A; Córdoba, Laura; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2012-09-28

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, is primarily transmitted via the fecal-oral route through contaminated water supplies, although many sporadic cases of hepatitis E are transmitted zoonotically via direct contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal meats. Genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species, whereas genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans. There exists a single serotype of HEV, although the cross-protective ability among the animal HEV strains is unknown. Thus, in this study we expressed and characterized N-terminal truncated ORF2 capsid antigens derived from swine, rat, and avian HEV strains and evaluated their cross-protective ability in a pig challenge model. Thirty, specific-pathogen-free, pigs were divided into 5 groups of 6 pigs each, and each group of pigs were vaccinated with 200 μg of swine HEV, rat HEV, or avian HEV ORF2 antigen or PBS buffer (2 groups) as positive and negative control groups. After a booster dose immunization at 2 weeks post-vaccination, the vaccinated animals all seroconverted to IgG anti-HEV. At 4 weeks post-vaccination, the animals were intravenously challenged with a genotype 3 mammalian HEV, and necropsied at 4 weeks post-challenge. Viremia, fecal virus shedding, and liver histological lesions were compared to assess the protective and cross-protective abilities of these antigens against HEV challenge in pigs. The results indicated that pigs vaccinated with truncated recombinant capsid antigens derived from three animal strains of HEV induced a strong IgG anti-HEV response in vaccinated pigs, but these antigens confer only partial cross-protection against a genotype 3 mammalian HEV. The results have important implications for the efficacy of current vaccines and for future vaccine development, especially against the novel zoonotic animal strains of HEV.

  13. Broad Cross-Protection Is Induced in Preclinical Models by a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Composed of L1/L2 Chimeric Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Boxus, Mathieu; Fochesato, Michel; Miseur, Agnès; Mertens, Emmanuel; Dendouga, Najoua; Brendle, Sarah; Balogh, Karla K.; Christensen, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT At least 15 high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are linked to anogenital preneoplastic lesions and cancer. Currently, there are three licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 major capsid protein from HPV-2, -4, or -9, including the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 L1 vaccine. The L2 minor capsid protein contains HPV-neutralizing epitopes that are well conserved across numerous high-risk HPVs. Therefore, the objective of our study was to assess the capacity to broaden vaccine-mediated protection using AS04-adjuvanted vaccines based on VLP chimeras of L1 with one or two L2 epitopes. Several chimeric VLPs were constructed by inserting L2 epitopes within the DE loop and/or C terminus of L1. Based on the shape, yield, size, and immunogenicity, one of seven chimeras was selected for further evaluation in mouse and rabbit challenge models. The chimeric VLP consisted of HPV-18 L1 with insertions of HPV-33 L2 (amino acid residues 17 to 36; L1 DE loop) and HPV-58 L2 (amino acid residues 56 to 75; L1 C terminus). This chimeric L1/L2 VLP vaccine induced persistent immune responses and protected against all of the different HPVs evaluated (HPV-6, -11, -16, -31, -35, -39, -45, -58, and -59 as pseudovirions or quasivirions) in both mouse and rabbit challenge models. The degree and breadth of protection in the rabbit were further enhanced when the chimeric L1/L2 VLP was formulated with the L1 VLPs from the HPV-16/18 L1 vaccine. Therefore, the novel HPV-18 L1/L2 chimeric VLP (alone or in combination with HPV-16 and HPV-18 L1 VLPs) formulated with AS04 has the potential to provide broad protective efficacy in human subjects. IMPORTANCE From evaluations in human papillomavirus (HPV) protection models in rabbits and mice, our study has identified a prophylactic vaccine with the potential to target a wide range of HPVs linked to anogenital cancer. The three currently licensed vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 major

  14. Extension of the Method for Predicting Six-Degree-of-Freedom Store Separation Trajectories at Speeds up to the Critical Speed to Include a Fuselage with Noncircular Cross Section. Volume I - Theoretical Methods and Comparisons with Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related theareto. L Coies ofWhittWs rpr hudntb eunduls euni requ ired y e u i y co s d r to...perturbation velocity vector r radial distance in crossflow plane .iv semispan of a wing image vortex S local body cross-sectional area S ’(x) rate of change...outer limit becomes [Ux(x)/21TV] S ’(x).n r . The total velocity in the axial direction x of the body is Ux(X) and S ’(x) is the rate of change of the cross

  15. 40 CFR 35.3575 - Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters). 35.3575 Section 35.3575 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....3575 Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters). (a) General. A number of...

  16. A live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine provides cross-protection against Salmonella serovars to reduce disease severity and pathogen transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine was developed to confer broad protection against multiple Salmonella serovars to prevent disease and reduce pathogen colonization and shedding. Two vaccine trials were performed in swine to determine the protection afforded by the vac...

  17. Time dependent quantum dynamics study of the Ne + H2(+)(v0 = 0-4, j0 = 1) → NeH(+) + H proton transfer reaction, including the Coriolis coupling. A system with oscillatory cross sections.

    PubMed

    Gamallo, Pablo; Defazio, Paolo; González, Miguel

    2011-10-27

    The Ne + H(2)(+)(v(0) = 0-4, j(0) = 1) proton transfer reaction has been studied in a wide collision energy (E(col)) interval, using the time dependent real wave packet method and taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC-RWP method) and employing a recent ab initio potential energy surface, widely extending the reaction conditions previously explored at the CC level. The reaction probability shows a strong oscillatory behavior vs E(col) and the presence of sharp resonances, arising from metastable NeH(2)(+) states. The behavior of the reaction cross section σ vs E(col) depends on the vibrational level and can in general be interpreted in terms of the late barrier character of the potential energy surface and the existence (or not) of threshold energy. The situation is particularly complex for v(0) = 2, as σ(v0=2, j0=1) presents significant oscillations with E(col) up to ≈0.33 eV, which probably reflect the resonances found in the reaction probability. Hence, it would be particularly interesting to investigate the Ne + H(2)(+)(v(0) = 2, j(0) = 1) reaction experimentally, as some resonances survive the partial wave summation. The state selected cross sections compare well with previous CC quantum and experimental results, and although the previous centrifugal sudden RWP cross sections are reasonable, the inclusion of the Coriolis coupling is important to achieve a quantitative description of this and similar systems.

  18. Characterization of a type O foot-and-mouth disease virus re-emerging in the year 2011 in free areas of the Southern Cone of South America and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; Malirat, Viviana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Benitez, Elizabeth Oviedo; Pedemonte, Andrea; Seki, Cristina; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Balette, Cristina I; D'Aloia, Ricardo; La Torre, José L; Mattion, Nora; Toledo, Jorge Rodríguez; Bergmann, Ingrid E

    2013-03-23

    Molecular, antigenic and vaccine matching studies, including protective response in vivo, were conducted with a foot-and-mouth disease type O virus isolated during the outbreak in September 2011 in San Pedro, Paraguay, country internationally recognized as free with vaccination in 1997. The phylogenetic tree derived from complete VP(1) sequences as well as monoclonal antibody profiling indicated that this isolate was related to viruses responsible for previous emergencies in free areas of the Southern Cone of South America occurring sporadically between the years 2000 and 2006. Marked differences with the vaccine strain O(1)/Campos, including the loss of reactivity with neutralizing MAbs, were recognized. Levels of protective antibodies induced by the vaccine containing the O(1)/Campos strain against the San Pedro virus and the virus responsible for the previous emergency in 2006 in the Southern Cone assessed by in vitro vaccine matching studies pointed to an insufficient protective response 30 days after vaccination (DPV), which was properly attained at 79 DPV or after revaccination. In agreement with the in vitro assessment, the in vivo challenge in the Protection against Podal Generalization test in cattle indicated appropriate protection for the San Pedro strain at 79 DPV or after revaccination. The complementary conclusions that can be derived from vaccine matching tests designed differently to fit the various objectives intended: prophylaxis, emergency vaccination or incorporation of new field strains into antigen banks, is evaluated. This is the first report of the antigenic and immunogenic characterization of the variants responsible for emergencies in the Southern Cone of South America and the putative impact of the changes on the cross protection conferred by the vaccine strain.

  19. Comparative assessment of a DNA and protein Leishmania donovani gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase vaccine to cross-protect against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major or L. mexicana infection.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S A; Alawa, J; Doro, B; Henriquez, F L; Roberts, C W; Nok, A; Alawa, C B I; Alsaadi, M; Mullen, A B; Carter, K C

    2012-02-08

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem and it is estimated that 12 million people are currently infected. A vaccine which could cross-protect people against different Leishmania spp. would facilitate control of this disease as more than one species of Leishmania may be present. In this study the ability of a DNA vaccine, using the full gene sequence for L. donovani gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γGCS) incorporated in the pVAX vector (pVAXγGCS), and a protein vaccine, using the corresponding recombinant L. donovani γGCS protein (LdγGCS), to protect against L. major or L. mexicana infection was evaluated. DNA vaccination gave transient protection against L. major and no protection against L. mexicana despite significantly enhancing specific antibody titres in vaccinated infected mice compared to infected controls. Vaccination with the LdγGCS protected against both species but only if the protein was incorporated into non-ionic surfactant vesicles for L. mexicana. The results of this study indicate that a L. donovani γGCS vaccine could be used to vaccinate against more than one Leishmania species but only if the recombinant protein is used.

  20. Evaluation of cross-protection against three topotypes of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs vaccinated with multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(I:C).

    PubMed

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Li, Dong; Fan, Pengju; Sun, Pu; Bao, Huifang; Fu, Yuanfang; Li, Pinghua; Bai, Xingwen; Chen, Yingli; Xie, Baoxia; Liu, Zaixin

    2014-01-31

    Epitope-based vaccines are always questioned for their cross-protection against the antigenically variable foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this study, we proved the cross-protection effect of a multi-epitope vaccine incorporated with poly(I:C) against three topotypes of O type FMDV. A total of 45 naïve pigs were vaccinated with different doses of multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(I:C). At 28 days post-vaccination, 45 vaccinated and 6 unvaccinated control pigs (two pigs for each group) were challenged with three topotypes of virulent O type FMDV, namely, O/Mya/98 (Southeast Asia topotype), O/HN/CHA/93 (Cathay topotype) and O/Tibet/CHA/99 (PanAsia topotype) strains. All unvaccinated pigs developed generalised FMD clinical signs. Results showed that all pigs (n=15) conferred complete protection against the O/Mya/98 and O/HN/CHA/93 FMDV strains, 11 of which were protected against the O/Tibet/CHA/99 FMDV strain. The 50% protective dose values of the vaccine against the O/Mya/98, O/HN/CHA/93 and O/Tibet/CHA/99 FMDV strains were 15.59, 15.59 and 7.05, respectively. Contact challenge experiment showed that transmission occurred from the donors to the unvaccinated but not to vaccinated pigs. These results showed that vaccination with multi-epitope protein vaccine incorporated with poly(I:C) can efficiently prevent FMD in pigs.

  1. A Vaccine of L2 Epitope Repeats Fused with a Modified IgG1 Fc Induced Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies and Protective Immunity against Divergent Human Papillomavirus Types

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yanchun; Xie, Xixiu; Wang, Zhirong; Xu, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Current human papillomavirus (HPV) major capsid protein L1 virus-like particles (VLPs)-based vaccines in clinic induce strong HPV type-specific neutralizing antibody responses. To develop pan-HPV vaccines, here, we show that the fusion protein E3R4 consisting of three repeats of HPV16 L2 aa 17–36 epitope (E3) and a modified human IgG1 Fc scaffold (R4) induces cross-neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against divergent HPV types. E3R4 was expressed as a secreted protein in baculovirus expression system and could be simply purified by one step Protein A affinity chromatography with the purity above 90%. Vaccination of E3R4 formulated with Freunds adjuvant not only induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against HPV pseudovirus types 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, 6, 11 and 5 in mice, but also protected mice against vaginal challenges with HPV pseudovirus types 16, 45, 52, 58, 11 and 5 for at least eleven months after the first immunization. Moreover, vaccination of E3R4 formulated with FDA approved adjuvant alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A also induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against HPV types 16, 18 and 6 in rabbits. Thus, our results demonstrate that delivery of L2 antigen as a modified Fc-fusion protein may facilitate pan-HPV vaccine development. PMID:24802101

  2. Immunization with Pre-Erythrocytic Antigen CelTOS from Plasmodium falciparum Elicits Cross-Species Protection against Heterologous Challenge with Plasmodium berghei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    and the insect host, warranted an evaluation of whether targeted immune responses against this antigen could prevent the infection of the liver in...stimulate the PBMC’s isolated from volunteers immunized with irradiated sporozoites, a highly effective vaccine inducing sterile protection, to produce...1969) Specificity of protective immunity produced by X- irradiated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites. Nature 222: 488–489. 5. Sina BJ, Do Rosario VE

  3. Cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) adjuvant enhances the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of a pre-pandemic influenza A H5N1 vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Libo; Liu, Feng; Fairman, Jeffery; Hong, David K; Lewis, David B; Monath, Thomas; Warner, John F; Belser, Jessica A; Patel, Jenish; Hancock, Kathy; Katz, Jacqueline M; Lu, Xiuhua

    2012-01-05

    The development of pre-pandemic influenza A H5N1 vaccines that confer both antigen-sparing and cross-clade protection are a high priority given the limited worldwide capacity for influenza vaccine production, and the antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of circulating H5N1 viruses. The inclusion of potent adjuvants in vaccine formulations may achieve both of these aims. Here we show that the addition of JVRS-100, an adjuvant consisting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) to a clade 1-derived H5N1 split vaccine induced significantly higher virus-specific antibody than unadjuvanted formulations, with a >30-fold dose-sparing effect and induction of increased antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses in mice. All mice that received one dose of adjuvanted vaccine and subsequent H5N1 viral challenges exhibited mild illness, lower lung viral titers, undetectable spleen and brain viral titers, and 100% survival after either homologous clade 1 or heterologous clade 2 H5N1 viral challenges, whereas unadjuvanted vaccine recipients showed significantly increased weight loss, viral titers, and mortality. The protective immunity induced by JVRS-100 adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine was shown to last for over one year without significant waning. Thus, JVRS-100 adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine elicited enhanced humoral and T-cell responses, dose-sparing, and cross-clade protection in mice. CLDC holds promise as an adjuvant for human pre-pandemic inactivated H5N1 vaccines.

