Science.gov

Sample records for including cumulative index

  1. Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  2. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  3. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 242 through 253 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes six indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  4. A cumulative index to Aeronautical Engineering: A special bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (80) through NASA SP-7037 (91) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Special Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics (AIAA) and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  5. A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography on aeronautical engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA-SP-7037(184) through NASA-SP-7037(195) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  6. Aeronautical Engineering: A continuing bibliography, 1982 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (145) through NASA SP-7037 (156) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  7. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (197) through NASA SP-7037 (208) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  8. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037(210) through NASA SP-7037(221) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number indexes.

  9. A cumulative index to Aeronautical Engineering: A continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulated index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037(132) through NASA SP-7037(143) of Aeronautical Engineering: A continuing bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  10. Cumulative Index to NASA Tech Briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of new technology derived from the R&D activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This Index to NASA Tech Briefs lists the technological innovations derived from the U.S. space program and published during the period January through December 1968. A new five year cycle of cumulative indexes begins with this index. The main section is arranged in six categories: Electrical (Electronic); Physical Sciences (Energy Sources); Materials (Chemistry); Life Sciences; Mechanical; and Computer Programs.

  11. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  12. A cumulative index to the 1976 issues of a continuing bibliography on Aerospace Medicine and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 151 through 162 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  13. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1980 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 203 through 214 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  14. A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 177 through 188 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology is presented. The bibliography includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  15. A cumulative index to the 1972 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 99 through 110 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  16. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 138 through 149 of AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY: A CONTINUING BIBLIOGRAPHY. It includes three indexes -- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  17. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1982 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 229 through 240 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  18. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to the continuing bibliography of the 1973 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 112 through 123 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  19. A cumulative index to the 1977 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 164 through 175 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes-- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  20. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1974 issues of a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in supplements 125 through 136 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  1. A cumulative index to Aeronautical Engineering: A special bibliography, January 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7307 (41) through NASA SP-7037 (52) is presented. Subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes are included.

  2. A cumulative index to the 1972 issues of aeronautical engineering: A special bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (15) through NASA SP-7037 (26) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Special Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements has been complied through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  3. Aeronautical enginnering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 312)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (301) through NASA SP-7073 (311) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled by the Center for AeroSpace Information of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number indexes.

  4. A cumulative index to the 1973 issues of Aeronautical engineering: A special bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (28) through NASA SP-7037 (39) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Special Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  5. A cumulative index to Aeronautical Engineering: A special bibliography, January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (54) through NASA SP-7037 (65) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Special Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  6. A cumulative index to Aeronautical Engineering, a continuing bibliography, supplement 105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (93) through NASA SP-7037 (104) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements were compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  7. Aeronautical Engineering: A cumulative index to the 1984 issues of the continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037(171) through NASA SP-7037(182) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  8. Aeronautical Engineering: A cumulative index to the 1980 issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Abstracts for the entries cited appeared in issues 119 through 130 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography (NASA SP-7037). Subject, personal author, corporate author, contract number, and report/accession number indexes are provided.

  9. Validity of Clinically Derived Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index for the lower limbs and evaluate its construct validity for discriminating relevant groups and predictive validity for predicting global postural control over time. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based cohort. Participants InCHIANTI (“Invecchiare in Chianti” or aging in the Chianti area) study participants (N=960; age, 21–91y, 51.8% women). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was derived from baseline performance on clinical tests of pressure sensitivity, vibration sensitivity, proprioception, and graphesthesia. Global postural control was assessed using Frailty and Injuries Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test, time to complete 5 repeated chair stands, and fast walking speed, at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Results In participants without neurologic conditions (n=799), the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly different in age groups classified by decades (P<.001). Compared with participants without prevalent conditions, the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly higher in persons with diabetes (P=.017), peripheral arterial disease (P=.006), and a history of stroke (P<.001). In the overall population (N=960), in the fully adjusted multiple regression models, the Cumulative Somato-sensory Impairment Index independently predicted deterioration in FICSIT scores (P=.002), time for 5 repeated chair stands (P<.001), and fast gait speed (P=.003) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index is a valid measure that detects relevant group differences in lower limb somatosensory impairment and is an independent predictor of decline in postural control over 3 years. PMID:20159126

  10. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 325)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 supplements 313 through 324 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. The bibliographic series is compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This Cumulative index includes: a subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  11. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series Cumulative Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, onboard the OrbView-2 satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. The start of this documentation was titled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, which ended after 43 volumes were published. A follow-on series was started, titled the SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. This particular volume of the so-called "Postlaunch Series" serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 11 volumes and consists of 5 sections including an errata, an addendum, an index to key words and phrases, a list of acronyms used, and a list of all references cited. The editors will publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes.

  12. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Cumulative Index to the 1985 Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 268 through 279 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes - subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  13. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 345)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 333 through 344 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  14. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to the 1986 issues (supplement 293)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 281 through 292 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes - subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  15. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 332)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 320 through 331 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  16. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 319)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 307 through 318 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  17. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 300)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in supplements 288 through 299 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. The bibliographic series is compiled through the efforts of the Center for Aerospace Information of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seven indexes are included: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  18. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 371)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 359 through 370 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  19. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 306)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 294 through 305 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes - subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  20. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 358)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 346 through 357 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  1. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 384)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 372 through 383 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  2. Cumulative Index to NASA Tech Briefs 1963-1969

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of new technology derived from the research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. These briefs emphasize information considered likely to be transferrable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines and are issued to encourage commercial application. This Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs lists those published from 1963 through 1969. The main listing is divided into six categokies: Electrical (Electronic), Physical Sciences (Energy Sources), Materials (Chemistry), Life Sciences, Mechanical, and Computer Programs.

  3. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 248)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 236 through 247 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. The bibliographic series is compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  4. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 274)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in supplements 262 through 273 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. The bibliographic series is compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seven indexes are included: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  5. Cumulative Stress Pathophysiology in Schizophrenia as Indexed by Allostatic Load

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Katie L.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiopathophysiology of schizophrenia has long been linked to stress and the influence of stress is important in all stages of the illness. Previous examinations of perceived stress and acute stress responses may not capture this longitudinal stress pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the cumulative negative effects of stress, indexed by allostatic load (AL), would be elevated in schizophrenia, and that the AL paradigm would be relevant to our understanding of pathophysiology in schizophrenia. Methods We assessed allostatic load in 30 patients with schizophrenia (SZ; mean age=33; 17 males) and 20 healthy controls (HC; mean age=35; 12 males) using 13cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune biomarkers. Participants’ perceived stress over the past month; functional capacity and psychiatric symptoms were also measured. Results Controlling for age, SZ had significantly higher AL as compared to HC (p=0.007). Greater AL was present in both early course and chronic SZ, and was associated with reduced functional capacity (p=0.006) and more psychotic symptoms (p=0.048) in SZ. Current level of perceived stress was not significantly elevated in SZ or associated with AL in either group. Conclusions The higher AL found in SZ may reflect increased bodily “wear and tear”, possibly caused by more chronic stress exposure or maladaptive responses to stress over time, although additional research is required to differentiate these causes. The higher AL is similarly present in early and chronic SZ, suggesting primary maladaptive stress physiology rather than secondary effects from medications or chronic illness. PMID:26142568

  6. Ten-Year Cumulative Author Index Volume 2001, 36(1) through 2010, 45(4)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stanley H.; Hassert, Silva

    2011-01-01

    This cumulative author index was developed as a service for the readership of Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities. It was prepared as a resource for scholars wishing to access the 391 articles published in volumes 36-45 of this journal. It also serves as a timely supplement to the 25-year (1966-1990) cumulative author…

  7. A cumulative index to Aeronautical Engineering: A continuing bibliography, supplement 118

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Subject, personal author, corporate author, contract, and report number cumulative indexes are provided for documents cited in Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography from February 1979 through January 1980. (NASA SP 7037 supplements 106 through 117).

  8. Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1970-1975. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Tech briefs of technology derived from the research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are presented. Abstracts and indexes of subject, personal author, originating center, and tech brief number for the 1970-1975 tech briefs are presented.

  9. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series Cumulative Index: Volumes 1-23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, onboard the OrbView-2 satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. The start of this documentation was titled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, which ended after 43 volumes were published. A follow-on series was started, titled the Sea WiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. This particular volume of the so-called Postlaunch Series serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 23 volumes and consists of 4 sections including an errata, an index to key words and phrases, a list of acronyms used, and a list of all references cited. The editors will publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes.

  10. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 6; Cumulative Index: Volumes 1-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, on the OrbView-2 satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. The start of this documentation was titled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, which ended after 43 volumes were published. A follow-on series was started, titled the SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous five volumes and consists of four sections including an errata, an index to key words and phrases, a list of acronyms used, and a list of all references cited. The editors will publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes.

  11. Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1986-1990, volumes 10-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of new technology derived from the R&D activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. These briefs emphasize information considered likely to be transferrable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines and are issued to encourage commercial application. This cumulative index of Tech Briefs contains abstracts and four indexes (subject, personal author, originating center, and Tech Brief number) and covers the period 1986 to 1990. The abstract section is organized by the following subject categories: electronic components and circuits, electronic systems, physical sciences, materials, computer programs, life sciences, mechanics, machinery, fabrication technology, and mathematics and information sciences.

  12. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  13. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986.

    PubMed

    Roy, A C; Powers, J V

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms. PMID:11537410

  14. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 43; SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series Final Cumulative Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, on the SeaStar satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566 and 1998-104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume, which is the last of the so-called Prelaunch Series serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 42 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an addenda, an errata, an index to key words and phrases, lists of acronyms and symbols used, and a list of all references cited. The editors have published a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes. Each index covers the reference topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index includes all of the information contained in the preceding indexes with the exception of any addenda.

  15. Cumulative index to chemicals and to common and scientific names of species listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    The Contaminant Hazard Review (CHR) series--sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center--synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998, 34 reviews were published in various report series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (acrolein, atrazine, carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, famphur, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), mammalian biocides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial and municipal wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls), minin wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This current report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced with contaminant hazard review and corresponding page numbers. A similar index for chemicals is included.

  16. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 235)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a cummulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 223 through 234 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. The bibliographic series is compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  17. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 261)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This publication is a cummulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 249 through 260 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. The bibliographic series is compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  18. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 287)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is a cummulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 275 through 286 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. The bibliographic series is compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  19. In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Somervaille, L J; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Tennant, D R; McKiernan, M J; Skilbeck, A; Trethowan, W N

    1988-01-01

    In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between tibia lead and blood lead was weak in workers from one factory (r = 0.11, p greater than 0.6) and among the non-occupationally exposed subjects (r = 0.07, p greater than 0.7); however, a stronger relation was observed in the other two factories (r = 0.45, p less than 0.0001 and r = 0.53, p less than 0.0001). Correlation coefficients between tibia lead and duration of employment were consistently higher at all three factories respectively (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.61, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). A strong relation was observed between tibia lead and a simple, time integrated, blood lead index among workers from the two factories from which blood lead histories were available. The regression equation from two groups of workers (n = 88, 79) did not significantly differ despite different exposure conditions. The correlation coefficient for the combined data set (n = 167) was 0.84 (p less than 0.0001). This shows clearly that tibia lead, measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence, provides a good indicator of long term exposure to lead as assessed by a cumulative blood lead index. Images PMID:3348993

  20. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach.

    PubMed

    Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Yan, B R; Chang, M H; Tseng, S H; Kao, Y M; Chen, J C; Lee, C C

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods.

  1. 1960-69 Cumulative Index of Articles Related to Oceanography and Limnology Education in The Science Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Maxwell

    Indexed are articles relating to oceanography and limnology published in "The Science Teacher" between 1960 and 1969. Articles are indexed under title, author, and topic. Topics include background information, course descriptions, and laboratory equipment and techniques. (EB)

  2. Cumulative Index to Chemicals and to Common and Scientific Names of Species Listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) series synthesizes ecotoxicological data of selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998 a total of 34 reviews were published in various Reports series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), herbicides (acrolein, atrazine), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), predacides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol), veterinary chemicals (famphur), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, mining wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced by contaminant and corresponding page numbers. A similar index is shown for chemicals.

  3. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 18: SeaWiFS technical report series cumulative index: Volumes 1-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) which ceased operations in 1986 after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1995 on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 17 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (summaries of various SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops, and other auxiliary information), an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editor's intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. Each index covers the topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index includes all of the information contained in the preceding indices.

  4. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 24: SeaWiFS Technical Report Series Cumulative Index, Volumes 1-23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1995, on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 23 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (summaries of various SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops, and other auxiliary information), an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editors' intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. Each index covers the topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index will include all of the information contained in the preceding indices.

  5. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 24: SeaWiFS technical report series cumulative index, volumes 1-23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1995, on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 23 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (summaries of various SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops, and other auxiliary information), an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editors' intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. Each index covers the topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index will include all of the information contained in the preceeding indices.

  6. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 59. Cumulative Author Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Judith L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Provided in this document is a bibliography of selected materials addressing the interface between forestry and the social sciences. Materials include articles appearing in United States and foreign professional journals, bibliographies, conference proceedings, completed theses/dissertations, and other types of publications. A subject-matter…

  7. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 12, SeaWiFS technical report series cumulative index: Volumes 1-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an 8-year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in 1994, on the SeaStar satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 11 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an errata, an addendum (a summary of the SeaWiFS Working Group Bio-optical Algorithm and Protocols Subgroups Workshops), an index to keywords and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is the editors' intention to publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes in the series. This will cover the topics published in all previous editions of the indices, that is, each new index will include all of the information contained in the preceding indices.

  8. A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology, January 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Subject coverage concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which man is subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Each entry consists of a standard citation accompanied by its abstract.

  9. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhem, Boulos Abou; Kattaa, Bassam

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring more frequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regime of the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative drought conceptis proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwater productivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-term annual precipitation in Damascus from 1918-1919 to 2007-2008 ( n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasing trend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cyprus was estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1) 9 years of severe drought (1954-1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared to the mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983-1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 years of extreme drought (1993-2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardized precipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of having no effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a near zero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below -10 indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwater recharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy to reduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus with a 3-5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challenges and has been suffering from three decades of moderate to

  10. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  11. A Survey of British Research in Audio-Visual Aids, Supplement No. 2, 1974. (Including Cumulative Index 1945-1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, Susie, Comp.

    The second supplement to the new (1972) edition of the Survey of Research in Audiovisual Aids carried out in Great Britain covers the year 1974. Ten separate sections cover the areas of projected media, non-projected media, sound media, radio, moving pictures, television, teaching machines and programed learning, computer-assisted instruction,…

  12. Impaired assessment of cumulative lifetime familiarity for object concepts after left anterior temporal-lobe resection that includes perirhinal cortex but spares the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Ben; Duke, Devin; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; McRae, Ken; Köhler, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The ability to recognize the prior occurrence of objects can operate effectively even in the absence of successful recollection of episodic contextual detail about a relevant past object encounter. The pertinent process, familiarity assessment, is typically probed in humans with recognition-memory tasks that include an experimentally controlled study phase for a list of items. When meaningful stimuli such as words or pictures of common objects are employed, participants must judge familiarity with reference to the recent experimental encounter rather than their lifetime of autobiographical experience, which may have involved hundreds or thousands of exposures across numerous episodic contexts. Humans can, however, also judge the cumulative familiarity of objects concepts they have encountered over their lifetime. At present, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that support this ability. Here, we tested an individual (NB) with a rare left anterior temporal-lobe lesion that included perirhinal cortex but spared the hippocampus, who had previously been found to exhibit selective impairments in familiarity assessment on verbal recognition-memory tasks. As NB exhibits normal recollection abilities, her case presents a unique opportunity to examine potential links between both types of familiarity. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that NB's impairment in making recognition judgments affects cumulative frequency judgments for exposure to concept names in a recent study episode. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed, with a task borrowed from the semantic-memory literature, that NB's impairments do indeed extend to abnormalities in judging cumulative lifetime familiarity for object concepts. These abnormalities were not limited to verbal processing, and were present even when pictures were offered as additional cues. Moreover, they showed sensitivity to concept structure as reflected in semantic feature norms; we only observed them for judgments on object

  13. Child maltreatment, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior in African American children: Moderation effects from a cumulative dopaminergic gene index.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Eric L; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-11-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1,012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer- and counselor-rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (dopamine receptors D4, D2, known as DRD4, DRD2; dopamine active transporter 1, known as DAT1; and catechol-O-methyltransferase, known as COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using structural equation modeling, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2 (32, N = 1,012) = 86.51, p < .001; comparative fit index = 0.982, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.977, root mean square error of approximation = 0.041, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.022. The effect of maltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β = 0.173, p < .001), and these relations were moderated by the number of differentiating dopaminergic genotypes. Specifically, a significant Gene × Environment interaction (β = 0.016, p = .013) indicated that the relation between maltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse control within the

  14. Child Maltreatment, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Behavior in African-American Children: Moderation Effects from a Cumulative Dopaminergic Gene Index

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Eric L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer and counselor rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, and COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using SEM, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2(32, N =1012) = 86..51, p<0.001; CFI = 0.982; TLI = 0.977; RMSEA = 0.041; SRMR = 0.022. The effect of maltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β= 0.173, p<0.001), and these relations were moderated by the number of differentiating dopaminergic genotypes. Specifically, a significant GxE interaction (b = 0.016, p = 0.013) indicated that the relation between maltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse-control within context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  15. Catalog of infrared observations including: Bibliography of infrared astronomy and index of infrared source positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations and its Far Infrared Supplement summarize all infrared astronomical observations at infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Catalog includes as appendices the Bibliography of infrared astronomy which keys observations in the Catalog with the original journal references, and the index of infrared source positions which gives source positions for alphabetically listed sources in the Catalog. The Catalog data base contains over 85,000 observations of about 10,000 infrared sources, of which about 2,000 have no known visible counterpart.

  16. The Sensitivity of the Palmer Drought Severity Index and Palmer's Z-Index to their Calibration Coefficients Including Potential Evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is routinely made available by NOAA for operational use, and it has also been calculated across the United States on a historical basis back to 1895 (Karl et al., 1983). Traditionally, the coefficients used in the calculation of the PDSI have been based on an anomalously hot and dry period across much of the United States (1931-60). By changing the base period used to calibrate the coefficients, the magnitude and the sign of the PDSI change significantly in many areas of the United States. Often the changes are larger than those that occur when the potential evapotranspiration is forced to a constant equal to the long-term monthly mean potential evapotranspiration. This sensitivity to base period calibration has important implications in the interpretation of operational or hindcast values of the PDSI for forest fire danger and other applications. The less frequently used Palmer moisture anomaly index (Z-index) is much less sensitive to changes in the calibration periods, and also has some desirable characteristics which may make it preferable to the PDSI for some agricultural and forest fire applications, i.e., it is more responsive to short-term moisture anomalies.

  17. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 6: SeaWiFS technical report series cumulative index: Volumes 1-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight year mission. SeaWiFS is expected to be launched in August 1993, on the Sea Star satellite, being built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has undertaken the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memoranda Number 104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This volume serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous five volumes and consists of four main sections including an index to key words and phrases, a list of all references cited, and lists of acronyms and symbols used. It is our intention to publish a summary index of this type after every five volumes in the series. This will cover the topics published in all previous editions of the indices, that is, each new index will include all of the information contained in the preceding indices.

  18. Contested Cumulations:

    PubMed Central

    Pickstone, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The treatment of cancer through the twentieth century may be seen as the successive addition of modalities: first surgery; then radiotherapy, especially between the world wars; and then chemotherapy, from the 1960s. This paper explores some of the systematic differences between the modalities, and how these additions were negotiated in different countries, with different long-term consequences for the development of services and specialization. It focuses chiefly on the United Kingdom and the United States, the former exemplifying a centralized health polity, and the latter, liberal markets combined with large and crucial postwar inputs from government. The differences between health polities were especially important for interwar radiotherapy, which in its centralized form appeared as paradigmatic of the analytical/rationalizing mode in modern medicine. Chemotherapy exemplified a more inventive and experimentalist mode that became common after World War II, and that, through the practice of trials, shaped the new subprofession of medical oncology. The interactions of the modalities, at various levels, are modeled as contested cumulations showing strong path dependency. The paper ends by reviewing the present situation, especially for Britain, and by underlining the relevance of history. PMID:17369667

  19. Cumulative minutes with T[sub 90] greater than temp[sub index] is predictive of response of superficial malignancies to hyperthermia and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, K.A.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Samulski, T.V.; Dodge, R.K.; Geoerge, S.L.; Blivin, J.L.; Prosnitz, L.R.; Oleson, J.R. )

    1993-04-02

    The purpose of this work is to better define thermal parameters related to tumor response in superficial malignancies treated with combined hyperthermia and radiation therapy. Patients were randomized to receive one or two hyperthermia treatments per week with hyperthermia given during each week of irradiation. Hyperthermia was given for 60 min with treatments begun within 1 hr following irradiation. Power was increased to patient tolerance or normal tissue temperature of 43.0[degrees]C. Irradiation was generally given 5 times per week with doses prescribed to normal tissue tolerance (generally 24--70 Gy at 1.8--2.5 Gy per fraction). Multipoint thermometry was used with temperatures obtained every 5 min. One hundred eleven individual treatment fields containing 1 or more tumor nodules were completely evaluable. The complete and overall response rates were 46% and 80%, respectively. Forty-one percent of all treatment fields (51% of responding lesions) remained controlled at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that the cumulative minutes that the temperature achieved by 90% of the measured tumor sites (T[sub 90]) was [ge] 40.0[degrees]C, tumor histology, tumor volume, and radiation dose were significantly associated with complete tumor response. The complete response rate was not significantly affected by the number of hyperthermia treatments given per week. The incidence of clinically significant complications was low. These results support the usefulness of the cumulative minute system in describing time-temperature relationships. The significance of thermal variables with regard to tumor response strongly supports the contention that hyperthermia can be a useful adjunct to irradiation for the local control of cancer. 18 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  1. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  2. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between

  3. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations (169-198). Set 9. Including Subject and Title Indexes Covering Sets 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Dave, Ed.

    This document consists of 30 microcomputer software package evaluations prepared for the MicroSIFT (Microcomputer Software and Information for Teachers) Clearinghouse at the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). The concise, single-sheet resume describing and evaluating each software package includes source, cost, ability level,…

  4. McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.

  5. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  6. CUMBIN - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CUMBIN, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. CUMBIN can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CUMBIN calculates the probability that a system of n components has at least k operating if the probability that any one operating is p and the components are independent. Equivalently, this is the reliability of a k-out-of-n system having independent components with common reliability p. CUMBIN can evaluate the incomplete beta distribution for two positive integer arguments. CUMBIN can also evaluate the cumulative F distribution and the negative binomial distribution, and can determine the sample size in a test design. CUMBIN is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. The CUMBIN program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CUMBIN was developed in 1988.

  7. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  8. CROSSER - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CROSSER, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), can be used independently of one another. CROSSER can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CROSSER calculates the point at which the reliability of a k-out-of-n system equals the common reliability of the n components. It is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The CROSSER program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CROSSER was developed in 1988.

  9. Cumulative impact assessment: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.; Bain, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) indirectly addressed cumulative impacts. Attempts to include cumulative impacts in environmental impact assessments, however, did not began until the early 1980's. One such effort began when The Federal Energy and Regulatory Commission (FERC) received over 1200 applications for hydroelectric projects in the Pacific Northwest. Federal and State Agencies, Indian tribes and environmental groups realized the potential cumulative effect such development could have on fish and wildfire resources. In response, the FERC developed the Cluster Impact Assessment Procedure (CIAP). The CIAP consisted of public scoping meetings; interactive workshops designed to identify projects with potential for cumulative effects, important resources, available data; and preparation of a NEPA document (EA or EIS). The procedure was modifies to assess the cumulative impacts of fifteen hydroelectric projects in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho. The methodology achieved its basic objective of evaluating the impact of hydroelectric development on fish and wildfire resources. In addition, the use of evaluative techniques to determine project interactions and degrees of impact hindered acceptance of the conclusions. Notwithstanding these problems, the studies provided a basis for decision-makers to incorporate the potential effects of cumulative impacts into the decision-making process. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  11. NEWTONP - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, NEWTONP, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. NEWTONP can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. NEWTONP calculates the probably p required to yield a given system reliability V for a k-out-of-n system. It can also be used to determine the Clopper-Pearson confidence limits (either one-sided or two-sided) for the parameter p of a Bernoulli distribution. NEWTONP can determine Bayesian probability limits for a proportion (if the beta prior has positive integer parameters). It can determine the percentiles of incomplete beta distributions with positive integer parameters. It can also determine the percentiles of F distributions and the midian plotting positions in probability plotting. NEWTONP is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. NEWTONP is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The NEWTONP program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. NEWTONP was developed in 1988.

  12. Cumulative risk assessment of pesticide residues in food.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Banasiak, Ursula; Hamey, Paul Y; Sebestyen, Istvan; Moretto, Angelo

    2008-08-15

    There is increasing need to address the potential risks of combined exposures to multiple residues from pesticides in the diet. The available evidence suggests that the main concern is from dose addition of those compounds that act by the same mode of action. The possibility of synergy needs to be addressed on a case-by-case basis, where there is a biologically plausible hypothesis that it may occur at the levels of residues occurring in the diet. Cumulative risk assessment is a resource-intense activity and hence a tiered approach to both toxicological evaluation and intake estimation is recommended, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has recently published such a proposal. Where assessments have already been undertaken by some other authority, full advantage should be taken of these, subject of course to considerations of quality and relevance. Inclusion of compounds in a cumulative assessment group (CAG) should be based on defined criteria, which allow for refinement in a tiered approach. These criteria should include chemical structure, mechanism of pesticidal action, target organ and toxic mode of action. A number of methods are available for cumulating toxicity. These are all inter-related, but some are mathematically more complex than others. The most useful methods, in increasing levels of complexity and refinement, are the hazard index, the reference point index, the Relative Potency Factor method and physiologically based toxicokinetic modelling, although this last method would only be considered should a highly refined assessment be necessary. Four possible exposure scenarios are of relevance for cumulative risk assessment, acute and chronic exposure in the context of maximum residue level (MRL)-setting, and in relation to exposures from the actual use patterns, respectively. Each can be addressed either deterministically or probabilistically. Strategies for dealing with residues below the limit of detection, limit of quantification or limit

  13. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  14. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  15. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  16. Algorithm Calculates Cumulative Poisson Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert C.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithm calculates accurate values of cumulative Poisson distribution under conditions where other algorithms fail because numbers are so small (underflow) or so large (overflow) that computer cannot process them. Factors inserted temporarily to prevent underflow and overflow. Implemented in CUMPOIS computer program described in "Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program" (NPO-17714).

  17. Asymptotic Normality Through Factorial Cumulants and Partition Identities

    PubMed Central

    Bobecka, Konstancja; Hitczenko, Paweł; López-Blázquez, Fernando; Rempała, Grzegorz; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we develop an approach to asymptotic normality through factorial cumulants. Factorial cumulants arise in the same manner from factorial moments as do (ordinary) cumulants from (ordinary) moments. Another tool we exploit is a new identity for ‘moments’ of partitions of numbers. The general limiting result is then used to (re-)derive asymptotic normality for several models including classical discrete distributions, occupancy problems in some generalized allocation schemes and two models related to negative multinomial distribution. PMID:24591773

  18. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dallas Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-09-15

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  19. Cumulative risk and child development.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Li, Dongping; Whipple, Sara Sepanski

    2013-11-01

    Childhood multiple risk factor exposure exceeds the adverse developmental impacts of singular exposures. Multiple risk factor exposure may also explain why sociodemographic variables (e.g., poverty) can have adverse consequences. Most research on multiple risk factor exposure has relied upon cumulative risk (CR) as the measure of multiple risk. CR is constructed by dichotomizing each risk factor exposure (0 = no risk; 1 = risk) and then summing the dichotomous scores. Despite its widespread use in developmental psychology and elsewhere, CR has several shortcomings: Risk is designated arbitrarily; data on risk intensity are lost; and the index is additive, precluding the possibility of statistical interactions between risk factors. On the other hand, theoretically more compelling multiple risk metrics prove untenable because of low statistical power, extreme higher order interaction terms, low robustness, and collinearity among risk factors. CR multiple risk metrics are parsimonious, are statistically sensitive even with small samples, and make no assumptions about the relative strengths of multiple risk factors or their collinearity. CR also fits well with underlying theoretical models (e.g., Bronfenbrenner's, 1979, bioecological model; McEwen's, 1998, allostasis model of chronic stress; and Ellis, Figueredo, Brumbach, & Schlomer's, 2009, developmental evolutionary theory) concerning why multiple risk factor exposure is more harmful than singular risk exposure. We review the child CR literature, comparing CR to alternative multiple risk measurement models. We also discuss strengths and weaknesses of developmental CR research, offering analytic and theoretical suggestions to strengthen this growing area of scholarship. Finally, we highlight intervention and policy implications of CR and child development research and theory. PMID:23566018

  20. Creation of a Machine File and Subsequent Computer-Assisted Production of Publishing Outputs, Including a Translation Journal and an Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Lawrence F.; Weaver, Vance

    Reported are the findings of the Uspekhi experiment in creating a labeled machine file, as well as sample products of this system - an article from a scientific journal and an index page. Production cost tables are presented for the machine file, primary journals, and journal indexes. Comparisons were made between the 1965 predicted costs and the…

  1. Cumulative reports and publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A complete list of Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) reports are listed. Since ICASE reports are intended to be preprints of articles that will appear in journals or conference proceedings, the published reference is included when it is available. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and computer science.

  2. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  3. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 396)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 385 through 395 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  4. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 267, January 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 255 through 266 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  5. Cumulative Carbon and Anthropocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Solomon, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight a few of the key findings of the recently completed National Research Council Study Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations and Impacts over Decades to Millennia (NRC, 2010), and discuss their implications for planetary stewardship. A synthesis of published results shows that the single number which most characterizes the magnitude of the human imprint on the climate of the coming millennia is the net amount of carbon released as CO2 by fossil fuel burning and land use changes during the time over which humanity continues such activities. Details of emissions scenarios are not important; rather it is the net carbon released by the time the emissions have been brought to essentially zero that controls long-term climate changes. In this report, we estimate that global temperatures increase by about 1 degree for approximately every 570 Pg of carbon emitted. Each degree of global temperature change is associated with quantifiable impacts on human and natural systems, including loss of arctic sea ice, decreased productivity of several major food crops, decreased precipitation in dry regions, and increases in area burnt by wildfire. Furthermore, the long timescale of temperature changes due to cumulative carbon emissions entails a lock-in to many centuries of continued sea-level rise, as well as the possibility of substantial contributions to sea-level rise from both Greenland and the West-Antarctic ice sheet. Reductions in methane or other short-lived greenhouse gas emissions can be of benefit in mitigating the near term climate changes, but CO2 is unique among major greenhouse gases in its ability to disrupt climate on multi-millennial time scales. This implies a need for correspondingly special treatment of this gas in emissions control protocols, for example by setting targets for allowable cumulative carbon emissions over time. The authoring committee was composed of Susan Solomon, Chair, David Battisti, Scott

  6. Including the dynamic relationship between climatic variables and leaf area index in a hydrological model to improve streamflow prediction under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesemma, Z. K.; Wei, Y.; Peel, M. C.; Western, A. W.

