Science.gov

Sample records for including milk production

  1. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  2. [Study of simultaneous determination of residual veterinary drugs including tetracycline antibiotics in milk and dairy products].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Emiko; Shibuya, Takahiro; Kurokawa, Chieko; Inoue, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Miyazaki, Motonobu

    2009-10-01

    It is considered to be difficult to detect tetracycline antibiotics in all-at-once simultaneous analysis with other drugs by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, because tetracycline antibiotics chelate with bivalent metal ions such as calcium in samples. Therefore, we studied simultaneous determination of tetracycline antibiotics after removal of calcium with disodium ethylenediaminotetraacetate (EDTA-2Na). Tetracycline antibiotics could be assayed in all-at-once analysis by adding EDTA-2Na during the extraction procedure. It was possible to determine 65 veterinary drugs in milk, 70 in yogurt, 59 in whipped cream, 67 in cheese and 60 in ice cream. Recovery ranged from 70 to 120%, with a coefficient of variation of less than 25% and with a quantification limit of 0.01 microg/g (S/N>or=10).

  3. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    PubMed

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  4. Milk, flavoured milk products and caries.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    2001-07-14

    The consumption of flavoured milk increased by 50% between 1992 and 1999 and dental health educators need to know if these and other sugar and fruit juice sweetened milk products, such as fruit yoghurts, are acceptable as snack items. Available evidence suggests that their cariogenicity is negligible to low and consumed in moderation they are a preferable alternative to similarly sweetened soft drinks.

  5. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  6. Impact of including growth, carcass and feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal for combined milk and beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Juga, J

    2017-04-01

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems. The additional breeding goal traits were growth traits (average daily gain of animals in the fattening and rearing periods), carcass traits (fat covering, fleshiness and dressing percentage), mature live weight (LW) of cows and residual feed intake (RFI) traits. A breeding scheme was modeled for Finnish Ayrshire under the current market situation in Finland using the deterministic simulation software ZPLAN+. With the economic values derived for the current production system, the inclusion of growth and carcass traits, while preventing LW increase generated the highest improvement in the discounted profit of the breeding program (3.7%), followed by the scenario where all additional traits were included simultaneously (5.1%). The use of a selection index that included growth and carcass traits excluding LW, increased the profit (0.8%), but reduced the benefits resulted from breeding for beef traits together with LW. A moderate decrease in the profit of the breeding program was obtained when adding only LW to the breeding goal (-3.1%), whereas, adding only RFI traits to the breeding goal resulted in a minor increase in the profit (1.4%). Including beef traits with LW in the breeding goal showed to be the most potential option to improve the profitability of the combined dairy and beef production systems and would also enable a higher rate of self-sufficiency in beef. When considering feed efficiency related traits, the

  7. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  8. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products.

  9. Melamine detection by mid- and near-infrared (MIR/NIR) spectroscopy: a quick and sensitive method for dairy products analysis including liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2011-07-15

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a nitrogen-rich chemical implicated in the pet and human food recalls and in the global food safety scares involving milk products. Due to the serious health concerns associated with melamine consumption and the extensive scope of affected products, rapid and sensitive methods to detect melamine's presence are essential. We propose the use of spectroscopy data-produced by near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR/MIR) spectroscopies, in particular-for melamine detection in complex dairy matrixes. None of the up-to-date reported IR-based methods for melamine detection has unambiguously shown its wide applicability to different dairy products as well as limit of detection (LOD) below 1 ppm on independent sample set. It was found that infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool to detect melamine in dairy products, such as infant formula, milk powder, or liquid milk. ALOD below 1 ppm (0.76±0.11 ppm) can be reached if a correct spectrum preprocessing (pretreatment) technique and a correct multivariate (MDA) algorithm-partial least squares regression (PLS), polynomial PLS (Poly-PLS), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector regression (SVR), or least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)-are used for spectrum analysis. The relationship between MIR/NIR spectrum of milk products and melamine content is nonlinear. Thus, nonlinear regression methods are needed to correctly predict the triazine-derivative content of milk products. It can be concluded that mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy can be regarded as a quick, sensitive, robust, and low-cost method for liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder analysis.

  10. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    PubMed

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period.

  11. Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes portion of creamery on left and main barn on right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  12. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  14. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  15. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  16. Distribution of Animal Drugs between Skim Milk and Milk Fat Fractions in Spiked Whole Milk: Understanding the Potential Impact on Commercial Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur; Shappell, Nancy W; Lupton, Sara J; Shelver, Weilin L; Fanaselle, Wendy; Oryang, David; Yeung, Chi Yuen; Hoelzer, Karin; Ma, Yinqing; Gaalswyk, Dennis; Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M

    2016-01-13

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA), and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate the drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. More than 90% of the radioactivity was distributed into the skim milk fraction for ERY, KETO, OTET, PENG, and SDMX, approximately 80% for THIA, and 13% for IVR. The distribution of drug between milk fat and skim milk fractions was significantly correlated to the drug's lipophilicity (partition coefficient, log P, or distribution coefficient, log D, which includes ionization). Data were fit with linear mixed effects models; the best fit was obtained within this data set with log D versus observed drug distribution ratios. These candidate empirical models serve for assisting to predict the distribution and concentration of these drugs in a variety of milk and milk products.

  17. "Lost milk?": Counting the economic value of breast milk in gross domestic product.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of breastfeeding and mothers milk to the economy is invisible in economic statistics. This article demonstrates how the economic value of human milk production can be included in economic statistics such as gross domestic product (GDP) and provides estimates for Australia, the United States, and Norway. The contribution of human milk and lactation to GDP in these countries is estimated using United Nations (System of National Accounting) guidelines and conventional economic valuation approaches to measuring production in GDP. In Australia, current human milk production levels exceed $3 billion annually. The United States has the potential to produce human milk worth more than US$110 billion a year, but currently nearly two thirds of this value is lost due to premature weaning. In Norway, production valued at US$907 million annually is 60% of its potential value. The potential loss of economic value from not protecting women's lactation and milk production from competing market pressures is large. Failure to account for mothers' milk production in GDP and other economic data has important consequences for public policy. The invisibility of human milk reduces the perceived importance of programs and regulations that protect and support women to breastfeed. The value of human milk can be measured using accepted international guidelines for calculating national income and production. It is quantitatively nontrivial and should be counted in GDP.

  18. Milk, milk products, and disease free health: an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, R; Behare, P V; Kumar, M; Mohania, D; Yadav, M; Jain, S; Menon, S; Parkash, O; Marotta, F; Minelli, E; Henry, C J K; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    The cow and its milk have been held sacred in the world since the dawn of human civilization. Indian ancient Vedic texts describe the virtues of milk and dairy products, as is authenticated by modern scientific principles and proofs. Therefore, milk has been considered as one of the most natural and highly nutritive part of a daily balanced diet. Currently, the integration of advanced scientific knowledge with traditional information is gaining incredible momentum toward developing the concept of potential therapeutic foods. Furthermore, new advances toward understanding the therapeutic roles of milk and milk products have also given a new impetus for unraveling the age old secrets of milk. At present, the best-known examples of therapeutic foods are fermented milk products containing health promoting probiotic bacteria. In the present article, we have tried to review the various aspects of the therapeutic nature of milk and fermented dairy products in a highly up-dated manner, and offer an in-depth insight into the development of targeted therapeutic future foods as per the requirements of consumers.

  19. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  20. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets the...

  1. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets the...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets the...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  4. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production.

  5. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sandra; Schanler, Richard J; Kim, Jae H; Patel, Aloka L; Trawöger, Rudolf; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Chan, Gary M; Blanco, Cynthia L; Abrams, Steven; Cotten, C Michael; Laroia, Nirupama; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Dudell, Golde; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Meier, Paula; Lee, Martin L; Rechtman, David J; Lucas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk-based diet compared with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk-based products in extremely premature infants. Infants fed their own mothers' milk were randomized to 1 of 3 study groups. Groups HM100 and HM40 received pasteurized donor human milk-based human milk fortifier when the enteral intake was 100 and 40 mL/kg/d, respectively, and both groups received pasteurized donor human milk if no mother's milk was available. Group BOV received bovine milk-based human milk fortifier when the enteral intake was 100 mL/kg/d and preterm formula if no mother's milk was available. Outcomes included duration of parenteral nutrition, morbidity, and growth. The 3 groups (total n = 207 infants) had similar baseline demographic variables, duration of parenteral nutrition, rates of late-onset sepsis, and growth. The groups receiving an exclusively human milk diet had significantly lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC; P = .02) and NEC requiring surgical intervention (P = .007). For extremely premature infants, an exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with significantly lower rates of NEC and surgical NEC when compared with a mother's milk-based diet that also includes bovine milk-based products. Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products normally...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products normally...

  8. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products normally...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products normally...

  10. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  11. Associations between paratuberculosis milk ELISA result, milk production, and breed in Canadian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Lissemore, K; Godkin, A; Hendrick, S; Wells, S; Kelton, D

    2011-02-01

    The 3 objectives of this study were (1) to quantify milk production differences among cows with different paratuberculosis (ParaTB) milk ELISA results; (2) to determine if production differences existed in lactations preceding the test among cows with different ParaTB milk ELISA results; and (3) to assess whether Channel Island breeds were more likely to test positive with the ParaTB milk ELISA than other dairy breeds. Current and completed lactation records from 35,591 dairy cows in Ontario and western Canada that had been tested with a commercial ParaTB milk ELISA were included in the analysis. The first occurrence of the highest categorical test result was used to classify the cow. Cows were then grouped by the lactation in which the first high-positive (HTP), low-positive, or negative milk ELISA occurred, and comparisons were made within lactation groups. High test-positive cows were defined as those that had an optical density ≥ 1.0 on at least 1 ParaTB milk ELISA. The associations between ParaTB milk ELISA status and milk production, as measured by the 305-d milk yield, were assessed with a series of linear mixed models. The effect of breed on the likelihood of testing positive with the milk ELISA was assessed using a logistic mixed model for the lactation in which the first negative or positive ParaTB milk ELISA occurred. Test-positive cows produced on average 2.9 to 6.8% less milk than negative herdmates in the lactation in which they were tested. The HTP cows produced on average 466, 514, and 598 kg less milk than low-positive herdmates in lactations 1, 2, and 4, respectively. Cows testing low-positive in their second lactation had, on average, a 218-kg higher milk yield in their first lactation than their test-negative herdmates. Otherwise, no association was found between test result and milk production in preceding lactations. Differences in milk production among negative, test-positive, and HTP cows increased with increasing parity. Cows of the

  12. Effect of protein degradability on milk production of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Mikolayunas-Sandrock, C; Armentano, L E; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of protein degradability of dairy sheep diets on milk yield and protein utilization across 2 levels of milk production. Three diets were formulated to provide similar energy concentrations and varying concentrations of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP): 12% RDP and 4% RUP (12-4) included basal levels of RDP and RUP, 12% RDP and 6% RUP (12-6) included additional RUP, and 14% RDP and 4% RUP (14-4) included additional RDP. Diets were composed of alfalfa-timothy cubes, whole and ground corn, whole oats, dehulled soybean meal, and expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA). Estimates of RDP and RUP were based on the Small Ruminant Nutrition System model (2008) and feed and orts were analyzed for Cornell N fractions. Eighteen multiparous dairy ewes in midlactation were divided by milk yield (low and high) into 2 blocks of 9 ewes each and were randomly assigned within block (low and high) to 3 pens of 3 ewes each. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square within each block and applied to pens for 14-d periods. We hypothesized that pens consuming high-RUP diets (12-6) would produce more milk and milk protein than the basal diet (12-4) and pens consuming high-RDP diets (14-4) would not produce more milk than the basal diet (12-4). Ewes in the high-milk-yield square consumed more dry matter and produced more milk, milk fat, and milk protein than ewes in the low-milk-yield square. There was no effect of dietary treatment on dry matter intake. Across both levels of milk production, the 12-6 diet increased milk yield by 14%, increased milk fat yield by 14%, and increased milk protein yield by 13% compared with the 14-4 and 12-4 diets. Gross N efficiency (milk protein N/intake protein N) was 11 and 15% greater in the 12-6 and 12-4 diets, respectively, compared with the 14-4 diet. Milk urea N concentration was greater in the 12-6 diet and tended to be

  13. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER... milk products originating in, or shipped from, any region where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease is... listed under § 94.1(a) as free of rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease but which have entered a port or...

  14. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid milk...

  15. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  16. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  17. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  18. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  19. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  20. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Process audits versus product quality monitoring of bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Velthuis, A G J; van Asseldonk, M A P M

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of milk quality is based on bulk milk testing and farm certification on process quality audits. It is unknown to what extent dairy farm audits improve milk quality. A statistical analysis was conducted to quantify possible associations between bulk milk testing and dairy farm audits. The analysis comprised 64.373 audit outcomes on 26,953 dairy farms, which were merged with all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. Each farm audit record included 271 binary checklist items and 52 attention point variables (given to farmers if serious deviations were observed), both indicating possible deviations from the desired farm situation. Test results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acid (FFA), and milk sediment (SED). Results show that numerous audit variables were related to bulk milk test results, although the goodness of fit of the models was generally low. Cow hygiene, clean cubicles, hygiene of milking parlor, and utility room were positively correlated with superior product quality, mainly with respect to SCC, TBC, BAB, FPD, FFA, and SED. Animal health or veterinary drugs management (i.e., drug treatment recording, marking of treated animals, and storage of veterinary drugs) related to SCC, FPD, FFA, and SED. The availability of drinking water was related to TBC, BAB, FFA, and SED, whereas maintenance of the milking equipment was related mainly to SCC, FPD, and FFA. In summary, bulk milk quality and farm audit outcomes are, to some degree, associated: if dairy farms are assessed negatively on specific audit aspects, the bulk milk quality is more likely to be inferior. However, the proportion of the total variance in milk test results explained by audits ranged between 4 and 13% (depending on the specific bulk milk test), showing that auditing dairy farms provides

  2. Milk: the new white gold? Milk production options for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, N; Sanogo, O M; Rufino, M C; van Keulen, H; Giller, K E

    2015-07-01

    Until the turn of the century, farmers in West Africa considered cotton to be the 'white gold' for their livelihoods. Large fluctuations in cotton prices have led farmers to innovate into other business including dairy. Yet the productivity of cows fed traditional diets is very poor, especially during the long dry season. This study combines earlier published results of farmer participatory experiments with simulation modelling to evaluate the lifetime productivity of cows under varying feeding strategies and the resulting economic performance at farm level. We compared the profitability of cotton production to the innovation of dairy. The results show that milk production of the West African Méré breed could be expanded if cows are supplemented and kept stall-fed during the dry season. This option seems to be profitable for better-off farmers, but whether dairy will replace (some of) the role of cotton as the white gold for these smallholder farmers will depend on the cross price elasticity of cotton and milk. Farmers may (partly) replace cotton production for fodder production to produce milk if the price of cotton remains poor (below US$0.35/kg) and the milk price relatively strong (higher than US$0.38/kg). Price ratios need to remain stable over several seasons given the investments required for a change in production strategy. Furthermore, farmers will only seize the opportunity to engage in dairy if marketing infrastructure and milk markets are further developed.

  3. Novel trends in engineered milk products.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Zisu, Bogdan

    2016-08-01

    Food engineering within the dairy sector is an ever developing field of study purely based on the application of engineering principles and concepts to any aspect of dairy product manufacturing and operations. The last 25 years of science and technology devoted to milk and milk products have led to major advances. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and current status of some engineered milk products and to speculate regarding future trends. Much of the advancement has been directed towards production capacity, mechanisation, automation, hygiene within the processing plant, safety, extensions in shelf life, and new product introductions that bring variety and convenience for the consumer. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. In addition, further improvements focused on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability have been made and will be needed in the future.

  4. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used. ...

  5. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used. ...

  6. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used. ...

  7. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used. ...

  8. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  9. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters for heat stress, including dominance gene effects, on milk yield in Thai Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boonkum, Wuttigrai; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2015-03-01

    Heat stress in tropical regions is a major cause that strongly negatively affects to milk production in dairy cattle. Genetic selection for dairy heat tolerance is powerful technique to improve genetic performance. Therefore, the current study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and investigate the threshold point of heat stress for milk yield. Data included 52 701 test-day milk yield records for the first parity from 6247 Thai Holstein dairy cattle, covering the period 1990 to 2007. The random regression test day model with EM-REML was used to estimate variance components, genetic parameters and milk production loss. A decline in milk production was found when temperature and humidity index (THI) exceeded a threshold of 74, also it was associated with the high percentage of Holstein genetics. All variance component estimates increased with THI. The estimate of heritability of test-day milk yield was 0.231. Dominance variance as a proportion to additive variance (0.035) indicated that non-additive effects might not be of concern for milk genetics studies in Thai Holstein cattle. Correlations between genetic and permanent environmental effects, for regular conditions and due to heat stress, were - 0.223 and - 0.521, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlations from this study show that simultaneous selection for milk production and heat tolerance is possible. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... for sale or other distribution after shipment in interstate commerce any milk or milk product in final... ingredients (milk or milk products) that have all been pasteurized, except where alternative procedures...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  13. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  14. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  16. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  20. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  1. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  2. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  8. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15. ...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  17. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  19. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  20. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  1. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  2. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  13. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  14. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  16. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  20. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  1. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  2. Milk Production and Fertility in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Friggens, N C; Lucy, M; Roche, J R

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary biology provides reasons for why the intensive selection for milk production reduces reproductive success rates. There is considerable exploitable genetic variation in reproductive performance in both dairy and beef cattle, and examination of national genetic trends demonstrates that genetic gain for both reproductive performance and milk production is possible in a well-structured breeding program. Reproductive failure is often postulated to be a consequence of the greater negative energy balance associated with the genetic selection for increased milk production. However, experimental results indicate that the majority of the decline in reproductive performance cannot be attributed to early lactation energy balance, per se; reproductive success will, therefore, not be greatly improved by nutritional interventions aimed at reducing the extent of negative energy balance. Modeling can aid in better pinpointing the key physiological components governing reproductive success and, also, the impact of individual improvements on overall fertility, helping to prioritize variables for inclusion in breeding programs.

  3. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina Louise; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  4. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Mccoy, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  5. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  6. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  7. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  8. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  9. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section conforms...

  10. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section conforms...

  11. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section conforms...

  12. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  13. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  14. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    PubMed

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  15. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Yasunori; Kaneko, Sohei; Kurose, Tomoyasu; Watanabe, Aiko; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss.

  16. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  17. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents or...

  18. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents or...

  19. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents or...

  20. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  1. Fresh cow mastitis monitoring on day 3 postpartum and its relationship to subsequent milk production.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K L; Correa, M T; Allen, A; Rodriguez, R R

    2010-12-01

    The purpose was to determine the association of milk California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell concentration (SCC), and milk differential cell count results on day 3 postcalving with subsequent lactation production and health events. On d 3 postcalving, the CMT was performed and quarter milk samples were collected from 130 dairy cows. Quarter SCC and milk differential cell counts were determined. Microbiology on duplicate quarter milk samples was used to determine the presence of intramammary infection by major or minor pathogens. Production measures obtained using Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing were 150-d standardized and summit milks. Milk culture results on a cow basis included 82 (63.1%) samples with no growth, 31 (23.9%) with major pathogens, and 17 (13.1%) with minor pathogens. Milk culture results comparing cows with no growth to those with any growth (major or minor pathogens) were not associated with statistically significant differences in milk production. Milk culture results comparing cows with major pathogens to those with no growth and minor pathogens combined were associated with statistically significant differences in 150 d milk. Milk production did not differ for cows with CMT results above and below a cut-off of trace, and for SCC results above and below cut-offs of 200,000, 300,000, and 400,000/mL, respectively. Statistically significant differences in milk production were found for cows above and below cut-offs for percentage neutrophils in milk and for absolute neutrophil counts. Associations were found for milk production and number of quarters (0, 1, 2, or 3 and 4 combined) above respective cut-offs for SCC, percentage neutrophils in milk, and absolute numbers of neutrophils in milk, but not for CMT. Milk production differed for cows experiencing any health event versus those with no health event. The most commonly recorded health event was clinical mastitis. Statistically significant associations were detected between health

  2. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  3. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  4. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  5. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  6. Deciphering the genetic blueprint behind Holstein milk proteins and production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-05-14

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein.

  7. Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-01-01

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

  8. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  9. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here.

  10. Hyperoxaluria and Genitourinary Disorders in Children Ingesting Almond Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Demetrius; Lieb, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    We describe 3 children presenting with hematuria, dysuria or kidney stones, and hyperoxaluria believed to be related to ingestion of excessive amounts of almond milk products. Our investigation of the oxalate content of several popular plant-based milk substitutes indicates that almond milk products are a particularly rich source of dietary oxalate. All genitourinary and urinary metabolic disturbances resolved after discontinuation of almond milk ingestion. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of this potential link.

  11. Investigation of the migration of triclabendazole residues to milk products manufactured from bovine milk, and stability therein, following lactating cow treatment.

    PubMed

    Power, C; Danaher, M; Sayers, R; O'Brien, B; Clancy, C; Furey, A; Jordan, K

    2013-10-01

    Triclabendazole (TCB) is a flukicide used in the treatment of liver fluke in cattle; however, its use is currently prohibited in lactating dairy cows. In this study, following administration of 10% Fasinex (triclabendazole, Novartis Animal Health UK Ltd., Camberley, UK) the milk of 6 animals was used to manufacture dairy products, to ascertain if TCB residues in milk migrate into dairy products. The detection limit of the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used was 0.67 μg/kg. The highest concentrations of TCB residue measured, within the individual cow milk yield, was 1,529 ± 244 µg/kg (n=6), on d 2 posttreatment. Days 2 and 23 posttreatment represented high and low residue concentrations, respectively. At each of these 2 time points, the milk was pooled into 2 independent aliquots and refrigerated. Milk products, including cheese, butter, and skim milk powder were manufactured using pasteurized and unpasteurized milk from each aliquot. The results for high residue milks demonstrated that TCB residues concentrated in the cheese by a factor of 5 (5,372 vs. 918 µg/kg for cheese vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. Residue concentrations are the sum of TCB and its metabolites, expressed as keto-TCB. Residues were concentrated in the butter by a factor of 9 (9,177 vs. 1,082 μg/kg for butter vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. For milk, which was separated to skim milk and cream fractions, the residues were concentrated in the cream. Once skim milk powder was manufactured from the skim milk fraction, the residue in powder was concentrated 15-fold compared with the starting skim milk (7,252 vs. 423 µg/kg for powder vs. skim milk), despite the high temperature (185 °C) required during powder manufacture. For products manufactured from milk with low residue concentrations at d 23 posttreatment, TCB residues were detected in butter, cheese, and skim milk powder, even though there was no detectable residue in the

  12. Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Bat-Oyun, Tserenpurev; Ito, Takehiko Y; Purevdorj, Yadamjav; Shinoda, Masato; Ishii, Satomi; Buho, Hoshino; Morinaga, Yuki

    2017-08-18

    Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P < 0.01) during the non-milking period than during the milking period. Daily home ranges were 91 and 26 times greater during the non-milking period (P < 0.001) in camps 1 and 2, respectively. The greater range during the non-milking period would reflect the spatial distributions of water, salt and forage. The dams initially used similar areas and gradually shifted their daily home ranges after several days. This shift suggests that the dams grazed farther afield as forage availability declined around the milking site. For better airag production and sustainable pasture use, our results provide insights useful for evaluating the effects of milking management on vegetation and soil in those pastures, for selecting the appropriate milking times and frequency, and for choosing the right timing to shift milking sites. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  14. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  15. [The effect of milk products consumption in mothers during breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Uribe-Medina, Aída; Ogando-Suárez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that milk products consumption by mothers during the nursing period induce colic in the newborns. However, when mothers interrupt milk consumption, the colic of the newborns disappears. to analyze milk composition in Mexican women according to maternal milk products consumption. Seven women were studied in puerperal period, three of them consumed milky products and four not. All were healthy; they gave a five cc milk sample, which was frozen until the moment of the analysis. A double dimension electrophoresis in polyacrilamide gels was carried out. The protein levels were determined by Lowry's method. Total lipid extraction and cromatography in thin plaque was carried out. Total carbohydrate content was quantified. No differences were found in protein electrophoresis neither in the chromatographic lipid analysis. Carbohydrate content was similar in both groups. Colic in newborn depends on the idiosyncrasy of each one, and not in the supposed induced modifications of milk products on maternal milk consumption.

  16. Organization of lipids in milks, infant milk formulas and various dairy products: role of technological processes and potential impacts.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christelle; Cauty, Chantal; Guyomarc'h, Fanny

    The microstructure of milk fat in processed dairy products is poorly known despite its importance in their functional, sensorial and nutritional properties. However, for the last 10 years, several research groups including our laboratory have significantly contributed to increasing knowledge on the organization of lipids in situ in dairy products. This paper provides an overview of recent advances on the organization of lipids in the milk fat globule membrane using microscopy techniques (mainly confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy). Also, this overview brings structural information about the organization of lipids in situ in commercialized milks, infant milk formulas and various dairy products (cream, butter, buttermilk, butter serum and cheeses). The main mechanical treatment used in the dairy industry, homogenization, decreases the size of milk fat globules, changes the architecture (composition and organization) of the fat/water interface and affects the interactions between lipid droplets and the protein network (concept of inert vs active fillers). The potential impacts of the organization of lipids and of the alteration of the milk fat globule membrane are discussed, and technological strategies are proposed, in priority to design biomimetic lipid droplets in infant milk formulas.

  17. Effects of oxytocin, machine stripping and milking rate on production loss of cows milked once a day.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, V R; Davis, S R; Copeman, P J

    1993-02-01

    The effect of treatments designed to improve the efficiency of milk removal and minimize loss of production in cows milked once a day (OAD) was assessed in short-term trials involving Friesian and Jersey cows. Trial 1 involved 80 cows and compared twice a day (TAD) milking with OAD milking with the administration of 20 i.u. of oxytocin (OX), OAD milking with udder massage before and during milking (OS) and no treatment during OAD milking (OC). The OX and OS groups had increased yields of milk and milk solids when treatments were applied, though yields were not restored to previous TAD levels. The percentage increase shown by OX cows was greater than that of OS cows for fat yield. The level of residual milk in the udder after milking was lower for the OX group than for the OAD and TAD controls. In Trial 2, 12 cows were subjected to fast or slow rates of milking OAD in each of two periods. Losses in milk, fat and protein yields averaged 9.1, 9.9 and 1.0% respectively. Increased rate of milking reduced milking time and time to let-down but did not affect response to OAD milking. The results showed that treatments that increased the evacuation of the udder during milking and decreased the level of residual milk reduced losses in production that occur on OAD milking. Increasing the rate of milking was ineffective in reducing losses on OAD milking.

  18. Associations of Calcium and Milk Product Intakes with Incident, Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Um, Caroline Y; Fedirko, Veronika; Flanders, W Dana; Judd, Suzanne E; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-04-01

    Calcium intake has been consistently, modestly inversely associated with colorectal neoplasms, and supplemental calcium reduced adenoma recurrence in clinical trials. Milk products are the major source of dietary calcium in the United States, but their associations with colorectal neoplasms are unclear. Data pooled from three colonoscopy-based case-control studies of incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma (n = 807 cases, 2,185 controls) were analyzed using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. Residuals from linear regression models of milk with dietary calcium were estimated as the noncalcium, insulin-like growth factor 1-containing component of milk. For total, dietary, and supplemental calcium intakes, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing the highest to the lowest intake quintiles were 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-1.30), 0.86 (CI 0.62-1.20), and 0.99 (CI 0.77-1.27), respectively. The corresponding ORs for consumption of total milk products, total milk, nonfat milk, total milk product residuals, and nonfat milk residuals were, respectively, 0.99, 0.90, 0.92, 0.94, and 0.95; all CIs included 1.0. For those who consumed any whole milk relative to those who consumed none, the OR was 1.15 (CI 0.89-1.49). These results are consistent with previous findings of modest inverse associations of calcium intakes with colorectal adenoma, but suggest that milk products may not be associated with adenoma.

  19. Evaluating the links between intake of milk/dairy products and cancer.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Carlos E A; Rogero, Marcelo M; Martini, Lígia A

    2012-05-01

    Milk and dairy products are widely recommended as part of a healthy diet. These products, however, can contain hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1, and some studies have suggested that a high intake of milk and dairy products may increase the risk of cancer. This review examines recent studies on this topic, with the evidence suggesting that the recommended intake of milk and dairy products (3 servings/day) is safe and, importantly, does not seem to increase the risk of cancer. On the basis of the studies included in this review, cultured milk, yogurt, and low-fat dairy products should be preferred as the milk and dairy products of choice.

  20. Production of human lactoferrin in animal milk.

    PubMed

    Goldman, I L; Georgieva, S G; Gurskiy, Ya G; Krasnov, A N; Deykin, A V; Popov, A N; Ermolkevich, T G; Budzevich, A I; Chernousov, A D; Sadchikova, E R

    2012-06-01

    Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists. Using these constructs, transgenic mice were bred (the maximum hLf concentration in their milk was 160 g/L), and transgenic goats were also generated (up to 10 g/L hLf in their milk). Experimental goatherds that produced hLf in their milk were also bred, and the recombinant hLf was found to be identical to the natural protein in its physical and chemical properties. These properties included electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point, recognition by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, circular dichroic spectra, interaction with natural ligands (DNA, lipopolysaccharides, and heparin), the binding of iron ions, the sequence of the 7 terminal amino acids, and its biological activity. The latter was assessed by the agglutination of Micrococcus luteus protoplasts, bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes , and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans . We also demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of antibiotics when used in combination with Lf.

  1. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk... foot-and-mouth disease may be imported into the United States if they meet the requirements...

  2. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P < 0.001). Coliform count was < 10 CFU/cm3 in most cases (96.5%). The average (± SEM) fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS) and solid-non-fat (SNF) concentrations of individual milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  3. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  4. Identification and quantification of bovine protein lactosylation sites in different milk products.

    PubMed

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-02-16

    The microbiological safety of milk is typically guaranteed by thermal treatments, such as pasteurization and ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment, whereas infant formula (IF) is often produced at even harsher conditions including a drying process. Thermal treatments have raised concerns, as they may denature proteins and initiate protein modifications. Previous studies identified already many lactosylation sites in milk and showed that the lactosylation degree of some proteins correlates to thermal treatment conditions. Here, we studied the glycation degrees of 124 lactosylation sites in 28 bovine milk proteins in raw milk, three brands of pasteurized milk, three brands of UHT milk, and five brands of IF. Whereas, the glycation degree of many lactosylation sites increased from raw milk, to pasteurized milk, UHT milk, and IF, several modification sites showed a different behavior indicating that global measures do not correctly reflect the reactivity of distinct sites. Interestingly, the glycation degrees varied considerably among the brands of UHT milk and IF indicating that specific production processes of a company have to be considered and not only the classification of milk as pasteurized or UHT. Thus, proper adjustments of the technical processes should allow reducing the lactosylation levels in both UHT milk and IF. It is well established that thermal treatment of milk triggers protein modifications, such as lactosylation of lysine residues in several proteins, although the extent of lactosylation has not been quantitatively compared for a broad panel of protein lactosylation sites among different commercial products. The current study extends previous reports by relatively quantifying 124 confirmed lactosylation sites in 28 bovine milk proteins including several low abundant proteins. Whereas, glycation is generally assumed to be an unspecific chemical reaction with the modification degrees depending on the protein and sugar concentrations, we could show

  5. Nutrition Knowledge and Milk and Milk Product Consumption in a Group of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Coull, Lisa; Sabry, Jean Henderson

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and milk/milk product consumption by women, data were collected from 457 female office employees. Statistically significant relationships were found between level of nutrition knowledge and age, education, and occupation. No statistically significant relationships between nutrition knowledge…

  6. Impact of increasing milk production on whole farm environmental management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing herd milk production can provide both economic benefit to the producer and environmental benefit to society. Simulated dairy farms with average annual herd productions from 16,000 to 30,000 lb/cow illustrate that increasing milk yield per cow improves feed efficiency, reduces feed costs a...

  7. Predicting milk-production responses after an autumn treatment of pastured dairy herds with eprinomectin.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Duchateau, Luc; Claerebout, Edwin; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2007-02-28

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the effect of a treatment with eprinomectin in autumn of pastured dairy herds on the anti-Ostertagia ostertagi bulk-tank milk antibody level, (2) to determine the overall effect of this treatment on three milk-production parameters (milk yield, protein % and fat %) and (3) to investigate the value of the pre-treatment Ostertagia-specific bulk-tank milk antibody level to predict the production response after anthelmintic treatment. One hundred and nineteen herds in Flanders (Belgium) were randomly assigned to a treatment with eprinomectin or a placebo in October 2004. Bulk-tank milk samples were collected monthly from August 2004 until April 2005, and the antibody levels against O. ostertagi were determined as optical density ratios (ODRs) with an ELISA. The treatment effect over the 4 months following treatment on three production parameters (milk yield, milk-protein %, milk-fat %) was estimated by mixed models with herd as a random effect. The treatment effect on milk yield was also investigated within six categories of the pre-treatment ODR. The ODR values were lower in the eprinomectin group than in the control group at each time point after treatment. The overall effect on milk yield was estimated at 1.2 kg/cow/day, whereas no effect on the milk-protein % and milk-fat % was observed. Herds in the highest pre-treatment ODR category (>0.84) had a positive milk-yield response of 4.0 kg/cow/day (95%-confidence interval: 1.0; 7.0), while the 95%-confidence intervals of the milk-yield responses in the other categories all included zero. This study demonstrates that treatment with eprinomectin of pastured dairy cows in autumn will lower the Ostertagia-specific bulk-tank milk antibody level during the stabling period and can result in a consistent increase in milk yield. The results indicate that an O. ostertagi bulk-tank milk ELISA can be used to identify the herds where the greatest milk-yield response after an

  8. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them.

  9. Consumption of milk and dairy products: Facts and figures.

    PubMed

    Zingone, Fabiana; Bucci, Cristina; Iovino, Paola; Ciacci, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of milk has been declining sharply in recent decades, particularly in developed countries. One of the reasons for this decline is the diagnosis or perception of lactose intolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate average consumption of milk and dairy products in the Campania region of Italy, one of the main producers of dairy products in the country. Individuals aged 18 to 75 y and living in Campania were invited to answer an online questionnaire regarding their average consumption of milk and dairy products. The questionnaire was posted on the public access hospital site, as well as on several Facebook pages of friends and hospital personnel. The study found that 22.2% (260 of 1173) of responders from Campania do not drink milk, and 18.1% (213 of 1173) drink lactose-free milk, mainly because of gastrointestinal symptoms. The vast majority of the sample population chose to avoid consuming milk without undergoing the breath test for lactose intolerance or consulting a doctor. Women and underweight people drink more lactose-free milk than milk containing lactose. The population sample does not avoid dairy products; rather, they seem to be consumed quite frequently. The data support the need for mandatory implementation of a nutritional campaign to increase understanding regarding, for example, unnecessary avoidance of milk and excessive consumption of cheese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  11. Natural milk cultures for the production of Argentinian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, J A; Binetti, A G; Quiberoni, A; Bailo, N B; Rubiolo, A C; Giraffa, G

    1997-01-01

    Samples (32) of natural milk cultures used in the Santa Fe, Argentina, area for soft and semihard cheese production were examined. The microbial composition (including lactic acid microflora characterization) and technological parameters (acidifying and proteolytic activities) were evaluated. The cultures contained mainly thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, identified as Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (96.8% of the total strains) and Enterococcus spp. The strains showed a low proteolytic activity. The isolates of S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus exhibited a widespread phage resistance. The nonlactic microflora comprised coliforms, yeasts, spore-forming bacteria and lactate fermentative bacteria. The samples showed an acidity level from 0.38 to 0.69% lactic acid (pH from 4.25 to 5.75). The acidifying activity was optimal at 45 degrees C. The advantages and disadvantages of the employment of natural milk starters are discussed.