  4. A cationic liposome-DNA complexes adjuvant (JVRS-100) enhances the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of pre-pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccine in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Xiangjie; Fairman, Jeffery; Lewis, David B; Katz, Jacqueline M; Levine, Min; Tumpey, Terrence M; Lu, Xiuhua

    2016-05-01

    Influenza A (H5N1) viruses continue to pose a public health threat. As inactivated H5N1 vaccines are poorly immunogenic, adjuvants are needed to improve the immunogenicity of H5N1 vaccine in humans. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy in ferrets of a clade 2.2-derived vaccine with addition of JVRS-100, an adjuvant consisting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC). After the first vaccination, significantly higher levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing antibody titers were detected in ferrets immunized with adjuvanted vaccine compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. Following a second dose of adjuvanted vaccine, HAI antibody titers of ≥ 40 were detected against viruses from multiple H5N1 clades. HAI antibodies against newly isolated H5N2 and H5N8 viruses were also augmented by JVRS-100. Ferrets were challenged with a heterologous H5N1 virus. All ferrets that received two doses of adjuvanted vaccine exhibited mild illness, significantly reduced nasal wash virus titers and protection from lethal challenge. In contrast, ferrets that received unadjuvanted vaccine showed greater weight loss, high viral titers and 3 of 6 animals succumbed to the lethal challenge. Our results indicate that the addition of JVRS-100 to H5N1 vaccine enhanced immunogenicity and cross-protection against lethal H5N1 virus disease in ferrets. JVRS-100 warrants further investigation as a potential adjuvant for influenza vaccines.

  5. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  6. A vaccine composed of a hypothetical protein and the eukaryotic initiation factor 5a from Leishmania braziliensis cross-protection against Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mariana Costa; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Carvalho, Ana Maria Ravena Severino; Ludolf, Fernanda; Santos, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira; Vale, Danniele Luciana; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, two proteins cloned from Leishmania braziliensis species, a hypothetical protein (LbHyp) and the eukaryotic initiation factor 5a (EiF5a), were evaluated to protect BALB/c mice against L. amazonensis infection. The animals were immunized with the antigens, either separately or in combination, using saponin as an immune adjuvant in both cases. Spleen cells from vaccinated and later infected mice produced significantly higher levels of protein and parasite-specific IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF, in addition to low levels of IL-4 and IL-10. Evaluating the parasite load by means of a limiting dilution technique and quantitative Real-Time PCR, vaccinated animals presented significant reductions in the parasite load in both infected tissues and organs, as well as lower footpad swelling, when compared to the control (saline and saponin) groups. The best results regarding the protection of the animals were achieved when the combined vaccine was administered into the animals. Protection was associated with an IFN-γ production against parasite antigens, which was mediated by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and correlated with antileishmanial nitrite production. In conclusion, data from the present study show that this polyprotein vaccine, which combines two L. braziliensis proteins, can induce protection against L. amazonensis infection.

  7. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  8. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children.Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule.Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection.Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies.The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The decrease in

  9. Recombinant baculovirus vaccine containing multiple M2e and adjuvant LTB induces T cell dependent, cross-clade protection against H5N1 influenza virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Fan, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Jiao; Huang, Jian-Ni; Ye, Yu; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-27

    H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza poses, a threat to animal and human health. Rapid changes in H5N1 viruses require periodic reformulation of the conventional strain-matched vaccines, thus emphasizing the need for a broadly protective influenza vaccine. Here, we constructed BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB, a recombinant baculovirus based on baculovirus display and BacMam technology. BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB harbors a gene cassette expressing three tandem copies of the highly conserved extracellular domain of influenza M2 protein (M2e) and the mucosal adjuvant, LTB. We showed that BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB displayed the target protein (M2e/LTB) on the baculoviral surface and expressed it in transduced mammalian cells. BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB, when delivered nasally in mice, was highly immunogenic and induced superior levels of anti-M2e IgA than the non-adjuvanted baculovirus (BV-Dual-3M2e). Importantly, after challenge with different H5N1 clades (clade 0, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.4 and 4), mice inoculated with BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB displayed improved survival and decreased lung virus shedding compared with mice inoculated with BV-Dual-3M2e. The enhanced protection from BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB is mediated by T cell immunity and is primarily based on CD8(+) T cells, while mucosal antibodies alone were insufficient for protection from lethal H5N1 challenge. These results suggest that BV-Dual-3M2e-LTB has potential to protect against a broad range of H5N1 strains thereby providing a novel direction for developing broadly protective vaccines based on cellular immunity.

  10. Cross-sectional Pilot Study of Antibiotic Resistance in Propionibacterium Acnes Strains in Indian Acne Patients Using 16S-RNA Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Comparison Among Treatment Modalities Including Antibiotics, Benzoyl Peroxide, and Isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Gupta, Tanvi; Kumar, Bipul; Gautam, Hemant K; Garg, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem in acne patients due to regional prescription practices, patient compliance, and genomic variability in Propionibacterium acnes, though the effect of treatment on the resistance has not been comprehensively analyzed. Aims: Our primary objective was to assess the level of antibiotic resistance in the Indian patients and to assess whether there was a difference in the resistance across common treatment groups. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional, institutional based study was undertaken and three groups of patients were analyzed, treatment naïve, those on antibiotics and patients on benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and/isotretinoin. The follicular content was sampled and the culture was verified with 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction, genomic sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment was done for erythromycin (ERY), azithromycin (AZI), clindamycin (CL), tetracycline (TET), doxycycline (DOX), minocycline (MINO), and levofloxacin (LEVO). The four groups of patients were compared for any difference in the resistant strains. Results: Of the 52 P. acnes strains isolated (80 patients), high resistance was observed to AZI (100%), ERY (98%), CL (90.4%), DOX (44.2%), and TETs (30.8%). Low resistance was observed to MINO (1.9%) and LEVO (9.6%). Statistical difference was seen in the resistance between CL and TETs; DOX/LEVO and DOX/MINO (P < 0.001). High MIC90 (≥256 μg/ml) was seen with CL, macrolides, and TETs; moreover, low MIC90 was observed to DOX (16 μg/ml), MINO (8 μg/ml), and LEVO (4 μg/ml). Though the treatment group with isotretinoin/BPO had the least number of resistant strains there was no statistical difference in the antibiotic resistance among the various groups of patients. Conclusions: High resistance was seen among the P. acnes strains to macrolides-lincosamides (AZI and CL) while MINO and LEVO resistance was low. PMID:26955094

  11. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  12. Development of (trimethylsilyl)ethyl ester protected enolates and applications in palladium-catalyzed enantioselective allylic alkylation: intermolecular cross-coupling of functionalized electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Corey M; Behenna, Douglas C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2014-05-02

    The development of (trimethylsilyl)ethyl ester protected enolates is reported. The application of this class of compounds in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation is explored, yielding a variety of α-quaternary six- and seven-membered ketones and lactams. Independent coupling partner synthesis engenders enhanced allyl substrate scope relative to traditional β-ketoester substrates; highly functionalized α-quaternary ketones generated by the union of (trimethylsilyl)ethyl β-ketoesters and sensitive allylic alkylation coupling partners serve to demonstrate the utility of this method for complex fragment coupling.

  13. Relational factors of vulnerability and protection for adolescent pregnancy: a cross-sectional comparative study of Portuguese pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana I F; Canavarro, Maria C; Cardoso, Margarida F; Mendonça, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n=57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n=81). Results suggest that several variables belonging to different contexts-family and school and peer relations--are important in the characterization of the two groups. Lower levels of mother's overprotection and father's emotional support, presence of early pregnancy in adolescent's mother, lower level of emotional proximity to peer relations, and higher number of school failures are significantly associated with adolescent pregnancy.

  14. Loss of viral fitness and cross-recognition by CD8+ T cells limit HCV escape from a protective HLA-B27–restricted human immune response

    PubMed Central

    Dazert, Eva; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Fitzmaurice, Karen; Kort, Julia; Timm, Jörg; McKiernan, Susan; Kelleher, Dermot; Gruener, Norbert; Tavis, John E.; Rosen, Hugo R.; Shaw, Jaqueline; Bowness, Paul; Blum, Hubert E.; Klenerman, Paul; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Thimme, Robert

    2009-01-01

    There is an association between expression of the MHC class I molecule HLA-B27 and protection following human infection with either HIV or HCV. In both cases, protection has been linked to HLA-B27 presentation of a single immunodominant viral peptide epitope to CD8+ T cells. If HIV mutates the HLA-B27–binding anchor of this epitope to escape the protective immune response, the result is a less-fit virus that requires additional compensatory clustered mutations. Here, we sought to determine whether the immunodominant HLA-B27–restricted HCV epitope was similarly constrained by analyzing the replication competence and immunogenicity of different escape mutants. Interestingly, in most HLA-B27–positive patients chronically infected with HCV, the escape mutations spared the HLA-B27–binding anchor. Instead, the escape mutations were clustered at other sites within the epitope and had only a modest impact on replication competence. Further analysis revealed that the cluster of mutations is required for efficient escape because a combination of mutations is needed to impair T cell recognition of the epitope. Artificially introduced mutations at the HLA-B27–binding anchors were found to be either completely cross-reactive or to lead to substantial loss of fitness. These results suggest that protection by HLA-B27 in HCV infection can be explained by the requirement to accumulate a cluster of mutations within the immunodominant epitope to escape T cell recognition. PMID:19139562

  15. A Broadly Cross-protective Vaccine Presenting the Neighboring Epitopes within the VP1 GH Loop and VP2 EF Loop of Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Yang, Lisheng; Li, Zhiqun; Ye, Xiangzhong; Yu, Hai; zhao, Huan; Li, Shuxuan; Yuan, Lunzhi; Qian, Hongliu; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Zhu, Hua; Li, Yimin; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-08-05

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and are often associated with neurological complications. Currently, several vaccine types are being developed for EV71 and CA16. In this study, we constructed a bivalent chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) presenting the VP1 (aa208-222) and VP2 (aa141-155) epitopes of EV71 using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, designated HBc-E1/2. Immunization with the chimeric VLPs HBc-E1/2 induced higher IgG titers and neutralization titers against EV71 and CA16 in vitro than immunization with only one epitope incorporated into HBc. Importantly, passive immunization with the recombinant HBc-E2 particles protected neonatal mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infections. We demonstrate that anti-VP2 (aa141-155) sera bound authentic CA16 viral particles, whereas anti-VP1 (aa208-222) sera could not. Moreover, the anti-VP2 (aa141-155) antibodies inhibited the binding of human serum to virions, which demonstrated that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant between EV71 and CA16. These results illustrated that the chimeric VLP HBc-E1/2 is a promising candidate for a broad-spectrum HFMD vaccine, and also reveals mechanisms of protection by the neighboring linear epitopes of the VP1 GH and VP2 EF loops.

  16. A Broadly Cross-protective Vaccine Presenting the Neighboring Epitopes within the VP1 GH Loop and VP2 EF Loop of Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Yang, Lisheng; Li, Zhiqun; Ye, Xiangzhong; Yu, Hai; zhao, Huan; Li, Shuxuan; Yuan, Lunzhi; Qian, Hongliu; Que, Yuqiong; Kuo Shih, James Wai; Zhu, Hua; Li, Yimin; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and are often associated with neurological complications. Currently, several vaccine types are being developed for EV71 and CA16. In this study, we constructed a bivalent chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) presenting the VP1 (aa208-222) and VP2 (aa141-155) epitopes of EV71 using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, designated HBc-E1/2. Immunization with the chimeric VLPs HBc-E1/2 induced higher IgG titers and neutralization titers against EV71 and CA16 in vitro than immunization with only one epitope incorporated into HBc. Importantly, passive immunization with the recombinant HBc-E2 particles protected neonatal mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infections. We demonstrate that anti-VP2 (aa141-155) sera bound authentic CA16 viral particles, whereas anti-VP1 (aa208-222) sera could not. Moreover, the anti-VP2 (aa141-155) antibodies inhibited the binding of human serum to virions, which demonstrated that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant between EV71 and CA16. These results illustrated that the chimeric VLP HBc-E1/2 is a promising candidate for a broad-spectrum HFMD vaccine, and also reveals mechanisms of protection by the neighboring linear epitopes of the VP1 GH and VP2 EF loops. PMID:26243660

  17. Eimeria tenella and E. acervulina: differences in ability to elicit cross-species protection as compared with the turkey coccidium, E. adenoeides.

    PubMed

    Augustine, P C; Danforth, H D

    1995-01-01

    Repeated oral inoculation of turkey poults with large doses (1 x 10(6) oocysts) of the chicken coccidia, Eimeria tenella or E. acervulina, failed to prevent weight loss, poor feed conversion, and intestinal pathology in turkeys challenged with the turkey coccidium, E. adenoeides. Invasion by E. tenella in turkeys was significantly greater than invasion by E. adenoeides in chickens; by 24 hr postinoculation (PI), the numbers of E. tenella and E. adenoeides sporozoites in the ceca had decreased markedly as compared with the numbers that initially invaded, and they did not differ significantly from each other. At 24 hr PI, however, transfer of cecal scrapings from chickens or turkeys inoculated with E. adenoeides produced infection in 53% of the recipient turkeys, but transfer of scrapings from either chickens or turkeys inoculated with E. tenella failed to produce infection in 20 attempts with recipient chickens. Cultured chicken peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) that were inoculated with E. adenoeides sporozoites contained numerous vesicles that were recognized by the refractile body-specific monoclonal antibody 1209; the number of vesicles was markedly decreased in PBM cultures inoculated with gamma-irradiated E. adenoeides sporozoites. Very few vesicles were detected in the cytoplasm of turkey PBMs that contained E. tenella sporozoites, and none were detected in turkey PBMs containing E. adenoeides sporozoites. The survival of infective sporozoites, along with the secretion of refractile body antigen, may be more critical to the development of cross-species immunity than the number of sporozoites that initially invade the foreign host.

  18. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and the related compound 1,8-cineole do not induce direct or cross-protection in Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 cultivated in meat broth.

    PubMed

    Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Luz, Isabelle Silva; Honório, Wanessa Gonçalves; Tavares, Adassa Gama; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has the capability of adapting to 1 or more antimicrobial compounds or procedures applied by the food industry to control the growth and survival of microorganisms in foods. In this study, the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (EO) and the related compound 1,8-cineole on the inhibition of the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were determined. The ability of the R. officinalis EO and 1,8-cineole to induce direct and cross-protection of bacteria against various stresses (lactic acid, pH 5.2; NaCl, 3 g/100 mL; high temperature, 45 °C) was also determined. At all concentrations tested (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ½ MIC, and ¼ MIC), both compounds inhibited the cell viability of L. monocytogenes over 120 min of exposure. Overnight exposure of L. monocytogenes to sublethal amounts of either the R. officinalis EO or 1,8-cineole in meat broth revealed no induction of direct or cross-protection against lactic acid, NaCl, or high temperature. Similarly, cells subjected to 24 h cycles of adaptation with increasing amounts (½ MIC to 2× MIC) of the EO and 1,8-cineole showed no increase in direct tolerance, as they were able to survive in growth medium containing up to ½ MIC of either substance. These results show the antimicrobial efficacy of R. officinalis EO and 1,8-cineole for use in systems, particularly as anti-L. monocytogenes compounds.

  19. Vaccine Potential of Two Previously Uncharacterized African Swine Fever Virus Isolates from Southern Africa and Heterologous Cross Protection of an Avirulent European Isolate.