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is projected to enrich the atmosphere with carbon dioxide, change vegetation dynamics and influence the availability of water at the catchment scale. This study combines a nonlinear model for estimating changes in leaf area index (LAI) due to climatic fluctuations with the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrological model to improve catchment streamflow prediction under a changing climate. The combined model was applied to 13 gauged sub-catchments with different land cover types (crop, pasture and tree) in the Goulburn-Broken catchment, Australia, for the "Millennium Drought" (1997-2009) relative to the period 1983-1995, and for two future periods (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) and two emission scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5) which were compared with the baseline historical period of 1981-2010. This region was projected to be warmer and mostly drier in the future as predicted by 38 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) runs from 15 global climate models (GCMs) and for two emission scenarios. The results showed that during the Millennium Drought there was about a 29.7-66.3 % reduction in mean annual runoff due to reduced precipitation and increased temperature. When drought-induced changes in LAI were included, smaller reductions in mean annual runoff of between 29.3 and 61.4 % were predicted. The proportional increase in runoff due to modeling LAI was 1.3-10.2 % relative to not including LAI. For projected climate change under the RCP4.5 emission scenario, ignoring the LAI response to changing climate could lead to a further reduction in mean annual runoff of between 2.3 and 27.7 % in the near-term (2021-2050) and 2.3 to 23.1 % later in the century (2071-2100) relative to modeling the dynamic response of LAI to precipitation and temperature changes. Similar results (near-term 2.5-25.9 % and end of century 2.6-24.2 %) were found for climate change under the RCP8.5 emission scenario

  7. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated. PMID:27450610

  8. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume V: Classes 677/9 (677/68 Various Industries and Crafts; Rubber and Plastics, Precision Mechanism Including Automatic Data Processing, Atuomatic Control Engineering, 69 Building, 7 Arts. Architecture. Sport, 8 Languages. Linguistics. Literature, 9 Geography. Biography. History).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement to the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. This fifth volume of a five volume series lists new classification subdivisions in the following subject areas: (1) various…

  9. 76 FR 69726 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... to consider available information concerning the cumulative effects on human health resulting from... used to further refine the very conservative nature of this cumulative risk assessment. DATES: Comments... stakeholders including environmental, human health, farm worker, and agricultural advocates; the...

  10. The Social Validation of Behaviors Included in the Critical Events Index of the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders in Male Saudi Arabia Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwan, Emad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify which behaviors from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Critical Events Index occur in male Saudi Arabia primary schools and how often teachers perceive their occurrence; (b) determine the extent of concern male Saudi Arabia primary school teachers report regarding these behaviors;…

  11. Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors Into Cumulative Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Cynthia V.; Dourson, Michael L.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Price, Paul S.; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The role of nonchemical stressors in modulating the human health risk associated with chemical exposures is an area of increasing attention. On 9 March 2011, a workshop titled “Approaches for Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment” took place during the 50th Anniversary Annual Society of Toxicology Meeting in Washington D.C. Objectives of the workshop included describing the current state of the science from various perspectives (i.e., regulatory, exposure, modeling, and risk assessment) and presenting expert opinions on currently available methods for incorporating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments. Herein, distinct frameworks for characterizing exposure to, joint effects of, and risk associated with chemical and nonchemical stressors are discussed. PMID:22345310

  12. Experimental approaches to studying cumulative cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Christine A.; Atkinson, Mark; Renner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In humans, cultural traditions often change in ways which increase efficiency and functionality. This process, widely referred to as cumulative cultural evolution, sees beneficial traits preferentially retained, and it is so pervasive that we may be inclined to take it for granted. However, directional change of this kind appears to distinguish human cultural traditions from behavioural traditions that have been documented in other animals. Cumulative culture is therefore attracting an increasing amount of attention within psychology, and researchers have begun to develop methods of studying this phenomenon under controlled conditions. These studies have now addressed a number of different questions, including which learning mechanisms may be implicated, and how the resulting behaviours may be influenced by factors such as population structure. The current article provides a synopsis of some of these studies, and highlights some of the unresolved issues in this field. PMID:27397972

  13. Tools to Assess Community-Based Cumulative Risk and Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple agents and stressors can interact in a given community to adversely affect human and ecological conditions. A cumulative risk assessment (CRA) analyzes, characterizes, and potentially quantifies the effects from multiple stressors, which include chemical agents (for exam...

  14. Cumulative Evaluations in Surface Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of four evaluation studies conducted to determine the need for and possible parameters of a "postinterstate" highway policy. How these studies sought to provide cumulative information for policy makers is discussed. They investigated the scope of problems, the federal role, cost issues, and technology. (SLD)

  15. Cumulative risk assessment of the exposure to pyrethroids through fruits consumption in China - Based on a 3-year investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixia; Nie, Jiyun; Lu, Zeqi; Xie, Hanzhong; Kang, Lu; Chen, Qiusheng; Li, An; Zhao, Xubo; Xu, Guofeng; Yan, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the long-term and short-term cumulative risks of pyrethroids exposured for the Chinese general population and children through fruits consumption were evaluated. A total of 1450 fruit samples and seven pyrethroids were included based on the pesticide residues monitoring programme of China from 2013 to 2015. The exposure was estimated using both deterministic approach and semi-probabilistic model for comparison. The hazard index approach was used to assess cumulative risk. 26% of samples contained pyrethroid residues with concentrations ranged from 0.0050 mg/kg to 1.2 mg/kg, of which 30% simultaneously with 2-4 mixture residues. Results demonstrated that the cumulative health risks were extremely low for both general population and children (1-6 years old) of China in the long term. Acute risk estimations calculated by deterministic method were several or many times overestimated than the results based on semi-probabilistic method. Acute cumulative exposure of children to pyrethroid compounds in 0.76% samples were exceeded 1 in worst case scenario. More detailed assessments with adequate data in the future use probabilistic method is expected to reduce the uncertainties of cumulative dietary exposure. PMID:27515867

  16. Cumulative life damage in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Ibler, Kristina; Jemec, Gregor B.E.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative life damage is an old concept of considerable face validity, which has attracted more scientific interest in the fields of sociology and psychology than in medicine over the years. The research examines the interconnectivity of the many factors which shape the development of individuals or institutions over time. By focussing on time, context and process, life course research highlights the different effects seemingly similar events may have at different points in time and in different contexts. PMID:25386260

  17. Association of senile lens and dermal changes with cumulative ultraviolet exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cross-sectional prevalence survey of senile lens opacities was conducted, using as subjects white men between the ages of 40 and 70 years who had a biopsy of their facial skin within the previous 18 months. Specimens were graded by the extent of dermal elastosis seen histologically; this ordinal grading acted as a measure of cumulative solar UV exposure in this population. The men attended a clinic when they received an ophthalmic examination, including grading of the type and severity of senile lens opacity seen in each eye after mydriasis. A history of exposure to sun and other potential cataract risk factors was obtained by interview. The visual appearance of actinic damage to their facial skin was graded and recorded. The history of sun exposure was used to calculate a cumulative UVB exposure index; this index and the visual grading were tested as measures of solar UV damage against the histological elastosis grade. The three exposure measures were not found to be equivalent. The UVB exposure index was not a good predictor of either measure of skin damage after adjustment by age and susceptibility to sun damage, and may be confounded by behavioral practices which were not recorded. This visual assessment of actinic skin damage was a significant predictor of severe actinic elastosis, but also appears to be confounded by age, which was incompletely controlled by adjustment. In both cases, the best predictor of severe actinic elastosis was poor ability to tan, a measure of susceptibility to sun damage.

  18. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p < 0.05). In hierarchical regression analyses, total cumulative stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  19. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  20. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Schneider, Tapio; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric flows are governed by the equations of fluid dynamics. These equations are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifest itself only weakly through interactions of nontrivial mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. Here we show how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. However, it does not capture important turbulent transport terms in the turbulence kinetic energy budget. Second, we study the evolution of two-dimensional large-scale waves, which are representative of waves seen in Earth's upper atmosphere. We demonstrate that a cumulant expansion truncated at second order (CE2) can capture the evolution of such waves and their nonlinear interaction with the mean flow in some circumstances, for example, when the wave amplitude is small enough or the planetary rotation rate is large enough. However, CE2 fails to capture the flow evolution when strongly nonlinear eddy-eddy interactions that generate small-scale filaments in surf zones around critical layers become important. Higher-order closures can capture these missing interactions. The results point to new ways in which the dynamics of turbulent boundary layers may be represented in climate models, and they illustrate different classes

  1. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem.

  2. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. PMID:25979371

  3. Child Education in India: Index to Scholarly Writings in Indian Educational Journals and Newspapers Since Independence (Includes Constitutional Provision and Basic Indicators of Child Growth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, S. P.; Kanta, Naresh

    Part I of this book, which comprises the bulk of the volume, consists of a bibliography of approximately 650 publications on child education. The publications include articles from 58 Indian journals and newspapers published in the English language. The bibliography also references books, research reports, and doctoral theses that have been…

  4. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  5. [Cumulative risk assessment for consumers of agricultural crops polluted with one chemical class pesticide residues (case of triazole fungicides)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N M; Omel'chuk, S T

    2011-01-01

    Different indices of cumulative risk assessment of combination of residues of pesticides which may simultaneously be present in raw agricultural crops, based on toxic evaluation of such combination have been presented. Risk for population health due to consumption of raw agricultural crops with triazole residues is acceptable on hazard index, point of departure index and cumulative risk index, exceeds allowable level on criterion "total margin of exposure". PMID:22768736

  6. USING DOSE ADDITION TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS FROM EXPOSURES TO MULTIPLE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires the EPA to consider the cumulative risk from exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity. Three methods, hazard index (HI), point-of-departure index (PODI), and toxicity equivalence factor (TEF), ...

  7. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  8. A multimethodological analysis of cumulative risk and allostatic load among rural children.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W

    2003-09-01

    This study merged two theoretical constructs: cumulative risk and allostatic load. Physical (crowding, noise, housing quality) and psychosocial (child separation, turmoil, violence) aspects of the home environment and personal characteristics (poverty, single parenthood, maternal highschool dropout status) were modeled in a cumulative risk heuristic. Elevated cumulative risk was associated with heightened cardiovascular and neuroendocrine parameters, increased deposition of body fat, and a higher summary index of total allostatic load. Previous findings that children who face more cumulative risk have greater psychological distress were replicated among a sample of rural children and shown to generalize to lower perceptions of self-worth. Prior cumulative risk research was further extended through demonstration of self-regulatory behavior problems and elevated learned helplessness. PMID:12952404

  9. Relationship between Cumulative BMI and Symptomatic, Psychosocial, and Medical Outcomes in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frankenburg, Frances R.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between cumulative body mass index (BMI) and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two hundred female borderline patients were weighed and measured during their index admission. They were subsequently interviewed at six, eight, and 10 years intervals. Over 10 years of prospective follow-up, increases in cumulative BMI were significantly associated with self-mutilation and dissociation (but not suicide attempts). Increases in cumulative BMI were also significantly associated with having no life partner, a poor work or school history, being on disability, being rated with a GAF score in the fair or poor range, and having a low income. In addition, increases in BMI were related to having two or more obesity-related medical conditions and using costly forms of health care. Increases in cumulative BMI may be a marker for adverse symptomatic, functional, and medical outcomes in patients with BPD. PMID:21838559

  10. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  11. Cumulant t-expansion for strongly correlated fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    A systematic nonperturbative scheme is implemented to calculate the ground state energy for a wide class of strongly correlated fermion models. The scheme includes: (a) a method of automatic calculations of the cumulants of the model Hamiltonian, (b) a method of the ground state energy calculation from these cumulants using the t-expansion proposed by Horn and Weinstein (1984) [9] with new procedure of its extrapolation to t → ∞. As an example of application of the scheme all cumulants up to the 8-th order for spinless fermion model are calculated exactly, and converging sequences of approximations to the ground state energy are obtained for one-, two- and three-dimensional versions of the model.

  12. System-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, NEWTONP, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Program finds probability required to yield given system reliability. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  13. A Photographic View of Cumulative Distribution Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernigan, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows a concrete and easy recognizable view of a cumulative distribution function(cdf). Photograph views of the search tabs on dictionaries are used to increase students' understanding and facility with the concept of a cumulative distribution function. Projects for student investigations are also given. This motivation and view helps…

  14. Erupted silicic cumulates in large ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Deering, C. D.; Huber, C.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    If chemical diversity in igneous rocks is dominated by crystal-liquid separation in open-system magma reservoirs, a significant number of crystal accumulation zones must be preserved in the crust and upper mantle. Such cumulates are conspicuous in mafic lithologies (MOR, layered mafic intrusions, lower crustal arc sections), but have rarely been described and/or are controversial in the silicic upper crust. Although it is possible to recognize signs of crystal accumulations in plutonic exposures, the fact that these batholiths are typically: 1) at least several millions of years old, 2) multi-stage, 3) deformed and 4) biased towards the youngest intrusive episodes, some ambiguity remains in how to interpret geochemical and textural observations. We have chosen to explore large zoned ignimbrites, which represent an instantaneous evacuation of an upper crustal magma reservoir, to isolate potential crystal accumulation zones. Late-erupted, crystal-rich scoria with unusual chemistries (e.g., high Ba, Zr, Eu/Eu*) have been found in multiple examples of these zoned ignimbrites around the world, including the 900+ km3 Ammonia Tanks and Carpenter Ridge Tuffs, both erupted during the Tertiary magmatic flare-up in the Western USA. As already suggested for the 7700 BP Crater Lake ignimbrite, such crystal-rich scoria have mineralogical and geochemical characteristics that are most convincingly explained by accumulation of low temperature minerals as highly-evolved melt escapes upward and pools at the top of large crystalline mushes. To account for the eruption of such crystal-rich zones (technically uneruptible with >50vol% crystals), some melting of low-temperature mineral phases is required; evidence for resorption textures in sanidine and quartz is commonplace in these scoria. The presence of mafic enclaves and/or mingling textures in such scoria indicate that recharge from below ultimately drove melting of part of the mineral assemblage within the cumulate rootzone, while

  15. 1980 Cumulative Supplement, "Higher Education and the Law".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    A 1980 cumulative supplement to the basic text, "Higher Education and the Law," is presented. Contents include: edited reports of five United States Supreme Court cases, important lower court cases, regulations and reports; and citations to numerous law review articles, additional cases, and other secondary sources. The following broad topics are…

  16. Rethinking cumulative exposure in epidemiology, again.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Sanguanchaiyakrit, Nuthchyawach

    2015-01-01

    The use of cumulative exposure, the product of intensity and duration, has enjoyed great popularity in epidemiology of chronic diseases despite numerous known caveats in its interpretation. We briefly review the history of use of cumulative exposure in epidemiology and propose an alternative method for relating time-integrated exposures to health risks. We argue, as others before us have, that cumulative exposure metrics obscures the interplay of exposure intensity and duration. We propose to use a computationally simple alternative in which duration and intensity of exposure are modelled as a main effect and their interaction, cumulative exposure, only be added if there is evidence of deviation from this additive model. We also consider the Lubin-Caporaso model of interplay of exposure intensity and duration. The impact of measurement error in intensity on model selection was also examined. The value of this conceptualization is demonstrated using a simulation study and further illustrated in the context of respiratory health and occupational exposure to latex dust. We demonstrate why cumulative exposure has been so popular because the cumulative exposure metric per se gives a robust answer to the existence of an association, regardless of the underlying true mechanism of disease. Treating cumulative exposure as the interaction of main effects of exposure duration and intensity enables epidemiologists to derive more information about mechanism of disease then fitting cumulative exposure metric by itself, and without the need to collect additional data. We propose that the practice of fitting duration, intensity and cumulative exposure separately to epidemiologic data should lead to conceptualization of cumulative exposure as interaction of main effects of duration and intensity of exposure. PMID:25138292

  17. A COMPARISON OF SOME MACHINE-PRODUCED INDEXES. TECHNICAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADAMS, WILLIAM MANSFIELD

    SOME MACHINE-PRODUCED INDEXES ARE COMPARED TO ASSIST IN DECIDING ON THE FORMAT FOR A PROPOSED INDEX. THE OBJECTIVES OF AN INDEX AND THE SEARCH PROCEDURE ARE ANALYZED, AND AN EXPLANATION AND A RELATIONSHIP IS GIVEN FOR KEY-WORDS-IN-TITLE AND KEY-REFERENCES OF THE SAME ARTICLE. BASED ON THE COMPARISON OF THE INDEXES, A 53- YEAR CUMULATIVE INDEX WAS…

  18. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132

  19. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Cumulative Finals on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Maya M.; Brack, Amy S. Badura; Finken, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the benefits of cumulative and noncumulative finals on students' short- and long-term course material retention. In Experiment 1, we examined results from course content exams administered immediately after course finals. Course sections including cumulative finals had higher content exam scores than sections…

  20. Asymptotic growth of cumulative and regenerative beam break-up instabilities in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    1988-06-01

    It is found that the asymptotic growth of the cumulative beam break up instability is independent of the focusing magnetic field, according to the model of Panofsky and Bander. The analysis is extended to include the transition from the cumulative to the regenerative type, both in the presence and absence of a focusing magnetic field.

  1. Cumulative creep damage for polycarbonate and polysulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The literature for creep to failure cumulative damage laws are reviewed. Creep to failure tests performed on polycarbonate and polysulfone under single and two step loadings are discussed. A cumulative damage law or modified time fraction rule is developed using a power law for transient creep response as the starting point. Experimental results are approximated well by the new rule. Damage and failure mechanisms associated with the two materials are suggested.

  2. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with low level cumulative lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Kátia F.; Morata, Thais C.; Lopes, Andréa Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Corteletti, Lilian Cássia Bórnia Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children,but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in childrenwith a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months). Results The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 g/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433). All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I---III, III---V, and I---V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area. PMID:25458254

  3. Accumulating Research: A Systematic Account of How Cumulative Meta-Analyses Would Have Provided Knowledge, Improved Health, Reduced Harm and Saved Resources

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Mike; Brice, Anne; Chalmers, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Background “Cumulative meta-analysis” describes a statistical procedure to calculate, retrospectively, summary estimates from the results of similar trials every time the results of a further trial in the series had become available. In the early 1990s, comparisons of cumulative meta-analyses of treatments for myocardial infarction with advice promulgated through medical textbooks showed that research had continued long after robust estimates of treatment effects had accumulated, and that medical textbooks had overlooked strong, existing evidence from trials. Cumulative meta-analyses have subsequently been used to assess what could have been known had new studies been informed by systematic reviews of relevant existing evidence and how waste might have been reduced. Methods and Findings We used a systematic approach to identify and summarise the findings of cumulative meta-analyses of studies of the effects of clinical interventions, published from 1992 to 2012. Searches were done of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Methodology Register and Science Citation Index. A total of 50 eligible reports were identified, including more than 1,500 cumulative meta-analyses. A variety of themes are illustrated with specific examples. The studies showed that initially positive results became null or negative in meta-analyses as more trials were done; that early null or negative results were over-turned; that stable results (beneficial, harmful and neutral) would have been seen had a meta-analysis been done before the new trial; and that additional trials had been much too small to resolve the remaining uncertainties. Conclusions This large, unique collection of cumulative meta-analyses highlights how a review of the existing evidence might have helped researchers, practitioners, patients and funders make more informed decisions and choices about new trials over decades of research. This would have led to earlier uptake of effective interventions in practice, less

  4. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  5. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children.

  6. The National LOGO Exchange Newsletter, Volumes 1-3 (September 1982-May 1985) with Topical Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National LOGO Exchange, Charlottesville, VA.

    This document consists of 27 issues of the National LOGO Exchange Newsletter (NLX) together with cumulative indexes which provide five access points to information in the newsletters: (1) an author index; (2) a book review index; (3) a product and information index; (4) a column index; and (5) a subject index. The alphabetical author index lists…

  7. Quaker Resources Online Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke-Harrigan, Heidi

    The Quaker Resources Online Index is a World Wide Web-based index, including author, title, subject, and meeting indexes, that provides access to Quaker materials available on the Web. Given the current failings and shortcomings of search engines and automated key word searches, this index brings together information from a variety of sources and…

  8. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  9. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  10. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard; Piris, Mario

    2014-12-21

    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of 〈S-^{sup 2}〉, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall 〈S{sup ^2}〉 values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, 〈S{sup ^2}〉.

  11. Managing cumulative impacts: A key to sustainability?

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses how science can be more effectively used in creating policy to manage cumulative effects on ecosystems. The paper focuses on the scientific techniques that we have to identify and to assess cumulative impacts on ecosystems. The term ``sustainable development`` was brought into common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The Brundtland Commission report highlighted the need to simultaneously address developmental and environmental imperatives simultaneously by calling for development that ``meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.`` We cannot claim to be working toward sustainable development until we can quantitatively assess cumulative impacts on the environment: The two concepts are inextricibally linked in that the elusiveness of cumulative effects likely has the greatest potential of keeping us from achieving sustainability. In this paper, assessment and management frameworks relevant to cumulative impacts are discussed along with recent literature on how to improve such assessments. When possible, examples are given for marine ecosystems.

  12. [Journal selection and indexing for Index Medicus and Chinese periodicals indexed in Index Medicus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan; Bai, Yu-Jin; Yin, Hui-Xia

    2005-01-01

    Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed published by U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the most important and commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system in the world. According to the"List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (2004)", 4,098 journals are indexed for Index Medicus, including 70 journals from mainland China and Hong Kong and 9 journals from Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine established in May, 2003 is indexed in Index Medicus in 2004. This article outlines the critical elements of journal selection for Index Medicus/MEDLINE and the journal selection process for indexing at NLM, and introduces some measures for the Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine being indexed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

  13. Cumulative Risk and Teacher Well-Being in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Sharon; Torrente, Catalina; McCoy, Marissa; Rasheed, Damira; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Remarkably little systematic research has examined the living and working conditions for teachers in sub-Saharan Africa and how such conditions predict teacher well-being. This study assesses how various risks across several domains of teachers' lives--measured as a "cumulative risk index"--predict motivation, burnout, and job…

  14. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  15. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  16. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cumulative Risks, Cumulative Promotive Factors, and Adolescent Violent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of predominately African American urban adolescents (N = 750). Cumulative risk and promotive factor indices represented individual characteristics, and peer, parental, and familial influences. Using…

  17. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  18. Improving Keyword Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsgaard, John N.; Evans, John Edward

    1981-01-01

    Examines some of the most frequently cited criticisms of keyword indexing, including (1) the absence of general subject headings, (2) limited entry points, and (3) irrelevant indexing. Six references are cited. (FM)

  19. Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects assessment practice

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Nicole E.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-04-15

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) then is broadly defined as the process of evaluating the potential impacts of such collective actions on the environment and is a requirement in many countries, including in Canada at the federal level under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. However, current approaches to CEA for river systems are proving to be ineffective, which is largely attributed to the disconnect between CEA science and practice. We highlight this gap herein by discussing contradictions in the CEA literature, challenges in quantifying cumulative interactions, including overcoming spatiotemporal scale issues, multiple hydrologic and ecological pathways, and lack of predictive analysis. Our analysis shows there is a need for improved CEA for river systems, and in responding to this need we propose a conceptual framework for better integrating science and practice for improved CEA for river systems using one of the most adversely affected rivers basins in Canada, the Athabasca River, as our model. We conclude by addressing the challenges inherent to CEA with the intent of providing scientists with ways to help improve CEA of river systems.

  20. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  1. Index to Volume 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2001-02-01

    The Subject Index references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are indexed as such, but their subjects are not further cross-indexed. The Author Index details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.

  2. A Summary of Publications on Methods and Tools for Assessing Cumulative Risk, Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    This collection of eight publications on cumulative risk assessment was developed collaboratively among scientists within EPA’s Office of Research and Development and three other organizations. These include scientific collaborations through an Interagency Agreement with Argonne...

  3. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  4. Calculation of the Poisson cumulative distribution function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert G.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    A method for calculating the Poisson cdf (cumulative distribution function) is presented. The method avoids computer underflow and overflow during the process. The computer program uses this technique to calculate the Poisson cdf for arbitrary inputs. An algorithm that determines the Poisson parameter required to yield a specified value of the cdf is presented.

  5. Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández, M.; González-López, V. A.

    2015-03-10

    We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure.

  6. CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT FOR QUANTITATIVE RESPONSE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Relative Potency Factor approach (RPF) is used to normalize and combine different toxic potencies among a group of chemicals selected for cumulative risk assessment. The RPF method assumes that the slopes of the dose-response functions are all equal; but this method depends o...

  7. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  8. Reading aloud: the cumulative lexical interference effect.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, Claudio; Peressotti, Francesca; Job, Remo; Saunders, Steven; Coltheart, Max

    2012-08-01

    Picture naming shows a cumulative semantic interference effect: Latency for naming a target picture increases as a function of the number of pictures semantically similar to the target that have previously been named (Howard, Nickels, Coltheart, & Cole-Virtue, Cognition 100:464-482, 2006). Howard and colleagues, and also Oppenheim, Dell, and Schwartz (Cognition 114:227-252, 2010), argued that this occurs because of the joint presence in the picture-naming system of three critical properties: shared activation, priming, and competition. They also discussed the possibility that whenever any cognitive system possesses these three properties, a cumulative similarity-based interference effect from repeated use of that cognitive system will occur. We investigated this possibility by looking for a cumulative lexical interference effect when the task is reading aloud: Will the latency of reading a target word aloud increase as a function of the number of words orthographically/phonologically similar to the target that have previously been read aloud? We found that this was so. This supports the general idea that cumulative similarity-based interference effects will arise whenever any cognitive system that possesses the three key properties of shared activation, priming, and competition is repeatedly used. PMID:22623265

  9. Cumulative creep damage for polycarbonate and polysulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M. J.; Straight, M. R.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Creep to failure tests performed on polycarbonate and polysulfone under single and two step loadings are discussed. A cumulative damage law or modified time fraction rule is developed using a power law for transient creep response as the starting point. Experimental results are approximated well by the new rule. Damage and failure mechanisms associated with the two materials are suggested.

  10. Cumulative Intertrial Inhibition in Repeated Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    In the present study the author examined visual search when the items remain visible across trials but the location of the target varies. Reaction times for inefficient search cumulatively increased with increasing numbers of repeated search trials, suggesting that inhibition for distractors carried over successive trials. This intertrial…

  11. Cumulative Use of Strong Anticholinergic Medications and Incident Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Shelly L.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Dublin, Sascha; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Hubbard, Rebecca; Walker, Rod; Yu, Onchee; Crane, Paul; Larson, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many medications have anticholinergic effects. The general view is that anticholinergic-induced cognitive impairment is reversible upon medication discontinuation. However, a few studies suggest that anticholinergic medications may be associated with increased dementia risk. OBJECTIVE To examine whether cumulative anticholinergic medication use is associated with a higher risk of incident dementia. DESIGN Prospective population-based cohort study using data from the Adult Changes in Thought Study. SETTING Group Health, an integrated health-care delivery system, Seattle, Washington PARTICIPANTS 3,434 participants aged 65 and older with no dementia at study entry. Initial recruitment occurred between 1994 and 1996 or 2000 and 2003. Beginning in 2004, continuous replacement for deaths occurred. All participants received follow-up every two years. EXPOSURE Using computerized pharmacy dispensing data, cumulative anticholinergic exposure was defined as the total standardized daily doses (TSDD) dispensed in the past 10 years. The most recent 12 months of use was excluded to avoid use related to prodromal symptoms. Cumulative exposure was time-varying. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incident dementia and Alzheimer’s disease using standard diagnostic criteria. Statistical analyses used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for demographic, health behaviors and health status including comorbidities. RESULTS The most common anticholinergic drug classes used were tricyclic antidepressants, first generation antihistamines and bladder antimuscarinics. Over a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 797 participants (23%) developed dementia (637 developed Alzheimer’s). A 10-year cumulative dose-response relationship was observed for both dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (test for trend, p<0.001). For dementia, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cumulative anticholinergic use was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74-1.16) for 1-90 TSDD; 1.19 (CI, 0.94-1.51) for

  12. Using exposomics to assess cumulative risks and promote health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martyn T; de la Rosa, Rosemarie; Daniels, Sarah I

    2015-12-01

    Under the exposome paradigm all nongenetic factors contributing to disease are considered to be 'environmental' including chemicals, drugs, infectious agents, and psychosocial stress. We can consider these collectively as environmental stressors. Exposomics is the comprehensive analysis of exposure to all environmental stressors and should yield a more thorough understanding of chronic disease development. We can operationalize exposomics by studying all the small molecules in the body and their influence on biological pathways that lead to impaired health. Here, we describe methods by which this may be achieved and discuss the application of exposomics to cumulative risk assessment in vulnerable populations. Since the goal of cumulative risk assessment is to analyze, characterize, and quantify the combined risks to health from exposures to multiple agents or stressors, it seems that exposomics is perfectly poised to advance this important area of environmental health science. We should therefore support development of tools for exposomic analysis and begin to engage impacted communities in participatory exposome research. A first step may be to apply exposomics to vulnerable populations already studied by more conventional cumulative risk approaches. We further propose that recent migrants, low socioeconomic groups with high environmental chemical exposures, and pregnant women should be high priority populations for study by exposomics. Moreover, exposomics allows us to study interactions between chronic stress and environmental chemicals that disrupt stress response pathways (i.e., 'stressogens'). Exploring the impact of early life exposures and maternal stress may be an interesting and accessible topic for investigation by exposomics using biobanked samples.

  13. Cumulative silvicultural impacts on watersheds: A hydrologic and regulatory dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Robert N.; Miller, Taylor O.

    1981-03-01

    Because of the nature of watersheds, the hydrologic and erosional impacts of logging and related road-building activities may move offsite, affecting areas downslope and downstream from the operation. The degree to which this occurs depends on the interaction of many variables, including soils, bedrock geology, vegetation, the timing and size of storm events, logging technology, and operator performance. In parts of northwestern California, these variables combine to produce significant water quality degradation, with resulting damage to anadromous fish habitat. Examination of recent aerial photographs, combined with a review of public records, shows that many timber harvest operations were concentrated in a single 83 km2 watershed in the lower Klamath River Basin within the past decade. The resulting soil disturbance in this case seems likely to result in cumulative off-site water quality degradation in the lower portion of the Basin. In California, both state and federal laws require consideration of possible cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. In spite of recent reforms that have given the state a larger role in regulating forest practices on private land, each timber harvest plan is still evaluated in isolation from other plans in the same watershed. A process of collaborative state-private watershed planning with increased input of geologic information offers the best long-term approach to the problem of assessing cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. Such a reform could ultimately emerge from the ongoing water quality planning process under Section 208 of the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  14. Data analysis techniques: a tool for cumulative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Lalloué, Benoît; Monnez, Jean-Marie; Padilla, Cindy; Kihal, Wahida; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is subject to environmental exposures from various sources, with negative health impacts (air, water and soil contamination, noise, etc.or with positive effects (e.g. green space). Studies considering such complex environmental settings in a global manner are rare. We propose to use statistical factor and cluster analyses to create a composite exposure index with a data-driven approach, in view to assess the environmental burden experienced by populations. We illustrate this approach in a large French metropolitan area. The study was carried out in the Great Lyon area (France, 1.2 M inhabitants) at the census Block Group (BG) scale. We used as environmental indicators ambient air NO2 annual concentrations, noise levels and proximity to green spaces, to industrial plants, to polluted sites and to road traffic. They were synthesized using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA), a data-driven technique without a priori modeling, followed by a Hierarchical Clustering to create BG classes. The first components of the MFA explained, respectively, 30, 14, 11 and 9% of the total variance. Clustering in five classes group: (1) a particular type of large BGs without population; (2) BGs of green residential areas, with less negative exposures than average; (3) BGs of residential areas near midtown; (4) BGs close to industries; and (5) midtown urban BGs, with higher negative exposures than average and less green spaces. Other numbers of classes were tested in order to assess a variety of clustering. We present an approach using statistical factor and cluster analyses techniques, which seem overlooked to assess cumulative exposure in complex environmental settings. Although it cannot be applied directly for risk or health effect assessment, the resulting index can help to identify hot spots of cumulative exposure, to prioritize urban policies or to compare the environmental burden across study areas in an epidemiological framework.

  15. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  16. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  17. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  18. Dams on the Mekong: Cumulative sediment starvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Rubin, Z. K.; Minear, J. T.

    2014-06-01

    The Mekong River, largely undeveloped prior to 1990, is undergoing rapid dam construction. Seven dams are under construction on the mainstem in China and 133 proposed for the Lower Mekong River and tributaries. We delineated nine distinct geomorphic regions, for which we estimated sediment yields based on geomorphic characteristics, tectonic history, and the limited sediment transport data available. We then applied the 3W model to calculate cumulative sediment trapping by these dams, accounting for changing trap efficiency over time and multiple dams on a single river system. Under a "definite future" scenario of 38 dams (built or under construction), cumulative sediment reduction to the Delta would be 51%. Under full build-out of all planned dams, cumulative sediment trapping will be 96%. That is, once in-channel stored sediment is exhausted, only 4% of the predam sediment load would be expected to reach the Delta. This scenario would have profound consequences on productivity of the river and persistence of the Delta landform itself, and suggests that strategies to pass sediment through/around dams should be explored to prevent the consequences of downstream sediment starvation.

  19. [Cumulative exposure to pesticide residues in food].