  12. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture.

  13. Profiles of human milk oligosaccharides and production of some human milk oligosaccharides in transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pedro Antonio

    2012-05-01

    During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2'-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation.

  14. Profiles of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Production of Some Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Transgenic Animals12

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pedro Antonio

    2012-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Galβ1–4(Fucα1–3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2′-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925

  15. Concomitant lipopolysaccharide-induced transfer of blood-derived components including immunoglobulins into milk.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-02-01

    During a mammary immune response, the integrity of the blood-milk barrier is negatively affected and becomes leaky. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the blood origin, and to investigate changes in the concentration, of various constituents including immunoglobulins in blood and milk during the early phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. Five lactating dairy cows received continuous β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) clamp infusions to maintain elevated BHBA blood concentrations (1.5 to 2.0 mmol/L) from 48 h before and 8h after LPS administration. One udder quarter was infused with 200 μg of Escherichia coli LPS. A second quarter served as control. Milk and blood samples were taken hourly for 8h postchallenge (PC). The somatic cell count in LPS-challenged quarters was increased from 4h PC to the end of the experiment compared with control quarters. In LPS-challenged quarters, l-lactate, BHBA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), IgG(1), and IgG(2) were increased at 3h PC and remained elevated until the end of experiment (8h PC) compared with control quarters. In addition, the optical density values in milk in a nonquantitative ELISA for antibodies directed against bluetongue virus (used as a measure of nonspecific antibody transfer; all animals were vaccinated) increased and, thus, indicates an increase in these antibodies in response to LPS treatment. l-Lactate concentration also increased in blood 2h PC and in the milk of control quarters during the experiment from 3h PC. A second experiment was conducted in vitro to investigate a possible contribution from destructed milk cells to l-lactate concentration and activity of LDH in milk. Aliquots of milk samples (n=8) were frozen (-20°C) or disrupted with ultrasound, respectively. Freeze thawing and ultrasound treatment increased LDH in milk samples, but had no effect on l-lactate concentrations. Results suggest that intramammary infusion of LPS induces a systemic response, as evidenced by an elevation

  16. [Hydrolyzed lactose contained in the ultrafiltrate of milk or milk products in an enzymatic membrane reactor].

    PubMed

    Roger, L; Maubois, J L; Thapon, J L; Brule, G

    1978-01-01

    Milk and milk by-products with a low lactose content, very interesting from a nutritional and technological point of view, were obtained by the application of the enzymatic membrane reactor technique. A previous separation of the aqueous phase of milk or ultrafiltrate was necessary and realized by ultrafiltration. The enzyme, a commercial beta-galactosidase, was maintained in solution in the retentate part of the membrane reactor. The optimal conditions of the lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey ultrafiltrates were determined. The behaviour of the aqueous phase of milk in membrane reactor, specially of mineral salts, was studied. Three possibilities were proposed to avoid a calcium-phosphate deposit on the surface of (and in) the reactor membranes: a precipitation of calcium salts by heating, a partial demineralization by electrodialysis or ion exchange, a calcium complexation by addition of sodium citrate. A continuous process for the lactose hydrolysis of milk and demineralized whey or milk ultrafiltrate was proposed. The organoleptic quality of low lactose milk, before and after heat treatment, was evaluated by a tasting panel. High sweeting syrup, were obtained by concentration of lactose hydrolyzed and demineralized ultrafiltrates. Nutritional aspects of these products are discussed specially from the toxicological point of view of galactose.

  17. Composition and fatty acid distribution of bovine milk phospholipids from processed milk products.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Cabral, Charles; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David W

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of different extraction methods of phospholipids and to measure the effect that processing has on phospholipid composition. Four methods of extracting phospholipids from buttermilk powder were compared to optimize recovery of sphingomyelin. Using the optimal method, the phospholipid profile of four dairy products (raw milk, raw cream, homogenized and pasteurized milk, and buttermilk powder) was determined. A total lipid extraction by the Folch method followed by a solid-phase extraction using the Bitman method was the most efficient technique to recover milk sphingomyelin. Milk processing (churning, centrifuging, homogenization, spray-drying) affected the profile of milk phospholipids, leading to a loss of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine after centrifugation for cream separation. A corresponding decrease in the saturation content of the raw cream phospholipids and a loss of phosphatidylethanolamine after spray-drying to produce buttermilk powder were also observed.

  18. Composition and fatty acid distribution of bovine milk phospholipids from processed milk products

    PubMed Central

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Cabral, Charles; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of different extraction methods of phospholipids and to measure the effect that processing has on phospholipid composition. Four methods of extracting phospholipids from buttermilk powder were compared to optimize recovery of sphingomyelin. Using the optimal method, the phospholipid profile of four dairy products (raw milk, raw cream, homogenized and pasteurized milk, and buttermilk powder) was determined. A total lipid extraction by the Folch method followed by a solid-phase extraction using the Bitman method was the most efficient technique to recover milk sphingomyelin. Milk processing (churning, centrifuging, homogenization, spray-drying) affected the profile of milk phospholipids, leading to a loss of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine after centrifugation for cream separation. We also observed a corresponding decrease in the saturation content of the raw cream phospholipids, and a loss of phosphatidylethanolamine after spray-drying to produce buttermilk powder. PMID:20828196

  19. The performance of parents of children receiving cow's milk free diets at identification of commercial food products with and without cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thabata Koester; Speridião, Patrícia da Graça Leite; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia; Neto, Ulysses Fagundes; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2007-01-01

    To investigate how well the parents of children on cow's milk free diets perform at recognizing whether or not expressions describe and foods contain cow's milk proteins. Interviews were conducted with 24 parents of children on cow's milk and by-products exclusion diets and 23 parents of children with no need for any type of exclusion diet. They were asked if they recognized 12 expressions relating to cow's milk. They were then asked to classify 10 commercial food products in terms of whether or not they contained cow's milk proteins. Terms that included the word milk were more often recognized by both groups of parents. The parents of children on exclusion diets recognized the terms cow's milk protein, traces of milk and milk formulation or preparation most frequently (p < 0.05). Less than 25.0% of those interviewed recognized casein, caseinate, lactalbumin and lactoglobulin. Both groups correctly identified more of the commercial products containing cow's milk than those free from milk. The median number of products containing cow's milk (total = 5) correctly identified by the parents of children on exclusion diets (4.0) was greater than for the control group (3.0; p = 0.005). Reading at least one label was associated with a greater chance of correctly identifying more than five of the 10 products (odds ratio = 8.0). Despite having received guidance, the parents of children on exclusion diets were not fully prepared to manage these diets, indicating a need for improvements to the instruction provided when indicating exclusion diets.

  20. Effect of sunflower oil supplementation and milking frequency reduction on sheep milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Bodas, R; López-Campos, Ó; Andrés, S; López, S; Giráldez, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking frequency reduction and dietary lipid supplementation on intake, BW, and milk yield and composition in high yielding dairy ewes. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 2 experimental groups (n=5). Ewes were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum and 34 g·kg(-1) of BW of a concentrate feed with either 0 (Control group) or 43 g of sunflower oil·kg(-1) of DM (SO group). The experiment lasted 63 d and consisted of 3 periods. During Period 1 (from d 1 to 21), ewes were milked twice a day. During Period 2 (from d 22 to 49), ewes were unilaterally milked, so that each gland of each ewe was milked either once or twice daily. During Period 3 (from d 50 to the end of the experiment), both udder halves were again milked twice daily. Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly and milk production from each half udder was recorded twice a week. Total DM intake, BW, and milk yield in Period 1 were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be increased in the ewes fed the SO diet in periods 2 (P=0.093) and 3 (P=0.067). Oil supplementation (SO diet) significantly (P<0.05) decreased milk protein and total solids concentrations in the 3 experimental periods and fat content in Period 3, and tended (P=0.077) to decline fat content in Period 2. Lactose content and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P>0.10) by dietary lipid supplementation in any of the experimental periods. There were no significant (P>0.10) differences between half udders in milk yield and composition in Period 1, and in SCC in any of the experimental periods. Fat and total solids contents were unaffected (P>0.10) by reducing milking frequency. Nevertheless, milk protein content was increased (P<0.001) when glands were milked only once daily whereas milk yield and lactose content were decreased (P=0.001). The interaction between gland and diet was significant for lactose in Period 2, suggesting a

  1. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed.

  2. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (<2nM) was lower than that in the other milk products. These results indicate that a certain amount of PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed.

  3. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Solimar G.; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C. D.; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas, with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences for

  4. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Machado, Solimar G; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C D; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas, with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences for

  5. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  6. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeokHyun; Cho, KwangHyun; Park, MiNa; Choi, TaeJung; Kim, SiDong; Do, ChangHee

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA.

  7. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SeokHyun; Cho, KwangHyun; Park, MiNa; Choi, TaeJung; Kim, SiDong; Do, ChangHee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA. PMID:27608643

  8. [Initiation of a cure for kwashiorkor patients using a whey milk product. A comparison with cows milk].

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, J G; Conradie, J M; Odendaal, W A; Van der Walt, W H

    1983-10-22

    Whey milk, a side-product of cheese production, is not utilized for human nutrition. Whey protein is of good nutritional quality with a high biological value, exceeding that of whole-milk protein. A whey milk product consisting of liquid whey milk 60%, whole cow's milk 40% and skimmed milk powder 0.5% was mixed, spray-dried and prepared in instant form. After reconstitution with water, it was compared with sterilized whole cow's milk for the initiation of cure in 30 acute kwashiorkor patients randomly allocated to the two feeds. The diets were given for 3 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between the two diets with regard to weight gain or levels of serum albumin, globulin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea or haemoglobin. Judging from this limited investigation, whey milk deserves consideration for human utilization. Should economical production be possible, it could contribute towards preventing and treating protein energy malnutrition.

  9. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance.

  10. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination.

    PubMed

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and understood. Thus, it is admitted that these macroelements are differently distributed into aqueous and micellar phases of milk, depending on their nature. K, Na, and Cl ions are essentially in the aqueous phase, whereas Ca, P, and Mg are partly bound to the casein micelles. About one third of the Ca, half of the P, and two thirds of the Mg are located in the aqueous phase of milk. Dairy products are more or less rich in these different minerals. In cheeses, mineral content depends mainly on their processing. The Ca content is strongly related to the acidification step. Moreover, if acidification is associated with the draining step, the Ca content in the cheese will be reduced. Thus, the Ca content varies in the following increasing order: milks/fermented milks/fresh cheeses < soft cheeses < semi-hard cheeses < hard cheeses. The chemical forms and associations are less described than those present in milk. Concerning Ca, the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate, carbonate, and lactate is reported in some ripened cheeses. The NaCl content in cheeses depends on the salting of the curd. From a nutritional point of view, it is largely admitted that milk and dairy products are important sources of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Se. The vitamin fraction of milk and dairy products is composed of lipophilic (A, D, E, and K) and hydrophilic (B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(8), B(9), B(12), and C) vitamins. Because of their hydrophobic properties, the lipophilic vitamins are mainly in the milk fat

  11. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential.

  12. Influence of milk products on fluoride bioavailability in man.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, J; Ehrnebo, M

    1979-09-01

    The effect of milk products on the gastrointestinal absorption of fluoride from sodium fluoride tablets was studied in five healthy subjects. Two different diets were tested: (1) 250 ml standardized milk (3% fat) and (2) 500 ml of milk, 3 pieces of white bread with cheese and 150 ml of yoghurt. The 100% bioavailability of sodium fluoride tablets during fasting was greatly decreased by coadministration of milk products: with Diet 1 the absolute bioavailability calculated from combined plasma and urine data was in the range 50--79% and with Diet 2 it ranged from 50--71%. It is suggested that the decreased bioavailability produced by dairy products should be taken into account when establishing flouride dosage regimens for prophylaxis of caries.

  13. Modification of the Kjeldahl noncasein nitrogen method to include bovine milk concentrates and milks from other species.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of our research was to modify the current indirect casein method for bovine milk to enable it to be applied to bovine milk, bovine milk concentrates, and milks of other species that contain a protein concentration up to 9% (wt/wt). Our work used a series of bovine milk concentrates from about 3 to 9% protein with the same casein as a percentage of true protein to determine the amount of buffer required and pH of the noncasein nitrogen (NCN) filtrate to achieve consistent estimates of casein and casein as percent of true protein. As the concentration of protein in milk increased (either in bovine milk concentrates or in milks of other species), the amount of buffer needed for the NCN sample preparation method to achieve a filtrate pH of 4.6 increased. In the first part of the study using a series of bovine milk concentrates, it was demonstrated that the method gave more consistent predictions of casein as a percentage of true protein when the final NCN filtrate pH was between 4.5 and 4.6 at 38°C. When the amount of buffer added to the sample was not sufficient (i.e., the filtrate pH was too high), the filtrates were not clear. A polynomial equation was developed for prediction of the amount of acetic acid or sodium acetate buffer required to achieve pH 4.5 to 4.6 for milk protein concentrations from 3 to 9% protein using bovine milk and milk concentrates. When the equation developed using cow milk was applied to goat, sheep, and water buffalo milks, it correctly predicted the volume of reagents needed to achieve a final NCN filtrate pH of 4.6 at 38°C. We also verified as part of this work that the ability to measure NPN content of milk was not influenced by protein content of milk in the range from 3 to 9% protein. The results of this study will be used as the basis for proposed changes in the official methods for measurement of the casein content of milk to expand the scope of the method so it can be used to achieve accurate results for milk

  14. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  15. Prenatal Maternal and Possible Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Gudex, Boyd; Johnson, David; Singh, Kuljeet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the prenatal maternal environment in dairy cattle influences the postnatal milking performance of the resulting daughters and grand-daughters. Linear mixed models were used to analyse whole season milk production from ∼46000 Jersey and ∼123000 Holstein Friesian cows in their 1st and 2nd lactations. Variation in the prenatal environment was associated with a small but significant (P<0.05) proportion of the total phenotypic variation (0.010 to 0.015) in all traits in Holstein Friesian cows and in the first lactation milk volume (0.011) and milk protein (0.011), and the second lactation milk fat (0.015) in the Jersey breed. This indicates that the prenatal environment does influence the adult performance of the subsequent daughter. Associations between daughter performance and dam and grand-dam traits indicative of their prenatal environment were also estimated. A one litre increase in the dam’s herd test milk volume was associated with a 7.5 litre increase in the daughters’ whole season milk yield and a 1% increase in either the dams’ herd test milk fat or protein percentage was associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk volume (−49.6 and −45.0 litres for dam fat and protein, respectively). Similar results between the grand-dam herd test traits ansd the daughters’ whole season milk production were observed with a 1% increase in either grand-dam milk fat or protein percentage associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk yield (−34.7 and −9.7 litres for fat and protein, respectively). This study revealed that the prenatal environment of the dam and the grand-dam can influence milk production in the subsequent daughters, though the effects are small. The similarity of the results between the dam daughter and the grand-dam daughter analyses suggests that the majority of the prenatal maternal effects are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24901792

  16. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for milk production in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Thonney, M L

    2010-10-01

    A backcross pedigree using dairy East Friesian rams and non-dairy Dorset ewes was established specifically to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production in sheep. Ninety nine microsatellite markers of an initial set of 120 were successfully genotyped and informative on 188 animals of this backcross pedigree. Test-day milk records on individual ewes were used to estimate several milk yield related traits, including peak milk yield and cumulative milk yield to 50 (MY50), 100 (MY100) and 250 days (MY250). These traits, as well as estimated breeding value of backcross ewes extracted from the genetic evaluation file of the entire flock, were used in interval mapping. Ovine chromosomes 2, 12, 18, 20 and 24 were identified to harbour putative QTL for different measures of milk production. The QTL on Ovis aries chromosomes (OAR) 2 and 20 mapped to locations where similar trait QTL have already been mapped in other studies, whereas QTL on OAR 12, 18 and 24 were unique to our backcross pedigree and have not been reported previously. In addition, all identified QTL regions were syntenic with bovine chromosomal segments revealed to harbour QTL affecting milk production traits, providing supporting evidence for the QTL identified here. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  18. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  19. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins in microbial broth and milk by Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Justyna; Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystroń, Jarosław; Bania, Jacek

    2016-10-17

    Twenty Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene, including one carrying also sec gene and 11 sea gene, were grown in BHI+YE broth and milk and were tested for SEA, SEC and SEH production. All strains decreased pH of BHI+YE broth at 24h and increased them at 48h. Seventeen S. aureus strains grown in milk changed pH for no >0.3 unit until 48h. Three other S. aureus strains significantly decreased pH during growth in milk. All S. aureus produced SEH in BHI+YE broth in amounts ranging from 95 to 1292ng/ml, and from 170 to 4158ng/ml at 24 and 48h, respectively. SEH production in milk by 17 strains did not exceed 23ng/ml at 24h and 36ng/ml at 48h. Three S. aureus strains able to decrease milk pH produced 107-3029ng/ml and 320-4246ng/ml of SEH in milk at 24 and 48h, respectively. These strains were grown in milk and BHI+YE broth with pH stabilized at values near neutral leading to a significant decrease of SEH production. Representative weak SEH producers were grown in milk at reduced pH resulting in moderate increase in SEH production. SEA was produced in milk by 10S. aureus strains at 24-151ng/ml at 24h, and 31-303ng/ml at 48h. SEA production in milk was higher or comparable as in BHI+YE broth in 3 strains and lower for remaining strains. Production of SEC by sec-positive S. aureus strains was lower in milk than in BHI+YE broth, ranging from 131 to 2319ng/ml at 24 and 48h in milk and 296-30,087ng/ml in BHI+YE at 24 and 48h. Both lacE and lacG transcripts involved in lactose metabolism were significantly up-regulated in milk in strong SEH producers. In these strains hld, rot and sarA transcripts were up-regulated in milk as compared to weak SEH producers. Stabilization of milk pH at a value of raw milk significantly down-regulated hld, rot and sarA RNA in strong SEH producers. Milk was generally found unfavorable for enterotoxin production. However, certain S. aureus strains were not restricted in SEH and SEA expression in milk, unlike SEC which remained down

  20. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk differing in label claims based on production management practices.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M; Spatny, K P; Vicini, J L; Bauman, D E

    2010-05-01

    Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious, and food product choices have expanded. Choices in the dairy case include fluid milk labeled according to production management practices. Such labeling practices may be misunderstood and perceived by consumers to reflect differences in the quality or nutritional content of milk. Our objective was to investigate nutritional differences in specialty labeled milk, specifically to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of conventional milk with milk labeled as recombinant bST (rbST)-free or organic. The retail milk samples (n=292) obtained from the 48 contiguous states of the United States represented the consumer supply of pasteurized, homogenized milk of 3 milk types: conventionally produced milk with no specialty labeling, milk labeled rbST-free, and milk labeled organic. We found no statistical differences in the FA composition of conventional and rbST-free milk; however, these 2 groups were statistically different from organic milk for several FA. When measuring FA as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was higher in saturated FA (65.9 vs. 62.8%) and lower in monounsaturated FA (26.8 vs. 29.7%) and polyunsaturated FA (4.3 vs. 4.8%) compared with the average of conventional and rbST-free retail milk samples. Likewise, among bioactive FA compared as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was slightly lower in trans 18:1 FA (2.8 vs. 3.1%) and higher in n-3 FA (0.82 vs. 0.50%) and conjugated linoleic acid (0.70 vs. 0.57%). From a public health perspective, the direction for some of these differences would be considered desirable and for others would be considered undesirable; however, without exception, the magnitudes of the differences in milk FA composition among milk label types were minor and of no physiological importance when considering public health or dietary recommendations. Overall, when data from our analysis of FA composition of conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free or organic were combined

  1. The effect of temperament and responsiveness towards humans on the behavior, physiology and milk production of multi-parous dairy cows in a familiar and novel milking environment.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Rogers, Andrea R; Verkerk, Gwyneth A

    2012-10-10

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether; 1) temperament or 2) behavioral responsiveness to humans, can affect the behavior, physiology and productivity of dairy cows being milked in a familiar and novel milking environment. Temperament of multi-parous cows was defined based on exit time from a restraint device, as High Responders (HR; n=10), Medium Responders (MR; n=10) or Low Responders (LR; n=10). The behavioral response of cows to humans was assessed using four tests: restraint, exit speed, avoidance distance test and a voluntary approach test. Cows were milked according to their established routines in a rotary (familiar) milking parlor and behavioral, physiological and production data were collected over five consecutive days, including heart rate, cortisol and oxytocin concentrations and milk yield. The following week, cows were milked in a novel environment (herringbone parlor within the same farm facility) over five consecutive days, and the data and sample collection program was repeated. Cows were then given an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge to measure adrenal responsiveness. Exit time was negatively correlated with the behavioral responses of cows to restraint and human avoidance distance (HAD) in the paddock and arena. The behavioral response of cows to the milking process was greater in MR than LR and HR cows in the familiar and novel milking environments. Milk yields were greater in LR than HR cows in the novel but not the familiar milking parlor. Oxytocin concentrations increased during milking in the novel environment, regardless of cow temperament. In the familiar and novel environments, heart rates were higher in HR than LR cows before and during milking and rMSSD was lower in HR cows during milking in a novel environment. There was no difference in cortisol concentrations between LR and HR cows in response to an ACTH challenge, but HR cows had higher baseline cortisol levels than LR cows. The number of leg

  2. Improving the sustainability of global meat and milk production.

    PubMed

    Salter, Andrew M

    2017-02-01

    Global demand for meat and dairy products has increased dramatically in recent decades and, through a combination of global population growth, increased lifespan and improved economic prosperity in the developing world will inevitably continue to increase. The predicted increases in livestock production will put a potentially unsustainable burden on global resources, including land for production of crops required for animal feed and fresh water. Furthermore, animal production itself is associated with greenhouse gas production, which may speed up global warming and thereby impact on our ability to produce food. There is, therefore, an urgent need to find methods to improve the sustainability of livestock production. This review will consider various options for improving the sustainability of livestock production with particular emphasis on finding ways to replace conventional crops as sources of animal feeds. Alternatives, such as currently underutilised crops (grown on a marginal land) and insects, reared on substrates not suitable for direct consumption by farm animals, represent possible solutions. Coupled with a moderation of excessive meat consumption in wealthier countries, such strategies may secure the long-term sustainability of meat and milk production and mitigate against the adverse health effects of excessive intake.

  3. Protein carbonylation sites in bovine raw milk and processed milk products.

    PubMed

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Mnatsakanyan, Ruzanna; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-08-15

    During thermal treatment of milk, proteins are oxidized, which may reduce the nutritional value of milk, abolish protein functions supporting human health, especially important for newborns, and yield potentially harmful products. The side chains of several amino acids can be oxidized to reactive carbonyls, which are often used to monitor oxidative stress in organisms. Here we mapped protein carbonylation sites in raw milk and different brands of pasteurized, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated milk, and infant formulas (IFs) after digesting the precipitated proteins with trypsin. Reactive carbonyls were derivatized with O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl)hydroxylamine to enrich the modified peptides by avidin-biotin affinity chromatography and analyze them by nanoRP-UPLC-ESI-MS. Overall, 53 unique carbonylated peptides (37 carbonylation sites, 15 proteins) were identified. Most carbonyls were derived from dicarbonyls (mainly glyoxal). The number of carbonylation sites increased with the harsher processing from raw milk (4) to pasteurized (16) and UHT milk (16) and to IF (24). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advantages of pasture-based milk products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research has focused on determining the biologically active compounds naturally occurring in milk from pasture-fed cows and evaluating the impact of processing on these compounds. This research addresses one of the critical goals of the Northeast Pasture Consortium to “summarize conjugated li...

  5. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk.

    PubMed

    Lejonklev, J; Kidmose, U; Jensen, S; Petersen, M A; Helwing, A L F; Mortensen, G; Weisbjerg, M R; Larsen, M K

    2016-10-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties. Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content of the essential oils used, with the total amount of terpenes increasing when essential oils were added to the diet. Sensory properties of the produced milk were altered as well, and milk samples from animals receiving essential oil treatment were perceived as having a fresher aroma and lower stored aroma and flavor. The levels of essential oils used in this study mimic realistic levels of essential oils in herbs from feed, but were too low to affect milk production and methane emissions, and their inclusion in the animal diet did not adversely affect milk flavor. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, J; Kenny, D A; Mee, J F; O'Mara, F P; Wathes, D C; Cook, M; Murphy, J J

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reduced milking frequency and increased dietary energy density in early lactation on milk production, energy balance, and subsequent fertility. Sixty-six spring-calving, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: once-daily milking on a standard diet (1xST); 3-times daily milking on a standard diet (3xST); and 3-times daily milking on a high-energy diet. Treatments were imposed for the first 28 d of lactation, after which all groups were milked twice daily and fed the standard diet. During the treatment period, the 1xST cows had 19.6% lower milk yield and higher milk fat and milk protein concentrations (15.7 and 10.2%, respectively) compared with 3xST. Dry matter (DM) intake was similar between 1xST and 3xST during the treatment period (12.64 vs. 13.25 kg/ d; SED = 0.82). Daily energy balance was less negative for 1xST compared with 3xST during wk 1 to 3 of lactation [-3.92 vs. -5.30 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d; SED = 0.65; 1 UFL is equal to the net energy for lactation of 1 kg of standard air-dry barley]. During the treatment period, the cows on the high-energy diet had 17% higher milk yield, higher DM intake (15.5 vs. 13.9 kg/d; SED = 0.71), and similar energy balance (-4.45 vs. -4.35 UFL/d; SED = 0.65) compared to 3xST. Diet had no significant effect on any of the fertility variables measured. The interval to first ovulation was shorter for 1xST than 3xST (18.3d vs. 28.6d; SED = 1.76). In conclusion, once-daily milking in early lactation may promote earlier resumption of ovarian cyclicity, mediated through improved nutritional status.

  7. Rapid determination of cholesterol in milk and milk products by direct saponification and capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fletouris, D J; Botsoglou, N A; Psomas, I E; Mantis, A I

    1998-11-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of cholesterol in milk and milk products. Samples (0.2 g) are saponified in capped tubes with 0.5 M methanolic KOH solution by heating for 15 min at 80 degrees C. Water is added to the mixtures, and the unsaponifiable fractions are extracted with hexane to be further analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Because of the rapid sample preparation and gas chromatographic procedures, a single sample can be analyzed in 30 min. Overall recovery was 98.6%, and the linearity was excellent for the fortification range examined. Precision data that were based on the variation within and between days suggested an overall relative standard deviation value of 1.4%. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate cholesterol in a variety of milk products.

  8. Determination of phosphatidylserine in milk-based nutritional products using online derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qi; Zhang, Jie; Pei, Weijie; Zhang, Chunyan; Yew, Jia Le

    2015-02-13

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) has received interest for its ability to improve cognitive abilities and behaviors. A new method for determining PS in milk-based nutritional products has been developed. The method includes a quick and simple sample preparation procedure, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fluorescence detection (FLD) with an on-line 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC) derivatization. The method allows PS to be determined in raw materials, milk powder and liquid milk products. The day-to-day (n=3 days) average recovery of over spike-in (at 100% PS content level) was 100%, and the method quantification limit is 53 mg per kg milk powder.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus reservoirs during traditional Austrian raw milk cheese production.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Georg; Gonano, Monika; Kümmel, Judith; Barker, Gary C; Lebl, Karin; Bereuter, Othmar; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-11-01

    Sampling approaches following the dairy chain, including microbiological hygiene status of critical processing steps and physicochemical parameters, contribute to our understanding of how Staphylococcus aureus contamination risks can be minimised. Such a sampling approach was adopted in this study, together with rapid culture-independent quantification of Staph. aureus to supplement standard microbiological methods. A regional cheese production chain, involving 18 farms, was sampled on two separate occasions. Overall, 51·4% of bulk milk samples were found to be Staph. aureus positive, most of them (34·3%) at the limit of culture-based detection. Staph. aureus positive samples >100 cfu/ml were recorded in 17·1% of bulk milk samples collected mainly during the sampling in November. A higher number of Staph. aureus positive bulk milk samples (94·3%) were detected after applying the culture-independent approach. A concentration effect of Staph. aureus was observed during curd processing. Staph. aureus were not consistently detectable with cultural methods during the late ripening phase, but >100 Staph. aureus cell equivalents (CE)/ml or g were quantifiable by the culture-independent approach until the end of ripening. Enterotoxin gene PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing provided evidence that livestock adapted strains of Staph. aureus mostly dominate the post processing level and substantiates the belief that animal hygiene plays a pivotal role in minimising the risk of Staph. aureus associated contamination in cheese making. Therefore, the actual data strongly support the need for additional sampling activities and recording of physicochemical parameters during semi-hard cheese-making and cheese ripening, to estimate the risk of Staph. aureus contamination before consumption.

  10. Genome-wide association for milk production and female fertility traits in Canadian dairy Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Nayeri, Shadi; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Abo-Ismail, Mohammed K; May, Natalie; Miller, Stephen P; Schenkel, Flavio; Moore, Stephen S; Stothard, Paul

    2016-06-10

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful tool for detecting genomic regions explaining variation in phenotype. The objectives of the present study were to identify or refine the positions of genomic regions affecting milk production, milk components and fertility traits in Canadian Holstein cattle, and to use these positions to identify genes and pathways that may influence these traits. Several QTL regions were detected for milk production (MILK), fat production (FAT), protein production (PROT) and fat and protein deviation (FATD, PROTD respectively). The identified QTL regions for production traits (including milk production) support previous findings and some overlap with genes with known relevant biological functions identified in earlier studies such as DGAT1 and CPSF1. A significant region on chromosome 21 overlapping with the gene FAM181A and not previous linked to fertility in dairy cattle was identified for the calving to first service interval and days open. A functional enrichment analysis of the GWAS results yielded GO terms consistent with the specific phenotypes tested, for example GO terms GO:0007595 (lactation) and GO:0043627 (response to estrogen) for milk production (MILK), GO:0051057 (positive regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction) for fat production (FAT), GO:0040019 (positive regulation of embryonic development) for first service to calving interval (CTFS) and GO:0043268 (positive regulation of potassium ion transport) for days open (DO). In other cases the connection between the enriched GO terms and the traits were less clear, for example GO:0003279 (cardiac septum development) for FAT and GO:0030903 (notochord development) for DO trait. The chromosomal regions and enriched pathways identified in this study confirm several previous findings and highlight new regions and pathways that may contribute to variation in production or fertility traits in dairy cattle.

  11. Short communication: economics of sex-biased milk production.

    PubMed

    Ettema, J F; Østergaard, S

    2015-02-01

    In a recent data study using 2.4 million lactations of 1.5 million cows, it was reported that gestation of a female calf in the first parity increases cumulative milk production by approximately 445kg over the first 2 lactations. The reported effect in this study is large and remarkable because it has not been found before. To our knowledge, the economic implications of this or any other sex bias have not been studied. The objective of the current study was to quantify the reported influence of fetal sex across lactations by using a simulation model of a dairy herd including youngstock. Two scenarios were evaluated and compared with a scenario in which cows and heifers were exclusively bred with conventional (nonsexed) semen. In the first scenario, sexed semen was used moderately-on 30% of all heifers and 30% of the first parity cows. A second scenario was studied in which sexed semen was used intensively-on all heifers and 50% of the first-parity cows. The simulated proportion of cows giving birth to 2 consecutive heifers increased from 23% when using exclusively conventional semen up to 31 and 48% when using sexed semen moderately and intensively, respectively. The proportion of cows having 2 consecutive bulls decreased from 27% (conventional semen only) to 20 and 8% when using sexed semen moderately and intensively, respectively. When incorporating the sex bias in the simulation model, the simulated milk yield in the scenario in which sexed semen was used moderately increased by 48kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow/yr, compared with only 36kg of ECM when not incorporating the sex bias in the model. For the scenario in which sexed semen was used intensively, milk yield increased by 66 and 99kg of ECM when excluding and including the sex bias, respectively. The economic implications of the assumed sex bias were €4.0 and €9.9 per cow/yr, in the scenarios in which sexed semen was used moderately and intensively, respectively.

  12. Factors Which Increase Acid Production in Milk by Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Huhtanen, C. N.; Williams, W. L.

    1963-01-01

    The stimulation by yeast extract of acid production in milk by various lactobacilli was studied. It was found that supplementing milk with purine and pyrimidine bases and amino acids allowed nearly maximal acid production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain 7994, L. acidophilus 4796, 4356, and 4357, and L. leichmannii 326 and 327. Further supplementation with deoxyribotides allowed maximal acid production by L. acidophilus 204, but L. acidophilus 207 required adenosine or adenylic acid. L. casei strain 7469 showed no appreciable response to the amino acids or purine and pyrimidine bases, and is presumed to require an unidentified factor in corn steep liquor. PMID:13955610

  13. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  14. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  15. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    PubMed

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2017-07-17

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  16. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats.

    PubMed

    Supriyati; Budiarsana, I Gusti Made; Praharani, Lisa; Krisnan, Rantan; Sutama, I Ktut

    2016-01-01

    The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control) and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.81 ± 3.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05) the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05) on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk composition percentage and milk constituent yields

  17. Nonfermented milk and other dairy products: associations with all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Gianluca; Nilsson, Lena M; Shungin, Dmitry; Lissner, Lauren; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Renström, Frida; Wennberg, Maria; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-06-01

    Background: A positive association between nonfermented milk intake and increased all-cause mortality was recently reported, but overall, the association between dairy intake and mortality is inconclusive.Objective: We studied associations between intake of dairy products and all-cause mortality with an emphasis on nonfermented milk and fat content.Design: A total of 103,256 adult participants (women: 51.0%) from Northern Sweden were included (7121 deaths; mean follow-up: 13.7 y). Associations between all-cause mortality and reported intakes of nonfermented milk (total or by fat content), fermented milk, cheese, and butter were tested with the use of Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, education, energy intake, examination year, and physical activity. To circumvent confounding, Mendelian randomization was applied in a subsample via the lactase LCT-13910 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with lactose tolerance and milk intake.Results: High consumers of nonfermented milk (≥2.5 times/d) had a 32% increased hazard (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.48) for all-cause mortality compared with that of subjects who consumed milk ≤1 time/wk. The corresponding value for butter was 11% (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21). All nonfermented milk-fat types were independently associated with increased HRs, but compared with full-fat milk, HRs were lower in consumers of medium- and low-fat milk. Fermented milk intake (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.94) and cheese intake (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96) were negatively associated with mortality. Results were slightly attenuated by lifestyle adjustments but were robust in sensitivity analyses. Mortality was not significantly associated with the LCT-13910 C/T genotype in the smaller subsample. The amount and type of milk intake was associated with lifestyle variables.Conclusions: In the present Swedish cohort study, intakes of nonfermented milk and butter are associated

  18. Calcium absorbability from milk products, an imitation milk, and calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Recker, R.R.; Bammi, A.; Barger-Lux, M.J.; Heaney, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Whole milk, chocolate milk, yogurt, imitation milk (prepared from dairy and nondairy products), cheese, and calcium carbonate were labeled with /sup 45/Ca and administered as a series of test meals to 10 healthy postmenopausal women. Carrier Ca content of the test meals was held constant at 250 mg and subjects fasted before each meal. The absorbability of Ca from the six sources was compared by measuring fractional absorption by the double isotope method. The mean absorption values for all six sources were tightly clustered between 21 and 26% and none was significantly different from the others using one-way analysis of variance. We conclude that none of the sources was significantly superior or inferior to the others.

  19. Short communication: jenny milk production and qualitative characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Calluso, A M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of lactation stage and foaling season on some qualitative aspects of milk in South Italian jenny rearing. Milk samples were collected monthly from 23 jennies, that foaled in 2 different periods: spring and summer. On milk, the following parameters were measured: pH and titratable acidity; protein, fat, lactose, dry matter, and ash contents; and somatic cell count. Analysis of variance showed the effect of foaling season and of lactation stage. Milk production was highest in summer at 30 d and 60 d (1.58 and 1.78 L, respectively), and in spring at 120 d (1.25 L). The total protein content was highest in summer lactation at 30 d and 90 d (14.8 and 13.9 g/L). Lactose, dry matter, and ash contents (g/L) were highest in summer lactation at 30 d (54.0, 78.1, and 5.0 respectively). Jenny milk was shown to be poor in protein and fat and rich in lactose. Producing jenny milk could be an interesting, profitable, and alternative activity for farmers, mainly in southern marginal areas. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated.

