Science.gov

Sample records for including non-zero obliquity

  1. A Mercury orientation model including non-zero obliquity and librations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2009-12-01

    Planetary orientation models describe the orientation of the spin axis and prime meridian of planets in inertial space as a function of time. The models are required for the planning and execution of Earth-based or space-based observational work, e.g. to compute viewing geometries and to tie observations to planetary coordinate systems. The current orientation model for Mercury is inadequate because it uses an obsolete spin orientation, neglects oscillations in the spin rate called longitude librations, and relies on a prime meridian that no longer reflects its intended dynamical significance. These effects result in positional errors on the surface of ~1.5 km in latitude and up to several km in longitude, about two orders of magnitude larger than the finest image resolution currently attainable. Here we present an updated orientation model which incorporates modern values of the spin orientation, includes a formulation for longitude librations, and restores the dynamical significance to the prime meridian. We also use modern values of the orbit normal, spin axis orientation, and precession rates to quantify an important relationship between the obliquity and moment of inertia differences.

  2. Tidal Heating at Pluto and Charon as a Result of Non-Zero Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M.; Bills, B. G.; Mitchell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Pluto-Charon system represents a unique opportunity to examine tidal heating in a zero eccentricity system. As a result, any tidal heating in these bodies will occur as a result of finite obliquity. While Pluto and Charon's obliquities have yet to be measured, theoretical models assuming the spin poles of the bodies are in Cassini states predict observable obliquity values. We present a new tidal heating model for synchronously rotating bodies. As a major result of this formulation, we show how tidal heating is quadratically dependent on the h and l Love numbers, in contrast with classic models which assume homogeneous interior structure and find a linear dependence on the k Love number. Furthermore, we show how the spatial patterns of tidal heating depend on obliquity as well as eccentricity. By applying theoretical predictions of Pluto and Charon's spin pole orientations we examine the radially integrated spatial pattern of tidal heating at these bodies. At degree two, these patterns on Pluto predict equal heating at the sub- and anti-Charon points. Recent observations, however, show a clear dichotomy at these locations. Degree three tidal heating patterns, though reduced in magnitude, break the spatial symmetry and represent a positive indicator that tidal heating is active at Pluto and may be a source of the geologic activity at Tombaugh Regio.

  3. Effects of low-viscous layers and a non-zero obliquity on surface stresses induced by diurnal tides and non-synchronous rotation: The case of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara-Orué, Hermes M.; Vermeersen, Bert L. A.

    2011-09-01

    In this study we present a semi-analytical Maxwell-viscoelastic model of the variable tidal stress field acting on Europa's surface. In our analysis, we take into account surface stresses induced by the small eccentricity of Europa's orbit, the non-zero obliquity of Europa's spin axis - both acting on a diurnal 3.55-days timescale - and the reorientation of the ice shell as a result of non-synchronous rotation (NSR). We assume that Europa's putative ocean is covered by an ice shell, which we subdivide in a low-viscous and warm lower ice layer (asthenosphere, viscosity 10 12-10 17 Pa s), and a high-viscous and cold upper ice layer (lithosphere, viscosity 10 21 Pa s). Viscoelastic relaxation influences surface stresses in two ways: (1) through viscoelastic relaxation in the lithosphere and (2) through the viscoelastic tidal response of Europa's interior. The amount of relaxation in the lithosphere is proportional to the ratio between the period of the forcing mechanism and the Maxwell time of the high-viscous lithosphere. As a result, this effect is only relevant to surface stresses caused by the slow NSR mechanism. On the other hand, the importance of the viscoelastic response on surface stresses is proportional to the ratio between the relaxation time ( τj) of a given viscoelastic mode j and the period of the forcing function. On a diurnal timescale the fast relaxation of transient modes related to the low viscosity of the asthenosphere can alter the magnitude and phase shift of the diurnal stress field at Europa's surface. The effects are largest, up to 20% in magnitude and 7° in phase for ice rigidities lower than 3.487 GPa, when the relaxation time of the aforementioned transient modes approaches the inverse of the average angular rate of Europa's orbit. On timescales relevant for NSR (>10 4 years) the magnitude and phase shift of NSR surface stresses can be affected by viscoelastic relaxation of the ocean-ice boundary. This effect, however, becomes only

  4. Oblique view of east and south sides, including component landscape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east and south sides, including component landscape elements that surround the building, camera facing northwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 3, Naval Station Treasure Island, 3 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Composite graft including bone tissue: a case report of successful reattachment of multiple fingertip oblique amputation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Lim, Yun sub; Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Nam Gyun; Kim, Jun Sik

    2013-02-01

    A composite graft for reattachment of an amputated fingertip is a very controversial and challenging procedure. An osteocutaneous composite graft is rarely conducted and has a low success rate following fingertip amputation. A 21-year-old male patient was referred to our emergency clinic with dorsal oblique amputation of the middle, ring and small fingers of the left hand through the distal interphalangeal joint and middle phalanx. The amputated parts of the middle and ring fingers were reattached with osteocutaneous composite grafts. The amputated part of the small finger was revascularised to the ulnar palmar digital artery of the small finger. The composite grafts of the middle and ring fingers and the revascularised small finger survived completely. We suggest that careful patient selection will allow an osteocutaneous composite graft to become an acceptable method for the treatment of fingertip amputation. A large-scale study of osteocutaneous graft of amputated fingertips is required to improve the survival rate.

  6. In-vivo characterization of optical properties of pigmented skin lesions including melanoma using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Smith, Elizabeth B.; Zou, Jun; Duvic, Madeleine; Prieto, Victor; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we report the first use of oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry to conduct in-vivo measurements of optical properties of three different types of pigmented skin lesions, including melanoma, dysplastic, and common nevi. Both absorption and reduced scattering coefficient spectra were estimated from the spatially resolved diffuse reflectance within the wavelength range of 455–765 nm for 144 pigmented skin lesions including 16 melanomas. The absorption and reduced scattering spectra were found to change with the malignancy of the skin lesions, which were generally higher for the malignant cases than the benign ones. Based on the measurement results, the physiological origin leading to the change of the absorption and scattering properties is also discussed. PMID:21361657

  7. Normal- and oblique-shock flow parameters in equilibrium air including attached-shock solutions for surfaces at angles of attack, sweep, and dihedral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Souders, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    Normal- and oblique-shock flow parameters for air in thermochemical equilibrium are tabulated as a function of shock angle for altitudes ranging from 15.24 km to 91.44 km in increments of 7.62 km at selected hypersonic speeds. Post-shock parameters tabulated include flow-deflection angle, velocity, Mach number, compressibility factor, isentropic exponent, viscosity, Reynolds number, entropy difference, and static pressure, temperature, density, and enthalpy ratios across the shock. A procedure is presented for obtaining oblique-shock flow properties in equilibrium air on surfaces at various angles of attack, sweep, and dihedral by use of the two-dimensional tabulations. Plots of the flow parameters against flow-deflection angle are presented at altitudes of 30.48, 60.96, and 91.44 km for various stream velocities.

  8. Existence of non zero modes in an annular lined duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Tanasie, Loredana

    2012-11-01

    The purpose is to extend Vilenski - Rienstra's [32] results concerning mainly the general aspects of the existence of non zero modes in annular lined ducts. The case, when the radial and circumferential components of the mean flow are equal to zero and the axial component depends only on the distance to the duct axis, is investigated. Conditions for the existence of non zero modes, which satisfy the linearized homogeneous Euler equations (obtained by linearization around the mean flow) and the boundary conditions, (corresponding to the perturbation - liner interaction of mass-spring-damper type) are found. The first condition, called dispersion relation, is expressed in terms of the solutions of two normalized initial value problems and is equivalent to the linear dependence of these solutions. It is shown that the set of non zero modes, corresponding to a given frequency and given axial and circumferential wave number, is either the null space, either is a one dimensional function space. It is shown also that if the mean flow is symmetric with respect to the "center of the ring", then neither symmetric, nor anti-symmetric modes exist. This difference between the annular and rectangular or circular lined duct models explains while one of the boundary conditions can not be transferred in the center of symmetry. For symmetric flow, being constant in the "central part of the ring", new dispersion relations are derived. The new relations beside the solutions of the two normalized initial value problems incorporate also modified Bessel functions or additional Bessel functions. The Lyapunov stability of the mean flow with respect to the initial value perturbation by mode type perturbations is discussed in terms of the zero's of the dispersion relation.

  9. Dielectric waveguide with transverse index variation that support a zero group velocity mode at a non-zero longitudinal wavevector

    DOEpatents

    Ibanescu, Mihai; Joannopoious, John D.; Fink, Yoel; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui

    2005-06-21

    Optical components including a laser based on a dielectric waveguide extending along a waveguide axis and having a refractive index cross-section perpendicular to the waveguide axis, the refractive index cross-section supporting an electromagnetic mode having a zero group velocity for a non-zero wavevector along the waveguide axis.

  10. Non-zero helicity of a cyclonic vortex over localized heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanovskii, A.; Evgrafova, A.; Popova, E.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and numerical study of the steady-state cyclonic vortex from isolated heat source in a rotating fluid layer is described. The structure of laboratory cyclonic vortex is similar to the typical structure of tropical cyclones from observational data and numerical modelling including secondary flows in the boundary layer. Differential characteristics of the flow were studied by numerical simulation using CFD software FlowVision. It was found that helicity in a described system has non-zero value. Physical interpretation of helicity distribution is provided.

  11. Obliquity dependence of the tangential YORP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ševeček, P.; Golubov, O.; Scheeres, D. J.; Krugly, Yu. N.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The tangential Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is a thermophysical effect that can alter the rotation rate of asteroids and is distinct from the so-called normal YORP effect, but to date has only been studied for asteroids with zero obliquity. Aims: We aim to study the tangential YORP force produced by spherical boulders on the surface of an asteroid with an arbitrary obliquity. Methods: A finite element method is used to simulate heat conductivity inside a boulder, to find the recoil force experienced by it. Then an ellipsoidal asteroid uniformly covered by these types of boulders is considered and the torque is numerically integrated over its surface. Results: Tangential YORP is found to operate on non-zero obliquities and decreases by a factor of two for increasing obliquity.

  12. Oblique discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Discord and entanglement characterize two kinds of quantum correlations, and discord captures more correlation than entanglement in the sense that even separable states may have nonzero discord. In this paper, we propose a new kind of quantum correlation that we call as oblique discord. A zero-discord state corresponds to an orthonormal basis, while a zero-oblique-discord state corresponds to a basis which is not necessarily orthogonal. Under this definition, the set of zero-discord states is properly contained inside the set of zero-oblique-discord states, and the set of zero-oblique-discord states is properly contained inside the set of separable states. We give a characterization of zero-oblique-discord states via quantum mapping, provide a geometric measure for oblique discord, and raise a conjecture, which if it holds, then we can define an information-theoretic measure for oblique discord. Also, we point out that the definition of oblique discord can be properly extended to some different versions just as the case of quantum discord.

  13. Climates of Oblique Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    A previous paper (Dobrovolskis 2007; Icarus 192, 1-23) showed that eccentricity can have profound effects on the climate, habitability, and detectability of extrasolar planets. This complementary study shows that obliquity can have comparable effects. The known exoplanets exhibit a wide range of orbital eccentricities, but those within several million km of their suns are generally in near-circular orbits. This fact is widely attributed to the dissipation of tides in the planets, which is particularly effective for solid/liquid bodies like "Super-Earths". Along with friction between a solid mantle and a liquid core, tides also are expected to despin a planet until it is captured in the synchronous resonance, so that its rotation period is identical to its orbital period. The canonical example of synchronous spin is the way that our Moon always keeps nearly the same hemisphere facing the Earth. Tides also tend to reduce the planet's obliquity (the angle between its spin and orbital angular velocities). However, orbit precession can cause the rotation to become locked in a "Cassini state", where it retains a nearly constant non-zero obliquity. For example, our Moon maintains an obliquity of about 6.7° with respect to its orbit about the Earth. For comparison, stable Cassini states can exist for practically any obliquity up to 180° for planets of binary stars, or in multi-planet systems with high mutual inclinations, such as are produced by scattering or by the Kozai mechanism. This work considers planets in synchronous rotation with circular orbits. For obliquities greater than 90°, the ground track of the sub-solar point wraps around all longitudes on the surface of such a planet. For smaller obliquities, the sub-solar track takes the figure-8 shape of an analemma. This can be visualized as the intersection of the planet's spherical surface with a right circular cylinder, parallel to the spin axis and tangent to the equator from the inside. The excursion of the

  14. Dynamic analysis of offshore structures with non-zero initial conditions in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao; Li, Huajun

    2016-03-01

    The state of non-zero conditions is typically treated as fact when considering the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. This article extends a newly proposed method [1] to manage the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures in the frequency domain, including new studies on original environmental loads reconstruction, response comparisons with the commercial software ANSYS, and a demonstration using an experimental cantilever beam. The original environmental loads, such as waves, currents, and winds, that act on a structure are decomposed into multiple complex exponential components are represented by a series of poles and corresponding residues. Counter to the traditional frequency-domain method, the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures could be solved in the frequency domain. Compared with reference [1], an improvement reported in this article is that practical issues, including the choice of model order and central-processing-unit (CPU) time consumption, are further studied when applying this new method to offshore structures. To investigate the feasibility of the representation of initial environmental loads by their poles and corresponding residues, a measured random wave force collected from a column experiment at the Lab of Ocean University of China is used, decomposed, reconstructed and then compared with the original wave force; then, a numerical offshore platform is used to study the performance of the proposed method in detail. The numerical results of this study indicate that (1) a short duration of environmental loads are required to obtain their constitutive poles and residues, which implies good computational efficiency; and (2) the proposed method has a similar computational efficiency to traditional methods due to the use of the inverse Fourier transform technique. To better understand the performance, of time consumption and accuracy of the proposed method, the commercial software ANSYS is used to determine responses

  15. Insolation on exoplanets with eccentricity and obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    2013-09-01

    The pattern of insolation on an extrasolar planet has profound implications for its climate and habitability. A planet’s insolation regime depends on its orbital eccentricity, the obliquity of its spin axis, its rotation rate, and its longitude of vernal equinox. For example, although a planet receives the same time-averaged insolation at both poles, the peak insolation at its poles can differ by a factor up to 27, depending on its eccentricity and equinox. This is of particular interest for planets with polar icecaps (or lakes and seas), like Mercury, Earth, and Mars (or Titan). The nearly 600 exoplanets now with known eccentricities span a wide range of eccentricity from essentially zero up to near unity; but their obliquities are still unknown, and also may range widely. Including both non-zero eccentricity and obliquity together vastly broadens the variety of global insolation patterns on extrasolar planets. This applies especially to planets in synchronous rotation, or in other spin-orbit resonances (like Mercury), which can exhibit quite complicated and unusual insolation patterns. For example, regions of eternal daylight and endless night occur only on synchronous exoplanets, whose rotation periods equal their orbital periods; but the peak and time-averaged insolation can vary by factors of at least 32 and 88, respectively, over a planet with a rotation period of half its orbital period, an eccentricity of 0.20, and an obliquity of 60°. Patterns of both mean and peak insolation display various symmetries with respect to latitude and longitude on the planet’s surface. Most of these are relatively simple and easily understood; for example, a resonant planet whose orbital period is half of an odd multiple of its rotation period (as in Mercury’s 3/2 resonance) experiences identical insolation patterns at longitudes 180° apart. However, such half-odd resonances also exhibit a totally unexpected symmetry of the time-averaged insolation with respect to the

  16. The obliquity of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baland, Rose-Marie; Yseboodt, Marie; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The extraordinary activity at Enceladus' warm south pole indicates the presence of an internal global or local reservoir of liquid water beneath the surface. While Tyler (Tyler, R.H. [2009]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(15), L15205; Tyler, R.H. [2011]. Icarus 211(1), 770-779) has suggested that the geological activity and the large heat flow of Enceladus could result from tidal heating triggered by a large obliquity of at least 0.05-0.1°, theoretical models of the Cassini state predict the obliquity to be two to three orders of magnitude smaller for an entirely solid and rigid Enceladus. We investigate the influence of an internal subsurface ocean and of tidal deformations of the solid layers on the obliquity of Enceladus. Our Cassini state model takes into account the external torque exerted by Saturn on each layer of the satellite and the internal gravitational and pressure torques induced by the presence of the liquid layer. As a new feature, our model also includes additional torques that arise because of the periodic tides experienced by the satellite. We find that the upper limit for the obliquity of a solid Enceladus is 4.5 ×10-4 degrees and is negligibly affected by elastic deformations. The presence of an internal ocean decreases this upper limit by 13.1%, elasticity attenuating this decrease by only 0.5%. For larger satellites, such as Titan, elastic effects could be more significant because of their larger tidal deformations. As a consequence, it appears that it is easier to reconcile the theoretical estimates of Titan's obliquity with the measured obliquity than reported in previous studies wherein the solid layers or the entire satellite were assumed to be rigid. Since the obliquity of Enceladus cannot reach Tyler's requirement, obliquity tides are unlikely to be the source of the large heat flow of Enceladus. More likely, the geological activity at Enceladus' south pole results from eccentricity tides. Even in the most favorable case, the upper limit for

  17. Oblique wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carfagna, M.; Destrade, M.; Gower, A. L.; Grillo, A.

    2017-04-01

    We prove theoretically that when a soft solid is subjected to an extreme deformation, wrinkles can form on its surface at an angle that is oblique to a principal direction of stretch. These oblique wrinkles occur for a strain that is smaller than the one required to obtain wrinkles normal to the direction of greatest compression. We go on to explain why they will probably never be observed in real-world experiments. This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications.'

  18. Fluid-structure interaction in blood flow capturing non-zero longitudinal structure displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukač, Martina; Čanić, Sunčica; Glowinski, Roland; Tambača, Josip; Quaini, Annalisa

    2013-02-01

    We present a new model and a novel loosely coupled partitioned numerical scheme modeling fluid-structure interaction (FSI) in blood flow allowing non-zero longitudinal displacement. Arterial walls are modeled by a linearly viscoelastic, cylindrical Koiter shell model capturing both radial and longitudinal displacement. Fluid flow is modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are fully coupled via kinematic and dynamic coupling conditions. Our numerical scheme is based on a new modified Lie operator splitting that decouples the fluid and structure sub-problems in a way that leads to a loosely coupled scheme which is unconditionally stable. This was achieved by a clever use of the kinematic coupling condition at the fluid and structure sub-problems, leading to an implicit coupling between the fluid and structure velocities. The proposed scheme is a modification of the recently introduced “kinematically coupled scheme” for which the newly proposed modified Lie splitting significantly increases the accuracy. The performance and accuracy of the scheme were studied on a couple of instructive examples including a comparison with a monolithic scheme. It was shown that the accuracy of our scheme was comparable to that of the monolithic scheme, while our scheme retains all the main advantages of partitioned schemes, such as modularity, simple implementation, and low computational costs.

  19. The role of magnetic dipoles and non-zero-order Bragg waves in metamaterial perfect absorbers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yong; Chen, Hou-Tong; Dalvit, Diego A R

    2013-02-11

    We develop a simple treatment of a metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) based on grating theory. We analytically prove that the condition of MPA requires the existence of two currents, which are nearly out of phase and have almost identical amplitude, akin to a magnetic dipole. Furthermore, we show that non-zero-order Bragg modes within the MPA may consume electromagnetic energy significantly.

  20. Electrodynamics at non-zero temperature, chemical potential and Bose condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, Alexander D.; Lepidi, Angela; Piccinelli, Gabriella E-mail: lepidi@fe.infn.it

    2009-02-15

    Electrodynamics of charged scalar bosons and spin 1/2 fermions is studied at non-zero temperature, chemical potentials, and possible Bose condensate of the charged scalars. Debye screening length, plasma frequency, and the photon dispersion relation are calculated. It is found that in presence of the condensate the time-time component of the photon polarization operator in the first order in electric charge squared acquires infrared singular parts proportional to inverse powers of the spatial photon momentum k.

  1. Non-zero basal oxygen flow a hazard to anesthesia breathing circuit leak test.

    PubMed

    Tokumine, Joho; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Gushiken, Kouji; Ohta, Minoru; Matsuyama, Tomoaki; Saikawa, Satoko

    2005-04-01

    The non-zero basal flow (BF) of oxygen in anesthesia machines has been set to supply the basal metabolic requirement of oxygen. However, there is no scientific evidence of its necessity. In this study we sought to clarify whether non-zero BF affects leak detection during preanesthetic inspections. Twenty-five participants performed leak tests on anesthesia machines to detect breathing circuit leaks. Artificial leak-producing devices were used to create leaks from 0 to 1.0 L/min. The investigator randomly chose the leak device and connected it into the breathing circuit. Participants, blinded as to the presence or the type of leak producing device, then tested the breathing circuit for leaks. The conventional breathing system leak test was performed with and without BF. The results of leak detection in each leak procedure were analyzed statistically. The leak detection rate of leak test with BF was less than without BF (P < 0.01). We demonstrated that non-zero BF of oxygen decreases the leak detection rate and is an obstacle for leak detection, especially for small leaks. Therefore, we recommend that breathing circuit leak tests should be performed in the absence of BF of oxygen.

  2. Observations of Persistent Current at Non-Zero Resistance: Challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulov, Alexey

    2011-12-01

    This article details why the mesoscopic quantum phenomenon known as persistent current challenges the second law of thermodynamics. The persistent current is an equilibrium phenomenon as real as Nyquist (Johnson) noise, but in contrast, it is not random; its direct component (i.e. zero-frequency component) is non-zero because of the discreteness of the permitted state spectrum of electrons in normal metal rings and Cooper pairs in superconductor rings. The persistent current observed in mesoscopic rings with non-zero resistance is effectively directed Brownian motion, which cannot decay despite its non-zero energy dissipation. This is due to the equilibration between the dissipative force with the change of angular momentum of electrons (or Cooper pairs), owing to the quantization condition on the wave function describing their states in the ring. The observations of electric potential difference on ring-halves having persistent current raise the possibility of utilizing persistent currents for useful work, in conflict with the second law.

  3. Oblique shock interaction with a laminar cylindrical jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, Patrick; Olmstead, Dell; Truman, C. Randall; Vorobieff, Peter; Kumar, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    We present an experimental study of planar shock interaction with an initially cylindrical, diffuse density interface, where the angle α between the plane of the shock and the axis of the cylinder can be zero (planar normal interaction) or non-zero (oblique interaction). The interface is formed by injecting a laminar jet of a heavy gas mixture (sulfur hexafluoride, acetone, nitrogen) into quiescent air. The jet is stabilized by an annular co-flow of air to minimize diffusion. Interaction between the pressure gradient (shock front) and density gradient leads to vorticity deposition, and during the subsequent evolution, the flow undergoes mixing (injected material - air) and eventually transitions to turbulence. Several parameters affect this evolution, including the angle α, the Atwood number (density ratio), and the Mach number of the shock. For quantitative and qualitative characterization of the influence of these parameters, we use flow visualization in two planes that relies on planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in acetone, which forms part of the injected material.

  4. Oblique Shock Interaction with a Laminar Cylindrical Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, Patrick; Olmstead, Dell; Truman, C. Randall; Vorobieff, Peter; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    We present an experimental study of a planar shock interaction with an initially cylindrical, diffuse density interface, where the angle α between the plane of the shock and the axis of the cylinder can be zero (planar normal interaction) or non-zero (oblique interaction). The interface is formed by injecting a laminar jet of a heavy gas mixture (sulfure hexafluoride, acetone, nitrogen) into quiescent air. The jet is stabilized by an annular co-flow of air to minimize diffusion. Interaction between the pressure gradient (shock front) and density gradients leads to vorticity deposition, and during the subsequent evolution, the flow undergoes mixing (injected material - air) and eventually transitions to turbulence. Several parameters affect this evolution, including the angle α, the Atwood number (density ratio), and the Mach number of the shock. For quantitative and qualitative characterization of the influence of these parameters, we use flow visualization in two planes that relies on planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in acetone, which forms a part of the injected material. This research is supported by NNSA Grant DE-NA000220.

  5. Oblique warped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejancu, Aurel

    2007-02-01

    We define the oblique warped products and prove their existence. In addition to the Levi-Civita connection we use both the Schouten Van Kampen and Vrănceanu connections to study the foliation and curvatures of an oblique warped product. As an application to cosmology we introduce the oblique Robertson Walker spacetime and give its basic properties.

  6. The X-ray Light Curves of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables with Non-zero Shock Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Koji

    The hard X-ray emitting shocks in magnetic CVs are probably 0.01-0.1 Rwd tall. Self occultation of X-ray emitting regions under such shocks must be calculated using a full, three-dimensional geometry: The difference between the top and the bottom of the shock is substantial in this regard. In this paper, I present the results of crude simulations showing that the non-zero shock height probably is an important factor in the hard X-ray spin modulations of IPs, with applications to XY Ari and EX Hya.

  7. Spin zero Hawking radiation for non-zero-angular momentum mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ngampitipan, Tritos; Bonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2015-05-15

    Black hole greybody factors carry some quantum black hole information. Studying greybody factors may lead to understanding the quantum nature of black holes. However, solving for exact greybody factors in many black hole systems is impossible. One way to deal with this problem is to place some rigorous analytic bounds on the greybody factors. In this paper, we calculate rigorous bounds on the greybody factors for spin zero hawking radiation for non-zero-angular momentum mode from the Kerr-Newman black holes.

  8. GPDs at non-zero skewness in ADS/QCD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    We study Generalized Parton Distribution functions (GPDs) usually measured in hard exclusive processes and encoding information on the three dimensional partonic structure of hadrons and their spin decomposition, for non-zero skewness within the AdS/QCD formalism. To this aim the canonical scheme to calculate GPDs at zero skewness has been properly generalized. Furthermore, we show that the latter quantities, in this non-forward regime, are sensitive to non-trivial details of the hadronic light front wave function, such as a kind of parton correlations usually not accessible in studies of form factors and GPDs at zero skewness.