    PubMed

    Kostka, Grazyna; Urbanek-Olejnik, Katarzyna; Liszewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The results of food monitoring studies indicate that humans are constantly exposed to residues ofplant protection products (pesticides) in marketed food products. Hence, assessment of the risk to consumers associated with the consumption of products containing residues of the active substances of pesticides is a key stage in both the registration of pesticides and official control of foodstuffs. However there are frequent cases of exposure not only to individual active substances but also to mixtures of pesticide residues. These levels are usually low, below of effective action, and interaction such as synergism orpotentiation is not expected to occur At the same time, literature data indicate that for mixtures sharing a common MOA (Mode of Action/Mechanism of Action), the probability of additive effects is high, even after adjusting for the low levels of the mixed pesticide residues present. Accordingly, health risk assessment for consumers exposed to such mixtures (cumulative/aggregate risk) has become an issue of topical importance. EU-level initiatives regarding the development of appropriate methodology for the estimation of cumulative/aggregate risk have brought about considerable progress in this area. The article discusses various aspects of estimation of cumulative risk for consumers associated with exposure to mixtures of pesticide residues in food.

  20. Expansive soil crack depth under cumulative damage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  1. Needs for Research in Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1994-01-01

    Uncovers issues in indexing that need scientific research, including the cognitive processes of indexers and users; vocabulary control; how best to supplement human indexers' intellectual effort with computer capabilities; structure and layout of indexes on the printed page and on the computer screen; and evaluation of indexes. (Contains 21…

  2. Medium-term predictions of cumulative runoff in a Mediterranean mountain river.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliver, Zacarías; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    It is important to find patterns and hidden connections between data to assess the development of decision-making tools for water management. The climate variability of the Mediterranean environments makes it necessary the establishment of methodological/hydrological frameworks that allow us to limit the uncertainty on the decision for further periods within the year, and thus achieve better resource utilization. For that, a study of different machine learning methods has been applied in a Mediterranean mountainous basin in South Spain, by means of an ensemble classification and regression approach to predict the river flow volumes for further periods on a quarterly scale. The predictions are made within the same hydrological year and under two different time schemes, after three (A-scheme) and six months (B-scheme), testing the further periods. The study was carried out with the longest streamflow time series registered in the basin (43 years), collected at a high mountain gauge station (Narila, 975 metres above sea level) in the Guadalfeo River. This station is located in the upstream part of the river (with an associated 67 km2 contributing area), where there are not significant human alterations of the natural hydrological cycle (withdrawals or discharges) and with a strong influence of the snow regime. The set of selected predictors for the river water volumes includes cumulated runoff, cumulated rainfall and the average of different Climate indexes. The results show that the nature of future periods can be classified accurately in our study case by the methods proposed, classifying correctly more than 90 % of the values during the testing period.

  3. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action. PMID:23145705

  4. Quasi-linear theory via the cumulant expansion approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    The cumulant expansion technique of Kubo was used to derive an intergro-differential equation for f , the average one particle distribution function for particles being accelerated by electric and magnetic fluctuations of a general nature. For a very restricted class of fluctuations, the f equation degenerates exactly to a differential equation of Fokker-Planck type. Quasi-linear theory, including the adiabatic assumption, is an exact theory for this limited class of fluctuations. For more physically realistic fluctuations, however, quasi-linear theory is at best approximate.

  5. Femtosecond writing of depressed cladding waveguides in strongly cumulative regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, Mikhail A.; Khudyakov, Dmitriy V.; Vartapetov, Sergey K.

    2015-05-01

    We proposed a novel approach for direct femtosecond inscription of waveguides. It consisted in formation of cladding with reduced refractive index in fused silica. Depressed cladding was based on peripheral regions of individually written neighbored tracks, which should be inscribed in strongly cumulative regime. It was shown, that due to shot time interval between femtosecond laser pulses and relatively slow thermal diffusion, the exposed focal region surrounds by significantly wide cladding with reduced refracted index. Based on proposed approach we demonstrated depressed cladding waveguide inscription in fused silica using emission directly from commercially available femtosecond oscillator without correcting optical systems and second harmonic generation. It was shown, that the new approach provides formation of easily adjustable single mode waveguides with desired mode field diameter. Such depressed cladding waveguides exploit both advantages of fused silica material and depressed cladding geometry. We also verified our suggestion by experiment and inscribed depressed cladding waveguides with two different mode field diameters at similar femtosecond pulse characteristics. The obtained structures provided low propagation losses and good coupling with Gaussian mode. The waveguides supported propagation of both polarizations with nearly identical characteristics. Obtained experimental results were in good agreement with numerical simulation.

  6. Towards Greenland Glaciation: cumulative or abrupt transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ning; Dumas, Christophe; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille

    2016-04-01

    During the mid-Pliocene warming period (3-3.3 Ma BP), global annual mean temperature is warmer by 2-3 degree than pre-industrial. Greenland ice sheet volume is supposed to be a 50% reduction compared to nowadays [Haywood et al. 2010]. Around 2.7-2.6 Ma BP, just ~ 500 kyr after the warming peak of mid-Pliocene, there is already full Greenland Glaciation [Lunt et al. 2008]. How does Greenland ice sheet evolve from a half size to a glaciation level during 3 Ma - 2.5 Ma? Data show that there is a decreasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011; Martinez et al. 2015]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2015] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a perennial glaciation on Greenland and must be combined to low summer insolation, to preserve the ice sheet during insolation maximum, suggesting a cumulative process. In order to diagnose whether the ice sheet build-up is an abrupt event or a cumulative process, we carry on, for the first time, a transient simulation of climate and ice sheet evolutions from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma. This strategy enables to investigate waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. To reach this goal, we use a tri-dimensional interpolation method designed by Ladant et al. (2014) which combines the evolution of CO2 concentration, orbital parameters and Greenland ice sheet sizes in an off-line way by interpolating snapshots simulations. Thanks to this new method, we can build a transient like simulation through asynchronous coupling between GCM and ice sheet model. With this method, we may consistently answer the question of the build-up of Greenland: abrupt or cumulative process.

  7. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  8. Earth system responses to cumulative carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2015-07-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil carbon emissions and multiple climate targets are essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient responses in different climate variables are quantified for a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization and in idealized experiments using the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model. The model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte-Carlo type framework. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.88 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.28 to 2.69 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and in steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The slopes of the relationships change when CO2 is stabilized. The Transient Climate Response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models, but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  9. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  10. A watershed-based cumulative risk impact analysis: environmental vulnerability and impact criteria.

    PubMed

    Osowski, S L; Swick, J D; Carney, G R; Pena, H B; Danielson, J E; Parrish, D A

    2001-01-01

    Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have received much attention in recent years. As a result, a watershed-based screening tool, the Cumulative Risk Index Analysis (CRIA), was developed to assess the cumulative impacts of multiple CAFO facilities in a watershed subunit. The CRIA formula calculates an index number based on: 1) the area of one or more facilities compared to the area of the watershed subunit, 2) the average of the environmental vulnerability criteria, and 3) the average of the industry-specific impact criteria. Each vulnerability or impact criterion is ranked on a 1 to 5 scale, with a low rank indicating low environmental vulnerability or impact and a high rank indicating high environmental vulnerability or impact. The individual criterion ranks, as well as the total CRIA score, can be used to focus the environmental analysis and facilitate discussions with industry, public, and other stakeholders in the Agency decision-making process. PMID:11214349

  11. Cumulative and career-stage citation impact of social-personality psychology programs and their members.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Brian A; Graham, Jesse; Lindner, Nicole M; Kesebir, Selin; Hawkins, Carlee Beth; Hahn, Cheryl; Schmidt, Kathleen; Motyl, Matt; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer; Frazier, Rebecca; Tenney, Elizabeth R

    2010-10-01

    Number of citations and the h-index are popular metrics for indexing scientific impact. These, and other existing metrics, are strongly related to scientists' seniority. This article introduces complementary indicators that are unrelated to the number of years since PhD. To illustrate cumulative and career-stage approaches for assessing the scientific impact across a discipline, citations for 611 scientists from 97 U.S. and Canadian social psychology programs are amassed and analyzed. Results provide benchmarks for evaluating impact across the career span in psychology and other disciplines with similar citation patterns. Career-stage indicators provide a very different perspective on individual and program impact than cumulative impact, and may predict emerging scientists and programs. Comparing social groups, Whites and men had higher impact than non-Whites and women, respectively. However, average differences in career stage accounted for most of the difference for both groups.

  12. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Susceptibility Index - contribution for a vulnerability index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, R.; Grosso, N.; Reis, E.; Dias, L.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    This work defines a national flood susceptibility index for the Portuguese continental territory, by proposing the aggregation of different variables which represent natural conditions for permeability, runoff and accumulation. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). This approach expands on previous works by trying to bridge the gap between different floods mechanisms (e.g. progressive and flash floods) occurring at different spatial scales in the Portuguese territory through: (a) selecting homogeneously processed datasets, (b) aggregating their values to better translate the spatially continuous and cumulative influence in floods at multiple spatial scales. Results show a good ability to capture, in the higher susceptibility classes, different flood types: progressive floods and flash floods. Lower values are usually related to: mountainous areas, low water accumulation potential and more permeable soils. Validation with independent flood datasets confirmed these index characteristics, although some overestimation can be seen in the southern region of Alentejo where, due to a dense hydrographic network and an overall low slope, floods are not as frequent as a result of lower precipitation mean values. Future work will focus on: (i) including extreme precipitation datasets to represent the triggering factor, (ii) improving representation of smaller and stepper basins, (iii) optimizing variable weight definition process, (iii) developing more robust independent flood validation datasets.

  13. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Susceptibility Index - contribution to a vulnerability index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, R.; Grosso, N.; Reis, E.; Dias, L.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    This work defines a national flood susceptibility index for the Portuguese continental territory, by proposing the aggregation of different variables which represent natural conditions for permeability, runoff and accumulation. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). This approach expands on previous works by trying to bridge the gap between different flood mechanisms (e.g. progressive and flash floods) occurring at different spatial scales in the Portuguese territory through (a) selecting homogeneously processed data sets and (b) aggregating their values to better translate the spatially continuous and cumulative influence in floods at multiple spatial scales. Results show a good ability to capture, in the higher susceptibility classes, different flood types: fluvial floods and flash floods. Lower values are usually related to mountainous areas, low water accumulation potential and more permeable soils. Validation with independent flood data sets confirmed these index characteristics, although some overestimation can be seen in the southern region of Alentejo where, due to a dense hydrographic network and an overall low slope, floods are not as frequent as a result of lower precipitation mean values. Future work will focus on (i) including extreme precipitation data sets to represent the triggering factor, (ii) improving representation of smaller and stepper basins, (iii) optimizing variable weight definition process and (iii) developing more robust independent flood validation data sets.

  14. Documentation of cumulative impacts in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.A.; Canter, L.W.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations in the United States require federal agencies to apply an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in decision-making related to their actions. One aspect requires an examination of direct, indirect and cumulative impacts (CIs). Historically, cumulative impact assessment (CIA) has been given limited attention in EIA and resultant environmental impact statements (EISs), not because of its lack of importance, but owing to limitations in methodologies and procedures, including documentation consistency. The objectives of this study were to identify deficiencies in the documentation of CIs and CIA in EISs and to formulate appropriate recommendations (potential solutions) related to such deficiencies. The study involved the systematic review of 33 EISs. The results indicate that improvements have been made in documentation practices since 1990; however, inconsistencies and inadequacies still exist. Therefore, the following recommendations were developed: (1) CIs should be reported in a separate part of the Environmental Consequences section, and they should be addressed for each pertinent environmental resource; (2) a summary of CIs should be included; (3) any CIs considered not significant should be mentioned plus the reason(s) for their non-significance; (4) spatial and temporal boundaries addressed within the CIA process should be defined for pertinent environmental resources; and (5) utilized guidelines and methodologies should be described.

  15. Cumulative silvicultural impacts on watersheds: a hydrologic and regulatory dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, R.M.; Miller, T.O.

    1981-03-01

    Because of the nature of watersheds, the hydrologic and erosional impacts of logging and related road-building activities may move offsite, affecting areas downslope and downstream from the operation. The degree to which this occurs depends on the interaction of many variables, including soils, bedrock geology, vegetation, the timing, and size of storm events, logging technology, and operator performance. In parts of northwestern California, these variables combine to produce significant water quality degradation, with resulting damage to anadromous fish habitat. Examination of recent aerial photographs, combined with a review of public records, shows that many timber harvest operations were concentrated in a single 83 sq km watershed in the lower Klamath River Basin within the past decade. The resulting soil disturbance in this case seems likely to result in cumulative off-site water quality degradation in the lower portion of the Basin. In California, both state and federal laws require consideration of possible cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. In spite of recent reforms that have given the state a larger role in regulating forest practices on private land, each timber harvest plan is still evaluated in isolation from other plans in the same watershed. A process of collaborative state-private watershed planning with increased input of geologic information offers the best long-term approach to the problem of assessing cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. Such a reform could ultimately emerge from the ongoing water quality planning process under Section 208 of the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (Refs. 51).

  16. Cumulative environmental vulnerability and environmental justice in California's San Joaquin Valley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin; London, Jonathan K

    2012-05-01

    The identification of "environmental justice (EJ) communities" is an increasingly common element in environmental planning, policy, and regulation. As a result, the choice of methods to define and identify these communities is a critical and often contentious process. This contentiousness is, in turn, a factor of the lack of a commonly accepted method, the concern among many EJ advocates and some regulators that existing frameworks are inadequate, and ultimately, the significant consequences of such designations for both public policy and community residents. With the aim of assisting regulators and advocates to more strategically focus their efforts, the authors developed a Cumulative Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (CEVA). This CEVA is composed of a Cumulative Environmental Hazard Index and a Social Vulnerability Index, with a Health Index as a reference. Applying CEVA produces spatial analysis that identifies the places that are subject to both the highest concentrations of cumulative environmental hazards and the fewest social, economic and political resources to prevent, mitigate, or adapt to these conditions. We recommended that these areas receive special consideration in permitting, monitoring, and enforcement actions, as well as investments in public participation, capacity building, and community economic development.

  17. Cumulative Environmental Vulnerability and Environmental Justice in California’s San Joaquin Valley

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ganlin; London, Jonathan K.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of “environmental justice (EJ) communities” is an increasingly common element in environmental planning, policy, and regulation. As a result, the choice of methods to define and identify these communities is a critical and often contentious process. This contentiousness is, in turn, a factor of the lack of a commonly accepted method, the concern among many EJ advocates and some regulators that existing frameworks are inadequate, and ultimately, the significant consequences of such designations for both public policy and community residents. With the aim of assisting regulators and advocates to more strategically focus their efforts, the authors developed a Cumulative Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (CEVA). This CEVA is composed of a Cumulative Environmental Hazard Index and a Social Vulnerability Index, with a Health Index as a reference. Applying CEVA produces spatial analysis that identifies the places that are subject to both the highest concentrations of cumulative environmental hazards and the fewest social, economic and political resources to prevent, mitigate, or adapt to these conditions. We recommended that these areas receive special consideration in permitting, monitoring, and enforcement actions, as well as investments in public participation, capacity building, and community economic development. PMID:22754459

  18. Extending the relationship between global warming and cumulative carbon emissions to multi-millennial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frölicher, Thomas L.; Paynter, David J.

    2015-07-01

    The transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) is a highly policy-relevant quantity in climate science. The TCRE suggests that peak warming is linearly proportional to cumulative carbon emissions and nearly independent of the emissions scenario. Here, we use simulations of the Earth System Model (ESM) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to show that global mean surface temperature may increase by 0.5 °C after carbon emissions are stopped at 2 °C global warming, implying an increase in the coefficient relating global warming to cumulative carbon emissions on multi-centennial timescales. The simulations also suggest a 20% lower quota on cumulative carbon emissions allowed to achieve a policy-driven limit on global warming. ESM estimates from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5-ESMs) qualitatively agree on this result, whereas Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) simulations, used in the IPCC 5th assessment report to assess the robustness of TCRE on multi-centennial timescales, suggest a post-emissions decrease in temperature. The reason for this discrepancy lies in the smaller simulated realized warming fraction in CMIP5-ESMs, including GFDL ESM2M, than in EMICs when carbon emissions increase. The temperature response to cumulative carbon emissions can be characterized by three different phases and the linear TCRE framework is only valid during the first phase when carbon emissions increase. For longer timescales, when emissions tape off, two new metrics are introduced that better characterize the time-dependent temperature response to cumulative carbon emissions: the equilibrium climate response to cumulative carbon emissions and the multi-millennial climate response to cumulative carbon emissions.

  19. No Evidence for a Cumulative Impact Effect on Concussion Injury Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Sabin, Matthew; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies using a helmet-based accelerometer system (Head Impact Telemetry System [HITS]) have demonstrated that concussions result from a wide range of head impact magnitudes. Variability in concussion thresholds has been proposed to result from the cumulative effect of non-concussive head impacts prior to injury. We used the HITS to collect biomechanical data representing >100,000 head impacts in 95 high school football players over 4 years. The cumulative impact histories prior to 20 concussive impacts in 19 athletes were compared to the cumulative impact histories prior to the three largest magnitude non-concussive head impacts in the same athletes. No differences were present in any impact history variable between the concussive and non-concussive high magnitude impacts. These analyses included the number of head impacts, cumulative HIT severity profile value, cumulative linear acceleration, and cumulative rotational acceleration during the same practice or game session, as well as over the 30 min and 1 week preceding these impacts. Our data do not support the proposal that impact volume or intensity influence concussion threshold in high school football athletes. PMID:21815783

  20. Cumulative Depression Episodes Predicts Later C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with elevated levels of the inflammation marker C -reactive protein (CRP), yet the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested bi-directional longitudinal associations between CRP and depression in a sample of adolescent and young adults. The study compared the effects of current depression to the cumulative episodes of depression over time. Methods Nine waves of data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used, covering children in the community aged 9–16, 19, and 21 years old. Structured interviews were used to assess depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, and cumulative depressive episodes. Bloodspots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. Results CRP levels were not associated with later depression status. In contrast, all depression-related variables displayed evidence of association with later CRP levels. The associations with depressive symptoms and diagnostic status were attenuated after controlling for covariates particularly body mass index, smoking, and medication use. The effect of cumulative depressive episodes, however, continued to be significant after accounting for a range of covariates. Body mass index, smoking behavior and recent infections may mediate a portion of the effect of cumulative episodes on later CRP, but cumulative depressive episodes continued to predict CRP levels independently. Conclusions The occurrence of multiple depressive episodes exerted the greatest effect on later CRP levels. This suggests that risk for the diseases of middle age - cardiovascular and metabolic disease – may begin in childhood and depend, in part, upon long-term emotional functioning. PMID:22047718

  1. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice - difficulties and obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Waernbaeck, Antoienette Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija

    2009-02-15

    The importance of considering cumulative effects (CE) in the context of environmental assessment is manifested in the EU regulations. The demands on the contents of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) documents explicitly ask for CE to be described. In Swedish environmental assessment documents CE are rarely described or included. The aim of this paper is to look into the reasons behind this fact in the Swedish context. The paper describes and analyse how actors implementing the EIA and SEA legislation in Sweden perceive the current situation in relation to the legislative demands and the inclusion of cumulative effects. Through semi-structured interviews the following questions have been explored: Is the phenomenon of CE discussed and included in the EIA/SEA process? What do the actors include in and what is their knowledge of the term and concept of CE? Which difficulties and obstacles do these actors experience and what possibilities for inclusion of CE do they see in the EIA/SEA process? A large number of obstacles and hindrances emerged from the interviews conducted. It can be concluded from the analysis that the will to act does seem to exist. A lack of knowledge in respect of how to include cumulative effects and a lack of clear regulations concerning how this should be done seem to be perceived as the main obstacles. The knowledge of the term and the phenomenon is furthermore quite narrow and not all encompassing. They experience that there is a lack of procedures in place. They also seem to lack knowledge of methods in relation to how to actually work, in practice, with CE and how to include CE in the EIA/SEA process. It can be stated that the existence of this poor picture in relation to practice concerning CE in the context of impact assessment mirrors the existing and so far rather vague demands in respect of the inclusion and assessment of CE in Swedish EIA and SEA legislation, regulations, guidelines and

  2. The Cumulative Effect of Vacuum Radiation on Particle Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jean E.

    2010-12-22

    The action principle can predict the trajectories of a system of particles as determined by the dynamical forces acting on them. However, its predictions do not include the results of quantum fluctuations in the coordinates of the particles. It is proposed that quantum fluctuations shift the particles from one dynamical trajectory to another and that the change in action due to a root mean square shift in an individual coordinate is the same, regardless of which coordinate is shifted. This assumption, together with the uncertainty principle, implies that the cumulative effect of changes in energy and momentum varies as t{sup -1/2}, where t is time, so that these quantities tend to be conserved. However, the cumulative effect of changes in spatial coordinate varies as t{sup 1/2}, so this coordinate shows a Brownian drift over time. An example is given in which this stochastic drift, with its characteristic t{sup 1/2} dependence, could be experimentally observed at the beginning of a highly collimated particle beam.

  3. Predicting Academic Achievement from Cumulative Home Risk: The Mediating Roles of Effortful Control, Academic Relationships, and School Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Components of the home environment are associated with children's academic functioning. The accumulation of risks in the home are expected to prove more detrimental to achievement than any one risk alone, but the processes accounting for this relation are unclear. Using an index of cumulative home risk (CHR) inclusive of protective factors, as…

  4. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  5. Cumulative effects of early poverty on cortisol in young children: moderation by autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Berry, Daniel; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Granger, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    The relation of the cumulative experience of poverty in infancy and early childhood to child cortisol at age 48 months was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) in predominantly low-income and rural communities in two distinct regions of the United States. Families were seen in the home for data collection and cumulative experience of poverty was indexed by parent reported income-to-need ratio and household chaos measures collected between child ages 2 months and 48 months. For the analysis presented here, three saliva samples were also collected over an approximate 90 min interval at child age 48 months and were assayed for cortisol. ECG data were also collected during a resting period and during the administration of a mildly challenging battery of cognitive tasks. Mixed model analysis indicated that child cortisol at 48 months decreased significantly over the sampling time period and that cumulative time in poverty (number of years income-to-need less than or equal to 1) and cumulative household chaos were significantly related to a flatter trajectory for cortisol change and to an overall higher level of cortisol, respectively. Findings also indicated that respiratory sinus arrhythmia derived from the ECG data moderated the association between household chaos and child cortisol and that increase in respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the cognitive task was associated with an overall lower level of cortisol at 48 months.

  6. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    PubMed

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-11-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his colleagues to its perfection in the 1950s, and then into the 1960s when it proliferated as different scientific instrument companies began marketing their own models of the cumulative recorder. With the rise of digital computers, the demise of the cumulative recorder as a scientific instrument was inevitable; however, the value of the cumulative record as a monitoring device to assess schedule control of behavior continues. The cumulative recorder remains, along with the operant conditioning chamber, an icon of Skinner's approach to psychology.

  7. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    PubMed

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-11-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his colleagues to its perfection in the 1950s, and then into the 1960s when it proliferated as different scientific instrument companies began marketing their own models of the cumulative recorder. With the rise of digital computers, the demise of the cumulative recorder as a scientific instrument was inevitable; however, the value of the cumulative record as a monitoring device to assess schedule control of behavior continues. The cumulative recorder remains, along with the operant conditioning chamber, an icon of Skinner's approach to psychology. PMID:15693527

  8. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his colleagues to its perfection in the 1950s, and then into the 1960s when it proliferated as different scientific instrument companies began marketing their own models of the cumulative recorder. With the rise of digital computers, the demise of the cumulative recorder as a scientific instrument was inevitable; however, the value of the cumulative record as a monitoring device to assess schedule control of behavior continues. The cumulative recorder remains, along with the operant conditioning chamber, an icon of Skinner's approach to psychology. PMID:15693527

  9. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    PubMed

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  10. Towards Greenland Glaciation: Cumulative or Abrupt Transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, N.; Ramstein, G.; Contoux, C.; Ladant, J. B.; Dumas, C.; Donnadieu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The insolation evolution [Laskar 2004] from 4 to 2.5 Ma depicts a series of three summer solstice insolation minima between 2.7 and 2.6 Ma, but there are other more important summer solstice minima notably around 3.82 and 3.05 Ma. On such a time span of more than 1 Ma, data shows that there are variations in the evolution of atmospheric CO2 concentration with a local maximum around 3 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011], before a decrease between 3 and 2.6 Ma. The latter, suggesting an abrupt ice sheet inception around 2.7 Ma, has been shown to be a major culprit for the full Greenland Glaciation [Lunt et al. 2008]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2014, in review] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a glaciation on Greenland and must be combined to low summer insolation, with surviving ice during insolation maximum, suggesting a cumulative process in the first place, which could further lead to full glaciation at 2.7 Ma. Through a new tri-dimensional interpolation method implemented within the asynchronous coupling between an atmosphere ocean general circulation model (IPSL-CM5A) and an ice sheet model (GRISLI), we investigate the transient evolution of Greenland ice sheet during the Pliocene to diagnose whether the ice sheet inception is an abrupt event or rather a cumulative process, involving waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. ReferencesBartoli, G., Hönisch, B., & Zeebe, R. E. (2011). Atmospheric CO2 decline during the Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations. Paleoceanography, 26(4). Contoux C, Dumas C, Ramstein G, Jost A, Dolan A. M. (2014) Modelling Greenland Ice sheet inception and sustainability during the late Pliocene. (in review for Earth and Planetary Science Letters.).Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A. C. M., & Levrard, B. (2004). A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 428

  11. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1994. Volume 19, Number 4

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index, personal author index, subject index, NRC originating organization index (staff reports), NRC originating organization index (international agreements), NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports), contractor index, international organization index, and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  12. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  13. Effect of rf structure on cumulative beam breakup

    SciTech Connect

    Gluckstern, R.L.; Cooper, R.K.; Channell, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    We treat the effect of rf structure of a linac beam on cumulative beam breakup in the presence of external focusing. Starting with the difference equations of Helm and Loew, we derive two forms of an exact analytic solution for coasting beams: as a sum of products of Gegenbauer polynomials involving external focusing and rf structure, and as an integral involving these same parameters. The continuous-beam limit of Neil, Hall, and Cooper is obtained as the bunch separation goes to zero. An explicit solution is presented for the steady state, including modulation of the incoming displacement, showing both stable and unstable behavior with distance. Asymptotic amplitude expressions are derived for the transient solution, which can lead to even larger beam displacements. Approximate solutions also are obtained for accelerated and decelerated beams. Comparison with numerical simulations are presented.

  14. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference.

  15. Ultrasonic assessment of cumulative internal damage in filled polymers (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Knollman, G.C.; Martinson, R.H.; Bellin, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    An ultrasonic technique previously developed for studying dewetting and cumulative internal damage in filled polymers, such as solid rocket propellents, has been improved. The previous theoretical treatment is here expanded to include internal vacuoles of general spheroidal (rather than spherical) shape. Experimental measurements of sound speed and attenuation in a solid propellant material are utilized together with the modified theoretical model to calculate the internal damage parameters of effective vacuole size and number density as functions of applied uniaxial tensile strain. Results obtained from the model near the point of material failure are in excellent agreement with those provided by independent microscopic observations made on several rupture surfaces of propellant samples stressed to failure.

  16. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    PubMed

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies. PMID:26173268

  17. SEVIRI Cloud mask by Cumulative Discriminant Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, M. G.; Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Venafra, S.; Liuzzi, G.

    2015-09-01

    In the context of cloud detection for satellite observations we want to use the method of Cumulative Discriminant Analysis (CDA) as a tool to distinguish between clear and cloudy sky applied to Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data. The methodology is based on the choice of several statistics related to the cloud properties, whose correlation has been analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results have been compared with the SEVIRI reference cloud mask provided by the European Centre for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite (EUMETSAT), in order to find suitable thresholds able to discriminate between clear or cloudy conditions. We trained the statistics on a selected region, the Basilicata area, located in the south of Italy, in different periods of the year 2012, in order to take into account the seasonal variability. Moreover we separated land and sea surface and distinguished between day-time or night-time. The validation of thresholds, obtained through SEVIRI observations analysis, shows a good agreement with the reference cloud mask.

  18. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

    2015-04-01

    Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. PMID:25439093

  19. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

    2015-04-01

    Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts.

  20. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  1. Ductility and Strength Reduction Factors for Degrading Structures Considering Cumulative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bojórquez, Edén; Ruiz, Sonia E.; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Bojórquez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cumulative damage on the strength requirements of degrading structures is assessed through the evaluation of the target ductility and corresponding strength reduction factors of simple degrading structures. While the reduction on ductility is established through the use of Park and Ang index, the suggestions given by Bojórquez and Rivera are used to model the degradation of the structural properties of the simple systems. Target ductilities and their corresponding reduced strength reduction factors are established for five sets of ground motions; most of them are recorded in California. The results given in this paper provide insight into all relevant parameters that should be considered during seismic design of earthquake-resistant structures. Finally, some recommendations to evaluate the effect of cumulative damage on seismic design are suggested. PMID:24883410

  2. Ductility and strength reduction factors for degrading structures considering cumulative damage.

    PubMed

    Bojórquez, Edén; Ruiz, Sonia E; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Bojórquez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cumulative damage on the strength requirements of degrading structures is assessed through the evaluation of the target ductility and corresponding strength reduction factors of simple degrading structures. While the reduction on ductility is established through the use of Park and Ang index, the suggestions given by Bojórquez and Rivera are used to model the degradation of the structural properties of the simple systems. Target ductilities and their corresponding reduced strength reduction factors are established for five sets of ground motions; most of them are recorded in California. The results given in this paper provide insight into all relevant parameters that should be considered during seismic design of earthquake-resistant structures. Finally, some recommendations to evaluate the effect of cumulative damage on seismic design are suggested.

  3. Cumulative impacts on wetlands: Linking scientific assessments and regulatory alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lyndon C.; Gosselink, James G.

    1988-09-01

    This article is an extension and application of Preston and Bedford (1988), especially as relevant to bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests of the southeastern United States. The most important cumulative effects in BLH forests result from incremental forest loss (nibbling) and from synergisms resulting from this nibbling. Present regulatory procedures are ineffective in preventing incremental forest loss because of the focus on permit site evaluation, rather than on large landscapes. Three examples are given to illustrate the need for a landscape focus. This perspective requires preplanning or goal-setting to establish the desired conditions to be maintained in the regulated landscape unit. Spatial and temporal scales are of particular concern for landscape impact assessment. Natural drainage basins of about 106 ha, as identified in U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic units, appear to appropriate spatial units: they have fairly natural boundaries, are of sufficient size to support populations of large, wide-ranging mammals, and are compatible with existing maps and databases. Time scales should be sufficiently long to include recovery of wetland ecosystems from human perturbations. In practice, available data sets limit analysis to no longer than 50 yr. Eight indicators of landscape integrity are identified, based on generally available long-term data sets. Linking technical information concerning cumulative effects on landscapes to the evaluation of cumulative impacts in regulatory programs (i.e., goal-setting) is a serious issue that can benefit from precedents found in the field of epidemiology, and in the establishment of clean air and clean water standards. We suggest that reference data sets must be developed, relating BLH function to structure (forest area). These can be used to set goals for individual watersheds, based on their present conditions and the magnitude and type of perceived development pressures. Thus the crucial steps in establishing a successful

  4. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  5. Incorporating cumulative effects into environmental assessments of mariculture: Limitations and failures of current siting methods

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sarah C. Pushchak, Ronald

    2008-11-15

    Assessing and evaluating the cumulative impacts of multiple marine aquaculture facilities has proved difficult in environmental assessment. A retrospective review of 23 existing mariculture farms in southwestern New Brunswick was conducted to determine whether cumulative interactions would have justified site approvals. Based on current scientific evidence of cumulative effects, six new criteria were added to a set of far-field impacts and other existing criteria were expanded to include regional and cumulative environmental impacts in Hargrave's [Hargrave BT. A traffic light decision system for marine finfish aquaculture siting. Ocean Coast Manag 2002; 45:215-35.] Traffic Light Decision Support System (DSS) presently used in Canadian aquaculture environmental assessments. Before mitigation, 19 of the 23 sites failed the amended set of criteria and after considering mitigation, 8 sites failed. Site and ecosystem indices yielded varying site acceptability scores; however, many sites would not have been approved if siting decisions had been made within a regional management framework and cumulative impact criteria were considered in the site evaluation process.