  1. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  2. Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products--review.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, L; Ferencík, M; Krajcovic, J

    2008-01-01

    Milk is a complex physiological liquid that simultaneously provides nutrients and bioactive components that facilitate the successful postnatal adaptation of the newborn infant by stimulating cellular growth and digestive maturation, the establishment of symbiotic microflora, and the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. The number, the potency, and the importance of bioactive compounds in milk and especially in fermented milk products are probably greater than previously thought. They include certain vitamins, specific proteins, bioactive peptides, oligosaccharides, organic (including fatty) acids. Some of them are normal milk components, others emerge during digestive or fermentation processes. Fermented dairy products and probiotic bacteria decrease the absorption of cholesterol. Whey proteins, medium-chain fatty acids and in particular calcium and other minerals may contribute to the beneficial effect of dairy food on body fat and body mass. There has been growing evidence of the role that dairy proteins play in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Milk proteins, peptides, probiotic lactic acid bacteria, calcium and other minerals can significantly reduce blood pressure. Milk fat contains a number of components having functional properties. Sphingolipids and their active metabolites may exert antimicrobial effects either directly or upon digestion.

  3. Fitting milk production curves through nonlinear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, Monica; Macchiavelli, Raúl; Funes, Ariel Capitaine; Bó, Gabriel A; Balzarini, Mónica

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to fit and compare three non-linear models (Wood, Milkbot and diphasic) to model lactation curves from two approaches: with and without cow random effect. Knowing the behaviour of lactation curves is critical for decision-making in a dairy farm. Knowledge of the model of milk production progress along each lactation is necessary not only at the mean population level (dairy farm), but also at individual level (cow-lactation). The fits were made in a group of high production and reproduction dairy farms; in first and third lactations in cool seasons. A total of 2167 complete lactations were involved, of which 984 were first-lactations and the remaining ones, third lactations (19 382 milk yield tests). PROC NLMIXED in SAS was used to make the fits and estimate the model parameters. The diphasic model resulted to be computationally complex and barely practical. Regarding the classical Wood and MilkBot models, although the information criteria suggest the selection of MilkBot, the differences in the estimation of production indicators did not show a significant improvement. The Wood model was found to be a good option for fitting the expected value of lactation curves. Furthermore, the three models fitted better when the subject (cow) random effect was considered, which is related to magnitude of production. The random effect improved the predictive potential of the models, but it did not have a significant effect on the production indicators derived from the lactation curves, such as milk yield and days in milk to peak.

  4. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    PubMed

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  5. Evaluation of different milking practices for optimum production performance in Sahiwal cows.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Abdullah, Muhammad; Fiaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Jalees Ahmad; Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Choi, Chang Weon; Jo, Ik Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The production performance of multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows (n = 24) was evaluated according to both milking frequency and method. Selected animals were randomly divided into four groups containing six animals each under a completely randomized design. Cows in groups A & B were milked by the hand milking method three times per day, respectively. Similarly, cows in groups C & D were milked by the machine milking method two and three times per day, respectively. All animals were maintained under uniform feeding and management conditions. Dry matter intake was high in animal groups milked three times per day, and it remained unchanged between the hand and machine milking methods. Milk yield was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked three times compared to those milked twice per day, and it did not differ between hand and machine milking methods. Milk fat percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked twice per day compared to those milked three times using both machine and hand milking methods. The percentage of total solids showed a similar pattern as the fat percentage. However, percentages of protein, lactose, and non-fat solids in milk were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. Collectively, the results show that milking three times per day instead of twice at 8-hour intervals can enhance milk yield in Sahiwal cows using both hand and machine milking methods.

  6. Meta-analysis of the impact of stocking rate on the productivity of pasture-based milk production systems.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B; Delaby, L; Pierce, K M; Journot, F; Horan, B

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the milk production response per cow and per hectare (ha) for an incremental stocking rate (SR) change, based on a meta-analysis of published research papers. Suitable experiments for inclusion in the database required a comparison of at least two SRs under the same experimental conditions in addition to details on experimental length and milk production results per cow and per ha. Each additional increased SR treatment was also described in terms of the relative milk production change per cow and per ha compared to the lower base SR (b_SR). A database containing 109 experiments of various lengths with 131 comparisons of SR was sub-divided into Type I experiments (common experimental lengths) and Type II experiments (variable experimental lengths). Actual and proportional changes in milk production according to SR change were analysed using linear mixed model procedures with study included as a random effect in the model. Low residual standard errors indicated a good precision of the predictive equations with the exception of proportional change in milk production per cow. For all milk yield variables analysed, the results illustrate that while production per cow is reduced, a strong positive relationship exists between SR and milk production per ha. An SR increase of one cow/ha resulted in a decrease in daily milk yield per cow of 7.4% and 8.7% for Type I and Type II data, respectively, whereas milk yield per ha increased by 20.1% and 19.6%, respectively. Within the Type II data set, a one cow/ha increase in SR also resulted in a 15.1% reduction in lactation length (equivalent to 42 days). The low predictability of proportional change in milk production per cow according to the classical SR definition of cows per ha over a defined period suggests that SR may be more appropriately defined in terms of the change in available feed offered per animal within each treatment.

  7. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  8. Investigating the genetic polymorphism of sheep milk proteins: a useful tool for dairy production.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep are able to provide higher quality protein than cattle. In the least-developed countries, the amount of dairy sheep and ovine milk production is progressively increasing. In order to improve dairy productions, in particular those with local connotations, it is necessary to obtain in-depth information regarding milk quality and rheological properties. The genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins are often associated with quantitative and qualitative parameters in milk and are potential candidate markers that should be included in breeding strategies similar to those already available for cattle. Due to the current and growing interest in this topic and considering the large amount of new information, the aim of this study was to review the literature on sheep milk protein polymorphisms with a particular emphasis on recent findings in order to give scientists useful support. Moreover, the effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition are discussed.

  9. Detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in milk and milk products using immunodiagnostic lateral flow devices.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Thomas; Njoroge, Joyce M; Jones, Robert L; Principato, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is an extracellular pyrotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a known etiologic agent of food poisoning in humans. Lateral flow immunochromatographic devices (LFDs) designed for the environmental detection of SEB were adapted for use in this study to detect SEB in milk containing 2% fat, chocolate-flavored milk, and milk-derived products such as yogurt, infant formula, and ice cream. The advantage of using LFDs in these particular food products was its ease and speed of use with no additional extraction methods needed. No false positives were observed with any of the products used in this study. Dilution of the samples overcame the Hook effect and permitted capillary flow into the membrane. Thus, semisolid products such as ice cream and some yogurts, and products containing thickeners needed to be diluted using a phosphate-buffered saline-based buffer, pH 7.2. SEB was easily detected at concentrations of 5 microg/mL and 500 ng/mL when the LFDs were used. SEB was also reliably detected at concentrations below 5 and 0.25 ng/mL, which may induce serious disease.

  10. The effect of incomplete milking or nursing on milk production, blood metabolites, and immune functions of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, E; de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J; Talbot, B G; Lacasse, P

    2012-11-01

    During the transition from pregnancy to lactation, the sudden increase in nutrient demand for milk production causes metabolic perturbations and is associated with immunosuppression and a high incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases in high-yielding cows. In this study, we examined whether limiting milk harvest postpartum while maintaining milking stimulus could improve the metabolic status of cows without reducing overall milk production. Forty-seven Holstein cows were milked completely twice a day from calving (control); milked incompletely (about one-third of expected milk production was collected) twice a day until d 5 after calving (incomplete); or left to nurse their calf until d 5 and milked once a day from d 3 to d 5 (nursing). All cows were milked twice a day from d 6 to the end of the experiment (d 61). During the treatment period (d 1 to 5), milk production averaged 27.3 and 9.7 kg/d for the control and incomplete treatments, respectively. We observed no residual effect of treatment on milk production, which averaged 47.8, 45.7, and 46.4 kg/d for the control, incomplete, and nursing treatments, respectively, between wk 2 and 9. The dry matter intake of the cows was similar during and after treatment. From wk 2 to 9, milk protein and lactose percentage were not affected by treatments, but milk fat tended to be higher in control cows than in cows milked partially (incomplete + nursing). Blood concentrations of glucose and phosphorus were lower and concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher in control cows than in partially milked cows during the treatment period. The positive effects on glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate remained significant up to d 28. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation and secretion of IL-4 were depressed during the postpartum period, and proliferation tended to be greater for cells incubated in serum from cows in the incomplete treatment on d 5 but lower on d 61. We observed no

  11. Production of reuterin in a fermented milk product by Lactobacillus reuteri: Inhibition of pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Rivera, Y; Sánchez-Vega, R; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; León-Félix, J; Acosta-Muñiz, C; Sepulveda, D R

    2017-03-22

    We assessed the antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced in vitro in glycerol aqueous solutions in situ by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 as part of a fermented milk product against starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus), spoilage (Penicillium expansum), pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes), and pathogen surrogate (Escherichia coli DH5α) microorganisms. We also assayed the influence of cold storage (28 d at 4°C) and reuterin on the color and rheology of the fermented milk product. We obtained maximum reuterin concentrations of 107.5 and 33.97 mM in glycerol aqueous solution and fermented milk product, respectively. Reuterin was stable throughout its refrigerated shelf life. Gram-positive microorganisms were more resistant to reuterin than gram-negative microorganisms. Penicillium expansum and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 survived at concentrations up to 10 and 8.5 mM, respectively. Escherichia coli DH5α was the most sensitive to reuterin (0.9 mM). The presence of reuterin did not cause relevant changes in the quality parameters of the fermented milk product, including pH, acidity, soluble solids, color, and rheological aspects (storage and loss moduli and viscosity). This study demonstrated the viability of using Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 as a biopreservative in a fermented milk product through reuterin synthesis, without drastically modifying its quality parameters.

  12. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and anti-bio gram.

    PubMed

    Modi, Shivani; Brahmbhatt, M N; Chatur, Y A; Nayak, J B

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer) were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91%) raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

  13. Lipase-catalyzed modification of the flavor profiles in recombined skim milk products by enriching the volatile components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X M; Ai, N S; Wang, J; Tong, L J; Zheng, F P; Sun, B G

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to modify the amount and composition of volatile components in bovine milk products, in an attempt to create a recombined skim milk product with full-fat milk flavor but with only 0.5% fat. The experimental plan included lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis and esterification reactions using Palatase 20000L (Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark). The results, measured by the methods of volatile compositional analysis and sensory evaluation, showed that the flavor profiles of the optimal recombined milk products were effectively modified in this way, possessing intensified characteristic volatile flavor components with rather low level of fat contents, and the sensory characters were quite realistic to natural whole milk flavor.

  14. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding.

  15. Use of assisted reproduction for the improvement of milk production in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nagy, P; Skidmore, J A; Juhasz, J

    2013-01-10

    Despite their production potential and ability to survive on marginal resources in extreme conditions, dromedaries have not been exploited as an important food source. Camels have not been specifically selected for milk production, and genetic improvement has been negligible. High individual variation in milk production both within the population and within breeds provides a good base for selection and genetic progress. In this paper, we discuss the possibilities and constraints of selective breeding for milk production in camels, and include a summary of the use of embryo transfer at the world's first camel dairy farm. Embryo transfer is an integral part of the breeding strategy at the camel dairy farm because it increases selection intensity and decreases the generation interval. Using high milk-producing camels as donors and low producing camels as recipients, 146 embryos were recovered (6.1±1.0embryos/donor; range: 0-18). Embryos were transferred non-surgically into 111 recipients (83 single and 28 twin embryo transfers). Pregnancy rate at 21 days and 5 months was 55% (61/111) and 45% (50/111), respectively. Finally, a total of 46 recipients delivered a live calf. These results document the utility of embryo transfer using high milk producing dromedaries as donors.

  16. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    PubMed

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups.

  17. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  18. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health.

  19. An update on the cardiovascular pleiotropic effects of milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G; Chrysant, George S

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor in addition to atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus for the development of coronary heart disease and strokes. Several prospective clinical studies have demonstrated a possible protective effect of milk and dairy product consumption on these conditions. The putative effects of milk and dairy products are possibly mediated through their mineral content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamin D. These dairy substances exercise their blood pressure-lowering effect either directly on the arterial wall by these minerals or indirectly through blockade of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by the amino acids contained in the casein and whey of milk. The blockade of ACE results in the inhibition of production of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictive peptide, and the prevention of degradation of bradykinin, a potent vasodilating peptide. For this concise review, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2006 to September 2012 and 16 pertinent papers were selected. The potential beneficial pleiotropic effects from these studies together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tracking heat-resistant, cold-thriving fluid milk spoilage bacteria from farm to packaged product.

    PubMed

    Huck, J R; Sonnen, M; Boor, K J

    2008-03-01

    Control of psychrotolerant endospore-forming spoilage bacteria, particularly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp., is economically important to the dairy industry. These microbes form endospores that can survive high-temperature, short-time pasteurization; hence, their presence in raw milk represents a major potential cause of milk spoilage. A previously developed culture-dependent selection strategy and an rpoB sequence-based subtyping method were applied to bacterial isolates obtained from environmental samples collected on a New York State dairy farm. A total of 54 different rpoB allelic types putatively identified as Bacillus (75% of isolates), Paenibacillus (24%), and Sporosarcina spp. (1%) were identified among 93 isolates. Assembly of a broader data set, including 93 dairy farm isolates, 57 raw milk tank truck isolates, 138 dairy plant storage silo isolates, and 336 pasteurized milk isolates, identified a total of 154 rpoB allelic types, representing an extensive diversity of Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. Our molecular subtype data clearly showed that certain endospore-forming bacterial subtypes are present in the dairy farm environment as well as in the processing plant. The potential for entry of these ubiquitous heat-resistant spoilage organisms into milk production and processing systems, from the dairy farm to the processing plant, represents a considerable challenge that will require a comprehensive farm-to-table approach to fluid milk quality.

  1. Effect of milking interval on alveolar versus cisternal milk accumulation and milk production and composition in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    McKusick, B C; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M; Marnet, P G

    2002-09-01

    Cisternal and alveolar milk fractions were measured in East Friesian crossbred dairy ewes (n = 32) after 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, or 24 h of milk accumulation in a 6 x 6 Latin square design by administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist for recuperation of cisternal milk followed by injection of oxytocin to remove the alveolar fraction. Less than half (38 to 47%) of the total milk yield was stored within the cistern for the first 12 h of udder filling compared with up to 57% after 24 h of udder filling. Subsequent milk yield was significantly reduced following the 16-, 20-, and 24-h treatments. Cisternal milk fat percentage, but not milk protein percentage, was lower than in alveolar milk (4.49 vs. 7.92% milk fat, respectively), indicating that casein micelles pass more freely from the alveoli to the cistern between milkings compared with fat globules. Alveolar compared to cisternal somatic cell count was higher for the 16-, 20-, and 24-h treatments. Significant increases in cisternal milk yield and milk composition observed for the 24-h compared with the 20-h treatment demonstrated the importance of the cistern as a storage space when the alveoli and small intramammary ducts became full. The main difference between cisternal and alveolar milk fractions is the poor fat content of cisternal milk, which is an important reason for the milk ejection reflex to be present during machine milking of dairy ewes. In a second experiment, milking every 16 h compared with every 12 h during mid- to late-lactation did not effect milk yield, milk composition, and quality, or lactation length; however, a 25% savings in labor was achieved with the longer milking interval.

  2. [Experimental studies of the evaluation of the energy balance of dairy cows. 1. Milk production and milk composition].

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, B; Rossow, N; Kirst, E

    1990-01-01

    Proper assessment of the risk to animal health in early lactation has proved to depend decisively on knowledge of intensity of mobilisation processes as well as of the onset and general pronunciation of subsequent regeneration of endogenic energy reserves. Mere calculation of the difference between estimated energy uptake via feed ration and energy output to sustain milk production would not provide a realistic picture of energy mobilisation and deposition in the organism of a dairy cow. Milk fat levels and quantities but also high milk protein levels and quantities were the milk substances which more clearly than others indicated mobilisation of endogenic fat and protein reserves during the first three weeks of lactation. No information could be derived from milk yield and milk substances as to the onset or level of positive energy balance, following redepositing of energy.

  3. Lifetime effects of infection with bovine leukemia virus on longevity and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Stryhn, Henrik; Kelton, David; Keefe, Greg

    2016-10-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The economic impacts of the infection have been debated in the literature. The present study was conducted to determine the lifetime effects of BLV infection on longevity and milk production of dairy cows in Canada. The data were aggregated from a combination of two data sets: 1) BLV serum-ELISA test results from Canada-wide surveys of production limiting diseases, which took place between 1998 and 2003 in 8 provinces, and 2) longitudinal production data for all cows in the former study, extracted from the Canadian dairy herd improvement database. All participant cows had been culled or died by the onset of this study. A historical cohort study was designed, including cows which tested positive to BLV-antibodies in their first lactation (positive cohort, n=1858) and cows which tested negative in their second or later lactations (negative cohort, n=2194). To assess the impacts of infection with BLV on longevity (the number of lifetime lactations), a discrete-time survival analysis was carried out. The effect of BLV on the lifetime milk production (the sum of all life 305-day milk production) was evaluated using a multilevel linear regression model. Overall, 4052 cows from 348 herds met the eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study. In the longevity model, the interaction term between time (lactation number) and BLV-status was highly significant. Cows which were positive to BLV had consistently greater probabilities of being culled (or dying) than the test-negative cows. In the milk production model, the interaction term between BLV-status and longevity of the cows was highly significant; indicating that lifetime BLV effects on the total milk production was dependent on the lactation in which the study cows were culled/died. Infected cows with 2 and 3 lactations showed significantly lower life milk productions [-2554kg (-3609 to -1500

  4. Suitability of high pressure-homogenized milk for the production of probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Patrignani, Francesca; Burns, Patricia; Serrazanetti, Diana; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    High pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment for food preservation and diversification. In order to evaluate its potential for the production of fermented milks carrying probiotic bacteria, four types of fermented milks were manufactured from HPH treated and heat treated (HT) milk with and without added probiotics. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses were carried out during the refrigerated period (35 d at 4 degrees C). HPH application to milk did not modify the viability of the probiotic cultures but did increase the cell loads of the starter cultures (ca. 1 log order) compared with traditional products. The coagula from HPH-milk was significantly more compacted (P<0.05) (higher firmness) than that obtained with HT-milk, and it had the highest values of consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity indexes compared with fermented milks produced without HPH treatment. All the samples received high sensory analysis scores for each descriptor considered. HPH treatment of milk can potentially diversify the market for probiotic fermented milks, especially in terms of texture parameters.

  5. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes, Data set 1), different legume species and grass family (Data set 2), and different grass and legume species (Data set 3+4). The first three data sets included diets where single species or family were fed as the sole forage, whereas the approach in the last data set differed by taking the proportion of single species in the forage part into account allowing diets consisting of both grasses and legumes to be included. The grass species included were perennial ryegrass, annual ryegrass, orchardgrass, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue and festulolium, and the legume species included were white clover, red clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil. Overall, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were 1.3 and 1.6 kg/day higher, respectively, whereas milk protein and milk fat concentration were 0.5 and 1.4 g/kg lower, respectively, for legume-based diets compared with grass-based diets. When comparing individual legume species with grasses, only red clover resulted in a lower milk protein concentration than grasses. Cows fed white clover and birdsfoot trefoil yielded more milk than cows fed red clover and lucerne, probably caused by a higher OM digestibility of white clover and activity of condensed tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species relied on few observations, indicating that knowledge regarding feed intake and milk production potential of different grass species is scarce in the literature. In conclusion

  6. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food...

  7. Acute allergic reactions in Vietnamese children after drinking a new milk product.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Le, Ninh Hoang; Patel, Mahomed Said; Phan, Lan Trong; Tran Minh, Nhu Nguyen

    2012-02-01

    In early October 2009, pediatricians in hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) reported an unusual increase in the number of children presenting with an acute onset of itchy rash and some with breathing difficulties shortly after drinking milk products. The pediatricians considered the illness to be an allergic reaction to milk. The objective of our investigation was to identify the cause of this acute illness. Following early case reports, all hospitals in HCMC were requested to report cases of this illness. Parents were advised to take children with symptoms to a hospital immediately. A case-series was conducted to generate hypotheses on the possible causes of the illness and was followed by a case-control study to test the hypothesis. Parents of all cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face. The association between food items and the allergy was tested using conditional logistics regression. From 9 to 28 October 2009, 19 cases fulfilled the case definition, and 16 of the 17 cases included in the study had consumed milk supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) shortly before the onset of illness. Fifty age-matched, neighborhood controls were enrolled into the case control study. Of the 30 food items consumed by study participants in the preceding 24 h, only the odds ratio (OR) of milk supplemented with GOS was statistically significant: OR=34.0 (95% CI=3.9, 294.8). Laboratory tests of this milk product did not reveal any unusual properties, chemicals, or other toxic substances. This is the first report of an acute allergic reaction to fresh milk supplemented with GOS. However, the specific allergen in this product was not identified. Further cases were not reported once this product was withdrawn from sale. Vietnam's food safety authorities should expand laboratory capacity to detect allergens in food products.

  8. Human Milk Protein Production in Xenografts of Genetically Engineered Bovine Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martignani, Eugenio; Eirew, Peter; Accornero, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    applications including the production of modified milk components for human consumption. PMID:20976049

  9. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-10-19

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil.

  10. Effect of milk and milk products consumption on physical growth and bone mineral density in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products, physical growth and bone mineral density in 664 male and female middle school and high school students aged 15-17 years. In the study, the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products was analyzed, and the height, body composition, and bone mineral density of the right heel bone (calcaneus) were measured. The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products was calculated as the 'dairy equivalent of calcium', which is the calcium content in 200 mL of white milk. The cutoffs of tertiles of the dairy equivalent of calcium were calculated and then the subjects were categorized into 3 groups according to the tertiles, Q1 group (lower intake group), Q2 group (middle intake group) and Q3 group (upper intake group). The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products in Q1, Q2 and Q3 groups was 16.2 mg, 99.7 mg, and 284.0 mg, respectively, and the ratio of milk and milk product consumption to the daily total calcium intake was 5.4%, 27.4%, and 49.7%, respectively. The ratio of total calcium intake to the daily recommended intake in study subjects was 30.5% in Q1, 42.3% in Q2, and 60.7% in Q3, with significant differences (P < 0.05). Height, body weight, BMI, and % of body fat in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) were not significantly different. However, the T scores for bone mineral density in female students in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) was significantly different (P < 0.05). The study showed that the intake of milk and milk products in adolescents, particularly in girls, can improve the bone mineral density without increasing body weight, and thus confirmed that milk intake is important in adolescence.

  11. Enzymatic production of lactulose and epilactose in milk.

    PubMed

    Rentschler, Eva; Schuh, Katharina; Krewinkel, Manuel; Baur, Claudia; Claaßen, Wolfgang; Meyer, Susanne; Kuschel, Beatrice; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    The enzymatic production of lactulose was described recently through conversion of lactose by a thermophilic cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CsCE). In the current study, we examined the application of CsCE for lactulose and epilactose production in milk (1.5% fat). The bioconversions were carried out in stirred reaction vessels at 2 different temperatures (50 and 8°C) at a scale of 25 mL volume. At 50°C, 2 highly different CsCE amounts were investigated for the time course of formation of lactulose and epilactose. The conversion of milk lactose (initial lactose content of 48.5 ± 2.1 g/L) resulted in a final yield of 57.7% (28.0 g/L) lactulose and 15.5% (7.49 g/L) epilactose in the case of the approximately 9.5-fold higher CsCE amount (39.5 µkat epilactose, 50°C) after 24 h. Another enzymatic lactose conversion was carried out at low 8°C, an industrially relevant temperature for milk processing. Although the CsCE originated from a thermophilic microorganism, it was still applicable at 8°C. This enzymatic lactose conversion resulted in 56.7% (27.5 g/L) lactulose and 13.6% (6.57 g/L) epilactose from initial milk lactose after 72 h. The time courses of lactose conversion by CsCE suggested that first epilactose formed and afterward lactulose via epilactose. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an enzyme has produced lactulose directly in milk in situ at industrially relevant temperatures.

  12. An Intervention to Promote Breast Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Héon, Marjolaine; Goulet, Céline; Garofalo, Carole; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Levy, Emile

    2016-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate the effects of a breast milk expression education and support intervention on breast milk production outcomes in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. Forty mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation) were randomized to the experimental intervention or standard care for 6 weeks. Duration and frequency of breast milk expressions and volume of expressed breast milk were measured daily. Samples of breast milk were collected thrice during the study and analyzed for their lipid concentration. Mothers in the experimental group had a statistically significant higher duration of breast milk expression in min/day (p= .043). Differences observed between the two groups regarding the frequency of breast milk expression, volume of breast milk, and lipid concentration were not statistically significant. Results suggest that the experimental intervention may promote breast milk production in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants.

  13. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk in the United States including regional and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Barbano, D M; Bauman, D E

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly aware that food components have the potential to influence human health maintenance and disease prevention, and dietary fatty acids (FA) have been of special interest. It has been 25 years since the last survey of US milk FA composition, and during this interval substantial changes in dairy rations have occurred, including increased use of total mixed rations and byproduct feeds as well as the routine use of lipid and FA supplements. Furthermore, analytical procedures have improved allowing greater detail in the routine analysis of FA, especially trans FA. Our objective was to survey US milk fat and determine its FA composition. We obtained samples of fluid milk from 56 milk processing plants across the US every 3 mo for one year to capture seasonal and geographical variations. Processing plants were selected based on the criteria that they represented 50% or more of the fluid milk produced in that area. An overall summary of the milk fat analysis indicated that saturated fatty acids comprised 63.7% of total milk FA with palmitic and stearic acids representing the majority (44.1 and 18.3% of total saturated fatty acids, respectively). Unsaturated fatty acids were 33.2% of total milk FA with oleic acid predominating (71.0% of total unsaturated fatty acids). These values are comparable to those of the previous survey in 1984, considering differences in analytical techniques. Trans FA represented 3.2% of total FA, with vaccenic acid being the major trans isomer (46.5% of total trans FA). Cis-9, trans-11 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid represented 0.55% total milk FA, and the major n-3 FA (linolenic acid, 18:3) composed 0.38%. Analyses for seasonal and regional effects indicated statistical differences for some FA, but these were minor from an overall human nutrition perspective as the FA profile for all samples were numerically similar. Overall, the present study provides a valuable database for current FA composition of US fluid milk, and

  14. Origin of haloacetic acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the process of water disinfection. Therefore their presence in foods can be correlated with the addition of or contact with treated water. To determine the origin of HAAs in milk and dairy products, firstly a chromatographic method was developed for their determination. The sample treatment involves deproteination of milk followed by derivatization/extraction of the HAAs in the supernatant. About 20% of the foods analyzed contained two HAAs - which in no case exceeded 2 μg L(-1), that can be ascribed to contamination from sanitizers usually employed in the dairy industry. The process of boiling tap water (containing HAAs) for the preparation of powdered infant formula did not remove them; therefore it would be advisable to prepare this type of milk with mineral water (free of HAAs). In addition, it is possible to establish if the milk has been adulterated with treated water through the determination of HAAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory (ACE-I) Peptides during Milk Fermentation and Their Role in Reducing Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Sanjukta, Samurailatpam; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-10-13

    Fermented milk is a potential source of various biologically active peptides with specific health benefits. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-I) peptides are one of the most studied bioactive peptides produced during milk fermentation. The presence of these peptides is reported in various fermented milk products such as yoghurt, cheese, sour milk, etc, which are also available as commercial products. Many of the ACE-I peptides formed during milk fermentation are resistant to gastrointestinal digestion and inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the rennin angiotension system (RAS). There are various factors, which affect the formation ACE-I peptides and their ability to reach the target tissue in active form, which includes type of starters (lactic acid bacteria, yeast, etc), substrate composition (casein type, whey protein, etc), composition of ACE-I peptide, pre and post fermentation treatments, and its stability during gastrointestinal digestion. The antihypertensive effect of fermented milk products has also been proved by various in-vitro and in-vivo (animal and human trials) experiments. This article reviews the literature on fermented milk products as a source of ACE-I peptides and various factors affecting the production and activity of ACE-I peptides.

  16. Effect of zinc methionine or zinc sulfate supplementation on milk production and composition of milk in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Bahari Kashani, Reza

    2010-07-01

    Eighteen lactating dairy cows were used to compare the effects of organic and inorganic Zn supplements on milk production and chemical composition of milk. Animals received three diets in a randomized block design: basal diet with no supplemental Zn (control, 42 mg Zn/kg), basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the ZnM and ZnS groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in milk from the control group, but there were no significant differences between ZnS and ZnM groups.

  17. Environmental assessment of the milk life cycle: the effect of packaging selection and the variability of milk production data.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina; Castells, Francesc

    2012-09-30

    Milk is a very important part of our diet, which is why there is a wide variety of packaging alternatives with considerable local variants on the market. This study assesses the environmental impact of the commonest packaging options on the Spanish market and evaluates (from the point of view of global warming and acidification) the production of the various packaging materials and sizes and their final disposal (landfilling, incineration and recycling). For the two indicators studied (global warming and acidification) larger aseptic carton packages and recycling disposal have the best environmental impact. The global warming and acidification potential of the milk life cycle were also studied: milk production, transport (local conditions), packaging production and packaging disposal. Of the two indicators studied, the milk production stage has the largest impact on the milk life cycle. It should be taken into account that the impact of the milk production stage can vary considerably and has a significant influence on the global warming and acidification potential of the milk life cycle.

  18. Experimental intramammary inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis in vaccinated and unvaccinated cows: effect on milk production and milk quality.

    PubMed Central

    Boothby, J T; Jasper, D E; Thomas, C B

    1986-01-01

    The effect of vaccination on milk production was evaluated in vaccinated and control cows experimentally challenged in two of four quarters with live Mycoplasma bovis. During the first three weeks after experimental challenge, six of eight unchallenged quarters on vaccinated cows and seven of eight unchallenged quarters on control cows became infected. Most of these quarters secreted normal milk, with negative California Mastitis Test scores and maintained normal milk production throughout most of the study (although some quarters on control cows remained infected). All challenged quarters became infected, had strong California Mastitis Test reactions, and had a drastic (greater than 85%) loss in milk production. Thereafter, four of eight challenged quarters on control cows remained infected, had mostly positive California Mastitis Test scores, produced mostly normal-appearing milk, and recovered some productive capabilities. By the end of the study no M. bovis could be recovered from challenged quarters on vaccinated cows and the milk appeared mostly normal. The California Mastitis Test scores on these quarters, however, remained elevated and milk production remained very low. PMID:3756674

  19. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  20. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods.

  1. An unprotected conjugated linoleic acid supplement decreases milk production and secretion of milk components in grazing dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D E; Gama, M A S; Fernandes, D; Tedeschi, L O; Bauman, D E

    2012-03-01

    Feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a rumen-inert form to dairy ewes has been shown to increase milk production, alter milk composition, and increase the milk fat CLA content. However, few studies have tested ruminally unprotected CLA sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an unprotected CLA supplement (29.8% of cis-9,trans-11 and 29.9% of trans-10,cis-12 isomers as methyl esters) on milk yield and composition of dairy ewes. Twenty-four lactating Lacaune ewes were used in a crossover design and received 2 dietary treatments: (1) control: basal diet containing no supplemental lipid and (2) basal diet plus CLA (30 g/d). The CLA supplement was mixed into the concentrate and fed in 2 equal meals after morning and afternoon milkings. Each experimental period consisted of 21 d: 7 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection. The CLA supplement decreased milk fat content and yield by 31.3 and 38.0%, respectively. Milk yield and secretion of milk lactose and protein were decreased by 8.0, 9.8, and 5.6%, respectively. On the other hand, milk protein content and linear SCC score were 1.8 and 17.7% higher in ewes fed the CLA supplement. The concentration of milk fatty acids originating from de novo synthesis (milk fatty acids taken up preformed from the plasma (>C16) was increased by 22.6% in ewes fed the CLA supplement. The CLA supplement decreased C14:1/C14:0, C16:1/C16:0, and C18:1/C18:0 desaturase indexes by 25, 18.7, and 0.1%, respectively, but increased the cis-9,trans-11 CLA/trans-11 C18:1 ratio by 8.6%. The concentrations of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA in milk fat was 309 and 33.4% higher in ewes fed CLA. Pronounced milk fat depression coupled with the deleterious effects on milk yield, milk SCC, and secretion of all milk solids observed in ewes fed an unprotected CLA supplement is likely to be associated with high doses of trans-10,cis-12 CLA reaching the

  2. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and grass silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Lee, M R F; Davies, D R; Kim, E J; Nute, G R; Ellis, N M; Scollan, N D

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from ryegrass (Lolium perenne) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, milk organoleptic qualities, and whole-body nitrogen partitioning. Four dietary treatments, comprising ad libitum access to 1 of 4 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4 kg/d dairy concentrates, were offered. The 4 forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: 1) 100% grass silage, 2) 66% grass silage: 34% red clover silage, 3) 34% grass silage: 66% red clover silage, and 4) 100% red clover silage. In each of 4 experimental periods, there were 21 d for adaptation to diets and 7 d for measurements. There was an increase in both DM intakes and milk yields as the proportion of red clover in the diet increased. However, the increase in milk yield was not as great as the increase in DM intake, so that the efficiency of milk production, in terms of yield (kg) of milk per kg of DM intake, decreased. The concentrations of protein, milk fat, and the shorter chain saturated fatty acids decreased, whereas C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and long-chain PUFA (C20+) increased as the proportion of red clover in the diet increased. There was little effect of dietary treatment on the organoleptic qualities of milk as assessed by taste panel analysis. There were no effects on the aroma of milk, on aftertaste, or overall liking of the milk. Milk was thicker and creamier in color when cows were fed grass silage compared with red clover silage. The flavor of milk was largely unaffected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of red clover in the diet of dairy cows increased feed intakes and milk yields, decreased the concentration of fat and protein in milk, increased PUFA for healthiness, and had little effect on milk organoleptic characteristics.