  9. Insolation patterns on synchronous exoplanets with obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    2009-11-01

    A previous paper [Dobrovolskis, A.R., 2007. Icarus 192, 1-23] showed that eccentricity can have profound effects on the climate, habitability, and detectability of extrasolar planets. This complementary study shows that obliquity can have comparable effects. The known exoplanets exhibit a wide range of orbital eccentricities, but those within several million kilometers of their suns are generally in near-circular orbits. This fact is widely attributed to the dissipation of tides in the planets. Tides in a planet affect its spin even more than its orbit, and such tidally evolved planets often are assumed to be in synchronous rotation, so that their rotation periods are identical to their orbital periods. The canonical example of synchronous spin is the way that our Moon always keeps nearly the same hemisphere facing the Earth. Tides also tend to reduce the planet's obliquity (the angle between its spin and orbital angular velocities). However, orbit precession can cause the rotation to become locked in a "Cassini state", where it retains a nearly constant non-zero obliquity. For example, our Moon maintains an obliquity of about 6.7° with respect to its orbit about the Earth. In comparison, stable Cassini states can exist for practically any obliquity up to ˜90° or more for planets of binary stars, or in multi-planet systems with high mutual inclinations, such as are produced by scattering or by the Kozai mechanism. This work considers planets in synchronous rotation with circular orbits, but arbitrary obliquity β; this affects the distribution of insolation over the planet's surface, particularly near its poles. For β=0, one hemisphere bakes in perpetual sunshine, while the opposite hemisphere experiences eternal darkness. As β increases, the region of permanent daylight and the antipodal realm of endless night both shrink, while a more temperate area of alternating day and night spreads in longitude, and especially in latitude. The regions of permanent day or

  10. Flow-induced instabilities of shells of revolution with non-zero Gaussian curvatures conveying fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gary Han; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-02-01

    We study flow-induced instabilities of axis-symmetric shells of revolution with an arbitrary meridian and non-zero Gaussian curvatures. We consider a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model based on an inviscid flow model and a thin shell theory. This FSI model is solved using a method that combines the Galerkin technique with the boundary element method (BEM). The present method is capable of investigating the dynamic behavior of doubly-curved shells in contact with flow without the need for an analytical solution of the perturbed flow potential. Shells of revolution with different values of non-zero Gaussian curvatures are investigated and their behavior is compared to shells with zero Gaussian curvature. It is found that the added mass natural frequencies of shells of revolution are larger than those of conical shells with the same inlet, outlet and length. Shells of revolution, with both positive and negative Gaussian curvatures, lose their instability by buckling, however, shells with negative Gaussian curvatures buckle at modes similar to those observed in uniform and conical shells, while shells with positive Gaussian curvatures buckle with localized deformations close to the area with higher local flow velocities.

  11. Effect of non-zero divergence wind fields on atmospheric transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, Toshihiro

    The use of wind fields that do not satisfy the equation of continuity exactly can introduce significant errors in the calculation of the atmospheric transport of chemical species. Results are presented showing that non-zero divergence winds, used as inputs to a transport equation of conservation form, can introduce local fictitious production or destruction rates into the numerical calculations. A divergence-corrected form of the equation, which is mathematically equivalent but not numerically equivalent to an advection form of the equation, can eliminate these undesirable effects as well as the advection form equation can. The divergence-corrected form of the equation leads exactly to the conservation form when massconsistent winds are used. Also, it has the desirable property that the numerical form can preserve, to a large extent, integral conservation relations of the original mass balance equation even when Δ · V ≠ 0. The effects of using non-zero divergence winds appear as first-order chemical reactions. These terms are compared quantitatively with the rates of several tropospheric chemical reactions.

  12. Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan

    The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  13. Gravitational instabilities of the cosmic neutrino background with non-zero lepton number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Neil D.; Kobakhidze, Archil

    2017-09-01

    We argue that a cosmic neutrino background that carries non-zero lepton charge develops gravitational instabilities. Fundamentally, these instabilities are related to the mixed gravity-lepton number anomaly. We have explicitly computed the gravitational Chern-Simons term which is generated quantum-mechanically in the effective action in the presence of a lepton number asymmetric neutrino background. The induced Chern-Simons term has a twofold effect: (i) gravitational waves propagating in such a neutrino background exhibit birefringent behaviour leading to an enhancement/suppression of the gravitational wave amplitudes depending on the polarisation, where the magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the lepton asymmetry; (ii) Negative energy graviton modes are induced in the high frequency regime, which leads to very fast vacuum decay producing, e.g., positive energy photons and negative energy gravitons. From the constraint on the present radiation energy density, we obtain an interesting bound on the lepton asymmetry of the universe.

  14. Vector tomography for reconstructing electric fields with non-zero divergence in bounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulouri, Alexandra; Brookes, Mike; Rimpiläinen, Ville

    2017-01-01

    In vector tomography (VT), the aim is to reconstruct an unknown multi-dimensional vector field using line integral data. In the case of a 2-dimensional VT, two types of line integral data are usually required. These data correspond to integration of the parallel and perpendicular projection of the vector field along the integration lines and are called the longitudinal and transverse measurements, respectively. In most cases, however, the transverse measurements cannot be physically acquired. Therefore, the VT methods are typically used to reconstruct divergence-free (or source-free) velocity and flow fields that can be reconstructed solely from the longitudinal measurements. In this paper, we show how vector fields with non-zero divergence in a bounded domain can also be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements without the need of explicitly evaluating the transverse measurements. To the best of our knowledge, VT has not previously been used for this purpose. In particular, we study low-frequency, time-harmonic electric fields generated by dipole sources in convex bounded domains which arise, for example, in electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging. We explain in detail the theoretical background, the derivation of the electric field inverse problem and the numerical approximation of the line integrals. We show that fields with non-zero divergence can be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements with the help of two sparsity constraints that are constructed from the transverse measurements and the vector Laplace operator. As a comparison to EEG source imaging, we note that VT does not require mathematical modeling of the sources. By numerical simulations, we show that the pattern of the electric field can be correctly estimated using VT and the location of the source activity can be determined accurately from the reconstructed magnitudes of the field.

  15. Oblique effect in stereopsis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Elizabeth T.; King, Robert A.; Anoskey, Alana M.

    1992-08-01

    Contrast thresholds are lower for detection of a vertical pattern than for an obliquely-oriented pattern. Is there an analogous oblique effect for the depth threshold of a stereoscopic luminance pattern? If so, why? Are the causes different from those for an oblique effect with monocular vision? To explore these issues, we used stereoscopic blurry bar (D6) luminance patterns with a peak spatial frequency of 2 or 4 cycles/degree (cpd) and either a vertical or an oblique orientation. We obtained psychometric functions for data obtained from a method of constant stimuli procedure, using 100 forced-choice trials for each datum. For each of three observers we estimated stereoacuity with a maximum-likelihood curve-fitting procedure. Subjects showed better stereoacuity for the vertical spatial patterns than for the oblique patterns. Some possible causes are that for oblique patterns (unlike vertical patterns) (1) the total vertical extent of the pattern is shrunk by a factor of sin((theta) ), where (theta) equals 90 degree(s) for vertical; (2) the pattern is 'stretched out' in the horizontal direction by a factor of csc((theta) ); (3) there are vertical as well as horizontal retinal disparities. Perhaps the resulting sparseness of horizontal disparity information or the potential vertical disparities in the oblique patterns reduce stereoacuity. To disentangle these causes, we used several different experimental conditions (e.g., elongation of oblique patterns) run in randomized blocks of trials. We will discuss these results and implications for stereopsis.

  16. Effects of Obliquity on the Habitability of Exoplanets around M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuwei; Liu, Yonggang; Tian, Feng; Yang, Jun; Ding, Feng; Zhou, Linjiong; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-05-01

    Most previous studies on how obliquity affects planetary habitability focused on planets around Sun-like stars. Their conclusions may not be applicable to habitable planets around M dwarfs due to the tidal-locking feature and associated insolation pattern of these planets. Here we use a comprehensive three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model to investigate this issue. We find that the climates of planets with higher obliquities are generally warmer, consistent with previous studies. The mechanism of warming is, however, completely different. Significant reduction of low clouds, instead of sea-ice cover, within the substeller region (which moves if the obliquity is non-zero) is the key in warming M-dwarf planets with high obliquities. For a total insolation of 1237 W m-2, the climate warms by 21 K when the obliquity increases from 0° to 90°. Correspondingly, the runaway greenhouse inner edge of the habitable zone shifts outward from 2500 to 2100 W m-2. The moist greenhouse inner edge, based on our crude estimation, shifts less, from 2180 to 2075 W m-2. Near the outer edge, in contrast, the climates of planets with higher obliquities are colder due to their reduced ability to maintain a hotspot at the surface. Therefore, the outer edge moves inward when obliquity is increased, opposite to the finding of previous studies on planets around Sun-like stars. Our results thus indicate that the habitable zone for M dwarfs narrows if the obliquity of their planets increases.

  17. Coherent information of one-mode Gaussian channels—the general case of non-zero added classical noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brádler, Kamil

    2015-03-01

    We prove that whenever the coherent information of a one-mode Gaussian (OMG) channel is non-zero its supremum is achieved for the infinite input power. This is a well established fact for zero added classical noise, whereas the non-zero case has not been studied in detail. The presented analysis fills the gap for three canonical classes of OMG channels: the lossy, amplifying and additive classical noise channel class. For the remaining OMG channel classes the coherent information is known to vanish.

  18. Finite-time fuzzy stabilisation and control for nonlinear descriptor systems with non-zero initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhan; Zhang, Qingling; Ai, Jun; Sun, Xin

    2015-01-01

    For nonlinear descriptor systems, this paper presents an approach to obtain a fuzzy controller with guaranteed finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness with non-zero initial state, which outperforms some recent work and additionally provides a precision estimation of model approximation. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions of finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness with non-zero initial state for nonlinear descriptor systems. Using Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy dynamic models and proposed sufficient conditions, we define fuzzy sets and use linear matrix inequalities to satisfy differential linear matrix inequalities. A simulation confirms efficiency and precision of the given method.

  19. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  20. Less invasive corrective surgery using oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) including L5-S1 fusion for severe lumbar kyphoscoliosis due to L4 compression fracture in a patient with Parkinson's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Hiromasa; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Ohtori, Seiji; Kubota, Go; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Nakamura, Junichi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Toyone, Tomoaki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Inoue, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Orita, Sumihisa

    2015-04-07

    Corrective surgery for kyphoscoliosis patients tend to be highly invasive due to osteotomy. The present case introduce less invasive corrective surgery using anterior oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) technique. An 80-year-old Japanese man with a history of Parkinson's disease presented to our hospital because of severe kyphoscoliosis and gait disturbance. Considering the postsurgical complications due to osteotomy, we performed an anterior-posterior combined corrective fusion surgery: OLIF of Lumbar (L) 2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) followed by L5-Sacral (S) 1 anterior lumbar fusion via the OLIF approach using an anterior intervertebral cage, and posterior L3-4 and L4-5 facetectomy and posterior fusion using percutaneous pedicle screws from Thoracic (T) 10 to S1 with a T-9 hook system. The surgery was performed in a less invasive manner with no osteotomy, and it improved the sagittal alignments with moderate restoration, which improved the patient's posture and gait disturbance. The patient showed transient muscle weakness of proximal lower extremity contralateral side to the surgical site, which fully recovered by physical rehabilitation 3 months after the surgery. The surgical corrective procedure using the minimally invasive OLIF method including L5-S1 fusion showed a great advantage in treating degenerative kyphoscoliosis in a Parkinson's disease patient in its less-invasive approac.

  1. Evolution of Mercury's Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yseboodt, M.; Margot, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    Mercury has a near-zero obliquity, i.e. its spin axis is nearly perpendicular to its orbital plane. In order to constrain the size of the planet's core with the framework suggested by Peale (1976), the obliquity must be known precisely. Rambaux and Bois (2004) have suggested that Mercury's obliquity varies on thousand-year timescales due to planetary perturbations, potentially ruining the feasibility of Peale's experiment. We use a Hamiltonian approach (free of energy dissipation) to study the spin-orbit evolution of Mercury subject to planetary perturbations. We can reproduce an obliquity evolution similar to that of Rambaux and Bois (2004) if we introduce the planetary perturbations abruptly, i.e. by a step function. But if we introduce the planetary effects smoothly starting from an equilibrium position corresponding to the Cassini state (where the spin axis, the normal to the invariable plane and the normal to the orbital plane are aligned), the thousand-year oscillations in the obliquity do not appear. We find an equilibrium value for the obliquity of ˜1.6 arcmin for (B-A)/C = 1.2 10-4 and (C-A)/C = 2.4 10-4, which are combinations of the moments of inertia corresponding to the Mariner 10 gravity data. Our results indicate that planetary perturbations do not force short-period oscillations in Mercury's obliquity, even though such oscillations may appear in numerical integrations involving artificial departures from the Cassini state or the sudden onset of perturbations. Peale (2004) has shown that the periods of damping of the free motions (free precession or free libration) are short compared to the age of the solar system, such that oscillations in obliquity are expected to decay. In the absence of excitation processes, Mercury's obliquity will remain constant, suggesting that one of the important conditions for the success of Peale's experiment is realized.

  2. Flow-induced buckling of flexible shells with non-zero Gaussian curvatures and thin spots.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gary Han; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2017-03-29

    We study the influence of one or multiple thin spots on the flow-induced instabilities of flexible shells of revolution with non-zero Gaussian curvatures. The shell's equation of motion is described by a thin doubly-curved shell theory and is coupled with perturbed flow pressure, calculated based on an inviscid flow model. We show that for shells with positive Gaussian curvatures conveying fluid, the existence of a thin spot results in a localized flow-induced buckling response of the shell in the neighborhood of the thin spot, and significantly reduces the critical flow velocity for buckling instability. For shells with negative Gaussian curvatures, the buckling response is extended along the shell's characteristic lines and the critical flow velocity is only slightly reduced. We also show that the length scale of the localized deformation generated by a thin spot is proportional to the shell's global thickness when the stiffness of the thin spot is negligible compared with the stiffness of the rest of the shell. When two thin spots exist at a distance, their influences are independent from each other for shells with positive Gaussian curvatures, but large-scale deformations can be created due to multiple thin spots on shells with negative curvatures, depending on the thin spots' relative position.

  3. Robust quantum oscillations with non-zero Berry phase in Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Sourabh; Rajeev, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    We performed angle dependent magnetoresistance study of a metallic single crystal sample of Bi2Te3. We find that the magnetoresistance is highly asymmetric in positive and negative magnetic fields for small angles between the magnetic field and the direction perpendicular to the plane of the sample. The magnetoresistance becomes symmetric as the angle approaches 90°. The quantum Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations are symmetric and show signatures of topological surface states with Dirac dispersion in the form of non-zero Berry phase. However, the angular dependence of these oscillations suggests a complex three dimensional Fermi surface as the source of these oscillations, which does not exactly conform with the six ellipsoidal model of the Fermi surface of Bi2Te3. We attribute the asymmetry in the magnetoresistance to a mixing of the Hall voltage in the longitudinal resistance due to the comparable magnitude of the Hall and longitudinal resistance in our samples. This provides a clue to understanding the asymmetric magnetoresistance often seen in this and similar materials. Moreover, the asymmetric nature evolves with exposure to atmosphere and thermal cycling, which we believe is either due to exposure to atmosphere or thermal cycling, or both affecting the carrier concentration and hence the Hall signal in these samples. However, the quantum oscillations seem to be robust against these factors which suggests that the two have different origins.

  4. Measurements of Reversing Flows with Non-zero Mean in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chin-Tsau; Fu, Huili

    1996-11-01

    The accurate prediction of the pressure drop in a regenerator (packed with porous materials) is crucial to the design of a Stirling engine or a cryocooler. To date, the most popularly-used pressure-drop correlation is still largely based on the data of steady flows. Since the regenerators are operating under the periodically reversing flows, the pressure-drop correlation should comprise two elements: amplitude and phase correlations. There exist some measurements on the pressure drop across a packed column subjected to oscillating flows; but only the amplitude correlations were reported and the results showed considerable difference from those of steady flows. In this study, experiments were performed for oscillating flows through cylinders packed with woven-screens. Both the pressure and the velocity were measured. The mean flows were set to have zero and non-zero means. The pressure-drop and velocity signals were averaged over constant phase angle referencing to the displacement signal of a piston drive. Our results indicate that there are considerable phase angle difference between the pressure-drop and the velocity. This indicates that the transient inertia effect can not be neglected in the pressure-drop correlation.

  5. Phase dependent excitation of Rydberg atoms in non-zero average fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuson, Eric; Carrat, Vincent; Gallagher, Tom

    2016-05-01

    The final energy of an electron excited to a high lying Rydberg state in the presence of a microwave (MW) field shows a dependence on the phase of the field at which the excitation occurs. This phase dependence is comparable to that seen in strong field experiments using attosecond pulses to probe systems perturbed by intense infrared (IR) fields. In zero average field, final energies exhibit a phase dependence at twice the frequency of the MW field. We show a phase dependence at the same frequency as the MW field emerges in the presence of a non-zero average field, parallel to the MW polarization. To isolate phase dependence at the MW frequency, we amplitude modulate the IR excitation laser and phase lock this modulation to the MW field. Li atoms are excited to states near the ionization limit in the presence of a MW field, and bound Rydberg states (n>150) are detected. In an applied average field, we observe modulation of the Rydberg signal at the MW frequency. This modulation vanishes as the average field is zeroed, but persists even in fields large enough to ionize most of the population. We compare these results to symmetry arguments and a model of classical Rydberg orbits. An experiment to determine the absolute phase of the modulation relative the MW field is discussed. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy.

  6. Two-dimensional quantum percolation with binary non-zero hopping integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon Thomas, Brianna; Nakanishi, Hisao

    In a previous work [Dillon and Nakanishi, Eur.Phys.J B 87, 286 (2014)], we calculated the transmission coefficient of the two-dimensional quantum percolation problem and mapped out in detail the three regimes of localization, i.e., exponentially localized, power-law localized, and delocalized which had been proposed earlier [Islam and Nakanishi, Phys.Rev. E 77, 061109 (2008)]. We now consider a variation on quantum percolation in which the hopping integral (Vdiluted) associated with bonds that connect to at least one diluted site is non-zero but a fraction of the hopping integral (Vfull=1) between non-diluted sites. We study the latter model by calculating quantities such as the transmission coefficient and the inverse participation ratio and find the original quantum percolation results to be stable over a wide range of energy. In particular, except in the immediate neighborhood of the band center (where increasing Vdiluted to just 0.02*Vfull appears to eliminate localization effects), increasing Vdiluted only shifts the boundaries between the 3 regimes but does not eliminate them until the Vdiluted reaches 20

  7. Two-dimensional aligned-field magnetofluiddynamic flow. I Steady incompressible flow with non-zero charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.-L.

    1984-04-01

    It is shown that, in the case of non-zero charge density, the class of steady, plane, incompressible, aligned-fluid magnetofluiddynamic flows contains no rotational motions. Therefore, this class of flows is exhausted by the irrotational solutions of Kingston and Power.

  8. Inferring planetary obliquity using rotational and orbital photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. C.; Sekowski, C.; Haggard, H. M.; Pallé, E.; Cowan, N. B.

    2016-03-01

    The obliquity of a terrestrial planet is an important clue about its formation and critical to its climate. Previous studies using simulated photometry of Earth show that continuous observations over most of a planet's orbit can be inverted to infer obliquity. However, few studies of more general planets with arbitrary albedo markings have been made and, in particular, a simple theoretical understanding of why it is possible to extract obliquity from light curves is missing. Reflected light seen by a distant observer is the product of a planet's albedo map, its host star's illumination, and the visibility of different regions. It is useful to treat the product of illumination and visibility as the kernel of a convolution. Time-resolved photometry constrains both the albedo map and the kernel, the latter of which sweeps over the planet due to rotational and orbital motion. The kernel's movement distinguishes prograde from retrograde rotation for planets with non-zero obliquity on inclined orbits. We demonstrate that the kernel's longitudinal width and mean latitude are distinct functions of obliquity and axial orientation. Notably, we find that a planet's spin axis affects the kernel - and hence time-resolved photometry - even if this planet is east-west uniform or spinning rapidly, or if it is north-south uniform. We find that perfect knowledge of the kernel at 2-4 orbital phases is usually sufficient to uniquely determine a planet's spin axis. Surprisingly, we predict that east-west albedo contrast is more useful for constraining obliquity than north-south contrast.

  9. Oblique Shot of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-05

    This highly oblique image shot over northwestern part of the African continent captures the curvature of the Earth and shows its atmosphere as seen by NASA EarthKAM. You can see clouds and even the occasional thunderhead.

  10. The oblique electron lens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hallam, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    An oblique electron lens is described that is especially applicable to image converters and camera tubes employing flat opaque photocathodes. The use of optical lenses, corrector plates, and/or mirrors (often employed in other electron lenses designed for use with opaque photocathodes) are eliminated. The oblique electron lens is well suited to ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet image converters, and to image converters employing opaque negative electron affinity photocathodes. It is also possible to use this oblique electron lens for electronography. Measurements on an experimental tube show that a limiting resolution of 50 line pairs/mm is possible, but the intrinsic lens quality is believed to approach that of a conventional electromagnetic lens having uniform and colinear electric and magnetic fields.

  11. Towards Efficiency of Oblique Images Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, W.; Bakuła, K.

    2016-03-01

    Many papers on both theoretical aspects of bundle adjustment of oblique images and new operators for detecting tie points on oblique images have been written. However, only a few achievements presented in the literature were practically implemented in commercial software. In consequence often aerial triangulation is performed either for nadir images obtained simultaneously with oblique photos or bundle adjustment for separate images captured in different directions. The aim of this study was to investigate how the orientation of oblique images can be carried out effectively in commercial software based on the structure from motion technology. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the impact of the orientation strategy on both duration of the process and accuracy of photogrammetric 3D products. Two, very popular software: Pix4D and Agisoft Photoscan were tested and two approaches for image blocks were considered. The first approach based only on oblique images collected in four directions and the second approach included nadir images. In this study, blocks for three test areas were analysed. Oblique images were collected with medium-format cameras in maltan cross configuration with registration of GNSS and INS data. As a reference both check points and digital surface models from airborne laser scanning were used.

  12. Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of Supersonic Through-Flow Fan with Vibrating Blades Under Non-Zero Mean Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, T.; Namba, M.

    1996-08-01

    The double linearization concept is applied to a rotating annular cascade model operating at supersonic axial velocity. It is assumed that each blade vibrates with infinitesimal displacement amplitude under small but non-zero mean loading. Vibration modes normal and parallel to the blade chord are considered. Numerical results indicate that the mean loading effects play a crucial role on the aerodynamic instability of the blade motion. The bending motion can be unstable due to the presence of mean loading. Both the steady performance and the flutter boundary are highly sensitive to the blade camber. The bending motion instability is substantially influenced also by the chordwise component of the blade motion. Some numerical results compared with strip theory prediction demonstrate significant three-dimensional effects on the unsteady aerodynamic force under non-zero mean loading.

  13. Mars Obliquity Cycle Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The tilt of Mars' spin axis (obliquity) varies cyclically over hundreds of thousands of years, and affects the sunlight falling on the poles. Because the landing site of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is so near the north pole, higher sun and warmer temperatures during high obliquity lead to warmer, more humid surface environments, and perhaps thicker, more liquid-like films of water in soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Influence of geophysical factors on oblique-sounder ionospheric characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baranets, A.N.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N.F.; Borisova, T.D.; Bubnov, V.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of geophysical factors, including magnetoionospheric disturbances, on decameter wave propagation over extended paths using oblique sounding (OS) data, and also to compare experimental and calculated OS ionograms for various conditions of radio waver propagation (season, time of day). Variations of oblique-sounder ionospheric characteristics along a 9000 km long subauroral path for various geophysical conditions are considered. A comparison is made of experimental and calculated ionograms of oblique sounding.

  15. The obliquity of Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Harris, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    Pluto's obliquity (the angle between its spin axis and orbit normal) varies between 102 and 126 deg over a period of about 3 million years. These oscillations are nearly sinusoidal and quite stable, leading to only modest changes in the insolation regime. Thus, Pluto's rotation has been slightly retrograde ever since its current orbit and rotation rate were established.

  16. Multi-input, multi-output regulator design for constant disturbances and non-zero set points with application to automatic landing in a crosswind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, W. E.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Undesirable steady offsets result when a stationary, linear regulator using state feedback is subjected to constant disturbances and/or non-zero setspoints. To eliminate these offsets, the disturbances and non-zero setpoints can be fed forward to the control. Only when the number of outputs is less than or equal to the number of control inputs can the outputs be maintained at arbitrary non-zero setpoints. The state and the disturbance may be estimated using a constant gain Kalman filter or by modeling the constant disturbances as exponentially correlated processes with long correlation times.

  17. On Titan's obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, Gwenaël; Rambaux, Nicolas; Richard, Andy

    2017-06-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission brings us many valuable information about Saturn's moon Titan, but some of them seem to be incompatible. Measurements of the gravity field coefficients J2 and C22 suggest that its shape is hydrostatic and observations of its rotation state show that it is likely to be in a Cassini state with an obliquity of 0.32 deg.Titan cannot be fully rigid otherwise its equilibrium obliquity would only be one third of the observed value. This agrees with several hints indicating that it possesses a global underneath ocean surrounded by a thin ice shell. But, thus far three layer models are unable to explain Titan's large obliquity assuming both an hydrostatic shape and the absence of significant resonant amplifications. Nevertheless, these models neglect the rotation of the ocean which might play a significant role in the dynamics of Titan's spin pole.Here we revisit the rotation dynamics of a three layered body with a subsurface ocean using a suitable non-canonical Hamiltonian formalism. The system has 7 degrees of freedom, six of which being equally shared by the rigid interior and the shell, and the last one being due to the rotation of the ocean. We show that this model is able to reconcile the three observations listed above.