  6. The Value of Extracurricular Support in Increased Student Achievement: An Assessment of a Pupil Personnel Model Including School Counselors and School Psychologists Concerning Student Achievement as Measured by an Academic Performance Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Greg S.; Young, I. Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This study examined two models of extra-curricular support for enhancing the academic achievement of students as measured by state mandated test scores. One management model includes the use of school counselors as enhancers of the educational process while the other model addresses the contribution of school psychologists. To differentiate…

  7. Cumulative stress in research animals: Telomere attrition as a biomarker in a welfare context?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Progress in improving animal welfare is currently limited by the lack of objective methods for assessing lifetime experience. I propose that telomere attrition, a cellular biomarker of biological age, provides a molecular measure of cumulative experience that could be used to assess the welfare impact of husbandry regimes and/or experimental procedures on non‐human animals. I review evidence from humans that telomere attrition is accelerated by negative experiences in a cumulative and dose‐dependent manner, but that this attrition can be mitigated or even reversed by positive life‐style interventions. Evidence from non‐human animals suggests that despite some specific differences in telomere biology, stress‐induced telomere attrition is a robust phenomenon, occurring in a range of species including mice and chickens. I conclude that telomere attrition apparently integrates positive and negative experience in an accessible common currency that translates readily to novel species – the Holy Grail of a cumulative welfare indicator. PMID:26645576

  8. Relations between liver cadmium, cumulative exposure, and renal function in cadmium alloy workers.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, H J; Davison, A G; Wright, A L; Guthrie, C J; Fayers, P M; Venables, K M; Smith, N J; Chettle, D R; Franklin, D M; Scott, M C

    1988-01-01

    Detailed biochemical investigations of renal function were made on 75 male workers exposed to cadmium and an equal number of referents matched for age, sex, and employment status. The exposed group consisted of current and retired workers who had been employed in the manufacture of copper-cadmium alloy at a single factory in the United Kingdom for periods of up to 39 years and for whom cumulative cadmium exposure indices could be calculated. In vivo measurements of liver and kidney cadmium burden were made on exposed and referent workers using a transportable neutron activation analysis facility. Significant increases in the urinary excretion of albumin, retinol binding protein, beta 2 microglobulin, N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and significant decreases in the renal reabsorption of calcium, urate, and phosphate were found in the exposed group compared with the referent group. Measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, and beta 2 microglobulin) indicated a reduction in GFR in the exposed population. Many of these tubular and glomerular function indicators were significantly correlated with both cumulative exposure index and liver cadmium burden. Using cumulative exposure index and liver cadmium as estimates of dose, a two phase linear regression model was applied to identify an inflection point signifying a threshold level above which changes in renal function occur. Many biochemical variables fitted this model; urinary total protein, retinol binding protein, albumin, and beta 2 microglobulin gave similar inflection points at cumulative exposure levels of about 1100 y.micrograms/m3 whereas changes in the tubular reabsorption of urate and phosphate occurred at higher cumulative exposure indices. Measures of GFR, although fitting the threshold model did not give well defined inflection points. Fewer variables fitted the two phase model using liver cadmium; those that did

  9. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  10. Subjective Effect of September 11, 2001 among Pregnant Women: Is Cumulative History of Interpersonal Violence Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.

    2008-01-01

    Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…

  11. Cumulative Exposure to Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age

    EPA Science Inventory

    PURPOSE: Maternal stress and exposures to lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) affect human neurodevelopment and reproductive health. Here, we characterized cumulative exposures to stress and multiple developmental neurotoxicants (NDTs) including Pb and MeHg and identify potentia...

  12. Duration dependence in migration behaviour: cumulative inertia versus stochastic change.

    PubMed

    Gordon, I R; Molho, I

    1995-12-01

    "In this paper a new theoretical framework and supporting empirical evidence on the relationship between movement probabilities and length of stay are presented. Individuals' evaluations of the relative value of alternative locations are assumed to evolve stochastically, with a possible tendency either to cumulative inertia or to cumulative stress. In general this yields a nonmonotonic duration function, with probabilities of movement starting at zero, rising and then falling--a pattern consistent with either cumulative tendency, or neither. A version of the model fitted to data on household movement intentions, from the U.K. General Household Survey, confirms the hypothesised form of this function and indicates a dominance of cumulative stress over cumulative inertia."

  13. Cumulative frequency distribution of past species extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of Sepkoski's compendium of the time ranges of 30,000+ taxa yields a mean duration of 28.4 ma for genera of fossil invertebrates. This converts to an average extinction rate of 3.5 percent per million years or about one percent every 286,000 years. Using survivorship techniques, these estimates can be converted to the species level, yielding a Phanerozoic average of one percent species extinction every 40,000 years. Variation in extinction rates through time is far greater than the null expectation of a homogeneous birth-death model and this reflects the well-known episodicity of extinction ranging from a few large mass extinctions to so-called background extinction. The observed variation in rates can be used to construct a cumulative frequency distribution of extinction intensity, and this distribution, in the form of a kill curve for species, shows the expected waiting times between extinction events of a given intensity. The kill curve is an average description of the extinction events of a given intensity. The kill curve is an average description of the extinction record and does not imply any cause or causes of extinction. The kill curve shows, among other things, that only about five percent of total species extinctions in the Phanerozoic were involved in the five largest mass extinctions. The other 95 percent were distributed among large and small events not normally called mass extinctions. As an exploration of the possibly absurd proposition that most past extinctions were produced by the effects of large-body impact, the kill curve for species was mapped on the comparable distribution for comet and asteroid impacts. The result is a curve predicting the species kill for a given size of impacting object (expressed as crater size). The results are reasonable in that impacts producing craters less than 30 km (diameter) cause negligible extinction but those producing craters 100-150 km (diameter) cause extinction of species in the range of 45

  14. Unified framework for triaxial accelerometer-based fall event detection and classification using cumulants and hierarchical decision tree classifier

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Satya Samyukta; Singh, Vishal; Ramkumar, Barathram

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, the authors present a unified framework for fall event detection and classification using the cumulants extracted from the acceleration (ACC) signals acquired using a single waist-mounted triaxial accelerometer. The main objective of this Letter is to find suitable representative cumulants and classifiers in effectively detecting and classifying different types of fall and non-fall events. It was discovered that the first level of the proposed hierarchical decision tree algorithm implements fall detection using fifth-order cumulants and support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In the second level, the fall event classification algorithm uses the fifth-order cumulants and SVM. Finally, human activity classification is performed using the second-order cumulants and SVM. The detection and classification results are compared with those of the decision tree, naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron and SVM classifiers with different types of time-domain features including the second-, third-, fourth- and fifth-order cumulants and the signal magnitude vector and signal magnitude area. The experimental results demonstrate that the second- and fifth-order cumulant features and SVM classifier can achieve optimal detection and classification rates of above 95%, as well as the lowest false alarm rate of 1.03%. PMID:26609414

  15. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    SciTech Connect

    Demi, Libertario Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  16. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO® UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  17. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  18. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A.; Williams, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Background The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the “Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment” [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC:Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and groups are more vulnerable to environmental risks than the general population. However, vulnerability has received little specific attention in the risk assessment literature. Objective Our objective is to examine the issue of vulnerability in cumulative risk assessment and present a conceptual framework rather than a comprehensive review of the literature. In this article we consider similarities between ecologic and human communities and the factors that make communities vulnerable to environmental risks. Discussion The literature provides substantial evidence on single environmental factors and simple conditions that increase vulnerability or reduce resilience for humans and ecologic systems. This observation is especially true for individual people and populations of wildlife. Little research directly addresses the topic of vulnerability in cumulative risk situations, especially at the community level. The community level of organization has not been adequately considered as an end point in either human or ecologic risk assessment. Furthermore, current information on human risk does not completely explain the level of response in cumulative risk conditions. Ecologic risk situations are similarly more complex and unpredictable for cases of cumulative risk. Conclusions Psychosocial conditions and responses are the principal missing element for humans. We propose a model for including psychologic and social factors as an integral component of cumulative risk assessment. PMID

  19. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  20. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1981 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The aeromedical research reported considers the safety of the human component in manned space flight. The effects of spacecraft environment, radiation and weightlessness on human biological and psychological processes are covered.

  1. U.S. EPA Authority to Use Cumulative Risk Assessments in Environmental Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Sarah; Tilghman, Joan; Rosenbaum, Arlene; Payne-Sturges, Devon C.

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, in its decision-making, the U.S. EPA has evaluated the effects and risks associated with a single pollutant in a single exposure medium. In reality, people are exposed to mixtures of pollutants or to the same pollutant through a variety of media, including the air, water, and food. It is now more recognized than before that environmental exposure to pollutants occurs via multiple exposure routes and pathways, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Moreover, chemical, biologic, radiologic, physical, and psychologic stressors are all acknowledged as affecting human health. Although many EPA offices attempt to consider cumulative risk assessment and cumulative effects in various ways, there is no Agency-wide policy for considering these risks and the effects of exposure to these risks when making environmental decisions. This article examines how U.S. courts might assess EPA’s general authority and discretion to use cumulative risk assessment as the basis for developing data in support of environmental decision-making, and how courts might assess the validity of a cumulative risk assessment methodology itself. PMID:22829786

  2. U.S. EPA authority to use cumulative risk assessments in environmental decision-making.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sarah; Tilghman, Joan; Rosenbaum, Arlene; Payne-Sturges, Devon C

    2012-06-01

    Conventionally, in its decision-making, the U.S. EPA has evaluated the effects and risks associated with a single pollutant in a single exposure medium. In reality, people are exposed to mixtures of pollutants or to the same pollutant through a variety of media, including the air, water, and food. It is now more recognized than before that environmental exposure to pollutants occurs via multiple exposure routes and pathways, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Moreover, chemical, biologic, radiologic, physical, and psychologic stressors are all acknowledged as affecting human health. Although many EPA offices attempt to consider cumulative risk assessment and cumulative effects in various ways, there is no Agency-wide policy for considering these risks and the effects of exposure to these risks when making environmental decisions. This article examines how U.S. courts might assess EPA's general authority and discretion to use cumulative risk assessment as the basis for developing data in support of environmental decision-making, and how courts might assess the validity of a cumulative risk assessment methodology itself.

  3. An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative fatigue under axial and torsional loading conditions can include both load-order (higMow and low/high) as well as load-type sequence (axial/torsional and torsional/axial) effects. Previously reported experimental studies on a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 at 538 C, addressed these effects. These studies characterized the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue behavior under high amplitude followed by low amplitude (Kalluri, S. and Bonacuse, P. J., "Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequance Effects," in Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction, ASTM STP 1387, S. Kalluri, and P. J. Bonacuse, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 281-301) and low amplitude followed by high amplitude (Bonacuse, P. and Kalluri, S. "Sequenced Axial and Torsional Cumulative Fatigue: Low Amplitude Followed by High Amplitude Loading," Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, ESIS Publication 31, A. Carpinteri, M. De Freitas, and A. Spagnoli, Eds., Elsevier, New York, 2003, pp. 165-182) conditions. In both studies, experiments with the following four load-type sequences were performed: (a) axial/axial, (b) torsional/torsional, (c) axial/torsional, and (d) torsional/axial. In this paper, the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue data generated in the two previous studies are combined to generate a comprehensive cumulative fatigue database on both the load-order and load-type sequence effects. This comprehensive database is used to examine applicability of the Palmgren-langer-Miner linear damage rule and a nonlinear damage curve approach for Haynes 188 subjected to the load-order and load-type sequencing described above. Summations of life fractions from the experiments are compared to the predictions from both the linear and nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage approaches. The significance of load-order versus load-type sequence effects for axial and torsional loading conditions

  4. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  5. Developments in Indexing Picture Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of electronic image processing focuses on the need for indexing to ensure adequate retrieval. Highlights include icons, i.e., reduced pictorial surrogates; file staging; indexing languages, including examples of thesauri; and pictorial languages, including a HyperCard system. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  6. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  7. A MISSING LINK IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE CUMULATIVE RECORDER

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in Tokyo, Japan, in 1952 at the behest of B. F. Skinner at Harvard University. Last used in research in the late 1960s, the cumulative recorder remained locked in a storage room until 2007, when it was found again. A historical context for the recorder is followed by a description of the recorder and a comparison between it and the commercially successful Gerbrands Model C-1 recorder. Labeled the Keio recorder, it is a testament to Skinner's persistence in developing a reliable means of quantifying the behavior of living organisms in real time. PMID:23008524

  8. Ab initio X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Cumulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, F.; Rehr, J. J.; Rossner, H. H.; Krappe, H. J.

    2006-03-01

    Theoretical calculations of vibrational effects in x-ray absorption spectra typically employ semi-phenomenological models, e.g. empirical force constants or correlated Debye or Einstein models. Instead we introduce an efficient and generally applicable ab initio approach based on electronic structure calculations of the dynamical matrix together with the Lanczos recursion algorithm [1] and relations between the cumulants. The approach yields 1) the thermal expansion coefficients (first cumulant of the vibrational distribution function); 2) correlated Debye-Waller factors (second cumulants) and 3) anharmonic contributions (third cumulants). Results are presented for crystalline (Cu, Au, Ge, GaAs) and molecular (GeCl4, C6H6) systems. Our results for the Debye-Waller factors agree well with experiment. [1]H.J. Krappe and H.H. Rossner, Phys. Rev. B70, 104102 (2004).

  9. Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial, reflect increased interest in consideratio of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop co...

  10. Effect of Cumulative Damage on Rocket Motor Service Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorijević, Nikola; Živković, Saša; Subotić, Sredoje; Rodić, Vesna; Gligorijević, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of antihail rocket propellant grains failed only 3 months after production, due to the appearance of cracks in the grain channel. Structural integrity analysis demonstrated sufficient reliability at the beginning of service life. Further analysis showed that under temperature loads, cumulative damage during the short period in field stocks caused the grain failure, despite the established opinion that such failure can become significant only after lengthy storage. A linear cumulative damage law is evaluated by exposing a number of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant specimens to different but constant stress levels. The analysis showed that cumulative damage must not be overlooked at the design stage. Further, a positive correlation between the propellant cumulative damage law and tensile strength is strongly indicated.

  11. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume I: Auxiliaries + Classes 0/3. Auxiliary Tables (0 Generalities, 1 Philosophy . Pyschology, 2 Religion . Theology, 3 Social Sciences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement of the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. The first volume of a five volume series includes auxiliary tables and lists all the new classification subdivisions added to the…

  12. Cumulative Query Method for Influenza Surveillance Using Search Engine Data

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Methods Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. Results In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Conclusions Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation

  13. Psychopathy and recidivism from mid-adolescence to young adulthood: cumulating legal problems and limiting life opportunities.

    PubMed

    Salekin, Randall T

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the ability of psychopathy as indexed by the following 4 scales: Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 1996/2003), Antisocial Process Screening Device (P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, 2001), Hare Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-II (R. D. Hare, 1991), and Personality Assessment Inventory-Antisocial Scale (L. C. Morey, 1991, 2007) to prospectively predict antisocial outcomes including general and violent recidivism across a 3- to 4-year time span. Results indicated that psychopathy was predictive of both general and violent recidivism from mid-adolescence to young adulthood even after accounting for 14 variables theoretically linked to offending. These findings add to the recent research showing stability in the psychopathy traits across time by also demonstrating that psychopathy in adolescents also has a real-world effect, including a cost to society with higher rates of offending in the community and a cost to youth with cumulating legal records that are likely to narrow their potential for prosocial growth in the community.

  14. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-03-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18-50 years; women: n = 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses' Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p < 0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value <0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

  15. Techniques for video indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Liu, Larry J.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    A data model for long objects (such as video files) is introduced, to support general referencing structures, along with various system implementation strategies. Based on the data model, various indexing techniques for video are then introduced. A set of basic functionalities is described, including all the frame level control, indexing, and video clip editing. We show how the techniques can be used to automatically index video files based on closed captions with a typical video capture card, for both compressed and uncompressed video files. Applications are presented using those indexing techniques in security control and viewers' rating choice, general video search (from laser discs, CD ROMs, and regular disks), training videos, and video based user or system manuals.

  16. Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufacture.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D

    2003-01-01

    Many animals use tools but only humans are generally considered to have the cognitive sophistication required for cumulative technological evolution. Three important characteristics of cumulative technological evolution are: (i) the diversification of tool design; (ii) cumulative change; and (iii) high-fidelity social transmission. We present evidence that crows have diversified and cumulatively changed the design of their pandanus tools. In 2000 we carried out an intensive survey in New Caledonia to establish the geographical variation in the manufacture of these tools. We documented the shapes of 5550 tools from 21 sites throughout the range of pandanus tool manufacture. We found three distinct pandanus tool designs: wide tools, narrow tools and stepped tools. The lack of ecological correlates of the three tool designs and their different, continuous and overlapping geographical distributions make it unlikely that they evolved independently. The similarities in the manufacture method of each design further suggest that pandanus tools have gone through a process of cumulative change from a common historical origin. We propose a plausible scenario for this rudimentary cumulative evolution. PMID:12737666

  17. Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufacture.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D

    2003-04-22

    Many animals use tools but only humans are generally considered to have the cognitive sophistication required for cumulative technological evolution. Three important characteristics of cumulative technological evolution are: (i) the diversification of tool design; (ii) cumulative change; and (iii) high-fidelity social transmission. We present evidence that crows have diversified and cumulatively changed the design of their pandanus tools. In 2000 we carried out an intensive survey in New Caledonia to establish the geographical variation in the manufacture of these tools. We documented the shapes of 5550 tools from 21 sites throughout the range of pandanus tool manufacture. We found three distinct pandanus tool designs: wide tools, narrow tools and stepped tools. The lack of ecological correlates of the three tool designs and their different, continuous and overlapping geographical distributions make it unlikely that they evolved independently. The similarities in the manufacture method of each design further suggest that pandanus tools have gone through a process of cumulative change from a common historical origin. We propose a plausible scenario for this rudimentary cumulative evolution.

  18. Cognitive requirements of cumulative culture: teaching is useful but not essential

    PubMed Central

    Zwirner, Elena; Thornton, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative nature of human culture is unique in the animal kingdom. Progressive improvements in tools and technologies have facilitated humanity’s spread across the globe and shaped human evolution, but the cognitive mechanisms enabling cultural change remain unclear. Here we show that, contrary to theoretical predictions, cumulative improvements in tools are not dependent on specialised, high-fidelity social learning mechanisms. Participants were tasked with building a basket to carry as much rice as possible using a set of everyday materials and divided into treatment groups with differing opportunities to learn asocially, imitate, receive teaching or emulate by examining baskets made by previous chain members. Teaching chains produced more robust baskets, but neither teaching nor imitation were strictly necessary for cumulative improvements; emulation chains generated equivalent increases in efficacy despite exhibiting relatively low copying fidelity. People used social information strategically, choosing different materials to make their baskets if the previous basket in the chain performed poorly. Together, these results suggest that cumulative culture does not rest on high-fidelity social learning mechanisms alone. Instead, the roots of human cultural prowess may lie in the interplay of strategic social learning with other cognitive traits including the ability to reverse engineer artefacts through causal reasoning. PMID:26606853

  19. Cognitive requirements of cumulative culture: teaching is useful but not essential.

    PubMed

    Zwirner, Elena; Thornton, Alex

    2015-11-26

    The cumulative nature of human culture is unique in the animal kingdom. Progressive improvements in tools and technologies have facilitated humanity's spread across the globe and shaped human evolution, but the cognitive mechanisms enabling cultural change remain unclear. Here we show that, contrary to theoretical predictions, cumulative improvements in tools are not dependent on specialised, high-fidelity social learning mechanisms. Participants were tasked with building a basket to carry as much rice as possible using a set of everyday materials and divided into treatment groups with differing opportunities to learn asocially, imitate, receive teaching or emulate by examining baskets made by previous chain members. Teaching chains produced more robust baskets, but neither teaching nor imitation were strictly necessary for cumulative improvements; emulation chains generated equivalent increases in efficacy despite exhibiting relatively low copying fidelity. People used social information strategically, choosing different materials to make their baskets if the previous basket in the chain performed poorly. Together, these results suggest that cumulative culture does not rest on high-fidelity social learning mechanisms alone. Instead, the roots of human cultural prowess may lie in the interplay of strategic social learning with other cognitive traits including the ability to reverse engineer artefacts through causal reasoning.

  20. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-15

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  1. New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and short-lived climate pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.

    2016-08-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `short-lived climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.

  2. Cumulative Violence Exposure, Emotional Nonacceptance, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Community Sample of Women

    PubMed Central

    Sundermann, Jane M.; Chu, Ann T.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence) – referred to here as cumulative violence exposure – are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims’ emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of three types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment seeking community sample of women (N = 89; Mage = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test three mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women’s cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations. PMID:23282048

  3. Cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of women.

    PubMed

    Sundermann, Jane M; Chu, Ann T; DePrince, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence)--referred to here as cumulative violence exposure--are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims' emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of 3 types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment-seeking community sample of women (N = 89; M age = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test 3 mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women's cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations.

  4. Intertemporal cumulative radiative forcing effects of photovoltaic deployments.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Seager, Thomas P; Chester, Mikhail V; Fraser, Matthew P

    2014-09-01

    Current policies accelerating photovoltaics (PV) deployments are motivated by environmental goals, including reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing electricity generated from fossil-fuels. Existing practice assesses environmental benefits on a net life-cycle basis, where displaced GHG emissions offset those generated during PV production. However, this approach does not consider that the environmental costs of GHG release during production are incurred early, while environmental benefits accrue later. Thus, where policy targets suggest meeting GHG reduction goals established by a certain date, rapid PV deployment may have counterintuitive, albeit temporary, undesired consequences. On a cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) basis, the environmental improvements attributable to PV might be realized much later than is currently understood, particularly when PV manufacturing utilizes GHG-intensive energy sources (e.g., coal), but deployment occurs in areas with less GHG-intensive electricity sources (e.g., hydroelectric). This paper details a dynamic CRF model to examine the intertemporal warming impacts of PV deployments in California and Wyoming. CRF payback times are longer than GHG payback times by 6-12 years in California and 6-11 years in Wyoming depending on the PV technology mix and deployment strategy. For the same PV capacity being deployed, early installations yield greater CRF benefits (calculated over 10 and 25 years) than installations occurring later in time. Further, CRF benefits are maximized when PV technologies with the lowest manufacturing GHG footprint (cadmium telluride) are deployed in locations with the most GHG-intensive grids (i.e., Wyoming).

  5. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  6. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  7. The Amphiolite Layers In The Cumulate Gabbros, (Northern-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkan, Mutlu; Faruk Çelik, Ömer; Altıntaş, İsmail Emir; Sherlock, Sarah; Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Marzoli, Andrea; Ulianov, Alexey; Melih Çörtük, Rahmi; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-04-01

    The Early-Middle Jurassic SSZ type dismembered ophiolite sequence, which is remnants of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, crop out in the accretionary complex around Tokat-Çamlıbel region (Northern Turkey). The main lithology of the ophiolite sequence are cumulate gabbros, isotropic gabbros and basalts. The amphibolite layers, which their thickness are up to 2 m, are observed in the cumulate gabbros. In this study, we aim to discuss a possible formation mechanism of the amphibolitic rocks in the cumulate gabbros, based on the field, mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological data. The cumulate gabbros (olivine-gabbro, gabbro-norite and gabbro) have generally well developed magmatic layers and they show cumulate texture. They are cross cut by pegmatite gabbros, dolerites and plagiogranite dikes. In terms of the mechanism of formation, the amphibolite layers in the cumulate gabbros are different from dolerite, pegmatite gabbro and plagiogranite dikes crosscutting the cumulate gabbros. Although the cumulate gabbros, the mafic and felsic dikes have not undergone any metamorphism (except the hydrothermal metamorphism), the amphibolite layers show well developed foliation and banded structure. Moreover, field and petrographic observations showed that the amphibolitic rocks were highly subjected to shearing. The amphibolitic rocks are mainly composed of magnesio-hornblende + plagioclase (andesine), ± biotite and opaque minerals and they exhibit nematoblastic texture. The amphibolite layers in the cumulate gabbros are crosscut by the plagiogranite dikes. The plagiogranites consist mainly of quartz, plagioclase, biotite and opaque minerals and they show granular texture. Undulose extinction and sub-grain formation in quartz minerals indicate to the presence of deformation phase affecting the plagiogranite dikes. LA-ICP-MS dating on zircon from plagiogranite dikes which is cross-cutting of the amphibolite layers, yielded Middle Jurassic ages. 40Ar/39Ar dating of

  8. The Parent Magmas of the Cumulate Eucrites: A Mass Balance Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    The cumulate eucrite meteorites are gabbros that are related to the eucrite basalt meteorites. The eucrite basalts are relatively primitive (nearly flat REE patterns with La approx. 8-30 x CI), but the parent magmas of the cumulate eucrites have been inferred as extremely evolved (La to greater than 100 x CI). This inference has been based on mineral/magma partitioning, and on mass balance considering the cumulate eucrites as adcumulates of plagioclase + pigeonite only; both approaches have been criticized as inappropriate. Here, mass balance including magma + equilibrium pigeonite + equilibrium plagiociase is used to test a simple model for the cumulate eucrites: that they formed from known eucritic magma types, that they consisted only of magma + crystals in chemical equilibrium with the magma, and that they were closed to chemical exchange after the accumulation of crystals. This model is tested for major and Rare Earth Elements (REE). The cumulate eucrites Serra de Mage and Moore County are consistent, in both REE and major elements, with formation by this simple model from a eucrite magma with a composition similar to the Nuevo Laredo meteorite: Serra de Mage as 14% magma, 47.5% pigeonite, and 38.5% plagioclase; Moore County as 35% magma, 37.5% pigeonite, and 27.5% plagioclase. These results are insensitive to the choice of mineral/magma partition coefficients. Results for the Moama cumulate eucrite are strongly dependent on choice of partition coefficients; for one reasonable choice, Moama's composition can be modeled as 4% Nuevo Laredo magma, 60% pigeonite, and 36% plagioclase. Selection of parent magma composition relies heavily on major elements; the REE cannot uniquely indicate a parent magma among the eucrite basalts. The major element composition of Y-791195 can be fit adequately as a simple cumulate from any basaltic eucrite composition. However, Y-791195 has LREE abundances and La/Lu too low to be accommodated within the model using any basaltic

  9. Do Glioma Patients Derive Any Therapeutic Benefit From Taking a Higher Cumulative Dose of Temozolomide Regimens?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Du, Shasha; Liao, Guixiang; Xie, Xiao; Ren, Chen; Yuan, Ya Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent with established effects on the central nervous system of glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Clinical trials have demonstrated a significant impact on overall survival (OS) with TMZ. Ever since, several TMZ regimens have been designed to improve treatment efficacy by increasing the cumulative dose per cycle. We report a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate different treatment schedules of TMZ in GBM patients. All searches that were conducted in the Cochrane library, Science Direct, and PubMed Databases, and 3 randomized controlled trials (1141 patients) were included. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were the primary outcomes to be pooled. Unexpectedly, this analysis did not reveal any OS or PFS advantage for the high cumulative dose (HCD) regimen compared with the normal cumulative dose regimen (1141 total patients; hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% CI 0.94–1.22, P = 0.31). Then after analyzing the characteristics of the results from each trial, we found that the regimen with a higher peak concentration during a short-term period (daily doses ≥150 mg/m2/d within ≤7 days/cycle) always had a more superior clinical benefit. So we generated a new pooled HR of 1.10 with a 95% CI of 0.96–1.25 (P = 0.17), which prefers the high peak concentration schedule even without a significant difference. The adverse outcome also indicates a significant increased risk of leukopenia (risk ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.03–2.46, P = 0.04) among the HCD group. Our study suggests that increasing the cumulative dose per cycle is not an ideal way to improve the efficacy of TMZ, and it will lead to increased risk for leukopenia. Future trials should be designed to examine schedules of higher peak concentration rather than the cumulative dose per cycle. PMID:25997057

  10. Triggering of major eruptions recorded by actively forming cumulates

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michael J.; Taylor, Rex N.; Gernon, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Major overturn within a magma chamber can bring together felsic and mafic magmas, prompting de-volatilisation and acting as the driver for Plinian eruptions. Until now identification of mixing has been limited to analysis of lavas or individual crystals ejected during eruptions. We have recovered partially developed cumulate material (‘live’ cumulate mush) from pyroclastic deposits of major eruptions on Tenerife. These samples represent “frozen” clumps of diverse crystalline deposits from all levels in the developing reservoir, which are permeated with the final magma immediately before eruptions. Such events therefore record the complete disintegration of the magma chamber, leading to caldera collapse. Chemical variation across developing cumulus crystals records changes in melt composition. Apart from fluctuations reflecting periodic influxes of mafic melt, crystal edges consistently record the presence of more felsic magmas. The prevalence of this felsic liquid implies it was able to infiltrate the entire cumulate pile immediately before each eruption. PMID:23066500

  11. Policy considerations for using cumulative carbon emissions as a guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, J.

    2014-12-01

    The transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) relates peak global-mean temperature increase to the total amount of carbon emissions emitted to the atmosphere. The simplicity of this concept invites to use it for climate policy guidance. However, besides a policy's effectiveness to limit long-term anthropogenic climate change, a multitude of other aspects play a role for policymakers. In this session I will summarize my work on costs of limiting cumulative carbon emissions to a particular emission budget over a certain time frame and technology dependencies of these costs. Furthermore, I will look at possible co-benefits of limiting cumulative carbon emissions and discuss how mitigation of short-lived climate forcers can influence emission budgets of carbon dioxide consistent with a particular temperature limit.

  12. Wick polynomials and time-evolution of cumulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukkarinen, Jani; Marcozzi, Matteo

    2016-08-01

    We show how Wick polynomials of random variables can be defined combinatorially as the unique choice, which removes all "internal contractions" from the related cumulant expansions, also in a non-Gaussian case. We discuss how an expansion in terms of the Wick polynomials can be used for derivation of a hierarchy of equations for the time-evolution of cumulants. These methods are then applied to simplify the formal derivation of the Boltzmann-Peierls equation in the kinetic scaling limit of the discrete nonlinear Schödinger equation (DNLS) with suitable random initial data. We also present a reformulation of the standard perturbation expansion using cumulants, which could simplify the problem of a rigorous derivation of the Boltzmann-Peierls equation by separating the analysis of the solutions to the Boltzmann-Peierls equation from the analysis of the corrections. This latter scheme is general and not tied to the DNLS evolution equations.

  13. [Early detection on the onset of scarlet fever epidemics in Beijing, using the Cumulative Sum].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yang, Peng; Wu, Shuang-sheng; Wang, Xiao-li; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Quan-yi

    2013-05-01

    Based on data related to scarlet fever which was collected from the Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System in Beijing from 2005 to 2011, to explore the efficiency of Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) in detecting the onset of scarlet fever epidemics. Models as C1-MILD (C1), C2-MEDIUM (C2) and C3-ULTRA (C3) were used. Tools for evaluation as Youden's index and detection time were calculated to optimize the parameters and optimal model. Data on 2011 scarlet fever surveillance was used to verify the efficacy of these models. C1 (k = 0.5, H = 2σ), C2 (k = 0.7, H = 2σ), C3 (k = 1.1, H = 2σ) appeared to be the optimal parameters among these models. Youden's index of C1 was 83.0% and detection time being 0.64 weeks, Youden's index of C2 was 85.4% and detection time being 1.27 weeks, Youden's index of C1 was 85.1% and detection time being 1.36 weeks. Among the three early warning detection models, C1 had the highest efficacy. Three models all triggered the signals within 4 weeks after the onset of scarlet fever epidemics. The early warning detection model of CUSUM could be used to detect the onset of scarlet fever epidemics, with good efficacy.