    PubMed

    Souto, R; Mutowembwa, P; van Heerden, J; Fosgate, G T; Heath, L; Vosloo, W

    2016-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a mostly fatal viral infection of domestic pigs for which there is no vaccine available. The disease is endemic to most of sub-Saharan Africa, causes severe losses and threatens food security in large parts of the continent. Naturally occurring attenuated ASF viruses have been tested as vaccine candidates, but protection was variable depending on the challenge virus. In this study, the virulence of two African isolates, one from a tick vector and the other from an indigenous pig, was determined in domestic pigs to identify a potential vaccine strain for southern Africa. Neither isolate was suitable as the tick isolate was moderately virulent and the indigenous pig virus was highly virulent. The latter was subsequently used as heterologous challenge in pigs first vaccinated with a naturally attenuated isolate previously isolated in Portugal. Although a statistically significant reduction in death rate and virus load was observed compared with unvaccinated pigs post-challenge, all pigs succumbed to infection and died.

  20. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of cylinder lenses that provides various equal plus and minus refractive strengths. The lenses are arranged so that the user can exchange the positions of plus and minus cylinder lenses of equal strengths... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of cylinder lenses that provides various equal plus and minus refractive strengths. The lenses are arranged so that the user can exchange the positions of plus and minus cylinder lenses of equal strengths... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of cylinder lenses that provides various equal plus and minus refractive strengths. The lenses are arranged so that the user can exchange the positions of plus and minus cylinder lenses of equal strengths... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class...

  3. Immunogenicity and Cross Protective Ability of the Central VP2 Amino Acids of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron M.; Sandtrø, Ane; Mutoloki, Stephen; Brudeseth, Bjørn E.; Santi, Nina; Evensen, Øystein

    2013-01-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a member of the family Birnaviridae that has been linked to high mortalities in juvenile salmonids and postsmolt stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) after transfer to seawater. IPN vaccines have been available for a long time but their efficacy has been variable. The reason for the varying immune response to these vaccines has not well defined and studies on the importance of using vaccine trains homologous to the virulent field strain has not been conclusive. In this study we prepared one vaccine identical to the virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI-015 (NCBI: 379740) (T217A221T247 of VP2) and three other vaccine strains developed using the same genomic backbone altered by reverse genetics at three residues yielding variants, T217T221T247, P217A221A247, P217T221A247. These 4 strains, differing in these three positions only, were used as inactivated, oil-adjuvanted vaccines while two strains, T217A221T247 and P217T221A247, were used as live vaccines. The results show that these three residues of the VP2 capsid play a key role for immunogenicity of IPNV vaccines. The virulent strain for inactivated vaccines elicited the highest level of virus neutralization (VN) titers and ELISA antibodies. Interestingly, differences in immunogenicity were not reflected in differences in post challenge survival percentages (PCSP) for oil-adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines but clearly so for live vaccines (TAT and PTA). Further post challenge viral carrier state correlated inversely with VN titers at challenge for inactivated vaccines and prevalence of pathology in target organs inversely correlated with protection for live vaccines. Overall, our findings show that a few residues localized on the VP2-capsid are important for immunogenicity of IPNV vaccines. PMID:23349841

  4. The protective role of long-term meditation on the decline of the executive component of attention in aging: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sperduti, Marco; Makowski, Dominique; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy is constantly increasing. However, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, even normal aging is associated with a decline in different cognitive functions. It has been proposed that a central mechanism that could contribute to this widespread cognitive decline is an ineffective inhibitory attentional control. Meditation, to the other hand, has been associated, in young adults, to enhancement of several attentional processes. Nevertheless, attention is not a unitary construct. An influent model proposed the distinction of three subsystems: the alerting (the ability to reach and maintain a vigilance state), the orienting (the capacity of focusing attention on a subset of stimuli), and the conflict resolution or executive component (the ability to resolve conflict or allocate limited resources between competing stimuli). Here, we investigated, employing the Attentional Network Task (ANT), the specific impact of age on these three subcomponents, and the protective role of long-term meditation testing a group of older adults naïve to meditation, a group of age-matched adults with long-term practice of meditation, and a group of young adults with no previous meditation experience. We reported a specific decline of the efficiency of the executive component in elderly that was not observed in age-matched meditators. Our results are encouraging for the investigation of the potential beneficial impact of meditation on other cognitive processes that decline in aging such as memory. Moreover, they could inform geriatric healthcare prevention and intervention strategies, proposing a new approach for cognitive remediation in elderly populations.

  5. Development of a cross protective high growth reasssortant H7N7/PR8 virus for clinical evaluation as an inactivated pre-pandemic influenza vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecies transmission of high pathogenicity (HP) H7N7 subtype avian influenza viruses in the Netherlands in 2003 caused zoonotic infections in 89 people, including one fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Public health preparedness approaches against emerging HP H7N7 influenza vir...

  6. Advanced Organic Ligands for Protecting Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonathan Ka-Wing

    Organic monolayer protected metal nanoparticles have been utilized in many different fields such as catalysis, drug delivery, and sensor chemistry. However, these nanomaterials are prone to increase in size consequently losing its function at the nanoscale. The stability these nanoparticles have been a great interest of research. This thesis focuses on the synthesis of a novel cross-linkable ligand for the protection of metal nanoparticles. Chapter 1 reviews key concepts of nanoparticles, its usefulness in applications, some of the stabilizing strategies employed, and the scope of the thesis project. Chapter 2 describes the synthetic attempts and optimization of the novel cross-linkable ligand. In addition, its characterization data is also included. Section 2.8 also highlights another fully synthesized novel hydrophobic ligand. Chapter 3 contains the summary of the work and closing remarks. Future works is also included to describe the prospects of the synthesis of the novel ligand. Chapter 4 entails the experimental data and supplementary information.

  7. Cross-functional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

  8. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  9. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View ...

  10. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  11. 40 CFR 35.3575 - Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters). 35.3575 Section 35.3575 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds §...

  12. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  13. Persistence of protective anti-HBs antibody levels and anamnestic response to HBV booster vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare students 20 years following the universal immunization campaign in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Guglielmo; Toletone, Alessandra; Debarbieri, Nicoletta; Massa, Emanuela; Bersi, Francesca; Montecucco, Alfredo; Alicino, Cristiano; Durando, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccination against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) became mandatory in Italy for all newborns and 12 years-old individuals in the 1991. The immunogenicity of HBV vaccine and the effectiveness of the universal immunization strategy have been widely demonstrated. However the need to assess the antibody concentrations above the well known serological correlate of protection for HBV infection (≥10 mIU/mL), established in individuals immunized with a 3 doses vaccination course, is still recommended in subjects exposed to occupational risks in different settings, particularly the healthcare services. This practice has to be performed during the preventive medical examination, before the worker's exposure to biological hazards, as a fundamental part of Occupational Health Surveillance Programs in several Countries, including Italy: the goal is to assure individual protection, also providing booster doses when needed, after many years following the primary vaccination. During the 2011–2013 period, an observational study was performed in Healthcare students (HCSs) trained at a regional university acute-care hospital in North-Western Italy, properly immunized against HBV during infancy or adolescence, in order to evaluate the persistence of seroprotection and to assess the anamnestic response to booster vaccination. Data from 717 subjects undergoing HbsAg Ab and HBc Ab testing during the preventive medical examination, and receiving a booster dose of HBV vaccine when resulting with a non-protective titer (<10 mIU/mL), were collected and analyzed. Most of the HCSs (74.6%) included in the survey, mean age 24.8 y ( ± 4.6 SD), had received the primary vaccination course during the first year of life (3–5–11 months). Globally, 507 (70.7%) HCSs showed protective antibody titres, and an anamnestic response was observed in more than 95% subjects receiving the booster dose. Our study demonstrated the long-term persistence of protection of HBV vaccine, more than 20

  14. Persistence of protective anti-HBs antibody levels and anamnestic response to HBV booster vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare students 20 years following the universal immunization campaign in Italy.

    PubMed

    Dini, Guglielmo; Toletone, Alessandra; Barberis, Ilaria; Debarbieri, Nicoletta; Massa, Emanuela; Paganino, Chiara; Bersi, Francesca; Montecucco, Alfredo; Alicino, Cristiano; Durando, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Vaccination against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) became mandatory in Italy for all newborns and 12 years-old individuals in the 1991. The immunogenicity of HBV vaccine and the effectiveness of the universal immunization strategy have been widely demonstrated. However the need to assess the antibody concentrations above the well known serological correlate of protection for HBV infection (≥10 mIU/mL), established in individuals immunized with a 3 doses vaccination course, is still recommended in subjects exposed to occupational risks in different settings, particularly the healthcare services. This practice has to be performed during the preventive medical examination, before the worker's exposure to biological hazards, as a fundamental part of Occupational Health Surveillance Programs in several Countries, including Italy: the goal is to assure individual protection, also providing booster doses when needed, after many years following the primary vaccination. During the 2011-2013 period, an observational study was performed in Healthcare students (HCSs) trained at a regional university acute-care hospital in North-Western Italy, properly immunized against HBV during infancy or adolescence, in order to evaluate the persistence of seroprotection and to assess the anamnestic response to booster vaccination. Data from 717 subjects undergoing HbsAg Ab and HBc Ab testing during the preventive medical examination, and receiving a booster dose of HBV vaccine when resulting with a non-protective titer (<10 mIU/mL), were collected and analyzed. Most of the HCSs (74.6%) included in the survey, mean age 24.8 y ( ± 4.6 SD), had received the primary vaccination course during the first year of life (3-5-11 months). Globally, 507 (70.7%) HCSs showed protective antibody titres, and an anamnestic response was observed in more than 95% subjects receiving the booster dose. Our study demonstrated the long-term persistence of protection of HBV vaccine, more than 20 y following the

  15. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  16. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  17. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  18. Cross-Country Skiing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  19. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  1. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  2. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  3. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  4. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  5. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > NEI for Kids > Protective Eyewear All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  6. Human immunome, bioinformatic analyses using HLA supermotifs and the parasite genome, binding assays, studies of human T cell responses, and immunization of HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice including novel adjuvants provide a foundation for HLA-A03 restricted CD8+T cell epitope based, adjuvanted vaccine protective against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis causes loss of life, cognitive and motor function, and sight. A vaccine is greatly needed to prevent this disease. The purpose of this study was to use an immmunosense approach to develop a foundation for development of vaccines to protect humans with the HLA-A03 supertype. Three peptides had been identified with high binding scores for HLA-A03 supertypes using bioinformatic algorhythms, high measured binding affinity for HLA-A03 supertype molecules, and ability to elicit IFN-γ production by human HLA-A03 supertype peripheral blood CD8+ T cells from seropositive but not seronegative persons. Results Herein, when these peptides were administered with the universal CD4+T cell epitope PADRE (AKFVAAWTLKAAA) and formulated as lipopeptides, or administered with GLA-SE either alone, or with Pam2Cys added, we found we successfully created preparations that induced IFN-γ and reduced parasite burden in HLA-A*1101(an HLA-A03 supertype allele) transgenic mice. GLA-SE is a novel emulsified synthetic TLR4 ligand that is known to facilitate development of T Helper 1 cell (TH1) responses. Then, so our peptides would include those expressed in tachyzoites, bradyzoites and sporozoites from both Type I and II parasites, we used our approaches which had identified the initial peptides. We identified additional peptides using bioinformatics, binding affinity assays, and study of responses of HLA-A03 human cells. Lastly, we found that immunization of HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice with all the pooled peptides administered with PADRE, GLA-SE, and Pam2Cys is an effective way to elicit IFN-γ producing CD8+ splenic T cells and protection. Immunizations included the following peptides together: KSFKDILPK (SAG1224-232); AMLTAFFLR (GRA6164-172); RSFKDLLKK (GRA7134-142); STFWPCLLR (SAG2C13-21); SSAYVFSVK(SPA250-258); and AVVSLLRLLK(SPA89-98). This immunization elicited robust protection, measured as reduced parasite burden using a luciferase transfected parasite

  7. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  8. Protective sheath for a continuous measurement thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippi, R. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a protective thermocouple sheath of a magnesia graphite refractory material for use in continuous temperature measurements of molten metal in a metallurgical ladle and having a basic slag layer thereon. The sheath includes an elongated torpedo-shaped sheath body formed of a refractory composition and having an interior borehole extending axially therethrough and adapted to receive a thermocouple. The sheath body includes a lower end which is closed about the borehole and forms a narrow, tapered tip. The sheath body also includes a first body portion integral with the tapered tip and having a relatively constant cross section and providing a thin wall around the borehole. The sheath body also includes a second body portion having a relatively constant cross section larger than the cross section of the first body portion and providing a thicker wall around the borehole. The borehole terminates in an open end at the second body portion. The tapered tip is adapted to penetrate the slag layer and the thicker second body portion and its magnesia constituent material are adapted to withstand chemical attack thereon from the slag layer. The graphite constituent improves thermal conductivity of the refractory material and, thus, enhances the thermal responsiveness of the device.

  9. Protective sheath for a continuous measurement thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippi, R.M.

    1991-12-03

    Disclosed is a protective thermocouple sheath of a magnesia graphite refractory material for use in continuous temperature measurements of molten metal in a metallurgical ladle and having a basic slag layer thereon. The sheath includes an elongated torpedo-shaped sheath body formed of a refractory composition and having an interior borehole extending axially therethrough and adapted to receive a thermocouple. The sheath body includes a lower end which is closed about the borehole and forms a narrow, tapered tip. The sheath body also includes a first body portion integral with the tapered tip and having a relatively constant cross section and providing a thin wall around the borehole. The sheath body also includes a second body portion having a relatively constant cross section larger than the cross section of the first body portion and providing a thicker wall around the borehole. The borehole terminates in an open end at the second body portion. The tapered tip is adapted to penetrate the slag layer and the thicker second body portion and its magnesia constituent material are adapted to withstand chemical attack thereon from the slag layer. The graphite constituent improves thermal conductivity of the refractory material and, thus, enhances the thermal responsiveness of the device. 4 figures.

  10. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA.