  18. Does a possible laboratory observation of a frequency anisotropy of light result from a non-zero photon mass m?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J. V.; Pecker, J. C.; Vigier, J. P.

    1991-04-01

    Assuming a priori the existence of a non-zero photon rest-mass mγ>0 and justifying this assumption, we can predict the existence of an anisotropy in velocity and frequency of light in the direction of the apex of the 3 K background cosmic radiation field. Since this frequency shift can now be tested in the laboratory, it is important to improve the precision of these measurements in order to check our predictions. Its possible confirmation implies indeed the definition of an absolute evolution parameter in the rest frame Σ0 of this 3 K background microwave radiation.

  19. Models of Warm Jupiter Atmospheres: Observable Signatures of Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Emily

    2017-09-01

    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of a hypothetical “warm Jupiter” planet, for a range of possible obliquities from 0° to 90°. We model a Jupiter-mass planet on a 10 day orbit around a Sun-like star, since this hypothetical planet sits at the boundary between planets for which we expect that tidal forces should have aligned their rotation axes with their orbital axes (i.e., ones with zero obliquity) and planets whose timescale for tidal alignment is longer than the typical age of an exoplanet system. In line with observational progress, which is pushing atmospheric characterization for planets on longer orbital periods, we calculate the observable signatures of obliquity for a transiting warm Jupiter: in orbital phase curves of thermal emission and in the hemispheric flux gradients that could be measured by eclipse mapping. For both of these predicted measurements, the signal that we would see depends strongly on our viewing geometry relative to the orientation of the planet’s rotation axis, and we thoroughly identify the degeneracies that result. We compare these signals to the predicted sensitivities of current and future instruments and determine that the James Webb Space Telescope should be able to constrain the obliquities of nearby warm Jupiters to be small (if ≤slant 10^\\circ ) or to directly measure them if significantly non-zero (≥slant 30^\\circ ) using the technique of eclipse mapping. For a bright target and assuming photon-limited precision, this could be done with a single secondary eclipse observation.

  20. Assessing Uncertainties in Boundary Layer Transition Predictions for HIFiRE-1 at Non-zero Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, Lindsay C.

    2011-01-01

    Boundary layer stability was analyzed for the HIFiRE-1 flight vehicle geometry for ground tests conducted at the CUBRC LENS I hypersonic shock test facility and the Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20- inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Boundary layer stability results were compared to transition onset location obtained from discrete heat transfer measurements from thin film gauges during the CUBRC test and spatially continuous heat transfer measurements from thermal phosphor paint data during the LaRC test. The focus of this analysis was on conditions at non-zero angles of attack as stability analysis has already been performed at zero degrees angle of attack. Also, the transition onset data obtained during flight testing was at nonzero angles of attack, so this analysis could be expanded in the future to include the results of the flight test data. Stability analysis was performed using the 2D parabolized stability software suite STABL (Stability and Transition Analysis for Hypersonic Boundary Layers) developed at the University of Minnesota and the mean flow solutions were computed using the DPLR finite volume Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. A center line slice of the 3D mean flow solution was used for the stability analysis to incorporate the angle of attack effects while still taking advantage of the 2D STABL software suite. The N-factors at transition onset and the value of Re(sub theta)/M(sub e), commonly used to predict boundary layer transition onset, were compared for all conditions analyzed. Ground test data was analyzed at Mach 7.2 and Mach 6.0 and angles of attack of 1deg, 3deg and 5deg. At these conditions, the flow was found to be second mode dominant for the HIFiRE-1 slender cone geometry. On the leeward side of the vehicle, a strong trend of transition onset location with angle of attack was observed as the boundary layer on the leeward side of the vehicle developed inflection points at streamwise positions on the vehicle that correlated to

  1. Forced Obliquity and Moments of Inertia of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, B. G.; Nimmo, F.

    2006-12-01

    The obliquity of Titan, which is the angular separation between its spin and orbit poles, is small but certainly non-zero. An accurate measurement of this angle will provide constraints on the moments of inertia of the body and thereby yield valuable information about the composition and state of the interior. Cassini radar measurements should allow determination of this quantity. For a perfectly rigid body, the obliquity varies in response to gravitational torques and has a current value which depends upon both rate of change and initial conditions. In that case, the moments of inertia are determined from two sources: the harmonic degree two gravity field, and observations of the rate of spin pole precession. If Titan were in that category, the prospects for determination of the moments of inertia would be rather bleak, as the precession rate is likely to be small enough to avoid detection during the Cassini mission. However, an alternative approach is likely applicable. For bodies, like the Moon, in which tidal dissipation has been sufficiently vigorous, the spin pole will be driven into a generalized Cassini state. In such a state, the spin pole and orbit pole remain coplanar with the invariable pole, about which the orbit pole precesses. In that case, the obliquity is very nearly constant, and the dynamical information is encoded in the obliquity value itself, rather than the spin pole precession rate. We suggest that Titan is sufficiently dissipative that is has likely attained such a state. The relevant invariable pole is close to the spin pole of Saturn. A plausible range of polar moment values for Titan is (0.3≤ C/M R2≤ 0.4), where M and R are the mass and mean radius of the body. The upper bound corresponds to a homogeneous body, while the lower bound is more centrally condensed than the Earth. The corresponding range of tidally damped obliquity values is (0.07° ≤ ǎrepsilon ≤ 0.13° ) It is anticipated that the Cassini radar measurements will

  2. Melt Production in Oblique Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Melosh, H. J.

    2000-05-01

    Hydrocode modeling is a fundamental tool for the study of melt production in planetary impact events. Until recently, however, numerical modeling of impacts for melt production studies has been limited to vertical impacts. We present the first results of the investigation of melt production in oblique impacts. Simulations were carried out using Sandia's three-dimensional hydrocode CTH, coupled to the SESAME equation of state. While keeping other impact parameters constant, the calculations span impact angles (measured from the surface) from 90° (vertical impact) to 15°. The results show that impact angle affects the strength and distribution of the shock wave generated in the impact. As a result, both the isobaric core and the regions of melting in the target appear asymmetric and concentrated in the downrange, shallower portion of the target. The use of a pressure-decay power law (which describes pressure as function of linear distance from the impact point) to reconstruct the region of melting and vaporization is therefore complicated by the asymmetry of the shock wave. As an analog to the pressure decay versus distance from the impact point, we used a "volumetric pressure decay," where the pressure decay is modeled as a function of volume of target material shocked at or above the given shock pressure. We find that the volumetric pressure decay exponent is almost constant for impact angles from 90° to 30°, dropping by about a factor of two for a 15° impact. In the range of shock pressures at which most materials of geologic interest melt or begin to vaporize, we find that the volume of impact melt decreases by at most 20% for impacts from 90° down to 45°. Below 45°, however, the amount of melt in the target decreases rapidly with impact angle. Compared to the vertical case, the reduction in volume of melt is about 50% for impacts at 30° and more than 90% for a 15° impact. These estimates do not include possible melting due to shear heating, which can

  3. Obliquity Modulation of the Incoming Solar Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Based on a basic principle of orbital resonance, we have identified a huge deficit of solar radiation induced by the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity as possibly the causal mechanism for ice age glaciation. Including this modulation effect on solar radiation, we have performed model simulations of climate change for the past 2 million years. Simulation results show that: (1) For the past 1 million years, temperature fluctuation cycles were dominated by a 100-Kyr period due to amplitude-frequency resonance effect of the obliquity; (2) From 2 to 1 million years ago, the amplitude-frequency interactions. of the obliquity were so weak that they were not able to stimulate a resonance effect on solar radiation; (3) Amplitude and frequency modulation analysis on solar radiation provides a series of resonance in the incoming solar radiation which may shift the glaciation cycles from 41-Kyr to 100-Kyr about 0.9 million years ago. These results are in good agreement with the marine and continental paleoclimate records. Thus, the proposed climate response to the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity may be the key to understanding the glaciation puzzles in paleoclimatology.

  4. CMB anisotropies generated by a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields with non-zero helicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ballardini, Mario

    2015-10-01

    We consider the impact of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields with non-vanishing helicity on CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization. We compute the exact expressions for the scalar, vector and tensor part of the energy-momentum tensor including the helical contribution, by assuming a power-law dependence for the spectra and a comoving cutoff which mimics the damping due to viscosity. We also compute the parity-odd correlator between the helical and non-helical contribution which generate the TB and EB cross-correlation in the CMB pattern. We finally show the impact of including the helical term on the power spectra of CMB anisotropies up to multipoles with ℓ ∼ O(10{sup 3})

  5. Simulation of Low-density Nozzle Plumes in Non-zero Ambient Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Chan-Hong; Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Stubbs, Robert M.; Penko, Paul F.

    1994-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method was applied to the analysis of low-density nitrogen plumes exhausting from a small converging-diverging nozzle into finite ambient pressures. Two cases were considered that simulated actual test conditions in a vacuum facility. The numerical simulations readily captured the complicated flow structure of the overexpanded plumes adjusting to the finite ambient pressures, including Mach disks and barrel shaped shocks. The numerical simulations compared well to experimental data of Rothe.

  6. A deeper view of the CoRoT-9 planetary system. A small non-zero eccentricity for CoRoT-9b likely generated by planet-planet scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomo, A. S.; Hébrard, G.; Raymond, S. N.; Bouchy, F.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Bordé, P.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.-M.; Alonso, R.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Damiani, C.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Izidoro, A.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Ollivier, M.; Pätzold, M.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.

    2017-07-01

    CoRoT-9b is one of the rare long-period (P = 95.3 days) transiting giant planets with a measured mass known to date. We present a new analysis of the CoRoT-9 system based on five years of radial-velocity (RV) monitoring with HARPS and three new space-based transits observed with CoRoT and Spitzer. Combining our new data with already published measurements we redetermine the CoRoT-9 system parameters and find good agreement with the published values. We uncover a higher significance for the small but non-zero eccentricity of CoRoT-9b () and find no evidence for additional planets in the system. We use simulations of planet-planet scattering to show that the eccentricity of CoRoT-9b may have been generated by an instability in which a 50 M⊕ planet was ejected from the system. This scattering would not have produced a spin-orbit misalignment, so we predict that the CoRoT-9b orbit should lie within a few degrees of the initial plane of the protoplanetary disk. As a consequence, any significant stellar obliquity would indicate that the disk was primordially tilted.

  7. Oblique view of west corner shows twostory structure and stairway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of west corner shows two-story structure and stairway on right. Plant in background includes Boiler Building on left - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Boom Lunch House, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. Persistently Auxetic Materials: Engineering the Poisson Ratio of 2D Self-Avoiding Membranes under Conditions of Non-Zero Anisotropic Strain.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Zachary W; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Strano, Michael S

    2016-08-23

    Entropic surfaces represented by fluctuating two-dimensional (2D) membranes are predicted to have desirable mechanical properties when unstressed, including a negative Poisson's ratio ("auxetic" behavior). Herein, we present calculations of the strain-dependent Poisson ratio of self-avoiding 2D membranes demonstrating desirable auxetic properties over a range of mechanical strain. Finite-size membranes with unclamped boundary conditions have positive Poisson's ratio due to spontaneous non-zero mean curvature, which can be suppressed with an explicit bending rigidity in agreement with prior findings. Applying longitudinal strain along a singular axis to this system suppresses this mean curvature and the entropic out-of-plane fluctuations, resulting in a molecular-scale mechanism for realizing a negative Poisson's ratio above a critical strain, with values significantly more negative than the previously observed zero-strain limit for infinite sheets. We find that auxetic behavior persists over surprisingly high strains of more than 20% for the smallest surfaces, with desirable finite-size scaling producing surfaces with negative Poisson's ratio over a wide range of strains. These results promise the design of surfaces and composite materials with tunable Poisson's ratio by prestressing platelet inclusions or controlling the surface rigidity of a matrix of 2D materials.

  9. Ceres' obliquity history: implications for permanently shadowed regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, A.; Mazarico, E.; Schroeder, S.; Carsenty, U.; Schorghofer, N.; Raymond, C. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    BCFDs and the most persistent PSRs. In the northern hemisphere, we find that only two PSRs remain at ɛmax. Interestingly, these PSRs contain BCFDs. In the southern hemisphere, we find that only one crater with a BCFD remains in shadow at ɛmax. Ongoing work includes computation of the irradiance of individual BCFDs given the orbital and obliquity history.

  10. The High Obliquity Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, A.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.

    2009-05-01

    Since the seventy decades, George Williams considers the high Earth's obliquity as the cause for major freezing episodes and other geological relationships. Williams (2008) claimed a high obliquity scenario to explain near equatorial latitude until a rapid decrease of 30, without a clear cause, ca. 630Ma. During the Neoproterozic, evidences show extreme cooling in the Earth occurs when the continents are shifted at low latitudes. Geological records show evidences related to early freezing Earth (2.4-2.2Ga). Frozen events have astronomical related explanation, where the albedo was the key-factor of the climate. In addition, some authors link the early Proterozoic global freezing with the star-rate formation since the origin of the Earth, during a starburst 2.4-2.0Ga. Also, through numerical analysis was suggested a correlation between the star-rate formation near the Sun, and the occurrence and duration of glaciations over the Earth evolution. From the geological opinion the orogenic events in the Neoproterozoic are associated with important volcanism related with amalgamation processes, which have effects on vertical motions of the crust that produce major effects on climate. These long-term perturbations generate cooling and sea-level fluctuations. The volcanic activity was especially strong (A-type subduction) in Gondwana and Eurasia at Neoproterozoic. At 630Ma occurred a peak in the igneous activity (e.g. Braziliano-Pan African Orogen when the Marinoan glaciation occurs). Regarding the albedo, the eruption of just one volcanic eruption causes climatic change on a scale from months to years. Large eruptions, associated with orogenic processes produce stratospheric volatiles, which difficult the solar radiation achieves the Earth's surface and, consequently, major volcanic activity could drive a cooling effect. From biological viewpoint, the presence of life, as soil-forming microorganisms about 3Ga, accelerates the trapping processes of CO2 in soils. The

  11. Oblique dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  12. Obliquity Tides in Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, S. J.

    Tidal dissipation in HD209458b while it has a very high obliquity has been proposed as a means of inflating the planet to its observed oversize (Winn and Holman, 2005). The high obliquity is maintained by the planet's being trapped into Cassini state 2 at an obliquity near 90° while the planet maintains a rotation rate synchronous with its orbital mean motion. In a Cassini state the spin axis and orbit normal remain coplanar with the normal to the Laplace plane as they precess around the latter, where the orbit has a significant inclination to the Laplace plane. The orbit of HD209458b is inclined to equatorial plane of the star by about 4°. If the stellar equator plane is coincident with the plane of the initially massive nebula, that plane is the Laplace plane on which the orbit is precessing. A planet can evolve to Cassini state 2 by tidal dissipation on a time scale comparable with that of the retardation of the spin rate. The latter time scale can become relatively short as the planet migrates toward the star. While the nebula is there, the orbital precession rate is rapid, Cassini state 2 has a small obliquity, and tidal friction will drive the planet to that state. That evolution may not occur for cases where the obliquity of state 2 is relatively large. As the nebula is dispersed, the orbital precession slows with the result that the Cassini state obliquity increases. The spin follows the Cassini state to high obliquity because the solid angle traced by the spin as it precesses about the Cassini state position is an adiabatic invariant. With no nebula, only the quadrupole moment of the star is left to cause the orbit to precess. At the slow precession rate thus induced, the obliquity of the Cassini state is nearly 90°, which if maintained while the spin remains synchronous with the orbital motion, causes the dissipation inferred by Winn and Holman. Implicit in this scenario is the assumption that the synchronous rotation is somehow maintained. Authors of

  13. Resolution of superior oblique myokymia with memantine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Saurabh; Farooq, Shegufta J; Gottlob, Irene

    2008-02-01

    We describe a novel treatment of superior oblique myokymia. A 40-year-old woman was treated with gabapentin for this disorder with partial success and reported significant side effects including loss of libido and weight gain. After a drug holiday, memantine therapy was initiated resulting in a substantial improvement in her symptoms with far fewer side effects and stability on long-term maintenance therapy.

  14. Designing a graded index depressed clad non-zero dispersion shifted optical fiber for wide band transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Ghosh, Debashri; Basu, Mousumi

    2008-02-01

    Non-zero dispersion shifted fibers (NZ-DSFs) find extensive use in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system as it reduces the non-linear effects like four-wave mixing (FWM) generation. A depressed clad graded index fiber with a central dip in the refractive index profile, as well as without dip, has been modeled to perform as an NZ-DSF using the spot size optimization technique. The performance characteristics of the proposed NZ-DSF have been studied by changing different fiber parameters; such as inner core radius (a), relative refractive index differences ([Delta]+), normalized end position of depressed clad (C), depression parameter ([rho]), etc. for a given value of Petermann-2 spot size . By suitably adjusting the fiber parameters, the effective core areas (Aeff) as simulated here are very large (~80 [mu]m2) so that the effect of non-linearities upon them can be minimized. These NZ-DSFs have also been optimized for WDM transmission system. The dispersion slopes of the proposed fibers with and without dip have been estimated which are comparable with the reported results.

  15. A non-zero variance of Tajima's estimator for two sequences even for infinitely many unlinked loci.

    PubMed

    King, Léandra; Wakeley, John; Carmi, Shai

    2017-03-21

    The population-scaled mutation rate, θ, is informative on the effective population size and is thus widely used in population genetics. We show that for two sequences and n unlinked loci, the variance of Tajima's estimator (θˆ), which is the average number of pairwise differences, does not vanish even as n→∞. The non-zero variance of θˆ results from a (weak) correlation between coalescence times even at unlinked loci, which, in turn, is due to the underlying fixed pedigree shared by gene genealogies at all loci. We derive the correlation coefficient under a diploid, discrete-time, Wright-Fisher model, and we also derive a simple, closed-form lower bound. We also obtain empirical estimates of the correlation of coalescence times under demographic models inspired by large-scale human genealogies. While the effect we describe is small (Varθˆ∕θ(2)≈ONe(-1)), it is important to recognize this feature of statistical population genetics, which runs counter to commonly held notions about unlinked loci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Flows of Viscoelastic Fluids in Curved Pipes: the Effect of Non-Zero Second Normal Stress Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Anne M.; Jitchote, Witasanachai; Chanchawichak, Supalerk

    1998-11-01

    Perturbation methods have been used to obtain solutions for steady, fully developed flows of viscoelastic fluids in curved pipes of circular cross-section. The perturbation parameter is the ratio of the pipe cross-sectional radius to the pipe centerline radius. In previous studies of viscoelastic fluids with zero second normal stress coefficient, the secondary motion for both creeping and non-creeping flows has been shown to be qualitatively similar to that arising from centrifugal effects in Newtonian fluids. Namely, in addition to the primary flow, there is a secondary motion consisting of a pair of counter-rotating vortices (see, e.g. Bowen, Davies, Walters, JNNFM, 38, 1991 and Robertson and Muller, Int. J. Non-Linear Mechanics, 31, 1996). In this work, we have obtained perturbation solutions for two fluids with non-zero second normal stress coefficient: the classical second order fluid and the modified Oldroyd-B fluid introduced by Shaqfeh, Muller and Larson (JFM, 235). We find ranges of material parameters for which the secondary motion of these fluids is qualitatively different from that seen for fluids with zero second normal stress difference.

  17. Crack azimuths on Europa: Implications for obliquity and non-synchronous rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoden, A.; Hurford, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Lineaments are thought to form as tensile cracks due to tidal stress, which is driven mainly by Europa's eccentric orbit. However, this formation model would not produce the wide range of lineament azimuths observed on Europa unless the stress in a given region, or the conditions for fault failure, change over time. The goal of this work is to test the ability of two mechanisms that would alter the stress field over time, non-synchronous rotation and spin pole precession, to account for the observed lineament azimuths. Greenberg et al. (1998) showed that the azimuths of several young lineaments could be explained if they formed at their current longitudes when the stress field in the region reached its daily maximum, which occurred at 1/8th past apocenter in the region in question. Older lineaments were then fit to the stress field at other longitudes with the assumption that non-synchronous rotation had moved them since their formation. However, the stress at 1/8th past apocenter does not necessarily correspond to the daily maximum tensile stress in those regions. Hence, the application of this formation model is inconsistent with actual formation hypothesis. Unfortunately, many authors have used the stress field provided by Greenberg et al. (1998), in which the formation time is held constant at 1/8th past apocenter, to assess lineament azimuths and their implications for Europa's rotation history. We thus begin by generating new azimuth predictions that use the time in the orbit when the maximum tensile tidal stress is achieved in a region rather than at 1/8th past apocenter. We then incorporate the effects of a non-zero obliquity, which has been shown to influence the formation of other tidal-tectonic features and expand our analysis to include the effects of the time-variable phenomena: spin pole precession and non-synchronous rotation of the ice shell. We also consider additional failure assumptions to those used in previous work on lineament azimuths. To

  18. Drawing with oblique coordinates: on a single case.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Gabriella; Carbone, Giuseppe; Giordano, Flavia; Angelillo, Valentina Gerarda; Trojano, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    We describe a patient with right hemisphere damage affected by mild left visuo-spatial neglect and constructional apraxia. During the rehabilitation, he failed to draw a draught-board using horizontal and vertical trajectories, but he performed it successfully using oblique trajectories. These observations suggested an impairment of vertical/horizontal spatial coordinates system. In copying tasks including figure elements in different orientations he drew more accurately components in oblique orientation, whereas failed to reproduce components in horizontal orientation. The patient performed visuospatial perceptual and perceptual-imaginative tasks successfully. From these findings, it is possible to suggest that the oblique coordinate system of reference operates independently of vertical and horizontal coordinate systems in building a complex figure and that, therefore, cardinal orientation do not constitute a reference norm to define oblique orientation, as previously suggested.

  19. Habitable planets with high obliquities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations.

  20. Habitable planets with high obliquities.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Kasting, J F

    1997-01-01

    Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations.

  1. Habitable planets with high obliquities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations.

  2. Proton Acceleration at Oblique Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2011-06-01

    Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.

  3. PROTON ACCELERATION AT OBLIQUE SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2011-06-20

    Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.

  4. Trap filled limit and high current voltage characteristics of organic diodes with non-zero Schottky barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Jain, S. C.; Kumar, Vikram; Chand, Suresh; Tandon, R. P.

    2008-08-01

    The analytical expressions for trap filled limit voltage ( V'_TFL ) and current-voltage characteristics for non-zero organic Schottky barrier are derived theoretically. The theoretical results are validated experimentally. In this case, the injected free charge carrier density at the contact is not infinitely large but a finite number p(0). For an exponential distribution of traps the maximum possible number of traps that can be filled in a sample is H'_b=H_b((p(0)/N_v))^{1/l} , where l = Tc/T, Tc is the characteristic temperature of trap distribution. The use of Fermi-Dirac statistics causes a maximum error of only 6.9% in H'_{b} . The analytical expression for V'_TFL is shown to be V'_TFL =0.5qH'_bd^2/\\varepsilon \\varepsilon _0 , where d is the sample thickness. As the applied voltage increases and if p(0)>H'_{b} , V2 law is obtained over a considerable range of applied voltage. However, the curves change to Ohm's law as the voltage increases beyond this range. If p(0), V2 law is not obtained and the curves directly go to Ohm's law. Experimental results of ITO/PEDOT : PSS/poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyhexyloxy)1,4-phenylenevinylene)(MEH-PPV)/Au and ITO/PEDOT : PSS/poly(3-hexyl thiophene)(P3HT)/Au Schottky diodes are reported. The experimental results show excellent agreement with the theory.

  5. Comparison of Chevron and Distal Oblique Osteotomy for Bunion Correction.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Brandon M; DeVries, J George

    2016-01-01

    The chevron osteotomy is a standard procedure by which bunions are corrected. One of us routinely performs a distal oblique osteotomy, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been described for the correction of bunion deformities. The purpose of the present study was to compare the short- and medium-term results of the distal oblique and chevron osteotomies for bunion correction. We performed a retrospective clinical and radiographic comparison of patients who had undergone a distal oblique or chevron osteotomy for the correction of bunion deformity. In addition, a prospective patient satisfaction survey was undertaken. A total of 55 patients were included in the present study and were treated from January 2012 to November 2014. Of the 55 patients, 27 (49.2%) were in the chevron group and 28 (50.8%) in the distal oblique group. Radiographically, no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to postoperative first intermetatarsal angle (p < .0001) and hallux valgus angle (p < .0001), but a greater change was found in the intermetatarsal angle in the distal oblique group (p = .467). Prospective patient satisfaction scores were available for 33 patients (60%), 16 (29%) in the chevron group and 17 (31%) in the distal oblique group. When converting the satisfaction score to a numerical score, the chevron group scored 3.3 ± 1.1 and the distal oblique group scored 3.2 ± 0.8 (p = .812). We found that the distal oblique osteotomy used in the present study is simple and reliable and showed radiographic correction and patient satisfaction equivalent to those in the chevron osteotomy.

  6. Secular obliquity variations for Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Bruce; Scott, Bryan R.; Nimmo, Francis

    2016-10-01

    We have constructed secular variation models for the orbit and spin poles of the asteroid (1) Ceres, and used them to examine how the obliquity, or angular separation between spin and orbit poles, varies over a time span of several million years. The current obliquity is 4.3 degrees, which means that there are some regions near the poles which do not receive any direct Sunlight. The Dawn mission has provided an improved estimate of the spin pole orientation, and of the low degree gravity field. That allows us to estimate the rate at which the spin pole precesses about the instantaneous orbit pole.The orbit of Ceres is secularly perturbed by the planets, with Jupiter's influence dominating. The current inclination of the orbit plane, relative to the ecliptic, is 10.6 degrees. However, it varies between 7.27 and 11.78 degrees, with dominant periods of 22.1 and 39.6 kyr. The spin pole precession rate parameter has a period of 205 kyr, with current uncertainty of 3%, dominated by uncertainty in the mean moment of inertia of Ceres.The obliquity varies, with a dominant period of 24.5 kyr, with maximum values near 26 degrees, and minimum values somewhat less than the present value. Ceres is currently near to a minimum of its secular obliquity variations.The near-surface thermal environment thus has at least 3 important time scales: diurnal (9.07 hours), annual (4.60 years), and obliquity cycle (24.5 kyr). The annual thermal wave likely only penetrates a few meters, but the much long thermal wave associated with the obliquity cycle has a skin depth larger by a factor of 70 or so, depending upon thermal properties in the subsurface.