  14. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

  15. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

  16. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  17. Identifying Predictors of Cumulative Healthcare Costs in Incident Atrial Fibrillation: A Population‐Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Maria C.; Qiu, Feng; Micieli, Andrew; Ko, Dennis T.; Dorian, Paul; Atzema, Clare L.; Singh, Sheldon M.; Wijeysundera, Harindra C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) has substantial impacts on healthcare resource utilization. Our objective was to understand the pattern and predictors of cumulative healthcare costs in AF patients after incident diagnosis in an emergency department (ED). Methods and Results Patients discharged after a first presentation of AF to an ED in Ontario, Canada, were identified from April 1, 2005, through March 31, 2010. Per‐patient cumulative healthcare costs were determined until death or March 31, 2012. Join‐point analyses identified clinically relevant cost phases. Hierarchical generalized linear models with a logarithmic link and gamma distribution determined predictors of cost per phase. Our cohort was 17 980 patients. During a mean follow‐up of 3.9 years, 17.1% of patients died. Three distinct cost phases were identified: 2‐month post–index ED visit phase, 12‐month predeath phase, and a stable/chronic phase. The mean cost per patient in the first month post–index ED visit was $1876 (95% CI $1822 to $1931), $8050 (95% CI $7666 to $8434) in the month before death, and $640 (95% CI $624 to $655) per month for the stable/chronic phase. The main cost component in the post‐index phase was physician services (32% of all costs) and hospitalizations for the predeath phase (72% of all costs). The CHA2DS2‐VASc clinical risk score was a strong predictor of costs (rate ratio 1.91 and 5.08 for score of 7 versus score of 0 in predeath phase and postindex phase, respectively). Conclusions There are distinct phases of resource utilization in AF, with highest costs in the predeath phase. PMID:25907124

  18. Toward computational cumulative biology by combining models of biological datasets.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Ali; Peltonen, Jaakko; Georgii, Elisabeth; Rung, Johan; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    A main challenge of data-driven sciences is how to make maximal use of the progressively expanding databases of experimental datasets in order to keep research cumulative. We introduce the idea of a modeling-based dataset retrieval engine designed for relating a researcher's experimental dataset to earlier work in the field. The search is (i) data-driven to enable new findings, going beyond the state of the art of keyword searches in annotations, (ii) modeling-driven, to include both biological knowledge and insights learned from data, and (iii) scalable, as it is accomplished without building one unified grand model of all data. Assuming each dataset has been modeled beforehand, by the researchers or automatically by database managers, we apply a rapidly computable and optimizable combination model to decompose a new dataset into contributions from earlier relevant models. By using the data-driven decomposition, we identify a network of interrelated datasets from a large annotated human gene expression atlas. While tissue type and disease were major driving forces for determining relevant datasets, the found relationships were richer, and the model-based search was more accurate than the keyword search; moreover, it recovered biologically meaningful relationships that are not straightforwardly visible from annotations-for instance, between cells in different developmental stages such as thymocytes and T-cells. Data-driven links and citations matched to a large extent; the data-driven links even uncovered corrections to the publication data, as two of the most linked datasets were not highly cited and turned out to have wrong publication entries in the database.

  19. Toward Computational Cumulative Biology by Combining Models of Biological Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Ali; Peltonen, Jaakko; Georgii, Elisabeth; Rung, Johan; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    A main challenge of data-driven sciences is how to make maximal use of the progressively expanding databases of experimental datasets in order to keep research cumulative. We introduce the idea of a modeling-based dataset retrieval engine designed for relating a researcher's experimental dataset to earlier work in the field. The search is (i) data-driven to enable new findings, going beyond the state of the art of keyword searches in annotations, (ii) modeling-driven, to include both biological knowledge and insights learned from data, and (iii) scalable, as it is accomplished without building one unified grand model of all data. Assuming each dataset has been modeled beforehand, by the researchers or automatically by database managers, we apply a rapidly computable and optimizable combination model to decompose a new dataset into contributions from earlier relevant models. By using the data-driven decomposition, we identify a network of interrelated datasets from a large annotated human gene expression atlas. While tissue type and disease were major driving forces for determining relevant datasets, the found relationships were richer, and the model-based search was more accurate than the keyword search; moreover, it recovered biologically meaningful relationships that are not straightforwardly visible from annotations—for instance, between cells in different developmental stages such as thymocytes and T-cells. Data-driven links and citations matched to a large extent; the data-driven links even uncovered corrections to the publication data, as two of the most linked datasets were not highly cited and turned out to have wrong publication entries in the database. PMID:25427176

  20. Indexing and Retrieval for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores current research on indexing and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web indexing and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for indexing and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation indexing; relevance; query evaluation;…

  1. Space Environment Effects: Model for Emission of Solar Protons (ESP): Cumulative and Worst Case Event Fluences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Barth, J. L.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Burke, E. A.; Gee, G. B.

    1999-01-01

    The effects that solar proton events have on microelectronics and solar arrays are important considerations for spacecraft in geostationary and polar orbits and for interplanetary missions. Designers of spacecraft and mission planners are required to assess the performance of microelectronic systems under a variety of conditions. A number of useful approaches exist for predicting information about solar proton event fluences and, to a lesser extent, peak fluxes. This includes the cumulative fluence over the course of a mission, the fluence of a worst-case event during a mission, the frequency distribution of event fluences, and the frequency distribution of large peak fluxes. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the sponsorship of NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, have developed a new model for predicting cumulative solar proton fluences and worst-case solar proton events as functions of mission duration and user confidence level. This model is called the Emission of Solar Protons (ESP) model.

  2. Space Environment Effects: Model for Emission of Solar Protons (ESP): Cumulative and Worst Case Event Fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Barth, J. L.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Burke, E. A.; Gee, G. B.

    1999-12-01

    The effects that solar proton events have on microelectronics and solar arrays are important considerations for spacecraft in geostationary and polar orbits and for interplanetary missions. Designers of spacecraft and mission planners are required to assess the performance of microelectronic systems under a variety of conditions. A number of useful approaches exist for predicting information about solar proton event fluences and, to a lesser extent, peak fluxes. This includes the cumulative fluence over the course of a mission, the fluence of a worst-case event during a mission, the frequency distribution of event fluences, and the frequency distribution of large peak fluxes. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the sponsorship of NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, have developed a new model for predicting cumulative solar proton fluences and worst-case solar proton events as functions of mission duration and user confidence level. This model is called the Emission of Solar Protons (ESP) model.

  3. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  4. LANDSAT 1 cumulative US standard catalog, 1976/1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSAT 1 U.S. Cumulative Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  5. Variable Cultural Acquisition Costs Constrain Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2011-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission), population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs. PMID:21479170

  6. Steps and Pips in the History of the Cumulative Recorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This…

  7. 42 CFR 457.560 - Cumulative cost-sharing maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cumulative cost-sharing maximum. 457.560 Section 457.560 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  8. 42 CFR 457.560 - Cumulative cost-sharing maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cumulative cost-sharing maximum. 457.560 Section 457.560 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  9. CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK

    Hugh A. Barton1 and Carey N. Pope2
    1US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2Department of...

  10. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  11. Cumulative Risk, Maternal Responsiveness, and Allostatic Load among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.; Kim, Pilyoung; Ting, Albert H.; Tesher, Harris B.; Shannis, Dana

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cumulative risk exposure in concert with maternal responsiveness on physiological indicators of chronic stress in children and youth. Middle-school children exposed to greater accumulated psychosocial (e.g., family turmoil, poverty) and physical (e.g., crowding, substandard housing) risk…

  12. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  13. HESI EXPOSURE FACTORS DATABASE FOR AGGREGATE AND CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the risk analysis community has broadened its use of complex aggregate and cumulative residential exposure models (e.g., to meet the requirements of the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act). The value of these models is their ability to incorporate a range of inp...

  14. Physical intelligence does matter to cumulative technological culture.

    PubMed

    Osiurak, François; De Oliveira, Emmanuel; Navarro, Jordan; Lesourd, Mathieu; Claidière, Nicolas; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Tool-based culture is not unique to humans, but cumulative technological culture is. The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that this phenomenon is fundamentally based on uniquely human sociocognitive skills (e.g., shared intentionality). An alternative hypothesis is that cumulative technological culture also crucially depends on physical intelligence, which may reflect fluid and crystallized aspects of intelligence and enables people to understand and improve the tools made by predecessors. By using a tool-making-based microsociety paradigm, we demonstrate that physical intelligence is a stronger predictor of cumulative technological performance than social intelligence. Moreover, learners' physical intelligence is critical not only in observational learning but also when learners interact verbally with teachers. Finally, we show that cumulative performance is only slightly influenced by teachers' physical and social intelligence. In sum, human technological culture needs "great engineers" to evolve regardless of the proportion of "great pedagogues." Social intelligence might play a more limited role than commonly assumed, perhaps in tool-use/making situations in which teachers and learners have to share symbolic representations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454039

  15. Physical intelligence does matter to cumulative technological culture.

    PubMed

    Osiurak, François; De Oliveira, Emmanuel; Navarro, Jordan; Lesourd, Mathieu; Claidière, Nicolas; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Tool-based culture is not unique to humans, but cumulative technological culture is. The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that this phenomenon is fundamentally based on uniquely human sociocognitive skills (e.g., shared intentionality). An alternative hypothesis is that cumulative technological culture also crucially depends on physical intelligence, which may reflect fluid and crystallized aspects of intelligence and enables people to understand and improve the tools made by predecessors. By using a tool-making-based microsociety paradigm, we demonstrate that physical intelligence is a stronger predictor of cumulative technological performance than social intelligence. Moreover, learners' physical intelligence is critical not only in observational learning but also when learners interact verbally with teachers. Finally, we show that cumulative performance is only slightly influenced by teachers' physical and social intelligence. In sum, human technological culture needs "great engineers" to evolve regardless of the proportion of "great pedagogues." Social intelligence might play a more limited role than commonly assumed, perhaps in tool-use/making situations in which teachers and learners have to share symbolic representations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Modeling of cumulative ash curve in hard red spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of cumulative ash curves (CAC) is very important for evaluation of milling quality of wheat and blending different millstreams for specific applications. The aim of this research was to improve analysis of CAC. Five hard red spring wheat genotype composites from two regions were milled on...

  17. Drug Burden Index in older adults: theoretical and practical issues

    PubMed Central

    Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing. PMID:25246778

  18. Respiratory exposures associated with silicon carbide production: estimation of cumulative exposures for an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Laidlaw, F; Fine, S

    1984-02-01

    Silicon carbide is produced by heating a mixture of petroleum coke and silica sand to approximately 2000 degrees C in an electric furnace for 36 hours. During heating, large amounts of carbon monoxide are released, sulphur dioxide is produced from residual sulphur in the coke, and hydrocarbon fume is produced by pyrolysis of the coke. Loading and unloading furnaces causes exposures to respirable dust containing crystalline silica, silicon carbide, and hydrocarbons. In the autumn of 1980 extensive measurements were made of personal exposures to air contaminants. Eight hour time weighted exposures to sulphur dioxide ranged from less than 0.1 ppm to 1.5 ppm and respirable participate exposures ranged from 0.01 mg/m3 to 9.0 mg/m3. Geometric mean particulate exposures for jobs ranged from 0.1 mg/m3 to 1.46 mg/m3. The particulate contained varying amounts of alpha-quartz, ranging from less than 1% to 17%, and most quartz exposures were substantially below the threshold limit value of 100 micrograms/m3. Only traces of cristobalite (less than 1%) were found in the particulate. Median exposures to air contaminants in each job were estimated. Since the operations at the plant had been stable over the past 30 years, it was possible to estimate long term exposures of workers to sulphur dioxide, respirable particulate, quartz, total inorganic material, and extractable organic material. Cumulative exposure (average concentration times exposure duration) for each of the air contaminants was estimated for each worker using his job history. There was sufficient independent variability in the sulphur dioxide and respirable particulate cumulative exposures to make an assessment of their independent effects feasible. The theoretical basis for using the cumulative exposure index and its shortcomings for epidemiological applications were presented.

  19. Evolution of costly explicit memory and cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2016-06-21

    Humans can acquire new information and modify it (cumulative culture) based on their learning and memory abilities, especially explicit memory, through the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory is categorized into semantic and episodic memories. Animals have semantic memory, while episodic memory is unique to humans and essential for innovation and the evolution of culture. As both episodic and semantic memory are needed for innovation, the evolution of explicit memory influences the evolution of culture. However, previous theoretical studies have shown that environmental fluctuations influence the evolution of imitation (social learning) and innovation (individual learning) and assume that memory is not an evolutionary trait. If individuals can store and retrieve acquired information properly, they can modify it and innovate new information. Therefore, being able to store and retrieve information is essential from the perspective of cultural evolution. However, if both storage and retrieval were too costly, forgetting and relearning would have an advantage over storing and retrieving acquired information. In this study, using mathematical analysis and individual-based simulations, we investigate whether cumulative culture can promote the coevolution of costly memory and social and individual learning, assuming that cumulative culture improves the fitness of each individual. The conclusions are: (1) without cumulative culture, a social learning cost is essential for the evolution of storage-retrieval. Costly storage-retrieval can evolve with individual learning but costly social learning does not evolve. When low-cost social learning evolves, the repetition of forgetting and learning is favored more than the evolution of costly storage-retrieval, even though a cultural trait improves the fitness. (2) When cumulative culture exists and improves fitness, storage-retrieval can evolve with social and/or individual learning, which

  20. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation for women with low levels of social support (OR = 2.09; 95 % CI = 1.07, 4.07) or optimism (OR = 1.87; 95 % CI = 1.04, 3.37). Our analyses suggest that early vulnerability combined with current anxiety symptoms in pregnancy confers risk for preterm birth. Coping resources may mitigate the effect of cumulative psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  1. Evolution of costly explicit memory and cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2016-06-21

    Humans can acquire new information and modify it (cumulative culture) based on their learning and memory abilities, especially explicit memory, through the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory is categorized into semantic and episodic memories. Animals have semantic memory, while episodic memory is unique to humans and essential for innovation and the evolution of culture. As both episodic and semantic memory are needed for innovation, the evolution of explicit memory influences the evolution of culture. However, previous theoretical studies have shown that environmental fluctuations influence the evolution of imitation (social learning) and innovation (individual learning) and assume that memory is not an evolutionary trait. If individuals can store and retrieve acquired information properly, they can modify it and innovate new information. Therefore, being able to store and retrieve information is essential from the perspective of cultural evolution. However, if both storage and retrieval were too costly, forgetting and relearning would have an advantage over storing and retrieving acquired information. In this study, using mathematical analysis and individual-based simulations, we investigate whether cumulative culture can promote the coevolution of costly memory and social and individual learning, assuming that cumulative culture improves the fitness of each individual. The conclusions are: (1) without cumulative culture, a social learning cost is essential for the evolution of storage-retrieval. Costly storage-retrieval can evolve with individual learning but costly social learning does not evolve. When low-cost social learning evolves, the repetition of forgetting and learning is favored more than the evolution of costly storage-retrieval, even though a cultural trait improves the fitness. (2) When cumulative culture exists and improves fitness, storage-retrieval can evolve with social and/or individual learning, which

  2. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  3. The cumulative effect of consecutive winters' snow depth on moose and deer populations: a defence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McRoberts, R.E.; Mech, L.D.; Peterson, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    1. L. D. Mech et al. presented evidence that moose Alces alces and deer Odocoileus virginianus population parameters re influenced by a cumulative effect of three winters' snow depth. They postulated that snow depth affects adult ungulates cumulatively from winter to winter and results in measurable offspring effects after the third winter. 2. F. Messier challenged those findings and claimed that the population parameters studied were instead affected by ungulate density and wolf indexes. 3. This paper refutes Messier's claims by demonstrating that his results were an artifact of two methodological errors. The first was that, in his main analyses, Messier used only the first previous winter's snow depth rather than the sum of the previous three winters' snow depth, which was the primary point of Mech et al. Secondly, Messier smoothed the ungulate population data, which removed 22-51% of the variability from the raw data. 4. When we repeated Messier's analyses on the raw data and using the sum of the previous three winter's snow depth, his findings did not hold up.

  4. Measurement of cumulative-neutron and cumulative-proton spectra in 1-GeV proton-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Baturin, V.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Makarov, M.M.; Nelyubin, V.V.; Naberezhnov, A.A.; Sulimov, V.V.; Uvarov, L.N.

    1982-11-20

    A comparative study has been made of the spectra of cumulative neutrons and protons produced at an angle of 114/sup 0/ in collisions of 1-GeV protons with /sup 9/Be and /sup 12/C nuclei. The slope parameters of the inclusive neutron spectra are similar to those of the proton spectra.

  5. Barriers to success in parent training for young children with developmental delay: the role of cumulative risk.

    PubMed

    Bagner, Daniel M; Graziano, Paulo A

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based, behavioral parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Cumulative risk was calculated as a sum of risk variables, including socioeconomic disadvantage (poverty, low maternal education), family structure (single-parent household), and maternal risk characteristics (minority status, lower intelligence, and parental distress). Families with higher cumulative risk scores, especially those with three or more risks, were more likely to drop out of treatment and display diminished treatment response in child behavior and parenting skills compared with families with lower cumulative risk scores. However, only two individual risk factors (i.e., minority status and family structure) predicted dropout, and one individual risk factor (i.e., maternal education) predicted outcome. These findings suggest that it can be useful to conceptualize risk factors as having a cumulative, in addition to individual, influence on parent-training interventions for children with developmental delay and have significant implications for clinical practice. It is important for clinicians to regularly assess for risk factors, and future research should examine ways in which clinicians can improve retention and outcome of parent training in the presence of multiple risk factors.

  6. Cumulative (Dis)Advantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (dis)advantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose. PMID:26606386

  7. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood. PMID:26443679

  8. Structural Nested Cumulative Failure Time Models to Estimate the Effects of Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Sally; Hernán, Miguel A.; Page, John H.; Young, Jessica G.; Robins, James M.

    2013-01-01

    In the presence of time-varying confounders affected by prior treatment, standard statistical methods for failure time analysis may be biased. Methods that correctly adjust for this type of covariate include the parametric g-formula, inverse probability weighted estimation of marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models, and g-estimation of structural nested accelerated failure time models. In this article, we propose a novel method to estimate the causal effect of a time-dependent treatment on failure in the presence of informative right-censoring and time-dependent confounders that may be affected by past treatment: g-estimation of structural nested cumulative failure time models (SNCFTMs). An SNCFTM considers the conditional effect of a final treatment at time m on the outcome at each later time k by modeling the ratio of two counterfactual cumulative risks at time k under treatment regimes that differ only at time m. Inverse probability weights are used to adjust for informative censoring. We also present a procedure that, under certain “no-interaction” conditions, uses the g-estimates of the model parameters to calculate unconditional cumulative risks under nondynamic (static) treatment regimes. The procedure is illustrated with an example using data from a longitudinal cohort study, in which the “treatments” are healthy behaviors and the outcome is coronary heart disease. PMID:24347749

  9. Evaluating Cumulative OP Pesticide Body Burden of Children: A National Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Cohen, Jonathan; Castorina, Rosemary; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a valuable tool for identifying exposures to chemicals that pose potential harm to human health. However, to date there has been little published on ways to evaluate the relative public health significance of biomonitoring data for different chemicals, and even less on cumulative assessment of multiple chemicals. The objectives of our study are to develop a methodology for a health risk interpretation of biomonitoring data, and to apply it using NHANES 1999–2002 body burden data for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. OP pesticides present a particularly challenging case given the non-specificity of many metabolites monitored through NHANES. We back-calculate OP pesticide exposures from urinary metabolite data, and compare cumulative dose estimates with available toxicity information for a common mechanism of action (brain cholinesterase inhibition) using data from U.S. EPA. Our results suggest that approximately 40% of children in the United States may have had insufficient margins of exposure (MOEs) for neurological impacts from cumulative exposures to OP pesticides (MOE less than 1,000). Limitations include uncertainty related to assumptions about likely precursor pesticide compounds of the urinary metabolites, sources of exposure, and intra-individual and temporal variability. PMID:19921915

  10. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood.

  11. Comparisons of Mineralogy Between Cumulate Eucrites and Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside Anorsothitic Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Yamaguchi, A.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Ohtake, M.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Anorthosites composed of nearly pure anorthite (PAN) at many locations in the farside highlands have been observed by the Kaguya multiband imager and spectral profiler [1]. Mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites of the Dhofar 489 group [2,3] and Yamato (Y-) 86032 [4], all possibly from the farside highlands, showed some aspects of the farside crust. Nyquist et al. [5] performed Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar studies of pristine ferroan anorthosites (FANs) of the returned Apollo samples and of Dhofar 908 and 489, and discussed implications for lunar crustal history. Nyquist et al. [6] reported initial results of a combined mineralogical/chronological study of the Yamato (Y-) 980318 cumulate eucrite with a conventional Sm-Nd age of 4567 24 Ma and suggested that all eucrites, including cumulate eucrites, crystallized from parental magmas within a short interval following differentiation of their parent body, and most eucrites participated in an event or events in the time interval 4400- 4560 Ma in which many isotopic systems were partially reset. During the foregoing studies, we recognized that variations in mineralogy and chronology of lunar anorthosites are more complex than those of the crustal materials of the HED parent body. In this study, we compared the mineralogies and reflectance spectra of the cumulate eucrites, Y-980433 and 980318, to those of the Dhofar 307 lunar meteorite of the Dhofar 489 group [2]. Here we consider information from these samples to gain a better understanding of the feldspathic farside highlands and the Vesta-like body.

  12. Cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates after gamete intra-Fallopian transfer.

    PubMed

    Rombauts, L; Dear, M; Breheny, S; Healy, D L

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) the Kaplan-Meier life table method was used to analyse a patient cohort treated with GIFT between 1991 and 1994. In a tertiary referral centre for reproductive medicine, 1628 women with a median age of 33 years and various causes of infertility were included to calculate cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates. Age and cause of infertility were main factor variables and the study was based on a total of 2941 consecutive GIFT cycles, leading to a first clinical pregnancy, and 3052 cycles, leading to a first live birth. The cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates were 49.6 and 38.8% respectively, after three initiated cycles and 64.1 and 52.0% respectively, after five initiated cycles. The multiple pregnancy rate was 22.6%. The implantation rate of 13.1% after GIFT demonstrates that the developing embryo benefits from a period of exposure within the environment of the Fallopian tube. The present results indicate that approximately 50% of couples will have at least one live baby after five initiated GIFT cycles. Advancing age was a major negative prognostic factor for the cumulative live birth rate because of higher cancellation rates, lower implantation rates and higher pregnancy failure rates. PMID:9222027

  13. Cumulative (Dis)Advantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (dis)advantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose.

  14. A feasibility study of cumulative risk assessment methods for drinking water disinfection by-product mixtures.

    PubMed

    Teuschler, Linda K; Rice, Glenn E; Wilkes, Charles R; Lipscomb, John C; Power, Fred W

    Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of chemicals, including drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. Some positive epidemiological and toxicological studies suggest reproductive and developmental effects and cancer are associated with consumption of chlorinated drinking water. Thus, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted research to examine the feasibility of evaluating simultaneous exposures to multiple DBPs via all three exposure routes. A cumulative risk assessment approach was developed for DBP mixtures by combining exposure modeling and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling results with a new mixtures risk assessment method, the cumulative relative potency factors (CRPF) approach. Internal doses were estimated for an adult female and an adult male, each of reproductive age, and for a child (age 6 yr) inclusive of oral, dermal, and inhalation exposures. Estimates of the daily internal doses were made for 13 major DBPs, accounting for activity patterns that affect the amount of human contact time with drinking water (e.g., tap water consumed, time spent showering), building characteristics (e.g., household air volumes), and physicochemical properties of the DBPs (e.g., inhalation rates, skin permeability rates, blood: air partition coefficients). A novel cumulative risk assessment method, the CRPF approach, is advanced that integrates the principles of dose addition and response addition to produce multiple-route, chemical mixture risk estimates using total absorbed doses. Research needs to improve this approach are presented.

  15. Verbal learning in Alzheimer's disease: cumulative word knowledge gains across learning trials.

    PubMed

    Foster, Paul S; Drago, Valeria; Crucian, Gregory P; Rhodes, Robert D; Shenal, Brian V; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2009-09-01

    Research regarding learning in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients has been mixed. Learning capacity might be better indexed using a score that reflects the interaction between the learning slope and total recall, referred to as the Cumulative Word Learning (CWL) score. We compared a group of AD patients to normal participants using a traditional index of learning and the CWL score that were derived from the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). The HVLT-R is a supra-span, list-learning test containing 12 words from three semantic categories. The results indicated that the sample of AD patients performed within the average range, using the traditional learning z score. Although mild AD patients were not found to differ from controls in the traditional learning z score, a significant difference was noted for the CWL score. The moderate AD patients differed from the normal controls in both learning measures. Furthermore, unlike the traditional learning score, the CWL score was a significant predictor of overall cognitive functioning, as indexed using their Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Thus, the CWL score might be a more sensitive indicator overall of total learning capacity and may be useful in staging Alzheimer's disease because of increased resilience to floor effects.

  16. Cumulative radiation exposure from imaging procedures and associated lifetime cancer risk for patients with lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Fabritius, Grete; Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke; Klein, Stefan; Popp, Henning D.; Meyer, Mathias; Glatting, Gerhard; Hagelstein, Claudia; Hofmann, Wolf K.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Henzler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the cumulative radiation exposure and the associated lifetime-cancer-risk from diagnostic imaging in patients with Hodgkin-lymphoma-(HL) or diffuse-large-B-cell-lymphoma (DLBCL). 99 consecutive patients (53-males) diagnosed with HL or DLBCL were included in the study and followed. Based on the imaging reports, organ and effective-doses-(ED) were calculated individually for each patient and the excess lifetime risks were estimated. The average ED in the first year after diagnosis was significantly different for men (59 ± 33 mSv) and women (744 ± 33 mSv)-(p < 0.05). The mean cumulative ED in each of the following 5 years was 16 ± 16 mSv without significant differences between men and women-(p > 0.05). Over all years, more than 90% of the ED resulted from CT. The average cumulative radiation risk estimated for the first year was significantly lower for men (0.76 ± 0.41%) as compared to women (1.28 ± 0.54%)-(p < 0.05). The same was found for each of the subsequent 5-years (men-0.18 ± 0.17%; women-0.28 ± 0.25%)-(p < 0.05). In conclusion, for HL and DLBCL patients investigated in this study, a cumulative radiation risk of about 1 excess cancer per 100 patients is estimated for diagnostic imaging procedures performed during both the first year after diagnosis and a follow-up period of 5 years. PMID:27748377

  17. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments. PMID:26610973

  18. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments.

  19. Threshold exceedances and cumulative ozone exposure indices at tropical suburban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beig, G.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Polade, S. D.; Tyagi, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides the first analysis of threshold exceedances and cumulative ozone exposure indices from Pune, a tropical suburban site in India. We used the directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, and by the World Health Organization to assess the air quality from in situ measurements of surface ozone (during the years 2003-2006). We find that the exposure-plant response index (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40)) and target values for protection of human health (8-h > 60 ppb) are regularly surpassed. This is a concern for agricultural and human health. Air-mass classification based on back-air trajectories shows that the excess of AOT40 values is quite plausibly due to long-range transport of background ozone and its precursors to the measurement site.

  20. Quantifying charge resonance and multiexciton character in coupled chromophores by charge and spin cumulant analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Luzanov, Anatoliy V.; Casanova, David; Feng, Xintian; Krylov, Anna I.

    2015-06-14

    We extend excited-state structural analysis to quantify the charge-resonance and multi-exciton character in wave functions of weakly interacting chromophores such as molecular dimers. The approach employs charge and spin cumulants which describe inter-fragment electronic correlations in molecular complexes. We introduce indexes corresponding to the weights of local, charge resonance, and biexciton (with different spin structure) configurations that can be computed for general wave functions thus allowing one to quantify the character of doubly excited states. The utility of the approach is illustrated by applications to several small dimers, e.g., He-H{sub 2}, (H{sub 2}){sub 2}, and (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}, using full and restricted configuration interaction schemes. In addition, we present calculations for several systems relevant to singlet fission, such as tetracene, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, and 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran dimers.

  1. No cumulative effect of 10 years of elevated [CO2 ] on perennial plant biomass components in the Mojave Desert.

    PubMed

    Newingham, Beth A; Vanier, Cheryl H; Charlet, Therese N; Ogle, Kiona; Smith, Stanley D; Nowak, Robert S

    2013-07-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) generally increase primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Production responses to elevated [CO2 ] may be particularly large in deserts, but information on their long-term response is unknown. We evaluated the cumulative effects of elevated [CO2 ] on primary production at the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air carbon dioxide enrichment) Facility. Aboveground and belowground perennial plant biomass was harvested in an intact Mojave Desert ecosystem at the end of a 10-year elevated [CO2 ] experiment. We measured community standing biomass, biomass allocation, canopy cover, leaf area index (LAI), carbon and nitrogen content, and isotopic composition of plant tissues for five to eight dominant species. We provide the first long-term results of elevated [CO2 ] on biomass components of a desert ecosystem and offer information on understudied Mojave Desert species. In contrast to initial expectations, 10 years of elevated [CO2 ] had no significant effect on standing biomass, biomass allocation, canopy cover, and C : N ratios of above- and belowground components. However, elevated [CO2 ] increased short-term responses, including leaf water-use efficiency (WUE) as measured by carbon isotope discrimination and increased plot-level LAI. Standing biomass, biomass allocation, canopy cover, and C : N ratios of above- and belowground pools significantly differed among dominant species, but responses to elevated [CO2 ] did not vary among species, photosynthetic pathway (C3 vs. C4 ), or growth form (drought-deciduous shrub vs. evergreen shrub vs. grass). Thus, even though previous and current results occasionally show increased leaf-level photosynthetic rates, WUE, LAI, and plant growth under elevated [CO2 ] during the 10-year experiment, most responses were in wet years and did not lead to sustained increases in community biomass. We presume that the lack of sustained biomass responses to elevated [CO2 ] is explained by inter

  2. Cumulative dose on fractional delivery of tomotherapy to periodically moving organ: A phantom QA suggestion

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Eunhyuk; Han, Youngyih; Park, Hee-Chul; Sung Kim, Jin; Hwan Ahn, Sung; Suk Shin, Jung; Gyu Ju, Sang; Ho Choi, Doo; Lee, Jaiki

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cumulative dosimetric error that occurs in both target and surrounding normal tissues when treating a moving target in multifractional treatment with tomotherapy. An experiment was devised to measure cumulative error in multifractional treatments delivered to a horseshoe-shaped clinical target volume (CTV) surrounding a cylinder shape of organ at risk (OAR). Treatments differed in jaw size (1.05 vs 2.5 cm), pitch (0.287 vs 0.660), and modulation factor (1.5 vs 2.5), and tumor motion characteristics differing in amplitude (1 to 3 cm), period (3 to 5 second), and regularity (sinusoidal vs irregular) were tested. Treatment plans were delivered to a moving phantom up to 5-times exposure. Dose distribution on central coronal plane from 1 to 5 times exposure was measured with GAFCHROMIC EBT film. Dose differences occurring across 1 to 5 times exposure of treatment and between treatment plans were evaluated by analyzing measurements of gamma index, gamma index histogram, histogram changes, and dose at the center of the OAR. The experiment showed dose distortion due to organ motion increased between multiexposure 1 to 3 times but plateaued and remained constant after 3-times exposure. In addition, although larger motion amplitude and a longer period of motion both increased dosimetric error, the dose at the OAR was more significantly affected by motion amplitude rather than motion period. Irregularity of motion did not contribute significantly to dosimetric error when compared with other motion parameters. Restriction of organ motion to have small amplitude and short motion period together with larger jaw size and small modulation factor (with small pitch) is effective in reducing dosimetric error. Pretreatment measurements for 3-times exposure of treatment to a moving phantom with patient-specific tumor motion would provide a good estimation of the delivered dose distribution.

  3. On the Origin and Preservation of Cumulative Record in Its Struggle for Life as a Favored Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers a case study of the origins, emergence, and evolution of the term "cumulative record" as the name for the means by which B. F. Skinner brought his behavior under the control of his subject matter. Our methods included on-line searches, reviews of Skinner's publications, and journal codings and counts. The results reveal that the…

  4. NASA Thesaurus supplement: A four part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The four-part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes the Hierarchical Listing (Part 1), Access Vocabulary (Part 2), Definitions (Part 3), and Changes (Part 4). The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies and accepted upper/lowercase forms for new terms.

  5. Cumulative Socioeconomic Status Risk, Allostatic Load, and Adjustment: A Prospective Latent Profile Analysis with Contextual and Genetic Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…

  6. Assessing the Role of Current and "Cumulative" Exposure in Simultaneous Bilingual Acquisition: The Case of Dutch Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of amount of current and "cumulative" exposure in bilingual development and ultimate attainment by exploring the extent to which simultaneous bilingual children's knowledge of grammatical gender is affected by current and previous amount of exposure, including in the early years. Elicited production and…

  7. PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETICS/PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING AND CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: CASE STUDY FOR THE N-METHYL CARBMATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 [PL 104-170: 110 STAT. 1513] requires EPA to consider potential cumulative human health risks resulting from aggregate exposure to pesticide chemicals acting through a common mechanism of toxicity. This includes all anticipated dietary e...