  3. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  4. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of including canola meal and supplemental iodine in diets of dairy cows on short-term changes in iodine concentrations in milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J; Kleinschmit, D H; Socha, M T

    2015-07-01

    The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce the transfer of I into milk. We hypothesized that including canola meal in diets would allow high supplementation rates of I without producing milk with unacceptable concentrations of I. Thirty midlactation Holstein cows were fed a diet with all supplemental protein from soybean meal (0% of diet dry matter as canola meal) or with all supplemental protein from canola meal (13.9% canola meal). A third treatment has a mix of soybean meal and canola meal (3.9% canola meal). Within canola-meal treatment, cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg of supplemental I per kilogram of diet dry matter from ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Cows were maintained on the canola treatment for the duration of the experiment but were changed from one I treatment to the other after 13d of receiving the treatment. Milk I concentration before the treatments started (cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I) averaged 272μg/L and increased within 22h after cows were first fed diets with 2mg/kg of I. As inclusion rate of canola meal increased, the concentration of I in milk decreased linearly. After 12d of supplementation, milk from cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I had 358, 289, and 169μg of I/L for the 0, 3.9%, and 13.9% canola-meal treatments. For cows fed 2.0mg/kg of I, milk I concentrations were 733, 524, and 408μg/L, respectively. Concentrations of I in serum increased with increased I supplementation, but the effect of canola meal was opposite of what was observed for milk I. Cows fed the highest canola-meal diets had the highest serum I whether cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg/kg of I. Feeding dairy cows diets with 13.9% canola meal maintained milk I concentrations below 500μg/L when

  6. Predicting the effect of anthelmintic treatment on milk production of dairy cattle in Canada using an Ostertagia ostertagi ELISA from individual milk samples.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Sithole, Fortune; Keefe, Gregory; Stryhn, Henrik

    2013-08-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Ostertagia ostertagi and several species of Cooperia, are ubiquitous in temperate climates and have been shown to have detrimental effects on production in adult dairy cattle. A published meta-analysis demonstrated that overall, producers lose approximately 0.35 kg of milk per parasitized cow per day. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have the ability to quantify nematode infections in cattle, and thus, could be used to estimate the amount of milk production loss due to differing levels of parasitism at the individual cow level. ELISA results from individual cow milk samples were used to predict milk production response following a randomized anthelmintic treatment in a large field trial. To increase statistical power, the data collected from this field trial was pooled with data from two other published field trials to form an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA). The ability to predict the effect of anthelmintic treatment on milk production depends on the level of parasitism quantified by an ELISA measuring milk antibodies against O. ostertagi, and reported as optical density ratios (ODRs). Therefore, the estimates from the interaction between ODR and treatment on milk production were used to determine how well the ODR predicted the response of the treatment. It was anticipated that the relationship between milk production and ODR was unlikely to be linear, so fractional polynomials were applied to the continuous ODR values. The interaction in the field trial showed a trend (p=0.138) toward a beneficial treatment effect when the individual ODR values, measured in late lactation and using Svanovir(®), were greater than 0.12. When individual data from two other similar studies were included in an IPDMA, the interaction terms became statistically significant (p=0.009) indicating that there is a beneficial treatment effect when ODR values are slightly elevated. A graph was used to demonstrate the treatment

  7. The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S; Murray, E B

    1988-10-01

    1) Most humans, like other mammals, gradually lose the intestinal enzyme lactase after infancy and with it the ability to digest lactose, the principle sugar in milk. At some point in prehistory, a genetic mutation occurred and lactase activity persisted in a majority of the adult population of Northern and Central Europe. 2) Persistence of intestinal lactase, the uncommon trait worldwide, is inherited as a highly penetrant autosomal-dominant characteristic. Both types of progeny are almost equally common when one parent is a lactose maldigester and the other a lactose digester. 3) The incidence of lactose maldigestion is usually determined in adults by the administration in the fasting state of a 50-g dose of lactose in water, the equivalent of that in 1 L of milk. Measurement is made of either the subsequent rise in blood glucose or the appearance of additional hydrogen in the breath. It is also sometimes identified by measuring lactase activity directly in a biopsy sample from the jejunum. For children the test dose is reduced according to weight. Depending on the severity of the lactase deficiency and other factors, the test dose may result in abdominal distention, pain, and diarrhea. 4) The frequency of lactose maldigestion varies widely among populations but is high in nearly all but those of European origin. In North American adults lactose maldigestion is found in approximately 79% of Native Americans, 75% of blacks, 51% of Hispanics, and 21% of Caucasians. In Africa, Asia, and Latin America prevalence rates range from 15-100% depending on the population studied. 5) Whenever the lactose ingested exceeds the capacity of the intestinal lactase to split it into the simple sugars glucose and galactose, which are absorbed directly, it passes undigested to the large intestine. There it is fermented by the colonic flora, with short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen gas as major products. The gas produced can cause abdominal distention and pain and diarrhea may also

  8. Comparison of modelling techniques for milk-production forecasting.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M D; O'Mahony, M J; Shalloo, L; French, P; Upton, J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of 3 different modeling techniques for the prediction of total daily herd milk yield from a herd of 140 lactating pasture-based dairy cows over varying forecast horizons. A nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous input, a static artificial neural network, and a multiple linear regression model were developed using 3 yr of historical milk-production data. The models predicted the total daily herd milk yield over a full season using a 305-d forecast horizon and 50-, 30-, and 10-d moving piecewise horizons to test the accuracy of the models over long- and short-term periods. All 3 models predicted the daily production levels for a full lactation of 305 d with a percentage root mean square error (RMSE) of ≤ 12.03%. However, the nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous input was capable of increasing its prediction accuracy as the horizon was shortened from 305 to 50, 30, and 10 d [RMSE (%)=8.59, 8.1, 6.77, 5.84], whereas the static artificial neural network [RMSE (%)=12.03, 12.15, 11.74, 10.7] and the multiple linear regression model [RMSE (%)=10.62, 10.68, 10.62, 10.54] were not able to reduce their forecast error over the same horizons to the same extent. For this particular application the nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous input can be presented as a more accurate alternative to conventional regression modeling techniques, especially for short-term milk-yield predictions.

  9. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements...: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing milk... goat milk from 1,000,000 cells per milliliter to 1,500,000 cells per milliliter. This proposal was...

  10. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements...: Notice. SUMMARY: This document amends the recommended manufacturing milk requirements (Recommended Requirements) by raising the maximum allowable somatic cell count in producer herd goat milk from 1,000,000...

  11. Anaerobic sporeformers and their significance with respect to milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Conor J; Gleeson, David; Jordan, Kieran; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2015-03-16

    Sporeforming bacteria are a significant concern for the international dairy industry. Spores present in milk survive heat treatments and can persist during downstream processing. If they are present in sufficient numbers in dairy products they can cause spoilage or lead to illness as a result of toxin production. While many reviews have highlighted the threat posed by spores of aerobic bacteria to the dairy industry, few have focused on problems caused by the array of different species of anaerobic sporeformers (Clostridium and related genera) that can be found in milk. This is despite of the fact that members of these bacteria are found throughout the dairy farm environment, and can be toxigenic, neurotoxigenic or spoilage bacteria. This makes the possible presence of Clostridium and related spores in bulk tank milk (BTM) important from both a financial and a public health perspective. In this review dairy associated anaerobic sporeformers are assessed from a number of perspectives. This includes the taxonomy of this group of bacteria, the important subgroup of this genus the "sulphite reducing clostridia" (SRC), how these bacteria are detected in milk products, the epidemiological data regarding pathogenic species and strains within the SRC group as well as the influence of farming practices on the presence of SRC in BTM.

  12. Associations between herd-level feeding management practices, feed sorting, and milk production in freestall dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Sova, A D; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2013-07-01

    The challenges associated with group-housed dairy cows include within-herd variability in nutrient consumption and milk production, which may be related to feeding management. The objective of this observational study was to examine the association of herd-level feeding management factors, feed sorting, and milk production. Twenty-two freestall herds with an average lactating herd size of 162±118 cows, feeding total mixed rations, were each studied for 7 consecutive days in summer and winter. In cases of multiple feeding groups within a herd, the highest producing group of cows with an even distribution of days in milk and parity was selected for this study. The average group size studied was 83±31 cows. The average study group consisted of cows 187±47 days in milk, with a parity of 2.3±0.6, consuming 24.3±2.6kg of dry matter, with an average group-level yield of 34.3±6kg of milk/d, 3.7±0.3% milk fat, and 3.2±0.18% milk protein. Milk production parameters, including yield, fat, and protein, were recorded through regular Dairy Herd Improvement milk testing. A survey of feeding management practices and barn characteristics was administered on each farm. The amounts of feed offered and refused were recorded and sampled daily to assess dry matter intake (DMI) and particle size distribution. Feeding twice per day compared with once per day was associated with an average increase of 1.42kg of DMI, 2.0kg of milk yield, and less sorting against long ration particles (>19mm). Every 2% group-level selective refusal (sorting) of long particles was associated with 1kg/d of reduction in milk yield. A 10cm/cow increase in feed bunk space was associated with a 0.06-percentage-point increase in group-average milk fat and a 13% decrease in group-average somatic cell count. These results support that herd-level management practices to promote feed access, such as increased feeding frequency and bunk space, may improve DMI and promote more balanced nutrient intake and greater

  13. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  14. Altering the fatty acids in milk fat by including canola seed in dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Chichlowski, M W; Schroeder, J W; Park, C S; Keller, W L; Schimek, D E

    2005-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding ground canola seed on the fatty acid profile, yield, and composition of milk from dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (548.3 +/- 11.9 kg body weight and 28 +/- 9 d in lactation) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: Control (CON) or ground canola seed treatment (GCS) with 14% [of diet dry matter (DM)] of the total ration as ground canola seed containing 34% lipid. Diets contained 20% crude protein, but varied in net energy as a result of fat content differences of 2.5% and 6.4% (DM) for CON and GCS, respectively. Diets were composed of corn, corn silage, alfalfa (50:50 ground hay and haylage, DM basis), soybean and blood meal, and vitamins and minerals. Mechanically extruded canola meal was used in the CON diet to adjust for the protein from canola seed in the GCS diet. Cows were housed in tie-stalls and fed and milked twice daily for 10 wk. The inclusion of ground canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from GCS cows had greater proportions of long-chain fatty acids (> or = 18 carbons) and a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. Feeding GCS reduced the proportion of short- and medium-chain fatty acids. Milk fat from cows fed GCS had a greater proportion of vaccenic acid and tended to have a higher proportion of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yields were similar between treatments. The milk fat and protein percentages were lower for GCS cows, but total yield of these components was similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower and serum urea nitrogen tended to be lower in cows fed canola seed. Serum glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids were not altered, but serum triglycerides were higher in GCS cows. Ammonia and total volatile fatty acids tended to be lower in ruminal fluid from GCS cows; rumen pH was unchanged. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk

  15. Labeling strategies to overcome the problem of niche markets for sustainable milk products: The example of pasture-raised milk.

    PubMed

    Kühl, S; Gassler, B; Spiller, A

    2017-06-01

    Pasture-raised milk is gaining in importance in some European countries and in the United States. The production of pasture-raised milk is linked to higher costs, as the milk is normally collected and processed separately from conventional barn milk. This could hinder the production of sustainable milk products. We discuss alternative labeling strategies that allow the mixing of pasture-raised (sustainable) and conventional milk to reduce costs and break free from the current niche market. The lower price would allow for more pasture-raised milk to be produced and enter the mainstream market. The aim of this study was to analyze consumers' willingness to pay for alternative labeling types using a discrete choice experiment with 1,065 German milk buyers. The 2 alternative labels, besides the classical labeling approach, are based on the mass balance approach (at least 50% pasture-raised milk in a package) and cause-related marketing (support of farmers who keep their cows on pasture). The discrete choice experiment was combined with a cluster analysis to get a deeper understanding of the buying behavior of the diverse consumer segments for milk. We found that all consumer groups prefer the classical label where products are segregated but also understand the benefits of cause-related marketing. The average consumer was willing to pay €0.50 more for pasture-raised milk certified with the classical label and €0.38 more for pasture-raised milk labeled with a cause-related marketing claim. However, differences between the clusters are strong: The smallest cluster of ethically involved consumers (15%) is willing to pay the highest premiums, especially for the classical label. Cause-related marketing is an interesting alternative for involved buyers under price pressure (41%), whereas the mass balance approach is little understood and thus less valued by consumers. From our results we concluded that cause-related marketing (in our case, the support of pasturing of

  16. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.

  17. Prediction of individual milk proteins including free amino acids in bovine milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and their correlations with milk processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    McDermott, A; Visentin, G; De Marchi, M; Berry, D P; Fenelon, M A; O'Connor, P M; Kenny, O A; McParland, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy in predicting milk protein and free amino acid (FAA) composition in bovine milk. Milk samples were collected from 7 Irish research herds and represented cows from a range of breeds, parities, and stages of lactation. Mid-infrared spectral data in the range of 900 to 5,000 cm(-1) were available for 730 milk samples; gold standard methods were used to quantify individual protein fractions and FAA of these samples with a view to predicting these gold standard protein fractions and FAA levels with available mid-infrared spectroscopy data. Separate prediction equations were developed for each trait using partial least squares regression; accuracy of prediction was assessed using both cross validation on a calibration data set (n=400 to 591 samples) and external validation on an independent data set (n=143 to 294 samples). The accuracy of prediction in external validation was the same irrespective of whether undertaken on the entire external validation data set or just within the Holstein-Friesian breed. The strongest coefficient of correlation obtained for protein fractions in external validation was 0.74, 0.69, and 0.67 for total casein, total β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein, respectively. Total proteins (i.e., total casein, total whey, and total lactoglobulin) were predicted with greater accuracy then their respective component traits; prediction accuracy using the infrared spectrum was superior to prediction using just milk protein concentration. Weak to moderate prediction accuracies were observed for FAA. The greatest coefficient of correlation in both cross validation and external validation was for Gly (0.75), indicating a moderate accuracy of prediction. Overall, the FAA prediction models overpredicted the gold standard values. Near-unity correlations existed between total casein and β-casein irrespective of whether the traits were based on the gold standard (0.92) or mid

  18. Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent advances in the molecular dissection of complex traits in dairy sheep and discuss their possible impact on breeding schemes. In the first step, we review the literature data on genetic polymorphisms and the effects of sheep αs1-casein and β-lactoglobulin loci. It is concluded that the results are rather inconsistent and cannot be used in dairy sheep selection. In a second step, we describe the strategy implemented in France, Italy and Spain taking advantage of the genetic maps for QTL detection. These studies were part of a European project, called "genesheepsafety", which investigated both milk production and functional traits. Preliminary QTL results are presented for production traits. PMID:15601591

  19. An effective increase in milk production through triticale feeding.

    PubMed

    Derbal, Nora; Benbelkacem, A; Dib, Y

    2014-01-01

    Since the first studies in Algeria in 1999, 2002 and 2005, triticale has been used in arid and semi-arid areas mainly for livestock production. Efforts have been done for the utilization of triticale as hay, silage and hole grain to feed dairy cattle and small ruminants (sheep). Studies have shown that triticale could be easily integrated in the existing crop-livestock system of northern Algeria. In spite of the good results in the yield performance and adaptation to diverse environments, decision makers are not giving the necessary attention to triticale. Dairy cattle holders that tested the crop have adopted it quickly and developed it in an informal way. Now, more than 90% of the triticale seed business is in the hands of private farmers without any help or subsidies nor a good price policy to develop strongly this crop. The utilization of triticale in Algeria is roughly as follow: human consumption 5%, forage crop (hay or silage) 60% and 30% as feed grain, the remaining 5% are kept for sowing seed. In our studies we have compared different feed sources (barley, triticale, concentrate diet and mixtures) to dairy cattle and sheep. Triticale showed highly significantly better results for meat production and gave also an amazing response for dairy and sheep milk production in Algeria. Milk production of animals fed with triticale over exceeded the other feed sources by 26% to 53%; mean weight gain exhibited the same rates.

  20. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  1. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  2. Costs of necrotizing enterocolitis and cost-effectiveness of exclusively human milk-based products in feeding extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Vaidyanathan; Hay, Joel W; Kim, Jae H

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a 100% human milk-based diet composed of mother's milk fortified with a donor human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF) versus mother's milk fortified with bovine milk-based HMF to initiate enteral nutrition among extremely premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A net expected costs calculator was developed to compare the total NICU costs among extremely premature infants who were fed either a bovine milk-based HMF-fortified diet or a 100% human milk-based diet, based on the previously observed risks of overall necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and surgical NEC in a randomized controlled study that compared outcomes of these two feeding strategies among 207 very low birth weight infants. The average NICU costs for an extremely premature infant without NEC and the incremental costs due to medical and surgical NEC were derived from a separate analysis of hospital discharges in the state of California in 2007. The sensitivity of cost-effectiveness results to the risks and costs of NEC and to prices of milk supplements was studied. The adjusted incremental costs of medical NEC and surgical NEC over and above the average costs incurred for extremely premature infants without NEC, in 2011 US$, were $74,004 (95% confidence interval, $47,051-$100,957) and $198,040 (95% confidence interval, $159,261-$236,819) per infant, respectively. Extremely premature infants fed with 100% human-milk based products had lower expected NICU length of stay and total expected costs of hospitalization, resulting in net direct savings of 3.9 NICU days and $8,167.17 (95% confidence interval, $4,405-$11,930) per extremely premature infant (p < 0.0001). Costs savings from the donor HMF strategy were sensitive to price and quantity of donor HMF, percentage reduction in risk of overall NEC and surgical NEC achieved, and incremental costs of surgical NEC. Compared with feeding extremely premature infants with mother's milk

  3. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P < 0.0001) in actual DMI between the efficient and inefficient groups (±0.5 SD from the mean RFI of 0), with no evidence of differences (P > 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and

  4. Impact of FMD outbreak on milk production and heifers' growth on a dairy herd in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Mohebbi-Fani, Mehdi; Lyons, Nicholas A; Azizi, Nezamaddin

    2017-09-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Middle Eastern countries including Iran but its impact is poorly characterized. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of FMD outbreak on milk production and heifers' growth in an industrial dairy herd located in Fars province, southern Iran. Data about individual milk production, heifers' growth and total daily milk (sold for manufacturing), its fat and protein content and somatic cell counts were collected from the herd database. Based on the results of the linear mixed models, a significant decline in individual milk production after the outbreak was observed compared with before the outbreak. There was a total reduction of 8.0 and 4.7% in mean daily milk production per cow after the outbreak when compared with before (over a 42days outbreak period) in lactation one (P<0.001) and lactation ≥2 cows (P=0.024), respectively. The total daily milk (P=0.027) and protein (P=0.002) showed significant decline during the outbreak period. The fat content decreased after the outbreak (P=0.014). Somatic cell counts did not show significant changes. The recorded heifers' weights (4-17 months of age) showed 7.1kg decrease after the outbreak in comparison with the period before that (P<0.001). In conclusion, we observed a negative impact of FMD outbreak on milk production and heifers' growth in study herd. The impact on daily milk production was less than the values reported previously. This difference could be attributed at least partly to differences in livestock genetics and management practices. Lower growth rate of heifers after the outbreak period could potentially extend the age at first calving. It is suggested that farmers are educated on awareness and preparation for infectious disease outbreaks and to practice good management routines that could potentially reduce the economic impact of these diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations between bovine IGFBP2 polymorphisms with fertility, milk production, and metabolic status in UK dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Clempson, A M; Pollott, G E; Brickell, J S; Wathes, D C

    2012-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP2) is a key regulator of IGF activity that has been associated with insulin resistance and obesity. In cows, IGFBP2 mRNA expression is differentially regulated according to nutritional status in different tissues including the liver, reproductive tract, and mammary gland. This study investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bovine IGFBP2 with fertility, milk production, and metabolic traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Fertility was assessed in heifers by measuring age at first service, age at first conception, and age at first calving. During the first and second lactation, the number of postpartum days for commencement of luteal activity (based on milk progesterone profiles), days to first service, days to conception, average milk production per day, 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, and total days in milk were recorded. Blood samples were taken at -1, +1, and +8 weeks relative to first and second calving for assessment of metabolic status (IGF1, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose). Five novel SNPs were identified in IGFBP2, two of which had significant associations with fertility (age at conception in heifers and commencement of luteal activity) and 305-day milk yield in lactation 1. Trends of association were also observed with the peripartum metabolic status, in particular the glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations around second calving. These results indicate that IGFBP2 SNPs may influence tissue mobilization in dairy cows and may thus be of interest for marker assisted selection.

  6. Cheesemaking in highland pastures: Milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Stocco, G; Valorz, C; Bazzoli, I; Sturaro, E; Ramanzin, M; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    Summer transhumance of dairy cows to high Alpine pastures is still practiced in many mountainous areas. It is important for many permanent dairy farms because the use of highland pastures increases milk production and high-priced typical local dairy products often boost farm income. As traditional cheese- and ricotta-making procedures in Alpine pastures are central to this dairy system, the objective of this study was to characterize the quality and efficiency of products and their relationships with the quality and availability of grass during the grazing season. The milk from 148 cows from 12 permanent farms reared on a temporary farm located in Alpine pastures was processed every 2wk during the summer (7 cheesemakings from late June to early September). During each processing, 11 dairy products (4 types of milk, 2 by-products, 3 fresh products, and 2 ripened cheeses) were sampled and analyzed. In addition, 8 samples of fresh forage from the pasture used by the cows were collected and analyzed. At the beginning of the pasture season the cows were at 233±90d in milk, 2.4±1.7 parities, and produced 23.6±5.7kg/d of milk. The milk yield decreased with the move from permanent to temporary farms and during the entire summer transhumance, but partly recovered after the cows returned to the permanent farms. Similar trends were observed for the daily yields of fat, protein, casein, lactose, and energy, as we found no large variations in the quality of the milk, with the exception of the first period of Alpine pasture. The somatic cell counts of milk increased during transhumance, but this resulted from a concentration of cells in a lower quantity of milk rather than an increase in the total number of cells ejected daily from the udder. We noted a quadratic trend in availability of forage (fresh and dry matter weight per hectare), with a maximum in late July. The quality of forage also varied during the summer with a worsening of chemical composition. The evening milk

  7. Impact of industrial production and packaging processes on the concentration of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Still, Mona; Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Fiedler, Dominik; Wolz, Gerd

    2013-09-25

    Perfluorinated alkylated compounds (PFAA) have been identified in milk and dairy products at sub ppb levels, however, knowledge on the impact of industrial milk processing on PFAA levels is rare. This study examined industrial milk processing first by analytical screening of products of a cooperating dairy, which varied in kind and number of processing steps. Second, amounts of PFAA in raw milk, cream, skim milk, butter milk, and butter were mass balanced in industrial production. For migration testing, unpacked butter was sampled from the production and exposed to original packaging at 5 °C for 45 days. Screening identified dairy products with high fat contents to bear higher loads of PFAA. The mass balance of butter production revealed a significant impact of phase separation processes on concentrations in fat rich and aqueous phases. Storage of butter in packaging coated with a fluorinated polymer increased butter levels of both PFAA and FTOH.

  8. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-08

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  9. Physical and sensory properties of dairy products from cows with various milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Chen, She; Bobe, Gerd; Zimmerman, Shelly; Hammond, Earl G; Luhman, Cindie M; Boylston, Terri D; Freeman, Albert E; Beitz, Donald C

    2004-06-02

    Dairy products from milk of cows fed diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a more health-promoting fatty acid composition and are softer but often have oxidized flavors. Dairy products made from cow's milk that has more- or less-unsaturated fatty acid compositions were tested for differences in texture and flavor from those made from bulk-tank milk. The milk was manufactured into butter, vanilla ice cream, yogurt, Provolone cheese, and Cheddar cheese. The products were analyzed for fatty acid composition, physical properties, and flavor. Milk of cows with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition yielded products with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition that were softer and had a satisfactory flavor. Thus, selection of cows for milk fatty acid composition can be used to produce dairy products that are probably more healthful and have a softer texture.

  10. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., <1/mL) can survive pasteurization and grow in milk and cheese products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in

  11. An overview on the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-06

    A survey was carried out to determine the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA) in various dairy products. CPFA such as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk from cows fed with maize silage. In this paper about 200 dairy samples comprising cow, sheep, and goat milk, cheese, yogurt/fermented milk, and butter were analyzed. Results showed that cow milks were generally positive to CPFA (0.014-0.105% of total fatty acids), while goat, yak, and sheep milks were negative. Experimental yogurt and fermented milks showed the same CPFA content of the starting milk. Positive to CPFA were also the majority of samples of commercial butter and cheeses, except some PDO cheeses as Parmigiano-Reggiano and Fontina, cheeses from mountain regions, and goat and sheep cheeses. These data suggest that the presence of CPFA in dairy products could be used as a marker of silage feeding.

  12. Removal of fat from cow's milk decreases the vitamin E contents of the resulting dairy products.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, S; Wander, R; Leonard, S; German, B; Traber, M G

    2001-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether decreases in fat contents result in lower vitamin E contents. Milk samples of varying fat contents (half and half, whole milk, reduced-fat milk, low-fat milk, and nonfat milk) were obtained from a local dairy on six different occasions. alpha-Tocopherol was the major form of vitamin E (>85%); gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol were present to a lesser extent. As the fat contents of milk products decreased from 11 to 0.3%, the vitamin E contents decreased. For example, raw milk as compared to nonfat milk had both higher (-tocopherol contents (45.5 +/- 4.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.5 microg/100 g; P < or = 0.0001) and higher total lipids (3.46 +/- 0.49 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.07 g/100 g; P < or = 0.0001). Vitamin E, cholesterol, and total lipids increased as cream was added back to nonfat milk during production. For every 1 mg cholesterol increase, there was an increase of approximately 4 microg of alpha-tocopherol; for every 1 g total lipids increase, the alpha-tocopherol content increased by 17 microg. These data demonstrate that removal of milk fat markedly decreases the vitamin E content of various milk products.

  13. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product-Drug Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4'- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27-66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2-8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19-73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65-120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20-310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product-drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention.

  14. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists of several steps to evaluate lifetime milk production and individual cow somatic cell counts and to finally predict the average production for each day that the cow is alive. Herd recording data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to train and test a model predicting milk production (including factors associated with milk yield, somatic cell count, and the survival of individual cows). All estimated parameters were either herd- or cow-specific. The model prediction deviated, on average, less than 0.5 kg from the future average milk production of dairy cows in multiple herds after adjusting for the effect of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach presented in this paper is that it requires no specific knowledge of disease status or any other information beyond herd recorded milk yields, somatic cell counts, and reproductive status. PMID:28261585

  15. Compliance status of product labels to the international code on marketing of breast milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Ahmet; Hatipoğlu, Celile; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Erdoğan, Aslı; Güler, Serdar; Ince, Gülberat; Kavurgacı, Nuran; Oz, Ahmet; Yeniay, Mustafa K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the compliance status of product labels regarding Article 9 of the International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) in Denizli province, Turkey. A cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the compliance status. The product labels were obtained from a convenience sample of five supermarkets, one store and 5 pharmacies in the City centre and district of Honaz. Using a data collection form prepared by previously published studies, data were collected between July 26, 2010 and August 06, 2010. Data collection form included 13 criteria. In addition, we checked the boxes for the availability of a Turkish written label. Forty product labels of 7 companies were reached and evaluated. These products consisted of 83.0% of the products marketed by these companies in Turkey. Thirty seven (92.5%) of the labels violated Article 9 of the Code in terms of one or more criteria. Thirty four (85.0%) of the labels had photos or pictures idealizing the use of infant formula. Nine (22.5%) had a photo, a picture or any representation of an infant, and five (12.5%) had text which idealize the use of infant formula or discouraging breastfeeding. Eight (20%) did not state that breastfeeding is the best. Four (10%) had a term such as 'similar to breast milk or human milk'. In conclusion, the majority of the product labels of breast milk substitutes marketed in our country violate the Code. It is appropriate that the Turkish Ministry of Health, medical organizations, companies, and NGOs work more actively to increase awareness of this issue.

  16. Genetic parameters of milk production traits and fatty acid contents in milk for Holstein cows in parity 1-3.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein contents, somatic cell count, and 17 groups and individual milk fatty acid (FA) contents predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry for first-, second- and third-parity Holstein cows. Edited data included records collected in the Walloon region of Belgium from 37,768 cows in parity 1,22,566 cows in parity 2 and 8221 in parity 3. A total of 69 (23 traits for three parities) single-trait random regression animal test-day models were run. Approximate genetic correlations among traits were inferred from pairwise regressions among estimated breeding values of cow having observations. Heritability and genetic correlation estimates from this study reflected the origins of FA: de novo synthetized or originating from the diet and the body fat mobilization. Averaged daily heritabilities of FA contents in milk ranged between 0.18 and 0.47. Average daily genetic correlations (averaged across days in milk and parities) among groups and individual FA contents in milk ranged between 0.31 and 0.99. The genetic variability of FAs in combination with the moderate to high heritabilities indicated that FA contents in milk could be changed by genetic selection; however, desirable direction of change in these traits remains unclear and should be defined with respect to all issues of importance related to milk FA.

  17. Cleaner production opportunity assessment for a milk processing facility.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, A; Demirer, G N

    2007-09-01

    Possible cleaner production (CP) opportunities for a milk processing facility were examined in this study. The CP concept and its key tools of implementation were used to assess the potential CP opportunities in the facility studied. The general production process and its resulting environmental loads were investigated by taking possible CP opportunities as the basis of study. The methodology developed for CP opportunity assessment in the milk processing facility covered two major steps: preparation of checklists to assist auditing and CP opportunity assessment, and implementation of the mass-balance analysis. For mass-balance analysis, measurements and experimental analysis of the mass flows were utilized to determine the inputs and outputs. Prepared checklists were utilized to determine waste reduction options that could be implemented. Selected opportunities were evaluated considering their environmental benefits and economic feasibility. The results of the study indicated that 50% of the service water used, 9.3% of the current wastewater (WW) discharge, 65.36% of the chemical use and the discharge of 181.9 kg/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 20.7 kg/day of total suspended solids (TSS) could be eliminated and 19.6% of the service water used could be recycled/reused.

  18. Palmitic acid increased yields of milk and milk fat and nutrient digestibility across production level of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of palmitic acid supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, and metabolic and production responses were evaluated in dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (34.5 to 66.2 kg/d) in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (151 ± 66 d in milk) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet DM) with palmitic acid (PA; 99% C16:0) or control (SH; soyhulls). Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Immediately before the first treatment period, cows were fed the control diet for 21 d and baseline values were obtained for all variables (covariate period). Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as covariate. In general, no interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the response variables measured. The PA treatment increased milk fat percentage (3.40 vs. 3.29%) and yields of milk (46.0 vs. 44.9 kg/d), milk fat (1.53 vs. 1.45 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.6 vs. 42.9 kg/d), compared with SH. Concentrations and yields of protein and lactose were not affected by treatment. The PA treatment did not affect dry matter (DM) intake or body weight, tended to decrease body condition score (2.93 vs. 2.99), and increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DM intake; 1.60 vs. 1.54), compared with SH. The PA treatment increased total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (39.0 vs.35.7%) and organic matter (67.9 vs. 66.2%), but decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (61.2 vs. 71.3%). As total FA intake increased, total FA digestibility decreased (R(2) = 0.51) and total FA absorbed increased (quadratic R(2) = 0.82). Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was 11.7% for total FA and 16.5% for C16:0 plus cis-9 C16:1 FA

  19. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching.

  20. A comparison of the environmental impact of Jersey compared with Holstein milk for cheese production.

    PubMed

    Capper, J L; Cady, R A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the environmental impact of Jersey or Holstein milk production sufficient to yield 500,000 t of cheese (equivalent cheese yield) both with and without recombinant bovine somatotropin use. The deterministic model used 2009 DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC) population data for milk yield and composition (Jersey: 20.9 kg/d, 4.8% fat, 3.7% protein; Holstein: 29.1 kg/d, 3.8% fat, 3.1% protein), age at first calving, calving interval, and culling rate. Each population contained lactating and dry cows, bulls, and herd replacements for which rations were formulated according to DairyPro (Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems, Cornell, Ithaca, NY) at breed-appropriate body weights (BW), with mature cows weighing 454 kg (Jersey) or 680 kg (Holstein). Resource inputs included feedstuffs, water, land, fertilizers, and fossil fuels. Waste outputs included manure and greenhouse gas emissions. Cheese yield (kg) was calculated according to the Van Slyke equation. A yield of 500,000 t of cheese required 4.94 billion kg of Holstein milk compared with 3.99 billion kg of Jersey milk-a direct consequence of differences in milk nutrient density (fat and protein contents) between the 2 populations. The reduced daily milk yield of Jersey cows increased the population size required to supply sufficient milk for the required cheese yield, but the differential in BW between the Jersey and Holstein breeds reduced the body mass of the Jersey population by 125×10(3) t. Consequently, the population energy requirement was reduced by 7,177×10(6) MJ, water use by 252×10(9) L, and cropland use by 97.5×10(3) ha per 500,000 t of cheese yield. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion were reduced by 17,234 and 1,492 t, respectively, through the use of Jersey milk to yield 500,000 t of Cheddar cheese. The carbon footprint was reduced by 1,662×10(3) t of CO(2)-equivalents per 500,000 t of cheese in Jersey cows compared with

  1. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events.

    PubMed

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-12-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from questionnaires, pathology reports, and patients' charts from 592 patients without preoperative treatment. Breast-feeding duration ≤12 months of the first child was associated with higher frequency of ER+/PgR+ tumors (P=0.02). Median follow-up time was 4.9 years. Higher risk for early events was observed for breast-feeding duration of first child >12 months (LogRank P=0.001), total breast-feeding duration >12 months (LogRank P=0.008), as well as 'excessive milk production' during breast-feeding of the first child (LogRank P=0.001). Patients with 'almost no milk production' had no events. In a multivariable model including both 'excessive milk production' and breast-feeding duration of the first child >12 months, both were associated with a two-fold risk for early events, adjusted HRs 2.33 (95% CI: 1.25-4.36) and 2.39 (0.97-5.85), respectively, while total breast-feeding duration was not. 'Excessive milk production' was associated with a two-fold risk of early distant metastases, adjusted HR 2.59 (1.13-5.94), but not duration. In conclusion, 'excessive milk production' during breast-feeding was associated with higher risk for early events independent of tumor characteristics, stressing the need to consider host factors in the evaluation of prognostic markers.

  2. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    PubMed Central

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. Objective This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Results The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. Conclusion The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases

  3. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have

  4. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  5. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality.

  6. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-02-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry.

  7. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-01-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry. PMID:2536940

  8. Proteomic characterization of intermediate and advanced glycation end-products in commercial milk samples.

    PubMed

    Renzone, Giovanni; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-03-18

    The Maillard reaction consists of a number of chemical processes affecting the structure of the proteins present in foods. We previously accomplished the proteomic characterization of the lactosylation targets in commercial milk samples. Although characterizing the early modification derivatives, this analysis did not describe the corresponding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which may be formed from the further oxidation of former ones or by reaction of oxidized sugars with proteins, when high temperatures are exploited. To fill this gap, we have used combined proteomic procedures for the systematic characterization of the lactosylated and AGE-containing proteins from the soluble and milk fat globule membrane fraction of various milk products. Besides to confirm all lactulosyl-lysines described previously, 40 novel lactosylation sites were identified. More importantly, 308 additional intermediate and advanced glyco-oxidation derivatives (including cross-linking adducts) were characterized in 31 proteins, providing the widest qualitative inventory of modified species ascertained in commercial milk samples so far. Amadori adducts with glucose/galactose, their dehydration products, carboxymethyllysine and glyoxal-, 3-deoxyglucosone/3-deoxygalactosone- and 3-deoxylactosone-derived dihydroxyimidazolines and/or hemiaminals were the most frequent derivatives observed. Depending on thermal treatment, a variable number of modification sites was identified within each protein; their number increased with harder food processing conditions. Among the modified proteins, species involved in assisting the delivery of nutrients, defense response against pathogens and cellular proliferation/differentiation were highly affected by AGE formation. This may lead to a progressive decrease of the milk nutritional value, as it reduces the protein functional properties, abates the bioavailability of the essential amino acids and eventually affects food digestibility. These aspects

  9. Short communication: Estimation of the financial benefit of using Jersey milk at different inclusion rates for Cheddar cheese production using partial budgeting.