  7. Climate at high-obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, David; Marshall, John; O'Gorman, Paul A.; Seager, Sara

    2014-11-01

    The question of climate at high obliquity is raised in the context of both exoplanet studies (e.g. habitability) and paleoclimates studies (evidence for low-latitude glaciation during the Neoproterozoic and the "Snowball Earth" hypothesis). States of high obliquity, ϕ, are distinctive in that, for ϕ ⩾54° , the poles receive more solar radiation in the annual mean than the equator, opposite to the present day situation. In addition, the seasonal cycle of insolation is extreme, with the poles alternatively "facing" the Sun and sheltering in the dark for months. The novelty of our approach is to consider the role of a dynamical ocean in controlling the surface climate at high obliquity, which in turn requires understanding of the surface winds patterns when temperature gradients are reversed. To address these questions, a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice GCM configured on an Aquaplanet is employed. Except for the absence of topography and modified obliquity, the set-up is Earth-like. Two large obliquities ϕ, 54° and 90°, are compared to today's Earth value, ϕ = 23.5°. Three key results emerge at high obliquity: (1) despite reversed temperature gradients, mid-latitudes surface winds are westerly and trade winds exist at the equator (as for ϕ = 23.5°) although the westerlies are confined to the summer hemisphere, (2) a habitable planet is possible with mid-latitude temperatures in the range 300-280 K and (3) a stable climate state with an ice cap limited to the equatorial region is unlikely. We clarify the dynamics behind these features (notably by an analysis of the potential vorticity structure and conditions for baroclinic instability of the atmosphere). Interestingly, we find that the absence of a stable partially glaciated state is critically linked to the absence of ocean heat transport during winter, a feature ultimately traced back to the high seasonality of baroclinic instability conditions in the atmosphere.

  8. Effects of oblique wave propagation on the nonlinear plasma resonance in the two-dimensional channel of the Dyakonov-Shur detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupper, Greg; Rudin, Sergey; Crowne, Frank J.

    2012-12-01

    In the Dyakonov-Shur terahertz detector the conduction channel of a heterostructure High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) is used as a plasma wave resonator for density oscillations in electron gas. Nonlinearities in the plasma wave propagation lead to a constant source-to-drain voltage, providing the detector output. In this paper, we start with the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation and derive the hydrodynamic model with temperature dependent transport coefficients for a two-dimensional viscous flow. This derivation allows us to obtain the parameters for the hydrodynamic model from the band-structure of the HEMT channel. The treatment here also includes the energy balance equation into the analysis. By numerical solution of the hydrodynamic equations with a non-zero boundary current we evaluate the detector response function and obtain the temperature dependence of the plasma resonance. The present treatment extends the theory of Dyakonov-Shur plasma resonator and detector to account for the temperature dependence of viscosity, the effects of oblique wave propagation on detector response, and effects of boundary current in two-dimensional flow on quality of the plasma resonance. The numerical results are given for a GaN channel. We also investigated a stability of source to drain flow and formation of shock waves.

  9. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorville, Nicolas Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-15

    ) 20, 110702 (2013)], and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well [J. Dargent and N. Aunai, Phys. Plasmas (submitted)]. Nevertheless, in most asymmetric layers like the terrestrial magnetopause, one would indeed expect a magnetic field rotation from one direction to another without going through zero [J. Berchem and C. T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8139–8148 (1982)], and a non-zero normal electric field. In this paper, we propose the corresponding generalization: in the model presented, the profiles can be freely imposed for the magnetic field rotation (although restricted to a 180 rotation hitherto) and for the normal electric field. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is tested with a hybrid simulation.

  10. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    , 110702 (2013)], and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well [J. Dargent and N. Aunai, Phys. Plasmas (submitted)]. Nevertheless, in most asymmetric layers like the terrestrial magnetopause, one would indeed expect a magnetic field rotation from one direction to another without going through zero [J. Berchem and C. T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8139-8148 (1982)], and a non-zero normal electric field. In this paper, we propose the corresponding generalization: in the model presented, the profiles can be freely imposed for the magnetic field rotation (although restricted to a 180 rotation hitherto) and for the normal electric field. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is tested with a hybrid simulation.

  11. Oblique view of Copernicus crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    AS17-145-22287 (7-19 Dec. 1972) --- An oblique view of the large crater Copernicus on the lunar nearside, as photographed from the Apollo 17 spacecraft in lunar orbit. This view is looking generally southwest toward the crater on the horizon. The coordinates of the center of Copernicus are approximately 20 degrees west longitude and 9.5 degrees north latitude.

  12. Testing obliquity-tuned timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, Christian; Meyers, Stephen R.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2016-04-01

    Astrochronology seeks to use rhythmic sedimentary alterations to provide high-resolution age models, and this method now provides a backbone for much of the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scale. While a range of methods for orbital tuning are available, a common approach is to directly match observed sedimentary alternations to target curves from astronomical computations, followed by evaluation of amplitude modulations (AM) as a means of verification. A quantitative test for precession-eccentricity modulations in astronomically-tuned data has been recently developed, however, a similar test for obliquity is lacking. Here, we introduce an algorithm for obliquity AM assessment, which avoids effects of obliquity frequency modulation that can artificially mimic the expected AM. The approach can be used to test for correlation with the theoretical astronomical solution in a way similar to the precession AM method. Obliquity is an especially dominant component of orbitally-driven climate variability in the early Quaternary; here Quaternary models and climate proxy records are used to evaluate the reliability of the proposed method.

  13. ON THE TIDAL DISSIPATION OF OBLIQUITY

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, T. M.; Lin, D. N. C. E-mail: lin@ucolick.org

    2013-05-20

    We investigate tidal dissipation of obliquity in hot Jupiters. Assuming an initial random orientation of obliquity and parameters relevant to the observed population, the obliquity of hot Jupiters does not evolve to purely aligned systems. In fact, the obliquity evolves to either prograde, retrograde, or 90 Degree-Sign orbits where the torque due to tidal perturbations vanishes. This distribution is incompatible with observations which show that hot Jupiters around cool stars are generally aligned. This calls into question the viability of tidal dissipation as the mechanism for obliquity alignment of hot Jupiters around cool stars.

  14. Oblique lumbar spine radiographs: importance in young patients

    SciTech Connect

    Libson, E.; Bloom, R.A.; Dinari, G.; Robin, G.C.

    1984-04-01

    Spondylolysis is a direct precursor of spondylolisthesis and can lead to crippling back pain. Of 1,743 patients surveyed, including 936 who were asymptomatic and 807 with back pain, 165 (including 91 who were asymptomatic and 74 with back pain) had spondylolysis, which was seen only on oblique lumbar views in 20% of cases. Because of the high false-negative rate of AP and lateral views, oblique views are essential in children and young adults. As spondylolysis is rare above L3, radiographs can be limited to L3-S1. Significantly less spondylolysis was seen in persons older than 30 with back pain usually caused by disk degeneration.

  15. Adjustable superior oblique tendon spacer with application of nonabsorbable suture for treatment of isolated inferior oblique paresis.

    PubMed

    Fard, Masoud A; Ameri, Ahmad; Anvari, Faramaz; Jafari, Alireza K; Yazdian, Ziaeddin

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate and report the outcomes of a superior oblique tendon spacer procedure using nonabsorbable adjustable sutures in patients with inferior oblique (10) paresis. This interventional case series included 6 eyes of 6 patients with 10 paresis. All met Bielschowsky/Parks Three-step Test criteria to identify an isolated 10 paresis. In all patients, the superior oblique tendon was exposed; 2 nonabsorbable polyester sutures were placed 3 mm apart, and the tendon was cut. With the use of a slipknot, the cut ends of the tendon were separated 5 to 7 mm. Tendon separation was adjusted intraoperatively according to the fundus torsion and exaggerated traction test. The mean duration of follow-up was 8.1 months (range, 5-12 [corrected] months). Four patients had congenital 10 paresis and 2 had iatrogenic 10 paresis following denervation/myectomy of 10. Mean primary position hypotropia improved from 15.2 prism diopters (PD) before surgery to 2.7 PD in congenital 10 paresis and from 11.5 PD to 2.5 PD in iatrogenic 10 paresis. In congenital 10 paresis, mean preoperative superior oblique overaction and 10 underaction was +2 and -2, which decreased to 0 and -1.25 respectively; fundus incyclotorsion resolved in all patients. Superior oblique overaction and 10 underaction improved in iatrogenic 10 paresis as well. In no patient did an overcorrection develop. The adjustable superior oblique tendon suture spacer procedure is an effective and safe option for correcting 10 paresis without developing iatrogenic superior oblique paresis.

  16. Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

    2013-08-01

    Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

  17. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (p<0.01). Eighteen (60%) patients had ptosis, six (20%) of whom had bilateral ptosis. Diagnosing myasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected.

  18. Phase transitions in the hard-core Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at non-zero temperatures in the heavy-fermion limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasyuk, I. V.; Krasnov, V. O.

    2017-04-01

    Phase transitions at non-zero temperatures in ultracold Bose- and Fermi-particles mixture in optical lattices using the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model in the mean field and hard-core boson approximations are investigated. The case of infinitely small fermion transfer and the repulsive on-site boson-fermion interaction is considered. The possibility of change of order (from the 2nd to the 1st one) of the phase transition to the superfluid phase in the regime of fixed values of the chemical potentials of Bose- and Fermi-particles is established. The relevant phase diagrams determining the conditions at which such a change takes place, are built.

  19. Calcium Uptake and Release through Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in the Inferior Oblique Muscles of Patients with Inferior Oblique Overaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seon; Chang, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Do Han; Park, So Ra; Han, Sueng-Han

    2006-01-01

    We characterized and compared the characteristics of Ca2+ movements through the sarcoplasmic reticulum of inferior oblique muscles in the various conditions including primary inferior oblique overaction (IOOA), secondary IOOA, and controls, so as to further understand the pathogenesis of primary IOOA. Of 15 specimens obtained through inferior oblique myectomy, six were from primary IOOA, 6 from secondary IOOA, and the remaining 3 were controls from enucleated eyes. Ryanodine binding assays were performed, and Ca2+ uptake rates, calsequestrins and SERCA levels were determined. Ryanodine bindings and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake rates were significantly decreased in primary IOOA (p<0.05). Western blot analysis conducted to quantify calsequestrins and SERCA, found no significant difference between primary IOOA, secondary IOOA, and the controls. Increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration due to reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake may play a role in primary IOOA. PMID:16642550

  20. An investigation of oblique hypervelocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles on multi-sheet aluminum structures. A model to be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations relating crater and perforation damage of a multi-sheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multi-sheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the hazardous meteoroid and space debris environment.

  1. Analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles on multisheet aluminum structures. A model that can be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations that relate crater and perforation damage of a multisheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multisheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to a meteoroid or space debris environement.

  2. Analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles on multisheet aluminum structures. A model that can be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations that relate crater and perforation damage of a multisheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multisheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to a meteoroid or space debris environement.

  3. 9. OBLIQUE VIEW, PARTIAL WEST SPAN, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE VIEW, PARTIAL WEST SPAN, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TRUSS PANELS AND SOLID CONFIGURATION OF TRUSS MEMBERS, INCLUDING POLYGONAL TOP CHORD, VERTICAL AND DIAGONAL MEMBERS, AND CROSS-STRUTS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  4. Nonlinear Interactions Between Oblique Wind Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    NSWCCD-80-TR–2015/026 August 2015 Naval Architecture and Engineering Department Technical Report NONLINEAR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OBLIQUE WIND ...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1-Jan-2013 – 30-May-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nonlinear Interactions between Oblique Wind Waves 5a. CONTRACT...release; Distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The nonlinear interaction between two oblique wind waves with the

  5. Strike-Slip Fault Patterns on Europa: Obliquity or Polar Wander?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A.; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Variations in diurnal tidal stress due to Europa's eccentric orbit have been considered as the driver of strike-slip motion along pre-existing faults, but obliquity and physical libration have not been taken into account. The first objective of this work is to examine the effects of obliquity on the predicted global pattern of fault slip directions based on a tidal-tectonic formation model. Our second objective is to test the hypothesis that incorporating obliquity can reconcile theory and observations without requiring polar wander, which was previously invoked to explain the mismatch found between the slip directions of 192 faults on Europa and the global pattern predicted using the eccentricity-only model. We compute predictions for individual, observed faults at their current latitude, longitude, and azimuth with four different tidal models: eccentricity only, eccentricity plus obliquity, eccentricity plus physical libration, and a combination of all three effects. We then determine whether longitude migration, presumably due to non-synchronous rotation, is indicated in observed faults by repeating the comparisons with and without obliquity, this time also allowing longitude translation. We find that a tidal model including an obliquity of 1.2?, along with longitude migration, can predict the slip directions of all observed features in the survey. However, all but four faults can be fit with only 1? of obliquity so the value we find may represent the maximum departure from a lower time-averaged obliquity value. Adding physical libration to the obliquity model improves the accuracy of predictions at the current locations of the faults, but fails to predict the slip directions of six faults and requires additional degrees of freedom. The obliquity model with longitude migration is therefore our preferred model. Although the polar wander interpretation cannot be ruled out from these results alone, the obliquity model accounts for all observations with a value

  6. Strike-Slip Fault Patterns on Europa: Obliquity or Polar Wander?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A.; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Variations in diurnal tidal stress due to Europa's eccentric orbit have been considered as the driver of strike-slip motion along pre-existing faults, but obliquity and physical libration have not been taken into account. The first objective of this work is to examine the effects of obliquity on the predicted global pattern of fault slip directions based on a tidal-tectonic formation model. Our second objective is to test the hypothesis that incorporating obliquity can reconcile theory and observations without requiring polar wander, which was previously invoked to explain the mismatch found between the slip directions of 192 faults on Europa and the global pattern predicted using the eccentricity-only model. We compute predictions for individual, observed faults at their current latitude, longitude, and azimuth with four different tidal models: eccentricity only, eccentricity plus obliquity, eccentricity plus physical libration, and a combination of all three effects. We then determine whether longitude migration, presumably due to non-synchronous rotation, is indicated in observed faults by repeating the comparisons with and without obliquity, this time also allowing longitude translation. We find that a tidal model including an obliquity of 1.2?, along with longitude migration, can predict the slip directions of all observed features in the survey. However, all but four faults can be fit with only 1? of obliquity so the value we find may represent the maximum departure from a lower time-averaged obliquity value. Adding physical libration to the obliquity model improves the accuracy of predictions at the current locations of the faults, but fails to predict the slip directions of six faults and requires additional degrees of freedom. The obliquity model with longitude migration is therefore our preferred model. Although the polar wander interpretation cannot be ruled out from these results alone, the obliquity model accounts for all observations with a value

  7. The chaotic obliquity of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touma, Jihad; Wisdom, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The discovery (by Laskar, 1989, 1990) that the evolution of the solar system is chaotic, made in a numerical integration of the averaged secular approximation of the equations of motions for the planets, was confirmed by Sussman and Wisdom (1992) by direct numerical integration of the whole solar system. This paper presents results of direct integrations of the rotation of Mars in the chaotically evolved planetary system, made using the same model as that used by Sussman and Wisdom. The numerical integration shows that the obliquity of Mars undergoes large chaotic variations, which occur as the system evolves in the chaotic zone associated with a secular spin-orbit resonance.

  8. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  9. Obliquity Variations of Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A planet's obliquity, which is the angle between its orbital angular momentum and its rotational angular momentum, is an important factor in determining its climate and habitability. For small obliquities, as well as obliquities close to 180 degrees, the planet receives more radiant energy from its star at equatorial latitudes than near its poles, whereas the poles are heated the most for obliquities near 90 degrees. Jacques Laskar has analyzed possible obliquity variations of the planets in our Solar System. His study also considers the same planets with different rotational periods, and the Earth without the Moon. He finds, using frequency map analysis, that the obliquity of the Earth is stabilized by the Moon, and can vary by at most a few degrees. In contrast, the obliquity of Mars can range from 0 to 60 degrees, and a hypothetical moonless Earth's axial tilt could be close to 0 degrees or as large as 85 degrees. Numerical integrations by Laskar and others have shown that Mars' obliquity indeed varies over most of its permitted range on time scales of tens of millions of years. In contrast, our analysis shows that the obliquity of a moonless Earth appears to be confined to the range of approximately 12 - 38 degrees over time scales of 100 million years. Results of ongoing longer integrations will be presented, and their implications discussed.

  10. Hellas basin, Mars: Formation by oblique impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    Hellas, a 2,000-km-diameter, roughly circular multiring impact basin in the southern highlands of Mars, has a pronounced southeastern lobe of rim material that extends for some 1,500 km. This lobe and a system of ridges concentric to the southern part of the basin (including part of the lobe) were interpreted to be formed by an oblique impact that was inclined in the direction of the lobe. Our preliminary geologic mapping of the Hellas region (lat -20 to -65 deg, long 250 to 320 deg) at 1:5,000,000 scale gives this hypothesis additional supporting evidence, including a symmetric distribution of basin ejecta and volcanic centers across the inferred trend of the impact. Furthermore, measurements of relief indicate that the downrange ejecta may be about twice as thick as they are elsewhere around the rim.

  11. Accuracy of Measurements in Oblique Aerial Images for Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, W.

    2016-10-01

    Oblique aerial images have been a source of data for urban areas for several years. However, the accuracy of measurements in oblique images during this time has been limited to a single meter due to the use of direct -georeferencing technology and the underlying digital elevation model. Therefore, oblique images have been used mostly for visualization purposes. This situation changed in recent years as new methods, which allowed for a higher accuracy of exterior orientation, were developed. Current developments include the process of determining exterior orientation and the previous but still crucial process of tie point extraction. Progress in this area was shown in the ISPRS/EUROSDR Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry and is also noticeable in the growing interest in the use of this kind of imagery. The higher level of accuracy in the orientation of oblique aerial images that has become possible in the last few years should result in a higher level of accuracy in the measurements of these types of images. The main goal of this research was to set and empirically verify the accuracy of measurements in oblique aerial images. The research focused on photogrammetric measurements composed of many images, which use a high overlap within an oblique dataset and different view angles. During the experiments, two series of images of urban areas were used. Both were captured using five DigiCam cameras in a Maltese cross configuration. The tilt angles of the oblique cameras were 45 degrees, and the position of the cameras during flight used a high grade GPS/INS navigation system. The orientation of the images was set using the Pix4D Mapper Pro software with both measurements of the in-flight camera position and the ground control points (measured with GPS RTK technology). To control the accuracy, check points were used (which were also measured with GPS RTK technology). As reference data for the whole study, an area of the city-based map was used. The archived results

  12. A numerical study on the oblique focus in MR-guided transcranial focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Alec; Huang, Yuexi; Pulkkinen, Aki; Schwartz, Michael L.; Lozano, Andres M.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-11-01

    Recent clinical data showing thermal lesions from treatments of essential tremor using MR-guided transcranial focused ultrasound shows that in many cases the focus is oblique to the main axis of the phased array. The potential for this obliquity to extend the focus into lateral regions of the brain has led to speculation as to the cause of the oblique focus, and whether it is possible to realign the focus. Numerical simulations were performed on clinical export data to analyze the causes of the oblique focus and determine methods for its correction. It was found that the focal obliquity could be replicated with the numerical simulations to within 23.2+/- {{13.6}\\circ} of the clinical cases. It was then found that a major cause of the focal obliquity was the presence of sidelobes, caused by an unequal deposition of power from the different transducer elements in the array at the focus. In addition, it was found that a 65% reduction in focal obliquity was possible using phase and amplitude corrections. Potential drawbacks include the higher levels of skull heating required when modifying the distribution of power among the transducer elements, and the difficulty at present in obtaining ideal phase corrections from CT information alone. These techniques for the reduction of focal obliquity can be applied to other applications of transcranial focused ultrasound involving lower total energy deposition, such as blood-brain barrier opening, where the issue of skull heating is minimal.

  13. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  14. Evaluation of the oblique detonation wave ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    The potential performance of oblique detonation wave ramjets is analyzed in terms of multishock diffusion, oblique detonation waves, and heat release. Results are presented in terms of thrust coefficients and specific impulses for a range of flight Mach numbers of 6 to 16.

  15. The obliquity of Mars and 'climate friction'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David P.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical theory is presented which explains the increase of the mean obliquity of Mars over geologic time due to the so called 'climate friction' (i.e., the climatic changes associated with obliquity oscillations of Mars). The theory is compared with a 10 m.y. numerical integration of the equations performed for a hypothetically large amount of climate friction for two cases of the obliquity oscillations: (1) a single sinusoid and (2) a sum of three sinusoids. The theory and numerics agree for both cases within about 12 percent on the size of the secular increase in obliquity. One possible mechanism of climate friction investigated is 'postglacial rebound' on Mars. According to this theory, giant polar caps form when the obliquity is low, and slowly squeeze out an equatorial bulge. When the obliquity is high, the caps disappear, but the bulge takes some time to collapse, due to mantle viscosity, causing it to oscillate out of phase with the obliquity oscillations. This causes a secular increase in the average obliquity.

  16. Magnetic and mechanical properties of a finite-thickness superconducting strip with a cavity in oblique magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the mechanical response of a finite-thickness superconducting strip containing an elliptical cavity in oblique magnetic fields. After the Bean critical state model and the minimum magnetic energy variation procedure are employed, the dependency of the magnetic and mechanical properties on the aspect ratio of the strip and the tilt angles of the applied field and elliptical cavity is discussed. The results show that for a strip in an oblique magnetic field, the current front penetrates non-monotonically from the surface inwards in the initial stage. The magnetization of the strip and the applied field are not collinear, and the angle between them becomes smaller with increasing field. Simultaneously, the strip suffers from a torque produced by the electromagnetic force and then has a tendency to rotate. Compared with the defect-free case, the appearance of the elliptical cavity affects the magnetic property of the strip and further causes significant stress concentration. If the tilt angle of the elliptical cavity is small, a position of stable mechanical equilibrium will exist for the strip. It is interesting that due to the elliptical cavity effect, an oblique magnetization and a non-zero torque are generated even if the applied field is perpendicular or parallel to the strip.

  17. Microwave Imaging under Oblique Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingyang; Xu, Kuiwen; Shen, Fazhong; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Dexin; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Li, Changzhi; Ran, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Microwave imaging based on inverse scattering problem has been attracting many interests in the microwave society. Among some major technical challenges, the ill-posed, multi-dimensional inversion algorithm and the complicated measurement setup are critical ones that prevent it from practical applications. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of the subspace-based optimization method (SOM) for two-dimensional objects when it was applied to a setup designed for oblique incidence. Analytical, simulation, and experimental results show that, for 2D objects, neglecting the cross-polarization scattering will not cause a notable loss of information. Our method can be potentially used in practical imaging applications for 2D-like objects, such as human limbs. PMID:27399706

  18. Oblique View of Valles Marineris

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-03

    An oblique, color image of central Valles Marineris, Mars showing relief of Ophir and Candor Chasmata; view toward north. The photograph is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. Ophir Chasma on the north is approximately 300 km across and as deep as 10 km. The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Tongues of interior layered deposits on the floor of the chasmata can be observed as well as young landslide material along the base of Ophir Chasma's north wall. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00005

  19. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M.; Mata-Chavez, Ruth I.; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Castillo-Guzman, Arturo; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs). Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC) of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost. PMID:27294930

  20. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sarah J.; Lance, Andrew M.; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Ralph, T. C.; Symul, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates.

  1. Effects of the dark energy and flat rotation curve on the gravitational time delay of particle with non-zero mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tamal; Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Bhadra, Arunava

    2016-07-01

    The effects of several dark energy models on gravitational time delay of particles with non-zero mass are investigated and analytical expressions for the same are obtained at the first order accuracy. Also the expression for gravitational time delay under the influence of conformal gravity potential that well describes the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies is derived. The findings suggest that (i) the conformal gravity description of dark matter reduces the net time delay in contrast to the effect of normal dark matter, and therefore in principle the models can be discriminated using gravitational time delay observations, and (ii) the effect of dark energy/flat rotation curve may be revealed from high-precision measurements of gravitational time delay of particles involving the megaparsec and beyond distance scale.

  2. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M; Mata-Chavez, Ruth I; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Castillo-Guzman, Arturo; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2016-06-10

    In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs). Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC) of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  3. Compressible gas properties of UF/sub 6/ for isentropic, normal shock, and oblique shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Harloff, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    Isentropic, normal shock, and oblique shock tables are given for the real gas UF/sub 6/ for Mach numbers up to 22. An evaluation of the real gas effects is given. A computer program listing is included.