  8. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  9. A cumulant functional for static and dynamic correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollett, Joshua W.; Hosseini, Hessam; Menzies, Cameron

    2016-08-01

    A functional for the cumulant energy is introduced. The functional is composed of a pair-correction and static and dynamic correlation energy components. The pair-correction and static correlation energies are functionals of the natural orbitals and the occupancy transferred between near-degenerate orbital pairs, rather than the orbital occupancies themselves. The dynamic correlation energy is a functional of the statically correlated on-top two-electron density. The on-top density functional used in this study is the well-known Colle-Salvetti functional. Using the cc-pVTZ basis set, the functional effectively models the bond dissociation of H2, LiH, and N2 with equilibrium bond lengths and dissociation energies comparable to those provided by multireference second-order perturbation theory. The performance of the cumulant functional is less impressive for HF and F2, mainly due to an underestimation of the dynamic correlation energy by the Colle-Salvetti functional.

  10. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    PubMed

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  11. DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT. J E Simmons1, C Gennings2, M Casey2, M J Plewa3, E D Wagner3, W H Carter, Jr.2, A McDonald1,Y M Sey1, L K Teuschler3 1NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP NC, USA; 2VCU, Richmond, VA, USA;3Univ. Illinois, Urba...

  12. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  13. Cumulative Reconstructor: fast wavefront reconstruction algorithm for Extremely Large Telescopes.

    PubMed

    Rosensteiner, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    The Cumulative Reconstructor (CuRe) is a new direct reconstructor for an optical wavefront from Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements. In this paper, the algorithm is adapted to realistic telescope geometries and the transition from modified Hudgin to Fried geometry is discussed. After a discussion of the noise propagation, we analyze the complexity of the algorithm. Our numerical tests confirm that the algorithm is very fast and accurate and can therefore be used for adaptive optics systems of Extremely Large Telescopes.

  14. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. PMID:25455887

  15. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  16. Cumulative Heat Diffusion Using Volume Gradient Operator for Volume Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurijala, K C; Wang, Lei; Kaufman, A

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a simple, yet powerful method called the Cumulative Heat Diffusion for shape-based volume analysis, while drastically reducing the computational cost compared to conventional heat diffusion. Unlike the conventional heat diffusion process, where the diffusion is carried out by considering each node separately as the source, we simultaneously consider all the voxels as sources and carry out the diffusion, hence the term cumulative heat diffusion. In addition, we introduce a new operator that is used in the evaluation of cumulative heat diffusion called the Volume Gradient Operator (VGO). VGO is a combination of the LBO and a data-driven operator which is a function of the half gradient. The half gradient is the absolute value of the difference between the voxel intensities. The VGO by its definition captures the local shape information and is used to assign the initial heat values. Furthermore, VGO is also used as the weighting parameter for the heat diffusion process. We demonstrate that our approach can robustly extract shape-based features and thus forms the basis for an improved classification and exploration of features based on shape.

  17. Diagnostic of stellar magnetic fields with cumulative circular polarisation profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.

    2015-08-01

    Information about stellar magnetic field topologies is obtained primarily from high-resolution circular polarisation (Stokes V) observations. Because of their generally complex morphologies, the stellar Stokes V profiles are usually interpreted with elaborate inversion techniques such as Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI). Here we further develop a new method for interpreting circular polarisation signatures in spectral lines using cumulative Stokes V profiles (anti-derivative of Stokes V). This method is complimentary to ZDI and can be applied to validate the inversion results or when the available observational data are insufficient for an inversion. Based on the rigorous treatment of polarised line formation in the weak-field regime, we show that, for rapidly rotating stars, the cumulative Stokes V profiles contain information about the spatially resolved longitudinal magnetic field density. Rotational modulation of these profiles can be employed for a simple, qualitative characterisation of the stellar magnetic field topologies. We apply this diagnostic method to the archival observations of the weak-line T Tauri star V410 Tau and Bp He-strong star HD 37776. We show that the magnetic field in V410 Tau is dominated by an azimuthal component, in agreement with the ZDI map that we recover from the same data set. For HD 37776 the cumulative Stokes V profile variation indicates the presence of multiple regions of positive and negative field polarity. This behaviour agrees with the ZDI results, but contradicts the popular hypothesis that the magnetic field of this star is dominated by an axisymmetric quadrupolar component.

  18. Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne.

    PubMed

    Allen, Myles R; Frame, David J; Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Meinshausen, Malte; Meinshausen, Nicolai

    2009-04-30

    Global efforts to mitigate climate change are guided by projections of future temperatures. But the eventual equilibrium global mean temperature associated with a given stabilization level of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations remains uncertain, complicating the setting of stabilization targets to avoid potentially dangerous levels of global warming. Similar problems apply to the carbon cycle: observations currently provide only a weak constraint on the response to future emissions. Here we use ensemble simulations of simple climate-carbon-cycle models constrained by observations and projections from more comprehensive models to simulate the temperature response to a broad range of carbon dioxide emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission is better constrained than the warming response to a stabilization scenario. Furthermore, the relationship between cumulative emissions and peak warming is remarkably insensitive to the emission pathway (timing of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide are likely to be more robust to scientific uncertainty than emission-rate or concentration targets. Total anthropogenic emissions of one trillion tonnes of carbon (3.67 trillion tonnes of CO(2)), about half of which has already been emitted since industrialization began, results in a most likely peak carbon-dioxide-induced warming of 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures, with a 5-95% confidence interval of 1.3-3.9 degrees C.

  19. Age-of-acquisition and cumulative frequency have independent effects.

    PubMed

    Moore, V; Valentine, T; Turner, J

    1999-10-26

    Lewis (1999) argued that effects of age of acquisition (AoA) are entirely attributable to cumulative frequency. He reported an instance-based model in which the number of instances of the stimulus stored in memory predicts reaction time. We note four aspects of the literature on AoA that cannot be explained by this instance-based approach. Firstly, an effect of AoA has been observed in the absence of an effect of frequency. Secondly, an effect of AoA has been observed when cumulative frequency has been controlled. Thirdly, the effect of AoA is dependent on task. Fourthly, the effect of word frequency is dependent on stimulus modality. Lewis reported an experiment in which participants make a decision based on identity-specific semantic information to celebrity faces to demonstrate an effect of the number of instances in memory, which he interpreted as an effect of AoA. We note that effects of AoA have been found in lexical and perceptual tasks, but to date all attempts to demonstrate an advantage for early-acquired items in semantic classification tasks have failed. We conclude that the effects of AoA cannot be attributed solely to the effects of cumulative frequency. PMID:10610297

  20. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. PMID:27352090

  1. Indexing and Metatag Schemes for Web-Based Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torok, Andrew G.

    This paper reviews indexing theory and suggests that information retrieval can be significantly improved by applying basic indexing criteria. Indexing practices are described, including the three main types of indexes: pre-coordinate, post-coordinate, and variants of both. Design features of indexes are summarized, including accuracy, consistency,…

  2. Repeated exposure to high-frequency spanking and child externalizing behavior across the first decade: a moderating role for cumulative risk.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-12-01

    This study used the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study to examine the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting on child externalizing behavior across the first decade of life, and a moderating role for cumulative ecological risk. Maternal report of harsh parenting, defined as high frequency spanking, was assessed at age 1, 3, 5, and 9, along with child externalizing at age 9 (N=2,768). Controlling for gender, race, maternal nativity, and city of residence, we found a cumulative risk index to significantly moderate the effects of repeated harsh parenting on child behavior, with the effects of repeated high-frequency spanking being amplified for those experiencing greater levels of cumulative risk. Harsh parenting, in the form of high frequency spanking, remains a too common experience for children, and results demonstrate that the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting across the first decade are amplified for those children already facing the most burden.

  3. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  4. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  5. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  6. The HLD (CalMod) index and the index question.

    PubMed

    Parker, W S

    1998-08-01

    The malocclusion index problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann Index in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any index. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many indexes have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) Index is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this index. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the index. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The index problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) Index has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the index question and one solution in the United States. PMID:9714277

  7. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that

  8. Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, the Six-Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a real-time, six degree-of-freedom, short range motion base simulator originally designed to simulate the relative dynamics of two bodies in space mating together (i.e., docking or berthing). The SDTS has the capability to test full scale docking and berthing systems utilizing a two body dynamic docking simulation for docking operations and a Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) simulation for berthing operations. The SDTS can also be used for nonmating applications such as sensors and instruments evaluations requiring proximity or short range motion operations. The motion base is a hydraulic powered Stewart platform, capable of supporting a 3,500 lb payload with a positional accuracy of 0.03 inches. The SDTS is currently being used for the NASA Docking System testing and has been also used by other government agencies. The SDTS is also under consideration for use by commercial companies. Examples of tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility integrates a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or de-mating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is used for input during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents unique challenges, one particular area of interest involves the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. The measurement systems for the test facility have two separate functions. The first is to take static measurements of facility and test hardware to determine both the static and moving frames used in the simulation and control system. The test hardware must be measured after each configuration change to determine both sets of reference frames. The second function is to take dynamic

  9. Canadian and international EIA frameworks as they apply to cumulative effects

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, Robert

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents a brief history of the development of cumulative effects, the current requirements in North America and elsewhere in the world, challenges at the project level, thoughts on how emerging concepts of strategic environmental assessment and regional assessment may offer means to improve the examination of cumulative effects and offers suggestions for current and future needs in cumulative effects assessment.

  10. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... platform for cumulative fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your...

  11. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... platform for cumulative fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your...

  12. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on...

  13. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... platform for cumulative fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your...

  14. Quantification of tillage, plant cover, and cumulative rainfall effects on soil surface microrelief by statistical, geostatistical and fractal indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Bertol, I.; Vidal Vázquez, E.

    2008-07-01

    Changes in soil surface microrelief with cumulative rainfall under different tillage systems and crop cover conditions were investigated in southern Brazil. Surface cover was none (fallow) or the crop succession maize followed by oats. Tillage treatments were: 1) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS), 2) conventional tillage (CT), 3) minimum tillage (MT) and 4) no tillage (NT) under maize and oats. Measurements were taken with a manual relief meter on small rectangular grids of 0.234 and 0.156 m2, throughout growing season of maize and oats, respectively. Each data set consisted of 200 point height readings, the size of the smallest cells being 3×5 cm during maize and 2×5 cm during oats growth periods. Random Roughness (RR), Limiting Difference (LD), Limiting Slope (LS) and two fractal parameters, fractal dimension (D) and crossover length (l) were estimated from the measured microtopographic data sets. Indices describing the vertical component of soil roughness such as RR, LD and l generally decreased with cumulative rain in the BS treatment, left fallow, and in the CT and MT treatments under maize and oats canopy. However, these indices were not substantially affected by cumulative rain in the NT treatment, whose surface was protected with previous crop residues. Roughness decay from initial values was larger in the BS treatment than in CT and MT treatments. Moreover, roughness decay generally tended to be faster under maize than under oats. The RR and LD indices decreased quadratically, while the l index decreased exponentially in the tilled, BS, CT and MT treatments. Crossover length was sensitive to differences in soil roughness conditions allowing a description of microrelief decay due to rainfall in the tilled treatments, although better correlations between cumulative rainfall and the most commonly used indices RR and LD were obtained. At the studied scale, parameters l and D have been found to be useful in interpreting the configuration properties of

  15. Modeling the cumulative genetic risk for multiple sclerosis from genome-wide association data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurologic disability beginning in early to middle adult life. Results from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have substantially lengthened the list of disease loci and provide convincing evidence supporting a multifactorial and polygenic model of inheritance. Nevertheless, the knowledge of MS genetics remains incomplete, with many risk alleles still to be revealed. Methods We used a discovery GWAS dataset (8,844 samples, 2,124 cases and 6,720 controls) and a multi-step logistic regression protocol to identify novel genetic associations. The emerging genetic profile included 350 independent markers and was used to calculate and estimate the cumulative genetic risk in an independent validation dataset (3,606 samples). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was implemented to compare clinical characteristics of individuals with various degrees of genetic risk. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis was done using the DAVID functional annotation tool, the GO Tree Machine, and the Pathway-Express profiling tool. Results In the discovery dataset, the median cumulative genetic risk (P-Hat) was 0.903 and 0.007 in the case and control groups, respectively, together with 79.9% classification sensitivity and 95.8% specificity. The identified profile shows a significant enrichment of genes involved in the immune response, cell adhesion, cell communication/signaling, nervous system development, and neuronal signaling, including ionotropic glutamate receptors, which have been implicated in the pathological mechanism driving neurodegeneration. In the validation dataset, the median cumulative genetic risk was 0.59 and 0.32 in the case and control groups, respectively, with classification sensitivity 62.3% and specificity 75.9%. No differences in disease progression or T2-lesion volumes were observed among four levels of predicted genetic risk groups (high, medium, low, misclassified). On the other

  16. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

  17. Comparative Index Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Abdur

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that compared indexing terms suggested by authors of articles in "The American Journal of the Medical Science" and indexing terms assigned to the same articles in MEDLARS. Case studies are used to examine the differences between author and indexer indexing. (CLB)

  18. Cumulative Risk Assessment and Environmental Equity in Air Permitting: Interpretation, Methods, Community Participation and Implementation of a Unique Statute

    PubMed Central

    Ellickson, Kristie M.; Sevcik, Sarah M.; Burman, Shelley; Pak, Steven; Kohlasch, Frank; Pratt, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider “cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility’s emissions are likely to be deposited.” Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase ‘environmental equity’. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the “cumulative levels and effects analysis”. PMID:22163199

  19. Cumulative risk assessment and environmental equity in air permitting: interpretation, methods, community participation and implementation of a unique statute.

    PubMed

    Ellickson, Kristie M; Sevcik, Sarah M; Burman, Shelley; Pak, Steven; Kohlasch, Frank; Pratt, Gregory C

    2011-11-01

    In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider "cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited." Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase 'environmental equity'. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the "cumulative levels and effects analysis".

  20. Decreased Length of Stay and Cumulative Hospitalized Days Despite Increased Patient Admissions and Readmissions in an Area of Urban Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Amit D.; Fisher, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Length of stay at US acute care hospitals has been steadily decreasing since 1960, and there is ongoing concern that increasing financial pressures on hospitals with high proportions of Medicaid patients may be causing unduly short lengths of stay. Objective To study temporal trends in hospital utilization on internal medicine services at Temple University Hospital, which has the highest percentage of Medicaid and uninsured patients in the state of Pennsylvania. Design Examination of temporal changes in hospital practice over three time periods spanning 13 years. Measurements Numbers of discharges, 1- and 12-month re-admission rates, and lengths of stay. US census data from 1990 to 2000 were examined for the eight major zip codes in which hospitalized patients live. Main Results The number of internal medicine admissions increased from 1991 (117/month) to 2004 (455/month); p < 0.0001. Mean length of stay for the index admission decreased from 8.7 to 4.9 days; p < 0.001. The percentage of patients readmitted within 12 months of the discharge date of the index admission increased from 42.3% to 49.5%; p = 0.045. Mean cumulative length of stay over 12 months, including readmissions, decreased significantly (15.8 to 12.5 days; p = 0.031). Compared to all US hospitals, our hospital had a greater increase in admissions and a greater decrease in length of stay. During this time period, in surrounding zip codes, there were decreases in total population and total number of persons living in poverty, but also multiple closures of area hospitals that served poor patients. Conclusion During the 13-year study period, despite increased readmission rates, the overall number of hospitalized days per year on the internal medicine inpatient service decreased. As local hospitals serving this inner city low income area have closed, our hospital had atypically high increases in numbers of admissions and decreases in length of stay. This raises questions

  1. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  2. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, T. Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Bier, Raven; Helton, A. M.; Merola, R. Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed. PMID:22160676

  3. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Lau, Amy G; Fan, Bo; Ford, Lisa; Greenberg, Howard E

    2016-01-01

    Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database) and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23) and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17). The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. PMID:27536060

  4. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Lau, Amy G; Fan, Bo; Ford, Lisa; Greenberg, Howard E

    2016-01-01

    Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database) and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23) and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17). The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. PMID:27536060

  5. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  6. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Canter, Larry W.

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  7. A cumulant functional for static and dynamic correlation.

    PubMed

    Hollett, Joshua W; Hosseini, Hessam; Menzies, Cameron

    2016-08-28

    A functional for the cumulant energy is introduced. The functional is composed of a pair-correction and static and dynamic correlation energy components. The pair-correction and static correlation energies are functionals of the natural orbitals and the occupancy transferred between near-degenerate orbital pairs, rather than the orbital occupancies themselves. The dynamic correlation energy is a functional of the statically correlated on-top two-electron density. The on-top density functional used in this study is the well-known Colle-Salvetti functional. Using the cc-pVTZ basis set, the functional effectively models the bond dissociation of H2, LiH, and N2 with equilibrium bond lengths and dissociation energies comparable to those provided by multireference second-order perturbation theory. The performance of the cumulant functional is less impressive for HF and F2, mainly due to an underestimation of the dynamic correlation energy by the Colle-Salvetti functional. PMID:27586903

  8. Correlation functions and cumulants in elliptic flow analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Tuchin, Kirill L.

    2003-04-01

    We consider various methods of flow analysis in heavy ion collisions and compare experimental data on corresponding observables to the predictions of our saturation model proposed earlier [Nucl. Phys. A 708 (2002) 413]. We demonstrate that, due to the nature of the standard flow analysis, azimuthal distribution of particles with respect to reaction plane determined from the second order harmonics should always be proportional to cos2( φ- ΨR) independent of the physical origin of particle correlations (flow or non-flow). The amplitude of this distribution is always physical and proportional to v2. Two-particle correlations analysis is, therefore, a more reliable way of extracting the shape of physical azimuthal anisotropy. We demonstrate that two-particle correlation functions generated in our minijet model of particle production [Nucl. Phys. A 708 (2002) 413] are in good agreement with the data reported by PHENIX. We discuss the role of non-flow correlations in the cumulant flow analysis and demonstrate using a simple example that if the flow is weak, higher order cumulants analysis does not significantly reduce the contribution of non-flow correlations to elliptic flow observable v2 in RHIC data.

  9. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization.

  10. Coverage of Islamic Literature in Selected Indexing Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, A.; Rehman, S. ur

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluates bibliographical coverage of Islamic literature provided by four Western indexing services ("Social Sciences Citation Index,""Social Sciences Index,""Humanities Index,""Index Islamicus") by using bibliographical checking method. Highlights include characteristics of literature and bibliographic coverage of literature by type of…

  11. Cumulative effects of noise and odour annoyances on environmental and health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Oiamo, Tor H; Luginaah, Isaac N; Baxter, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Noise and odour annoyances are important considerations in research on health effects of air pollution and traffic noise. Cumulative exposures can occur via several chemical hazards or a combination of chemical and stressor-based hazards, and related health outcomes can be generalized as manifestations of physiological and/or psychological stress responses. A major research challenge in this field is to understand the combined health effects of physiological and psychological responses to exposure. The SF-12 Health Survey is a health related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument designed for the assessment of functional mental and physical health in clinical practice and therefore well suited to research on physiological health outcomes of exposure. However, previous research has not assessed its sensitivity to psychological stress as measured by noise annoyance and odour annoyance. The current study validated and tested this application of the SF-12 Health Survey in a cross-sectional study (n = 603) that included exposure assessment for traffic noise and air pollution in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The results indicated that SF-12 scores in Windsor were lower than Canadian normative data. A structural equation model demonstrated that this was partially due to noise and odour annoyances, which were associated with covarying exposures to ambient nitrogen dioxide and traffic noise. More specifically, noise annoyance had a significant and negative effect on both mental and physical health factors of the SF-12 and there was a significant covariance between noise annoyance and odour annoyance. The study confirmed a significant effect of psychological responses to cumulative exposures on HRQoL. The SF-12 Health Survey shows promise with respect to assessing the cumulative health effects of outdoor air pollution and traffic noise.

  12. Cumulative Anticholinergic Exposure Is Associated with Poor Memory and Executive Function in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ling; Agostini, Joseph V.; Allore, Heather G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anti-cholinergic score. RESULTS Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.05–0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI = 0.04–0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI = 0.01–0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI = 0.02–0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects. PMID:19093918

  13. Cumulative Radiative Forcing Implications of Deployment Strategies for Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathre, R. C.; Masanet, E.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly discussed as a potential means of mitigating the climate disruption associated with fossil fuel use. Some technologies for capturing, transporting, and sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) are already mature, while others technologies under development may lead to more cost- and energy-efficient CCS systems. Various elements of CCS systems are currently in operation at relatively small scale, but will need to be scaled up very substantially in order to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. Because the rate of fossil fuel CO2 emission is continuing to increase and the emitted CO2 will remain in the atmosphere for long time periods, the speed at which CCS is deployed will strongly affect the cumulative CO2 emission and the climate impacts. To better understand these issues, in this analysis we integrate scenario forecasting of energy supply systems, life cycle emission modeling, and time-dependent calculations of cumulative radiative forcing. We develop a series of CCS deployment scenarios that describe plausible future trajectories for CCS implementation in the US electric power plant fleet. The scenarios incorporate dimensions such as speed of deployment build-out, year of initiating deployment, efficiency of capture technology, and installation in new power plants vs. retrofitting existing plants. We conduct life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analyses of each scenario to estimate annual emission profiles of CO2, CH4, and N2O over a 90-year time horizon, from 2010 to 2100. We then model the atmospheric dynamics of the emitted GHGs including atmospheric decay and instantaneous radiative forcing patterns over time. Finally, we determine the cumulative radiative forcing of each scenario, which we use as a proxy for surface temperature change and resulting disruption to physical, ecological and social systems. The results show strong climate mitigation benefits of early, aggressive

  14. Entering out-of-home care during childhood: Cumulative incidence study in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Melissa; Maclean, Miriam; Sims, Scott; Brownell, Marni; Ekuma, Okechukwu; Gilbert, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Cumulative incidence provides a more accurate indicator than annual incidence rates of the number of children who experience out-of-home care during childhood. The study utilises a cohort of all children born in Western Australia (WA) 1994-2005 and Manitoba 1998-2008 using de-identified linked data. Life tables were used to calculate the age-specific cumulative incidence over time and for at-risk groups. Cox regression was used to compare risk factors for entry to care. Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care compared to WA (9.4% vs 1.5% by age 12). Over time children entered care at a younger age in both WA (HR=1.5, CI:1.4-1.5) and Manitoba (HR=1.5, CI:1.5-1.6). Similar factors were associated with earlier age care entries in both countries including: socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, maternal hospital admissions for mental health issues, substance misuse and assault. Supplementary analysis for WA showed a time trend with young children (<3years of age) who entered care spending an increasing proportion of their early years in care. Whilst Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care, over time in Western Australia children have been entering care at a younger age and spending more time in care. These latter factors contribute to an increased burden on the out-of-home care system. Manitoba had over five times greater cumulative incidence than WA, however risk factors for entry to out-of-home care were consistent in both countries. Knowledge of the risk factors for entry to out-of-home care can inform targeted support and prevention programs.

  15. Entering out-of-home care during childhood: Cumulative incidence study in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Melissa; Maclean, Miriam; Sims, Scott; Brownell, Marni; Ekuma, Okechukwu; Gilbert, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Cumulative incidence provides a more accurate indicator than annual incidence rates of the number of children who experience out-of-home care during childhood. The study utilises a cohort of all children born in Western Australia (WA) 1994-2005 and Manitoba 1998-2008 using de-identified linked data. Life tables were used to calculate the age-specific cumulative incidence over time and for at-risk groups. Cox regression was used to compare risk factors for entry to care. Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care compared to WA (9.4% vs 1.5% by age 12). Over time children entered care at a younger age in both WA (HR=1.5, CI:1.4-1.5) and Manitoba (HR=1.5, CI:1.5-1.6). Similar factors were associated with earlier age care entries in both countries including: socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, maternal hospital admissions for mental health issues, substance misuse and assault. Supplementary analysis for WA showed a time trend with young children (<3years of age) who entered care spending an increasing proportion of their early years in care. Whilst Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care, over time in Western Australia children have been entering care at a younger age and spending more time in care. These latter factors contribute to an increased burden on the out-of-home care system. Manitoba had over five times greater cumulative incidence than WA, however risk factors for entry to out-of-home care were consistent in both countries. Knowledge of the risk factors for entry to out-of-home care can inform targeted support and prevention programs. PMID:27521764

  16. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  17. Cumulative gains enhance striatal response to reward opportunities in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Smith, Ashley R.; Bjork, James M.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Momenan, Reza; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorder is characterized by a transition from volitional to compulsive responding for drug reward. A possible explanation for this transition may be that alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) show a general propensity for a history of rewarded instrumental responses, and these rewarded responses may boost the activation of motivational neurocircuitry for additional reward. Brain imaging studies of decision-making have demonstrated that ADP relative to controls (CON) often show altered neural activation in response to anticipating and receiving rewards, but the majority of studies have not investigated how past performance affects activation. A potential exists for ADP to show increased sensitivity to reward as a function of reward delivery history. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of risky decision-making in ADP (n = 18) and CON (n = 18) while they played a two-choice monetary risk-taking game. In addition to investigating general neural recruitment by risky decision-making, we also modeled each participant’s running total of monetary earnings in order to determine areas of activation that correlated with cumulative reward. We found that ADP and CON showed few differences in behavior or in mesolimbic activation by choice for, and receipt of, risky gains. However, when including a cumulative-earnings covariate, ADP exhibited heightened striatal activation that correlated with total earnings during the choice event in the task. The heightened contextual sensitivity of striatal responses to cumulative earnings in ADP may represent a general neurobiological affective substrate for development of automatized instrumental behavior. PMID:24754451

  18. Cumulative Neighborhood Risk of Psychosocial Stress and Allostatic Load in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Theall, Katherine P.; Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity score-matched, among adolescents aged 12–20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006). Individuals (first level, n = 11,886) were nested within families/households (second level, n = 6,696) and then census tracts (third level, n = 2,191) for examination of the contextual effect of cumulative neighborhood risk environment on AL. Approximately 35% of adolescents had 2 or more biomarkers of AL. A significant amount of variance in AL was explained at the neighborhood level. The likelihood of having a high AL was approximately 10% higher for adolescents living in medium-cumulative-risk neighborhoods (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.09), 28% higher for those living in high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.30), and 69% higher for those living in very-high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 1.70) as compared with adolescents living in low-risk areas. Effect modification was observed by both individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors. These findings offer support for the hypothesis that neighborhood risks may culminate in a range of biologically mediated negative health outcomes detectable in adolescents. PMID:23035140

  19. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  20. Multiple imputation methods for nonparametric inference on cumulative incidence with missing cause of failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjung; Dignam, James J.; Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    We propose a nonparametric approach for cumulative incidence estimation when causes of failure are unknown or missing for some subjects. Under the missing at random assumption, we estimate the cumulative incidence function using multiple imputation methods. We develop asymptotic theory for the cumulative incidence estimators obtained from multiple imputation methods. We also discuss how to construct confidence intervals for the cumulative incidence function and perform a test for comparing the cumulative incidence functions in two samples with missing cause of failure. Through simulation studies, we show that the proposed methods perform well. The methods are illustrated with data from a randomized clinical trial in early stage breast cancer. PMID:25043107

  1. Comparison of Phonic Analysis and Whole Word-Reading on First Graders' Cumulative Words Read and Cumulative Reading Rate: An Extension in Examining Instructional Effectiveness and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidgall, Melissa; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the instructional effectiveness and efficiency of three word-reading interventions on cumulative number of words read accurately and cumulative learning rate. Participants were six first graders who needed intensive intervention services. Alternating treatment designs were used to compare the effects of interspersal drill, a…

  2. The Compaction of Ultramafic Cumulates in Layered Intrusions - Time and Length Scales (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Manoochehri, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many large mafic intrusions have thick series of mostly ultramafic cumulates composed of dense cumulus minerals (chromite, olivine, pyroxenes) precipitated from low viscosity (roughly basaltic) liquids. To understand the time and length scales involved, the crystal settling and compaction process was simulated through centrifuge-assisted experiments of olivine or chromite in basaltic melt. Experiments were performed in a centrifuging piston cylinder at 200-1500 g, 1200-1300 C, 0.5-1.1 GPa on previously annealed and texturally equilibrated samples. The mechanical settling of the dense olivine or chromite suspensions occurs at 1/6 and 1/2 the speed of simple Stokes settling. The porosity (φm ) of orthocumulates resulting from gravitational settling is 50-55 %, pile up times for natural grain sizes result to 0.1-10 m/day. Hence, gravitational deposition (including re-deposition) of crystals may take place within years, i.e. almost instantaneously with progressing crystallization. After (re-)deposition, grains rest on each other. Further (chemical) compaction occurs through pressure dissolution at grain contacts, olivine or chromite re-precipitates where in contact with melt. Concomitantly excess liquid is expulsed from the cumulate layer. Centrifugation let to porosities as low as 30.3 vol% for olivine. The crystal content at the bottom of the experimentally compacted cumulate is 1-φm ~ log(Δρ h a t), where Δρ = crystal-melt density difference, h = crystal layer thickness, a = acceleration and t = time. Compaction is hence proportional to effective stress integrated over time indicating that pressure dissolution is the dominant mechanism. Notably, chromite crystals compact only about half as fast as olivine crystals. The compaction limit, i.e. the lowermost porosity to be reached, is calculated by equating the lithostatic and hydraulic pressure gradients in the cumulate and results to 3-5 % porosity for the experiments. Crystal size distribution curves and a

  3. The Relationship Between Amphibole Cumulates and Adakite Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, T. O.

    2009-12-01

    Amphibole, while uncommon as a primary fractioning phase is increasingly recognized as a key constituent in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. Fractional crystallization of water-saturated arc magmas in the lower crust can yield substantial volumes amphibole cumulates that, depending on the pressure of crystallization, may also contain garnet. Fractionation of this higher pressure assemblage has been invoked as a possible mechanism in the production adakite magmas. The origin of adakites, defined by their heavy REE and Y depletion and Sr enrichments, have vigorously debated since their re-discovery in Panama two decades ago. In addition to widespread modern adakitic volcanism, the Panamanian portion of the Central American Arc preserves the magmatic record of arc development in close spatial association with younger magmatism. Late-Oligocene hypabyssal crystal-rich andesites from Cerro Patacon are preserved near the Panama Canal region. These contain nodules of amphibole cumulates, and may be used to examine the amphibole-fractionation model for adakite origin. The cumulate nodules are ~6 cm in diameter and are almost entirely composed of 5-10mm amphibole crystals (dominantly ferri-tschermakite), and are accompanied in the host andesites by amphibole phenocrysts, antecrysts and megacryts. Cerro Patacon andesites have REE concentrations that plot at the most depleted end of the array defined by similarly differentiated (58-60% SiO2) Central American Arc magmas, and exhibit a distinctive depletion in the middle REE. These geochemical and petrographic observations strongly support significant amphibole fractionation during formation of the Cerro Patacon andesite. Sr/Y which is used as a geochemical tool for discriminating adakites from other arc magams, is transitional in the Cerro Patcon andesites. However La/Yb is within the range for ‘normal’ arc magmas and shows that amphibole fractionation alone is insufficient to generate adakite magmas - some garnet

  4. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  5. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  6. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  7. Cumulative Interference to Aircraft Radios from Multiple Portable Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2005-01-01

    Cumulative interference effects from portable electronic devices (PEDs) located inside a passenger cabin are conservatively estimated for aircraft radio receivers. PEDs' emission powers in an aircraft radio frequency band are first scaled according to their locations' interference path loss (IPL) values, and the results are summed to determine the total interference power. The multiple-equipment-factor (MEF) is determined by normalizing the result against the worst case contribution from a single device. Conservative assumptions were made and MEF calculations were performed for Boeing 737's Localizer, Glide-slope, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, and Very High Frequency Communication radio systems where full-aircraft IPL data were available. The results show MEF for the systems to vary between 10 and 14 dB. The same process was also used on the more popular window/door IPL data, and the comparison show the multiple-equipment-factor results came within one decibel (dB) of each other.

  8. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  9. X-boson cumulant approach to the periodic Anderson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.; Foglio, M. E.