  11. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  12. Protective effect of methylprednisolone on ischaemic myocardium assessed by ventricular function.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, B L; Hassan, M A; McMilan, A B; Brown, A H

    1977-01-01

    Intracardiac surgical procedures are best carried out when the heart is still and bloodless. This condition, however, produces myocardial cellular damage with loss of contractility and compliance unless some protection can be provided. Myocardial contractility and compliance is best studied by isovolumic ventricular function tests, which were used to evaluate the protective effect of methylprednisolone on the isolated cross-perfused canine heart made ischaemic for 2 hours. Control experiments included 2 hours of ischaemia without methylprednisolone, and 2 hours of continuous normothermic cross-perfusion. The methylprednisolone-treated hearts had probably significantly better ventricular function after 2 hours of ischaemia than did hearts without the methylprednisolone, while the cross-perfused hearts were best overall. This work suggests that methylprednisolone may have a protective effect on the ischaemic myocardium of the intact canine heart. PMID:867332

  13. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  14. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  15. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  16. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  17. Offshore marine structure with corrosion protection

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D.A.; Barr, B.D.; Rommelmann, D.W.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a marine structure having a deck and a rotatable drill string for drilling wellbores into the floor of a body of water; a jacket comprised of corrodible metallic members including support legs which are mutually interconnected with cross braces, and which jacket rests on the floor and supports the deck above the water's surface, a drilling template incorporated into the jacket to accommodate drilling conductors for guiding the rotatable drill string which is lowered from the deck to form a vertical wellbore, the drilling template including vertically aligned elongated conductor guides arranged in a horizontal pattern to define a drill conductor array comprised of external conductors, which encompass at least one internal conductor, a cathodic protection system protecting the corrodible metallic members of the marine structure comprising a first sacrificial anode system disposed on discrete submerged jacket members to afford corrosion protection to the jacket members as well as to submerged sections of the drill conductor array, and other sacrificial anodes removably carried on at least one internal conductor to supplement the cathodic protection afforded by the first sacrificial anodes.

  18. Evaluation of cross-protection between O1 Manisa and O1 Campos in cattle vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine incorporating different payloads of inactivated O1 Manisa antigen.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar; Madhanmohan, Muthukrishnan; Yuvaraj, Shanmugam; Parida, Satya; Di Nardo, Antonello; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Paton, David James

    2011-02-24

    Serology is used to predict vaccine induced protection against challenge with a heterologous strain of the same serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). To evaluate the accuracy of such predictions, we compared the protection afforded to cattle vaccinated with the O(1) Manisa strain of FMDV against challenge with either a homologous (O(1) Manisa) or a heterologous strain (O(1) Campos). Serology by virus neutralization test (VNT) using O(1) Manisa antiserum predicted an acceptable protection against such a challenge. Two experiments were carried out to compare the results for consistency. A total of 78 naïve cattle were vaccinated with different antigen payloads (60-0.94 μg) of O(1) Manisa. They were challenged by intradermolingual inoculation with live FMDV, either O(1) Manisa or O(1) Campos. Unvaccinated naïve control cattle (n=20) were also challenged with either the O(1) Manisa or O(1) Campos viruses and all developed generalized FMD. The protection results for the vaccinated cattle revealed that higher payloads of O(1) Manisa vaccine were needed to protect against heterologous challenge compared to that for homologous challenge. The 50% protective dose (PD(50)) values for the vaccine in experiments 1 and 2 were found to be 28.78 and 9.44 for the homologous challenge and 3.98 and 5.01 for heterologous challenge. Furthermore, protection against O(1) Campos required a higher level of vaccine-induced antibody against this virus compared to the level of O(1) Manisa neutralizing antibody associated with protection against homologous challenge. The 50% protective level of in vitro neutralizing antibody was found to be log(10)1.827 for O(1) Campos and log(10)0.954 for O(1) Manisa based on O(1) Manisa based virus neutralization test.

  19. Learn about the Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR) provides the legal framework for electronic reporting (ER) under all of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) environmental regulations.

  20. Do social interactions explain ethnic differences in psychological distress and the protective effect of local ethnic density? A cross-sectional study of 226 487 adults in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Background A frequently proposed, but under-researched hypothesis is that ethnic density benefits mental health through increasing social interactions. We examined this hypothesis in 226 487 adults from 19 ethnic groups aged 45 years and older in Australia. Methods Multilevel logit regression was used to measure the association between ethnicity, social interactions, own-group ethnic density and scores of 22+ on the Kessler scale of psychological distress. Self-reported ancestry was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Measures of social interactions included a number of times in the past week were (i) spent with friends or family participants did not live with; (ii) talked to someone on the telephone; (iii) attended meetings of social groups and (iv) how many people could be relied upon outside their home, but within 1 h of travel. Per cent own-group ethnic density was measured at the Census Collection District scale. Results Psychological distress was reported by 11% of Australians born in Australia. The risk of experiencing psychological distress varied among ethnic minorities and by country of birth (eg, 33% for the Lebanese born in Lebanon and 4% for the Swiss born in Switzerland). These differences remained after full adjustment. Social interactions varied between ethnic groups and were associated with lower psychological distress and ethnic density. Ethnic density was associated with reduced psychological distress for some groups. This association, however, was explained by individual and neighbourhood characteristics and not by social interactions. Conclusions Social interactions are important correlates of mental health, but fully explain neither the ethnic differences in psychological distress nor the protective effect of own-group density. PMID:23645917

  1. Protecting Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loepp, Susan; Wootters, William K.

    2006-09-01

    For many everyday transmissions, it is essential to protect digital information from noise or eavesdropping. This undergraduate introduction to error correction and cryptography is unique in devoting several chapters to quantum cryptography and quantum computing, thus providing a context in which ideas from mathematics and physics meet. By covering such topics as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm, this text informs the reader about current thinking in quantum information theory and encourages an appreciation of the connections between mathematics and science.Of particular interest are the potential impacts of quantum physics:(i) a quantum computer, if built, could crack our currently used public-key cryptosystems; and (ii) quantum cryptography promises to provide an alternative to these cryptosystems, basing its security on the laws of nature rather than on computational complexity. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed, but students should have a basic knowledge of complex numbers, vectors, and matrices. Accessible to readers familiar with matrix algebra, vector spaces and complex numbers First undergraduate text to cover cryptography, error-correction, and quantum computation together Features exercises designed to enhance understanding, including a number of computational problems, available from www.cambridge.org/9780521534765

  2. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 y, BMI: 30.0±7.1kg/m2) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA–PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Results Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0

  3. Cross-border Ties and Arab American Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N=896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties – attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  4. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  5. Cathodic protection system inspection 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jim; Polly, Dan

    1994-02-01

    The rectifier is the heart of an impressed current cathodic protection system. As it is subject to many adverse conditions including power surges, lightning strikes, vandalism, physical damage, and deterioration from atmospheric exposure, frequent inspections of rectifiers are vital to keeping an impressed current system operating so that it can provide nearly continuous protection of the underground, or submerged structures that are being protected.

  6. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  7. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  8. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  9. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  10. Association between health information, use of protective devices and occurrence of acute health problems in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Suárez, Berta; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Pollán, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper examines the association between use of protective devices, frequency of acute health problems and health-protection information received by participants engaged in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria, Spain. Methods We studied 133 seamen, 135 bird cleaners, 266 volunteers and 265 paid workers selected by random sampling, stratified by type of worker and number of working days. Information was collected by telephone interview conducted in June 2003. The association of interest was summarized, using odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression. Results Health-protection briefing was associated with use of protective devices and clothing. Uninformed subjects registered a significant excess risk of itchy eyes (OR:2.89; 95%CI:1.21–6.90), nausea/vomiting/dizziness (OR:2.25; 95%CI:1.17–4.32) and throat and respiratory problems (OR:2.30; 95%CI:1.15–4.61). There was a noteworthy significant excess risk of headaches (OR:3.86: 95%CI:1.74–8.54) and respiratory problems (OR:2.43; 95%CI:1.02–5.79) among uninformed paid workers. Seamen, the group most exposed to the fuel-oil, were the worst informed and registered the highest frequency of toxicological problems. Conclusion Proper health-protection briefing was associated with greater use of protective devices and lower frequency of health problems. Among seamen, however, the results indicate poorer dissemination of information and the need of specific guidelines for removing fuel-oil at sea. PMID:16390547

  11. Thermal Protection Materials for Reentry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Gusman, Mike; Loehman, Ron; Kotula, Paul; Ellerby, Donald; Arnold, James; Wercinski, Paul; Reuthers, James; Kontinos, Dean

    2001-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (IRS) are used to protect spacecraft during reentry into Earth's atmosphere or entry into planetary atmospheres. As such, these materials are subject to severe environments with high heat fluxes and rapid heating. Catalytic effects can increase the temperatures substantially. These materials are also subject to impact damage from micrometeorites or other debris during ascent, orbit, and descent, and thus must be able to withstand damage and to function following damage. Thermal protection materials and coatings used in reusable launch vehicles will be reviewed, including the needs and directions for new materials to enable new missions that require faster turnaround and much greater reusability. The role of ablative materials for use in high heat flux environments, especially for non-reusable applications and upcoming planetary missions, will be discussed. New thermal protection system materials may enable the use of sharp nose caps and leading edges on future reusable space transportation vehicles. Vehicles employing this new technology would have significant increases in maneuverability and out-of-orbit cross range compared to current vehicles, leading to increased mission safety in the event of the need to abort during ascent or from orbit. Ultrahigh temperature ceramics, a family of materials based on HfB2 and ZrB2 with SiC, will be discussed. The development, mechanical and thermal properties, and uses of these materials will be reviewed.

  12. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  13. 76 FR 66862 - Opening of Boquillas Border Crossing and Update to the Class B Port of Entry Description

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... crossing would service only pedestrians visiting Big Bend National Park and Mexican Protected Areas--not... all applicable regulations, including all relevant Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... description. Another change under the proposed Class B description expressly would permit Mexican nationals...

  14. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Eye protection means more than just ... after cataract surgery? Aug 30, 2015 Scleritis Symptoms Mar 01, 2015 Anti-reflective Coating Feb 27, 2015 ...

  15. Cross-Species Coherence in Effects and Modes of Action in Support of Causality Determinations in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peer-reviewed literature on the health and ecological effects of lead (Pb) indicates common effects and underlying modes of action across multiple organisms for several endpoints. Based on such observations, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) applied a cr...

  16. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  17. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  18. Protective link for superconducting coil

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  19. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in Ecuador during 2009-2010 and cross-protection studies with the vaccine strain in use in the region.

    PubMed

    Maradei, Eduardo; Perez Beascoechea, Claudia; Malirat, Viviana; Salgado, Gustavo; Seki, Cristina; Pedemonte, Andrea; Bonastre, Paula; D'Aloia, Ricardo; La Torre, José L; Mattion, Nora; Rodríguez Toledo, Jorge; Bergmann, Ingrid E

    2011-10-26

    During the years 2009 and 2010 relevant epidemic waves of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype O occurred in Ecuador, representing a great drawback for the last stages of the ongoing eradication program in South America. This study describes the molecular and antigenic characterizations of 29 isolates collected from various regions in the country and their relationship to the vaccine strain. The phylogenetic tree derived from sequences spanning the complete VP(1) protein showed that, despite the widespread origin of the viruses, they were all related among themselves and to previous isolates occurring in 2008, with around 10% difference with the vaccine strain O1/Campos. The high level of sequence conservation among different isolates in the various regions of Ecuador pointed to a common origin, suggesting animal movements as possible sources of viral spread. Monoclonal antibody profiling grouped the isolates in two major reactivity patterns which differed from that of the vaccine strain. Both profiles showed loss of reactivity with the same four MAbs, three of them with neutralizing properties. Additional sites were lost in the profile representing most of the 2010s viral samples. Levels of protective antibodies induced by the vaccine against the field strains assessed by in vitro vaccine matching studies also pointed to an increased temporal pattern of loss of a protective response. Moreover, results obtained with in vivo challenge in the protection against podal generalization test in cattle, clearly indicated lack of appropriate protection of the Ecuadorian field strains by the vaccine virus in use, which in the case of a 2010 variant was observed even after revaccination.

  20. American Red Cross

    MedlinePlus

    ... Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Toggle Navigation Menu ... Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store ...

  1. Inherent overload protection for the series resonant converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. J.; Stuart, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The overload characteristics of the full bridge series resonant power converter are considered. This includes analyses of the two most common control methods presently in use. The first of these uses a current zero crossing detector to synchronize the control signals and is referred to as the alpha controller. The second is driven by a voltage controlled oscillator and is referred to as the gamma controller. It is shown that the gamma controller has certain reliability advantages in that it can be designed with inherent short circuit protection. Experimental results are included for an 86 kHz converter using power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  2. Rocket Motor Joint Construction Including Thermal Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal barrier for extremely high temperature applications consists of a carbon fiber core and one or more layers of braided carbon fibers surrounding the core. The thermal barrier is preferably a large diameter ring, having a relatively small cross-section. The thermal barrier is particularly suited for use as part of a joint structure in solid rocket motor casings to protect low temperature elements such as the primary and secondary elastomeric O-ring seals therein from high temperature gases of the rocket motor. The thermal barrier exhibits adequate porosity to allow pressure to reach the radially outward disposed O-ring seals allowing them to seat and perform the primary sealing function. The thermal barrier is disposed in a cavity or groove in the casing joint, between the hot propulsion gases interior of the rocket motor and primary and secondary O-ring seals. The characteristics of the thermal barrier may be enhanced in different applications by the inclusion of certain compounds in the casing joint, by the inclusion of RTV sealant or similar materials at the site of the thermal barrier, and/or by the incorporation of a metal core or plurality of metal braids within the carbon braid in the thermal barrier structure.

  3. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  4. Structures protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Materials of which an aircraft is made and the methods used to hold these materials together forming the aircraft structure were studied as factors important in protecting a modern aircraft from hazardous natural environments. Since all-metal aircraft are being replaced by aircraft constructed partly of fiber reinforced plastics with desirable light weight and high strength properties but with poor electrical conductivity, the danger of lightning strikes has become more serious. Lightning effects on metal structures were reviewed and design protection was discussed. The expected lightning effects on nonmetallic materials such as fiberglass and advanced composites were also reviewed.

  5. Ozone Layer Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ozone Layer Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Ozone Layer Protection Welcome to EPA's ozone layer protection web ...

  6. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    PubMed

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    Background As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC

  7. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  8. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  9. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  10. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  11. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  12. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  13. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  14. 40 CFR 750.40 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cross-examination. 750.40 Section 750.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... exercised. The panel will also have authority to modify the governing ruling in any respect and to make...

  15. 40 CFR 750.8 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cross-examination. 750.8 Section 750.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT PROCEDURES... any respect and to make new rulings on group representation under section 6(c)(3)(C) of TSCA....

  16. Computer Room Water Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the protection of computer rooms from water. Sources of water and potentially vulnerable areas in computer rooms are described. Water detection is then discussed, and several detection systems are detailed. Prices and manufacturers' telephone numbers for some of the systems are included. Water cleanup is also briefly considered. (MES)

  17. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  18. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  19. Apparatus for protecting subsea wells

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, T.J.; Krenek, M.J.; Piazza, A.L.

    1981-06-16

    Apparatus for protecting subsea structures, and in particular Christmas trees from damage by fishing nets, trawl boards, anchors and other marine equipment, includes a protective structure which is placed over the Christmas tree. The protective structure has an opening in the top portion to allow access to the Christmas tree when such access is needed and a protective cap which closes the opening to prevent damage from silt, sand, trash and overhead falling objects. The entire protective structure is secured in place by one or more piles which are driven into the sea floor or by cementing one or more steel piles in place in the sea floor. The protective structure and the cap are guided into place around the well by guide cables attached to the guide base of the well. A lifting device in the protective cap facilitates removal of the cap by a single cable.