  4. Obliquity Experiments with a Mars General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harberle, R. M.; Schaeffer, J.; Cuzzi, Jeffery N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We have simulated the seasonal variation of the general circulation on Mars for obliquities of 0deg and 60deg. These obliquities represent the minimum and maximum values the planet has experienced during the past 10(exp 7) years (e.g., Laskar and Robutel, 1993, Nature, 361, 608-614). The model we use is the NASA/Ames Mars General Circulation Model (Pollack et al., 1993, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 3149-3181). We vary only the obliquity; all other model parameters are as in Pollack et al. At high obliquity, the model shows dramatic seasonal variations in the polar caps and in the structure and intensity of the circulation. At the solstices the winter cap extends to the equator. Thus, surface temperatures throughout the entire winter hemisphere are fixed at the CO2 frost point. During summer surface temperatures at the poles reach 269K in the north and 295K in the south. The most notable changes to the circulation at solstice compared to our standard runs are a general weakening of the winter westerlies, a Hadley cell of greater latitudinal extent, and the development of very strong, possibly unstable, low-level jets in midlatitudes of the summer hemisphere. Surface stresses associated with these jets are sufficient to raise dust continuously. Thus, dust storms should be frequent features of the high obliquity climate. This result is independent of any desorbed regolith CO2 which would raise mean surface pressures. At zero obliquity the structure of the circulation resembles that of present day equinox conditions modulated by the varying insolation associated with orbital eccentricity. Notable features include equatorial superrotation, asymmetric Hadley cells, and stronger poleward heat fluxes in the northern hemisphere. Since the poles do not receive solar energy at any time of year, permanent caps form which extend to about 70deg in each hemisphere. However, the north permanent cap is growing at a rate 40% faster than the south cap. This is due to the differences in

  5. Does inferior oblique recession cause overcorrections in laterally incomitant small hypertropias due to superior oblique palsy?

    PubMed Central

    Hendler, Karen; Pineles, Stacy L; Demer, Joseph L; Rosenbaum, Arthur L; Velez, Guillermo; Velez, Federico G

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of inferior oblique muscle recession (IOR) in cases of laterally incomitant hypertropia <10 prism dioptres (PD) in central gaze thact 2t are clinically consistent with superior oblique palsy (SOP). Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients with SOP and hypertropias <10 PD in central gaze who underwent graded IOR. Primary outcomes were reduction of lateral incomitance and number of overcorrections in central gaze. Results Twenty-five patients were included. Mean follow-up was 13.8 months (range 1.4–66). Mean central gaze hypertropia decreased from 5.6±2.1 to 0.2±1.6 PD (p<0.001). Contralateral gaze hypertropia decreased from 15.9±7.6 to 2.3±3.3 PD (p<0.001). Lateral incomitance (central vs contralateral gaze) was 10.3±6.9 PD preoperatively and 2.0±3.0 PD postoperatively (p<0.001). There were two patients overcorrected in central gaze, and one patient overcorrected in downgaze. One patient necessitated further surgery for overcorrection. Conclusions Although small hypertropias can be treated with prisms or small, adjustable inferior rectus recessions, IOR collapses incomitance without causing much overcorrection. IOR is a reasonable treatment for small, laterally incomitant hypertropia due to SOP. PMID:23143910

  6. The Oblique Orbit of WASP-107b from K2 Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.

    2017-05-01

    Observations of nine transits of WASP-107 during the K2 mission reveal three separate occasions when the planet crossed in front of a starspot. The data confirm the stellar rotation period to be 17 days—approximately three times the planet’s orbital period—and suggest that large spots persist for at least one full rotation. If the star had a low obliquity, at least two additional spot crossings should have been observed. They were not observed, giving evidence for a high obliquity. We use a simple geometric model to show that the obliquity is likely in the range 40°-140°, i.e., both spin-orbit alignment and anti-alignment can be ruled out. WASP-107 thereby joins the small collection of relatively low-mass stars with a high obliquity. Most such stars have been observed to have low obliquities; all of the exceptions, including WASP-107, involve planets with relatively wide orbits (“warm Jupiters,” with {a}{{\\min }}/{R}\\star ≳ 8). This demonstrates a connection between stellar obliquity and planet properties, in contradiction to some theories for obliquity excitation.

  7. Evaluation of Surgical Strategy Based on the Intraoperative Superior Oblique Tendon Traction Test

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Miwa; Suzuki, Hiroko; Hikoya, Akiko; Sawada, Mayu; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Sato, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To clarify the efficacy of a surgical strategy based on the superior oblique tendon traction test. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed between January 2002 and June 2015. During that period, a single inferior oblique muscle (IO) myectomy and a combined IO myectomy and superior oblique muscle (SO) tuck procedure were performed based on SO tendon looseness as revealed by a traction test. The surgical effects of both procedures and the number of operations were analyzed. Results Sixty-five cases were retrieved. Seventy-four surgeries were required. The IO myectomy and simultaneous groups included 48 and 17 cases, respectively. Pre-operative vertical deviation was significantly lower in the IO myectomy (11.8 prism diopters) than in the simultaneous (27.2 prism diopters; Mann–Whitney U-test, P < 0.001) group. The mean induced changes were 9.4 prism diopters and 21.6 prism diopters in the IO myectomy and simultaneous groups, respectively, and the postoperative vertical deviation was not significantly different. On average, 1.13 and 1.18 surgeries per patient were performed in the IO myectomy and simultaneous groups, respectively. Conclusion The simultaneous surgery of inferior oblique myectomy and superior oblique tuck is safe and effective for treating large angle of congenital/idiopathic superior oblique palsy with a lax superior oblique tendon, as determined by the traction test. PMID:27992486

  8. The Charged Lepton Mass Matrix and Non-zero θ13 with TeV Scale New Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Ahmed; Datta, Alakabha

    2012-03-01

    We provide an explicit structure of the charged lepton mass matrix which is 2-3 symmetric except for a single breaking of this symmetry by the muon mass. We identify a flavor symmetric limit for the mass matrices where the first generation is decoupled from the other two in the charged lepton sector while in the neutrino sector the third generation is decoupled from the first two generations. The leptonic mixing in the symmetric limit can be, among other structures, the bi-maximal (BM) or the tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing. Symmetry breaking effects are included both in the charged lepton and the neutrino sector to produce corrections to the leptonic mixing and explain the recent θ13 measurements. A model that extends the SM by three right handed neutrinos, an extra Higgs doublet, and two singlet scalars is introduced to generate the leptonic mixing.[4pt] This work was supported in part by the US-Egypt Joint Board on Scientific and Technological Co-operation award (Project ID: 1855) administered by the US Department of Agriculture, summer grant from the College of Liberal Arts, University of Mississippi and in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1068052 and 1066293 and the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics.

  9. Oblique orthographic projections and contour plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Oblique orthographic projections allow model to be viewed in any selected orientation specified by Euler-angle transformation. This transformation resolves coordinate system of model to principal plane on which display is to be plotted.

  10. Graduated recession of the superior oblique muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, J A

    1975-01-01

    Recession of the superior oblique was performed bilaterally in 12 patients with the A phenomenon and unilaterally in four patients with vertical imbalance. The results are discussed. Images PMID:1191613

  11. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhelchui; Li, Yang - Fang; Hou, Lujing; Jiang, Ke; Wu, De - Jin; Thomas, Hubertus M; Morfill, Gregor E

    2010-01-01

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  12. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangfang; Wang Zhehui; Hou Lujing; Jiang Ke; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.; Wu Dejin

    2010-06-16

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  13. Obliquity Variations of a Rapidly Rotating Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, Billy L.; Barnes, Jason W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.; Hedman, Matthew M.

    2016-05-01

    Venus clearly differs from Earth in terms of its spin and atmospheric composition, where the former is controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, this may have been different during earlier stages of planetary evolution, when the Sun was fainter and the Venusian atmosphere was less massive. We investigate how the axial tilt, or obliquity, would have varied during this epoch considering a rapidly rotating Venus. Through numerical simulation of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses, we find the obliquity variation to be simpler than a Moonless Earth (Lissauer et al., 2012). Most low-obliquity Venuses show very low total obliquity variability comparable to that of the real Moon-influenced Earth.

  14. Oblique shear fractures of the lunate.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Alan E; Ahmad, Nawaiz

    2003-08-01

    Traumatic fractures of the lunate are rare. This article presents two patients who had displaced oblique lunate fractures and distal radius fractures. Both fractures achieved union; however, transient avascular necrosis occurred in the proximal healing of one patient.

  15. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  16. Oblique Wing Research Aircraft on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This 1976 photograph of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft was taken in front of the NASA Flight Research Center hangar, located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. In the photograph the noseboom, pitot-static probe, and angles-of-attack and sideslip flow vanes(covered-up) are attached to the front of the vehicle. The clear nose dome for the television camera, and the shrouded propellor for the 90 horsepower engine are clearly seen. The Oblique Wing Research Aircraft was a small, remotely piloted, research craft designed and flight tested to look at the aerodynamic characteristics of an oblique wing and the control laws necessary to achieve acceptable handling qualities. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and the NASA Ames Research Center conducted research with this aircraft in the mid-1970s to investigate the feasibility of flying an oblique wing aircraft.

  17. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  18. Ionospheric profile inversion using oblique-incidence ionograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, D. L.; Watt, T. M.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the elementary methods used in deriving true-height profiles from oblique-incidence ionograms are reviewed. The two principal methods presented are oblique-to-vertical transformation and direct inversion of the oblique-incidence ionogram. Limitations in oblique-incidence inversion due to magnetic-field effects, horizontal gradients, and absolute time delay are discussed.

  19. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  20. Oblique view of Houston, Texas as seen from Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-09

    AS09-22-3463 (9 March 1969) --- Oblique view of the Houston, Texas area as photographed from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its Earth-orbital mission. This picture was taken from an altitude of 103 nautical miles, at about 1:40 p.m. (CST), on March 9, 1969. Prominent features visible include highways leading out of the city, Lake Houston, San Jacinto River, Trinity Bay, Galveston Bay, Brazos River, Baytown, and Texas City.

  1. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  2. Tectonics of oblique plate boundary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Brune, Sascha; Leever, Karen A.; Fernández, Carlos; Czeck, Dyanna M.

    2016-12-01

    The relative displacement between lithospheric plates normally results in obliquely deforming plate boundaries. This is simply caused by the fact that, on plate tectonics basis, irregularly shaped plate boundaries are rarely perpendicular or parallel to small-circle rotation paths, which describe plate motion on a sphere (Fig. 1a). Global current relative plate motions estimated from geological data (DeMets et al., 2010; Argus et al., 2011) and GPS measurements (e.g., Kreemer et al., 2003; Argus et al., 2010) provide insight to the prevalent degrees of obliquity on Earth's surface. Based on these global data sets, Philippon and Corti (2016), statistically show that current orthogonal boundaries (obliquity angle smaller than 10°) represent around 8% of the total boundary length whereas strike-slip boundaries (obliquity angle larger than 80°) are encountered in < 10% of the total boundary length. Therefore, around 80% of active plate boundaries present oblique relative motions. Furthermore, changes in plate kinematics leading to migration or jumps in the rotation poles necessarily cause obliquity along former pure strike-slip or convergent/divergent boundaries (Fig. 1b).

  3. Compensation of corneal oblique astigmatism by internal optics: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N

    2017-05-01

    Oblique astigmatism is a prominent optical aberration of peripheral vision caused by oblique incidence of rays striking the refracting surfaces of the cornea and crystalline lens. We inquired whether oblique astigmatism from these two sources should be expected, theoretically, to have the same or opposite signs across the visual field at various states of accommodation. Oblique astigmatism was computed across the central visual field for a rotationally-symmetric schematic-eye using optical design software. Accommodative state was varied by altering the apical radius of curvature and separation of the biconvex lens's two aspheric surfaces in a manner consistent with published biometry. Oblique astigmatism was evaluated separately for the whole eye, the cornea, and the isolated lens over a wide range of surface curvatures and asphericity values associated with the accommodating lens. We also computed internal oblique astigmatism by subtracting corneal oblique astigmatism from whole-eye oblique astigmatism. A visual field map of oblique astigmatism for the cornea in the Navarro model follows the classic, textbook description of radially-oriented axes everywhere in the field. Despite large changes in surface properties during accommodation, intrinsic astigmatism of the isolated human lens for collimated light is also radially oriented and nearly independent of accommodation both in theory and in real eyes. However, the magnitude of ocular oblique astigmatism is smaller than that of the cornea alone, indicating partial compensation by the internal optics. This implies internal oblique astigmatism (which includes wavefront propagation from the posterior surface of the cornea to the anterior surface of the lens and intrinsic lens astigmatism) must have tangentially-oriented axes. This non-classical pattern of tangential axes for internal astigmatism was traced to the influence of corneal power on the angles of incidence of rays striking the internal lens. Partial

  4. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Oblique Asteroid Impacts into Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisler, G. R.; Ferguson, J. M.; Heberling, T.; Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.

    2016-12-01

    Waves generated by impacts into oceans may represent the most significant danger from near-earth asteroids and comets. For impacts near populated shores, the crown splash and subsequent waves, accompanied by sediment lofting and high winds, could be more damaging than storm surges from the strongest hurricanes. For asteroids less than 500 m in diameter that impact into deep water far from shores, the waves produced will be detectable over large distances, but probably not significantly dangerous. We present new three-dimensional simulations of oblique impacts into deep water, with trajectory angles ranging from 20 degrees to 60 degrees (where 90 degrees is vertical). These simulations are performed with the Los Alamos Rage hydrocode, and include atmospheric effects including ablation and airbursts. These oblique impact simulations are specifically performed in order to help determine whether there are additional dangers from the obliquity of impact not covered by previous two-dimensional studies. Water surface elevation profiles, surface pressures, and depth-averaged mass fluxes within the water are prepared for use in propagation studies.

  5. Segmentation and Reconstruction of Buildings with Aerial Oblique Photography Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y. C.; Hu, W.; Ding, X. B.

    2015-06-01

    Oblique photography technology as an excellent method for 3-D city model construction has brought itself to large-scale recognition and undeniable high social status. Tilt and vertical images with the high overlaps and different visual angles can produce a large number of dense matching point clouds data with spectral information. This paper presents a method of buildings reconstruction with stereo matching dense point clouds from aerial oblique images, which includes segmentation of buildings and reconstruction of building roofs. We summarize the characteristics of stereo matching point clouds from aerial oblique images and outline the problems with existing methods. Then we present the method for segmentation of building roofs, which based on colors and geometrical derivatives such as normal and curvature. Finally, a building reconstruction approach is developed based on the geometrical relationship. The experiment and analysis show that the methods are effective on building reconstruction with stereo matching point clouds from aerial oblique images.

  6. Nonlinear Optical Properties in Molecular Systems with Non-Zero Permanent Dipole Moments in Four-Wave Mixing Under Stochastic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, J. L.; Mastrodomenico, A.; Cardenas-Garcia, Jaime F.; Rodriguez, Luis G.; Vera, Cesar Costa

    2016-07-01

    The solvent effects over nonlinear optical properties of a two-level molecular system in presence of a classical electromagnetic field were modeled in this work. The collective effects proper of the thermal reservoir are modeled as a random Bohr frequency, whose manifestation is the broadening of the upper level according to a prescribed random function. A technique of work, based in the use of the cumulant expansions to obtain the average in the Fourier components associated with the coherence and populations, evaluated by the use of the Optical Stochastic Bloch Equations (OSBE), is employed. Analytical expressions for susceptibility, optical properties and non-degenerate Four-Wave Mixing (nd-FWM) signal intensity, were obtained. Numerical calculations were carried out to construct surfaces corresponding to these magnitudes as a function of the pump-probe frequency detuning, values of the permanent dipole moments (PDM), noise parameters and relationships between the longitudinal and transversal relaxation times. Our results show that it is necessary to neglect the Rotating-Wave approximation (RWA) in order to measure the effect of the permanent dipole moments and that the inclusion of these favors two-photon transitions over those with one-photon. In general, the effect of non-zero permanent dipole moments, are reflected in the appearance of new and more complex signals associated with new multiphoton processes.

  7. Viscosity Solutions for the One-Body Liouville Equation in Yang-Mills Charged Bianchi Models with Non-Zero Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo; Noutchegueme, Norbert; Etoua, Remy Magloire; Tchagna, Hugues Paulin Mbeutcha

    2015-09-01

    Recently in 2005, Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) gave, using results of Crandall and Lions (Ill J Math 31:665-688, 1987), Ishii (Indiana Univ Math J 33: 721-748, 1984, Bull Fac Sci Eng 28: 33-77, 1985) and Ley (Adv Diff Equ 6:547-576, 2001) a density approach to Hamilton-Jacobi equations with t-measurable Hamiltonians. In this paper we show, using an important result of Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the one-body Liouville relativistic equation in Yang-Mills charged Bianchi space times with non-zero mass. To our knowledge, the method used here is original and thus, totally different from those used in Alves (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér A 278:1151-1154, 1975), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér I 311, 1973), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 55:759-787, 1991), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Pitman Res Notes Math Ser 253:52-71, 1992), Noutchegueme and Noundjeu (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 1:385-404, 2000), Wollman (J Math Anal Appl 127:103-121, 1987) and Choquet-Bruhat (Existence and uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-Liouville system. Volume dedicated to Petrov, Moscow, 1971) who have studied the same equation.

  8. Climate friction and the Earth's obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levrard, B.; Laskar, J.

    2003-09-01

    We have revisited the climate friction scenario during the Earth's major glacial episodes of the last 800 Myr: the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene (~0-3 Ma), the Permo-Carboniferous (~260-340 Ma) and the Neoproterozoic (~750 +/- 200 Ma). In response to periodic variations in the obliquity, the redistribution of ice/water mass and the isostatic adjustment to the surface loading affect the dynamical ellipticity of the Earth. Delayed responses in the mass redistribution may introduce a secular term in the obliquity evolution, a phenomenon called `climate friction'. We analyse the obliquity-oblateness feedback using non-linear response of ice sheets to insolation forcing and layered models with Maxwell viscoelastic rheology. Since the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation (~3 Ma), we predict an average drift of only ~0.01 deg Myr-1 modulated by the main ~1.2 Myr modulating obliquity period. This value is well reproduced when high-resolution oxygen-isotope records are used to constrain the ice load history. For earlier glaciations, we find that the climate friction effect is not proportional to the amplitude of the ice-age load, as it was previously assumed. A possible increase in the non-linear response of ice sheets to insolation forcing and latitudinal changes in this forcing may strongly limit the contribution of the obliquity variations to glacial variability, and thereby the climate friction amplitude. The low-latitude glaciations of the Sturtian glacial interval (ca 700-750 Ma) have probably no influence on the obliquity, while we predict a maximal possible absolute change of ~2° for the Varanger interval (ca 570-620 Ma). We show that this mechanism cannot thus explain a substantial and rapid decrease in obliquity (of~30°) as previously suggested by D.M. Williams et al. (1998) to support the high obliquity scenario of G.E. Williams (1993). Overall, we find that climate friction cannot have changed the Earth's obliquity by more than 3-4° over the last 800 Myr.

  9. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  10. D Model Generation Using Oblique Images Acquired by Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingua, A.; Noardo, F.; Spanò, A.; Sanna, S.; Matrone, F.

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, many studies revealed the advantages of using airborne oblique images for obtaining improved 3D city models (including façades and building footprints). Here the acquisition and use of oblique images from a low cost and open source Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for the 3D high-level-of-detail reconstruction of historical architectures is evaluated. The critical issues of such acquisitions (flight planning strategies, ground control points distribution, etc.) are described. Several problems should be considered in the flight planning: best approach to cover the whole object with the minimum time of flight; visibility of vertical structures; occlusions due to the context; acquisition of all the parts of the objects (the closest and the farthest) with similar resolution; suitable camera inclination, and so on. In this paper a solution is proposed in order to acquire oblique images with one only flight. The data processing was realized using Structure-from-Motion-based approach for point cloud generation using dense image-matching algorithms implemented in an open source software. The achieved results are analysed considering some check points and some reference LiDAR data. The system was tested for surveying a historical architectonical complex: the "Sacro Mo nte di Varallo Sesia" in north-west of Italy. This study demonstrates that the use of oblique images acquired from a low cost UAV system and processed through an open source software is an effective methodology to survey cultural heritage, characterized by limited accessibility, need for detail and rapidity of the acquisition phase, and often reduced budgets.

  11. Effects of shadowing and steering in oblique incidence epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yunsic

    2009-03-01

    Recently the fabrication of novel nanostructures by oblique deposition has drawn much attention due to their potential application in electronic and mechanical devices as well as the interesting morphologies observed in various experiments, such as nanorods, nanocolumns, and nanohelicoids. Unlike self-organization by misfit strain in heteroepitaxial growth, oblique deposition provides a relatively direct way of controlling surface structures of growing films. Recent experiments indicate that oblique incidence deposition can significantly alter materials properties such as surface roughness, magnetic anisotropy, optical transmittance, and porosity. After a review of these experimental results, we first show that a series of morphological transitions observed in oblique incidence Cu/Cu(100) growth near room temperature can be explained primarily by geometrical shadowing effects [1]. We then discuss the modifying effects of steering due to short-range and long-range attraction [2] as well as of substrate rotation on the surface morphology. Finally, we present the results of recent multiscale simulations of Cu/Cu(100) growth at lower temperature (T = 160 - 200 K) [3] as well as parallel accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations at very low temperature [4]. Based on these simulations we have been able to explain a number of recent intriguing but previously unexplained experimental results including the strong dependence of the surface morphology and roughening behavior on temperature as well as the development of compressive strain in metal thin film growth. [4pt] [1] Y. Shim and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 046103 (2007).[0pt] [2] Y. Shim, V. Borovikov and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235423 (2008).[0pt] [3] V. Borovikov, Y. Shim and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 76, 241401(R) (2007).[0pt] [4] Y. Shim, V. Borovikov, B. P. Uberuaga, A. F. Voter, and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116101 (2008).

  12. Oblique Photogrammetry Supporting 3d Urban Reconstruction of Complex Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, I.; Ramos, M. M.; Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Legat, K.; Fassi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Accurate 3D city models represent an important source of geospatial information to support various "smart city" applications, such as space management, energy assessment, 3D cartography, noise and pollution mapping as well as disaster management. Even though remarkable progress has been made in recent years, there are still many open issues, especially when it comes to the 3D modelling of complex urban scenarios like historical and densely-built city centres featuring narrow streets and non-conventional building shapes. Most approaches introduce strong building priors/constraints on symmetry and roof typology that penalize urban environments having high variations of roof shapes. Furthermore, although oblique photogrammetry is rapidly maturing, the use of slanted views for façade reconstruction is not completely included in the reconstruction pipeline of state-of-the-art software. This paper aims to investigate state-of-the-art methods for 3D building modelling in complex urban scenarios with the support of oblique airborne images. A reconstruction approach based on roof primitives fitting is tested. Oblique imagery is then exploited to support the manual editing of the generated building models. At the same time, mobile mapping data are collected at cm resolution and then integrated with the aerial ones. All approaches are tested on the historical city centre of Bergamo (Italy).

  13. Titan's interior constrained from its obliquity and tidal Love number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baland, Rose-Marie; Coyette, Alexis; Yseboodt, Marie; Beuthe, Mikael; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years, the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturn system has measured the shape, the obliquity, the static gravity field, and the tidally induced gravity field of Titan. The large values of the obliquity and of the k2 Love number both point to the existence of a global internal ocean below the icy crust. In order to constrain interior models of Titan, we combine the above-mentioned data as follows: (1) we build four-layer density profiles consistent with Titan's bulk properties; (2) we determine the corresponding internal flattening compatible with the observed gravity and topography; (3) we compute the obliquity and tidal Love number for each interior model; (4) we compare these predictions with the observations. Previously, we found that Titan is more differentiated than expected (assuming hydrostatic equilibrium), and that its ocean is dense and less than 100 km thick. Here, we revisit these conclusions using a more complete Cassini state model, including: (1) gravitational and pressure torques due to internal tidal deformations; (2) atmosphere/lakes-surface exchange of angular momentum; (3) inertial torque due to Poincaré flow. We also adopt faster methods to evaluate Love numbers (i.e. the membrane approach) in order to explore a larger parameter space.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Strain in Analogue Models During Oblique Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, S. S.; Davis, D. M.

    2001-12-01

    Deformation resulting from oblique plate motion can be exceedingly complex, with spatial partitioning of strain that can seem unrelated to the observed plate motion. Most active convergent margins are oblique to their relative plate motion and exhibit some degree of strain partitioning, which has played a significant role in shaping most of them. Despite the ubiquity of oblique convergent margins, the mechanics of how these regions accommodate strain remains poorly understood and the deformation that occurs in them can easily be misinterpreted. It has been recognized that the partitioning of strain occurs in response to a combination of factors, including the degree of margin obliquity to plate motion, the strength of coupling between plates, the shape and length of the margin, and the presence or absence of translating blocks or terranes. However, the degree to which each of these factors control the style of strain accommodation in oblique convergence, remains poorly understood. To quantify the specific mechanical effect of each of these parameters at friction-dominated margins, we perform analogue modeling in which we quantify the strains for a variety of configurations. Using a sequence of digital images we have quantified 2D plane strains and can estimate the vertical strain in our analogue models. This method involves taking a series of digital images with a mega-pixel camera and tracking the motion of a reference grid through the life of the experiment. To calculate strains we first make a correction for the lens distortion, and then using a series of Java and Fortran programs to extract just those pixels corresponding to the reference grid. From this pixel data we calculate the color-weighted centroid of each node point giving us sub-pixel precision on its x, y location. In a reasonably sized experiment a single pixel can correspond to a small fraction of a mm, giving us a high degree of resolution. After deleting spurious grid points and correcting for

  15. The sensitivity of the bielschowsky head-tilt test in diagnosing acquired bilateral superior oblique paresis.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Brinda; Irsch, Kristina; Peggy Chang, Han-Ying; Guyton, David L

    2014-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity of the Bielschowsky head-tilt test and other commonly used criteria in identifying patients with true bilateral superior oblique paresis. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients seen between 1978 and 2009 who were diagnosed with acquired bilateral superior oblique paresis. All patients had a confirmed history of head trauma or brain surgery with altered consciousness followed by symptomatic diplopia. Bilateral superior oblique paresis was defined and diagnosed by the above history, including the presence of greater extorsion in downgaze than upgaze on Lancaster red-green testing, a V-pattern strabismus, and bilateral fundus extorsion. We analyzed findings of the Bielschowsky head-tilt test, the Parks 3-step test, and reversal of the hypertropia from straight-ahead gaze to the other 8 diagnostic positions of gaze to determine these tests' sensitivity in identifying true bilateral superior oblique paresis. Twenty-five patients were identified with the diagnosis of true bilateral superior oblique paresis. The Bielschowsky head-tilt test had a 40% sensitivity, the Parks 3-step test had a sensitivity of 24%, and reversal of the hypertropia had a sensitivity of 60% in making the diagnosis of true bilateral superior oblique paresis. What previously has been described as masked bilateral superior oblique paresis simply may be a reflection of inherent poor sensitivity of the Bielschowsky head-tilt test, the Parks 3-step test, and reversal of the hypertropia in diagnosing bilateral superior oblique paresis. Hence, none of these tests should be relied on exclusively to make this diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do supine oblique views provide better imaging of the cervicothoracic junction than swimmer's views?