    PubMed

    Bland, J H; Bailey, A P; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

    2015-03-01

    Partial budgeting was used to estimate the net benefit of blending Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk for Cheddar cheese production. Jersey milk increases Cheddar cheese yield. However, the cost of Jersey milk is also higher; thus, determining the balance of profitability is necessary, including consideration of seasonal effects. Input variables were based on a pilot plant experiment run from 2012 to 2013 and industry milk and cheese prices during this period. When Jersey milk was used at an increasing rate with Holstein-Friesian milk (25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk), it resulted in an increase of average net profit of 3.41, 6.44, 8.57, and 11.18 pence per kilogram of milk, respectively, and this additional profit was constant throughout the year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input on additional profit was cheese yield, whereas cheese price and milk price had a small effect. The minimum increase in yield, which was necessary for the use of Jersey milk to be profitable, was 2.63, 7.28, 9.95, and 12.37% at 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk, respectively. Including Jersey milk did not affect the quantity of whey butter and powder produced. Although further research is needed to ascertain the amount of additional profit that would be found on a commercial scale, the results indicate that using Jersey milk for Cheddar cheese making would lead to an improvement in profit for the cheese makers, especially at higher inclusion rates. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced milk production in udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and associated economic losses in crossbred dairy cows in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Shiferaw, Y; Kassa, T; Baumann, M P O

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred dairy cows in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A split udder investigation was performed with 30 cows to determine production losses associated with SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Production losses were determined for different CMT scores by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0 to quarters with CMT scores trace, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using data from a recently published study, economic losses were determined for different farm sizes and production subsystems by multiplying the prevalence of the respective CMT scores with the production losses associated with these CMT scores. Mean quarter milk production was 0.82 +/- 0.40 kg per milking in the split udder trial. Milk production was reduced by 1.2%, 6.3%, and 33% in quarters with CMT scores 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. Using data from the published study, a quarter with SCM lost an average of 17.2% of its milk production. Production losses associated with SCM were estimated at 5.6% for the Addis Ababa Milk Shed. Stratified losses were highest (9.3%) in urban dairy farms (UDF) and small-scale farms (6.3%). The estimates of the financial losses ranged from US dollars 29.1 in dairy herds in secondary towns (DHIST) to US dollars 66.6 in UDF. A total loss of US dollars 38 was estimated for each cow per lactation. Reducing mastitis in UDF (highest prevalence) to the level of DHIST (lowest prevalence) could reduce the loss by US dollars 35. As this does not include costs associated with treatment or culling of diseased cows, this figure probably underestimates the possible benefits of control measures.

  11. Role of Lanthanides in the Traceability of the Milk Production Chain.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Musso, Davide; Calà, Elisa; Arieri, Fabio; Oddone, Matteo

    2017-05-24

    The traceability and authentication of milk were studied using trace and ultratrace elements as chemical markers. Among these variables, the group of lanthanides resulted in being particularly useful for this purpose as a result of their homogeneous distribution inside milk, which showed on the contrary to be intrinsically inhomogeneous from the elemental point of view. Using in this pilot study milk samples from a factory in Piedmont (Italy), we demonstrated that the distribution of lanthanides can be used as a fingerprint to put into relation the soil of the pasture land on which cows graze and the bottled milk produced in the factory. In fact, the distribution is maintained nearly unaltered along the production chain of milk, apart from the passage into the stomachs of the cows. Using the same variables, it was possible to discriminate between milk produced in the factory and milk samples taken from the large-scale retail trade.

  12. Improving the quantity, quality and transparency of data used to derive radionuclide transfer parameters for animal products. 1. Goat milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Wells, C; Barnett, C L

    2016-04-01

    Under the MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency), there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides. The approach taken for animal products is outlined here and the first revised table for goat milk is provided. Data from some references used in TRS 472 were removed and reasons given for removal. Particular efforts were made to improve the number of CR (concentration ratio) values which have some advantages over transfer coefficients. There is little difference in most of the new CR and Fm (transfer coefficient) values for goat milk compared with those in TRS 472. In TRS 472, 21 CR values were reported for goat milk. In the 2015 dataset for goat milk CR values for a further 14 elements are now included. The CR and Fm values for only one element (Co) were removed.

  13. Genomic selection using indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, H Hansen; Fikse, W F; Kargo, M; Sørensen, A C; Johansson, K; Rydhmer, L

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this simulation study was to test the hypothesis that phenotype information of specific indicator traits of environmental importance recorded on a small-scale can be implemented in breeding schemes with genomic selection to reduce the environmental impact of milk production. A stochastic simulation was undertaken to test alternative breeding strategies. The breeding goal consisted of milk production, a functional trait, and environmental impact (EI). The indicator traits (IT) for EI were categorized as large-, medium-, or small-scale, depending on how the traits were recorded. The large-scale traits were stayability and stature; the medium-scale traits were live weight and methane in the breath of the cow measured during milking; and the small-scale traits were residual feed intake and methane recorded in a respiration chamber. Simulated scenarios considered information for just one IT in addition to information for milk production and functional traits. The annual monetary genetic gain was highest in the large-scale scenario that included stayability as IT. The annual monetary gain in the scenarios with medium- or small-scale IT varied from €50.5 to 47.5. The genetic gain improvement in EI was, however, best in the scenarios where the genetic correlation between IT and EI was ≥0.30 and the accuracy of direct genomic value was ≥0.40. The genetic gain in EI was 26 to 34% higher when indicator traits such as greenhouse gases in the breath of the cow and methane recorded in respiration chamber were used compared with a scenario where no indicator trait was included. It is possible to achieve increased genetic gain in EI by using a highly correlated indicator trait, but it requires that the established reference population for the indicator trait is large enough so that the accuracy of direct genomic values will be reasonably high. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of pigeon milk production - role of cornification and triglyceride synthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Meagan J; Crowley, Tamsyn M; Haring, Volker R; Wilson, Susanne L; Harper, Jennifer A; Payne, Jean S; Green, Diane; Monaghan, Paul; Stanley, Dragana; Donald, John A; Nicholas, Kevin R; Moore, Robert J

    2013-03-13

    The pigeon crop is specially adapted to produce milk that is fed to newly hatched young. The process of pigeon milk production begins when the germinal cell layer of the crop rapidly proliferates in response to prolactin, which results in a mass of epithelial cells that are sloughed from the crop and regurgitated to the young. We proposed that the evolution of pigeon milk built upon the ability of avian keratinocytes to accumulate intracellular neutral lipids during the cornification of the epidermis. However, this cornification process in the pigeon crop has not been characterised. We identified the epidermal differentiation complex in the draft pigeon genome scaffold and found that, like the chicken, it contained beta-keratin genes. These beta-keratin genes can be classified, based on sequence similarity, into several clusters including feather, scale and claw keratins. The cornified cells of the pigeon crop express several cornification-associated genes including cornulin, S100-A9 and A16-like, transglutaminase 6-like and the pigeon 'lactating' crop-specific annexin cp35. Beta-keratins play an important role in 'lactating' crop, with several claw and scale keratins up-regulated. Additionally, transglutaminase 5 and differential splice variants of transglutaminase 4 are up-regulated along with S100-A10. This study of global gene expression in the crop has expanded our knowledge of pigeon milk production, in particular, the mechanism of cornification and lipid production. It is a highly specialised process that utilises the normal keratinocyte cellular processes to produce a targeted nutrient solution for the young at a very high turnover.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of pigeon milk production – role of cornification and triglyceride synthesis genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pigeon crop is specially adapted to produce milk that is fed to newly hatched young. The process of pigeon milk production begins when the germinal cell layer of the crop rapidly proliferates in response to prolactin, which results in a mass of epithelial cells that are sloughed from the crop and regurgitated to the young. We proposed that the evolution of pigeon milk built upon the ability of avian keratinocytes to accumulate intracellular neutral lipids during the cornification of the epidermis. However, this cornification process in the pigeon crop has not been characterised. Results We identified the epidermal differentiation complex in the draft pigeon genome scaffold and found that, like the chicken, it contained beta-keratin genes. These beta-keratin genes can be classified, based on sequence similarity, into several clusters including feather, scale and claw keratins. The cornified cells of the pigeon crop express several cornification-associated genes including cornulin, S100-A9 and A16-like, transglutaminase 6-like and the pigeon ‘lactating’ crop-specific annexin cp35. Beta-keratins play an important role in ‘lactating’ crop, with several claw and scale keratins up-regulated. Additionally, transglutaminase 5 and differential splice variants of transglutaminase 4 are up-regulated along with S100-A10. Conclusions This study of global gene expression in the crop has expanded our knowledge of pigeon milk production, in particular, the mechanism of cornification and lipid production. It is a highly specialised process that utilises the normal keratinocyte cellular processes to produce a targeted nutrient solution for the young at a very high turnover. PMID:23497009

  16. Differential rumination, intake, and enteric methane production of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Watt, L J; Clark, C E F; Krebs, G L; Petzel, C E; Nielsen, S; Utsumi, S A

    2015-10-01

    Proper performance monitoring of cows on pasture-based diets is crucial to inform nutritional recommendations that minimize undesirable effects of high ruminant CH4 emissions into the environment. The prediction of linkages between rumination patterns, methane emissions, and correlated production traits of cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system was tested. A previous 10-d baseline measurement of rumination activity by acoustic methodology of 156 Holstein-Friesian cows was used for frequency analysis of rumination time and identification of 2 treatment groups (n = 37 cows/group) represented by cows with consistently high (HR; 75th rumination percentile = 617.55 ± 81.37 min/d) or low (LR; 25th rumination percentile = 356.65 ± 72.67 min/d) rumination. The HR and LR cows were paired by nearest parity, days in milk, body weight (BW), and previous 10-d milk production, and within pairs randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups managed on a voluntary milking system with diets consisting of at least 75% pasture, plus concentrates. Animal traits, including rumination time, mass flux of CH4 (QCH4) and carbon dioxide (QCO2), milk production, and estimated dry matter intake according to individual QCO2 fluxes over a 22-d period were analyzed with repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design, structural equation modeling, and nonlinear regression. High rumination and methane was seen in older and heavier cows that had greater estimated dry matter intake and milk production. A consistent difference in rumination time and QCH4 across days was detected between HR and LR, even after adjustment for metabolic BW. Estimated dry matter intake had direct positive effects on rumination and QCH4, but no independent direct effect of rumination on QCH4 was detected. The LR cows produced more QCH4/milk, associated with lower milk, BW, concentrate intake, and greater activity at pasture. A typical dilution of maintenance effect on QCH4/milk was detected

  17. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  18. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, M R; Valtorta, S E; Leva, P E; Gaggiotti, M C; Conti, G A; Gregoret, R F

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  19. Socioeconomic and productive characterization of dual-purpose farms oriented to milk production in a subtropical region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Avilés-Nova, Francisca; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic, production characteristics and milk production cost of dual-purpose farms (DPF) oriented to milk production in a subtropical region of Central Mexico. The study focused on ten DPF that produce milk all year round, to gather socioeconomic characteristics of farmers (age, family structure, education level), farm resources (land holding, herd structure, infrastructure, management) and economic information during the year 2008. Family labour (FL) covers 66% of labour needs. The average milk production cost was US$0.21, fluctuating from US$0.19 to US$0.31 during the rainy and dry season, respectively. Supplements and hired labour (HL) accounted for 48 and 35% of milk production cost, respectively. Milk production generated daily incomes that covered daily operation costs of farms, as well as the economic needs of the farming family. Calves represented important incomes that ranged between 30 and 50% of total annual farm incomes, cashed in once or twice a year. Milk production provides economic stability to DPF, whereas FL and low input use are key elements that allow low costs in the production of milk and calves in DPF in Central Mexico.

  20. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink anything calcium-enriched, make sure it's also dairy-free. Milk and milk products can lurk in ... margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another product that may contain ...

  1. Detection of IL-6 in human milk and its involvement in IgA production.

    PubMed

    Saito, S; Maruyama, M; Kato, Y; Moriyama, I; Ichijo, M

    1991-09-01

    A large amount of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was found to be contained in human whey. The concentration of IL-6 in colostrum was significantly higher than that in serum or in milk taken 1 month after parturition. Colostrum contained many more mononuclear cells than late milk. In terms of the proportion of monocytes, T cells and B cells, however, there is no difference between colostrum and late milk. There is a significantly positive correlation between the concentration of IL-6 and the number of mononuclear cells in milk. This demonstrates that IL-6 in whey is derived in part from mononuclear cells. Stimulation of human milk mononuclear cells by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody markedly decreased the production of IgA. This suggests that IL-6 contained in milk is closely associated with the local production of IgA in the breast.

  2. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

  3. A quantitative study of enterotoxin production by sheep milk staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, L; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    1988-01-01

    Of 124 staphylococcal strains isolated from sheep milk, 78 produced enterotoxin A, B, C, or D when evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enterotoxins A and D, elaborated by 44 and 43 strains, respectively, showed the highest incidence. Enterotoxin production by coagulase-negative strains (one Staphylococcus cohnii, three S. epidermidis, five S. haemolyticus, and four S. xylosus) was detected. Linear and logarithmic-logarithmic regressions of optical density on enterotoxin concentration yielded the best-fitting equations for enterotoxin quantitation. A significantly higher incidence of enterotoxin producers and significantly higher levels of enterotoxins produced were recorded for coagulase-positive, thermostable nuclease-positive, hemolysis-positive, or mannitol-positive strains. Mannitol utilization was the best test for discriminating between enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic staphylococci. PMID:3355142

  4. [Recovery of Staphylococcus aureus after acid injury in milk products].

    PubMed

    Assis, E M; De Carvalho, E P; Asquieri, E R; Robbs, P G

    1994-01-01

    The growth behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh Cheese (Minas and Muzzarella) during their shelf-life was studied. The possible injury of this microorganism caused by the increasing acidity was also investigated. Raw milk was inoculated with 10(6) cells/ml (S. aureus FRIA-100) and the cheese production was performed according to normal procedures. Minas and muzzarella cheese were stored at 7 degrees C for 40 and 60 days, respectively. At 2-3 days intervals, the following analysis were performed: acidity, pH, S. aureus counting using agar Baird Parker by the traditional methods and by the method recommended by the American Public Health Association to evaluate the reparation of injured cells. We had a secure indication of the presence of injured S. aureus when acidity was in the range of 0.7 to 0.8% expressed in lactic acid and when the cycle was 1.3 log higher than the traditional one.

  5. Associations of high and low milk protein concentrations with energy allocation, milk production, and concentrations of blood plasma metabolites and hormones in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M L; Marett, L C; Macmillan, K L; Morton, J M; Hannah, M C; Fisher, A D; Auldist, M J

    2016-12-01

    A positive association between milk protein concentration (MPC) and reproductive performance in dairy cows has been shown in several studies globally. This association may positively influence farm productivity and profitability, particularly in seasonally calving, pasture-based herds. However, the differences in milk production and energy allocation, physical characteristics, and blood plasma nutrient status between cows with differing MPC have not been examined, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association remain undefined. The objective of this study was to examine associations between MPC and nutrient partitioning in primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows managed under pasture-based dairying conditions, and to identify differences that may indicate the underlying mechanisms. Data were collected from 85 cows at regular intervals during the early part of the 2013 to 2014 seasonal lactation, including daily milk yield, weekly milk composition, weekly body condition score measurements, as well as weekly blood plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. Cows were retrospectively separated into quartiles based on their average MPC during the first 120d of lactation, and comparisons were made between cows within the highest (high; 3.22 to 3.40%) and the lowest (low; 2.87 to 3.00%) MPC quartiles. The high-MPC cows had lower daily milk yields, yet did not differ in the daily yields of milk solids (protein + fat) compared with the low-MPC cows. After parturition, the high-MPC cows had greater blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin compared with the low-MPC cows and maintained their body condition score, despite no differences in these variables prepartum. These results indicate an increased partitioning of nutrients toward milk synthesis at the expense of body condition for cows in the low MPC quartile. However, average daily energy outputs in milk were similar in the high- and low-MPC cows. The high

  6. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43−0.76;p≤0.0001) and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51−0.87;p = 0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54−0.93;p = 0.005) and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59−1.05;p>0.05) who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00−2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08−2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and

  7. Genetic and environmental relationships between body condition score and milk production traits in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Loker, S; Bastin, C; Miglior, F; Sewalem, A; Schaeffer, L R; Jamrozik, J; Ali, A; Osborne, V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters of first-lactation body condition score (BCS), milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), somatic cell score (SCS), milk urea nitrogen (MUN), lactose percentage (Lact%), and fat to protein ratio (F:P) using multiple-trait random regression animal models. Changes in covariances between BCS and milk production traits on a daily basis have not been investigated before and could be useful for determining which BCS estimated breeding values (EBV) might be practical for selection in the future. Field staff from Valacta milk recording agency (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) collected BCS from Québec herds several times per cow throughout the lactation. Average daily heritabilities and genetic correlations among the various traits were similar to literature values. On an average daily basis, BCS was genetically unfavorably correlated with milk yield (i.e., increased milk yield was associated with lower body condition). The unfavorable genetic correlation between BCS and milk yield became stronger as lactation progressed, but was equivalent to zero for the first month of lactation. Favorable genetic correlations were found between BCS with Prot%, SCS, and Lact% (i.e., greater BCS was associated with greater Prot%, lower SCS, and greater Lact%). These correlations were strongest in early lactation. On an average daily basis, BCS was not genetically correlated with Fat% or MUN, but was negatively correlated with F:P. Furthermore, BCS at 5 and 50 d in milk (DIM) had the most favorable genetic correlations with milk production traits over the lactation (at 5, 50, 150, and 250 DIM). Thus, early lactation BCS EBV shows potential for selection. Regardless, this study showed that the level of association BCS has with milk production traits is not constant over the lactation. Simultaneous selection for both BCS and milk production traits should be considered, mainly due to the unfavorable

  8. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  9. Associations between individual cow factors and milk-protein production.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Martin, S W; Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; Gibson, J P; Scott, H M; Kelton, D F

    1998-02-06

    Associations between stage of lactation, cow characteristics, and protein production were evaluated using data from a 2-year period on 75 Ontario, 5 Alberta, and 3 Nova Scotia dairy farms. Individual-cow protein production was defined by 305-day protein yield and by the estimated breeding value for protein yield. Lactation curves for average daily protein yield were computed by parity, breed, and season of calving. Mean protein yield was highest in early lactation. However, there was no pronounced peak in daily protein yield. Parity was positively associated with 305-day protein yield and negatively associated with the estimated breeding values for protein yield. First-calf heifers had lower protein yields in early lactation and a slower rate of decline in protein yield in late lactation, as compared to later parity cows. Holstein cows had higher unadjusted protein yields and lower protein yields after adjusting for milk yield than other breeds. Holstein cows had significantly higher protein yields early in lactation compared to other breeds, but the rate of decline in protein production in late lactation was also greater. Season was associated with 305-day protein yield; the highest protein yields occurred in cows calving in the fall and winter months, but these cows had the greatest rate of decline in protein production in late lactation.

  10. Milk Hygiene in Rural Southwestern Uganda: Prevalence of Mastitis and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Contaminants of Milk and Milk Products

    PubMed Central

    Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Bahizi, Gloria; Setumba, Christopher; Kisaka, Stevens M. B.; Vudriko, Patrick; Atuheire, Collins; Kabasa, John David

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda) where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee. Seventy-one milk, fourteen yoghurt, and three ghee samples were collected from nine farms. Of the 71 cows tested, 54 (76.1%) had mastitis. The mastitis cases from Keshunga were 32 (59.3%) and Kashongi contributed 22 (40.7%) of the cases. The common mastitis causative agents were Staphylococcus spp. (30.8%), Streptococcus spp. (12.3%), Corynebacterium spp.(15.4%), and E. coli (7.7%). Some of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Prevalent contaminants of yoghurt were Staphylococcus spp. (8.3%), Streptococcus spp. (8.3%), Corynebacterium spp. (8.3%), and E. coli (8.3%), whereas all ghee contained Streptococcus spp. (100%). Prevalence of mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, and contamination of milk products are high in the study area. Targeted programs to prevent and control mastitis as well as antibiotic resistance are recommended. PMID:28246573

  11. Milk Hygiene in Rural Southwestern Uganda: Prevalence of Mastitis and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Contaminants of Milk and Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Bahizi, Gloria; Setumba, Christopher; Kisaka, Stevens M B; Vudriko, Patrick; Atuheire, Collins; Kabasa, John David; Kaneene, John B

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda) where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee. Seventy-one milk, fourteen yoghurt, and three ghee samples were collected from nine farms. Of the 71 cows tested, 54 (76.1%) had mastitis. The mastitis cases from Keshunga were 32 (59.3%) and Kashongi contributed 22 (40.7%) of the cases. The common mastitis causative agents were Staphylococcus spp. (30.8%), Streptococcus spp. (12.3%), Corynebacterium spp.(15.4%), and E. coli (7.7%). Some of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Prevalent contaminants of yoghurt were Staphylococcus spp. (8.3%), Streptococcus spp. (8.3%), Corynebacterium spp. (8.3%), and E. coli (8.3%), whereas all ghee contained Streptococcus spp. (100%). Prevalence of mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, and contamination of milk products are high in the study area. Targeted programs to prevent and control mastitis as well as antibiotic resistance are recommended.

  12. Pilot production of recombinant human clotting factor IX from transgenic sow milk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-ling; Chang, Yuo-sheng; Lin, Yin-shen; Yen, Chon-ho

    2012-06-01

    Valuable pharmaceutical proteins produced from the mammary glands of transgenic livestock have potential use in the biomedical industry. In this study, recombinant human clotting factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic sow milk for preclinical animal studies have been established. The transgenic sow milk was skimmed and treated with sodium phosphate buffer to remove abundant casein protein. Then, the γ-carboxylated rhFIX fraction was segregated through the Q Sepharose chromatography from uncarboxylated one. For safety issue, the process included virus inactivation by solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment. Subsequently, the S/D treated sample was loaded into the Heparin Sepharose column to recover the rhFIX fraction, which was then reapplied to the Heparin Sepharose column to enhance rhFIX purity and lower the ratio of activated form rhFIX (rhFIXa) easily. This was possible due to the higher affinity of the Heparin affinity sorbent for rhFIXa than for the rhFIX zymogen. Furthermore, an IgA removal column was used to eliminate porcine IgA in purified rhFIX. Finally, nanofiltration was performed for viral clearance. Consequently, a high-quality rhFIX product was produced (approximately 700 mg per batch). Other values for final rhFIX preparation were as follows: purity, >99%; average specific activity, 415.6±57.7 IU/mL and total milk impurity, <0.5 ng/mg. This is the first report that described the whole process and stable production of bioactive rhFIX from transgenic sow milk. The overall manufacturing process presented here has the potential for industrial production of rhFIX for treatment of hemophilia B patients.

  13. Effect of rumen-protected methionine on feed intake, milk production, true milk protein concentration, and true milk protein yield, and the factors that influence these effects: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patton, R A

    2010-05-01

    A meta-analysis of published studies was used to investigate the effect of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) added to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on dry matter intake, milk production, true milk protein (TMP) production, and milk fat yield. Differences in responses between 2 commonly used RPM products, Mepron (Evonik Industries, Hanau, Germany) and Smartamine (Adisseo, Antony, France), were investigated as well as dietary and animal factors that could influence responses. Diets were coded with respect to the amino acid (AA) deficiency of the control diet as predicted by the AminoCow model (version 3.5.2, http://www.makemilknotmanure.com/aminocow.php; 0=no AA deficiency, 1=Met deficiency, 2=Met and Lys deficiency, 3=Met and Lys plus at least 1 other AA deficiency) to test the effect of AA deficiencies on RPM response. Thirty-five studies were identified, 17 studies evaluating Mepron, 18 studies evaluating Smartamine, and 1 study evaluating both. This permitted 75 dietary comparisons between control and RPM-added diets. Diets were entered into the AminoCow and the 2001 National Research Council models to compare predictions of Met, Lys, and metabolizable protein (MP) flow. Mean Met and Lys in diets where RPM was fed were estimated to be 2.35 and 6.33% of MP, respectively. Predictions of flows between models were similar. Overall, RPM addition to diets increased production of TMP, both as percentage (0.07%) and yield (27 g/d). Dry matter intake and milk fat percentage were slightly decreased, whereas milk production was slightly increased. Differences between products were detected for all production variables, with Mepron-fed cows producing less TMP percentage but greater milk production, resulting in twice as much TMP yield. Milk protein response to RPM was not related to predicted AA deficiency, calculated Met deficiency, or Met as a percentage of MP. Other dietary factors, including Lys flow (g/d), Lys as percentage of MP, neutral detergent fiber percentage

  14. The contribution of milk and milk products to micronutrient density and affordability of the U.S. diet.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-10-01

    To be successful, dietary guidance needs to identify foods that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing. Analyses of dietary surveys on "what we eat in America" can now be supplemented by analyses of nutrient density as well as nutrient cost. To explore the relative contribution of 9 food groups to energy and nutrient intakes and to assess the relative cost of selected nutrients by major food group. Dietary intake data were provided by the 4 cycles of the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008). Research on the nutritive value and cost of U.S. foods was made possible by the merging of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS 2.0) with the USDA food prices database. Nutrient densities were calculated per 100 kcal. Nutrient costs were calculated as the dollar cost of meeting 10% daily value for a given nutrient. Despite their low energy contribution (10%-13% of energy), milk and milk products contributed 47% of calcium, 42% of retinol, and 65% of vitamin D to the diets of children and adults. Milk and milk products were among the top sources of riboflavin, phosphorous, and vitamin B(12). Cost analyses showed that milk and milk products were by far the lowest-cost source of dietary calcium and were among the lowest-cost sources of riboflavin and vitamin B(12). Vegetables and fruit were the lowest-cost sources of vitamin C, whereas dry beans and legumes were the lowest-cost sources of fiber. The nutrients-per-calorie and nutrient cost metrics can help identify affordable nutrient-rich foods.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Psychrotolerant Sporeformers Associated with Fluid Milk Production and Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Reid A.; Ranieri, Matthew L.; Martin, Nicole H.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Xavier, Bruno M.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria represent a major challenge to the goal of extending the shelf life of pasteurized dairy products. The objective of this study was to identify prominent phylogenetic groups of dairy-associated aerobic sporeformers and to characterize representative isolates for phenotypes relevant to growth in milk. Analysis of sequence data for a 632-nucleotide fragment of rpoB showed that 1,288 dairy-associated isolates (obtained from raw and pasteurized milk and from dairy farm environments) clustered into two major divisions representing (i) the genus Paenibacillus (737 isolates, including the species Paenibacillus odorifer, Paenibacillus graminis, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus sensu lato) and (ii) Bacillus (n = 467) (e.g., Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis) and genera formerly classified as Bacillus (n = 84) (e.g., Viridibacillus spp.). When isolates representing the most common rpoB allelic types (ATs) were tested for growth in skim milk broth at 6°C, 6/9 Paenibacillus isolates, but only 2/8 isolates representing Bacillus subtypes, grew >5 log CFU/ml over 21 days. In addition, 38/40 Paenibacillus isolates but only 3/47 Bacillus isolates tested were positive for β-galactosidase activity (including some isolates representing Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, a common dairy-associated clade). Our study confirms that Paenibacillus spp. are the predominant psychrotolerant sporeformers in fluid milk and provides 16S rRNA gene and rpoB subtype data and phenotypic characteristics facilitating the identification of aerobic spore-forming spoilage organisms of concern. These data will be critical for the development of detection methods and control strategies that will reduce the introduction of psychrotolerant sporeformers and extend the shelf life of dairy products. PMID:22247129

  16. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant sporeformers associated with fluid milk production and processing.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Reid A; Ranieri, Matthew L; Martin, Nicole H; den Bakker, Henk C; Xavier, Bruno M; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-03-01

    Psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria represent a major challenge to the goal of extending the shelf life of pasteurized dairy products. The objective of this study was to identify prominent phylogenetic groups of dairy-associated aerobic sporeformers and to characterize representative isolates for phenotypes relevant to growth in milk. Analysis of sequence data for a 632-nucleotide fragment of rpoB showed that 1,288 dairy-associated isolates (obtained from raw and pasteurized milk and from dairy farm environments) clustered into two major divisions representing (i) the genus Paenibacillus (737 isolates, including the species Paenibacillus odorifer, Paenibacillus graminis, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus sensu lato) and (ii) Bacillus (n = 467) (e.g., Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis) and genera formerly classified as Bacillus (n = 84) (e.g., Viridibacillus spp.). When isolates representing the most common rpoB allelic types (ATs) were tested for growth in skim milk broth at 6°C, 6/9 Paenibacillus isolates, but only 2/8 isolates representing Bacillus subtypes, grew >5 log CFU/ml over 21 days. In addition, 38/40 Paenibacillus isolates but only 3/47 Bacillus isolates tested were positive for β-galactosidase activity (including some isolates representing Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, a common dairy-associated clade). Our study confirms that Paenibacillus spp. are the predominant psychrotolerant sporeformers in fluid milk and provides 16S rRNA gene and rpoB subtype data and phenotypic characteristics facilitating the identification of aerobic spore-forming spoilage organisms of concern. These data will be critical for the development of detection methods and control strategies that will reduce the introduction of psychrotolerant sporeformers and extend the shelf life of dairy products.

  17. Valuation of milk composition and genotype in cheddar cheese production using an optimization model of cheese and whey production.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H A; Parvin, L; Garnett, I; DePeters, E J; Medrano, J F; Fadel, J G

    2007-02-01

    A mass balance optimization model was developed to determine the value of the kappa-casein genotype and milk composition in Cheddar cheese and whey production. Inputs were milk, nonfat dry milk, cream, condensed skim milk, and starter and salt. The products produced were Cheddar cheese, fat-reduced whey, cream, whey cream, casein fines, demineralized whey, 34% dried whey protein, 80% dried whey protein, lactose powder, and cow feed. The costs and prices used were based on market data from March 2004 and affected the results. Inputs were separated into components consisting of whey protein, ash, casein, fat, water, and lactose and were then distributed to products through specific constraints and retention equations. A unique 2-step optimization procedure was developed to ensure that the final composition of fat-reduced whey was correct. The model was evaluated for milk compositions ranging from 1.62 to 3.59% casein, 0.41 to 1.14% whey protein, 1.89 to 5.97% fat, and 4.06 to 5.64% lactose. The kappa casein genotype was represented by different retentions of milk components in Cheddar cheese and ranged from 0.715 to 0.7411 kg of casein in cheese/kg of casein in milk and from 0.7795 to 0.9210 kg of fat in cheese/kg of fat in milk. Milk composition had a greater effect on Cheddar cheese production and profit than did genotype. Cheese production was significantly different and ranged from 9,846 kg with a high-casein milk composition to 6,834 kg with a high-fat milk composition per 100,000 kg of milk. Profit (per 100,000 kg of milk) was significantly different, ranging from $70,586 for a high-fat milk composition to $16,490 for a low-fat milk composition. However, cheese production was not significantly different, and profit was significant only for the lowest profit ($40,602) with the kappa-casein genotype. Results from this model analysis showed that the optimization model is useful for determining costs and prices for cheese plant inputs and products, and that it can

  18. Relationships of efficiency to reproductive disorders in Danish milk production: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L G; Bruun, J; Coelli, T; Agger, J F; Lund, M

    2004-01-01

    Relationships of various reproductive disorders and milk production performance of Danish dairy farms were investigated. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated using data collected in 1998 from 514 Danish dairy farms. Measures of farm-level milk production efficiency relative to this production frontier were obtained, and relationships between milk production efficiency and the incidence risk of reproductive disorders were examined. There were moderate positive relationships between milk production efficiency and retained placenta, induction of estrus, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and induction of birth. Inclusion of reproductive management variables showed that these moderate relationships disappeared, but directions of coefficients for almost all those variables remained the same. Dystocia showed a weak negative correlation with milk production efficiency. Farms that were mainly managed by young farmers had the highest average efficiency scores. The estimated milk losses due to inefficiency averaged 1142, 488, and 256 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow, respectively, for low-, medium-, and high-efficiency herds. It is concluded that the availability of younger cows, which enabled farmers to replace cows with reproductive disorders, contributed to high cow productivity in efficient farms. Thus, a high replacement rate more than compensates for the possible negative effect of reproductive disorders. The use of frontier production and efficiency/inefficiency functions to analyze herd data may enable dairy advisors to identify inefficient herds and to simulate the effect of alternative management procedures on the individual herd's efficiency.

  19. Effect of infection with bovine leukemia virus on milk production in Michigan dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Norby, B; Bartlett, P C; Byrem, T M; Erskine, R J

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between individual cow-level milk production and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection as measured by milk BLV-ELISA. Dairy Herd Improvement technicians collected milk samples from 10 cows from each of first, second, third, and 4+ parity cows in 105 Holstein herds with ≥ 120 milking cows. Milk samples were tested for the presence of anti-BLV antibodies by ELISA. Additional data regarding the cows and the herds were collected by farm survey and Dairy Herd Improvement records. A set of mixed-effect models using all cows and only 2+ parity cows were used to investigate the association between BLV ELISA-corrected optical density and 305-d mature equivalents of individual cows. The BLV milk positivity was associated with decreased 305-d mature-equivalent yields, especially among the older cows. Additionally, increasing milk ELISA-corrected optical density was associated with increasing loss of milk production at the cow level. In summary, our results provide evidence that BLV infection is associated with decreased milk production in Michigan dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Life cycle assessment of milk production from commercial dairy farms: the influence of management tactics.

    PubMed

    Yan, M-J; Humphreys, J; Holden, N M

    2013-07-01

    Little consideration has been given to how farm management, specifically tactics used to implement the management strategy, may influence the carbon footprint (CF) and land use for milk produced on commercial farms. In this study, the CF and land use of milk production from 18 Irish commercial dairy farms were analyzed based on foreground data from a 12-mo survey capturing management tactics and background data from the literature. Large variation was found in farm attributes and management tactics; for example, up to a 1.5-fold difference in fertilizer nitrogen input was used to support the same stocking density, and up to a 3.5-fold difference in concentrate fed for similar milk output per cow. However, the coefficient of variation for milk CF between farms only varied by 13% and for land use by 18%. The overall CF and overall land use of the milk production from the 18 dairy farms was 1.23±0.04kg of CO2 Eq and 1.22±0.05 m(2) per kilogram of energy-corrected milk. Milk output per cow, economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight, and on-farm diesel use per ha were found to be influential factors on milk CF, whereas the fertilizer N rate, milk output per cow, and economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight were influential on land use. Effective sward management of white clover within a few farms appeared to lower the CF but increased on-farm land use. It was concluded that a combination of multiple tactics determines CF and land use for milk production on commercial dairy farms and, although these 2 measures of environmental impact are correlated, a farm with a low CF did not always have low land use and vice versa. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perception of Not Having Enough Milk and Actual Milk Production of First-Time Breastfeeding Mothers: Is There a Difference?

    PubMed

    Galipeau, Roseline; Dumas, Louise; Lepage, Mario

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived insufficient milk supply (PIMS) and actual insufficient milk supply (AIMS) and the relative contributions of physiological and psychosocial variables on both PIMS and AIMS of first-time breastfeeding mothers. Data were collected among 123 breastfeeding mothers at a Canadian, French-speaking maternal care hospital. Birth events, breastfeeding practices, infant and maternal capacities, and PIMS and AIMS were collected at 48 hours after birth, postnatal weeks 2 and 6. No significant relationship was found between PIMS and AIMS. Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and number of feeds were related to PIMS at week 2, and skin-to-skin contact at birth and number of feeds were related to AIMS as measured by 24-hour milk production at week 2. Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy impacts PIMS. Interventions should be directed to increase maternal confidence in breastfeeding, which in turn influences breastfeeding duration.

  2. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  3. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2017-06-30

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, C B; Graham, N M; Mylvaganam, A; Douglas, R M

    1990-02-01

    In the first of three studies investigating the widely held belief that "milk produces mucus," 60 volunteers were challenged with rhinovirus-2, and daily respiratory symptoms and milk and dairy product intake records were kept over a 10-day period. Nasal secretion weights were obtained by weighing tissues collected and sealed immediately after use. Information was obtained on 51 subjects, yielding 510 person-days of observation. Subjects consumed zero to 11 glasses of milk per day (mean, 2.7; SE, 0.08), and secretion weights ranged from zero to 30.4 g/day (mean, 1.1; SE, 0.1). In response to an initial questionnaire, 27.5% reported the practice of reducing intake of milk or dairy products with a cold or named milk or dairy products as bad for colds. Of the latter group, 80% stated the reason as "producing more mucus/phlegm." Milk and dairy product intake was not associated with an increase in upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms of congestion or nasal secretion weight. A trend was observed for cough, when present, to be loose with increasing milk and dairy product intake; however, this effect was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Those who believe "milk makes mucus" or reduce milk intake with colds reported significantly more cough and congestion symptoms, but they did not produce higher levels of nasal secretions. We conclude that no statistically significant overall association can be detected between milk and dairy product intake and symptoms of mucus production in healthy adults, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, with rhinovirus infection.