  20. Design philosophy for reliable systems, including control

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    In the past, use of computers and software to manage physical plant has usually involved systems similar to the clockwork automata of the 17th century. The next generation of plant control will include intelligent systems - computer systems having knowledge of the plant and being capable of intelligent behavior, even though only some control functions will need such expertise. This report develops a framework for a universe of discourse usable by such non-human experts. It is based on the idea that a design has many features of a contract and may be described as a contract between humans and a machine, defining what each must do to attain a goal. Several points are discussed: the use of techniques in analytical redundancy and their place as analogues in administrative control for conventional techniques in physical control; the use of redundant computer systems to protect against hardware faults; the necessity to prove properties of software used in redundant hardware, because software faults are common modes across redundant hardware; and some issues in choosing a programming language for provable control software. Because proof of correctness is costly, it should be used only where necessary. This report concludes that the degree of reliability needed by the plant model used in analytic redundancy protection need not be nearly as reliable as the mechanism to detect discrepancy between plant and model.

  1. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Homologous and heterologous protection of nonhuman primates by Ebola and Sudan virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Dye, John M; Wells, Jay B; Unfer, Robert C; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Swenson, Dana L; Bavari, Sina; Aman, M Javad

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and virus-like particles (VLPs) have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV) following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system) and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV) and Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components.

  3. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  4. Spacecraft ceramic protective shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larriva, Rene F. (Inventor); Nelson, Anne (M.); Czechanski, James G. (Inventor); Poff, Ray E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A low areal density protective shield apparatus, and method for making same, for protecting spacecraft structures from impact with hypervelocity objects, including a bumper member comprising a bumper ceramic layer, a bumper shock attenuator layer, and a bumper confining layer. The bumper ceramic layer can be SiC or B.sub.4 C; the bumper shock attenuator layer can be zirconia felt; and the bumper confining layer can be aluminum. A base armor member can be spaced from the bumper member and a ceramic fiber-based curtain can be positioned between the bumper and base armor members.

  5. Offshore drilling platform protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, J.M.

    1981-12-15

    A description is given of an offshore drilling platform protection device for use on an offshore oil well drilling vessel including a drilling platform supportable on a plurality of extendable legs wherein each leg is moved by a rack gear assembly. The rack gear assembly includes an otherwise exposed first gear which engages a second gear positioned in a housing having a rectangular corner opening through which the first gear extends, the protection device including first and second protective sections adapted for mounting over the first gear adjacent to the rectangular corner of the housing for the second gear, the first and second protective sections cooperating to provide an l-shaped opening which communicates with the opening at the second gear housing for protecting the first gear while allowing the first gear to mesh with the second gear.

  6. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James; Ludlow, J A; Lee, Teck - Ghee; Pindzola, M S; Robicheaux, F

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  7. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones: regions included. 29... Protection § 29.1181 Designated fire zones: regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines;...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 25... Protection § 25.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section; (2) The engine accessory section; (3) Except for reciprocating engines, any...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. Designated fire zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3)...

  10. Protecting Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  11. 40 CFR 35.4140 - What must be included in my group's work plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Tag § 35.4140 What must be included in my group's work plan? (a) Your scope of work must clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in my group's work plan? 35.4140 Section 35.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS...

  12. 40 CFR 1037.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... greenhouse gas and evaporative emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices (AECDs) and all... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I include in my application? 1037.205 Section 1037.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  13. 40 CFR 1037.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... greenhouse gas and evaporative emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices (AECDs) and all... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I include in my application? 1037.205 Section 1037.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  14. 40 CFR 1037.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... greenhouse gas and evaporative emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices (AECDs) and all... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I include in my application? 1037.205 Section 1037.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  15. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R.

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  16. Cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Pfalser, I.L.; Brannan, M.S.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a cathodic protection system for protecting a metallic structure in contact with the earth from corrosion. It comprises at least one electrically conductive member positioned in a borehole in the earth which is defined by an earthen sidewall: a quantity of a particulate mixture of a clay and a carbonaceous solid which at least partially fills the borehole around the at least one conductive member such that the mixture contacts the earthen sidewall and the at least one conductive member, wherein the mixture has a clay to carbonaceous solid weight ratio of at least about 0.1:1; means for applying a DC electrical voltage to the metallic structure and the at least one conductive member such that the metallic structure is at a negative polarity and the at least one conductive member is at a positive polarity, whereby a current is established between the metallic structure and the at least one conductive member through the earth and the mixture.

  17. Defense Industrial Base Capabilities Study: Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Protect satellites from DE • Protect satellites from projectiles ( asteroids , space debris, other satellites) • Protect space-based sensors from...Protection, it includes technologies that enable unmanned or autonomous protection missions such as robotic mine seekers and mine killers , among other...technologies. ♦ Autonomous Mine Hunter- Killer ♦ Bio-Mimetic Technologies for AUVs ♦ Crawling UUVs ♦ Remotely-Piloted Mine Countermeasure (MCM

  18. Pipe protection bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pipes and pipelines are being used for an ever widening range of materials, for increasing flows and in harsher applications. There is also more legal and social pressure to reduce the hazards associated with handling materials in pipes. All of this increases the demand for improved pipe reliability. Two of the major preventable causes of pipe failure are corrosion and wear. These may result from the pipe surroundings, or from the material which is carried and it is often impossible to prevent failure by the choice of pipe materials and design. However, additional pipe protection measures are available and it is these measures which are considered in this bibliography. The most common pipe protection methods are the application of coatings and the use of cathodic protection. Accordingly, much of this bibliography is devoted to these techniques. Articles dealing with other means of protecting pipes have also been included. The bibliography covers the protection of oil pipes, (both offshore and on land); water supply systems; gas distribution systems; sewer pipes; pipes for hydraulic and pneumatic transport of solids; power plant pipework; process plant pipework.

  19. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  20. Migrating microbes and planetary protection.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Schuerger, Andrew C; Race, Margaret S

    2009-09-01

    Since the dawn of the space age, humans have wrestled with concerns about planetary cross-contamination. Spacecraft launched from Earth can transport hitchhiker microbes to new worlds on both robotic and crewed vehicles. As plans proceed for future life detection and human exploration missions, planetary protection considerations are again uppermost on the agendas of mission planners, and microbiologists have an important role to play.

  1. 40 CFR 1048.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... systems operate. Describe the evaporative emission controls, if applicable. Also describe in detail all system components for controlling exhaust emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices...? 1048.205 Section 1048.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems operate. Describe the evaporative emission controls, if applicable. Also describe in detail all system components for controlling exhaust emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices...? 1048.205 Section 1048.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  3. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  4. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  5. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  6. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  7. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  8. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  9. Identification of polyvalent protective immunogens from outer membrane proteins in Vibrio parahaemolyticus to protect fish against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Ye, Jin-Zhou; Han, Yi; Zeng, Li; Zhang, Jian-Ying; Li, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective and economic way to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture. The development of effective vaccines, however, is still limited, especially for polyvalent vaccines, which are against multiple species. With this regard, identification of polyvalent protective immunogens, serving as polyvalent vaccines, became a key step in vaccine development. In the current study, 17 outer membrane proteins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus were identified as immunogens. Further, four of the 17 proteins including VP2309, VP0887, VPA0548 and VP1019 were characterized as efficiently protective immunogens against V. parahaemolyticus' infection through passive and active immunizations in zebrafish. Importantly, these four proteins showed cross-protective capability against infections by Aeromonas hydrophila or/and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which shared similar epitopes with V. parahaemolyticus in homology of these proteins. Further investigation showed that the expression level of the four protective immunogens elevated in response to fish plasma in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the four protective immunogens are polyvalent vaccine candidates in aquaculture.

  10. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A.; Patel, Sonal J.; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R.; Frei, Julia C.; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K.; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L.; Froude, Jeffrey W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Warfield, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. IMPORTANCE Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus

  11. Graphene in NLO Devices for High Energy Laser Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-17

    including eye) protection can be achieved by blocking, scattering, diffracting, or absorbing incoming laser light. Current solutions include shutter...noticeable color distortion (filters), narrow band protection (filters), low saturation thresholds (Reverse-Saturable Absorbing (RSA) NLO dyes), and...protecting. Sensor (including eye) protection can be achieved by blocking, scattering, diffracting, or absorbing incoming laser light. Current solutions

  12. Sun Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin. They include chemical ingredients such as titanium dioxide and zinc and are available in the form ... Cinnamates Octinoxate Cinoxate Ecamsule Mexoryl SX Sulisobenzone Salicylates Titanium Dioxide Zinc Oxide Avobenzone Parsol 1789 Some sunscreens are ...

  13. Protecting Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines how one school district used a comprehensive plan, that included cooperation between parents, students, and local law enforcement, to effectively respond to the current furor over school security. The components and costs of the plan are highlighted. (GR)

  14. Parkinson's disease protects against smoking?

    PubMed

    Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Campbell, Michael J; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the pooled risk of current and former smoking for Parkinson's disease (PD). We have reviewed all observational studies that evaluated the association between PD risk and smoking habit. Twenty six studies were identified: 21 case-control, 4 cohort and 1 cross-sectional. The cross-sectional study did not compare former with never smokers. These studies were carried out between 1968 and 2000. There was an obvious protective effect of current smoking in the pooled estimate [risk estimate 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.41)]. Former versus never smokers had pooled risk estimate of 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.92). Current and former smoking do not, therefore, exert the same protective effect against PD so that it is unnecessary to postulate a biological mechanism through which smoking protects against PD. The results show that the reverse direction of causation is a more probable explanation, i.e. movement disorders of PD protect against smoking. Another explanation is that failure to develop strong smoking habits in early adult life might be a prodromal symptom of the disease and could perhaps be its first clinical manifestation.

  15. 77 FR 58131 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Mississippi

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Mississippi... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR)...

  16. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Sandra M., Ed.; Mumford, Monica G., Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of training methods and exercises used by top trainers in the cross-cultural field contains resources essential for cross-cultural learning. This second volume of the collection includes articles by 34 leading cross-cultural trainers and covers new or divergent training methods for cross-cultural skill development and…

  17. Cross-Flow Ultrafiltration with a Shear-Thinning Organic Based Slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2001-01-10

    The Department of Energy is sponsoring the River Protection Project, which includes the design of a facility to stabilize liquid radioactive waste that is stored at the Hanford Site. Because of its experience with radioactive waste stabilization, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company was contracted to develop and test parts of the waste treatment process. One part of the process is the separation of highly radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by precipitation and cross-flow filtration. A cross-flow filter was tested with simulated wastes made to represent typical waste chemical and physical characteristics. This paper discusses the results of cross-flow filter operation in a pilot-scale facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids SRTC.

  18. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; von Bergen, Vera; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Mo, Huanbiao; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of bone characterized by loss of bone matrix and deterioration of bone microstructure that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between higher fruit intake and higher bone mineral density. In this review, we evaluated animal and cellular studies of dried plum and citrus and berry fruits and bioactive compounds including lycopene, phenolics, favonoids, resveratrol, phloridzin, and pectin derived from tomato, grapes, apples, and citrus fruits. In addition, human studies of dried plum and lycopene were reviewed. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed antioxidant-rich fruits have a pronounced effect on bone, as shown by higher bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. Such osteoprotective effects seem to be mediated via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory pathways and their downstream signaling mechanisms, leading to osteoblast mineralization and osteoclast inactivation. In future studies, randomized controlled trials are warranted to extend the bone-protective activity of fruits and their bioactive compounds. Mechanistic studies are needed to differentiate the roles of phytochemicals and other constitutes in bone protection offered by the fruits. Advanced imaging technology will determine the effective doses of phytochemicals and their metabolites in improving bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which is a critical step in translating the benefits of fruit consumption on osteoporosis into clinical data.

  19. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicable regulations. (2) A schematic drawing showing the size, weight, grade, wall thickness, and type of line pipe and risers; pressure-regulating devices (including back-pressure regulators); sensing devices... external pipeline coating system; (iii) Description of internal protective measures; (iv) Specific...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sections of turbine engine installations except sections that do not contain lines and components carrying... Protection § 29.1181 Designated fire zones: regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines;...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sections of turbine engine installations except sections that do not contain lines and components carrying... Protection § 29.1181 Designated fire zones: regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines;...

  2. 30 CFR 550.211 - What must the EP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....211 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... include exploration drilling, well test flaring, installing a well protection structure, and temporary... well and the locations of all associated drilling unit anchors. (c) Drilling unit. A description of...

  3. 30 CFR 550.211 - What must the EP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....211 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... include exploration drilling, well test flaring, installing a well protection structure, and temporary... well and the locations of all associated drilling unit anchors. (c) Drilling unit. A description of...

  4. 30 CFR 550.211 - What must the EP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....211 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... include exploration drilling, well test flaring, installing a well protection structure, and temporary... well and the locations of all associated drilling unit anchors. (c) Drilling unit. A description of...

  5. Optical probe with light fluctuation protection

    DOEpatents

    Da Silva, Luiz B.; Chase, Charles L.

    2003-11-11

    An optical probe for tissue identification includes an elongated body. Optical fibers are located within the elongated body for transmitting light to and from the tissue. Light fluctuation protection is associated with the optical fibers. In one embodiment the light fluctuation protection includes a reflective coating on the optical fibers to reduce stray light. In another embodiment the light fluctuation protection includes a filler with very high absorption located within the elongated body between the optical fibers.

  6. Caution -- Beam Crossing Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, Kenneth L.

    2008-04-02

    There are times when a laser beam needs to cross between tables or even go from one room to another. This presents an interesting traffic-flow and safety challenge to both the laser safety officer and laser user. Fortunately it is a challenge that has several solutions But the simplest solution may not be the best one. For example, the simplest way to get a beam from one optical table to another is just to put a sturdy tube around it. That's a permanent solution, and it completely contains the laser beam. While this is laser safe, there can be egress issues if it blocks a walkway. One comment this author often hears is, 'We can just duck under the tube.' The fire marshal, as well as the laser safety officer, might have issues with this. Especially in the case of a darkened lab, a blocked walkway can present a hazard of its own. One good solution is to transport the beam from Point A to Point B through a fiberoptic cable, when that is possible. One should easily be able to run the fiber up and over any walkway or down through a conduit on the floor. An important concern often overlooked with fibers is a label at the termination end indicating disconnection may expose one to laser radiation. Suppose there's an experiment that is usually confined to a single optical table, but sometimes needs to expand to a second table. It's inconvenient to install a permanent tube between the tables, so some sort of temporary arrangement is desirable. I have often seen people casually lay a beam tube across support arms, and remove it when it's not needed. The problem with this approach is that there's no mechanism to prevent the beam from crossing if somebody's forgotten the tube, or if the tube gets knocked out of place. A better solution is a mechanism that only allows the beam to cross when the beam protection is in place. A swing shutter, or a guillotine and swing arm, are examples (Figures 1 and 2). Another alternative is a sensor, maybe a little microswitch, that activates a

  7. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction measurements for the US Department of Energy nuclear programs which include waste disposal, fusion, safeguards, defense, fission, and personnel protection. These measurements are also useful to other energy programs which indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. The work includes the measurement of reference cross sections and related neutron data employing unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; the preservation of standard reference deposits and the development of improved neutron detectors and measurement methods. A related and essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the third year of this three-year interagency agreement. The proposed program and required budget for the following three years are also presented. The program continues the shifts in priority instituted in order to broaden the program base.