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, A J; Britton, I; Forrester, A W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a swimmer's view or supine (trauma) oblique views are more likely to visualise the lower cervical spine when a lateral view fails to show the cervicothoracic junction. DESIGN: A prospective study comparing two 20 week periods. In the first phase the swimmer's view was performed as an additional view when the cervicothoracic junction was not demonstrated. In the second phase paired supine oblique views replaced the swimmer's view. RESULTS: 230 patients were included in the first phase, of whom 60 required swimmer's views. In the second phase 62 of 197 patients required supine oblique views. Radiology analysis of 53 pairs of supine oblique views showed that the vertebral bodies were adequately demonstrated at the cervicothoracic junction in only 20 patients (38%) compared with 22 in the swimmer's group (37%). The facet joints and posterior elements were, however, clearly seen in 37 (70%) of the supine oblique patients compared with 22 (37%) of the swimmer's group (p < 0.001, chi2 test). Exposure dose calculations showed a substantial reduction for a pair of supine oblique views (1.6 mGy) over a single swimmer's view (7.2 mGy). CONCLUSIONS: In injured patients for whom the standard three view series fails to demonstrate the cervicothoracic junction, swimmer's views and supine oblique views show the alignment of the vertebral bodies with equal frequency. However, supine oblique films are safer, expose patients to less radiation, and are more often successful in demonstrating the posterior elements. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9639174

  17. Obliquity Evolution of an Early Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, Billy L.; Barnes, Jason; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John

    2014-11-01

    Stark differences in both atmospheric mass and rotation are apparent between the present-day Earth and neighboring Venus. These planets may have been more similar 4 Gyr ago when most of the carbon within Venus may have been in solid form, implying a low-mass atmosphere. As a result, Venus's rotation rate could have been much faster than at present due to the smaller cumulative effects of solid-body and atmospheric tides. We investigate how the obliquity of a hypothetical rapidly-rotating Early Venus would have evolved as compared to a Moonless Earth. As with our previous investigation [Lissauer, Barnes, & Chambers 2012], slow prograde rotation of our hypothesized Early Venus generally leads to larger variations in obliquity than does retrograde rotation. However, the variability of obliquity for retrograde rotations differs from the Moonless Earth and can change with the initial spin period. The implications for early habitability of extrasolar Venus analogs will also be discussed.

  18. Solar Obliquity Induced by Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-11-01

    The six-degree obliquity of the Sun suggests that either an asymmetry was present in the solar system’s formation environment, or an external torque has misaligned the angular momentum vectors of the Sun and the planets. However, the exact origin of this obliquity remains an open question. Batygin & Brown have recently shown that the physical alignment of distant Kuiper Belt orbits can be explained by a 5{--}20 {m}\\oplus planet on a distant, eccentric, and inclined orbit, with an approximate perihelion distance of ˜250 au. Using an analytic model for secular interactions between Planet Nine and the remaining giant planets, here, we show that a planet with similar parameters can naturally generate the observed obliquity as well as the specific pole position of the Sun’s spin axis, from a nearly aligned initial state. Thus, Planet Nine offers a testable explanation for the otherwise mysterious spin-orbit misalignment of the solar system.

  19. Solar Obliquity Induced by Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    The six-degree obliquity of the sun suggests that either an asymmetry was present in the solar system's formation environment, or an external torque has misaligned the angular momentum vectors of the sun and the planets. However, the exact origin of this obliquity remains an open question. Batygin and Brown (2016) have recently shown that the physical alignment of distant Kuiper Belt orbits can be explained by a m9 = 10-20 mEarth planet on a distant, eccentric, and inclined orbit, with an approximate perihelion distance of q9 ˜ 250 AU. Using an analytic model for secular interactions between Planet Nine and the remaining giant planets, here we show that a planet with similar parameters can naturally generate the observed obliquity as well as the specific pole position of the sun's spin axis. Thus, Planet Nine offers a testable explanation for the otherwise mysterious spin-orbit misalignment of the solar system.

  20. Oblique low-altitude image matching using robust perspective invariant features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haiqing; Du, Jing; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Yuqian

    2017-01-01

    Compared with vertical photogrammtry, oblique photogrammetry is radically different for images acquired from sensor with big yaw, pitch, and roll angles. Image matching is a vital step and core problem of oblique low-altitude photogrammetric process. Among the most popular oblique images matching methods are currently SIFT/ASIFT and many affine invariant feature-based approaches, which are mainly used in computer vision, while these methods are unsuitable for requiring evenly distributed corresponding points and high efficiency simultaneously in oblique photogrammetry. In this paper, we present an oblique low-altitude images matching approach using robust perspective invariant features. Firstly, the homography matrix is estimated by a few corresponding points obtained from top pyramid images matching in several projective simulation. Then images matching are implemented by sub-pixel Harris corners and descriptors after shape perspective transforming on the basis of homography matrix. Finally, the error or gross error matched points are excluded by epipolar geometry, RANSAC algorithm and back projection constraint. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve more excellent performances in oblique low-altitude images matching than the common methods, including SIFT and SURF. And the proposed approach can significantly improve the computational efficiency compared with ASIFT and Affine-SURF.

  1. Development of a camera model and calibration procedure for oblique-viewing endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuzo; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Sato, Yoshinobu; Konishi, Kozo; Hashizume, Makoto; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tamura, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Oblique-viewing endoscopes (oblique scopes) are widely used in medical practice. They are essential for certain procedures such as laparoscopy, arthroscopy and sinus endoscopy. In an oblique scope the viewing directions are changeable by rotating the scope cylinder. Although a camera calibration method is necessary to apply augmented reality technologies to oblique endoscopic procedures, no method for oblique scope calibration has yet been developed. In the present paper, we formulate a camera model and a calibration procedure for oblique scopes. In the calibration procedure, Tsai's calibration is performed at zero rotation of the scope cylinder, then the variation of the external camera parameters corresponding to the rotation of the scope cylinder is modeled and estimated as a function of the rotation angle. Accurate estimation of the rotational axis is included in the procedure. The accuracy of this estimation was demonstrated to have a significant effect on overall calibration accuracy in the experimental evaluation, especially with large rotation angles. The projection error in the image plane was approximately two pixels. The proposed method was shown to be clinically applicable.

  2. The Generation of Oblique Magnetosonic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    One of the outstanding issues regarding the excitation of magnetosonic waves has been the observational evidence that obliquely propagating waves are dominant at comets and planetary foreshocks despite the predictions of linear theory that maximum growth occurs at parallel propagation. To address this issue, we have conducted a detailed linear theory using a beam-ring distribution function. The results have shown that such distribution functions are associated with four separate instabilities. Two of these instabilities are similar to the right hand resonant ion/ion and the non-resonant instabilities which are also present in the case of a field aligned beam. The other two instabilities are associated with the presence of ring part of the distribution function. One of these instabilities excites magnetosonic waves with maximum growth in the oblique directions. The other excites Alfven waves with maximum growth in the oblique directions. The importance of the former instability is that it may explain the oblique nature of the magnetosonic waves observed at planetary foreshocks and comets. In order to understand the nonlinear properties of these various instabilities, we have also conducted 2-D hybrid (particle ions, fluid electrons) simulations. We have found that when the beam density is sufficiently large so that the non-resonant instability has the largest growth rate, these waves dominate the initial wave power in the system. At later times, however, the obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves become dominant. Another important finding was that when the two instabilities which excite magnetosonic waves have the largest growth rates, the system is dominated by the obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves. This is despite the fact that the largest growth rate for one of the instabilities occurs in the parallel direction. The exact cause of this is not currently understood and is under investigation.

  3. F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

  4. Aeroelastic tailoring for oblique wing lateral trim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.

    1988-01-01

    Composite material aeroelastic tailoring is presently explored as a means for the correction of the roll trim imbalance of oblique-wing aircraft configurations. The concept is demonstrated through the analysis of a realistic oblique wing by a static aeroelastic computational procedure encompassing the full potential transonic aerodynamic code FLO22 and a Ritz structural plate program that models the stiffness due to symmetrical-but-unbalanced composite wing skins. Results indicate that asymetric composite tailoring reduces the aileron deflection needed for roll equilibrium, and reduces control surface hinge moment and drag. Wing skin stresses are, however, very high.

  5. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Henry, M. David; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.

    2016-04-05

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicontopography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  6. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  7. Oblique and Head-On Elastic Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2008-01-01

    When a moving ball collides elastically with an identical, initially stationary ball, the incident ball will either come to rest (head-on collision; see Fig. 1) or will acquire a velocity that is perpendicular to that acquired by the target ball (oblique collision; see Fig. 2). These two possible outcomes are related in an interesting way, which…

  8. Oblique and Head-On Elastic Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2008-01-01

    When a moving ball collides elastically with an identical, initially stationary ball, the incident ball will either come to rest (head-on collision; see Fig. 1) or will acquire a velocity that is perpendicular to that acquired by the target ball (oblique collision; see Fig. 2). These two possible outcomes are related in an interesting way, which…

  9. Apollo 11 oblique view of lunar farside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    An Apollo 11 oblique view of the lunar farside. These two odd-shaped craters are located midway between International Astronomical Union (IAU) craters 218 and 220, and are centered at 155 degrees east longitude and 3 degrees north latitude. The craters total approximately 13.5 statute miles in length and 7.5 statute miles in width at their widest point.

  10. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    DOE PAGES

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Henry, M. David; ...

    2016-04-05

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicontopography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  11. LOW STELLAR OBLIQUITIES IN COMPACT MULTIPLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.

    2013-07-01

    We measure the sky-projected stellar obliquities ({lambda}) in the multiple-transiting planetary systems KOI-94 and Kepler-25, using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. In both cases, the host stars are well aligned with the orbital planes of the planets. For KOI-94 we find {lambda} = -11 Degree-Sign {+-} 11 Degree-Sign , confirming a recent result by Hirano and coworkers. Kepler-25 was a more challenging case, because the transit depth is unusually small (0.13%). To obtain the obliquity, it was necessary to use prior knowledge of the star's projected rotation rate and apply two different analysis methods to independent wavelength regions of the spectra. The two methods gave consistent results, {lambda} = 7 Degree-Sign {+-} 8 Degree-Sign and -0. Degree-Sign 5 {+-} 5. Degree-Sign 7. There are now a total of five obliquity measurements for host stars of systems of multiple-transiting planets, all of which are consistent with spin-orbit alignment. This alignment is unlikely to be the result of tidal interactions because of the relatively large orbital distances and low planetary masses in the systems. In this respect, the multiplanet host stars differ from hot-Jupiter host stars, which commonly have large spin-orbit misalignments whenever tidal interactions are weak. In particular, the weak-tide subset of hot-Jupiter hosts has obliquities consistent with an isotropic distribution (p = 0.6), but the multiplanet hosts are incompatible with such a distribution (p {approx} 10{sup -6}). This suggests that high obliquities are confined to hot-Jupiter systems, and provides further evidence that hot-Jupiter formation involves processes that tilt the planetary orbit.

  12. The Chicxulub Impact Crater and Oblique Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, M.; Gulick, S.; Melosh, H.; Christeson, G.

    2007-05-01

    Determining whether or not the Chicxulub impact was oblique (<45 degrees) will aid in our understanding of the environmental consequences 65 Ma. Planetary impact events, and impact simulations in the laboratory, show that oblique impacts have clear asymmetric ejecta distributions. However, the subsurface structures of the resultant craters are not well understood. In 2005, we acquired 1822 km of seismic reflection data onboard the R/V Maurice Ewing imaging the massive (200+ km) Chicxulub impact crater. The seismic profiles show that pre- crater stratigraphy outside the central basin of the Chicxulub impact crater is offset downward into the crater marking the post-impact slumping and formation of the terrace zone. The inward collapse of the Chicxulub terrace zone coincides with the outward collapse of the central uplift to form the peak ring. Chicxulub's peak ring is offset to the southeast, away from the deepest terrace zone mapped in the seismic data, suggesting that its peak ring was offset toward a more gradual wall of the transient cavity. Peak ring offsets, relative to crater center, of Venusian craters from radar images in the Magellan data set allow us to determine whether there are systematic variations in peak ring offset due to oblique impact. Ten pristine Venusian peak ring craters formed by oblique impact show that peak rings are offset both uprange and downrange, suggesting that peak ring position, and related subsurface asymmetries in the terrace zone, do not provide information about impact obliquity. This analysis supports the idea that Chicxulub's peak ring offset is a consequence of target properties and pre-impact structure and independent of impact trajectory.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic Jump Conditions for Oblique Relativistic Shocks with Gyrotropic Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Double, Glen P.; Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Shock jump conditions, i.e., the specification of the downstream parameters of the gas in terms of the upstream parameters, are obtained for steady-state, plane shocks with oblique magnetic fields and arbitrary flow speeds. This is done by combining the continuity of particle number flux and the electromagnetic boundary conditions at the shock with the magnetohydrodynamic conservation laws derived from the stress-energy tensor. For ultrarelativistic and nonrelativistic shocks, the jump conditions may be solved analytically. For mildly relativistic shocks, analytic solutions are obtained for isotropic pressure using an approximation for the adiabatic index that is valid in high sonic Mach number cases. Examples assuming isotropic pressure illustrate how the shock compression ratio depends on the shock speed and obliquity. In the more general case of gyrotropic pressure, the jump conditions cannot be solved analytically with- out additional assumptions, and the effects of gyrotropic pressure are investigated by parameterizing the distribution of pressure parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Our numerical solutions reveal that relatively small departures from isotropy (e.g., approximately 20%) produce significant changes in the shock compression ratio, r , at all shock Lorentz factors, including ultrarelativistic ones, where an analytic solution with gyrotropic pressure is obtained. In particular, either dynamically important fields or significant pressure anisotropies can incur marked departures from the canonical gas dynamic value of r = 3 for a shocked ultrarelativistic flow and this may impact models of particle acceleration in gamma-ray bursts and other environments where relativistic shocks are inferred. The jump conditions presented apply directly to test-particle acceleration, and will facilitate future self-consistent numerical modeling of particle acceleration at oblique, relativistic shocks; such models include the modification of the fluid

  14. Role of sagittal and oblique smiling profiles in evaluating facial esthetics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianrui; Yi, Yating; Yang, Shuying; Xue, Chaoran; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Mingjia; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2015-03-01

    Surgeons and orthodontists used to use a conventional set of facial photographs, composed of front, front smiling, and profile images to evaluate facial esthetics, whereas sagittal and oblique smiling profile images have been largely neglected in practice. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of sagittal and oblique smiling profiles in evaluating facial esthetics. Photographs from 80 patients, of whom 40 underwent orthognathic surgery and 40 underwent orthodontic treatment, including front, front smiling, profile, sagittal profile smiling, and oblique profile smiling images before and after treatment, were collected and synthesized into 6 categories. Thirty judges gave scores to these photographs based on their own esthetic conception with a 1-week interval for each category. The results demonstrated that the mean score change of evaluating facial attractiveness of patients who underwent orthognathic surgery was lower when adding sagittal or oblique smiling profiles before the treatment, whereas it was higher after the treatment, which were opposite to the orthodontic treatment group with a higher score before the treatment and a lower score after the treatment when sagittal or oblique smiling profiles were added. The changes have a significant difference in adding both sagittal smiling profiles (P < 0.05) and oblique smiling profiles (P < 0.05) before and after treatment. Along with oblique smiling profile, sagittal smiling profile is crucial in evaluating facial esthetics for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. Both of them suggested to be integrated in routine photographic assessment of facial attractiveness evaluation before and after treatment, especially in orthognathic surgery for facial esthetic evaluation.

  15. The effects of external electric field: creating non-zero first hyperpolarizability for centrosymmetric benzene and strongly enhancing first hyperpolarizability for non-centrosymmetric edge-modified graphene ribbon H2N-(3,3)ZGNR-NO2.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wang, Jia-Jun; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-09-01

    How to generate a non-zero first hyperpolarizability for a centrosymmetric molecule is a challenging question. In this paper, an external (pump) electric field is used to make a centrosymmetric benzene molecule generate a non-zero value of the electric field induced first hyperpolarizability (β (F) ). This comes from the centrosymmetry breaking of electron cloud. Two interesting rules are exhibited. (1) β (F) is anisotropic for different directional fields (F i, i = X, Y, Z). (2) The field dependence of β (F) is a non-monotonic function, and an optimum external electric field causes the maximum value of β (F) . The largest first hyperpolarizability β (F) reaches the considerable level of 3.9 × 10(5) a.u. under F Y = 330 × 10(-4) a.u. for benzene. The external electric field effects on non-centrosymmetric edge-modified graphene ribbon H2N-(3,3)ZGNR-NO2 was also studied in this work. The first hyperpolarizability reaches as much as 2.1 × 10(7) a.u. under F X = 600 × 10(-4) a.u. for H2N-(3,3)ZGNR-NO2. We show that the external electric field can not only create a non-zero first hyperpolarizability for centrosymmetric molecule, but also remarkably enhance the first hyperpolarizability for a non-centrosymmetric molecule.

  16. The Obliquities of the Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Ward, Wm. R.

    2002-09-01

    Jupiter has by far the smallest obliquity ( ~ 3o) of the planets (not counting tidally de-spun Mercury and Venus) which may be reflective of its formation by hydrodynamic gas flow rather than stochastic impacts. Saturn's obliquity ( ~ 26o), however, seems to belie this simple formation picture. But since the spin angular momentum of any planet is much smaller than its orbital angular momentum, post-formation obliquity can be strongly modified by passing through secular spin-orbit resonances, i.e., when the spin axis precession rate of the planet matches one of the frequencies describing the precession of the orbit plane. Spin axis precession is due to the solar torque on both the oblate figure of the planet and any orbiting satellites. In the case of Jupiter, the torque on the Galilean satellites is the principal cause of its 4.5*105 year precession; Saturn's precession of 1.8*106 years is dominated by Titan. In the past, the planetary spin axis precession rates should have been much faster due to the massive circumplanetary disks from which the current satellites condensed. The regression of the orbital node of a planet is due to the gravitational perturbations of the other planets. Nodal regression is not uniform, but is instead a composite of the planetary system's normal modes. For Jupiter and Saturn, the principal frequency is the nu16, with a period of ~ 49,000 years; the amplitude of this term is I ~ 0o.36 for Jupiter and I ~ 0o.90 for Saturn. In spite of the small amplitudes, slow adiabatic passages through this resonance (due to circumplanetary disk dispersal) could increase planetary obliquities from near zero to ~ [tan1/3 I] ~ 10o. We will discuss scenarios in which giant planet obliquities are affected by this and other resonances, and will use Jupiter's low obliquity to constrain the mass and duration of a satellite precursor disk. DPH acknowledges support from NSF Career Grant AST 9733789 and WRW is grateful to the NASA OSS and PGG programs.

  17. Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

  18. Obliquely propagating dust-density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.

    2008-02-01

    Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models.

  19. Oblique Wing Research Aircraft on ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-08-02

    This 1976 photograph of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft was taken in front of the NASA Flight Research Center hangar, located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. In the photograph the noseboom, pitot-static probe, and angles-of-attack and sideslip flow vanes(covered-up) are attached to the front of the vehicle. The clear nose dome for the television camera, and the shrouded propellor for the 90 horsepower engine are clearly seen.

  20. The oblique mastectomy incision: advantages and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gronet, Edward M; Halvorson, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Mastectomy has traditionally been performed using a transverse elliptical incision. The disadvantages of this approach are a potentially visible scar medially and poor subincisional soft-tissue coverage of implants laterally. A more natural and aesthetic result is obtained with an oblique incision running parallel to the pectoralis major muscle fibers. This approach offers women more freedom of choice in clothing as well as the potential for complete subincisional muscle coverage in alloplastic breast reconstruction, in addition to other functional advantages.

  1. Ionospheric true height profiles from oblique ionograms

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.H.

    1985-06-01

    An improved direct technique in which HF oblique ionograms are reduced to ionospheric true height profiles is introduced. The benefits of this method result principally from the use of a more accurate Breit-Tuve relation to curved earth and ionosphere geometries. By comparing the results of calculations on known cases, the extent of improvement with this technique relative to the techniques by Gething and Maliphant (1967), George (1970), and Smith (1970), is demonstrated. 14 references.

  2. Apollo 11 oblique view of lunar farside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    An Apollo 11 oblique view of the lunar farside. The linear group of small craters is located within the large International Astronomical Union (IAU) crater no. IX, and is centered at 139.5 degrees east longitude and 7 degrees north latitude. The absence of shadows is due to the high sun angle. The crater chain is approximately 34 statute miles in length; and the large crater adjacent to the crater chain is about 10.5 statute miles in diameter.

  3. Apollo 11 oblique view of lunar farside

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-16

    AS11-43-6422 (July 1969) --- An Apollo 11 oblique view of the lunar farside. These two odd-shaped craters are located midway between International Astronomical Union craters 218 and 220, and are centered at 155 degrees east longitude and 3 degrees north latitude. The craters total approximately 13.5 statute miles in length and 7.5 statute miles in width at their widest point.

  4. Oblique View of Hurricane Fefa, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This oblique view of Hurricane Fefa shows the full extent of this storm with a cloud gyre several hundred miles in diameter and an elevated segment around the eye. The elevated segment bordering the eye indicates a tightly formed gyre with high internal wind speeds. At the time of this exposure, Fefa was located between the California coast and Hawaii. Fefa eventually dissipated at sea, failing to make landfall and thus did no property damage.

  5. Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

  6. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice‑Albedo Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Brian E. J.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Bitz, Cecilia M.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice‑albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  7. DYNAMICAL INSTABILITIES IN HIGH-OBLIQUITY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Tamayo, D.; Nicholson, P. D.; Burns, J. A.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2013-03-01

    High-inclination circumplanetary orbits that are gravitationally perturbed by the central star can undergo Kozai oscillations-large-amplitude, coupled variations in the orbital eccentricity and inclination. We first study how this effect is modified by incorporating perturbations from the planetary oblateness. Tremaine et al. found that, for planets with obliquities >68. Degree-Sign 875, orbits in the equilibrium local Laplace plane are unstable to eccentricity perturbations over a finite radial range and execute large-amplitude chaotic oscillations in eccentricity and inclination. In the hope of making that treatment more easily understandable, we analyze the problem using orbital elements, confirming this threshold obliquity. Furthermore, we find that orbits inclined to the Laplace plane will be unstable over a broader radial range, and that such orbits can go unstable for obliquities less than 68. Degree-Sign 875. Finally, we analyze the added effects of radiation pressure, which are important for dust grains and provide a natural mechanism for particle semimajor axes to sweep via Poynting-Robertson drag through any unstable range. For low-eccentricity orbits in the equilibrium Laplace plane, we find that generally the effect persists; however, the unstable radial range is shifted and small retrograde particles can avoid the instability altogether. We argue that this occurs because radiation pressure modifies the equilibrium Laplace plane.

  8. Oblique Impact and Its Ejecta: Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, N.; Pierazzo, E.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that impact events strike planetary surfaces at an angle from the surface. Assuming an isotropic flux of projectiles, probability theory indicates that the most likely angle of impact is 45 regardless of the body's gravitational field. While crater rims appear circular down to low impact angles, the distribution of ejecta around the crater is sensitive to the angle of impact and currently serves as the best guide to obliquity of impacts. A fair amount of numerical modeling of vertical impacts has been carried out from the early 60-s to the present time and references herein]. In vertical impacts, the axial symmetry of the process allows the simplification of the model to two dimensions (2D). Oblique impact modeling requires 3D hydro-codes and, hence, much more powerful computers. The first documented detailed oblique impact studies were carried out at Sandia National Labs' supercomputers less than 10 years ago to describe the 1994 collision of comet SL9 with Jupiter. Since then, substantial progress in computer science has made 3D modeling a reachable objective for the scientific community.

  9. Truncation correction for oblique filtering lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Lauritsch, Guenter; Dennerlein, Frank; Noo, Frederic

    2008-12-15

    State-of-the-art filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms often define the filtering operation to be performed along oblique filtering lines in the detector. A limited scan field of view leads to the truncation of those filtering lines, which causes artifacts in the final reconstructed volume. In contrast to the case where filtering is performed solely along the detector rows, no methods are available for the case of oblique filtering lines. In this work, the authors present two novel truncation correction methods which effectively handle data truncation in this case. Method 1 (basic approach) handles data truncation in two successive preprocessing steps by applying a hybrid data extrapolation method, which is a combination of a water cylinder extrapolation and a Gaussian extrapolation. It is independent of any specific reconstruction algorithm. Method 2 (kink approach) uses similar concepts for data extrapolation as the basic approach but needs to be integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. Experiments are presented from simulated data of the FORBILD head phantom, acquired along a partial-circle-plus-arc trajectory. The theoretically exact M-line algorithm is used for reconstruction. Although the discussion is focused on theoretically exact algorithms, the proposed truncation correction methods can be applied to any FBP algorithm that exposes oblique filtering lines.