    2002-07-01

    The periodic Anderson model can be studied in the limit U=∞ by employing the Hubbard X operators to project out the unwanted states. We had already studied this problem by employing the cumulant expansion with the hybridization as perturbation, but the probability conservation of the local states (completeness) is not usually satisfied when partial expansions like the ``chain approximation'' (CHA) are employed. To rectify this situation, we modify the CHA by employing a procedure that was used in the mean-field approximation of Coleman's slave-boson method. Our technique reproduces the features of that method in its region of validity, but avoids the unwanted phase transition that appears in the same method both when μ>>Ef at low T and for all values of the parameters at intermediate temperatures. Our method also has a dynamic character that is absent from the mean-field slave-boson method.

  10. Mathematical modeling of detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, I.; Utkin, P.; Akhmedyanov, I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper concerns two problems connected with the idea of gaseous detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects and convergence of relatively weak shock waves (SW). The first one is the three-dimensional (3D) numerical investigation of shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) in methane-air mixture in a tube with parabolic contraction followed by the tube section of narrow diameter and conical expansion. The second problem is the numerical study of the start-up of the model small-scale hydrogen electrochemical pulse detonation engine with the use of electrical discharge generating the toroidal SW. The investigation is performed by means of numerical simulation with the use of modern high-performance computing systems.

  11. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  12. The cumulative influence of conflict on nursing home staff.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Anderson, James G; Anderson, Marilyn M; Suitor, J Jill; Pillemer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Nursing staff burnout is a significant challenge in the delivery of nursing home care. Using a representative sample of nursing staff working within the nursing home setting, our analysis addressed the influence of conflict with residents' families on the burnout experience of staff. Through the use of computer simulation modeling we were able to assess the cumulative effects of conflict between staff and families. Findings indicated that conflict with the residents' families increased both burnout and dissatisfaction among nursing staff. The burnout experience of nursing staff peaked with initial episodes of conflict, then leveled off as simulated conflict with family members continued. Because previous research has indicated that burnout tends to peak early in nurses' career cycle, the finding that initial episodes of conflict have a strong influence on nursing staff burnout highlights the importance of interpersonal conflict within nursing homes in both individual and institutional outcomes.

  13. Cumulative Benefit Analysis for Ranking Risk Reduction Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Leverenz, Fred L.; Aysa Jimenez, Julio

    2007-04-25

    The Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study approach, and other similar methods, are very effective ways to qualitatively identify a comprehensive set of accident scenarios for a facility. If these analyses are modified to incorporate a simple system for evaluating relative risk, such as an order-of-magnitude scoring system, the resultant study can be a very powerful input to developing risk reduction strategies. By adding the concept of Risk Reduction Worth evaluations for all accident Causes, Safeguards, and proposal Action Items, an analyst can then formulate a strategy to select the minimal set of risk reduction actions that maximizes risk reduction. One strategy for doing this involves the iterative evaluation of RRW after postulation of risk reduction actions, until the residual risk reaches a tolerable value, termed Cumulative Risk Benefit Analysis. This concept was developed for the evaluation of a set of pipeline pumping stations, and provided valuable insight into how to reduce risk in a sensible, prioritized fashion.

  14. Near-Field Source Localization Using a Special Cumulant Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Han; Wei, Gang

    A new near-field source localization algorithm based on a uniform linear array was proposed. The proposed algorithm estimates each parameter separately but does not need pairing parameters. It can be divided into two important steps. The first step is bearing-related electric angle estimation based on the ESPRIT algorithm by constructing a special cumulant matrix. The second step is the other electric angle estimation based on the 1-D MUSIC spectrum. It offers much lower computational complexity than the traditional near-field 2-D MUSIC algorithm and has better performance than the high-order ESPRIT algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is close to the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB).

  15. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  16. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  17. A framework for adaptive monitoring of the cumulative effects of human footprint on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Cole; Huggard, David; Bayne, Erin; Schieck, Jim; Sólymos, Péter; Muhly, Tyler; Farr, Dan; Boutin, Stan

    2014-06-01

    Effective ecological monitoring is imperative in a human-dominated world, as our ability to manage functioning ecosystems will depend on understanding biodiversity responses to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, most monitoring efforts have either been narrowly focused on particular sites, species and stressors - thus inadequately considering the cumulative effects of multiple, interacting impacts at scales of management relevance - or too unfocused to provide specific guidance. We propose a cumulative effects monitoring framework that integrates multi-scaled surveillance of trends in biodiversity and land cover with targeted evaluation of hypothesized drivers of change. The framework is grounded in a flexible conceptual model and uses monitoring to generate and test empirical models that relate the status of diverse taxonomic groups to the nature and extent of human "footprint" and other landscape attributes. An adaptive cycle of standardized sampling, model development, and model evaluation provides a means to learn about the system and guide management. Additional benefits of the framework include standardized data on status and trend for a wide variety of biodiversity elements, spatially explicit models for regional planning and scenario evaluation, and identification of knowledge gaps for complementary research. We describe efforts to implement the framework in Alberta, Canada, through the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, and identify key challenges to be addressed.

  18. Cumulative Hazard Ratio Estimation for Treatment Regimes in Sequentially Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinyu; Wahed, Abdus S.

    2014-01-01

    The proportional hazards model is widely used in survival analysis to allow adjustment for baseline covariates. The proportional hazard assumption may not be valid for treatment regimes that depend on intermediate responses to prior treatments received, and it is not clear how such a model can be adapted to clinical trials employing more than one randomization. Besides, since treatment is modified post-baseline, the hazards are unlikely to be proportional across treatment regimes. Although Lokhnygina and Helterbrand (Biometrics 63: 422–428, 2007) introduced the Cox regression method for two-stage randomization designs, their method can only be applied to test the equality of two treatment regimes that share the same maintenance therapy. Moreover, their method does not allow auxiliary variables to be included in the model nor does it account for treatment effects that are not constant over time. In this article, we propose a model that assumes proportionality across covariates within each treatment regime but not across treatment regimes. Comparisons among treatment regimes are performed by testing the log ratio of the estimated cumulative hazards. The ratio of the cumulative hazard across treatment regimes is estimated using a weighted Breslow-type statistic. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the estimators and proposed tests. PMID:26085847

  19. Assessing cumulative impacts to wintering Bald Eagles and their habitats in western Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Witmer, G.W.; O'Neil, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) of Washington, the largest wintering population in the lower 48 states, are subject to numerous pressures and impacts from human activites. An evaluative method potential cumulative impacts of multiple hydroelectric development and logging activities on known and potential eagle use areas. Four resource components include food supply, roost sites, mature riparian forest, and disturbance. In addition to actual estimates of losses in food supply (fish biomass in kg) and habitat (km/sup 2/) in one river basin, impact levels from 0 (none) to 4 (high) were assigned for each development and for each component based on the impacts anticipated and the estimated value of the site to eagles. Midwinter eagle surveys, aerial photography, topographic and forest stand maps, and site visits were used in the analysis. Impacts were considered additive for all but the disturbance component, which was adjusted for potential synergism between developments. Adjustments were made for mitigation before the impacts were aggregated into a single, dimensionless cumulative impact score. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Particle-hole cumulant approach for inelastic losses in x-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Curtis, J. B.

    2016-07-01

    Inelastic losses in core level x-ray spectra arise from many-body excitations, leading to broadening and damping as well as satellite peaks in x-ray photoemission (XPS) and x-ray absorption (XAS) spectra. Here we present a practical approach for calculating these losses based on a cumulant representation of the particle-hole Green's function, a quasiboson approximation, and a partition of the cumulant into extrinsic, intrinsic, and interference terms. The intrinsic losses are calculated using real-time time-dependent density functional theory while the extrinsic losses are obtained from the G W approximation of the photoelectron self-energy and the interference terms are approximated. These effects are included in the spectra using a convolution with an energy dependent particle-hole spectral function. The approach elucidates the nature of the spectral functions in XPS and XAS and explains the significant cancellation between extrinsic and intrinsic losses. Edge-singularity effects in metals are also accounted for. Illustrative results are presented for the XPS and XAS of both weakly and more correlated systems.

  1. Cumulative effects of exposure to violence on posttraumatic stress in Palestinian and Israeli youth.

    PubMed

    Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their parents once a year for 3 consecutive years. Palestinian children, males, and older youth were generally at greatest risk for exposure to conflict/violence across contexts. Regression analysis found unique effects of exposure to ethnic-political (Palestinian sample), school (Palestinian and Israeli Jewish samples), and family conflict/violence (Israeli Arab sample) during the first 2 years on PTS symptoms in Year 3, controlling for prior PTS symptoms. Cumulative exposure to violence in more contexts during the first 2 years predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms than did exposure to violence in fewer contexts, and this was true regardless of the youth's level of prior PTS symptoms. These results highlight the risk that ongoing exposure to violence across multiple contexts in the social ecology poses for the mental health of children in contexts of ethnic-political violence. Researchers and mental health professionals working with war-exposed youth in a given cultural context must assess both war- and non-war-related stressors affecting youth. Based on this assessment, interventions may not be limited to individual-based, war-trauma-focused approaches but also may include school-based, community-based, and family-level interventions. PMID:22540411

  2. Young child socioemotional/behavioral problems and cumulative psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p < .0001. Cumulative demographic and psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p < .05. Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children.

  3. Contribution of locally grown foods in cumulative exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Lobscheid, Agnes B; Maddalena, Randy L; McKone, Thomas E

    2004-01-01

    Both laboratory and field studies confirm the importance of vegetation for scavenging semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) from the atmosphere and a number of exposure studies have found that the dietary pathway is often a significant contributor to cumulative exposure for these chemicals. However, little information exists on the atmospheric source-to-dietary intake linkage for SVOCs. Because of higher SVOC emissions to urban regions, this linkage is particularly important for foods that are grown, distributed and consumed in or near urban regions. The food pathway can also contribute to dietary exposure for populations that are remote from a pollutant source if the pollutants can migrate to agricultural regions and subsequently to the agricultural commodities distributed to that population. We use available data, the characteristic travel distance, and the CalTOX multimedia model framework to assess the contribution of local sources of food to cumulative SVOC intake. Based on published concentration data for foods, our exposure calculations indicate that the potential intake through ingestion can be up to 1000 times that of inhalation for certain persistent SVOCs. We use the population-based intake fraction (iF) to determine how SVOC intake can vary among food commodities and exposure pathways, and to determine the contribution of airborne emitted SVOCs to the diet in the Northern Hemisphere. We focus on three representative multimedia SVOCs-benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The approach presented here provides a useful framework and starting point for source-to-intake assessments for the ambient air-to-dietary exposure pathway.

  4. Incompatible Land Uses and the Topology of Cumulative Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejano, Raul P.; Smith, C. Scott

    2006-02-01

    The extensive literature on environmental justice has, by now, well defined the essential ingredients of cumulative risk, namely, incompatible land uses and vulnerability. Most problematic is the case when risk is produced by a large aggregation of small sources of air toxics. In this article, we test these notions in an area of Southern California, Southeast Los Angeles (SELA), which has come to be known as Asthmatown. Developing a rapid risk mapping protocol, we scan the neighborhood for small potential sources of air toxics and find, literally, hundreds of small point sources within a 2-mile radius, interspersed with residences. We also map the estimated cancer risks and noncancer hazard indices across the landscape. We find that, indeed, such large aggregations of even small, nondominant sources of air toxics can produce markedly elevated levels of risk. In this study, the risk profiles show additional cancer risks of up to 800 in a million and noncancer hazard indices of up to 200 in SELA due to the agglomeration of small point sources. This is significant (for example, estimates of the average regional point-source-related cancer risk range from 125 to 200 in a million). Most importantly, if we were to talk about the risk contour as if they were geological structures, we would observe not only a handful of distinct peaks, but a general “mountain range” running all throughout the study area, which underscores the ubiquity of risk in SELA. Just as cumulative risk has deeply embedded itself into the fabric of the place, so, too, must intervention seek to embed strategies into the institutions and practices of SELA. This has implications for advocacy, as seen in a recently initiated participatory action research project aimed at building health research capacities into the community in keeping with an ethic of care.

  5. Scenario Dependence of the Climate Response to Cumulative Carbon Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasting, J. P.; Dunne, J. P.; Shevliakova, E.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to relate future warming to past cumulative carbon emissions independent of the emissions pathway is desirable from both scientific understanding and climate policy perspectives. The transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) has been used to argue for a lack of committed future warming based on past carbon emissions. Additional studies have also demonstrated that the cessation of carbon emissions results in either a stabilization or a decrease in global mean surface air temperature. Experiments that demonstrate these principles have been based primarily on scenarios where atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase exponentially - thus obscuring the uncertainties in the differing climate and carbon cycle response to varying pathways of carbon emissions. In an alternative approach, we explore the robustness of these findings by forcing a coupled climate-carbon-cycle Earth System Model (ESM) with differing linear rates of carbon emissions (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 PgC/yr). We quantify the scenario dependence of heat and carbon partitioning in the coupled Earth system. At the time of CO2 doubling, we find that the difference in TCRE across the 5 emissions rates from a single ESM (NOAA GFDL-ESM2G) represents approximately 1/3 of the range of TCRE from the suite of C4MIP models and 1/5 of the range from the CMIP5 models. After imposing zero emissions at the time of CO2 doubling in the 5 and 25 PgC/yr experiments, we found even greater uncertainty in TCRE after 200 years. TCRE, while useful for benchmarking models, is less robust on policy-making timescales. In the case of zero emissions, the climate-carbon-cycle system, as represented by GFDL-ESM2G, responds differently based on past rates and timescales of carbon emissions.

  6. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  7. Origin of strongly reversed rims on plagioclase in cumulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.; Nolan, Kathleen M.

    1984-06-01

    Narrow reversed rims on plagioclase are ubiquitous in troctolites and olivine gabbros of the Kiglapait intrusion and may be a common feature of all such cumulates. The rims occur at plag/plag, plag/ol, and less strongly at plag/aug grain boundaries. They are optically obvious at ΔAn < 10 mol.% and can reach ΔAn = 32 mol.% or more. In parallel, K/Na drops sharply. Although ubiquitous from sample to sample, the reversed rims are only locally present at grain boundaries even for the same pair of crystals in contact; they are prominent in linear networks suggesting the last trace of intercumulus liquid. A subsolidus origin is ruled out by the absence of reactants at plag/plag and plag/ol boundaries and by the local rather than pervasive development of rims. The rims are required to grow from intercumulus liquid, in which the partition of An component between crystals and liquid increases with the trapped augite component of the liquid. Calculations from published experimental data show that ΔAn > 30 can easily be achieved by such a process. It is also probable that the trapped liquid is part of an An-rich boundary layer generated by solute rejection during adcumulus growth. The ability of the rims to sustain steep K/Na gradients despite a long subsolidus cooling history proves that the K sbnd Na exchange rate is vanishingly small over a geologic time scale in An-rich feldspar, suggesting that at low K content the potassium is site-bound to the tetrahedral Al/Si distribution. Reversed rims therefore provide important information on diffusion limits as well as on the late-stage solidification history of plagioclase-rich cumulates. Moreover, they demonstrate that plagioclase geothermometry cannot be divorced from effects of liquid composition and structure as monitored, for example, by augite content.

  8. Refractive index of air. 2. Group index.

    PubMed

    Ciddor, P E; Hill, R J

    1999-03-20

    In a previous paper [Appl. Opt. 35, 1566 (1996)] one of us presented new equations for evaluation of the phase refractive index of air over a range of wavelengths and atmospheric parameters. That paper also gave an incorrect, although sufficiently accurate, procedure for calculating the group refractive index. Here we describe the results of a more rigorous derivation of the group index that takes proper account of the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, and we demonstrate that deviations from the Lorentz-Lorenz formula are insignificant to within a foreseeable precision of dispersion measurements for atmospheric conditions. We also derive and evaluate a simplification of the resultant equation that is useful for exploratory calculations. We clarify the limits of validity of the standard equation for the group refractive index and correct some minor errors in the previous paper.

  9. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  10. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  11. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  12. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  13. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  14. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  15. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  16. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  17. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  18. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670 ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306 ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults.

  19. Depressive Symptoms in College Women: Examining the Cumulative Effect of Childhood and Adulthood Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of childhood and adulthood violence on depressive symptoms in a sample of Jordanian college women. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit the participants. The participants were heterosexual college-aged women between the ages of 18 and 25. The participants were asked about their experiences of childhood violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and witnessing parental violence), partner violence (including physical partner violence and sexual partner violence), experiences of depressive symptoms, and about other demographic and familial factors as possible predictors for their complaints of depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis was implemented to identify demographic- and violence-related predictors of their complainants of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was further performed to identify possible type(s) of violence associated with the increased risk of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this sample was 47.4%. For the violence experience, witnessing parental violence was the most common during childhood, experienced by 40 (41.2%) women, and physical partner violence was the most common in adulthood, experienced by 35 (36.1%) women. Results of logistic regression analysis indicated that experiencing two types of violence (regardless of the time of occurrence) was significant in predicting depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, p < .05). Among college women's demographic characteristics, marital status (single vs. engaged), mothers' level of education, income, and smoking were significant in predicting depressive symptoms. Assessment of physical violence and depressive symptoms including the cumulative impact of longer periods of violence on depressive symptoms is recommended to be explored in future studies.

  20. Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature: The Indexing Aid Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Miller, Nancy E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval, whose goal is to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. Appendices include background information on NLM…

  1. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1994, July--September. Volume 19, Number 3

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issues by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: Secondary Report Number Index, Personal Author Index, Subject Index, NRC Originating Organization Index (Staff Reports), NRC Originating Organization Index (International Agreements), NRC Contract Sponsor Index (Contractor Reports) Contractor Index, International Organization Index, Licensed Facility Index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  2. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1996 July--September. Volume 21, Number 3

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index; personal author index; subject index; NRC originating organization index (staff reports); NRC originating organization index (international agreements); NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports); contractor index; international organization index; and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  3. Index and Description of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.

    The tests described in this index are used by the Institute for Developmental Studies in its principal areas of research and do not include recently developed tests. The research at the Institute is concerned with (1) the relationship of differing environments to language development, (2) classroom communication between teachers and children of…

  4. Index to Computer Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoye, Robert E., Ed.; Wang, Anastasia C., Ed.

    The computer-based programs and projects described in this index are listed under 98 different subject matter fields. Descrptions of programs include information on: subject field, program name and number, author, source, the program's curriculum content, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student for which it is intended, total hours of…

  5. Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

  6. Hydride affinities of cumulated, isolated, and conjugated dienes in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Hao; Zhu, Yan; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2008-11-01

    The hydride affinities (defined as the enthalpy changes in this work) of 15 polarized dienes [five phenyl sulfone substituted allenes (1a), the corresponding five isolated dienes (1b), and the corresponding five conjugated dienes (1c)] in acetonitrile solution were determined by titration calorimetry for the first time. The results display that the hydride affinity scales of the 15 dienes in acetonitrile range from -71.6 to -73.9 kcal/mol for 1a, from -46.2 to -49.7 kcal/mol for 1b, and from -45.0 to -46.5 kcal/mol for 1c, which indicates that the hydride-obtaining abilities of the cumulated dienes (1a) are not only much larger than those of the corresponding conjugated dienes (1c) but also much larger than those of the corresponding isolated dienes (1b). The hydrogen affinities of the 15 dienes as well as the hydrogen affinities and the proton affinities of the radical anions of the dienes (1(-*)) in acetonitrile were also evaluated by using relative thermodynamic cycles according to Hess's law. The results show that (i) the hydrogen affinities of the neutral dienes 1 cover a range from -44.5 to -45.6 kcal/mol for 1a, from -20.4 to -21.4 kcal/mol for 1b, and from -17.3 to -18.5 kcal/mol for 1c; (ii) the hydrogen affinities of the radical anions of the dienes (1(-*)) in acetonitrile cover a range from -40.6 to -47.2 kcal/mol for 1a(-*), from -21.6 to -29.6 kcal/mol for 1b(-*), and from -10.0 to -15.4 kcal/mol for 1c(-*); (iii) the proton affinities of the 15 1a(-*) in acetonitrile cover a range from -97.0 to -100.6 kcal/mol for 1a(-*), from -77.8 to -83.4 kcal/mol for 1b(-*), and from -66.2 to -68.9 kcal/mol for 1c(-*). The main reasons for the great difference between the cumulated dienes and the corresponding isolated and conjugated dienes in the hydride affinity, hydrogen affinity, and proton affinity have been examined. It is evident that these experimental results should be quite valuable to facilitate the elucidation of the origins of the especially high

  7. Space Environment Effects: Model for Emission of Solar Protons (ESP)--Cumulative and Worst-Case Event Fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Barth, J. L.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Burke, Edward A.; Gee, G. B.

    1999-12-01

    The effects that solar proton events have on microelectronics and solar arrays are important considerations for spacecraft in geostationary and polar orbits and for interplanetary missions. Designers of spacecraft and mission planners are required to assess the performance of microelectronic systems under a variety of conditions. A number of useful approaches exist for predicting information about solar proton event fluences and, to a lesser extent, peak fluxes. This includes the cumulative fluence over the course of a mission, the fluence of a worst-case event during a mission, the frequency distribution of event fluences, and the frequency distribution of large peak fluxes. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the sponsorship of NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, have developed a new model for predicting cumulative solar proton fluences and worst-case solar proton events as functions of mission duration and user confidence level. This model is called the Emission of Solar Protons (ESP) model.

  8. Space Environment Effects: Model for Emission of Solar Protons (ESP)--Cumulative and Worst-Case Event Fluences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Barth, J. L.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Burke, Edward A.; Gee, G. B.

    1999-01-01

    The effects that solar proton events have on microelectronics and solar arrays are important considerations for spacecraft in geostationary and polar orbits and for interplanetary missions. Designers of spacecraft and mission planners are required to assess the performance of microelectronic systems under a variety of conditions. A number of useful approaches exist for predicting information about solar proton event fluences and, to a lesser extent, peak fluxes. This includes the cumulative fluence over the course of a mission, the fluence of a worst-case event during a mission, the frequency distribution of event fluences, and the frequency distribution of large peak fluxes. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the sponsorship of NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, have developed a new model for predicting cumulative solar proton fluences and worst-case solar proton events as functions of mission duration and user confidence level. This model is called the Emission of Solar Protons (ESP) model.

  9. The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information. Twenty-First Edition. With Cumulative Index 1972-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Madeline, Ed.; And Others

    The twenty-first edition of the Bowker Annual serves as an almanac, handbook, and fact finder for the library and publishing fields. The first section, "Reports from National Associations and Agencies," summarizes the 1975 activities of 14 organizations. The second part, "Developments in Librarianship and Publishing," features articles on the…

  10. The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function--a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Canter, Peter H; Ernst, Edzard

    2003-11-28

    It is claimed that regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) improves cognitive function and increases intelligence. This systematic review assesses the evidence from randomised controlled trials for cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function. Searches were made of electronic databases and the collected papers and official websites of the TM organisation. Only randomised controlled trials with objective outcome measures of the cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function were included. Trials that measured only acute effects of TM, or used only neurophysiological outcome measures were excluded. 107 articles reporting the effects of TM on cognitive function were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria. Most were excluded because they used no controls or did not randomize subjects between interventions. Of the 10 trials included, 4 reported large positive effects of TM on cognitive function, four were completely negative, and 2 were largely negative in outcome. All 4 positive trials recruited subjects from among people favourably predisposed towards TM, and used passive control procedures. The other 6 trials recruited subjects with no specific interest in TM, and 5 of them used structured control procedures. The association observed between positive outcome, subject selection procedure and control procedure suggests that the large positive effects reported in 4 trials result from an expectation effect. The claim that TM has a specific and cumulative effect on cognitive function is not supported by the evidence from randomised controlled trials.

  11. Engaging Communities in Research on Cumulative Risk and Social Stress-Environment Interactions: Lessons Learned from EPA's STAR Program

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Jimenez, Maria; Symanski, Elaine; Carr Shmool, Jessie L.; Dotson-Newman, Ogonnaya; Clougherty, Jane E.; French, Robert; Levy, Jonathan I.; Laumbach, Robert; Rodgers, Kathryn; Bongiovanni, Roseann; Scammell, Madeleine K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have documented cumulative health effects of chemical and nonchemical exposures, particularly chronic environmental and social stressors. Environmental justice groups have advocated for community participation in research that assesses how these interactions contribute to health disparities experienced by low-income and communities of color. In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a request for research applications (RFA), “Understanding the Role of Nonchemical Stressors and Developing Analytic Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessments.” Seven research projects were funded to help address this knowledge gap. Each engaged with communities in different ways. We describe the community engagement approaches of the seven research projects, which ranged from outreach through shared leadership/participatory. We then assess the experiences of these programs with respect to the community engagement goals of the RFA. We present insights from these community engagement efforts, including how the grants helped to build or enhance the capacity of community organizations in addition to contributing to the research projects. Our analysis of project proposals, annual grantee reports, and participant observation of these seven projects suggests guidelines for the development of future funding mechanisms and for conducting community-engaged research on cumulative risk involving environmental and social stressors including: 1) providing for flexibility in the mode of community engagement; 2) addressing conflict between research timing and engagement needs, 3) developing approaches for communicating about the uniquely sensitive issues of nonchemical stressors and social risks; and 4) encouraging the evaluation of community engagement efforts. PMID:27688822

  12. Engaging Communities in Research on Cumulative Risk and Social Stress-Environment Interactions: Lessons Learned from EPA's STAR Program

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Jimenez, Maria; Symanski, Elaine; Carr Shmool, Jessie L.; Dotson-Newman, Ogonnaya; Clougherty, Jane E.; French, Robert; Levy, Jonathan I.; Laumbach, Robert; Rodgers, Kathryn; Bongiovanni, Roseann; Scammell, Madeleine K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have documented cumulative health effects of chemical and nonchemical exposures, particularly chronic environmental and social stressors. Environmental justice groups have advocated for community participation in research that assesses how these interactions contribute to health disparities experienced by low-income and communities of color. In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a request for research applications (RFA), “Understanding the Role of Nonchemical Stressors and Developing Analytic Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessments.” Seven research projects were funded to help address this knowledge gap. Each engaged with communities in different ways. We describe the community engagement approaches of the seven research projects, which ranged from outreach through shared leadership/participatory. We then assess the experiences of these programs with respect to the community engagement goals of the RFA. We present insights from these community engagement efforts, including how the grants helped to build or enhance the capacity of community organizations in addition to contributing to the research projects. Our analysis of project proposals, annual grantee reports, and participant observation of these seven projects suggests guidelines for the development of future funding mechanisms and for conducting community-engaged research on cumulative risk involving environmental and social stressors including: 1) providing for flexibility in the mode of community engagement; 2) addressing conflict between research timing and engagement needs, 3) developing approaches for communicating about the uniquely sensitive issues of nonchemical stressors and social risks; and 4) encouraging the evaluation of community engagement efforts.

  13. Effect of cumulative bortezomib dose on survival in multiple myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone in the phase III VISTA study.

    PubMed

    Mateos, María Victoria; Richardson, Paul G; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Palumbo, Antonio; Anderson, Kenneth C; Shi, Hongliang; Elliott, Jennifer; Dow, Edward; van de Velde, Helgi; Niculescu, Liviu; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2015-04-01

    This analysis, using data from the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) arm of the Phase III VISTA study, investigated whether increased cumulative bortezomib dose could improve overall survival (OS) in transplant-ineligible patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. Median cumulative bortezomib dose received by the 340 patients was 39 mg/m(2); this was selected as the cut-off for defining the dose groups to be compared for OS. Patient characteristics were well balanced between dose groups except for age. OS was significantly longer in the higher (≥39 mg/m(2)) versus lower (<39 mg/m(2)) cumulative bortezomib dose group (median 66.3 vs. 46.2 months; hazard ratio (HR) 0.533, P < 0.0001; age-adjusted HR 0.561, P = 0.0002). To overcome confounding effects of early discontinuations/deaths, which were more common in the lower cumulative dose group (27 vs. 4% of patients discontinued due to adverse events (AEs) in the lower and higher cumulative dose groups, respectively), a landmark analysis was conducted at 180 days, eliminating patients who died or discontinued before this time from the analysis. OS from this landmark remained significantly longer in the higher dose group (median 60.4 vs. 50.3 months; HR 0.709, P = 0.0372). Thus, higher cumulative bortezomib dose, reflecting prolonged treatment duration and/or dose intensity, appears associated with improved OS. Approaches to achieve higher cumulative doses could include subcutaneous bortezomib administration, dose/schedule modifications, continuing therapy in responding patients, and proactive AE management.

  14. Activation of Antibiotic Production in Bacillus spp. by Cumulative Drug Resistance Mutations.

    PubMed

    Tojo, Shigeo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Ochi, Kozo

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains produce a wide range of antibiotics, including ribosomal and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics, as well as bacilysocin and neotrehalosadiamine. Mutations in B. subtilis strain 168 that conferred resistance to drugs such as streptomycin and rifampin resulted in overproduction of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin. Cumulative drug resistance mutations, such as mutations in the mthA and rpsL genes, which confer low- and high-level resistance, respectively, to streptomycin, and mutations in rpoB, which confer resistance to rifampin, resulted in cells that overproduced bacilysin. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the enhanced transcription of biosynthesis genes was responsible for the overproduction of bacilysin. This approach was effective also in activating the cryptic genes of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, leading to actual production of antibiotic(s).

  15. Alchemy to reason: Effective use of Cumulative Effects Assessment in resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Hegmann, George; Yarranton, G.A.

    2011-09-15

    Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a tool that can be useful in making decisions about natural resource management and allocation. The decisions to be made include those (i) necessary to construct planning and regulatory frameworks to control development activity so that societal goals will be achieved and (ii) whether or not to approve individual development projects, with or without conditions. The evolution of CEA into a more successful tool cannot occur independently of the evolution of decision making processes. Currently progress is painfully slow on both fronts. This paper explores some opportunities to accelerate improvements in decision making in natural resource management and in the utility of CEA as a tool to assist in making such decisions. The focus of the paper is on how to define the public interest by determining what is acceptable.

  16. Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, M.S.; Bennett, W.R.

    1999-11-14

    As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.

  17. Enhanced Cumulative Sum Charts for Monitoring Process Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Abujiya, Mu’azu Ramat; Riaz, Muhammad; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes. PMID:25901356

  18. Discerning mechanistically rewired biological pathways by cumulative interaction heterogeneity statistics.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Travis B; Nguyen, Hien H; Said, Joseph I; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Jinfa; Song, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Changes in response of a biological pathway could be a consequence of either pathway rewiring, changed input, or a combination of both. Most pathway analysis methods are not designed for mechanistic rewiring such as regulatory element variations. This limits our understanding of biological pathway evolution. Here we present a Q-method to discern whether changed pathway response is caused by mechanistic rewiring of pathways due to evolution. The main innovation is a cumulative pathway interaction heterogeneity statistic accounting for rewiring-specific effects on the rate of change of each molecular variable across conditions. The Q-method remarkably outperformed differential-correlation based approaches on data from diverse biological processes. Strikingly, it also worked well in differentiating rewired chaotic systems, whose dynamics are notoriously difficult to predict. Applying the Q-method on transcriptome data of four yeasts, we show that pathway interaction heterogeneity for known metabolic and signaling pathways is indeed a predictor of interspecies genetic rewiring due to unbalanced TATA box-containing genes among the yeasts. The demonstrated effectiveness of the Q-method paves the way to understanding network evolution at the resolution of functional biological pathways. PMID:25921728

  19. Can density cumulant functional theory describe static correlation effects?

    PubMed

    Mullinax, J Wayne; Sokolov, Alexander Yu; Schaefer, Henry F

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate the performance of density cumulant functional theory (DCT) for capturing static correlation effects. In particular, we examine systems with significant multideterminant character of the electronic wave function, such as the beryllium dimer, diatomic carbon, m-benzyne, 2,6-pyridyne, twisted ethylene, as well as the barrier for double-bond migration in cyclobutadiene. We compute molecular properties of these systems using the ODC-12 and DC-12 variants of DCT and compare these results to multireference configuration interaction and multireference coupled-cluster theories, as well as single-reference coupled-cluster theory with single, double (CCSD), and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. For all systems the DCT methods show intermediate performance between that of CCSD and CCSD(T), with significant improvement over the former method. In particular, for the beryllium dimer, m-benzyne, and 2,6-pyridyne, the ODC-12 method along with CCSD(T) correctly predict the global minimum structures, while CCSD predictions fail qualitatively, underestimating the multireference effects. Our results suggest that the DC-12 and ODC-12 methods are capable of describing emerging static correlation effects but should be used cautiously when highly accurate results are required. Conveniently, the appearance of multireference effects in DCT can be diagnosed by analyzing the DCT natural orbital occupations, which are readily available at the end of the energy computation.