  8. On the protection of "protected areas".

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Loarie, Scott R; Pimm, Stuart L

    2008-05-06

    Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km(2) of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions-the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa-once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure-that is, whether effective laws also protect them-is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore "paper parks." Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption.

  9. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and... and have the vessel ready for inspection of its fire protection equipment, including the following:...

  10. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the... of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1) Inspection of each hand portable...

  11. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and... and have the vessel ready for inspection of its fire protection equipment, including the following:...

  12. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the... of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1) Inspection of each hand portable...

  13. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the... of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1) Inspection of each hand portable...

  14. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification, the... of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1) Inspection of each hand portable...

  15. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  16. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  17. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  18. 40 CFR 59.623 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I include in my application? 59.623 Section 59.623 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I include in my application? 1045.205 Section 1045.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS...

  20. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan? 262.105 Section 262.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  1. 40 CFR 262.102 - What special definitions are included in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What special definitions are included in this subpart? 262.102 Section 262.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE...

  2. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan? 262.105 Section 262.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  3. 40 CFR 59.623 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my application? 59.623 Section 59.623 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND...

  4. Cross-tolerance and cross-talk in the cold: relating low temperatures to desiccation and immune stress in insects.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J; Ferguson, Laura V; Salehipour-shirazi, Golnaz; MacMillan, Heath A

    2013-10-01

    Multiple stressors, both abiotic and biotic, often are experienced simultaneously by organisms in nature. Responses to these stressors may share signaling pathways ("cross-talk") or protective mechanisms ("cross-tolerance"). Temperate and polar insects that must survive the winter experience low temperatures accompanied by additional abiotic stressors, such as low availability of water. Cold and desiccation have many similar effects at a cellular level, and we present evidence that the cellular mechanisms that protect against cold stress also protect against desiccation, and that the responses to cold and dehydration likely evolved as cross-tolerance. By contrast, there are several lines of evidence suggesting that low temperature stress elicits an upregulation of immune responses in insects (and vice versa). Because there is little mechanistic overlap between cold stress and immune stress at the cellular level, we suggest that this is cross-talk. Both cross-talk and cross-tolerance may be adaptive and likely evolved in response to synchronous stressors; however, we suggest that cross-talk and cross-tolerance may lead to different responses to changes in the timing and severity of multiple stress interactions in a changing world. We present a framework describing the potentially different responses of cross-tolerance and cross-talk to a changing environment and describe the nature of these impacts using interaction of cold-desiccation and cold-immunity in overwintering insects as an example.

  5. Insider protection: a report card

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is not focussing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. We discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. We also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel.

  6. Modernizing public health law: protection and enforcement.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-08-01

    Health protection legislation has been updated through amendments to the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 to take account of emerging diseases and the risk of contamination by adopting an all hazard approach to disease protection. To further strengthen safeguards for protecting health, new health protection powers have been given to local authorities and magistrates. The powers can be used to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases and contamination. Health professionals, including district nurses, need to be aware of the health protection powers. This will enable them to take appropriate decisions in cases where voluntary measures to protect health are not possible.

  7. Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive to Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, Lalita; Quicke, Kendra M.; Hudson, William H.; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Mulligan, Mark J.; Wilson, Patrick C.; Ahmed, Rafi; Suthar, Mehul S.; Wrammert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations. PMID:27354515

  8. Bifunctional Electrophiles Cross-Link Thioredoxins with Redox Relay Partners in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Naticchia, Matthew R.; Brown, Haley A.; Garcia, Francisco J.; Lamade, Andrew M.; Justice, Samantha L.; Herrin, Rachelle P.; Morano, Kevin A.; West, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin protects cells against oxidative damage by reducing disulfide bonds in improperly oxidized proteins. Previously, we found that the baker's yeast cytosolic thioredoxin Trx2 undergoes cross-linking to form several protein-protein complexes in cells treated with the bifunctional electrophile divinyl sulfone (DVSF). Here, we report that the peroxiredoxin Tsa1 and the thioredoxin reductase Trr1, both of which function in a redox relay network with thioredoxin, become cross-linked in complexes with Trx2 upon DVSF treatment. Treatment of yeast with other bifunctional electrophiles, including diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DAD), mechlorethamine (HN2), and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), resulted in the formation of similar cross-linked complexes. Cross-linking of Trx2 and Tsa1 to other proteins by DVSF and DAD is dependent on modification of the active site Cys residues within these proteins. In addition, the human cytosolic thioredoxin, cytosolic thioredoxin reductase, and peroxiredoxin 2 form cross-linked complexes to other proteins in the presence of DVSF, although each protein shows different susceptibilities to modification by DAD, HN2, and DEB. Taken together, our results indicate that bifunctional electrophiles potentially disrupt redox homeostasis in yeast and human cells by forming cross-linked complexes between thioredoxins and their redox partners. PMID:23414292

  9. Protective Autoimmunity in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. It is accompanied by an autoimmune response against ApoB100, the core protein of LDL, which manifests as CD4 T cell and antibody responses. Approach and Results To assess the role of the autoimmune response in atherosclerosis, the nature of the CD4 T cell response against ApoB100 was studied with and without vaccination with MHC-II restricted ApoB100 peptides. The immunological basis of autoimmunity in atherosclerosis is discussed in the framework of theories of adaptive immunity. Older vaccination approaches are also discussed. Vaccinating Apoe−/− mice with MHC-II restricted ApoB100 peptides reduces atheroma burden in the aorta by ~40%. The protective mechanism likely includes secretion of IL-10. Conclusion Protective autoimmunity limits atherosclerosis in mice and suggests potential for developing preventative and therapeutic vaccines for humans. PMID:26821946

  10. Overvoltage protection network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambra, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Electrical equipment to be protected from overvoltage is connected with a possible source of overvoltage via an input conductor. A fuse is connected in series with the input conductor. A spark gap is connected between the input conductor and ground for conducting the overvoltage current to ground and for blowing the fuse to open the circuit to the electrical equipment. A pulse attenuator network is provided between the spark gap and the electrical equipment to be protected for attenuating the pulse of energy passing through the fuse and spark gap prior to blowing of the fuse. The pulse attenuator network includes additional shunt spark gaps, series inductance, and a series connection of a twisted shielded pair of conductors having low-voltage insulation.

  11. Subsea wellhead protective enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.M.

    1980-09-02

    Method and apparatus for protecting subsea wellheads and christmas trees from damage by anchors, fishing nets, trawl boards, and other towed devices. The apparatus includes an annular, rigid protective enclosure with inner and outer walls that define a hollow annular chamber, and a plurality of bag-like containers spaced around and attached to the enclosure's outer wall. The annular chamber is in communication with the interiors of the containers by means of ports through the enclosure's outer wall, whereby when cement is pumped into the chamber it also flows into and fills the containers to form a smoothly contoured shield around the enclosure. Should an anchor or other device become fouled on this shield, the container or containers involved will break away and let the anchor continue on its way up and over the enclosure without damage to the wellhead or other well equipment.

  12. Force protection

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is concerned with rapid, continuous inspection of vehicles entering military facilities or compounds, searching for high explosives, or the rapid survey of facilities if it is found that security has been breached. The author reviews methods which are in use now, including: x-rays; x-ray tomography; thermal or fast neutrons; quadrupole resonance; trace detection; electron capture; chemiluminesence; ion mobility spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; antibodies; and layered, synergistic approaches. He then discusses the limitations of these methods and proposes new approaches which are a combination of old techniques such as weighing vehicles with technological advances in some present methods.

  13. Dual Protection and Dual Methods in Women Living with HIV: The Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Regina María; Pinho, Adriana de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The cooccurrence of HIV and unintended pregnancy has prompted a body of work on dual protection, the simultaneous protection against HIV and unintended pregnancy. This study examines dual protection and dual methods as a risk-reduction strategy for women living with HIV. Data are from a cross-sectional sample of HIV-positive women attended in Specialized STI/AIDS Public Health Service Clinics in 13 municipalities from all five regions of Brazil 2003-2004 (N = 834). Descriptive techniques and logistic regression were used to examine dual protection among women living with HIV. We expand the definition of dual protection to include consistent condom use and reversible/irreversible contraceptive methods, we test the dual methods hypothesis that women who use dual methods will use condoms less consistently than women who use only condoms, and we identify predictors of dual protection. Dual protection is common in our sample. Women who use dual methods have lower odds of consistent condom use than women who only use condoms. Among dual method users, we find that women who use an irreversible method use condoms more consistently than women who use a reversible method. Women on ART and with an HIV-serodiscordant partner have greater odds of consistent condom use than their counterparts. PMID:26316959

  14. The role of ROS signaling in cross-tolerance: from model to crop

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ilse Barrios; Brown, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key signaling molecules produced in response to biotic and abiotic stresses that trigger a variety of plant defense responses. Cross-tolerance, the enhanced ability of a plant to tolerate multiple stresses, has been suggested to result partly from overlap between ROS signaling mechanisms. Cross-tolerance can manifest itself both as a positive genetic correlation between tolerance to different stresses (inherent cross-tolerance), and as the priming of systemic plant tolerance through previous exposure to another type of stress (induced cross-tolerance). Research in model organisms suggests that cross-tolerance could be used to benefit the agronomy and breeding of crop plants. However, research under field conditions has been scarce and critical issues including the timing, duration, and intensity of a stressor, as well as its interactions with other biotic and abiotic factors, remain to be addressed. Potential applications include the use of chemical stressors to screen for stress-resistant genotypes in breeding programs and the agronomic use of chemical inducers of plant defense for plant protection. Success of these applications will rely on improving our understanding of how ROS signals travel systemically and persist over time, and of how genetic correlations between resistance to ROS, biotic, and abiotic stresses are shaped by cooperative and antagonistic interactions within the underlying signaling pathways. PMID:25566313

  15. 22 CFR 71.8 - Assistance to American Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assistance to American Red Cross. 71.8 Section 71.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND ESTATES PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF CITIZENS AND THEIR PROPERTY General Activities § 71.8 Assistance...

  16. 22 CFR 71.8 - Assistance to American Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to American Red Cross. 71.8 Section 71.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND ESTATES PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF CITIZENS AND THEIR PROPERTY General Activities § 71.8 Assistance...

  17. Individual and Collective Protection Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-30

    food use sites: “as an additive during the manufacturing process of synthetic and non-woven textile materials used in aquarium filters, vacuum bags...development of the Triosyn Super HEPA (TSH) media as an enhanced filtration material to be included in individual protection and collective protection end...mature Triosyn Super HEPA filter material . A manufacturing process to incorporate Triosyn particles to glass fiber HEPA was developed to produce a

  18. Lung protective strategies in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, B; Slinger, P

    2010-12-01

    Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period including atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anaesthetic management can cause, exacerbate, or ameliorate these injuries. This review examines the effects of perioperative mechanical ventilation and its role in ventilator-induced lung injury. Lung protective ventilatory strategies to specific clinical situations such as cardiopulmonary bypass and one-lung ventilation along with newer novel lung protective strategies are discussed.

  19. Lightweight Thermal-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Lawson, A. G.; Whiteman, T. C.; Brien, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Hexagonal honeycomb panels secured by Y-shaped plates form lightweight, easily-maintained thermal-protection system. Honeycomb outer panel and fastener materials are selected to match local heating rates. Typical materials include composites, titanium, superalloys, and refractory metals. Advantages include complete symmetry of components--there are no left- or right-hand parts and no asymmetry in thermal expansion.

  20. Knowledge and practice of sun protection in schools in South Africa where no national sun protection programme exists.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reeder, Anthony I; Albers, Patricia N

    2016-04-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline information and investigated possible associations between strategies regarding sun protection in schools and students' responses to a questionnaire. Principals from randomly selected urban government schools in all nine South African provinces completed a questionnaire and 679 students were surveyed. The mean sun-related knowledge and behaviour scores of students were 4 (range: 1-7) and 3 (range-0-8) out of 9, respectively. The mean school sun protection effort score was 4 out of 14. There were no statistically significant correlations between students' knowledge or behaviour scores and their school score. The World Health Organization recommends an SSAP to address policy, practice and curriculum changes to support sun protection of students. This cross-sectional study demonstrates the feasibility of, and need for, a larger baseline study with longitudinal, multi-variable follow-up which includes other influential factors, such as parent support. Such research could quantify the impact of the SSAP and identify which key factors influence the sun-related knowledge and behaviours of students.

  1. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  2. Cross-Curricular Approaches Using Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyldesley, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Describes a workshop that presented both implementation strategies and a working model for education programs seeking to infuse environmental education (EE) in the classroom. Reviews possible obstacles to cross-curricular EE in the school setting and includes a list of factors useful in selecting cross-curricular program themes. (MCO)

  3. Cross Cultural Watershed Partners. Activities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.; And Others

    The Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN) has developed this manual of background information and activities for teachers and students who are interested in adding a cross cultural component to their watershed education program, or who wish to include an environmental context to their cross cultural experience. The instructional…

  4. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  5. Cross-cultural organizational behavior.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Erez, Miriam; Aycan, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces.

  6. Vitamin D and sun protection: the impact of mixed public health messages in Australia.

    PubMed

    Youl, Philippa H; Janda, Monika; Kimlin, Michael

    2009-04-15

    Exposure of the skin to sunlight can cause skin cancer and is also necessary for cutaneous Vitamin D production. Media reports have highlighted the purported health benefits of Vitamin D. Our aim was to examine attitudes and behaviours related to sun protection and Vitamin D. A cross-sectional study of 2,001 residents in Queensland, Australia, aged 20-70 years was undertaken. Information collected included the following: skin cancer risk factors; perceptions about levels of sun exposure required to maintain Vitamin D; belief that sun protection increases risk of Vitamin D deficiency; intention, and actual change in sun protection practices for adults and children. Multivariate models examined predictors of attitudinal and behavioural change. One-third (32%) believed a fair-skinned adult, and 31% thought a child required at least 30 min/day in summer sun to maintain Vitamin D levels. Reductions in sun protection were reported by 21% of adults and 14% of children. Factors associated with the belief that sun protection may result in not obtaining enough Vitamin D included age of >or=60 years (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.66) and having skin that tanned easily (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.38-2.78). Participants from low-income households, and those who frequently used sun-protective clothing were more likely to have reduced sun protection practices (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.10-1.73 and OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.36-2.20, respectively). This study provides evidence of reductions in sun protection practices in a population living in a high UV environment. There is an urgent need to refocus messages regarding sun exposure and for continued sun protection practices.