  10. Truncation correction for oblique filtering lines.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Lauritsch, Günter; Dennerlein, Frank; Noo, Frédéric

    2008-12-01

    State-of-the-art filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms often define the filtering operation to be performed along oblique filtering lines in the detector. A limited scan field of view leads to the truncation of those filtering lines, which causes artifacts in the final reconstructed volume. In contrast to the case where filtering is performed solely along the detector rows, no methods are available for the case of oblique filtering lines. In this work, the authors present two novel truncation correction methods which effectively handle data truncation in this case. Method 1 (basic approach) handles data truncation in two successive preprocessing steps by applying a hybrid data extrapolation method, which is a combination of a water cylinder extrapolation and a Gaussian extrapolation. It is independent of any specific reconstruction algorithm. Method 2 (kink approach) uses similar concepts for data extrapolation as the basic approach but needs to be integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. Experiments are presented from simulated data of the FORBILD head phantom, acquired along a partial-circle-plus-arc trajectory. The theoretically exact M-line algorithm is used for reconstruction. Although the discussion is focused on theoretically exact algorithms, the proposed truncation correction methods can be applied to any FBP algorithm that exposes oblique filtering lines.

  11. Jet ejecta mass upon oblique impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, W.; Ahrens, T. J.; Miller, G. H.; Petach, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical models in the jetting regime for symmetric and asymmetric impact of thin plates predict the mass and velocity of jetted material upon oblique impact. However, experimental constraints on the amount of material which form jets upon oblique impact are not known. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted in which tungsten (W) flyer plates at speeds of 1.5 to 2.0 km/s were obliquely impacted into carbon targets at 30 deg in the regime of jetting, yielding radiation temperatures in the about 3200 K range. Both framing-camera and flash X-ray imaging were conducted. Broad cm-sized craters induced by jet ejecta on 2024 Al witness plates were used to infer jet mass. We infer, from measured witness plate crater volumes, that jet masses in the range of 0.01 to 0.06 g are produced by a 32 mm diameter, 6 mm thick W impactor. This is about one to two orders of magnitude less than those calculated from present theoretical models. In contrast, in refractory material experiments, the mass of gabbro ejecta trapped in styrofoam is 0.52 g, which is similar to that calculated.

  12. Analytical and experimental validation of the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Menees, Gene P.; Balboni, John A.

    1988-01-01

    The Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE) for hypersonic flight has been analytically studied by NASA using the CFD codes which fully couple finite rate chemistry with fluid dynamics. Fuel injector designs investigated included wall and strut injectors, and the in-stream strut injectors were chosen to provide good mixing with minimal stagnation pressure losses. Plans for experimentally validating the ODWE concept in an arc-jet hypersonic wind tunnel are discussed. Measurements of the flow field properties behind the oblique wave will be compared to analytical predictions.

  13. Penetration and ricochet phenomena in oblique hypervelocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile on multisheet aluminum structures is described. A model that can be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations that relate crater and perforation damage of a multisheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multisheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the meteoroid and space debris environment.

  14. Role of subduction obliquity in controlling mantle wedge flow and subduction zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, I.; He, J.; Jilek, E.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the role of subduction obliquity and its along-arc variation in controlling the 3-D mantle wedge flow pattern and subduction zone processes, using 3-D coupled kinematic-dynamic models that are developed for regions with oblique subduction, including southern Cascadia, Northeast Japan, Hikurangi, and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. In subduction zones, the motion of the subducting slab drives the overlying mantle to flow away from the mantle wedge corner. The dynamic pressure gradient induced by the mantle outflow then drives the mantle in the back-arc region to flow in towards the wedge corner, resulting in mantle wedge flow. 3-D subduction models with realistic slab geometries indicate that the obliquity of the subduction direction relative to the local strike of the subducting slab is a critical factor that contributes to along-arc dynamic pressure gradients in the mantle wedge, inducing a 3-D mantle wedge flow pattern. In general, oblique subduction causes the streamlines of mantle inflow and outflow to be approximately symmetric about the axis normal to the strike of the slab, and the angle between the two streamlines increases with subduction obliquity. In regions with large subduction obliquity, such as southern Hikurangi and northern Mariana, the angle can locally become so large that mantle flow appears nearly arc-parallel. Along-arc variation in the slab geometry adds further complexity to the 3-D mantle wedge flow pattern via changes in the strike of the slab and thus subduction obliquity. Mantle wedge flow patterns affect a number of important processes in subduction zones, such as the transport of heat and volatiles, development of crystal and shape preferred orientations, mantle wedge hydration, and slab dehydration. We test the modeled-predicted mantle wedge flow patterns for the aforementioned subduction zones against available geophysical observations, including seismic velocity and attenuation structures, mantle wedge

  15. Variation of axial and oblique astigmatism with accommodation across the visual field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of accommodation on axial and oblique astigmatism along 12 meridians of the central 30° of visual field and explored the compensation of corneal first-surface astigmatism by the remainder of the eye's optical system. Our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on either axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations (myopic and emmetropic eyes). Although a few subjects exhibited systematic changes in axial astigmatism during accommodation, the dioptric value of these changes was much smaller than the amount of accommodation. For most subjects, axial and oblique astigmatism of the whole eye are both less than for the cornea alone, which indicates a compensatory role for internal optics at all accommodative states in both central and peripheral vision. A new method for determining the eye's optical axis based on visual field maps of oblique astigmatism revealed that, on average, the optical axis is 4.8° temporal and 0.39° superior to the foveal line-of-sight in object space, which agrees with previous results obtained by different methodologies and implies that foveal astigmatism includes a small amount of oblique astigmatism (0.06 D on average). Customized optical models of each eye revealed that oblique astigmatism of the corneal first surface is negligible along the pupillary axis for emmetropic and myopic eyes. Individual variation in the eye's optical axis is due in part to misalignment of the corneal and internal components that is consistent with tilting of the crystalline lens relative to the pupillary axis. PMID:28362902

  16. Integrated Aerodynamic and Control System Design of Oblique Wing Aircraft. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Stephen James

    1990-01-01

    An efficient high speed aircraft design must achieve a high lift to drag ratio at transonic and supersonic speeds. In 1952 Dr. R. T. Jones proved that for any flight Mach number minimum drag at a fixed lift is achieved by an elliptic wing planform with an appropriate oblique sweep angle. Since then, wind tunnel tests and numerical flow models have confirmed that the compressibility drag of oblique wing aircraft is lower than similar symmetrical sweep designs. At oblique sweep angles above thirty degrees the highly asymmetric planform gives rise to aerodynamic and inertia couplings which affect stability and degrade the aircraft's handling qualities. In the case of the NASA-Rockwell Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, attempts to improve the handling qualities by implementing a stability augmentation system have produced unsatisfactory results because of an inherent lack of controllability in the proposed design. The present work focuses on improving the handling qualities of oblique wing aircraft by including aerodynamic configuration parameters as variables in the control system synthesis to provide additional degrees of freedom with which to further decouple the aircraft's response. Handling qualities are measured using a quadratic cost function identical to that considered in optimal control problems, but the controller architecture is not restricted to full state feedback. An optimization procedure is used to simultaneously solve for the aircraft configuration and control gains which maximize a handling qualities measure, while meeting imposed constraints on trim. In some designs wing flexibility is also modeled and reduced order controllers are implemented. Oblique wing aircraft synthesized by this integrated design method show significant improvement in handling qualities when compared to the originally proposed closed loop aircraft. The integrated design synthesis method is then extended to show how handling qualities may be traded for other types of mission

  17. Integrated aerodynamic and control system design of oblique wing aircraft. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Stephen James

    1990-01-01

    An efficient high speed aircraft design must achieve a high lift to drag ratio at transonic and supersonic speeds. In 1952 Dr. R. T. Jones proved that for any flight Mach number minimum drag at a fixed lift is achieved by an elliptic wing planform with an appropriate oblique sweep angle. Since then, wind tunnel tests and numerical flow models have confirmed that the compressibility drag of oblique wing aircraft is lower than similar symmetrical sweep designs. At oblique sweep angles above thirty degrees the highly asymmetric planform gives rise to aerodynamic and inertia couplings which affect stability and degrade the aircraft's handling qualities. In the case of the NASA-Rockwell Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, attempts to improve the handling qualities by implementing a stability augmentation system have produced unsatisfactory results because of an inherent lack of controllability in the proposed design. The present work focuses on improving the handling qualities of oblique wing aircraft by including aerodynamic configuration parameters as variables in the control system synthesis to provide additional degrees of freedom with which to further decouple the aircraft's response. Handling qualities are measured using a quadratic cost function identical to that considered in optimal control problems, but the controller architecture is not restricted to full state feedback. An optimization procedure is used to simultaneously solve for the aircraft configuration and control gains which maximize a handling qualities measure, while meeting imposed constraints on trim. In some designs wing flexibility is also modeled and reduced order controllers are implemented. Oblique wing aircraft synthesized by this integrated design method show significant improvement in handling qualities when compared to the originally proposed closed loop aircraft. The integrated design synthesis method is then extended to show how handling qualities may be traded for other types of mission

  18. Variation of axial and oblique astigmatism with accommodation across the visual field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N

    2017-03-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of accommodation on axial and oblique astigmatism along 12 meridians of the central 30° of visual field and explored the compensation of corneal first-surface astigmatism by the remainder of the eye's optical system. Our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on either axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations (myopic and emmetropic eyes). Although a few subjects exhibited systematic changes in axial astigmatism during accommodation, the dioptric value of these changes was much smaller than the amount of accommodation. For most subjects, axial and oblique astigmatism of the whole eye are both less than for the cornea alone, which indicates a compensatory role for internal optics at all accommodative states in both central and peripheral vision. A new method for determining the eye's optical axis based on visual field maps of oblique astigmatism revealed that, on average, the optical axis is 4.8° temporal and 0.39° superior to the foveal line-of-sight in object space, which agrees with previous results obtained by different methodologies and implies that foveal astigmatism includes a small amount of oblique astigmatism (0.06 D on average). Customized optical models of each eye revealed that oblique astigmatism of the corneal first surface is negligible along the pupillary axis for emmetropic and myopic eyes. Individual variation in the eye's optical axis is due in part to misalignment of the corneal and internal components that is consistent with tilting of the crystalline lens relative to the pupillary axis.

  19. Apollo 11 oblique view of lunar farside

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-16

    AS11-43-6439 (July 1969) --- An Apollo 11 oblique view of the lunar farside. The linear group of small craters is located within the large International Astronomical Union crater No. IX, and is centered at 139.5 degrees east longitude and 7 degrees north latitude. The absence of shadows is due to the high sun angle. The crater chain is approximately 34 statute miles in length, and the large crater adjacent to the crater is 10.5 statute miles in diameter.

  20. Distal oblique osteotomy for tailor's bunion.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, J E; Janecki, C J; Freeling, R M

    1991-12-01

    Thirty-six patients with a total of 50 symptomatic tailor's bunions were evaluated clinically, radiographically, and subjectively, both before and after a distal oblique osteotomy procedure was performed. Thirty-four of 36 patients were satisfied with pain relief. Radiographic measurements derived from this study were consistent with those of other studies. Avascular necrosis, nonunions, or neuroma formation were not encountered in this study. The significant advantages of this procedure are its simplicity, safety, and predictability. The procedure does not require internal fixation or postoperative immobilization.

  1. Mathematical Model for the Contribution of Individual Organs to Non-Zero Y-Intercepts in Single and Multi-Compartment Linear Models of Whole-Body Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models for the dependence of energy expenditure (EE) on body mass and composition are essential tools in metabolic phenotyping. EE scales over broad ranges of body mass as a non-linear allometric function. When considered within restricted ranges of body mass, however, allometric EE curves exhibit ‘local linearity.’ Indeed, modern EE analysis makes extensive use of linear models. Such models typically involve one or two body mass compartments (e.g., fat free mass and fat mass). Importantly, linear EE models typically involve a non-zero (usually positive) y-intercept term of uncertain origin, a recurring theme in discussions of EE analysis and a source of confounding in traditional ratio-based EE normalization. Emerging linear model approaches quantify whole-body resting EE (REE) in terms of individual organ masses (e.g., liver, kidneys, heart, brain). Proponents of individual organ REE modeling hypothesize that multi-organ linear models may eliminate non-zero y-intercepts. This could have advantages in adjusting REE for body mass and composition. Studies reveal that individual organ REE is an allometric function of total body mass. I exploit first-order Taylor linearization of individual organ REEs to model the manner in which individual organs contribute to whole-body REE and to the non-zero y-intercept in linear REE models. The model predicts that REE analysis at the individual organ-tissue level will not eliminate intercept terms. I demonstrate that the parameters of a linear EE equation can be transformed into the parameters of the underlying ‘latent’ allometric equation. This permits estimates of the allometric scaling of EE in a diverse variety of physiological states that are not represented in the allometric EE literature but are well represented by published linear EE analyses. PMID:25068692

  2. Mathematical model for the contribution of individual organs to non-zero y-intercepts in single and multi-compartment linear models of whole-body energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Kaiyala, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models for the dependence of energy expenditure (EE) on body mass and composition are essential tools in metabolic phenotyping. EE scales over broad ranges of body mass as a non-linear allometric function. When considered within restricted ranges of body mass, however, allometric EE curves exhibit 'local linearity.' Indeed, modern EE analysis makes extensive use of linear models. Such models typically involve one or two body mass compartments (e.g., fat free mass and fat mass). Importantly, linear EE models typically involve a non-zero (usually positive) y-intercept term of uncertain origin, a recurring theme in discussions of EE analysis and a source of confounding in traditional ratio-based EE normalization. Emerging linear model approaches quantify whole-body resting EE (REE) in terms of individual organ masses (e.g., liver, kidneys, heart, brain). Proponents of individual organ REE modeling hypothesize that multi-organ linear models may eliminate non-zero y-intercepts. This could have advantages in adjusting REE for body mass and composition. Studies reveal that individual organ REE is an allometric function of total body mass. I exploit first-order Taylor linearization of individual organ REEs to model the manner in which individual organs contribute to whole-body REE and to the non-zero y-intercept in linear REE models. The model predicts that REE analysis at the individual organ-tissue level will not eliminate intercept terms. I demonstrate that the parameters of a linear EE equation can be transformed into the parameters of the underlying 'latent' allometric equation. This permits estimates of the allometric scaling of EE in a diverse variety of physiological states that are not represented in the allometric EE literature but are well represented by published linear EE analyses.

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE CORNERSTONE IN ABUTMENT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE CORNERSTONE IN ABUTMENT. - Jackson Covered Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek, CR 775N (Changed from Spanning Sugar Creek), Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN

  4. EXTERIOR ELEVATION AND OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTH, WITH DRIVE WHEELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION AND OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTH, WITH DRIVE WHEELS IN FOREGROUND. - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Fusion can mask the relationships between fundus torsion, oblique muscle overaction/underaction, and A- and V-pattern strabismus.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongwei; Irsch, Kristina; Gutmark, Ron; Phamonvaechavan, Pittaya; Foo, Fong-Yee; Anwar, Didar S; Guyton, David L

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate relationships between fundus torsion, A- or V-pattern strabismus, and oblique muscle over- or underaction, and to explore the influence of stereopsis on these relationships. The medical records of patients with A or V patterns and/or abnormal ocular torsion seen at a single institution over nearly 30 years were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected were age, objective fundus torsion (estimated by indirect ophthalmoscopy), horizontal deviations in up- and downgaze, oblique muscle over- or underaction, and stereopsis. A total of 396 patients were included. A patterns were observed in 121 patients (30.6%); V patterns in 90 (22.7%). Of the A-pattern patients, 73.6% had superior oblique muscle overaction, whereas 71.1% of the V-pattern patients had inferior oblique muscle overaction (P < 0.0001, r = 0.71), increasing to 78.6% and 86.3%, respectively, for patients without stereopsis (r = 0.78). Of the patients with fundus intorsion, 78.7% had superior oblique muscle overaction, whereas 74.4% of those with fundus extorsion had inferior oblique muscle overaction (P < 0.0001, r = 0.79), increasing to 83.5% and 82.8%, respectively, for patients without stereopsis (r = 0.82). Fundus intorsion occurred in 76% of the A-pattern patients, whereas fundus extorsion occurred in 71.1% of the V-pattern patients (P < 0.0001, r = 0.73), increasing to 78.6% and 86.3%, respectively, for patients without stereopsis (r = 0.79). Strong correlations were found between fundus intorsion, superior oblique muscle overaction, and A patterns, and between fundus extorsion, inferior oblique muscle overaction, and V patterns. These correlations increased in patients without stereopsis, suggesting that the presence of binocular fusion can partially interfere with the close correlation of these parameters. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oblique impacts into low impedance layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    Planetary impacts occur indiscriminately, in all locations and materials. Varied geologic settings can have significant effects on the impact process, including the coupling between the projectile and target, the final damage patterns and modes of deformation that occur. For example, marine impact craters are not identical to impacts directly into bedrock or into sedimentary materials, though many of the same fundamental processes occur. It is therefore important, especially when considering terrestrial impacts, to understand how a low impedance sedimentary layer over bedrock affects the deformation process during and after a hypervelocity impact. As a first step, detailed comparisons between impacts and hydrocode models were performed. Experiments performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range of oblique impacts into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) targets with low impedance layers were performed and compared to experiments of targets without low impedance layers, as well as to hydrocode models under identical conditions. Impact velocities ranged from 5 km/s to 5.6 km/s, with trajectories from 30 degrees to 90 degrees above the horizontal. High-speed imaging provided documentation of the sequence and location of failure due to impact, which was compared to theoretical models. Plasticine and ice were used to construct the low impedance layers. The combination of experiments and models reveals the modes of failure due to a hypervelocity impact. How such failure is manifested at large scales can present a challenge for hydrocodes. CTH models tend to overestimate the amount of damage occurring within the targets and have difficulties perfectly reproducing morphologies; nevertheless, they provide significant and useful information about the failure modes and style within the material. CTH models corresponding to the experiments allow interpretation of the underlying processes involved as well as provide a benchmark for the experimental analysis. The transparency of PMMA

  8. Ionospheric heating with oblique HF waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Edward C., Jr.; Bloom, Ron M.

    1990-10-01

    Calculations of ionospheric electron density perturbations and ground-level signal changes produce by intense oblique high frequency (HF) transmitters are presented. This analysis considers radio field focusing at caustics, the consequent joule-heating of the surrounding plasma, heat conduction, diffusion, and recombination processes: these being the effects of a powerful oblique 'modifying' wave. It neglects whatever plasma instabilities might occur. Then effects on a secondary 'test' wave that is propagated along the same path as the first are investigated. Calculations predict ground-level field-strength reductions of several dB in the test wave for modifying waves having ERP in the 85 to 90 dBW range. These field-strength changes are similar in sign, magnitude, and location to ones measured in Soviet experiments. The results are sensitive to the model ionosphere assumed, so future experiments should employ the widest possible range of frequencies and propagation conditions. An effective power of 90 dBW seems to be a sort of threshold that, if exceeded, results in substantial rather than small signal changes. The conclusions are based solely on joule-heating and subsequent defocusing of waves passing through caustic regions.

  9. Venus - Oblique View of Crater Riley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full resolution radar mosaic centered at 14 degrees north latitude, 72 degrees east longitude, shows an oblique view of the impact crater Riley, named for Margaretta Riley, a 19th Century botanist. This view was prepared from two left-looking Magellan radar images acquired with different incidence angles. Because the relief displacements of the two images are different, depths from the crater rim to the crater floor and heights of the crater rim and flanks above the surrounding plains can be measured. The crater is 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) in diameter. The floor of the crater is 580 meters (1,914 feet) below the plains surrounding the crater. The crater's rim rises 620 meters (2,046 feet) above the plains and 1,200 meters (3,960 feet) above the crater floor. The crater's central peak is 536 meters (1,769 feet) high. The crater's diameter is 40 times the depth resulting in a relatively shallow appearance. The topography is exaggerated by 22 times to emphasize the crater's features. This oblique view was produced from two left-looking radar stereo image mosaics utilizing photogrammetric software developed by the Solar System Visualization Project and the Digital Image Animation Laboratory at JPL's Multimission Image Processing Laboratory.

  10. Oblique slip in Laramide foreland arches

    SciTech Connect

    Erslev, E.A.; Selvig, B.; Molzer, P. . Dept. of Earth Resources)

    1993-03-01

    Don Wise was one of the first structural geologists to recognize the complex, four-dimensional (space and time) nature of basement-involved faulting in the Rocky Mountain foreland. His focus on both small scale kinematic indicators and regional tectonic hypotheses has provided a launching point for many Rocky Mountain geologists. The implications of the anastomosing patterns of Laramide foreland arches on models of regional stress and strain have provoked considerable debate. Hypotheses range from those invoking multiple stages of lateral compression from different directions to single-stage models necessitating a component of strike-slip motion in east-west and north-south arches. These hypotheses were tested using slickenline analysis of minor faulting in structures with different orientations. In Wyoming, structures paralleling the dominant northwest structural trend have slickenlines in the NE-SW vertical plane, consistent with shortening and compression in this direction. The east-west Owl Creek and Casper Mountain structures also have NE-SW trending slickenlines, indicating slip oblique to these arches. In Colorado, minor faults in the north-south margin of the northeastern Front Range also indicate oblique slip, with shortening in the NE-SW quadrant. The actual trend of the slickenlines is more easterly, however, suggesting a change of slip trajectory with latitude, not time, possibly in response to identation by the Colorado Plateau.

  11. Analogue models of obliquely convergent continental plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, David R.; Braun, Jean

    1998-07-01

    Analogue models are used to examine crustal-scale faulting at obliquely convergent continental plate boundaries. A uniform Coulomb material is deformed with basal kinematic boundary conditions to model two obliquely convergent lithospheric plates. The mantle part of one plate is assumed to detach from its overriding crust and then be subducted beneath the other plate. The obliquity of the collision is assumed to remain constant throughout the deformation. Experiments are run with obliquities ranging from pure convergence (low obliquity) to pure strike slip (high obliquity). Reverse faults are observed for all obliquities with a nonzero convergent component. By contrast, only collisions with a large amount of strike slip motion exhibit wrench faulting. In experiments dominated by their convergent component, the strike slip motion is totally accommodated by oblique slip along the reverse faults. Strain partitioning between reverse faults and wrench faults is only observed for experiments run above a certain critical partitioning obliquity. Prom the observed initial faults, we can deduce the change in orientation in the principal stress triad as the obliquity is changed. We propose that the initial direction of maximum compressive stress (σ1) rotates horizontally as the obliquity is changed, which in turn affects the geometry of the initial faults formed in the material. In the case of reverse faults, the rotation increases their dip measured along the direction of pure convergence. The relative magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress and the vertical stress determine whether reverse faults or strike slip faults are the first to form. Although long term deformation is more difficult to analyze, a simple relationship for the angle at which strain partitioning occurs is derived.

  12. Oblique and lateral impact response of the PMHS thorax.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joshua M; Herriott, Rodney G; McFadden, Joseph D; Donnelly, Bruce R; Bolte, John H

    2006-11-01

    This study characterizes the PMHS thoracic response to blunt impact in oblique and lateral directions. A significant amount of data has been collected from lateral impacts conducted on human cadavers. Substantially less data has been collected from impacts that are anterior of lateral in an oblique direction. In the past, data collected from the handful of oblique impact studies were considered to be similar enough to the data from purely lateral impacts such that the oblique data were combined with data from lateral impacts. Defining the biomechanical response of the PMHS thorax to oblique impact is of great importance in side impact vehicle crashes where the loading is often anterior-oblique in direction. Data in this study was obtained from a chestband placed on the thorax at the level of impact to measure thoracic deflection. Two low energy impacts were conducted on each of seven subjects at 2.5 m/s, with one lateral impact and one oblique impact to opposite sides of each PMHS. Data was normalized using the Mertz-Viano method for a two mass system to allow for inter-subject comparisons. Force versus deflection response corridors were generated for the two impact types using an objective mathematical approach and compared to one another. Results were also compared to existing data for oblique and lateral thoracic impacts. The oblique thoracic response in low speed pendulum impacts was found to be different than the lateral thoracic response, in terms of force and deflection. Specifically, the lateral force was greater than the oblique force, and oblique deflection greater than lateral deflection for equal energy impacts.

  13. Side oblique real-time orthophotography with the 9Kx9K digital framing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Brian A.

    2003-08-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has reported on a new framing camera incorporating an ultra high resolution CCD detector array comprised of 9,216 x 9,216 pixels fabricated on one silicon wafer. The detector array features a 1:2 frame-per-second readout capable of stereo imagery with Nyquist resolution of 57 lp/mm from high velocity, low altitude (V/H) airborne platforms. Flight tests demonstrated the capability of the focal plane electronics for differential image motion compensation (IMC) with Nyquist performance utilizing a focal plane shutter (FPS) to enable both nadir and significant side and forward oblique imaging angles. The impact of FPS for differential image motion compensation is evaluated with the exterior orientation calibration parameters, which include the existing shutter velocity and flight dynamics from sample mapping applications. System requirements for GPS/INS are included with the effect of vertical error and side oblique angle impact of the digital elevation map (DEM) required to create the orthophoto. Results from the differentiated "collinearity equations" which relate the image coordinates to elements of interior and exterior orientation are combined with the DEM impact to provide useful guidelines for side oblique applications. The application of real-time orthophotography is described with the implications for system requirements for side oblique orthophoto capability.

  14. Photogrammetric Processing of Apollo 15 Metric Camera Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmundson, K. L.; Alexandrov, O.; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.; Kirk, R. L.; Moratto, Z. M.; Nefian, A. V.; Richie, J. O.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The integrated photogrammetric mapping system flown on the last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) in the early 1970s incorporated a Metric (mapping) Camera, a high-resolution Panoramic Camera, and a star camera and laser altimeter to provide support data. In an ongoing collaboration, the U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Science Center, the Intelligent Robotics Group of the NASA Ames Research Center, and Arizona State University are working to achieve the most complete cartographic development of Apollo mapping system data into versatile digital map products. These will enable a variety of scientific/engineering uses of the data including mission planning, geologic mapping, geophysical process modelling, slope dependent correction of spectral data, and change detection. Here we describe efforts to control the oblique images acquired from the Apollo 15 Metric Camera.