  20. Cumulative creep fatigue damage in 316 stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    The cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of 316 stainless steel at 1500 F was experimentally established for the two-level loading cases of fatigue followed by fatigue, creep fatigue followed by fatigue, and fatigue followed by creep fatigue. The two-level loadings were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first for a controlled number of cycles and the higher life (low strain) cycling was conducted as the second level to failure. The target life levels in this study were 100 cycles to failure for both the fatigue and creep-fatigue lowlife loading, 5000 cycles to failure for the higher life fatigue loading and 10,000 cycles to failure for the higher life creep-fatigue loading. The failed specimens are being examined both fractographically and metallographically to ascertain the nature of the damaging mechanisms that produced failure. Models of creep-fatigue damage accumulation are being evaluated and knowledge of the various damaging mechanisms is necessary to ensure that predictive capability is instilled in the final failure model.

  1. A high prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders in Iranian instrumentalists

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shahram; Kazemi, Behrooz; Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri; Bidari, Ali; Jafari, Peyman

    2004-01-01

    Background Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied before, according to our experience the prevalence of CTDs seemed to be high among Iranian instrumentalists. We proposed this study to determine the prevalence of CTDs in amateur music students playing one of the two traditional Iranian instruments: Daf and Setar. Methods In a prospective cross sectional study, we interviewed and examined the students of three music training centers in Iran. Seventy eight instrumentalists, who were playing Daf or Setar and twelve students who had not started playing yet were regarded as case and control groups respectively. Some of them also underwent electrodiagnostic studies. Results Forty-seven percent (17 of 36) of the Setar players and 57% (24 of 42) of the Daf players and fifty-three percent (41 of 78) of the instrumentalists as a whole had CTDs. None of them had carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusions Our study revealed that the prevalence of CTDs in Iranian instrumentalists was unusually high. In addition to age, other variables may be contributory. This needs to be further studied. PMID:15485578

  2. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  3. Cumulative Activation of Voltage-Dependent KVS-1 Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Patricio; Garst-Orozco, Jonathan; Baban, Beravan; de Santiago-Castillo, Jose Antonio; Covarrubias, Manuel; Salkoff, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we reveal the existence of a novel use-dependent phenomenon in potassium channels, which we refer to as cumulative activation (CA). CA consists of an increase in current amplitude in response to repetitive depolarizing step pulses to the same potential. CA persists for up to 20 s and is similar to a phenomenon called “voltage-dependent facilitation” observed in some calcium channels. The KVS-1 K+ channel, which exhibits CA, is a rapidly activating and inactivating voltage-dependent potassium channel expressed in chemosensory and other neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. It is unusual in being most closely related to the Shab (Kv2) family of potassium channels, which typically behave like delayed rectifier K+ channels in other species. The magnitude of CA depends on the frequency, voltage, and duration of the depolarizing step pulse. CA also radically changes the activation and inactivation kinetics of the channel, suggesting that the channel may undergo a physical modification in a use-dependent manner; thus, a model that closely simulates the behavior of the channel postulates the existence of two populations of channels, unmodified and modified. Use-dependent changes in the behavior of potassium channels, such as CA observed in KVS-1, could be involved in functional mechanisms of cellular plasticity such as synaptic depression that represent the cellular basis of learning and memory. PMID:18199775

  4. Cumulative theoretical uncertainties in lithium depletion boundary age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognelli, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2016-09-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the main theoretical uncertainties affecting the age at the lithium depletion boundary ({LDB}). We computed almost 12 000 pre-main sequence models with mass in the range [0.06, 0.4] M_ȯ by varying input physics (nuclear reaction cross sections, outer boundary conditions, equation of state, and radiative opacity), initial chemical abundances (total metallicity, helium and deuterium abundances, and heavy element mixture), and convection efficiency (mixing length parameter, αML). As a first step, we investigated the effect of varying all these quantities individually within their extreme values. Then, we analysed the impact of simultaneously perturbing the main input physics/chemical abundances/parameters that affect the {LDB} age, without making any a priori assumption of independence among each other. Such an approach allowed us to build the cumulative error stripe which defines the edges of the maximum uncertainty region in the theoretical {LDB} age. The error stripe ranges from about 5-15 % for αML = 1.00, and it slightly reduces to about 5-10 % for a solar calibrated αML. About 40 % of the total error stripe is due to the uncertainty in the adopted initial chemical composition.

  5. Quantification of cumulated physical fatigue at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Pichot, Vincent; Bourin, Emmanuelle; Roche, Frédéric; Garet, Martin; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Duverney, David; Antoniadis, Anestis; Lacour, Jean-René; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude

    2002-11-01

    Quantification of physical fatigue remains a challenge. We hypothesized that its effects on central autonomic nervous system activity could be explored for such a quantification. To test this relationship, we prospectively measured central autonomic nervous activity through nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in six French garbage collectors, aged 32.1+/-4.3 years, twice a week during 3 consecutive weeks of work, and during the following week of rest. Eight healthy sedentary males formed a control group. HRV indices were calculated by applying standard temporal domain and wavelet transform analyses to standard ECG recordings. During the 3 consecutive weeks of work, there was a significantly progressive decrease in HRV indices, particularly pNN50 (-34.2%, P<0.05), as well as the high (-33.3%, P<0.05) and low (-22.2%, P<0.01) frequency components of wavelet transform, while there was an increase, although non-significant, of the ratio of low to high frequencies (9.1%). During the resting period, there was a significant recovery of HRV indices, notably of its high (50.0%, P<0.05) and low (28.6%, P<0.05) frequency components. No such changes occurred in the control group. A central signature of cumulated physical fatigue can thus be detected and quantified through nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity. Its characteristics are those of a progressive parasympathetic withdrawal.

  6. Estimation of cumulative cadmium intake causing Itai-itai disease.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takeya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-11-15

    This study was undertaken to estimate the amount of cadmium (Cd) exposure needed for the development of Itai-itai disease. The investigated subjects comprised 82 Itai-itai disease patients and 11 persons requiring observation who were admitted in 1977 and 1978 for medical testing. With the period when the Itai-itai disease patients started to perceive leg/back pain defined as the 'mild disease onset', and the period when they experienced the most severe manifestations such as ambulatory disturbance and bone fractures defined as 'severe disease onset'. Relative cumulative person number distribution according to life time cadmium intake (LCD) at mild disease onset, severe disease onset, and time of death was depicted as an sigmoid curve and the establishment of probit regression lines was demonstrated between them. LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in half of the Itai-itai disease patients was 3.1 and 3.8 g, respectively. Furthermore, LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in 5% of the Itai-itai disease patients was calculated to be 2.6 and 3.3 g, respectively. The present results clarify that Itai-itai disease, the most severe stage of chronic Cd poisoning, occurs at levels of Cd consumption amounting to approximately three-fold of those currently seen in Japan.

  7. Soil test phosphorus and cumulative phosphorus budgets in fertilized grassland.

    PubMed

    Messiga, Aimé Jean; Ziadi, Noura; Jouany, Claire; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Suomela, Raija; Sinaj, Sokrat; Bélanger, Gilles; Stroia, Ciprian; Morel, Christian

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the linearity of relationships between soil test P (STP) and cumulative phosphorus (P) budget using data from six long-term fertilized grassland sites in four countries: France (Ercé and Gramond), Switzerland (Les Verrières), Canada (Lévis), and Finland (Maaninka and Siikajoki). STP was determined according to existing national guidelines. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the presence of deflection points in the relationships. Deflection points with (x, y) coordinates were observed everywhere but Maaninka. Above the deflection point, a significant linear relationship was obtained (0.33 < r (2) < 0.72) at four sites, while below the deflection point, the relationship was not significant, with a negligible rate of STP decrease. The relationship was not linear over the range of STP encountered at most sites, suggesting a need for caution when using the P budget approach to predict STP changes in grasslands, particularly in situations of very low P fertilization. Our study provides insights and description of a tool to improve global P strategies aimed at maintaining STP at levels adequate for grassland production while reducing the risk of P pollution of water.

  8. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  9. Can density cumulant functional theory describe static correlation effects?

    PubMed

    Mullinax, J Wayne; Sokolov, Alexander Yu; Schaefer, Henry F

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate the performance of density cumulant functional theory (DCT) for capturing static correlation effects. In particular, we examine systems with significant multideterminant character of the electronic wave function, such as the beryllium dimer, diatomic carbon, m-benzyne, 2,6-pyridyne, twisted ethylene, as well as the barrier for double-bond migration in cyclobutadiene. We compute molecular properties of these systems using the ODC-12 and DC-12 variants of DCT and compare these results to multireference configuration interaction and multireference coupled-cluster theories, as well as single-reference coupled-cluster theory with single, double (CCSD), and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. For all systems the DCT methods show intermediate performance between that of CCSD and CCSD(T), with significant improvement over the former method. In particular, for the beryllium dimer, m-benzyne, and 2,6-pyridyne, the ODC-12 method along with CCSD(T) correctly predict the global minimum structures, while CCSD predictions fail qualitatively, underestimating the multireference effects. Our results suggest that the DC-12 and ODC-12 methods are capable of describing emerging static correlation effects but should be used cautiously when highly accurate results are required. Conveniently, the appearance of multireference effects in DCT can be diagnosed by analyzing the DCT natural orbital occupations, which are readily available at the end of the energy computation. PMID:26575548

  10. The cumulative energy effect for improved ignition timing

    SciTech Connect

    Markhotok, A.

    2015-04-15

    A technique capable of improving timing in ignition applications is proposed. It is based on the use of shock waves propagating in a specific medium that allows achieving extremely high speeds and energies. The model uses the energy cumulation effect in the presence of the shock wave refraction on an interface with plasma. The problem was solved analytically and the effects were demonstrated for a cylindrically symmetrical geometry. Numerical results show very quick and uneven acceleration of different portions of the shock front. Its strong distortions lead to formation of a sharply focused jet near the axis of symmetry. The ability of the shock to achieve extremely high speeds and energies can be useful in design of efficient combustors for hypersonic systems, and possibly offers an alternative way of construction of a nuclear fusion reactor. Recommendations are given in terms of adjustment parameters and can be applied at any problem scale and for various combinations of the strengths of the effects involved in the problem.

  11. Nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism: Cumulative hypothyroidism incidence after radioiodine and surgical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kinser, J.A.; Roesler, H.; Furrer, T.; Gruetter, D.Z.; Zimmermann, H. )

    1989-12-01

    During 1977, 246 hyperthyroid patients were seen in our departments, 140 (57%) with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism (NIH)--101 with a toxic adenoma (TA) and 39 with multifocal functional autonomy (MFA). All patients but one could be followed over 9 yr, 101 after 131I treatment (RIT), another 29 after surgery (S). Ten patients were left untreated. Thirty-four treated (24%) patients died, none as a result of thyroid or post-treatment complications. There was no hyperthyroidism later than 9 mo after therapy. Only 1% (RIT) and 24% (S) were hypothyroid 1 yr after treatment. But 19% of all treated NIH patients were hypothyroid after 9 yr or at the time of their death, 12% after RIT and 41% after S. The cumulative hypothyroidism incidences 1.4%/yr for RIT and 2.2%/yr for S, were not significantly different. Out of the five survivers without RIT or S, two TA patients were hypothyroid. The effect of RIT on goiter related loco-regional complications was not worse than after S. We conclude that RIT is the treatment for NIH, leaving surgery for exceptional cases.

  12. The Nature of Indexing: How Humans and Machines Analyze Messages and Texts for Retrieval. Part II: Machine Indexing, and the Allocation of Human versus Machine Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James D.; Perez-Carballo, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of human intellectual indexing versus automatic indexing focuses on automatic indexing. Topics include keyword indexing; negative vocabulary control; counting words; comparative counting and weighting; stemming; words versus phrases; clustering; latent semantic indexing; citation indexes; bibliographic coupling; co-citation; relevance…

  13. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  14. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  15. Linking magnetic fabric and cumulate texture in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Driscoll, B.; Stevenson, C.; Magee, C.

    2013-12-01

    data from a suite of different cumulate textures are discussed and some obstacles and issues surrounding interpretation of these magnetic fabrics are explored. The integration of the AMS technique with several complementary tools, including quantitative measurements of crystal size and shape, is also evaluated with reference to several well-studied layered intrusions. Finally, some perspectives are offered on future applications and directions for the measurement and interpretation of magnetic fabrics in layered intrusions. [1] Balsley and Buddington (1960) American Journal of Science A258, 6-20. [2] Khan (1962) Journal of Geophysical Research 67, 2873-2885

  16. [ENDOMETRIOSIS FERTILITY INDEX].

    PubMed

    Ibrjam, I; Veleva, G; Karagjozova, G; Ivanov, S

    2016-01-01

    In women suffering from endometriosis and infertility, the decision as to when and how to perform surgical excision and/or fertility treatment is mainly based on clinical guidelines and expert opinions. However, so far data from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses to answer the question whether surgical treatment of moderate to severe endometriosis can indeed enhance pregnancy rates compared with expectant management are lacking, as not all studies report fertility outcome or supply sufficiently detailed information. The most frequently used staging system for endometriosis is the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) score (ASRM, 1997). Unfortunately, this classification system has some serious limitations, including not effectively predicting clinical outcomes of treatment, especially pregnancy rates in infertile patients. For this reason, Adamson and Pasta (2010) developed the endometriosis fertility index (EFI). EFI is a scoring system which includes assessment of historical factors at the time of surgery (age, duration of infertility and pregnancy history), of adnexal function at conclusion of surgery (functional score of Fallopian tubes, fimbriae and ovaries bilaterally), and of the extensiveness of endometriosis (rAFS endometriosis lesion score and total rAFS score). The EFI is intended as a clinical tool to counsel patients on the approach towards fertility after surgery. PMID:27509661

  17. An analytical platform for cumulative impact assessment based on multiple futures: the impact of petroleum drilling and forest harvesting on moose (Alces alces) and marten (Martes americana) habitats in northeastern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Strimbu, Bogdan; Innes, John

    2011-07-01

    The combined influence on the environment of all projects occurring in a single area is evaluated through cumulative impact assessments (CIA), which consider the consequences of multiple projects, each insignificant on its own, yet important when evaluated collectively. Traditionally, future human activities are included in CIA using an analytical platform, commonly based on complex models that supply precise predictions but with reduced accuracy. To compensate for the lack of accuracy in current CIA approaches, we propose a shift in the paradigm governing CIA. The paradigm shift involves a change in the focus of CIA investigations from the detailed analysis of one unlikely future to the identification of the patterns describing multiple potential future changes in the environment. To illustrate the approach, a set of 144 possible and equally likely futures were developed that aimed to identify the potential impacts of forest harvesting and petroleum drilling on the habitat suitability of moose and marten in northeast British Columbia, Canada. The evolution of two measures of habitat suitability (average habitat suitability index and surface of the stands with habitat suitability index >0.5) revealed that the human activities could induce cycles in the habitat dynamics of moose and marten. The planning period of 100 years was separated into three distinct periods following a sinusoidal pattern (i.e., increase - constant - decrease in the habitat suitability measures). The attributes that could induce significant changes in the assessment of environment are the choice of harvesting age and species.

  18. Index to Selected Outdoor Recreation Literature. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A partial index to selected outdoor recreation literature received by the Department of the Interior Library during 1966 provides 991 abstracts retrievable by subject index, name index, geographic index, and publications appendices. Subject categories include outdoor recreation resources, administration of resources and programs, recreation users'…

  19. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  20. Cumulative risk effects for the development of behaviour difficulties in children and adolescents with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous.

  1. Living cumulative network meta-analysis to reduce waste in research: A paradigmatic shift for systematic reviews?

    PubMed

    Vandvik, Per Olav; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    In a recent research article in BMC Medicine, Créquit and colleagues demonstrate how published systematic reviews in lung cancer provide a fragmented, out-of-date picture of the evidence for all treatments. The results and conclusions drawn from this study, based on cumulative network meta-analyses (NMA) of evidence from randomized clinical trials over time, are quite compelling. The inherent waste of research resulting from incomplete evidence synthesis has wide-reaching implications for a range of target groups including developers of systematic reviews and guidelines and their end-users, health care professionals and patients at the point of care. Building on emerging concepts for living systematic reviews and NMA, the authors propose "living cumulative NMA" as a potential solution and paradigmatic shift. Here we describe how recent innovations within authoring, dissemination, and updating of systematic reviews and trustworthy guidelines may greatly facilitate the production of living NMA. Some additional challenges need to be solved for NMA in general, and for living cumulative NMA in particular, before a paradigmatic shift for systematic reviews can become reality.Please see related research article: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0555-0. PMID:27025849

  2. Optimal number of minimal repairs with cumulative repair cost limit for a two-unit system with failure rate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Min-Tsai; Yan, Huey

    2016-01-01

    A discrete replacement model is presented that includes a cumulative repair cost limit for a two-unit system with failure rate interactions between the units. We assume a failure in unit 1 causes the failure rate in unit 2 to increase, whereas a failure in unit 2 causes a failure in unit 1, resulting in a total system failure. If unit 1 fails and the cumulative repair cost till to this failure is less than a limit L, then unit 1 is repaired. If there is a failure in unit 1 and the cumulative repair cost exceeds L or the number of failures equals n, the entire system is preventively replaced. The system is also replaced at a total failure, and such replacement cost is higher than the preventive replacement cost. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness are proved.

  3. Evidence against Rank-Dependent Utility Theories: Tests of Cumulative Independence, Interval Independence, Stochastic Dominance, and Transitivity.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum; Patton; Lott

    1999-01-01

    This study tests between two modern theories of decision making. Rank- and sign-dependent utility (RSDU) models, including cumulative prospect theory (CPT), imply stochastic dominance and two cumulative independence conditions. Configural weight models, with parameters estimated in previous research, predict systematic violations of these properties for certain choices. Experimental data systematically violate all three properties, contrary to RSDU but consistent with configural weight models. This study also tests whether violations of stochastic dominance can be explained by violations of transitivity. Violations of transitivity may be evidence of a dominance detecting mechanism. Although some transitivity violations were observed, most choice triads violated stochastic dominance without violating transitivity. Judged differences between gambles were not consistent with the CPT model. Data were not consistent with the editing principles of cancellation and combination. The main findings are interpreted in terms of coalescing, the principle that equal outcomes can be combined in a gamble by adding their probabilities. RSDU models imply coalescing but configural weight models violate it, allowing configural weighting to explain violations of stochastic dominance and cumulative independence. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. The electronic diagnosis of caries in pits and fissures: site-specific stable conductance readings or cumulative resistance readings?

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N; Kidd, E A; Wilson, R F

    1997-01-01

    A prototype electronic caries meter (ECM II; LODE, Groningen. The Netherlands) was designed to deliver a conductance reading when the reading had remained stable for 3 consecutive seconds. The aim of this study was to determine whether this type of stable conductance reading was optimal for caries diagnosis. The ECM II was connected to a graphic recorder which enabled the continuous resistance to be recorded. The graphic recording was calibrated using a standard, variable resistance box. Stable conductance readings were taken for 76 sites on 32 extracted teeth with no visible sign of cavitation at an airflow of 7.5 l/min. Simultaneous graphic recording of resistance was continued for 10 s and cumulative resistance measurements were calculated by adding the resistance values at 1-second intervals. Histological validation of caries status was carried out on macroradiographs of sections cut to include sample sites. The histological picture was compared with the stable conductance reading and the cumulative resistance value for each site. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated by randomly choosing stable conductance and cumulative resistance values to differentiate sound and carious sites. The results were presented as a series of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the optimum sensitivity and specificity values determined. 33% of sites had enamel caries and 32% had enamel and dentine caries. Results showed that both stable conductance readings and cumulative resistance measurements gave high and comparable sensitivity and specificity values for the diagnosis of dentine caries (sens. 92%, spec. 87% and sens. 88%, spec. 81%, respectively). However, when intra-examiner reproducibility was checked, stable conductance readings were more repeatable and achieved in shorter clinical time. In conclusion, stable conductance readings appear to be the most suitable for occlusal caries diagnosis.

  5. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  6. Cumulative Head Impact Burden in High School Football

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec2 and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines. PMID:21787201

  7. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  8. Cumulative head impact burden in high school football.

    PubMed

    Broglio, Steven P; Eckner, James T; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec(2) and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines.

  9. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  10. Downstream cumulative effects of land use on freshwater communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuglerová, L.; Kielstra, B. W.; Moore, D.; Richardson, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams and rivers are subject to disturbance from intense land use such as urbanization and agriculture, and this is especially obvious for small headwaters. Streams are spatially organized into networks where headwaters represent the tributaries and provide water, nutrients, and organic material to the main stems. Therefore perturbations within the headwaters might be cumulatively carried on downstream. Although we know that the disturbance of headwaters in urban and agricultural landscapes poses threats to downstream river reaches, the magnitude and severity of these changes for ecological communities is less known. We studied stream networks along a gradient of disturbance connected to land use intensity, from urbanized watersheds to watersheds placed in agricultural settings in the Greater Toronto Area. Further, we compared the patterns and processes found in the modified watershed to a control watershed, situated in a forested, less impacted landscape. Preliminary results suggest that hydrological modifications (flash floods), habitat loss (drainage and sewer systems), and water quality issues of small streams in urbanized and agricultural watersheds represent major disturbances and threats for aquatic and riparian biota on local as well as larger spatial scales. For example, communities of riparian plants are dominated by species typical of the land use on adjacent uplands as well as the dominant land use on the upstream contributing area, instead of riparian obligates commonly found in forested watersheds. Further, riparian communities in disturbed environments are dominated by invasive species. The changes in riparian communities are vital for various functions of riparian vegetation. Bank erosion control is suppressed, leading to severe channel transformations and sediment loadings in urbanized watersheds. Food sources for instream biota and thermal regimes are also changed, which further triggers alterations of in-stream biological communities

  11. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting As Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal slope, with a significant indirect effect through maternal negativity, suggesting that parenting practices might mediate an allostatic effect on stress physiology. PMID:22528032

  12. Medicare program; FY 2014 hospice wage index and payment rate update; hospice quality reporting requirements; and updates on payment reform. final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    This final rule updates the hospice payment rates and the wage index for fiscal year (FY) 2014, and continues the phase out of the wage index budget neutrality adjustment factor (BNAF). Including the FY 2014 15 percent BNAF reduction, the total 5 year cumulative BNAF reduction in FY 2014 will be 70 percent. The BNAF phase-out will continue with successive 15 percent reductions in FY 2015 and FY 2016. This final rule also clarifies how hospices are to report diagnoses on hospice claims, and provides updates to the public on hospice payment reform. Additionally, this final rule changes the requirements for the hospice quality reporting program by discontinuing currently reported measures and implementing a Hospice Item Set with seven National Quality Forum (NFQ) endorsed measures beginning July 1, 2014, as proposed. Finally, this final rule will implement the hospice Experience of Care Survey on January 1, 2015, as proposed. PMID:23977715

  13. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Update of the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every six months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (December 1997). Parts 1 and 2 (Hierarchical Listing and Rotated Term Display) correspond to Volumes 1 and 2 of the 1998 printed edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Definitions are included in Part 1; uppercase/lowercase forms are provided in both Parts 1 and 2. Part 3 is a list of deletions or changes to valid terms.

  14. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Update of the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Supplement 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every six months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (December 1997). Parts 1 and 2 (Hierarchical Listing and Rotated Term Display) correspond to Volumes 1 and 2 of the 1998 printed edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Definitions are included in Part 1; uppercase/lowercase forms are provided in both Parts 1 and 2. Part 3 is a list of deletions or changes to valid terms.

  15. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Update of the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Supplement 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every 6 months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (December 1997). Parts 1 and 2 (Hierarchical Listing and Rotated Term Display) correspond to Volumes 1 and 2 of the 1998 printed edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Definitions are included in Part 1; uppercase/lowercase forms are provided in both Parts 1 and 2. Part 3 is a list of deletions or changes to valid terms.

  16. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Update of the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Supplement 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every six months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (December 1997). Parts 1 and 2 (Hierarchical Listing and Rotated Term Display) correspond to Volumes 1 and 2 of the 1998 printed edition. Definitions are included in Part 1; uppercase/lowercase forms are provided in both Parts 1 and 2. Part 3 is a list of deletions or changes to valid terms.

  17. 12 CFR 7.2006 - Cumulative voting in election of directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cumulative voting in election of directors. 7.2006 Section 7.2006 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2006 Cumulative voting in election of directors....

  18. 12 CFR 7.2006 - Cumulative voting in election of directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cumulative voting in election of directors. 7.2006 Section 7.2006 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2006 Cumulative voting in election of directors....

  19. 76 FR 82296 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... AGENCY Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... established in the Federal Register of November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69726) (FRL-8888-9). In that notice, the Agency announced the availability of EPA's cumulative risk assessment for the pyrethroids. Based on this...

  20. 14 CFR Section 18 - Objective Classification-Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Changes in Accounting Principles Section 18 Section 18 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Objective Classification—Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles 98Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles. Record here the difference between the amount of retained earnings...

  1. The Application of the Cumulative Logistic Regression Model to Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    Most automated essay scoring programs use a linear regression model to predict an essay score from several essay features. This article applied a cumulative logit model instead of the linear regression model to automated essay scoring. Comparison of the performances of the linear regression model and the cumulative logit model was performed on a…

  2. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  3. 43 CFR 46.115 - Consideration of past actions in the analysis of cumulative effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of past actions in the... Environmental Quality § 46.115 Consideration of past actions in the analysis of cumulative effects. When... Memorandum on Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis” dated June 24, 2005, or...

  4. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your platform because of the results...

  5. Aging and Cumulative Inequality: How Does Inequality Get Under the Skin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article draws from cumulative disadvantage and life course theories to develop a new theory for the social scientific study of aging. Design and Methods: Five axioms of "cumulative inequality (CI) theory" are articulated to identify how life course trajectories are influenced by early and accumulated inequalities but can be modified…

  6. The Validity of the SAT for Predicting Cumulative Grade Point Average by College Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in New Orleans, LA in April 2011. The current study examined the differential validity of the SAT for predicting cumulative GPA through the second-year of college by college major, as well as the differential prediction of cumulative GPA by college major among…

  7. College Students' Memory for Unannounced Cumulative Items on the Final Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, Lola; Templeton, Jenny; Conner, Timothy W., II; Skidmore, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been much published research on the benefits of distributed practice (Cepeda, Pashler, Vul, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2006) and the testing effect (Eisenkraemer, Jaeger, & Stein, 2013), very few studies are available regarding cumulative testing in college courses. Those available show a benefit to cumulative testing (Lawrence,…

  8. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: Evidence for cumulative and threshold effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, Megan N.; Raymond, Wendel W.; McBride, Aundrea N.; Toft, Jason D.; Cordell, Jeffery R.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Heerhartz, Sarah M.; Berry, Helen D.

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline armoring is widespread in many parts of the protected inland waters of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A, but impacts on physical and biological features of local nearshore ecosystems have only recently begun to be documented. Armoring marine shorelines can alter natural processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales; some, such as starving the beach of sediments by blocking input from upland bluffs may take decades to become visible, while others such as placement loss of armoring construction are immediate. We quantified a range of geomorphic and biological parameters at paired, nearby armored and unarmored beaches throughout the inland waters of Washington State to test what conditions and parameters are associated with armoring. We gathered identical datasets at a total of 65 pairs of beaches: 6 in South Puget Sound, 23 in Central Puget Sound, and 36 pairs North of Puget Sound proper. At this broad scale, demonstrating differences attributable to armoring is challenging given the high natural variability in measured parameters among beaches and regions. However, we found that armoring was consistently associated with reductions in beach width, riparian vegetation, numbers of accumulated logs, and amounts and types of beach wrack and associated invertebrates. Armoring-related patterns at lower beach elevations (further vertically from armoring) were progressively harder to detect. For some parameters, such as accumulated logs, there was a distinct threshold in armoring elevation that was associated with increased impacts. This large dataset for the first time allowed us to identify cumulative impacts that appear when increasing proportions of shorelines are armored. At large spatial and temporal scales, armoring much of a sediment drift cell may result in reduction of the finer grain-size fractions on beaches, including those used by spawning forage fish. Overall we have shown that local impacts of shoreline armoring can scale-up to have cumulative and

  9. Cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and subsequent psychological distress. An analysis of US panel data.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Emma; Burström, Bo; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that childhood stress increases the risk of poor mental health later in life. We examined the effect of childhood stressors on psychological distress and self-reported depression in young adulthood. Data were obtained from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the national Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a survey of US families that incorporates data from parents and their children. In 2005 and 2007, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was supplemented with two waves of Transition into Adulthood (TA) data drawn from a national sample of young adults, 18-23 years old. This study included data from participants in the CDS and the TA (n = 2128), children aged 4-13 at baseline. Data on current psychological distress was used as an outcome variable in logistic regressions, calculated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Latent Class Analyses were used to identify clusters based on the different childhood stressors. Associations were observed between cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and both psychological distress and self-reported depression. Individuals being exposed to three or more stressors had the highest risk (crude OR for psychological distress: 2.49 (95% CI: 1.16-5.33), crude OR for self-reported depression: 2.07 (95% CI: 1.15-3.71). However, a large part was explained by adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative exposure to childhood stress on psychological distress. The important role of adolescent depression in this association also needs to be taken into consideration in future studies. PMID:26301483

  10. CDF-XL: computing cumulative distribution functions of reaction time data in Excel.

    PubMed

    Houghton, George; Grange, James A

    2011-12-01

    In experimental psychology, central tendencies of reaction time (RT) distributions are used to compare different experimental conditions. This emphasis on the central tendency ignores additional information that may be derived from the RT distribution itself. One method for analysing RT distributions is to construct cumulative distribution frequency plots (CDFs; Ratcliff, Psychological Bulletin 86:446-461, 1979). However, this method is difficult to implement in widely available software, severely restricting its use. In this report, we present an Excel-based program, CDF-XL, for constructing and analysing CDFs, with the aim of making such techniques more readily accessible to researchers, including students (CDF-XL can be downloaded free of charge from the Psychonomic Society's online archive). CDF-XL functions as an Excel workbook and starts from the raw experimental data, organised into three columns (Subject, Condition, and RT) on an Input Data worksheet (a point-and-click utility is provided for achieving this format from a broader data set). No further preprocessing or sorting of the data is required. With one click of a button, CDF-XL will generate two forms of cumulative analysis: (1) "standard" CDFs, based on percentiles of participant RT distributions (by condition), and (2) a related analysis employing the participant means of rank-ordered RT bins. Both analyses involve partitioning the data in similar ways, but the first uses a "median"-type measure at the participant level, while the latter uses the mean. The results are presented in three formats: (i) by participants, suitable for entry into further statistical analysis; (ii) grand means by condition; and (iii) completed CDF plots in Excel charts.

  11. Mean Cumulative Grade Point Average by Class, Sex, and Quarter for the Academic Years of 1971-1972 to 1975-1976 at the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    This is one in a series of technical reports presenting summary statistics derived from the University of Washington registrar's office quarterly scholarship lists. Two types of tables are included: first, for each class, the mean cumulative grade-point average, standard deviation, and number of students enrolled in autum, winter, and spring…

  12. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  13. Time-Integrated Fluorescence Cumulant Analysis and Its Application in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Singer, Robert H.; Mueller, Joachim D.

    2014-01-01

    Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis (TIFCA) is a data analysis technique for fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) that extracts information from the cumulants of the integrated fluorescence intensity. It is the first exact theory that describes the effect of sampling time on FFS experiment. Rebinning of data to longer sampling times helps to increase the signal/noise ratio of the experimental cumulants of the photon counts. The sampling time dependence of the cumulants encodes both brightness and diffusion information of the sample. TIFCA analysis extracts this formation by fitting the cumulants to model functions. Generalization of TIFCA to multicolor FFS experiment is straightforward. Here, we present an overview of the theory, its implementation, as well as the benefits and requirements of TIFCA. The questions of why, when, and how to use TIFCA will be discussed. We give several examples of practical applications of TIFCA, particularly focused on measuring molecular interaction in living cells. PMID:23276537

  14. Personnel Management Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Carol

    1984-01-01

    Concentrates on four specialized indexes that are devoted exclusively to personnel and human resources topics: "Personnel Literature,""Personnel Management Abstracts,""Human Resources Abstracts," and "Work Related Abstracts." A concluding section compares strengths and weaknesses of these publications to three broader indexes: "The Business…

  15. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  16. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  17. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  18. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  19. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  20. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…