  5. Novel cellobiose 2-epimerases for the production of epilactose from milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose.

    PubMed

    Krewinkel, Manuel; Kaiser, Jana; Merz, Michael; Rentschler, Eva; Kuschel, Beatrice; Hinrichs, Jörg; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    A selected number of enzymes have recently been assigned to the emerging class of cellobiose 2-epimerases (CE). All CE convert lactose to the rare sugar epilactose, which is regarded as a new prebiotic. Within this study, the gene products of 2 potential CE genes originating from the mesophilic bacteria Cellulosilyticum lentocellum and Dysgonomonas gadei were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. The enzymes have been identified as novel CE by sequence analysis and biochemical characterizations. The biochemical characterizations included the determination of the molecular weight, the substrate spectrum, and the kinetic parameters, as well as the pH and temperature profiles in buffer and food matrices. Both identified CE epimerize cellobiose and lactose into the C2 epimerization products glucosylmannose and epilactose, respectively. The epimerization activity for lactose was maximal at pH 8.0 or 7.5 and 40°C in defined buffer systems for the CE from C. lentocellum and the CE from D. gadei, respectively. In addition, biotransformations of the foodstuff milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose were demonstrated. The CE from D. gadei was produced in a stirred-tank reactor (12 L) and purified using an automatic system. Enzyme production and purification in this scale indicates that a future upscaling of CE production is possible. The bioconversions of lactose in milk ultrafiltrate were carried out either in a batch process or in a continuously operated enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) process. Both processes ran at an industrially relevant low temperature of 8°C to reduce undesirable microbial growth. The enzyme was reasonably active at the low process temperature because the CE originated from a mesophilic organism. An epilactose yield of 29.9% was achieved in the batch process within 28 h of operation time. In the continuous EMR process, the epilactose yield in the product stream was lower, at 18.5%. However, the enzyme productivity

  6. Genomic analysis of dominance effects on milk production and conformation traits in Fleckvieh cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of dominance variance in dairy cattle based on pedigree data vary considerably across traits and amount to up to 50% of the total genetic variance for conformation traits and up to 43% for milk production traits. Using bovine SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes, dominance variance can be estimated both at the marker level and at the animal level using genomic dominance effect relationship matrices. Yield deviations of high-density genotyped Fleckvieh cows were used to assess cross-validation accuracy of genomic predictions with additive and dominance models. The potential use of dominance variance in planned matings was also investigated. Results Variance components of nine milk production and conformation traits were estimated with additive and dominance models using yield deviations of 1996 Fleckvieh cows and ranged from 3.3% to 50.5% of the total genetic variance. REML and Gibbs sampling estimates showed good concordance. Although standard errors of estimates of dominance variance were rather large, estimates of dominance variance for milk, fat and protein yields, somatic cell score and milkability were significantly different from 0. Cross-validation accuracy of predicted breeding values was higher with genomic models than with the pedigree model. Inclusion of dominance effects did not increase the accuracy of the predicted breeding and total genetic values. Additive and dominance SNP effects for milk yield and protein yield were estimated with a BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) model and used to calculate expectations of breeding values and total genetic values for putative offspring. Selection on total genetic value instead of breeding value would result in a larger expected total genetic superiority in progeny, i.e. 14.8% for milk yield and 27.8% for protein yield and reduce the expected additive genetic gain only by 4.5% for milk yield and 2.6% for protein yield. Conclusions Estimated dominance variance was substantial

  7. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB.

  8. Four novel polymorphisms of buffalo INSIG2 gene are associated with milk production traits in Chinese buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tingxian; Pang, Chunying; Ma, Xiaoya; Lu, Xingrong; Duan, Anqin; Zhu, Peng; Liang, Xianwei

    2016-10-01

    Insulin-induced genes (INSIGs), including INSIG1 and INSIG2, are important mediators that play a pivotal role in the lipid metabolism and could cause the retention of the SCAP/SREBP complex. Therefore, the objective of this study is to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of buffalo INSIG2 gene and evaluate their associations with milk production traits in Chinese buffaloes. A total of four SNPs (g.621272A > G, g.621364A > C, g.632543G > A, and g.632684C > T) were identified using DNA pooled sequencing, and the SNP genotyping for the identified SNPs was performed by using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry method from 264 individuals. The results showed that four SNPs were significantly associated with 305-day milk yield or protein percentage in Murrah and crossbred breeds (P < 0.05), but they had no significant effect on milk production traits in Nili-Ravi buffaloes (P > 0.05). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed that one haplotype block was successfully constructed, of which the diplotype H1H1 showed significant association with 305-day milk yield in Murrah buffaloes (P < 0.05). Our findings provide evidence that polymorphisms in buffalo INSIG2 gene are associated with milk production traits, and could be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding program.

  9. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  10. Chemical properties and consumer perception of fluid milk from conventional and pasture-based production system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical abstract: The continued popularity of organic and natural foods has generated interest in organic milk, and use of pasture for dairy cattle is a requirement for organic production. This process may improve the health benefits of fluid milk via increases in the unsaturated fatty acid cont...

  11. Short communication: Rapid antibiotic screening tests detect antibiotic residues in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, J; Tsang, P C W; Townson, D H

    2010-09-01

    Rapid antibiotic screening tests are widely used in the dairy industry to monitor milk for the presence of antibiotic residues above regulated levels. Given the persistent concern over contamination of milk products with antibiotic residues, we investigated the utility of IDEXX Snap test devices (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME) as tools for detecting antibiotic residues in powdered milk products. Five powdered milk products were reconstituted according to manufacturer specification with distilled water: Carnation (Nestlé USA Inc., Solon, OH), Nido youth and Nido adult (Nestlé Mexico Inc., Mexico City, Mexico), ELK (Campina, Eindhoven, the Netherlands), and Regilait (Saint-Martin-Belle-Roche, France). Positive samples were generated by spiking reconstituted milk with penicillin G, cephapirin, or tetracycline to either the European Union-regulated maximum residue limit or the FDA-regulated safe/tolerance level, whichever was lower. Control, unspiked negative milk samples and positive samples were tested with appropriate IDEXX Snap test kits (penicillin G and cephapirin with New Beta-Lactam, tetracycline with New Tetracycline). All samples yielded definitive results consistent with expectations, and there were no instances of false-positive or false-negative readings. These results suggest that both the New Beta-Lactam and New Tetracycline IDEXX Snap test kits effectively detect antibiotic residues in commercially available powdered milk samples and are useful tools for monitoring antibiotic residues in reconstituted powdered milk products. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of feeding three types of corn-milling coproducts on milk production and ruminal fermentation of lactating Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM

  13. Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits.

    PubMed

    Romero-Huelva, M; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of replacing 35% of cereals-based concentrate with feed blocks (FB) containing waste fruits of tomato, cucumber, or barley grain in diets for lactating goats on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial N flow to the duodenum, milk yield and quality, methane emissions, and abundances of total bacteria and methanogens were studied. Eight Murciano-Granadina goats (39.4 ± 5.39 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) in the middle of the third lactation were used and 4 diets were studied in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experimental design. Diets consisted of alfalfa hay (A) plus concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio (diet AC) or diets in which 35% of the concentrate was replaced with FB including wastes of tomato fruit, cucumber, or barley. In each period, 2 goats were randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments. Intakes of FB including tomato, cucumber, and barley were 208 ± 65, 222 ± 52, and 209 ± 83 g of dry matter per animal and day, respectively. The replacement of 35% of concentrate with FB did not compromise nutrient apparent digestibility, total purine derivative urinary excretion, milk yield and composition, and total bacteria and methanogen abundances. Digestible energy and that in methane and urine were higher for AC than for FB-containing diets, whereas the metabolizable energy value was not affected by diet. The inclusion of tomato and cucumber fruits in FB decreased N in urine and CH(4) emissions compared with AC, which is environmentally relevant. However, tomato-based FB decreased microbial N flow in the rumen, whereas goats fed cucumber-based FB had the highest values for this measurement. Moreover, FB containing barley or tomato and cucumber led to lower rumen volatile fatty acid and NH(3)-N concentrations, respectively. Milk from goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber-based FB had higher linoleic, linolenic, and total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations than that from goats fed AC. Overall, our study suggests that

  14. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    .86, 7.38, 0.64, and 0.23, ± 1.71 µg/d, for AFD, NSP-0.5%+AFD, NSP-1%+AFD, NSP-1%, and CON, respectively. More specifically, 1.07±0.08% of the daily AF intake was transferred to the milk of cows consuming the AFD, whereas the AF transfer rates in milk from cows that consumed the NSP-0.5%+AFD and NSP-1%+AFD were 0.52 and 0.32±0.08%. Results from this research demonstrate that feeding NSP to lactating cows is an effective method to reduce the transfer and excretion of AFM1 in milk with no negative effects on dry matter intake, milk production, and composition. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of season of birth on milk, fat, and protein production of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Barash, H; Silanikove, N; Weller, J I

    1996-06-01

    The effects of birth month on production of milk, fat, and protein and percentages of fat and protein were analyzed based on production records of 101,653 first parity, 77,541 second parity, and 51,856 third parity Israeli Holstein cows. Each parity was analyzed separately. The analysis model also included the effects of herd-year, DIM, calving age, and calving month. First parity Type III sums of squares for birth month were nearly as large as those for calving month but decreased for later parities. Similar results were obtained using multiplicative models in which the dependent variables were the logarithms of the production traits. The effects of calving month and birth month were not similar, but birth month had similar effects for milk, fat, and protein production. Production was lowest by cows born in the early spring and highest by cows born in the fall. Analyses of the log-transformed traits showed that the F values for calving month were greater than, and the F values for birth month were nearly identical to, the F values for the untransformed trait analyses. The physiological basis for these trends was not clear.

  16. Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk and dairy products by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Gücükoğlu, Ali; Kevenk, T Onur; Uyanik, Tolga; Cadirci, Ozgür; Terzi, Göknur; Alişarli, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in 122 samples, including 60 raw milk, 32 white cheese, 10 kashar cheese, 10 butter, and 10 ice cream samples obtained from Samsun province, Turkey. In this study, S. aureus was detected in 64 samples, including raw milk (45/60; 75%), white cheese (12/32; 37.5%), kashar cheese (3/10; 30%), butter (3/10; 30%), and ice cream (1/10; 10%) samples. A total of 81 isolates were identified as S. aureus by PCR with the presence of 16S rRNA and nuc genes. The presence of genes encoding the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED was detected by multiplex PCR. According to the analysis, seven isolates from the raw milk samples (7/51; 13.7%) were enterotoxigenic; five of them produced SEA (5/7; 71.4%), one produced SEB (1/7; 14.2%), and one produced SEA+SEB (1/7; 14.2%). Four isolates from the white cheese samples (4/21; 19%) produced the SEA (1/4; 25%), SEC (1/4; 25%), SED (1/4; 25%), and SEA+SED (1/4; 25%) toxins. Two isolates from the kashar cheese samples (2/4; 50%) were found to be enterotoxigenic; one produced SEA (1/2; 50%) and the other produced SED (1/2; 50%). One isolate from the butter samples (1/4; 25%) showed enterotoxigenic character (SEB, 1/1; 100%). The products were found to be potentially hazardous to public health because of the fact that levels of contamination were higher than 105-106 cfu/g ml in 39% (25/64, 17 raw milk, 7 white cheese, and 1 butter) of the analyzed samples. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis.

  18. Analysis of phthalates in milk and milk products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Chang, James

    2014-10-03

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 27 phthalates in milk and milk products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 2007/19/EC. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 90.7% to 104.6%, with coefficient of variation <5.6%. The 27 compounds behave dynamic range in the 0.1-1000μgkg(-1) concentration, with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.32-2.6μgkg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of phthalates in 96 commercial milk and milk product samples.

  19. Glycobiology of human milk.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S

    2013-07-01

    Glycans are characteristic components of milk, and each species has unique patterns of specific carbohydrates. Human milk is unusually rich in glycans, with the major components being lactose and oligosaccharides, representing approximately 6.8 and 1% of the milk, respectively. Other sources of glycans in human milk include monosaccharides, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. In human milk, the presence and patterns of these glycans vary depending upon the stage of lactation and the maternal genes and their genetic polymorphisms that control glycosyl transferases. The synthesis of milk glycans utilizes a significant portion of the metabolic energy that the mother expends when producing her milk, but other than lactose, these glycans contribute little to the nutritional needs of the infant. The data herein support several functions. 1) Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogens from binding to the intestinal mucosa. 2) Human milk glycans attenuate inflammation. 3) Glycans also directly stimulate the growth of beneficial (mutualist) bacteria of the microbiota (formerly considered commensal microflora of the intestine); these mutualists and their fermentation products can, in turn, (a) inhibit pathogens, (b) modulate signaling and inflammation, and (c) the fermentation products can be absorbed and utilized as a source of dietary calories. These functions can help direct and support intestinal postnatal growth, development, and ontogeny of colonization. The many functions of the milk glycans may synergistically protect infants from disease. Hence, human milk glycans and their homologs may serve as novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for a diverse range of deleterious conditions.

  20. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10(7) cfu g(-1) of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  1. Effects of anticipated neonatal surgical intervention on maternal milk cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Wagner, Amy J; Gourlay, David M; Christensen, Melissa; Liedel, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    Maternal stress on neonatal outcomes of infants admitted to the NICU is incompletely understood. We previously demonstrated breast milk derived cytokines remain biologically active in the neonatal intestine. We hypothesized that the need for neonatal surgical intervention would be stimulus leading to maternal cytokine production thus affecting neonatal outcome. Discarded expressed breast milk (EBM) in the first 3weeks following delivery was analyzed for IL-23 and IL-10 by ELISA. Variables analyzed included: the need for a pediatric surgical procedure, the need for cardiac surgical procedure, no surgical interventions, and survival. All values are expressed as mean±SEM. Statistical analysis utilized Kruskal and Mann-Whitney test. EBM from mothers whose infants required any surgical procedure (n=19) revealed significant elevation in IL-10 but not IL-23 compared to nonsurgical EBM (n=18). Subdivided by procedure type, there was no difference between those undergoing a cardiac (n=9) versus pediatric surgical (n=10) procedure in both IL-10 and IL-23. Mothers whose infants requiring surgical intervention or whose infants did not survive in the first 3weeks of life had elevation of IL-10. Results suggest maternal stress impacts the cytokine profile of breast milk. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    maintaining high milk production.

  3. Production of hydrogen peroxide by a small molecular mass compound in milk from Holstein cows with high and low milk somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Senkiti; Nonobe, Eriko; Satow, Takahiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Nagaoka, Kentaro

    2008-08-01

    Mastitis is the most frequent and prevalent production disease in dairy herds in developed countries. Based on a milk somatic cell count (SCC) of either >300,000 or <200,000 cells/ml in this study, we defined the quarter as either inflamed or uninflamed, respectively. The electrical conductivity (EC) of milk was used as an indicator of udder epithelial cell damage. We determined the amount of H2O2 produced by utilizing a small molecular weight compound in milk, and examined the characteristics of H2O2 production and EC in milk from inflamed and uninflamed quarters. In cows with milk of delivery grade (control population), H2O2 production and EC were 3.6+/-1.3 nmol/ml and 5.4+/-0.4 mS/cm (mean+/-sd), respectively. In 37 inflamed quarter milk samples, the production of H2O2 was 1.9+/-1.0 nmol/ml and was significantly smaller than that in the control population (P<0.01). Production of H2O2 was moderately but significantly correlated with EC (r<-0.71). In 20 cows with inflamed quarters, the production of H2O2 in milk from inflamed quarters was significantly smaller than that in milk from uninflamed quarters (P<0.01). In 18 out of 20 cows, milk from inflamed quarters showed the smallest H2O2 production among all tested quarters in each cow. We conclude that inflammation caused a decrease in H2O2 production in milk. In this study, we present parameters for evaluating the lactoperoxidase/H2O2/thiocyanate antibacterial defence system in bovine milk.

  4. Integrating Fasciolosis Control in the Dry Cow Management: The Effect of Closantel Treatment on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Johannes; Hostens, Miel; Jacobs, Jos; Van Ranst, Bonny; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals) exposed to F. hepatica to 1) assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80–42 days before calving in first-calving heifers) on milk production parameters and 2) evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3–6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg) and a slightly higher persistence (9%) of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3–0.5 optical density ratio (ODR)), but not a very high (≥0.5 ODR) F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters. PMID:22916226

  5. Integrating fasciolosis control in the dry cow management: the effect of closantel treatment on milk production.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Hostens, Miel; Jacobs, Jos; Van Ranst, Bonny; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals) exposed to F. hepatica to 1) assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80-42 days before calving in first-calving heifers) on milk production parameters and 2) evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3-6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg) and a slightly higher persistence (9%) of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3-0.5 optical density ratio (ODR)), but not a very high (≥ 0.5 ODR) F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters.

  6. Effect of added carbohydrates on glycemic and insulin responses to children’s milk products.

    PubMed

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; Atkinson, Fiona; Rowan, Angela

    2013-01-10

    Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children's milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk.

  7. Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products

    PubMed Central

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; Atkinson, Fiona; Rowan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children’s milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk. PMID:23306187

  8. Thermal Resistance of Certain Oncogenic Viruses Suspended in Milk and Milk Products

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Robert; Tierney, John T.; Larkin, Edward P.; Read, Ralston B.; Peeler, James T.

    1971-01-01

    Thermal destruction rate curves were determined for adenovirus 12, reovirus 1, and herpes simplex virus in sterile milk, raw milk, raw chocolate milk, and raw ice cream mix. At 40 to 60 C, the curves were asymptotic to the base line. At 65 C, which is near the pasteurization standard, the curves approached a first-order reaction. Thermal resistance studies, by means of in vivo assays, of Moloney and Rauscher leukemia viruses and Moloney and Rous sarcoma viruses indicated that Rous sarcoma was the most resistant. A comparison of the 12D processes of Rous sarcoma virus, reovirus 1, adenovirus 12, and herpes simplex virus in ice cream mix (the most protective of the suspending menstrua studied) with the U.S. Public Health Service pasteurization standard indicated an adequate safety factor in current pasteurization practices. PMID:4330313

  9. Determination of the Maillard product oxalic acidmonolysinylamide (OMA) in heated milk products by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Hasenkopf, K; Ubel, B; Bordiehn, T; Pischetsrieder, M

    2001-06-01

    Oxalic acid monolysinylamide (OMA), a Maillard product which had initially been identified as a reaction product of L-ascorbic acid, was formed, dependent on the reaction conditions, also from other carbohydrate sources. At elevated temperatures and in the presence of oxygen, the reaction of lactose with proteins resulted in the formation of relatively high amounts of OMA. Using a polyclonal antibody, which bound with high specificity and affinity to OMA-modified proteins, a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure OMA formation in heat-treated milk products. The assay performance was characterized for OMA-modified beta-lactoglobulin diluted in buffer or pasteurized milk. For the latter, the least detectable dose was determined as 1.4 ng/ml with a linear range for quantification between 2 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. For some samples intra- and interassay variation were determined. The ELISA was used to measure OMA-formation in heated milk and commercially available infant formula.

  10. Qualitative Characteristics and Determining Shelf-Life of Milk Beverage Product Supplemented with Coffee Extracts.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Il; Kim, Ha-Na; Park, Jun-Hong; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Duk-Geun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the shelf-life of a milk beverage product supplemented with coffee extracts. Qualitative changes including peroxide value (PV), microorganism content, caffeine content, and sensory evaluation were measured periodically in beverages kept at 10, 20, and 30°C for 8 wk. Lipid oxidation of the product was measured by peroxide value analysis, and apparent changes were observed during a 4 wk storage period. Caffeine analysis revealed that the changes in caffeine content were negligible during the storage period. Total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, yeast, and mold were not detected in the products during an 8 wk storage period. Sensory evaluation revealed that after 4 wk of storage overall acceptance was less than 3 points on a 5-point scale. In this study, PV was used as an indicator of the shelf-life of the milk beverage product. PV analysis revealed that a value of 20 meq/kg was the end of the shelf-life using the Arrhenius equation and the accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT). Assuming that the beverages are kept at 4°C during distribution, calculation of when the PV reached the quality limit point (20 meq/kg) was done with the equation ln(PV) = 0.3644X - 2.21834 and, using that equation, PV = e(0.3644X-2.21834) was calculated. Therefore, 14.3086 wk was determined to be the shelf-life of the milk beverage supplemented with coffee when stored at 4°C.

  11. Comparison of molecular techniques with other methods for identification and enumeration of probiotics in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Bagheripoor-Fallah, Niloofar; Mortazavian, Amir; Hosseini, Hedayat; Khoshgozaran-Abras, Sadegh; Rad, Aziz Homayouni

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing attention is being given to fermented milk products including yogurt, kefir, buttermilk, and acidophilus milk. Fermented milks, especially the ones containing probiotics, are claimed to be useful for health of host (such as intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Their healthful effects could be significantly enhanced by incorporating probiotic microorganisms; those have healthful advantages for host when consumed in an appropriate viable number in food products. Probiotic dairy products have stepped to the market and are being commercially produced under various brand names. In addition, these products are legislatively obliged to be labeled for the microorganisms contained. Therefore, identification and enumeration of their microorganisms are a cause of concern. Several culture-dependent methods have been introduced and used to identify the microorganisms, in which the researchers have experienced multiple difficulties. Thereby, molecular approaches were present as an alternative, offering advantages such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and speed. This article reviews the molecular approaches employed for identification and enumeration of probiotics in fermented milk products.

  12. Amino acids and mammary gland development: nutritional implications for milk production and neonatal growth.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Wu, Zhenlong; Hou, Yongqing; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Milk is synthesized by mammary epithelial cells of lactating mammals. The synthetic capacity of the mammary gland depends largely on the number and efficiency of functional mammary epithelial cells. Structural development of the mammary gland occurs during fetal growth, prepubertal and post-pubertal periods, pregnancy, and lactation under the control of various hormones (particularly estrogen, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, progesterone, placental lactogen, and prolactin) in a species- and stage-dependent manner. Milk is essential for the growth, development, and health of neonates. Amino acids (AA), present in both free and peptide-bound forms, are the most abundant organic nutrients in the milk of farm animals. Uptake of AA from the arterial blood of the lactating dam is the ultimate source of proteins (primarily β-casein and α-lactalbumin) and bioactive nitrogenous metabolites in milk. Results of recent studies indicate extensive catabolism of branched-chain AA (leucine, isoleucine and valine) and arginine to synthesize glutamate, glutamine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, proline, and polyamines. The formation of polypeptides from AA is regulated not only by hormones (e.g., prolactin, insulin and glucocorticoids) and the rate of blood flow across the lactating mammary gland, but also by concentrations of AA, lipids, glucose, vitamins and minerals in the maternal plasma, as well as the activation of the mechanistic (mammalian) target rapamycin signaling by certain AA (e.g., arginine, branched-chain AA, and glutamine). Knowledge of AA utilization (including metabolism) by mammary epithelial cells will enhance our fundamental understanding of lactation biology and has important implications for improving the efficiency of livestock production worldwide.

  13. Estrone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations in pasteurized-homogenized milk and commercial dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Roberts, R F; Kensinger, R S

    2010-06-01

    Some individuals fear that estrogens in dairy products may stimulate growth of estrogen-sensitive cancers in humans. The presence of estrone (E(1)) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in raw whole cow's milk has been demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to determine if pasteurization-homogenization affects E(2) concentration in milk and to quantify E(1) and E(2) concentrations in commercially available dairy products. The effects of pasteurization-homogenization were tested by collecting fresh raw milk, followed by pasteurization and homogenization at 1 of 2 homogenization pressures. All treated milks were tested for milk fat globule size, percentages of milk fat and solids, and E(2) concentrations. Estrone and E(2) were quantified from organic or conventional skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks, as well as half-and-half, cream, and butter samples. Estrone and E(2) were quantified by RIA after organic solvent extractions and chromatography. Pasteurization-homogenization reduced fat globule size, but did not significantly affect E(2), milk fat, or milk solids concentrations. Estrone concentrations averaged 2.9, 4.2, 5.7, 7.9, 20.4, 54.1 pg/mL, and 118.9 pg/g in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks, half-and-half, cream, and butter samples, respectively. 17Beta-estradiol concentrations averaged 0.4, 0.6, 0.9, 1.1, 1.9, 6.0 pg/mL, and 15.8 pg/g in skim, 1%, 2%, whole milks, half-and-half, cream, and butter samples, respectively. The amount of fat in milk significantly affected E(1) and E(2) concentrations in milk. Organic and conventional dairy products did not have substantially different concentrations of E(1) and E(2). Compared with information cited in the literature, concentrations of E(1) and E(2) in bovine milk are small relative to endogenous production rates of E(1) and E(2) in humans.

  14. Manipulation of milk production and quality by use of somatotropin in dairy ruminants other than cow.

    PubMed

    Baldi, A

    1999-10-01

    The ability of recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST) to enhance milk production is well established in cows and in other dairy ruminants. In dairy ewes, we found increased milk yield (20-30%) following treatment with BST, which did not negatively affect the gross composition or coagulating properties of milk, except in the advanced stage of lactation, when the percentages of milk protein and fat were reduced and the coagulation time was improved (shorter) compared with untreated animals. In dairy goats, administration of BST increased overall milk yield by 14-29%. Our studies and those of others on the Italian river buffalo showed that BST treatment increased milk yield by about 17%, or more, when associated with dietary protected fat, without affecting milk protein content. In general, studies on dairy ruminants show that treatment with BST increases milk production in the short term (immediate postinjection period) and that there is also a medium to long term effect on persistency of lactation. There is evidence that mammary gland involution can be at least partially reversed by BST administration, and this could be due to limitation in the decrease in mammary parenchyma as lactation progresses and/or to modulation of the plasmin-plasminogen system.

  15. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis--incidences in milk and milk products, their isolation, enumeration, characterization, and role in human health.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir

    2011-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), excreted in the feces and milk, is reported to be not easily inactivated by pasteurization and thermal treatments as other bacteria infecting humans and animals do. The D values of all MAP strains tested were considerably higher than those published for other pathogens. Culturing techniques for this organism are labor intensive. Although an increasing amount of scientific evidence suggests that this organism can be responsible for at least some cases of Crohn's disease (CD), there is controversy about MAP being a cause of CD in humans. In general, although some studies have described an association between the presence of MAP and CD, the role of Mycobacterium species and MAP in the etiology of this human disease remains unestablished. Although published reports indicate that it may not be completely inactivated by pasteurization of milk, the effectiveness of increasing the time or temperature in the pasteurization process has not been established and hence any potential benefit to human health cannot be determined. This article summarizes the incidences of MAP in milk and milk products with respect to human health and brief discussion of various serological as well as molecular techniques used for their isolation, enumeration, and characterization.

  16. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product includes...

  17. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product includes...

  18. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  19. Effects of milk type, production month, and brand on fatty acid composition: A case study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Park, Inmyoung; Oh, Jin-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the difference in fatty acid (FA) composition of organic and conventional milk at the retail market level in Korea for different milk production months and brands. The essential FA contents of the milk vary significantly under the combined effects of milk type, production month, and brand. Chemometric analysis reveals a greater difference between milk types than between production months and identifies significantly different levels of nutritionally desirable FAs-notably C18:3 n-3, C18:2 n-6 c and t-in the organic and conventional milks. Notwithstanding the limited sampling size and period, the results from this study may provide a better understanding of the nutritional quality of organic milk to consumers who are interested in organic milk intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Particle size of roasted soybeans and the effect on milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Korevaar, A C; Satter, L D

    1997-08-01

    Fifteen cows were used in an experiment with a 5 x 5 replicated Latin square design to quantify the effect of particle size of roasted soybeans on milk production and fecal excretion of soybeans. The five experimental periods were each 2 wk long. Diets contained (percentage of dry matter) 33% alfalfa silage, 17% corn silage, 30.6% high moisture ear corn, 18% soybeans, and 1.4% mineral supplement. The five dietary treatments included raw whole soybeans or roasted soybeans in four particle sizes (whole and half, half and quarter, quarter and smaller, and coarsely ground). Mean particle sizes of the raw soybeans and of the roasted soybeans in whole and half sizes were > 4.75 mm. Mean particle sizes of the roasted soybeans in half and quarter, quarter and smaller, and coarsely ground roasted soybeans were 2.92, 2.01, and 1.59, respectively. During the normal handling of roasted soybeans, a large number of seeds was broken into halves in the treatment with whole and half sizes (36%, wt/wt basis). Production of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was 35.4, 37.7, 37.2, 35.1, and 35.4 kg/d for cows fed raw soybeans; roasted soybeans in whole and half, half and quarter, and quarter and smaller sizes; and ground roasted soybeans, respectively. Cows that were fed raw soybeans excreted the largest amount of visible soybean particles in feces, and cows that were fed ground roasted soybeans had the least amount of soybeans in the feces (61.3 vs. 10.6 g of soybeans/kg of fecal dry matter). Roasted soybeans in half and quarter sizes are optimal for milk production.

  1. Milk production and plasma gossypol of cows fed cottonseed and oilseed meals with or without rumen-undegradable protein.

    PubMed

    Blackwelder, J T; Hopkins, B A; Diaz, D E; Whitlow, L W; Brownie, C

    1998-11-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned at calving to treatment diets using a modified split-plot design to determine the effects of protein source on milk production and composition. The treatment diets consisted of an 80:20 combination of corn and alfalfa silages and whole cottonseed at 12% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The treatment diets were formulated to contain 17% crude protein (CP) and 20% acid detergent fiber on a DM basis. One of the following sources of supplemental CP was included in each treatment diet: 1) cottonseed meal, 2) cottonseed meal plus a rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) supplement, 3) soybean meal, and 4) soybean meal plus an RUP supplement. Cows were fed the initial treatment diet for 6 wk and then were switched to the other oilseed meal source but continued to receive the same amount of RUP during the second period of the study. Milk production and composition were not affected by treatment diet. Cows fed treatment diets without RUP supplementation consumed more DM and thus more CP. Supplementation with RUP resulted in greater milk production efficiency per unit of DM consumed. Cows fed treatment diets containing cottonseed meal had higher plasma gossypol concentrations than did cows fed treatment diets containing soybean meal. Plasma gossypol concentrations for all cows in each group were below the recommended upper limit that is considered to be safe. Data suggest that cottonseed meal in the diet can be substituted for soybean meal, resulting in similar milk production and composition.

  2. The carbon footprint of integrated milk production and renewable energy systems - A case study.

    PubMed

    Vida, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Doriana Eurosia Angela

    2017-12-31

    Dairy farms have been widely acknowledged as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for a more environmentally friendly milk production system will likely be important going forward. Whereas methane (CH4) enteric emissions can only be reduced to a limited extent, CH4 manure emissions can be reduced by implementing mitigation strategies, such as the use of an anaerobic digestion (AD). Furthermore, implementing a photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation system could mitigate the fossil fuels used to cover the electrical needs of farms. In the present study to detect the main environmental hotspots of milk production, a Life Cycle Assessment was adopted to build the Life Cycle Inventory according to ISO 14040 and 14044 in a conventional dairy farm (1368 animals) provided by AD and PV systems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change tiered approach was adopted to associate the level of emission with each item in the life cycle inventory. The functional unit refers to 1kg of fat-and-protein-corrected-milk (FPCM). In addition to milk products, other important co-products need to be considered: meat and renewable energy production from AD and PV systems. A physical allocation was applied to attribute GHG emissions among milk and meat products. Renewable energy production from AD and PV systems was considered, discounting carbon credits due to lower CH4 manure emissions and to the minor exploitation of fossil energy. The CF of this farm scenario was 1.11kg CO2eq/kg FPCM. The inclusion of AD allowed for the reduction of GHG emissions from milk production by 0.26kg CO2eq/kg FPCM. The PV system contribution was negligible due to the small dimensions of the technology. The results obtained in this study confirm that integrating milk production with other co-products, originated from more efficient manure management, is a successful strategy to mitigate the environmental impact of dairy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  4. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  5. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  6. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (12.6 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4. At this lactation point, group 2 also produced significantly less milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (26.0 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4 cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance

  7. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P < 0.05). Sorghum presented the highest (41.2 g/kg milk) content of milk fat, followed by green banana (39.2 g/kg milk), polished rice (38.3 g/kg milk) and molasses (38.1 g/kg milk). Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred.

  8. Study of microbial diversity in raw milk and fresh curd used for Fontina cheese production by culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Giannino, Maria Laura; Marzotto, Marta; Dellaglio, Franco; Feligini, Maria

    2009-04-15

    The bacterial populations of raw milk employed for the production of Fontina cheese in alpine farms located in different valleys and altitudes (from 700 to 2246 m above sea level) were investigated by culture independent techniques. Total microbial DNA was isolated from milk and curd samples and used as template in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to study the hypervariable V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and analyzed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Representative bands of DGGE patterns were sequenced for identification purposes. The use of universal primer for PCR-DGGE allowed the description of the bacterial community, not only for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, but also for other adventitious species. DGGE profiles obtained from milk and fresh curd samples were generally different and typical for each farm, although some recurrent bands were observed. Cluster analysis of DGGE profiles did not show high similarity among samples and it was probably dependent on the different geographical areas of pastures. Some Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) recurred in many samples (Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis) indicating that alpine milk is a preferential niche for their colonization. The microbiota included not only mesophilic and thermoresistant LAB but also adventitious bacteria (Macrococcus caseolyticus, Rothia spp.) and psychrotrophic bacteria (Chryseobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp.), that were found in almost all samples, but disappeared after the warming up at 47-48 degrees C of coagulated milk. Pantoea spp. was primarily found in curds and only with a low incidence in milk samples, indicating the environmental origin. Finally the sequencing data confirmed the presence of E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus as major species present in the curd. These species were found also in raw milk, proving its importance as source of the typical fermenting

  9. Regulation of lipid synthesis genes and milk fat production in human mammary epithelial cells during secretory activation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mahmoud A; Haymond, Morey W

    2013-09-15

    Expression of genes for lipid biosynthetic enzymes during initiation of lactation in humans is unknown. Our goal was to study mRNA expression of lipid metabolic enzymes in human mammary epithelial cell (MEC) in conjunction with the measurement of milk fatty acid (FA) composition during secretory activation. Gene expression from mRNA isolated from milk fat globule (MFG) and milk FA composition were measured from 6 h to 42 days postpartum in seven normal women. Over the first 96 h postpartum, daily milk fat output increased severalfold and mirrored expression of genes for all aspects of lipid metabolism and milk FA production, including lipolysis at the MEC membrane, FA uptake from blood, intracellular FA transport, de novo FA synthesis, FA and glycerol activation, FA elongation, FA desaturation, triglyceride synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, and lipid droplet formation. Expression of the gene for a key lipid synthesis regulator, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), increased 2.0-fold by 36 h and remained elevated over the study duration. Expression of genes for estrogen receptor 1, thyroid hormone-responsive protein, and insulin-induced 2 increased progressively to plateau by 96 h. In contrast, mRNA of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased severalfold. With onset of lactation, increased de novo synthesis of FA was the most prominent change in milk FA composition and mirrored the expression of FA synthesis genes. In conclusion, milk lipid synthesis and secretion in humans is a complex process requiring the orchestration of a wide variety of pathways of which SREBF1 may play a primary role.

  10. Infections associated with milk and dairy products in Europe and North America, 1980-85*

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, J. C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Outbreaks of infection associated with milk and other dairy products in Europe and North America from 1980 to 1985 are reviewed. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were the most commonly identified etiological agents, while other infections of animal origin, in particular listeriosis and yersiniosis, were increasingly reported. Most infections were attributed to untreated cows' milk or cheese, but also increasingly to contaminated ”heat-treated” products. Heat-treatment is highly effective in controlling foodborne disease, but may be insufficient if not complemented by high standards of hygiene throughout production and processing. Large community outbreaks of salmonellosis, listeriosis, and yersiniosis in Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA that were associated with contaminated ”heat-treated” liquid milk, powdered milk, or cheese emphasize the vulnerability of dairy produce. PMID:3311443

  11. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway.