  7. Investigation of Performance Improvements Including Application of Inlet Guide Vanes to a Cross-flow Fan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    configurations while a butterfly valve in the exhaust duct was used for throttling studies. Figure 18 shows the horizontal inlet configuration...vertical thrust in a single seat VTOL aircraft, researchers at both the Naval Postgraduate School and Syracuse University have urged further

  8. Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Paula A.; Dunford, Robert W.; Holman, Ian P.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Climate change impact assessments often apply models of individual sectors such as agriculture, forestry and water use without considering interactions between these sectors. This is likely to lead to misrepresentation of impacts, and consequently to poor decisions about climate adaptation. However, no published research assesses the differences between impacts simulated by single-sector and integrated models. Here we compare 14 indicators derived from a set of impact models run within single-sector and integrated frameworks across a range of climate and socio-economic scenarios in Europe. We show that single-sector studies misrepresent the spatial pattern, direction and magnitude of most impacts because they omit the complex interdependencies within human and environmental systems. The discrepancies are particularly pronounced for indicators such as food production and water exploitation, which are highly influenced by other sectors through changes in demand, land suitability and resource competition. Furthermore, the discrepancies are greater under different socio-economic scenarios than different climate scenarios, and at the sub-regional rather than Europe-wide scale.

  9. A Theoretical and Experimental Study of Planing Surfaces Including Effects of Cross Section and Plan Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuford, Charles L , Jr

    1958-01-01

    A summary is given of the background and present status of the pure-planing theory for rectangular flat plates and v-bottom surfaces. The equations reviewed are compared with experiment. In order to extend the range of available planing data, the principal planing characteristics for models having sharp bottom surfaces having constant angles of dead rise of 20 degrees and 40 degrees. Planing data were also obtained for flat-plate surfaces with very slightly rounded chines for which decreased lift and drag coefficients are obtained.

  10. Boron nitride nanotubes included thermally cross-linked gelatin-glucose scaffolds show improved properties.

    PubMed

    Şen, Özlem; Culha, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are increasingly investigated for their medical and biomedical applications due to their unique properties such as resistance to oxidation, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. BNNTs can be used to enhance mechanical strength of biomedical structures such as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. In this study, we report the use of BNNTs and hydroxylated BNNTs (BNNT-OH) to improve the properties of gelatin-glucose scaffolds prepared with electrospinning technique. Human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells are used for the toxicity assessment and cell seeding studies. It is found that the addition of BNNTs into the scaffold does not influence cell viability, decreases the scaffold degradation rate, and improves cell attachment and proliferation compared to only-gelatin scaffold.

  11. Treatment of solid tumors should obligatorily be combined with the in vivo codepletion of tumor-protecting, CD8+/HLA-DR(+)-suppressor T cells by alloreactive donor T cells whose preprogrammed cell death allows a high GvL-effect before GvHD can be established. Results of animal experiments, including more than 6000 mice.

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P; Bielmeier, J

    1996-01-01

    The FACS-analysis of diseases as different as cancer, autoimmune disorders and chronic (retro)viral infections, including HIV-infection, shows -at least temporarily- a common feature of lymphocyte hyperactivation, characterized by cellular activation markers (HLA-DR, CD26, CD38, CD69, CD2R and/or CD30), as well as by solubilized membrane structures, such as beta-2m, sICAM-I, sIL-2R/sCD25, sCD8, and by some oversecreted immunocyte products (e.g. neopterin, lysozyme and/or cathepsin D). We tested two potential approaches to down-regulate the pathologically elevated CD8+ and HLA-DR+ T cells: (a) In animal model, we tested the sensibility of these, disease inducing and maintaining T cell subsets to in vitro pretreated (cell death preprogrammed) semi-syngeneic and allogeneic donor T cells in tumor-bearing mice. (b) In the first clinical study, we used a novel combination of FDA-approved drugs which inhibits Ca(2+)-influx and concomitantly down-regulates cytosolic cAMP in patient's overstimulated immunocompetent cells. We could achieve a 94.6-100% long-term survival in tumor-bearing mice. In patients, large primary tumors and large metastases shrinked by 80-85% and small metastases disappeared completely. Since in HIV-infected persons, the increased number of HLA-DR+ CD38+T (T8) cells is associated with a fall in CD4-level and with development of AIDS, we are looking for the elimination of these HLA-DR+ targets by our novel technique in two AIDS-simulating (FIV/FeLV and SIV) animal models.

  12. Manifolds and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossitto, Franco; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Ongaro, Filippo

    During the past 40 years humans have travelled beyond Earth's atmosphere, orbiting the planets for extended periods of time and landing on the Moon. Humans have survived this overwhelming challenge but to assure future exploration of space further expertise in the long term survival in space must be obtained. The International Space Station (ISS) provides this opportunity and allows space scientist to fine-tune their knowledge and prepare for even bolder human space missions. In this work we focus on the aspect of radiation, perhaps the most complex one from a physical and physiological perspective. Travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere and especially to Moon and Mars requires a precise consideration of the radiation environment as radiation exposure could be a show-stopper. At the moment scientists have not yet developed complete and reliable systems for radiation protection. Most likely an adequate level of protection will be reached through an integrated countermeasure system which could include: shields, monitoring of the environment, drugs to protect from damage, etc.

  13. Heterotypic protection to infectious bronchitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing a distinct spike (S) protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This recombinant vaccine technology confers cross-protection among different IBV strains. We also experimentally demonstrated that the recombinant construct main...

  14. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  15. Cross-boundary management between national parks and surrounding lands: A review and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonewald-Cox, Christine; Buechner, Marybeth; Sauvajot, Raymond; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    1992-03-01

    Protecting biodiversity on public lands is difficult, requiring the management of a complex array of factors. This is especially true when the ecosystems in question are affected by, or extend onto, lands outside the boundaries of the protected area. In this article we review recent developments in the cross-boundary management of protected natural resources, such as parks, wildlife reserves, and designated wilderness areas. Five ecological and 11 anthropic techniques have been suggested for use in cross-boundary management. The categories are not mutually exclusive, but each is a distinct and representative approach, suggested by various authors from academic, managerial, and legal professions. The ecological strategies stress the collection of basic data and documentation of trends. The anthropic techniques stress the usefulness of cooperative guidelines and the need to develop a local constituency which supports park goals. However, the situation is complex and the needed strategies are often difficult to implement. Diverse park resources are influenced by events in surrounding lands. The complexity and variability of sources, the ecological systems under protection, and the uncertainty of the effects combine to produce situations for which there are no simple answers. The solution to coexistence of the park and surrounding land depends upon creative techniques and recommendations, many still forthcoming. Ecological, sociological, legal, and economic disciplines as well as the managing agency should all contribute to these recommendations. Platforms for change include legislation, institutional policies, communication, education, management techniques, and ethics.

  16. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  17. New laser protective eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLear, Mark

    1996-04-01

    Laser technology has significantly impacted our everyday life. Lasers are now used to correct your vision, clear your arteries, and are used in the manufacturing of such diverse products as automobiles, cigarettes, and computers. Lasers are no longer a research tool looking for an application. They are now an integral part of manufacturing. In the case of Class IV lasers, this explosion in laser applications has exposed thousands of individuals to potential safety hazards including eye damage. Specific protective eyewear designed to attenuate the energy of the laser beam below the maximum permissible exposure is required for Class 3B and Class IV lasers according to laser safety standards.

  18. Change detection in and around UNESCO World Heritage sites including tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radoux, J.; Hernandez, M.; Defourny, P.

    2012-04-01

    UNESCO World Heritage sites including tropical forests require operational monitoring tools in and around their protected areas, as a support for REDD+ and biodiversity conservation actions. Considering the limited accessibility of these sites, remote sensing should become a key component of such monitoring tools. This study is part of a project that aims at designing an operational protocol for the processing of high resolution time series for the monitoring of protected UNESCO WH sites including tropical forests. Worldwide, 12 of those 76 sites have been selected to test the new method, and a 20 km buffer region has been added to the official boundaries in order to account for potential external threats and leakages. In total, the study area was approximately 170 000 sq km, covered by SPOT and Landsat images around three epochs. The main focus of this study is on the forest change analysis in the South East Atlantic Forest WH site (12 000 sq km), which was accepted by UNESCO in 1999. The objective was to assess forest changes between 1990, 2000 and 2010 to see if the protected area status had an impact on the land cover dynamic in and around the site. A semi-automated change detection method was therefore designed. After state-of-the-art pre-processing of the SPOT and Landsat scenes, a Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis was designed for the change detection. This analysis includes three steps : i) to build spatio-temporal image regions, ii) to detect statistical outliers and iii) to classify the outliers in no change, deforestation, afforestation or forest degradation. The first step consisted in the comparison between a multi-temporal image segmentation and a set of three linked single-date segmentations. The main challenge in this case was to build consistent analysis units through time, which could accommodate for small mis-registration errors. The second step compares two methods of automated detection of outliers in the map. These two methods are based

  19. Conducting an inspection of protection program operations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Howell, J.

    1987-07-01

    Protection Program Operations (PPO) encompasses the entire physical security program at a facility, including security construction and equipment, procedures, forces, management and supervision, and the integration of these elements into a total system. PPO subtopics are Physical Security Systems (PSS), Protection Forces (PF), and System Performance Tests (SPT). PSS assesses those security elements designed to protect security interests, and include sensors, surveillance devices, systems for transmission and integration of alarm and assessment information, barriers, lighting, etc. PF assesses the management, training, equipment and facilities, and skills and knowledge of the protective force. SPT includes Force-on-Force, Emergency Management Performance Test, and Limited Scope Performance Tests.

  20. High performance, durable polymers including poly(phenylene)

    DOEpatents

    Fujimoto, Cy; Pratt, Harry; Anderson, Travis Mark

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to functionalized polymers including a poly(phenylene) structure. In some embodiments, the polymers and copolymers of the invention include a highly localized concentration of acidic moieties, which facilitate proton transport and conduction through networks formed from these polymers. In addition, the polymers can include functional moieties, such as electron-withdrawing moieties, to protect the polymeric backbone, thereby extending its durability. Such enhanced proton transport and durability can be beneficial for any high performance platform that employs proton exchange polymeric membranes, such as in fuel cells or flow batteries.

  1. Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.

  2. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elaine R.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population. PMID:23494491

  3. Jessor's problem behavior theory: Cross-national evidence from Hungary, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Chen, Pan; Jenkins, Dusty D; Burcu, Esra; Torrente, Ginesa; Sheu, Chuen-Jim

    2010-11-01

    Jessor (2008) has recently called attention to description versus explanation in cross-cultural and cross-national comparative scholarship on adolescent development, particularly, the etiology of adolescent problem behaviors. In the current study, we were interested in testing to what extent problem behavior theory replicated in samples of 10,310 adolescents from 8 distinct developmental contexts, including Asian, Eastern and Western European, North American, and Eurasian/Muslim cultures. Path analyses by country samples as well as follow-up multigroup analyses provided evidence of great similarities across cultures in the links among two protective factor domains (controls protection and support protection), three risk factor domains (models risk, opportunity risk, and vulnerability risk), and the problem behavior syndrome, operationalized by vandalism, general deviance, school misconduct, theft, and assault measures. This evidence adds to a growing body of scholarship that provides support for similarities in explanation, despite many observed differences in description.

  4. US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, Stuart L.; Sexton, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Because habitat loss is the main cause of extinction, where and how much society chooses to protect is vital for saving species. The United States is well positioned economically and politically to pursue habitat conservation should it be a societal goal. We assessed the US protected area portfolio with respect to biodiversity in the country. New synthesis maps for terrestrial vertebrates, freshwater fish, and trees permit comparison with protected areas to identify priorities for future conservation investment. Although the total area protected is substantial, its geographic configuration is nearly the opposite of patterns of endemism within the country. Most protected lands are in the West, whereas the vulnerable species are largely in the Southeast. Private land protections are significant, but they are not concentrated where the priorities are. To adequately protect the nation’s unique biodiversity, we recommend specific areas deserving additional protection, some of them including public lands, but many others requiring private investment. PMID:25847995

  5. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  6. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  7. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  8. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  9. 40 CFR 270.110 - What must I include in my application for a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a RAP? 270.110 Section 270.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.110 What must I include in my application for a RAP? You must include the following information in your application for a RAP: (a) The name, address,...

  10. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  11. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  12. 40 CFR 270.110 - What must I include in my application for a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a RAP? 270.110 Section 270.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.110 What must I include in my application for a RAP? You must include the following information in your application for a RAP: (a) The name, address,...

  13. 40 CFR 1054.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...? 1054.205 Section 1054.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Certifying Emission Families § 1054.205 What must I include in my application? This section specifies the information that must be in your application, unless we ask you to include less information under §...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...? 1045.205 Section 1045.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Engine Families § 1045.205 What must I include in my application? This section specifies the information that must be in your application, unless we ask you to include less information under § 1045.201(c)....

  15. 40 CFR 1054.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...? 1054.205 Section 1054.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Certifying Emission Families § 1054.205 What must I include in my application? This section specifies the information that must be in your application, unless we ask you to include less information under §...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...? 1045.205 Section 1045.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Engine Families § 1045.205 What must I include in my application? This section specifies the information that must be in your application, unless we ask you to include less information under § 1045.201(c)....

  17. 40 CFR 60.2956 - What information must I include in my annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... annual report? 60.2956 Section 60.2956 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Qualification Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2956 What information must I include in my annual report? The annual report required under § 60.2955 must include the ten items listed in paragraphs...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2770 - What information must I include in my annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... annual report? 60.2770 Section 60.2770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... must I include in my annual report? The annual report required under § 60.2765 must include the ten... parameter recorded for the calendar year being reported. (g) Information recorded under § 60.2740(b)(6)...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14730 - What information must I include in my annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information must I include in my annual report? The annual report required under § 62.14725 must include the... annual report? 62.14730 Section 62.14730 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... applicable, for each operating parameter recorded for the calendar year being reported. (g)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2210 - What information must I include in my annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2001 Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2210 What information must I include in my annual report? The annual report required under § 60.2205 must include the ten items listed in paragraphs (a) through (j) of... annual report? 60.2210 Section 60.2210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. 40 CFR 35.4130 - What must be included in my group's budget?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... budget? 35.4130 Section 35.4130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Tag § 35.4130 What must be included in my group's budget? Your budget must clearly show how: (a) You... provide the required cash and/or in-kind contributions; and (c) Your group derived the figures included...