  12. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Milk Production in Dairy Cattle by Exploiting Progeny Testing

    PubMed Central

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Pasquino, A. T.; Sargeant, L. S.; Sorensen, A.; Steele, M. R.; Zhao, X.; Womack, J. E.; Hoeschele, I.

    1995-01-01

    We have exploited ``progeny testing'' to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of > 150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score >/= 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. PMID:7713441

  13. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    SciTech Connect

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X.; Pasquino, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Risk assessment on the importation of milk and milk products (excluding cheese) from countries not free from foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Heng, N H; Wilson, D W

    1993-12-01

    The authors discuss the risk assessment conducted by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) on the importation of milk and milk products (excluding cheese) from countries not free from foot and mouth disease (FMD). This assessment was undertaken in response to requests from countries wishing to export dairy products for sale on the Australian market. AQIS conducted a public consultation on the proposal, in line with Australian Government policy on transparency and accountability in the quarantine decision-making process. The authors examine the procedures involved in the investigation of the likely presence of FMD virus in milk of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cows, and of the heat treatment parameters effective in the inactivation of the virus. The data provide a useful aid in the assessment of the risk factors associated with the importation of milk and milk products, and in the development of quarantine conditions for importation.

  15. Free Maillard Reaction Products in Milk Reflect Nutritional Intake of Glycated Proteins and Can Be Used to Distinguish "Organic" and "Conventionally" Produced Milk.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Sparmann, Nina; Henle, Thomas

    2016-06-22

    Using LC-MS/MS and isotopically labeled standard substances, quantitation of free Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (pyrraline, PYR), N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H), and N(ε)-fructosyllysine (FL), in bovine milk was achieved. Considerable variations in the amounts of the individual MRPs were found, most likely as a consequence of the nutritional uptake of glycated proteins. When comparing commercial milk samples labeled as originating from "organic" or "conventional" farming, respectively, significant differences in the content of free PYR (organic milk, 20-300 pmol/mL; conventional milk, 400-1000 pmol/mL) were observed. An analysis of feed samples indicated that rapeseed and sugar beet are the main sources for MRPs in conventional farming. Furthermore, milk of different dairy animals (cow, buffalo, donkey, goat, ewe, mare, camel) as well as for the first time human milk was analyzed for free MRPs. The distribution of their concentrations, with FL and PYR as the most abundant in human milk and with a high individual variability, also points to a nutritional influence. As the components of concentrated feed do not belong to the natural food sources of ruminants and equidae, free MRPs in milk might serve as indicators for an adequate animal feeding in near-natural farming and can be suitable parameters to distinguish between an "organic" and "conventional" production method of milk.

  16. Parameters for milk somatic cell score and relationships with production traits in primiparous dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Riggio, V; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Bovenhuis, H

    2007-04-01

    A total of 13,066 first-lactation test-day records of 2,277 Valle del Belice ewes from 17 flocks were used to estimate genetic parameters for somatic cell scores (SCS) and milk production traits, using a repeatability test-day animal model. Heritability estimates were low and ranged from 0.09 to 0.14 for milk, fat, and protein yields, and contents. For SCS, the heritability of 0.14 was relatively high. The repeatabilities were moderate and ranged from 0.29 to 0.47 for milk production traits. The repeatability for SCS was 0.36. Flock-test-day explained a large proportion of the variation for milk production traits, but it did not have a big effect on SCS. The genetic correlations of fat and protein yields with fat and protein percentages were positive and high, indicating a strong association between these traits. The genetic correlations of milk production traits with SCS were positive and ranged from 0.16 to 0.31. The results showed that SCS is a heritable trait in Valle del Belice sheep and that single-trait selection for increased milk production will also increase SCS.

  17. Effects of continuous milking during the dry period or once daily milking in the first 4 weeks of lactation on metabolism and productivity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schlamberger, G; Wiedemann, S; Viturro, E; Meyer, H H D; Kaske, M

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of 3 management systems in high-yielding dairy cows on metabolic profiles and milk production. Thirty-six multiparous Brown Swiss cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n=12 cows/group): the control (C) group, in which cows were dried off 56 d before calving and milked twice daily throughout next lactation (305 d); the once daily milking (ODM) group, in which cows were dried off 56 d before calving and milked once daily for the first 4 wk of lactation and twice daily for the remaining lactation; and the continuous milking (CM) group, in which cows were milked twice daily until calving and also during the subsequent lactation. Serum glucose concentrations decreased between wk 1 and 4 exclusively in C cows. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the first 4 wk of lactation were highest in C cows compared with ODM and CM cows. Decreased backfat thickness during early lactation and reduction of body condition score were markedly more pronounced in C cows compared with ODM and CM cows. Mean lactational milk yield of C cows [11,310+/-601 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/305 d] was approximately 16% higher compared with ODM cows (9,531+/-477 kg of ECM/305 d) and CM cows (9,447+/-310 kg of ECM/305 d). The lactation curve of CM cows compared with C cows was characterized by a similar time of peak yield (wk 3), a reduced peak yield, and no obvious differences in persistency. Mean percentage of milk protein was significantly higher for CM cows (3.91%) compared with C cows (3.52%). In contrast, once daily milking was accompanied by a reduced and significantly delayed peak yield (wk 8) compared with the control treatment, whereas persistency was better and milk protein (3.79%) was higher in ODM cows than in C cows. In conclusion, continuous milking and once daily milking, targeting the interval before or after calving, respectively, substantially reduced the metabolic challenge of fresh cows and improved milk protein

  18. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  19. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows.

  20. Proteomics method to quantify the percentage of cow, goat, and sheep milks in raw materials for dairy products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Ke, X; Zhang, J S; Lai, S Y; Fang, F; Mo, W M; Ren, Y P

    2016-12-01

    Fraud in milk and dairy products occurs when cow milk is added to sheep and goat milk for economic reasons. No reliable, selective, and sensitive method exists for quantifying the milk percentage of different species. This work reports the development and validation of a proteomics-based method for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of cow, sheep, and goat milks in the raw materials used for dairy products. β-Lactoglobulin was selected as the protein marker because it is a major protein in milk and whey powder. The tryptic peptides LSFNPTQLEEQCHI and LAFNPTQLEGQCHV were used as signature peptides for cow milk and for sheep and goat milks, respectively. The winged peptides LKALPMHIRLSFNPTQL*EEQCHI* and LKALPMHIRLAFNPTQL*EGQCHV* were designed and synthesized as internal standards. Validation of the method showed that it has good sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, precision, and accuracy. This method is easily applicable in routine laboratory analysis without intensive proteomics background.

  1. Effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum metabolism and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R A; Silveira, P A S; Montagner, P; Schneider, A; Schmitt, E; Rabassa, V R; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Pulga, M E; Corrêa, M N

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows.

  2. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses.

  3. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Feed intake, milk production and composition of crossbred cows fed with insect-protected Bollgard II® cottonseed containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins.

    PubMed

    Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F

    2011-09-01

    Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition.

  5. Effects of nicotinamide on milk composition and production in dairy cows fed supplemental fat.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Smith, T R; Young, J W

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two cows, averaging 112 DIM, were assigned to four dietary treatments: 1) control, 2) Ca salts of fatty acids, 3) nicotinamide, and 4) Ca salts of fatty acids blended with nicotinamide during manufacture. Preliminary studies showed that nicotinamide survives blending with Ca salts of fatty acids during manufacture and that a blended mixture of nicotinamide and Ca salts of fatty acids gave results similar to those from nicotinamide plus Ca salts of fatty acids supplemented separately. Calcium salts of fatty acids increased milk fat percentage, decreased milk protein percentage, but had no effect on production of milk, FCM, fat, or protein. Nicotinamide increased production of milk and protein, decreased fat percentage, but had no effect on either production of FCM and protein or percentage of protein. Calcium salts of fatty acids increased NEFA in blood, and dietary nicotinamide increased concentrations of nicotinamide in blood, but glucose and BHBA in blood were unaffected by either dietary ingredient. Therefore, in these midlactation cows, the decreased milk protein percentage caused by supplemental dietary fat was prevented by nicotinamide. Supplementation with only nicotinamide increased total production of milk protein.

  6. Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Arráez-Román, David; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed. PMID:28106745

  7. Utilization of Industrial Waste for the Production of Bio-Preservative from Bacillus licheniformis Me1 and Its Application in Milk and Milk-Based Food Products.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M

    2017-08-25

    The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP. Furthermore, the milk samples with ppABP were sensorily acceptable. Antilisterial effect was also observed in cheese and paneer samples treated with ppABP. These results clearly indicate that the ppABP of B. licheniformis Me1 can be utilized as a bio-preservative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of food-borne diseases.

  8. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  9. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  10. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  11. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and Residue...

  12. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and Residue...

  13. Detection of relevant amounts of cow's milk protein in non-pre-packed bakery products sold as cow's milk-free.

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, V; Enzian, N; Bellach, J; Schnadt, S; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no mandatory labelling of allergens for non-pre-packed foods in the EU. Therefore, consumers with food allergy rely on voluntary information provided by the staff. The aim of this study was to characterize allergic reactions to non-pre-packed foods and to investigate whether staff in bakery shops were able to give advice regarding a safe product choice. Questionnaires were sent to 200 parents of children with a food allergy. Staff of 50 bakery shops were interviewed regarding selling non-pre-packed foods to food-allergic customers. Bakery products being recommended as 'cow's milk-free' were bought, and cow's milk protein levels were measured using ELISA. A total of 104 of 200 questionnaires were returned. 25% of the children experienced an allergic reaction due to a non-pre-packed food from bakery shops and 20% from ice cream parlours. Sixty percent of the bakery staff reported serving food-allergic customers at least once a month, 24% once a week. Eighty four percent of the staff felt able to advise food-allergic consumers regarding a safe product choice. Seventy three 'cow's milk-free' products were sold in 44 bakery shops. Cow's milk could be detected in 43% of the bakery products, 21% contained >3 mg cow's milk protein per serving. Staff in bakery shops felt confident about advising customers with food allergy. However, cow's milk was detectable in almost half of bakery products being sold as 'cow's milk-free'. Every fifth product contained quantities of cow's milk exceeding an amount where approximately 10% of cow's milk-allergic children will show clinical relevant symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, J.; Olonitola, O. S.; Radu, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from “Manshanu,” and 1 (2.8%) from “Kindrimo.” Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A), when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A) phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A) clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis) and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis) is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified. PMID:27597873

  15. Effects of a synbiotic milk product on human intestinal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, M C; Canzi, E; Zanchi, R; Donati, E; Villa, L

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged consumption of a synbiotic milk (Synbiotic) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (strain 74-2, 10(7) CFU ml(-1)), Bifidobacterium lactis (strain 420, 10(7) CFU ml(-1)) and 2% inulin on colonic ecosystem in healthy humans. A group of 26 healthy subjects, aged 22-47 years, participated in a 6-week placebo-controlled dietary intervention study. After a 2-week baseline period, in which all volunteers consumed 500 ml day(-1) of 2% skimmed milk (Placebo), the study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, two-armed parallel study in which 4-week consumption of 500 ml day portions of Synbiotic or Placebo were compared. Faecal microbial counts, pH, l-lactic acid and bile acid concentrations were assessed before and after the intervention. Synbiotic consumption significantly decreased faecal dry weight (P < 0.01) and l-lactic acid (P < 0.05) concentration, while significantly increased faecal bifidobacteria (P < 0.05) and lactobacilli (P < 0.01) counts. The tested synbiotic milk showed its synbiotic nature by enhancing the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Scientific support to functional effect of a synbiotic milk.

  16. Determination of free and total phthalates in commercial whole milk products in different packaging materials by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jialu; Chen, Wanxin; Zhu, Hangcui; Wang, Chengjun

    2015-12-01

    We developed a method for extraction and determination of free and total phthalate esters in commercial whole milk products. The free phthalates in milk samples were extracted with ethyl acetate after general pretreatment procedures including protein precipitation, centrifugation, and filtration. The bound phthalates in samples were first desorbed with the aid of ultrasound irradiation before extraction of total phthalates. The separation and determination of phthalates in extracts was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. The detection limits were in the range of 0.09 to 0.36ng/g and the average recovery between 79.1 and 110.3%. The developed methods were applied to extract and determine phthalates in commercial whole milk products with different packaging materials, including plastic, glass, and metal. All samples contained several phthalates, including diethyl, diisobutyl, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates at concentrations between 2.60 and 156.4ng/g. The identified phthalates occurred in both free and bound forms. The amounts of phthalates in milk samples packaged in glass and metal containers were much lower than those in plastic containers. Plastic packaging materials are a possible source of phthalate contamination in commercial whole milk products, and a considerable portion of bleached phthalates from packaging can be adsorbed on proteins and other solid components of milk.

  17. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows.

  18. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  19. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rola, Jolanta G.; Czubkowska, Anna; Korpysa-Dzirba, Weronika; Osek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0%) were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2%) mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g−1 between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab). None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). However, 55 of 122 (45.1%) S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3%) a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3%) as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4%) genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate), the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates) as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS). Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8%) was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7%) and tetracycline (5; 4.1%). The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms. PMID:26950152

  20. Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

  1. Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

  2. Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Calsamiglia, S; Hernandez, B; Hartnell, G F; Phipps, R

    2007-10-01

    The objectives were to compare the chemical composition, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages containing 2 transgenes (2GM: herbicide tolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows in a single reversal design study. Cows were fed a TMR ration ad libitum and milked twice daily. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 45% corn silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 45% concentrate (1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM, 15.8% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 4.1% fat). Each period was 28-d long. During the last 4 d of each period, feed intake and milk production data were recorded and milk samples taken for compositional analysis, including the presence of transgenic DNA and Cry1Ab protein. There was no significant difference in the chemical composition between C and 2GM silages, and both were within the expected range (37.6% DM, 1.51 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 8.6% crude protein, 40% neutral detergent fiber, 19.6% acid detergent fiber, pH 3.76, and 62% in vitro DM digestibility). Cows fed the 2GM silage produced milk with slightly higher protein (3.09 vs. 3.00%), lactose (4.83 vs. 4.72%) and solids-not-fat (8.60 vs. 8.40%) compared with C. However, the yield (kg/d) of milk (36.5), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (34.4), fat (1.151), protein (1.106), lactose (1.738), and solids-not-fat (3.094), somatic cell count (log10: 2.11), change in body weight (+7.8 kg), and condition score (+0.09) were not affected by type of silage, indicating no overall production difference. All milk samples were negative for the presence of transgenic DNA from either trait or the Cry1Ab protein. Results indicate that the 2GM silage modified with 2 transgenes did not affect nutrient composition of the silages and

  3. GWA analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep and genetic support for a QTN influencing milk protein percentage in the LALBA gene.

    PubMed

    García-Gámez, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Sahana, Goutam; Sánchez, Juan-Pablo; Bayón, Yolanda; Arranz, Juan-José

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to conduct a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep by analyzing a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep. The studied population consisted of a total of 1,681 Churra ewes belonging to 16 half-sib families with available records for milk yield (MY), milk protein and fat yields (PY and FY) and milk protein and fat contents (PP and FP). The most significant association identified reached experiment-wise significance for PP and FP and was located on chromosome 3 (OAR3). These results confirm the population-level segregation of a previously reported QTL affecting PP and suggest that this QTL has a significant pleiotropic effect on FP. Further associations were detected at the chromosome-wise significance level on 14 other chromosomal regions. The marker on OAR3 showing the highest significant association was located at the third intron of the alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) gene, which is a functional and positional candidate underlying this association. Sequencing this gene in the 16 Churra rams of the studied resource population identified additional polymorphisms. One out of the 31 polymorphisms identified was located within the coding gene sequence (LALBA_g.242T>C) and was predicted to cause an amino acid change in the protein (Val27Ala). Different approaches, including GWA analysis, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium study and a concordance test with the QTL segregating status of the sires, were utilized to assess the role of this mutation as a putative QTN for the genetic effects detected on OAR3. Our results strongly support the polymorphism LALBA_g.242T>C as the most likely causal mutation of the studied OAR3 QTL affecting PP and FP, although we cannot rule out the possibility that this SNP is in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the true causal polymorphism.

  4. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    2003-01-01

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  5. Production of Transgenic-Cloned Pigs Expressing Large Quantities of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shengzhe; Wu, Fangfang; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Human lysozyme is a natural non-specific immune factor in human milk that plays an important role in the defense of breastfed infants against pathogen infection. Although lysozyme is abundant in human milk, there is only trace quantities in pig milk. Here, we successfully generated transgenic cloned pigs with the expression vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ-Neo and their first generation hybrids (F1). The highest concentration of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) with in vitro bioactivity was 2759.6 ± 265.0 mg/L in the milk of F0 sows. Compared with wild-type milk, rhLZ milk inhibited growth of Escherichia coli K88 during the exponential growth phase. Moreover, rhLZ in milk from transgenic sows was directly absorbed by the intestine of piglets with no observable anaphylactic reaction. Our strategy may provide a powerful tool for large-scale production of this important human protein in pigs to improve resistance to pathogen infection. PMID:25955256

  6. Accounting for dominance to improve genomic evaluations of dairy cows for fertility and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Aliloo, Hassan; Pryce, Jennie E; González-Recio, Oscar; Cocks, Benjamin G; Hayes, Ben J

    2016-02-01

    Dominance effects may contribute to genetic variation of complex traits in dairy cattle, especially for traits closely related to fitness such as fertility. However, traditional genetic evaluations generally ignore dominance effects and consider additive genetic effects only. Availability of dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) panels provides the opportunity to investigate the role of dominance in quantitative variation of complex traits at both the SNP and animal levels. Including dominance effects in the genomic evaluation of animals could also help to increase the accuracy of prediction of future phenotypes. In this study, we estimated additive and dominance variance components for fertility and milk production traits of genotyped Holstein and Jersey cows in Australia. The predictive abilities of a model that accounts for additive effects only (additive), and a model that accounts for both additive and dominance effects (additive + dominance) were compared in a fivefold cross-validation. Estimates of the proportion of dominance variation relative to phenotypic variation that is captured by SNPs, for production traits, were up to 3.8 and 7.1 % in Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively, whereas, for fertility, they were equal to 1.2 % in Holstein and very close to zero in Jersey cows. We found that including dominance in the model was not consistently advantageous. Based on maximum likelihood ratio tests, the additive + dominance model fitted the data better than the additive model, for milk, fat and protein yields in both breeds. However, regarding the prediction of phenotypes assessed with fivefold cross-validation, including dominance effects in the model improved accuracy only for fat yield in Holstein cows. Regression coefficients of phenotypes on genetic values and mean squared errors of predictions showed that the predictive ability of the additive + dominance model was superior to that of the additive model for some of the traits. In both breeds

  7. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  8. Production of antilisterial bacteriocins by staphylococci isolated from bovine milk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A collection of 111 staphylococcal isolates recovered from healthy cows in 41 dairy herds in Brazil was surveyed for the production of bacteriocins. The group included 94 coagulase positive and 17 coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. All cultures were grown in tryptic soy broth for 18 h at ...

  9. Variability of acetone in milk in a large low-production dairy herd: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    Heuer, C; Wangler, A; Schukken, Y H; Noordhuizen, J P

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to relate acetone in milk with cow and management factors in one low producing dairy herd (5260 kg milk per 305-day lactation). Milk acetone was measured in regular monthly milk samples one to three times within 100 days of lactation in 4433 lactations (2639 cows, 7800 measurements) from one herd over a period of 32 months (1988-91). Associations between milk acetone and cow factors and surrogate measures of management were evaluated by variance components of multiple fixed effect models. Lactation stage, calendar month of study, production groups and milk yield were strong, and percentage milk fat and parity were weak predictors of milk acetone. There was a trend of increasing body weight loss from the first to the second month of lactation with increasing milk acetone level. A substantial increase in milk production in 1991 was accompanied by an almost twofold rise in milk acetone. It was concluded that environmental parameters had strong relationships with milk acetone even in this low-producing herd.

  10. High blood pressure-lowering and vasoprotective effects of milk products in experimental hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Pauliina I; Kivimäki, Anne S; Turpeinen, Anu M; Korpela, Riitta; Vapaatalo, Heikki

    2011-11-01

    Milk casein-derived angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro) and valine-proline-proline (Val-Pro-Pro) have been shown to have antihypertensive effects in human subjects and to attenuate the development of hypertension in experimental models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a fermented milk product containing Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro and plant sterols on already established hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and aortic gene expression. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 195 mmHg were given either active milk (tripeptides and plant sterols), milk or water ad libitum for 6 weeks. SBP was measured weekly by the tail-cuff method. The endothelial function of mesenteric arteries was investigated at the end of the study. Aortas were collected for DNA microarray study (Affymetrix Rat Gene 1.0 ST Array). The main finding was that active milk decreased SBP by 16 mmHg compared with water (178 (SEM 3) v. 195 (SEM 3) mmHg; P < 0.001). Milk also had an antihypertensive effect. Active milk improved mesenteric artery endothelial dysfunction by NO-dependent and endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor-dependent mechanisms. Treatment with active milk caused mild changes in aortic gene expression; twenty-seven genes were up-regulated and eighty-two down-regulated. Using the criteria for fold change (fc) < 0.833 or > 1.2 and P < 0.05, the most affected (down-regulated) signalling pathways were hedgehog, chemokine and leucocyte transendothelial migration pathways. ACE expression was also slightly decreased (fc 0.86; P = 0.047). In conclusion, long-term treatment with fermented milk enriched with tripeptides and plant sterols decreases SBP, improves endothelial dysfunction and affects signalling pathways related to inflammatory responses in SHR.

  11. Labeling milk along its production chain with DNA encapsulated in silica.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Madeleine S; Paunescu, Daniela; Stoessel, Philipp R; Mora, Carlos A; Stark, Wendelin J; Grass, Robert N

    2014-10-29

    The capability of tracing a food product along its production chain is important to ensure food safety and product authenticity. For this purpose and as an application example, recently developed Silica Particles with Encapsulated DNA (SPED) were added to milk at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 ppb (μg per kg milk). Thereby the milk, as well as the milk-derived products yoghurt and cheese, could be uniquely labeled with a DNA tag. Procedures for the extraction of the DNA tags from the food matrixes were elaborated and allowed identification and quantification of previously marked products by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with detection limits below 1 ppb of added particles. The applicability of synthetic as well as naturally occurring DNA sequences was shown. The usage of approved food additives as DNA carrier (silica = E551) and the low cost of the technology (<0.1 USD per ton of milk labeled with 10 ppb of SPED) display the technical applicability of this food labeling technology.

  12. Analysis of the enzyme network involved in cattle milk production using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Sholeh; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Masoudi Nejad, Ali; Nasiri, Mohammad; Asgari, Yazdan

    2015-06-01

    Understanding cattle metabolism and its relationship with milk products is important in bovine breeding. A systemic view could lead to consequences that will result in a better understanding of existing concepts. Topological indices and quantitative characterizations mostly result from the application of graph theory on biological data. In the present work, the enzyme network involved in cattle milk production was reconstructed and analyzed based on available bovine genome information using several public datasets (NCBI, Uniprot, KEGG, and Brenda). The reconstructed network consisted of 3605 reactions named by KEGG compound numbers and 646 enzymes that catalyzed the corresponding reactions. The characteristics of the directed and undirected network were analyzed using Graph Theory. The mean path length was calculated to be4.39 and 5.41 for directed and undirected networks, respectively. The top 11 hub enzymes whose abnormality could harm bovine health and reduce milk production were determined. Therefore, the aim of constructing the enzyme centric network was twofold; first to find out whether such network followed the same properties of other biological networks, and second, to find the key enzymes. The results of the present study can improve our understanding of milk production in cattle. Also, analysis of the enzyme network can help improve the modeling and simulation of biological systems and help design desired phenotypes to increase milk production quality or quantity.

  13. Effect of ensiling alfalfa at low and high dry matter on production of milk used to make Grana cheese.

    PubMed

    Colombari, G; Borreani, G; Crovetto, G M

    2001-11-01

    The effect of alfalfa ensiled in bunker silos at high moisture [HM, 34% dry matter (DM)] and low moisture (LM, 56% DM) content on milk production and Grana Padano cheese quality was studied. Forty Italian Friesian lactating cows were allotted to two groups and fed, in a crossover design experiment, two corn silage-based diets containing 27% of the total DM as HM or LM. Each of the two periods included 10 d of adaptation and 3 experimental weeks. Forage was cut in the mid-vegetative stage with, on average, 34% neutral detergent fiber and 19% crude protein (DM basis). The two alfalfa silages showed a different fermentation pattern with 4.04 and 1.25% of lactic acid, 1.95 and 0.42% of acetic acid, 9.1 and 4.8% of total N ammonia-N for HM and LM, respectively. No butyric acid was found. Clostridial spores and yeast showed no growth in both silages except in the first 2 wk of the experiment where slight aerobic deterioration occurred. The HM treatment resulted in slightly lower DM intake (19.3 vs. 19.9 kg/d) and milk protein content (3.33 vs. 3.38%), higher milk fat content (3.56 vs. 3.37%), and 4% fat-corrected milk (25.7 vs. 24.4 kg/d). Totally, 38 cheeses obtained from over 19 tons of milk with an average yield efficiency of 6.8%, were produced. The milk renneting and microbiological properties and the cheese quality were not significantly different between treatments. However, both treatments had on average 40% of low quality (butyric fermentation) cheeses observed mainly in the first 2 wk of the experiment, when the number of clostridial spores found in alfalfa silages was significantly higher than in the subsequent weeks. The data obtained suggest that the microbial quality of milk depends more on careful management and monitoring all of the steps in milk production, from silage harvest through to cheese making, than on the moisture level of alfalfa silage, provided that the latter is in a range of 35 to 55% DM.

  14. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    PubMed

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors.

  15. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  16. Continuous production of cheese by immobilized milk-clotting protease from aspergillus niger MC4

    PubMed

    Channe; Shewale

    1998-11-01

    Milk clotting protease from Aspergillus niger MC4 immobilized on glycidyl methacrylate-pentaerythritol triacrylate copolymer GP4 was used for continuous production of cheese using a packed bed reactor. Factors affecting the hydrolysis of kappa-casein and clot formation were studied. Acidified milk (pH 5.8) preincubated at 37 degreesC when passed through the column at a flow rate of 80 mL/min attained the required degree of hydrolysis of kappa-casein for the coagulation in a single pass. Fortification of the hydrolyzed milk with CaCl2 and FeCl3 to a final concentration of 0.01 and 0.02 M, respectively, and incubation of fortified milk at 60 degreesC for 2 h resulted in a hard cake of cheese. The yield of raw cheese was 28 g/100 mL of milk. The immobilized milk-clotting protease was used for 60 days (8 h/day) without any loss in productivity.

  17. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk production and composition of cows with Streptococcus uberis mastitis.

    PubMed

    Hoeben, D; Burvenich, C; Eppard, P J; Hard, D L

    1999-08-01

    The protective effect of bovine somatotropin (bST) during experimental Streptococcus uberis mastitis in cows was studied. The left quarters of 10 cows were infected with 500 cfu of S. uberis O140J. Five cows were subcutaneously treated with 500 mg of recombinant bST 7 d before and after infection, and 5 control cows received the excipient. In the treated cows, total milk production significantly increased after the first and second bST treatments. After infection, milk production decreased 24 and 40% in the infected quarters, 6 and 14% in the uninfected quarters, and 15 and 28% overall for treated and control cows, respectively. In the bST group, milk production was completely restored after 3 wk, but, in the control group, total production and the production of the infected quarters remained lower than preinfection production. The increase in somatic cell count occurred earlier and more rapidly in the control group, and the return to normal values was also more rapid in these cows. The amount of bacteria in milk was higher in the control cows. Changes in milk composition, such as lactose, protein, fat, Na+, K+, and Cl-, were significantly more pronounced in the control cows. Also, clinical symptoms were more prominent in the control cows. Somatotropin protected the mammary gland from excessive production losses and compositional changes during a subsequent episode of experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis mastitis and significantly improved the normalization of production and composition, which indicates a beneficial effect on the restoration of the integrity of the blood-milk barrier.

  18. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (<0.45); the majority of R(2) values were <0.25, indicating small relationship between the results from the raw milk tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products.

  19. Influence of feeding Mediterranean food industry by-products and forages to Awassi sheep on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese.

    PubMed

    Abbeddou, Souheila; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Hilali, Muhi El-Dine; Hess, Hans Dieter; Kreuzer, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Feeding agro-industrial by-products and unconventional forages, rich in potentially anti-nutritional factors, may influence the quality of the raw milk and the dairy products prepared therefrom. The aim of the present study was to determine side-effects on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese of feeding diets where one third were feeds either rich in lipids (tomato pomace and olive cake) or phenols (olive leaves and lentil straw) or electrolytes (Atriplex leaves). The diets, including a control diet, were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. They were fed in amounts of 25 kg dry matter/day per head during 50 days to 6×10 multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes. Milk samples were analysed for various physicochemical traits and fatty acid composition on days 0, 24, 36 and 48. Three times, milk pooled by group was processed to yoghurt and non-aged farmer-type cheese, which were analysed for their gross and fatty acid composition and texture, and were subjected to sensory evaluation. Feeding olive cake and tomato pomace reduced milk casein, but increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. There were some variations in minerals among test diets but, contrary to expectations, Atriplex did not increase milk sodium. The nutritional composition of yoghurt and cheese was not varied much by the test feeds, except for some changes in fatty acid profile similar to the milk. Yoghurt firmness declined with all test diets, but texture score tended to be lower only for olive cake and leaf diets relative to control. Cheese firmness was increased by feeding the Atriplex leaf and olive cake diets which was also reflected in the texture scores. No off-flavours were reported. Possible reasons for effects on the dairy products are discussed. In conclusion, the feeds investigated had certain effects on the physicochemical properties of dairy products, but these were neither very systematic nor large thus not prohibiting their use in Mediterranean sheep

  20. Production of bacteriocin by Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 isolated from Mongolian fermented mare's milk, airag.

    PubMed

    Wulijideligen; Asahina, Takayuki; Hara, Kazushi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Taku

    2012-10-01

    The purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain 406 that was isolated from traditional Mongolian fermented mare's milk, airag, were carried out. Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain 406 was identified on the basis of its morphological and biochemical characteristics and carbohydrate fermentation profile and by API 50 CH kit and 16S ribosomal DNA analyses. The neutral-pH cell-free supernatant of this bacterium inhibited the growth of several lactic acid bacteria and food spoilage and pathogenic organisms, including Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. The bacteriocin was heat-stable and not sensitive to acid and alkaline conditions, but was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes such as pepsin, pronase E, proteinase K, trypsin, and α-chymotrypsin, but not catalase. Optimum bacteriocin production (4000 activity units/mL) was achieved when the strain was cultured at 25°C for 24-36 h in Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. The bacteriocin was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (80% saturation), dialysis (cut-off MW: 1000), and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the bacteriocin had a molecular weight of approximately 3.3 kDa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of a bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc strain from airag. An application to fermented milks would be desired. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Novel α-L-Fucosidases from a Soil Metagenome for Production of Fucosylated Human Milk Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lezyk, Mateusz; Jers, Carsten; Kjaerulff, Louise; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Mikkelsen, Maria D; Mikkelsen, Jørn D

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the discovery of novel α-L-fucosidases and evaluation of their potential to catalyse the transglycosylation reaction leading to production of fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides. Seven novel α-L-fucosidase-encoding genes were identified by functional screening of a soil-derived metagenome library and expressed in E. coli as recombinant 6xHis-tagged proteins. All seven fucosidases belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 29 (GH 29). Six of the seven α-L-fucosidases were substrate-inhibited, moderately thermostable and most hydrolytically active in the pH range 6-7, when tested with para-nitrophenyl-α-L-fucopyranoside (pNP-Fuc) as the substrate. In contrast, one fucosidase (Mfuc6) exhibited a high pH optimum and an unusual sigmoidal kinetics towards pNP-Fuc substrate. When tested for trans-fucosylation activity using pNP-Fuc as donor, most of the enzymes were able to transfer fucose to pNP-Fuc (self-condensation) or to lactose. With the α-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima and the metagenome-derived Mfuc5, different fucosyllactose variants including the principal fucosylated HMO 2'-fucosyllactose were synthesised in yields of up to ~6.4%. Mfuc5 was able to release fucose from xyloglucan and could also use it as a fucosyl-donor for synthesis of fucosyllactose. This is the first study describing the use of glycosyl hydrolases for the synthesis of genuine fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides.

  2. Milk production and feeding behavior in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) during 4 watering regimens.

    PubMed

    Bekele, T; Lundeheim, N; Dahlborn, K

    2011-03-01

    Camels survive and produce milk during recurrent prolonged hot and dry periods. The objective was to evaluate how different watering intervals affected milk production and feeding. Eight lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) were recruited and subjected to 4 watering regimens in a Latin square design experiment performed at Haramaya University in Ethiopia. Each regimen lasted 16 d with 5 d of daily watering between periods: water was offered at 1,315 h once daily (W1); on d 4, 8, 12, and 16 (W4); on d 8 and 16 (W8); and on d 16 (W16). One camel became sick in the second period and its results were excluded. Camels were kept in a pen with minimal shade and a noon temperature of 30.9±0.1°C. They had free access to hay and were offered 2 kg of concentrates 3 times daily. At noon on d 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16, a blood sample was taken from the jugular vein before watering. All calves were kept together in a separate pen. Morning and afternoon calves stimulated milk let-down before the camels were hand-milked, after which the calves suckled, emptying the udder. Camels maintained the milk volume during water deprivation for about 1 wk, but they produced less milk during the second week during W16. Morning milk osmolality increased from 315±3 on d 1 to 333±3 mosm/kg on d 4 during W4 and from 321±3 on d 1 to 342±3 mosm/kg on d 8 during W8. After watering at 1315 h, milk osmolality decreased to 316±3 and 323±3 mosm/kg, respectively, the same afternoon and then increased during recurrent water deprivation to 338±3 (W4) and 347±3 mosm/kg (W8) on d 16, respectively. During W16, osmolality increased from 318±3 to 336±3 mosm/kg during the first 4 d of water deprivation, but during the remaining 12 d the further rise in osmolality was not higher compared with that on d 4. The change in milk osmolality was linearly correlated to plasma osmolality (r=0.8), but milk lactose content did not increase. Contrary to widespread belief, camels did not dilute their milk when

  3. Genetic line comparisons and genetic parameters for endoparasite infections and test-day milk production traits.

    PubMed

    May, Katharina; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; Scheper, Carsten; Strube, Christina; König, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Keeping dairy cows in grassland systems relies on detailed analyses of genetic resistance against endoparasite infections, including between- and within-breed genetic evaluations. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare different Black and White dairy cattle selection lines for endoparasite infections and (2) the estimation of genetic (co)variance components for endoparasite and test-day milk production traits within the Black and White cattle population. A total of 2,006 fecal samples were taken during 2 farm visits in summer and autumn 2015 from 1,166 cows kept in 17 small- and medium-scale organic and conventional German grassland farms. Fecal egg counts were determined for gastrointestinal nematodes (FEC-GIN) and flukes (FEC-FLU), and fecal larvae counts for the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus (FLC-DV). The lowest values for gastrointestinal nematode infections were identified for genetic lines adopted to pasture-based production systems, especially selection lines from New Zealand. Heritabilities were low for FEC-GIN (0.05-0.06 ± 0.04) and FLC-DV (0.05 ± 0.04), but moderate for FEC-FLU (0.33 ± 0.06). Almost identical heritabilities were estimated for different endoparasite trait transformations (log-transformation, square root). The genetic correlation between FEC-GIN and FLC-DV was 1.00 ± 0.60, slightly negative between FEC-GIN and FEC-FLU (-0.10 ± 0.27), and close to zero between FLC-DV and FEC-FLU (0.03 ± 0.30). Random regression test-day models on a continuous time scale [days in milk (DIM)] were applied to estimate genetic relationships between endoparasite and longitudinal test-day production traits. Genetic correlations were negative between FEC-GIN and milk yield (MY) until DIM 85, and between FEC-FLU and MY until DIM 215. Genetic correlations between FLC-DV and MY were negative throughout lactation, indicating improved disease resistance for high-productivity cows. Genetic relationships between FEC-GIN and FEC-FLU with milk

  4. Database of cattle candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Ogorevc, J; Kunej, T; Razpet, A; Dovc, P

    2009-01-01

    A cattle database of candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis has been developed to provide an integrated research tool incorporating different types of information supporting a genomic approach to study lactation, udder development and health. The database contains 943 genes and genetic markers involved in mammary gland development and function, representing candidates for further functional studies. The candidate loci were drawn on a genetic map to reveal positional overlaps. For identification of candidate loci, data from seven different research approaches were exploited: (i) gene knockouts or transgenes in mice that result in specific phenotypes associated with mammary gland (143 loci); (ii) cattle QTL for milk production (344) and mastitis related traits (71); (iii) loci with sequence variations that show specific allele-phenotype interactions associated with milk production (24) or mastitis (10) in cattle; (iv) genes with expression profiles associated with milk production (207) or mastitis (107) in cattle or mouse; (v) cattle milk protein genes that exist in different genetic variants (9); (vi) miRNAs expressed in bovine mammary gland (32) and (vii) epigenetically regulated cattle genes associated with mammary gland function (1). Fourty-four genes found by multiple independent analyses were suggested as the most promising candidates and were further in silico analysed for expression levels in lactating mammary gland, genetic variability and top biological functions in functional networks. A miRNA target search for mammary gland expressed miRNAs identified 359 putative binding sites in 3′UTRs of candidate genes. PMID:19508288

  5. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N

    2010-11-01

    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  8. Multiparous cows categorized by milk protein concentration and energy-corrected milk yield during early lactation--metabolism, productivity and effect of a short-term feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Sigl, T; Gellrich, K; Meyer, H H D; Kaske, M; Wiedemann, S

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study milk productivity, metabolic adaptation and effect of a short-term feed restriction (FR) on key performance indicators during early lactation in cows classified according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield and milk protein concentration. Twenty-three multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were categorized in four groups according to respective averaged values on Days 23-25 postpartum: high ECM yield and high protein concentration; low ECM yield and low protein concentration; high ECM yield and low protein concentration and low ECM yield and high protein concentration. Dry matter intake was reduced to 68.3% for three subsequent days. Our results showed that short-time FR in early lactation succeeded in enhancing energy deficit of cows in all groups. Milk fat, milk protein and lactose concentrations as well as milk fat yield were not influenced by FR. Several hepatic genes encoding for enzymes involved in catabolism of amino acids, β-oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis as well as mRNA encoding for insulin receptor showed increased transcript abundances after FR, primarily in cows with high milk yield and low milk protein concentration.

  9. The effects of chemical treatment of whole canola seed on intake, nutrient digestibilities, milk production, and milk fatty acids of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, C G; Merchen, N R; Drackley, J K; Fahey, G C; Berger, L L

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment of whole canola seed on milk fatty acid composition, 12 multiparous lactating Holstein cows (618 kg, 47 d in milk) were fed total mixed rations in a replicated (3) 4 x 4 Latin square designed experiment. The control diet contained no supplemental fat source. Canola seed (11.2%), either crushed or treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide or Megalac (5.6%) were supplemental fat sources in the crushed, treated, and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) dietary treatments. Experimental periods consisted of 28 d, with 21 d of adaptation to diets and 7 d for data collection. Cows were offered ad libitum access to feed. Intakes, ruminal characteristics, and total tract apparent digestibilities were measured and are discussed. Production of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not different among treatment groups (average 35.0 and 32.8 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat percentages were greater (P = .02) for cows fed treated canola seed or Ca-LCFA than for cows fed crushed canola seed (average 3.71 vs 3.43%, respectively), but milk fat yield (kg/d) was unaffected. Cows fed fat-supplemented diets had lower milk protein percentages than cows fed the control diet. Within the fat-supplemented diet groups, cows fed crushed canola seed had greater milk protein percentages (P = .01) and yields (P < .01) than cows fed treated canola or Ca-LCFA. Milk fat from cows fed diets supplemented with canola seed (treated or crushed) had lower proportions of 14:0 and 16:0 and greater proportions of 18:0 and 18:1 than milk fat from cows fed the control or Ca-LCFA diets. Intakes, milk production, milk composition, and milk fatty acid profiles substantiate that treated canola seed was utilized by cows to an extent similar to that of crushed canola seed. Further definition of the method for treatment of canola seed may provide a strategy for adding higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids to lactation diets to produce

  10. Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards.

    PubMed

    Roca-Fernández, A I; Peyraud, J L; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R

    2016-09-01

    Increasing plant species diversity has been proposed as a means for enhancing annual pasture productivity and decreasing seasonal variability of pasture production facing more frequent drought scenarios due to climate change. Few studies have examined how botanical complexity of sown swards affects cow performance. A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine how sward botanical complexity, from a monoculture of ryegrass to multi-species swards (MSS) (grasses-legumes-forb), affect pasture chemical composition and nutritive value, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and milk solids production of grazing dairy cows. Five sward species: perennial ryegrass (L as Lolium), white clover and red clover (both referred to as T as Trifolium because they were always sown together), chicory (C as Cichorium) and tall fescue (F as Festuca) were assigned to four grazing treatments by combining one (L), three (LT), four (LTC) or five (LTCF) species. Hereafter, the LT swards are called mixed swards as a single combination of ryegrass and clovers, whereas LTC and LTCF swards are called MSS as a combination of at least four species from three botanical families. The experimental area (8.7 ha) was divided into four block replicates with a mineral nitrogen fertilisation of 75 kg N/ha per year for each treatment. In total, 13 grazing rotations were carried out by applying the same grazing calendar and the same pasture allowance of 19 kg DM/cow per day above 4 cm for all treatments. Clover represented 20% of DM for mixed and MSS swards; chicory represented 30% of DM for MSS and tall fescue represented 10% of DM for LTCF swards. Higher milk production (+1.1 kg/day) and milk solids production (+0.08 kg/day) were observed for mixed swards than for ryegrass swards. Pasture nutritive value and pasture DM intake were unaffected by the inclusion of clover. Pasture DM, organic matter and NDF concentrations were lower for MSS than for mixed swards. Higher milk production (+0.8 kg

  11. Effect of stocking rate on pasture production, milk production, and reproduction of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

    2008-05-01

    Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Pasture production and quality data, milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear and quadratic contrasts on SR were evaluated. In addition, the Wilmink exponential model (y(t) = a + b x e((-0.05t) )+ c x t) was fitted to milk yield within lactation, and the parameters were averaged by SR treatment and analyzed as above. The median variation explained by the function for individual lactations was 84%. The amount of pasture grown tended to increase, and the quality of the pasture on offer increased linearly with increasing SR, reducing some of the negative impact of SR on the availability of pasture per cow. Milk production per cow declined linearly with increasing SR, although there was a tendency for most production variables to decline quadratically, with the negative effect of SR declining with increasing SR. The effect on milk production per cow was primarily because of a lower peak milk yield and a greater post-peak decline (less persistent milk profile), although a decline in lactation length with increasing SR was responsible for 24% of the effect of SR on milk yield. Milk production per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR, and there was only a small difference (approximately 3%/cow per ha) in the efficiency of converting feed dry matter into milk energy. Stocking rate did not affect reproductive success. The data are consistent with the need for a more robust measure of SR than cows per hectare because farms will differ in the genetic merit of their cows and in the potential to produce pasture. We introduce the concept of a comparative SR, whereby the carrying capacity of the farm is defined by the BW of

  12. Effect of eprinomectin treatment at calving on milk production in dairy herds with limited outdoor exposure.

    PubMed

    Sithole, F; Dohoo, I; Leslie, K; DesCôteaux, L; Godden, S; Campbell, J; Stryhn, H; Sanchez, J

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of anthelmintic treatment at calving in herds that were totally or semiconfined during the summer. In totally confined herds, lactating and dry cows were housed throughout the summer and had no access to pasture. In semiconfined herds, lactating and dry cows had limited outdoor exposure to a small pasture or paddock but were still fed a ration that met all their nutritional requirements. The study was carried out between February 2002 and February 2003 in 65 herds enrolled with DHI and distributed in 4 regions in Canada and 1 state in the United States. Cows were randomly allocated to receive eprinomectin or a placebo, with treatment being administered on or close to day of calving. In May and June 2002, 8 fecal samples were collected from each farm and fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined. Monthly bulk tank milk samples from each farm were tested with an indirect ELISA using a crude Ostertagia ostertagi antigen. Monthly test-day milk production data were recorded for 200 d after calving. In general, FEC were very low (mean = 1 egg per gram, range = 0 to 27). Mean herd bulk milk ELISA optical density ratio (ODR) values for the whole year ranged between 0.22 and 0.80. The ODR values were dichotomized into high and low using a threshold of 0.5. Treatment effects were analyzed using a linear mixed model with herd and cow as random effects. The analysis was restricted to 4789 cows (23,956 test-day records) treated between 21 d before and 7 d after calving. Overall, there was no significant effect of treatment. However, there was a tendency for an interaction between treatment and ODR, as illustrated by a larger numerical difference in treated vs. untreated cows in high-ODR herds than in low-ODR herds. However, the confidence intervals for the treatment effects (kg/d of milk per cow) in high-ODR herds (-0.33 to 1.10) and in low-ODR herds (-0.53 to 0.14) were wide and included zero. Therefore, this study failed to

  13. Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Patrick; Pons, Nicolas; Agrawal, Anurag; Oozeer, Raish; Guyonnet, Denis; Brazeilles, Rémi; Faurie, Jean-Michel; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T; Houghton, Lesley A; Whorwell, Peter J; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Kennedy, Sean P

    2014-09-11

    The gut microbiota (GM) consists of resident commensals and transient microbes conveyed by the diet but little is known about the role of the latter on GM homeostasis. Here we show, by a conjunction of quantitative metagenomics, in silico genome reconstruction and metabolic modeling, that consumption of a fermented milk product containing dairy starters and Bifidobacterium animalis potentiates colonic short chain fatty acids production and decreases abundance of a pathobiont Bilophila wadsworthia compared to a milk product in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 28). The GM changes parallel improvement of IBS state, suggesting a role of the fermented milk bacteria in gut homeostasis. Our data challenge the view that microbes ingested with food have little impact on the human GM functioning and rather provide support for beneficial health effects.

  14. Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Patrick; Pons, Nicolas; Agrawal, Anurag; Oozeer, Raish; Guyonnet, Denis; Brazeilles, Rémi; Faurie, Jean-Michel; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.; Houghton, Lesley A.; Whorwell, Peter J.; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Kennedy, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) consists of resident commensals and transient microbes conveyed by the diet but little is known about the role of the latter on GM homeostasis. Here we show, by a conjunction of quantitative metagenomics, in silico genome reconstruction and metabolic modeling, that consumption of a fermented milk product containing dairy starters and Bifidobacterium animalis potentiates colonic short chain fatty acids production and decreases abundance of a pathobiont Bilophila wadsworthia compared to a milk product in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 28). The GM changes parallel improvement of IBS state, suggesting a role of the fermented milk bacteria in gut homeostasis. Our data challenge the view that microbes ingested with food have little impact on the human GM functioning and rather provide support for beneficial health effects. PMID:25209713

  15. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olatoye, Isaac Olufemi; Daniel, Oluwayemisi Folashade; Ishola, Sunday Ayobami

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara), and 90 fermented milk (nono) from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers’ extension education

  16. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatoye, Isaac Olufemi; Daniel, Oluwayemisi Folashade; Ishola, Sunday Ayobami

    2016-09-01

    There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara), and 90 fermented milk (nono) from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi(®) test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers' extension education on alternatives to antibiotic prophylaxis, veterinary

  17. Accounting for energy and protein reserve changes in predicting diet-allowable milk production in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, L O; Seo, S; Fox, D G; Ruiz, R

    2006-12-01

    Current ration formulation systems used to formulate diets on farms and to evaluate experimental data estimate metabolizable energy (ME)-allowable and metabolizable protein (MP)-allowable milk production from the intake above animal requirements for maintenance, pregnancy, and growth. The changes in body reserves, measured via the body condition score (BCS), are not accounted for in predicting ME and MP balances. This paper presents 2 empirical models developed to adjust predicted diet-allowable milk production based on changes in BCS. Empirical reserves model 1 was based on the reserves model described by the 2001 National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, whereas empirical reserves model 2 was developed based on published data of body weight and composition changes in lactating dairy cows. A database containing 134 individually fed lactating dairy cows from 3 trials was used to evaluate these adjustments in milk prediction based on predicted first-limiting ME or MP by the 2001 Dairy NRC and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System models. The analysis of first-limiting ME or MP milk production without adjustments for BCS changes indicated that the predictions of both models were consistent (r(2) of the regression between observed and model-predicted values of 0.90 and 0.85), had mean biases different from zero (12.3 and 5.34%), and had moderate but different roots of mean square errors of prediction (5.42 and 4.77 kg/d) for the 2001 NRC model and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model, respectively. The adjustment of first-limiting ME- or MP-allowable milk to BCS changes improved the precision and accuracy of both models. We further investigated 2 methods of adjustment; the first method used only the first and last BCS values, whereas the second method used the mean of weekly BCS values to adjust ME- and MP-allowable milk production. The adjustment to BCS changes based on first and last BCS values was more accurate

  18. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  19. Genetic correlations of days open with production traits and contents in milk of major fatty acids predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Berry, D P; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic relationships between days open (DO) and both milk production traits and fatty acid (FA) content in milk predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry. The edited data set included 143,332 FA and production test-day records and 29,792 DO records from 29,792 cows in 1,170 herds. (Co)variances were estimated using a series of 2-trait models that included a random regression for milk production and FA traits. In contrast to the genetic correlations with fat content, those between DO and FA content in milk changed considerably over the lactation. The genetic correlations with DO for unsaturated FA, monounsaturated FA, long-chain FA, C18:0, and C18:1 cis-9 were positive in early lactation but negative after 100 d in milk. For the other FA, genetic correlations with DO were negative across the whole lactation. At 5 d in milk, the genetic correlation between DO and C18:1 cis-9 was 0.39, whereas the genetic correlations between DO and C6:0 to C16:0 FA ranged from -0.37 to -0.23. These results substantiated the known relationship between fertility and energy balance status, explained by the release of long-chain FA in early lactation, from the mobilization of body fat reserves, and the consequent inhibition of de novo FA synthesis in the mammary gland. At 200 d in milk, the genetic correlations between DO and FA content ranged from -0.38 for C18:1 cis-9 to -0.03 for C6:0. This research indicates an opportunity to use FA content in milk as an indicator trait to supplement the prediction of genetic merit for fertility. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of a combination butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin product and insulin on ketosis resolution and milk production.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J L; Duffield, T F; Herdt, T H; Kelton, D F; Neuder, L; LeBlanc, S J

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin (B+C), glargine insulin, and propylene glycol on resolution of ketosis and average daily milk yield after treatment. Cows from 16 herds in Ontario, Canada, and 1 herd in Michigan were tested at weekly intervals between 3 and 16 DIM. Ketosis was defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L. All ketotic cows were given a baseline treatment of 3 d of 300 g of propylene glycol orally. Animals were then randomly assigned to treatment with 3 doses of either 25 mL of B+C or 25 mL of saline placebo and 1 dose of either 2 mL (200 IU) of glargine insulin or 2 mL of saline placebo in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Outcomes of interest on all farms were ketosis cure (blood BHB <1.2 mmol/L 1 wk postenrollment), maintenance of ketosis cure (blood BHB <1.2 mmol/L 1 and 2 wk postenrollment), and blood BHB concentrations at 1 and 2 wk postenrollment. Milk weights were collected daily in 1 large freestall herd. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate blood BHB concentrations 2 wk after treatment and milk production for 30 d after treatment. Poisson regression was used to examine the effect of treatment on cure and maintenance of cure. Due to a regulatory delay causing temporary unavailability of B+C in Canada, data were analyzed in 2 sets of models: one for insulin and the corresponding placebo (n = 620) and one for the full trial (n = 380). Animals with blood glucose concentrations ≤2.2 mmol/L at the time of ketosis diagnosis were 2.1 times more likely (95% CI = 1.2 to 3.7) to be cured if treated with B+C. Animals in lactation 3 or higher that had blood glucose concentrations <2.2 mmol/L at enrollment produced 4.2 kg/d (95% CI = 1.4 to 7.1) more milk if treated with insulin versus placebo and 2.8 kg/d (95% CI = 0.9 to 4.7) more milk if treated with B+C versus placebo. Animals in lactation 3 or higher with blood glucose ≥2.2 mmol/L that were treated with insulin produced 2

  1. An association between milk and slime increases biofilm production by bovine Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; Caizer Santos, Mário Junior; Contelli Klein, Raphael; Nunes de Souza, Guilherme; de Oliveira Barros Ribon, Andrea

    2015-01-16

    Staphylococcus aureus is associated with chronic mastitis in cattle, and disease manifestation is usually refractory to antibiotic therapy. Biofilm production is a key element of S. aureus pathogenesis and may contribute to the treatment failure that is consistently reported by veterinarians. Minas Gerais State is the largest milk-producing state in Brazil, and the characterization of bacterial isolates is an important aspect of disease control for dairy farmers. Here, we investigated the potential of S. aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to produce slime and biofilm in a skim-milk medium and classified the isolates according to their agr type. Slime was detected using the Congo Red agar (CRA) test in 35.18% (19/54) of the strains; however, 87.04% (47/54) of the strains were considered biofilm-positive based on crystal violet staining. Compared to TSB supplemented with 0.25% glucose, skim milk significantly increased the production of biofilm, but this effect was only observed in slime-producing strains. The bacteria belonged to agr groups I (12/54), II (34/54), III (6/54), and IV (2/54), and bacteria in agr group III were found to be stronger biofilm producers than those in groups I and II. Again, milk had a significant influence only on slime-positive agr I and II isolates, revealing an association between milk and slime. The present study demonstrated that skim-milk medium and slime production are two factors that together influence biofilm formation by bovine strains of S. aureus. A predominance of bacteria belonging to agr group II was observed, and bacteria from agr group III showed the highest proportion of biofilm producers. The majority of bacteria characterized in this study formed biofilm in milk, which suggests that biofilm formation has an important role in the virulence of S. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections.

  2. Toxin production by Bacillus cereus dairy isolates in milk at low temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansson, A; Naidu, A S; Nilsson, I; Wadström, T; Pettersson, H E

    1989-01-01

    A total of 136 strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from milk and cream were evaluated for toxin production based on HeLa S3, Vero, and human embryonic lung (HEL) cell cytotoxicity in vitro. HEL cell monolayers were more susceptible than the other two cell lines. The percentage of isolates exhibiting HEL cytotoxicity was similar (43.0 and 48.4%) when the strains were grown in brain heart infusion broth containing 0.1% glucose (BHIG) at 7 and 24 h, respectively, at 30 degrees C. In milk, only 21.8% of isolates showed HEL cytotoxicity at 7 h, and the number increased significantly to 73.2% at 24 h at 30 degrees C. Further, 102 toxin-positive isolates were acclimatized to grow at 8 degrees C in milk. Ninety-four (92.2%) of the strains produced HEL cytotoxicity of various degrees with no strict correlation to bacterial cell numbers and also elicited vascular permeability reaction in rabbit skin. Under aerated growth conditions (agitation, 200 rpm) B. cereus elicited cytotoxicity in BHIG and in milk at temperatures of 30, 15, and 8 degrees C. However, in nonaerated (stagnant) cultures toxin production was diminished (BHIG) or completely lost (milk) at all temperatures. Toxin production at 8 degrees C was evaluated in two different types of commercial cardboard milk packages by inoculation with a potent toxigenic dairy isolate. No detectable HEL cytotoxicity was observed in milk in any of the packages either at stagnant conditions or during mechanical shaking. However, the same strain produced cytotoxin in whipped cream at 8 degrees C. PMID:2513777

  3. Milk, Dairy Products, and Their Functional Effects in Humans: A Narrative Review of Recent Evidence1

    PubMed Central

    Visioli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Milk is a widely consumed beverage that is essential to the diet of several millions of people worldwide because it provides important macro- and micronutrients. Milk is recognized as being useful during childhood and adolescence because of its composition; however, its relatively high saturated fat proportion raises issues of potential detrimental effects, namely on the cardiovascular system. This review evaluates the most recent literature on dairy and human health, framed within epidemiologic, experimental, and biochemical evidence. As an example, the effects of milk (notably skimmed milk) on body weight appear to be well documented, and the conclusions of the vast majority of published studies indicate that dairy consumption does not increase cardiovascular risk or the incidence of some cancers. Even though the available evidence is not conclusive, some studies suggest that milk and its derivatives might actually be beneficial to some population segments. Although future studies will help elucidate the role of milk and dairy products in human health, their use within a balanced diet should be considered in the absence of clear contraindications. PMID:24618755

  4. The trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia-Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ayar, Ahmet; Sert, Durmuş; Akin, Nihat

    2009-05-01

    In this study, aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) contents in milk and different dairy product samples were measured. Pb, Cd, As, Al and Se contents in the milk and different dairy products ranged from 0.054 mg/kg (milk powder)-1.100 mg/kg (Kaşar cheese), 0.009 mg/kg (whey powder and yogurt)-0.051 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), 0.010 mg/kg (whey powder)-0.146 mg/kg (butter), 2.848 mg/kg (ice cream)-8.778 (drained yogurt) and n.d. (ice cream, milk and whey powder, yogurt, ayran and Lor cheese)-0.434 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), respectively. The 75% of White and Kaşar cheeses, 50% of Lor and 12.5% of Tulum cheese samples contained higher Pb according to the legal limits established by the Turkish Food Codex and European Communities regulation and 12.5% of Tulum cheese sample contained Cd. It was concluded that Pb contents of milk and dairy products from this region might be highly hazardous to human.

  5. Consumption of fermented milk products and breast cancer: a case-control study in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van't Veer, P; Dekker, J M; Lamers, J W; Kok, F J; Schouten, E G; Brants, H A; Sturmans, F; Hermus, R J

    1989-07-15

    In a case-control study in The Netherlands, we observed a significantly lower consumption of fermented milk products (predominantly yogurt and buttermilk) among 133 incident breast cancer cases as compared to 289 population controls (mean +/- SD among users only, 116 +/- 100 versus 157 +/- 144 g/day; P less than 0.01). The age-adjusted odds ratio of daily consumption of 1.5 glasses (greater than or equal to 225 g) of fermented milk versus none was 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.08). When fermented milk was entered as a continuous variable (per g) in either age-adjusted or multivariate analysis, the odds ratio expressed per 225 g was 0.63 (multivariate-adjusted 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.96). After multivariate adjustment for intake of fat and other confounders, a statistically significant decrease in breast cancer risk was also observed for increasing intake of Gouda cheese. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio expressed per 60 g of this fermented product was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.95). For daily intake of milk, no statistically significant differences were observed between cases and controls. These results support the hypothesis that high consumption of fermented milk products may protect against breast cancer.

  6. Real-time PCR detection of Paenibacillus spp. in raw milk to predict shelf life performance of pasteurized fluid milk products.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Matthew L; Ivy, Reid A; Mitchell, W Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-08-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk and to discriminate between Paenibacillus and other closely related spore-forming bacteria. Specificity was confirmed using 16 Paenibacillus and 17 Bacillus isolates. All 16 Paenibacillus isolates were detected with a mean cycle threshold (C(T)) of 19.14 ± 0.54. While 14/17 Bacillus isolates showed no signal (C(T) > 40), 3 Bacillus isolates showed very weak positive signals (C(T) = 38.66 ± 0.65). The assay provided a detection limit of approximately 3.25 × 10(1) CFU/ml using total genomic DNA extracted from raw milk samples inoculated with Paenibacillus. Application of the TaqMan PCR to colony lysates obtained from heat-treated and enriched raw milk provided fast and accurate detection of Paenibacillus. Heat-treated milk samples where Paenibacillus (≥1 CFU/ml) was detected by this colony TaqMan PCR showed high bacterial counts (>4.30 log CFU/ml) after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 21 days. We thus developed a tool for rapid detection of Paenibacillus that has the potential to identify raw milk with microbial spoilage potential as a pasteurized product.

  7. Real-Time PCR Detection of Paenibacillus spp. in Raw Milk To Predict Shelf Life Performance of Pasteurized Fluid Milk Products

    PubMed Central

    Ranieri, Matthew L.; Ivy, Reid A.; Mitchell, W. Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk and to discriminate between Paenibacillus and other closely related spore-forming bacteria. Specificity was confirmed using 16 Paenibacillus and 17 Bacillus isolates. All 16 Paenibacillus isolates were detected with a mean cycle threshold (CT) of 19.14 ± 0.54. While 14/17 Bacillus isolates showed no signal (CT > 40), 3 Bacillus isolates showed very weak positive signals (CT = 38.66 ± 0.65). The assay provided a detection limit of approximately 3.25 × 101 CFU/ml using total genomic DNA extracted from raw milk samples inoculated with Paenibacillus. Application of the TaqMan PCR to colony lysates obtained from heat-treated and enriched raw milk provided fast and accurate detection of Paenibacillus. Heat-treated milk samples where Paenibacillus (≥1 CFU/ml) was detected by this colony TaqMan PCR showed high bacterial counts (>4.30 log CFU/ml) after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 21 days. We thus developed a tool for rapid detection of Paenibacillus that has the potential to identify raw milk with microbial spoilage potential as a pasteurized product. PMID:22685148

  8. Identification of metabolites and thermal transformation products of quinolones in raw cow's milk by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Junza, Alexandra; Barbosa, Sergio; Codony, M Rosa; Jubert, Anna; Barbosa, José; Barrón, Dolores

    2014-02-26

    The presence of residues of antibiotics, metabolites, and thermal transformation products (TPs), produced during thermal treatment to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in milk, could represent a risk for people. Cow's milk samples spiked with enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF), and sarafloxacin (SAR) and milk samples from cows medicated with ENR were submitted to several thermal treatments. The milk samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to find and identify TPs and metabolites. In this work, 27 TPs of 4 quinolones and 24 metabolites of ENR were found. Some of these compounds had been reported previously, but others were characterized for the first time, including lactose-conjugated CIP, the formamidation reaction for CIP and SAR, and hydroxylation or ketone formation to produce three different isomers for all quinolones studied.

  9. Production of human lactoferrin and lysozyme in the milk of transgenic dairy animals: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering, which was first developed in the 1980s, allows for specific additions to animals' genomes that are not possible through conventional breeding. Using genetic engineering to improve agricultural animals was first suggested when the technology was in the early stages of development by Palmiter et al. (Nature 300:611-615, 1982). One of the first agricultural applications identified was generating transgenic dairy animals that could produce altered or novel proteins in their milk. Human milk contains high levels of antimicrobial proteins that are found in low concentrations in the milk of ruminants, including the antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme. Lactoferrin and lysozyme are both part of the innate immune system and are secreted in tears, mucus, and throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to their antimicrobial properties and abundance in human milk, multiple lines of transgenic dairy animals that produce either human lactoferrin or human lysozyme have been developed. The focus of this review is to catalogue the different lines of genetically engineered dairy animals that produce either recombinant lactoferrin or lysozyme that have been generated over the years as well as compare the wealth of research that has been done on the in vitro and in vivo effects of the milk they produce. While recent advances including the development of CRISPRs and TALENs have removed many of the technical barriers to predictable and efficient genetic engineering in agricultural species, there are still many political and regulatory hurdles before genetic engineering can be used in agriculture. It is important to consider the substantial amount of work that has been done thus far on well established lines of genetically engineered animals evaluating both the animals themselves and the products they yield to identify the most effective path forward for future research and acceptance of this technology.

  10. Cellular Components, Including Stem-Like Cells, of Preterm Mother's Mature Milk as Compared with Those in Her Colostrum: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kaingade, Pankaj; Somasundaram, Indumathi; Sharma, Akshita; Patel, Darshan; Marappagounder, Dhanasekaran

    2017-09-01

    Purpose and Study Objective: Whether the preterm mothers' mature milk retains the same cellular components as those in colostrum including stem-like cell, cell adhesion molecules, and immune cells. A total of five preterm mothers were recruited for the study having an average age of 30.2 years and gestational age of 29.8 weeks from the Pristine Women's Hospital, Kolhapur. Colostrum milk was collected within 2-5 days and matured milk was collected 20-30 days after delivery from the same mothers. Integral cellular components of 22 markers including stem cells, immune cells, and cell adhesion molecules were measured using flowcytometry. Preterm mature milk was found to possess higher expressions of hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem-like cells, immune cells, few cell adhesion molecules, and side population cells than colostrum. The increased level of these different cell components in mature milk may be important in the long-term preterm baby's health growth. Further similar research in a larger population of various gestational ages and lactation stages of preterm mothers is warranted to support these pilot findings.

  11. 78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Y. Reese, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS... lower-calorie flavored milk would particularly benefit school children who, according to IDFA and NMPF, are more inclined to drink flavored milk than unflavored milk at school. As further support for the...

  12. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114 ± 14 d in milk and weighed 533 ± 56 kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of NovaSil Plus (NSP) for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were hous...

  13. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    PubMed

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  14. Production of two vaccinating recombinant rotavirus proteins in the milk of transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Soler, Eric; Le Saux, Agnès; Guinut, Frédéric; Passet, Bruno; Cohen, Ruxandra; Merle, Christine; Charpilienne, Annie; Fourgeux, Cynthia; Sorel, Véronique; Piriou, Antoine; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Cohen, Jean; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2005-12-01

    Rotaviruses are the main cause of infantile viral gastroenteritis worldwide leading to approximately 500,000 deaths each year mostly in the developing world. For unknown reasons, live attenuated viruses used in classical vaccine strategies were shown to be responsible for intussusception (a bowel obstruction). New strategies allowing production of safe recombinant non-replicating rotavirus candidate vaccine are thus clearly needed. In this study we utilized transgenic rabbit milk as a source of rotavirus antigens. Individual transgenic rabbit lines were able to produce several hundreds of micrograms per ml of secreted recombinant VP2 and VP6 proteins in their milk. Viral proteins expressed in our model were immunogenic and were shown to induce a significant reduction in viral antigen shedding after challenge with virulent rotavirus in the adult mouse model. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic mammal bioreactors allowing the rapid co-production of two recombinant viral proteins in milk to be used as a vaccine.

  15. Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2014-01-01

    A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

  16. Intravaginal probiotics modulated metabolic status and improved milk production and composition of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Deng, Q; Odhiambo, J F; Farooq, U; Lam, T; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of probiotics (a lactic acid bacteria cocktail) around parturition would influence metabolic status and increase milk production of transition dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups receiving intravaginal infusion of probiotics or carrier (i.e., sterile skim milk) once a week at wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving as follows: 2 consecutive probiotics before parturition and 1 carrier dose after parturition (TRT1), 3 consecutive probiotics doses around parturition (TRT2), and 3 consecutive carrier doses around parturition (CTR). The probiotics were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of FUA3089 and FUA3138 and FUA3140 with a cell count of 10 to 10 cfu/dose. Blood was sampled from wk -2 to +3 and milk was sampled on the third day in milk (DIM) and from wk +1 to +5 on a weekly basis. Feed intake and milk production was monitored until wk +8. Results showed that the TRT2 group (366.12 ± 49.77 μmol/L) had a lower ( = 0.01) concentration of NEFA in the serum than the CTR group (550.85 ± 47.16 μmol/L). The concentrations of IgG in the milk were 32.71 ± 3.00 mg/mL in the TRT1 group, 17.47 ± 4.54 mg/mL in the TRT2 group, and 6.73 ± 3.43 mg/mL in the CTR group at 3 DIM ( < 0.01). Meanwhile, both the TRT1 and the TRT2 group had lower haptoglobin in the milk compared with the CTR group at 3 DIM ( < 0.01). The TRT1 group had greater milk protein content than the CTR group (2.99 ± 0.04 vs. 2.82 ± 0.04%; = 0.02), whereas the TRT2 group tended to have greater lactose content compared with the CTR group (4.53 ± 0.03 vs. 4.44 ± 0.03%; = 0.05). The effect of treatment interacted with parity with regards to milk production and feed efficiency. Multiparous cows in the TRT1 and TRT2 groups had greater milk production and feed efficiency than those in the CTR group ( < 0.01 and = 0.02, respectively). Among primiparous cows, those

  17. Enzyme catalysed production of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides by Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase.

    PubMed

    Holck, Jesper; Larsen, Dorte M; Michalak, Malwina; Li, Haiying; Kjærulff, Louise; Kirpekar, Finn; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Forssten, Sofia; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-03-25

    A Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (E.C. 3.2.1.18) was cloned into Pichia pastoris and expressed. The pH and temperature optimum of the enzyme was determined as pH 5.7 and 30°C. Using casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and lactose as sialyl-donor and acceptor respectively, the optimal donor/acceptor ratio for the trans-sialidase catalysed 3'-sialyllactose production was found to be 1:4. Quantitative amounts of 3'-sialyllactose were produced from CGMP and lactose at a yield of 40mg/g CGMP. The 3'-sialyllactose obtained exerted a stimulatory effect on selected probiotic strains, including different Bifidobacterium strains in single culture fermentations. The trans-sialidase also catalysed the transfer of sialic acid from CGMP to galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and to the human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) backbone lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) to produce 3'-sialyl-GOS, including doubly sialylated GOS products, and 3'-sialyl-LNT, respectively. This work thus provides proof of the concept of producing 3'-sialyllactose and potentially other sialylated HMOs as well as sialylated GOS enzymatically by trans-sialidase activity, while at the same time providing valorisation of CGMP, a co-processing product from cheese manufacture.

  18. Molecular Serotyping and Pathogenic Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Raman; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an important bacterial pathogen, is responsible for foodborne illnesses worldwide. Examination of food samples for the presence of L. monocytogenes and assessment of their pathogenicity is usually an effective strategy in the prevention of listeriosis. In the present study, we have tested 307 samples of milk and milk products from various places in Tamil Nadu, India for the presence of L. monocytogenes using ISO 11290 and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual methods. 16S rDNA sequencing and duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for prs and iap genes were used to identify L. monocytogenes at the species level. Fifteen of the 307 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Molecular serotyping of the L. monocytogenes isolates by multiplex PCR revealed the predominance of the serogroups 1/2a and 4b. Fourteen of the 15 isolates contained all the virulence genes (inlA, inlB, hlyA, and plcA) screened for using multiplex PCR. Only one isolate of L. monocytogenes was negative for the plcA gene and in vitro phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C activity. L. monocytogenes strains that belong to the serogroup 4b exhibited higher nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans than the serogroup 1/2a. Worms infected with L. monocytogenes were symptomatic with aberrant contraction of body muscles, loss of pharyngeal pumping, and decreased locomotion, which highlights the pathogenic potential of the L. monocytogenes isolates.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in Norwegian raw milk cheese production.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Ragnhild Aakre; Heggebø, Ragna; Sunde, Elin Bekvik; Skjervheim, Magne

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes during the cheese making process in small-scale raw milk cheese production in Norway. The prevalence of S. aureus in bovine and caprine raw milk samples was 47.3% and 98.8%, respectively. An increase in contamination during the first 2-3 h resulted in a 73.6% prevalence of contamination in the bovine curd, and 23 out of 38 S. aureus-negative bovine milk samples gave rise to S. aureus-positive curds. The highest contamination levels of S. aureus were reached in both caprine and bovine cheese after 5-6 h (after the first pressing). There was no contamination of L. monocytogenes in caprine cheeses and only one (1.4%) contaminated bovine cheese. This work has increased our knowledge about S. aureus and L. monocytogenes contamination during the process of raw milk cheese production and gives an account of the hygiene status during the manufacture of Norwegian raw milk cheeses.

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products

    PubMed Central

    El-Zamkan, Mona A.; Hameed, Karima G. Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard. PMID:27847427