  2. Tribal wellhead protection demonstration projects

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Preventing contamination is the key to keeping ground water supplies safe. Once a drinking water supply becomes contaminated, a tribe is faced with the difficult and costly task of installing treatment facilities or locating an alternative source. Wellhead Protection provides the tribes with an opportunity to protect their drinking water supplies through local community planning. The case studies described herein illustrate Tribal Wellhead Protection activities and highlight several concerns Tribes may have in implementing Wellhead Protection. These concerns include: Ground water recharge or wellhead protection areas that are located outside the boundaries of Tribal reservations; Intimate relationship between ground and surface water within the reservation; Difficulturies in implementing or enforcing a program in the absence of a Tribal judicial body. The case study details should be useful in assisting Tribes to develop a Wellhead Protection Program under the Safe Drinking Water Act that is tailored to their unique set of circumstances. Case studies of successful Tribal Wellhead Programs may include elements that are adaptable to other Tribal Programs.

  3. Exposure to mass media health information, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors in a United States probability sample

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer; Coups, Elliot J.; Ford, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background The mass media is increasingly important in shaping a range of health beliefs and behaviors. Objective We examined the association between mass media health information exposure (general health, cancer, sun-protection information), skin cancer beliefs and sun protection behaviors. Methods We utilized a general population national probability sample comprised of 1,633 individuals with no skin cancer history (Health Information National Trends Survey, 2005, National Cancer Institute) and examined univariate and multivariate associations between family history of skin cancer, mass media exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection (use of sunscreen, shade-seeking, and use of sun-protective clothing). Results Mass media exposure was higher in younger individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. More accurate skin cancer beliefs and more adherent sun protection practices were reported by older individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. Recent Internet searches for health or sun-protection information was associated with sunscreen use. Limitations Study limitations include the self-report nature of sun protection behaviors and cross-sectional study design. Conclusion We identify demographic differences in mass media health exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors that will contribute to planning skin cancer awareness and prevention messaging across diverse population subgroups. PMID:19596487

  4. Cross resonant optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B

    2009-06-26

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  5. Photomultiplier circuit including means for rapidly reducing the sensitivity thereof. [and protection from radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A simple, reliable and inexpensive control circuit is described for rapidly reducing the bias voltage across one or more of the dynode stages of a photomultiplier, to substantially decrease its sensitivity to incoming light at those times where excess light intensity might damage the tube. The control circuit comprises a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), coupled between a pair of the electrodes in the tube, preferably the cathode and first dynode, or the first and second dynodes, the switching device operating in response to a trigger pulse applied to its gate to short circuit the two electrodes. To insure the desired reduction in sensitivity, two switching stages, the devices be employed between two of the electrode stages, the devices being operated simultaneously to short circuit both stages.

  6. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety during... operations to ensure that they comply with the requirements of § 3200.4, and applicable noise, air, and water... may require you to collect data concerning existing air and water quality, noise,...

  7. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety during... operations to ensure that they comply with the requirements of § 3200.4, and applicable noise, air, and water... may require you to collect data concerning existing air and water quality, noise,...

  8. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, and other cholestatic conditions. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of the disease pathophysiology, our understanding of the effects of UDCA remains unclear. Possibly underlying its cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative effects, UDCA was reported to regulate the expression of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. However, it is not known if this effect involves also modulation of ADAM family of metalloproteinases, which are responsible for release of ectodomains of inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface. We hypothesized that UDCA modulates ADAM17 activity, resulting in amelioration of cholestasis in a murine model of bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The effect of UDCA on ADAM17 activity was studied using the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Untransfected cells or cells ectopically expressing human ADAM17 were cultured with or without UDCA and further activated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression and release of ADAM17 substrates, TNFα, TGFα, and c-Met receptor (or its soluble form, sMet) were evaluated using ELISA and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Immunoblotting analyses were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of ADAM17 as well as the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after UDCA treatment. The regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) by UDCA was studied using zymography and qRT-PCR. A mouse model of acute cholestasis was induced by common BDL technique, during which mice received daily orogastric gavage with either UDCA or vehicle only. Liver injury was quantified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), relative liver weight, and confirmed by histological analysis. ADAM17 substrates in sera were assessed using a bead multiplex assay. Results UDCA decreases amount of shed TNFα, TGFα, and sMet in cell culture media and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. These effects are mediated by the reduction of ADAM17 activity in PMA stimulated cells although the expression ADAM17 is not affected. UDCA reduced the level of the mature form of ADAM17. Moreover, UDCA regulates the expression of TIMP-1 and gelatinases activity in PMA stimulated cells. A BDL-induced acute cholangitis model was characterized by increased relative liver weight, serum levels of ALP, sMet, and loss of intracellular glycogen. UDCA administration significantly decreased ALP and sMet levels, and reduced relative liver weight. Furthermore, hepatocytes of UDCA-treated animals retained their metabolic activity as evidenced by the amount of glycogen storage. Conclusions The beneficial effect of UDCA appears to be mediated in part by the inhibition of ADAM17 activation and, thus, the release of TNFα, a strong pro-inflammatory factor. The release of other ADAM17 substrates, TGFα and sMet, are also regulated this way, pointing to a general impact on the release of ADAM17 substrates, which are pivotal for liver regeneration and function. In parallel, UDCA upregulates TIMP-1 that in turn inhibits matrix metalloproteinases, which destroy the hepatic ECM in diseased liver. This control of extracellular matrix turnover represents an additional beneficial path of UDCA treatment. PMID:24172289

  9. Satellite reentry predictions for the Italian civil protection authorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    In just 5 months, from September 2011 to January 2012, three campaigns of reentry predictions were carried out in support of the Italian civil protection authorities. The satellites involved were UARS, ROSAT and Fobos-Grunt, which received widespread attention for the marginal risk on the ground associated with their uncontrolled reentry. From the technical point of view, the three reentry campaigns offered the occasion to compare some semi-empirical thermospheric density models under varying solar and geomagnetic activity conditions, dealing with spacecraft characterized by quite different configurations, shapes, masses and attitude control. However, what made the experience substantially different from usual reentry test campaigns was the strict interaction with the civil protection community and the public. In fact, in order to provide understandable and unambiguous information useful for civil protection planning and applications, the nominal reentry time predictions were of no use, while a particular care was devoted to the definition of appropriate reentry uncertainty windows. The attention of the civil protection authorities was focused, of course, on the Italian territory, so the relevant question for any planning was the following: given a certain uncertainty window, where and when a fragment might have crossed the national airspace and hit the ground? In order to meet this demand, during the last 3-4 days of satellite residual lifetime, reentries where simulated over Italy to obtain quite accurate ground tracks, debris swaths and air space crossing time windows associated with the critical passes over the national territory still included in the current uncertainty window. This information was updated, if needed, but remained relatively stable and accurate until the reentry, not much affected by the actual trajectory evolution due to the varying air drag. In other words, it was easy to understand for people not familiar with orbital dynamics, unambiguous

  10. Phosphoinositide kinase signaling controls ER-PM cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Omnus, Deike J.; Manford, Andrew G.; Bader, Jakob M.; Emr, Scott D.; Stefan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipid dynamics must be precisely regulated for normal cellular function, and disruptions in lipid homeostasis are linked to the progression of several diseases. However, little is known about the sensory mechanisms for detecting membrane composition and how lipid metabolism is regulated in response to membrane stress. We find that phosphoinositide (PI) kinase signaling controls a conserved PDK-TORC2-Akt signaling cascade as part of a homeostasis network that allows the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to modulate essential responses, including Ca2+-regulated lipid biogenesis, upon plasma membrane (PM) stress. Furthermore, loss of ER-PM junctions impairs this protective response, leading to PM integrity defects upon heat stress. Thus PI kinase–mediated ER-PM cross-talk comprises a regulatory system that ensures cellular integrity under membrane stress conditions. PMID:26864629

  11. Monte Carlo simulation model for economic evaluation of rubble mound breakwater protection in Harbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Males, Richard M.; Melby, Jeffrey A.

    2011-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has a mission to conduct a wide array of programs in the arenas of water resources, including coastal protection. Coastal projects must be evaluated according to sound economic principles, and considerations of risk assessment and sea level change must be included in the analysis. Breakwaters are typically nearshore structures designed to reduce wave action in the lee of the structure, resulting in calmer waters within the protected area, with attendant benefits in terms of usability by navigation interests, shoreline protection, reduction of wave runup and onshore flooding, and protection of navigation channels from sedimentation and wave action. A common method of breakwater construction is the rubble mound breakwater, constructed in a trapezoidal cross section with gradually increasing stone sizes from the core out. Rubble mound breakwaters are subject to degradation from storms, particularly for antiquated designs with under-sized stones insufficient to protect against intense wave energy. Storm waves dislodge the stones, resulting in lowering of crest height and associated protective capability for wave reduction. This behavior happens over a long period of time, so a lifecycle model (that can analyze the damage progression over a period of years) is appropriate. Because storms are highly variable, a model that can support risk analysis is also needed. Economic impacts are determined by the nature of the wave climate in the protected area, and by the nature of the protected assets. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) modeling that incorporates engineering and economic impacts is a worthwhile method for handling the many complexities involved in real world problems. The Corps has developed and utilized a number of MCS models to compare project alternatives in terms of their costs and benefits. This paper describes one such model, Coastal Structure simulation (CSsim) that has been developed specifically for planning level analysis of

  12. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  13. Handbook for Designing MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Jim; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Alan; Hyde, James; Lear, Dana; Liou, J.C.; Lyons, Frankel; Prior, Thomas; Studor, George; Ratliff, Martin; Ryan, Shannon; Giovane, Frank; Corsaro, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft are subject to micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impact damage which have the potential to degrade performance, shorten the mission, or result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. Specific MMOD protection requirements are established by NASA for each spacecraft early in the program/project life, to ensure the spacecraft meets desired safety and mission success goals. Both the design and operations influences spacecraft survivability in the MMOD environment, and NASA considers both in meeting MMOD protection requirements. The purpose of this handbook is to provide spacecraft designers and operations personnel with knowledge gained by NASA in implementing effective MMOD protection for the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and various science spacecraft. It has been drawn from a number of previous publications [10-14], as well as new work. This handbook documents design and operational methods to reduce MMOD risk. In addition, this handbook describes tools and equations needed to design proper MMOD protection. It is a living report, in that it will be updated and re-released periodically in future with additional information. Providing effective and efficient MMOD protection is essential for ensuring safe and successful operations of spacecraft and satellites. A variety of shields protect crew modules, external pressurized vessels and critical equipment from MMOD on the International Space Station (ISS). Certain Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle systems are hardened from MMOD impact, and operational rules are established to reduce the risk from MMOD (i.e., flight attitudes are selected and late inspection of sensitive thermal protection surfaces are conducted to reduce MMOD impacts). Science spacecraft include specific provisions to meet MMOD protection requirements in their design (for example, Stardust & GLAST). Commercial satellites such as Iridium and Bigelow Aerospace Genesis spacecraft incorporate MMOD protection. The development of low

  14. Protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry: influence on stereoselectivity of glycosylations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2010-10-20

    Saccharides are polyhydroxy compounds, and their synthesis requires complex protecting group manipulations. Protecting groups are usually used to temporarily mask a functional group which may interfere with a certain reaction, but protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry do more than protecting groups usually do. Particularly, protecting groups can participate in reactions directly or indirectly, thus affecting the stereochemical outcomes, which is important for synthesis of oligosaccharides. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in protecting groups influencing stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions, including participating protecting groups, and conformation-constraining protecting groups in general.

  15. Cross-Generational Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Thurston, Judy Kay

    2007-01-01

    What happens when you combine senior citizens, pre-service art teachers, and elementary students? Cross-generational connections based on sharing memories, ideas, skills, laughter, tears, and creativity. The authors describe the cross-generational book exchange project. This project was initiated when a group of Central Michigan University (CMU)…

  16. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  17. Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shuguang; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xu, Kai; Hu, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) describes a depression of oxidative metabolism glucose and blood flow in the cerebellum secondary to a supratentorial lesion in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. PET/MR has the potential to become a powerful tool for demonstrating and imaging intracranial lesions .We herein report 3 cases of CCD imaging using a tri-modality PET/CT–MR set-up for investigating the value of adding MRI rather than CT to PET in clinical routine. We describe 3 patients with CCD and neurological symptoms in conjunction with abnormal cerebral fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET/CT–MR) manifestations including arterial spin-labeling (ASL) and T2-weighted images. In all, 18FDG-PET/CT detected positive FDG uptake in supratentorial lesions, and hypometabolism with atrophy in the contralateral cerebellum. More than that, hybrid PET/MRI provided a more accurate anatomic localization and ASL indicated disruption of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway. Using pathology or long-term clinical follow-up to confirm the PET and ASL findings, the supratentorial lesions of the 3 patients were respectively diagnosed with cerebral infarction, recurrent glioma, and metastasis. The reports emphasize the significance of multimodality radiological examinations. Multimodality imaging contributes to proper diagnosis, management, and follow-up of supratentorial lesions with CCD. PMID:26765477

  18. Protecting our patients by protecting ourselves

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Blake; Alsabbagh, Wasem; Houle, Sherilyn; Wenger, Lisa; Church, Dana; Waite, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background: With recent expansions to scope of practice that have allowed Canadian pharmacists to play a larger role in administering influenza vaccinations to the public, it is important that pharmacists themselves meet Canadian guidelines recommending that 80% of health care professionals and 100% of vaccinators receive an annual influenza vaccination. Unvaccinated health care professionals pose an infection risk to patients they serve and are at an increased risk of infection themselves. Methods: An online, anonymous survey was sent to Ontario community pharmacists to determine whether they had received the influenza vaccination during the 2013–2014 influenza season. All significant univariate chi-square analysis respondent characteristics were included in a multivariate regression analysis model to determine predictors of vaccination status. Results: A total of 780 pharmacists completed the survey (18.1% response rate), which showed that 7 in 10 Ontario community pharmacists received the influenza vaccine. Those certified to immunize were nearly 3 times more likely to have received the influenza vaccine than those not certified (81.6% versus 61.2%, respectively). Discussion: Having 70% of Ontario community pharmacists vaccinated against influenza is both an accomplishment and an opportunity to improve vaccination rates. While similar to the influenza immunization rates of other health care professions, Ontario community pharmacists did not meet Public Health Canada’s recommendations. Comprehensive worksite programs, including promotion, education and convenient access to influenza vaccination at no cost, could increase community pharmacist influenza vaccination rates. Conclusion: The authors issue a call to arms to encourage all pharmacists to receive the influenza vaccine to protect the public and themselves. PMID:27540407

  19. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress.

  20. Article having an improved platinum-aluminum-hafnium protective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraj, Bangalore Aswatha (Inventor); Williams, Jeffrey Lawrence (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An article protected by a protective coating has a substrate and a protective coating having an outer layer deposited upon the substrate surface and a diffusion zone formed by interdiffusion of the outer layer and the substrate. The protective coating includes platinum, aluminum, no more than about 2 weight percent hafnium, and substantially no silicon. The outer layer is substantially a single phase.