  15. Plasmas fluxes to surfaces for an oblique magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, C.S. ); Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D. ); Bell, M.G.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Owens, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Ulrickson, M. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1992-07-01

    The poloidal and toroidal spatial distributions of D{sub {alpha}}, He I and C II emission have been obtained in the vicinity of the TFTR bumper limiter and are compared with models of ion flow to the surface. The distributions are found not to agree with a model (the Cosine'' model) which determines the incident flux density using only the parallel fluxes in the scrape-off layer and the projected area of the surface perpendicular to the field lines. In particular, the Cosine model is not able to explain the significant fluxes observed at locations on the surface which are oblique to the magnetic field. It is further shown that these fluxes cannot be explained by the finite Larmor radius of impinging ions. Finally, it is demonstrated, with the use of Monte Carlo codes, that the distributions can be explained by including both parallel and cross-field transport onto the limiter surface.

  16. Plasmas fluxes to surfaces for an oblique magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, C.S.; Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Owens, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Ulrickson, M.

    1992-07-01

    The poloidal and toroidal spatial distributions of D{sub {alpha}}, He I and C II emission have been obtained in the vicinity of the TFTR bumper limiter and are compared with models of ion flow to the surface. The distributions are found not to agree with a model (the ``Cosine`` model) which determines the incident flux density using only the parallel fluxes in the scrape-off layer and the projected area of the surface perpendicular to the field lines. In particular, the Cosine model is not able to explain the significant fluxes observed at locations on the surface which are oblique to the magnetic field. It is further shown that these fluxes cannot be explained by the finite Larmor radius of impinging ions. Finally, it is demonstrated, with the use of Monte Carlo codes, that the distributions can be explained by including both parallel and cross-field transport onto the limiter surface.

  17. Uses of the Inferior Oblique Muscle in Strabismus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stager, David; Dao, Lori M.; Felius, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Inferior oblique muscle weakening is typically performed for overaction of the muscle. In this article, we review inferior oblique muscle anatomy, different weakening procedures, and recent surgical techniques that take advantage of the muscle's unique anatomy for the treatment of additional indications such as excyclotorsion and hypertropia in primary gaze. PMID:26180466

  18. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely. Bridges...

  19. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely. Bridges...

  20. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely. Bridges...

  1. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely. Bridges...

  2. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely. Bridges...

  3. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Reduced Oblique Effect in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Davletshina, Maria A.; Orekhova, Elena V.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    People are very precise in the discrimination of a line orientation relative to the cardinal (vertical and horizontal) axes, while their orientation discrimination sensitivity along the oblique axes is less refined. This difference in discrimination sensitivity along cardinal and oblique axes is called the “oblique effect.” Given that the oblique effect is a basic feature of visual processing with an early developmental origin, its investigation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may shed light on the nature of visual sensory abnormalities frequently reported in this population. We examined line orientation sensitivity along oblique and vertical axes in a sample of 26 boys with ASD (IQ > 68) and 38 typically developing (TD) boys aged 7–15 years, as well as in a subsample of carefully IQ-matched ASD and TD participants. Children were asked to detect the direction of tilt of a high-contrast black-and-white grating relative to vertical (90°) or oblique (45°) templates. The oblique effect was reduced in children with ASD as compared to TD participants, irrespective of their IQ. This reduction was due to poor orientation sensitivity along the vertical axis in ASD children, while their ability to discriminate line orientation along the oblique axis was unaffected. We speculate that this deficit in sensitivity to vertical orientation may reflect disrupted mechanisms of early experience-dependent learning that takes place during the critical period for orientation selectivity. PMID:26834540

  5. Mars Secular Obliquity Decrease and the Layered Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    Mars may have substantially decreased its average axial tilt over geologic time due to the waxing and waning of water ice caps through the phenomenon of climate friction (also called obliquity-oblateness feedback). Depending upon Mars' climate and internal structure, water caps of the order of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18) kg cycling with the obliquity oscillations could have either increased or decreased the average obliquity by possibly tens of degrees over the age of the solar system. Gravity and topography observations by the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that the south polar cap is mostly uncompensated, so that Mars may be largely rigid on the obliquity timescale. Further, Mars may be a water-rich planet, so that there is a large phase angle between insolation forcing and the size of the obliquity-driven water caps. A stiff, water-rich planet implies an obliquity decrease over the eons. Such a decrease might account for the apparent youthfulness of the polar layered terrain. The idea is that fewer volatiles were available to be cycled into and out of the terrain at high mean obliquity, because of the eveness of insolation between equator and pole, and because of small insolation variations as the obliquity oscillated; so that the movement of volatiles and dust produced thin layers or perhaps no layers at all. As the average obliquity decreased, the insolation contrast between high and low latitudes increased, plus the insolation variations over the obliquity cycle grew somewhat bigger, so that more volatiles and dust might have shuttled into and out of the polar regions, forming the observed thick layers late in Mars' history. It may also be that the average tilt has decreased to the point where the climate friction mechanism is starving itself: more and more water has gotten locked up in the polar regions, making less available for cycling with the oscillations. And the layer-forming mechanism may be starving too: not only less water, but also at low average

  6. Mars Secular Obliquity Decrease and the Layered Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    Mars may have substantially decreased its average axial tilt over geologic time due to the waxing and waning of water ice caps through the phenomenon of climate friction (also called obliquity-oblateness feedback). Depending upon Mars' climate and internal structure, water caps of the order of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18) kg cycling with the obliquity oscillations could have either increased or decreased the average obliquity by possibly tens of degrees over the age of the solar system. Gravity and topography observations by the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that the south polar cap is mostly uncompensated, so that Mars may be largely rigid on the obliquity timescale. Further, Mars may be a water-rich planet, so that there is a large phase angle between insolation forcing and the size of the obliquity-driven water caps. A stiff, water-rich planet implies an obliquity decrease over the eons. Such a decrease might account for the apparent youthfulness of the polar layered terrain. The idea is that fewer volatiles were available to be cycled into and out of the terrain at high mean obliquity, because of the eveness of insolation between equator and pole, and because of small insolation variations as the obliquity oscillated; so that the movement of volatiles and dust produced thin layers or perhaps no layers at all. As the average obliquity decreased, the insolation contrast between high and low latitudes increased, plus the insolation variations over the obliquity cycle grew somewhat bigger, so that more volatiles and dust might have shuttled into and out of the polar regions, forming the observed thick layers late in Mars' history. It may also be that the average tilt has decreased to the point where the climate friction mechanism is starving itself: more and more water has gotten locked up in the polar regions, making less available for cycling with the oscillations. And the layer-forming mechanism may be starving too: not only less water, but also at low average

  7. Obliquity Variability of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Quarles, Billy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John; Hedman, Matthew M.

    2016-07-01

    Venus currently rotates slowly, with its spin controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, conditions may have been far different 4 billion years ago, when the Sun was fainter and most of the carbon within Venus could have been in solid form, implying a low-mass atmosphere. We investigate how the obliquity would have varied for a hypothetical rapidly rotating Early Venus. The obliquity variation structure of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses is simpler than that Earth would have if it lacked its large moon (Lissauer et al., 2012), having just one primary chaotic regime at high prograde obliquities. We note an unexpected long-term variability of up to ±7° for retrograde Venuses. Low-obliquity Venuses show very low total obliquity variability over billion-year timescales, comparable to that of the real Moon-influenced Earth.

  8. Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.

  9. Combining evolutionary algorithms with oblique decision trees to detect bent double galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2000-06-22

    Decision trees have long been popular in classification as they use simple and easy-to-understand tests at each node. Most variants of decision trees test a single attribute at a node, leading to axis-parallel trees, where the test results in a hyperplane which is parallel to one of the dimensions in the attribute space. These trees can be rather large and inaccurate in cases where the concept to be learnt is best approximated by oblique hyperplanes. In such cases, it may be more appropriate to use an oblique decision tree, where the decision at each node is a linear combination of the attributes. Oblique decision trees have not gained wide popularity in part due to the complexity of constructing good oblique splits and the tendency of existing splitting algorithms to get stuck in local minima. Several alternatives have been proposed to handle these problems including randomization in conjunction with deterministic hill climbing and the use of simulated annealing. In this paper, they use evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to determine the split. EAs are well suited for this problem because of their global search properties, their tolerance to noisy fitness evaluations, and their scalability to large dimensional search spaces. They demonstrate the technique on a practical problem from astronomy, namely, the classification of galaxies with a bent-double morphology, and describe their experiences with several split evaluation criteria.

  10. The Role of Rift Obliquity During Pangea Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, S.; Butterworth, N. P.; Williams, S.; Müller, D.

    2014-12-01

    Does supercontinent break-up follow specific laws? What parameters control the success and the failure of rift systems? Recent analytical and geodynamic modeling suggests that oblique rifting is energetically preferred over orthogonal rifting. This implies that during rift competition, highly oblique branches proceed to break-up while less oblique ones become inactive. These models predict that the relative motion of Earth's continents during supercontinent break-up is affected by the orientation and shape of individual rift systems. Here, we test this hypothesis based on latest plate tectonic reconstructions. Using PyGPlates, a recently developed Python library that allows script-based access to the plate reconstruction software GPlates, we quantify rift obliquity, extension velocity and their temporal evolution for continent-scale rift systems of the past 200 Myr. Indeed we find that many rift systems contributing to Pangea fragmentation involved strong rift obliquity. East and West Gondwana for instance split along the East African coast with a mean obliquity of 55° (measured as the angle between local rift trend normal and extension direction). While formation of the central and southern South Atlantic segment involved a low obliquity of 10°, the Equatorial Atlantic opened under a high angle of 60°. Rifting between Australia and Antarctica involved two stages with 25° prior to 100 Ma followed by 50° obliquity and distinct increase of extension velocity. Analyzing the entire passive margin system that formed during Pangea breakup, we find a mean obliquity of 40°, with a standard deviation of 20°. Hence 50% of these margins formed with an angle of 40° or more. Considering that many conceptual models of rifting and passive margin formation assume 2D deformation, our study quantifies the degree to which such 2D models are globally applicable, and highlights the importance of 3D models where oblique rifting is the dominant mode of deformation.

  11. Calibration Procedures on Oblique Camera Setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Melykuti, B.; Yu, C.

    2016-06-01

    Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager) is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna -IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first step with the help of

  12. MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W

    2011-07-22

    We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.

  13. Thin oblique airfoils at supersonic speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jone, Robert T

    1946-01-01

    The well-known methods of thin-airfoil theory have been extended to oblique or sweptback airfoils of finite aspect ratio moving at supersonic speeds. The cases considered thus far are symmetrical airfoils at zero lift having plan forms bounded by straight lines. Because of the conical form of the elementary flow fields, the results are comparable in simplicity to the results of the two-dimensional thin-airfoil theory for subsonic speeds. In the case of untapered airfoils swept back behind the Mach cone the pressure distribution at the center section is similar to that given by the Ackeret theory for a straight airfoil. With increasing distance from the center section the distribution approaches the form given by the subsonic-flow theory. The pressure drag is concentrated chiefly at the center section and for long wings a slight negative drag may appear on outboard sections. (author)

  14. Oblique View with Altimetry of Valles Marineris

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-03

    An oblique, color image of central Valles Marineris, Mars showing relief of Ophir and Candor Chasmata; view toward east. The photograph is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. Ophir Chasma on the north (left side) is approximately 300 km across and as deep as 10 km. The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Tongues of interior layered deposits on the floor of the chasmata can be observed as well as young landslide material along the base of Ophir Chasma's north wall. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00006

  15. Extraocular Muscle Compartments in Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soh Youn; Clark, Robert A.; Le, Alan; Demer, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in volumes of extraocular muscle (EOM) compartments in unilateral superior oblique (SO) palsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods High-resolution, surface-coil MRI was obtained in 19 patients with unilateral SO palsy and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. Rectus EOMs and the SO were divided into two anatomic compartments for volume analysis in patients with unilateral SO palsy, allowing comparison of total compartmental volumes versus controls. Medial and lateral compartmental volumes of the SO muscle were compared in patients with isotropic (round shape) versus anisotropic (elongated shape) SO atrophy. Results The medial and lateral compartments of the ipsilesional SO muscles were equally atrophic in isotropic SO palsy, whereas the lateral compartment was significantly smaller than the medial in anisotropic SO palsy (P = 0.01). In contrast to the SO, there were no differential compartmental volume changes in rectus EOMs; however, there was significant total muscle hypertrophy in the ipsilesional inferior rectus (IR) and lateral rectus (LR) muscles and contralesional superior rectus (SR) muscles. Medial rectus (MR) volume was normal both ipsi- and contralesionally. Conclusions A subset of patients with SO palsy exhibit selective atrophy of the lateral, predominantly vertically acting SO compartment. Superior oblique atrophy is associated with whole-muscle volume changes in the ipsilesional IR, ipsilesional LR, and contralesional SR; however, SO muscle atrophy is not associated with compartmentally selective volume changes in the rectus EOMs. Selective compartmental SO pathology may provide an anatomic mechanism that explains some of the variability in clinical presentations of SO palsy. PMID:27768791

  16. Oblique impacts: Catastrophic vs. protracted effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed impacts as the cause of biologic catastrophes at the end of the Cretaceous and Eocene face several enigmas: protracted extinctions, even prior to the stratigraphic cosmogenic signature; widespread but non-uniform dispersal of the meteoritic component; absence of a crater of sufficient size; and evidence for massive intensive fires. Various hypotheses provide reasonable mechanisms for mass mortalities: global cooling by continental impact sites; global warming by oceanic impact sites; contrasting effects of asteroidal, cometary, and even multiple impacts; and stress on an already fragile global environment. Yet not every known large impact is associated with a major biologic catastrophe. An alternative is expanded: the consequences of an oblique impact. The most probable angle of impact is 45 deg with the probability for an impact at smaller angles decreasing: A vertical impact is as rare as a tangential impact with a 5 deg impact angle or less occurring only 8 percent of the time. Consequently a low-angle impact is a rare but probable event. Laboratory experiments at the NASA-Ames Vertical Gun Range reveal important information about cratering efficiency, impact vaporization, projectile dispersal, and phenomenology, thereby providing perspective for possible consequences of such an impact on both the Earth and Moon. Oblique impacts are rare but certain events through geologic time: A 5 deg impact by a 2 km-diameter impactor on the Earth would occur only once in about 18 my with a 10 km-diameter once in about 450 my. Major life extinctions beginning prior to the stratigraphic cosmogenic signature or protracted extinctions seemingly too long after the proposed event may not be evidence against an impact as a cause but evidence for a more complex but probable sequence of events.

  17. Outcomes of pediatric inguinal hernia repair with or without opening the external oblique muscle fascia

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Masoud; Dastgerdi, Mohamad Masoud Heydari; Sirousfard, Motaherh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering that complications and outcome of each method of pediatric inguinal hernia repair are one of the determinants for pediatric surgeons for selection of the appropriate surgical technique, we compared the early and late complications of two inguinal repair techniques, with and without opening the external oblique muscle fascia. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial study, boy children aged 1-month to 6 years with diagnosed inguinal hernia were included and randomly allocated into two groups for undergoing two types of hernia repair techniques, with and without opening the external oblique muscle fascia. Surgical complications such as fever, scrotal edema and hematoma, and wound infections classified as early complication and recurrence, testis atrophy and sensory impairment of inguinal area classified as late complications. The rates of mentioned early and late complications were compared in the two interventional groups. Results: In this study, 66 patients were selected and allocated to the two interventional groups. The prevalence of early and late complications in two studied groups were not different significantly in two interventional groups (P > 0.05). Operation time was significantly shorter in inguinal repair techniques without opening the external oblique muscle fascia than the other studied technique (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of our study indicated that though early and late complications of the two repair methods were similar, but the time of procedure was shorter in herniotomy without opening the external oblique muscle, which considered the superiority of this method than inguinal hernia repair with opening the external oblique muscle. PMID:26958052

  18. Obliquity evolution of the minor satellites of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Nichols-Fleming, Fiona; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Noyelles, Benoît

    2017-09-01

    New Horizons mission observations show that the small satellites Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra, of the Pluto-Charon system, have not tidally spun-down to near synchronous spin states and have high obliquities with respect to their orbit about the Pluto-Charon binary (Weaver, 2016). We use a damped mass-spring model within an N-body simulation to study spin and obliquity evolution for single spinning non-round bodies in circumbinary orbit. Simulations with tidal dissipation alone do not show strong obliquity variations from tidally induced spin-orbit resonance crossing and this we attribute to the high satellite spin rates and low orbital eccentricities. However, a tidally evolving Styx exhibits intermittent obliquity variations and episodes of tumbling. During a previous epoch where Charon migrated away from Pluto, the minor satellites could have been trapped in orbital mean motion inclination resonances. An outward migrating Charon induces large variations in Nix and Styx's obliquities. The cause is a commensurability between the mean motion resonance frequency and the spin precession rate of the spinning body. As the minor satellites are near mean motion resonances, this mechanism could have lifted the obliquities of all four minor satellites. The high obliquities need not be primordial if the minor satellites were at one time captured into mean motion resonances.

  19. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Humm, John R; Stadter, Gregory W; Curry, William H; Brasel, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990-1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m(2). Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data.

  20. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  1. On the obliquity and tidal heating of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankowski, David G.; Chyba, Christopher F.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    1989-01-01

    Although tidal heating is generally associated with spin-locked satellites on eccentric orbits, a satellite with a large obliquity can undergo substantial heating due to obliquity tides, even on a circular orbit. The near-100-deg obliquity of the Neptune moon, Triton, could generate significant tidal heating and eventually lead to a damping of its orbital inclination to 180 deg. Ground-based observations of Triton have tentatively found a synchronous rotational state that is consistent with despinning times of about 10,000 years, indicating that Triton is almost certainly rotating synchronously.

  2. 3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins

  3. Obliquity of Mercury: Influence of the precession of the pericenter and of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baland, Rose-Marie; Yseboodt, Marie; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2017-07-01

    Mercury is expected to deviate from the classical Cassini state since this state is defined for a uniformly precessing rigid planet. We develop an extended Cassini state model that includes the variations (or nutations) in obliquity and deviation induced by the slow precession of the pericenter. The model also describes the constant shift over time in mean obliquity and deviation associated with the short-periodic tidal deformations of Mercury, characterized by the tidal love number k2 and by the ratio k2/Q of the tidal Love number over the tidal quality factor, respectively. This model is then used to interpret Mercury's orientation, including the deviation from the classical Cassini state, in terms of parameters of Mercury's interior.

  4. Fabric stability in oblique convergence and divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, Christian; Tikoff, Basil

    1999-08-01

    Forward modeling of transpression-transtension, assuming homogeneous strain and a direct relationship between finite strain axes and foliation-lineation in tectonites, investigates fields of stability of foliation and lineation orientations in oblique convergence and divergence. Vertical foliation-horizontal lineation (VF-HL) develop for angles of convergence-divergence between 0 and 20°. With increasing finite strain, this narrow window of stability is further reduced; lineation switches to vertical in transpression and foliation switches to horizontal in transtension. If a shear zone contains VF-HL, it either developed as a zone very close to pure wrenching, or recorded low finite strain. The stability of VF-HL at high strain and higher angles of convergence is enhanced by lateral extrusion of material along transpression zones. VF-HL may be stabilized in magmatic bodies that progressively intrude transtension zones, if the wrench component of deformation partitions within them. Alternatively, if these bodies are dike-like, cool fast, and do not record large deformation, they take up the extension component of transtension through anisotropic volume addition, leaving a larger component of wrench deformation in the country rocks; this effect stabilizes VF-HL effectively at low strain, but only marginally so at high strain.

  5. Oblique Corpectomy to Manage Cervical Myeloradiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Chibbaro; Orphee, Makiese; Damien, Bresson; Alisha, Reiss; Pavel, Poczos; Bernard, George

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors describe a lateral approach to the cervical spine for the management of spondylotic myeloradiculopathy. The rationale for this approach and surgical technique are discussed, as well as the advantages, disadvantages, complications, and pitfalls based on the author's experience over the last two decades. Methods. Spondylotic myelo-radiculopathy may be treated via a lateral approach to the cervical spine when there is predominant anterior compression associated with either spine straightening or kyphosis, but without vertebral instability. Results. By using a lateral approach, the lateral aspect of the cervical spine and the vertebral artery are easily reached and visualized. Furthermore, the lateral part of the affected intervertebral disc(s), uncovertebral joint(s), vertebral body(ies), and posterior longitudinal ligament can be removed as needed to decompress nerve root(s) and/or the spinal cord. Conclusion. Multilevel cervical oblique corpectomy and/or lateral foraminotomy allow wide decompression of nervous structures, while maintaining optimal stability and physiological motion of the cervical spine. PMID:22028964

  6. Focusers of obliquely incident laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharskiy, A. V.; Danilov, V. A.; Popov, V. V.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Sisakyan, I. N.; Sayfer, V. A.; Stepanov, V. V.

    1984-08-01

    Focusing obliquely incident laser radiation along a given line in space with a given intensity distribution is treated as a problem of synthesizing a mirror surface. The intricate shape of such a surface, characterized by a function z= z (u,v) in the approximation of geometrical optics, is determined from the equation phi (u,v,z) - phi O(u,v,z)=O, which expresses that the incident field and the reflected field have identical eikonals. Further calculations are facilitated by replacing continuous mirror with a more easily manufactured piecewise continuous one. The problem is solved for the simple case of a plane incident wave with a typical iconal phi O(u,v,z)= -z cos0 at a large angle to a focus mirror in the z-plane region. Mirrors constructed on the basis of the theoretical solution were tested in an experiment with a CO2 laser. A light beam with Gaussian intensity distribution was, upon incidence at a 45 deg angle, focused into a circle or into an ellipse with uniform intensity distribution. Improvements in amplitudinal masking and selective tanning technology should reduce energy losses at the surface which results in efficient laser focusing mirrors.

  7. Oblique rifting at Tempe Fossae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Carlos; Anguita, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    This work shows the results of a structural study of the faults observed at the Tempe Rift (northeastern Tharsis region), Mars. A new, detailed map of faults and fault systems was used to geometrically characterize the fracture architecture of the Tempe Rift and to measure fault length, displacement, and spacing data, to analyze the spatial distribution of fault centroids, and to investigate the fractal nature of fault trace maps. A comparison with analog models and the use of conventional techniques of fault population analysis show that the Tempe Rift was most probably generated under sinistral oblique-rifting processes, which highlights the importance of the presence of inherited fractures in the tectonic evolution of the Noachian crust. The angle between the extension direction and the rift axis varies along the Tempe Rift, ranging from 50°-60° at its central southern part to 66°-88° to the southwest. Fault scaling relationships are similar to those found at mid-ocean ridges on Earth with exponential fault length-frequency distributions. Localized, inhomogeneous deformation generated weakly interacting faults, spanning the entire thickness of the mechanical layer. This thickness decreased from southwest to northeast along the rift, along with distance from the central part of the Tharsis dome.

  8. Size of the Oblique Extraocular Muscles and Superior Oblique Muscle Contractility in Brown Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soh Youn; Le, Alan; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate possible size and contractility changes in the superior oblique (SO) muscle, and possible isometric hypertrophy in the inferior oblique (IO) muscle, resulting from abnormal mechanical loading in Brown syndrome (BrS). Methods High resolution orbital MRI was obtained in 4 congenital and 11 acquired cases of BrS, and compared with 44 normal subjects. Maximal cross-section areas and posterior partial volumes (PPVs) of the SO were analyzed in central gaze, supraduction, and infraduction for the SO, and in central gaze only for the IO. Results In congenital BrS, mean maximum SO cross-sectional areas were 24% and 20% less than normal in affected and unaffected eyes, respectively (P = 0.0002). Mean PPV in congenital BrS was also significantly subnormal bilaterally (29% and 34% less in affected and unaffected eyes, respectively, P = 0.001). However, SO muscle size and volume were normal in acquired cases. The SO muscle did not relax in supraduction in BrS, although there was normal contractile thickening in infraduction. The IO muscle had normal size bilaterally in BrS. Conclusions Congenital BrS may be associated with SO hypoplasia that could reflect hypoinnervation. However, unique isometric loading of oblique extraocular muscles due to restrictive hypotropia in adduction in BrS is generally not associated with changes in muscle bulk or in SO contractility. Unlike skeletal muscles, the bulk and contractility of extraocular muscles can therefore be regarded as independent of isometric exercise history. Restriction to elevation in BrS typically arises in the trochlea–tendon complex. PMID:26397461

  9. Size of the Oblique Extraocular Muscles and Superior Oblique Muscle Contractility in Brown Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suh, Soh Youn; Le, Alan; Demer, Joseph L

    2015-09-01

    This study employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate possible size and contractility changes in the superior oblique (SO) muscle, and possible isometric hypertrophy in the inferior oblique (IO) muscle, resulting from abnormal mechanical loading in Brown syndrome (BrS). High resolution orbital MRI was obtained in 4 congenital and 11 acquired cases of BrS, and compared with 44 normal subjects. Maximal cross-section areas and posterior partial volumes (PPVs) of the SO were analyzed in central gaze, supraduction, and infraduction [corrected] for the SO, and in central gaze only for the IO. In congenital BrS, mean maximum SO cross-sectional areas were 24% and 20% less than normal in affected and unaffected eyes, respectively (P = 0.0002). Mean PPV in congenital BrS was also significantly subnormal bilaterally (29% and 34% less in affected and unaffected eyes, respectively, P = 0.001). However, SO muscle size and volume were normal in acquired cases. The SO muscle did not relax in supraduction in BrS, although there was normal contractile thickening in infraduction. The IO muscle had normal size bilaterally in BrS. Congenital BrS may be associated with SO hypoplasia that could reflect hypoinnervation. However, unique isometric loading of oblique extraocular muscles due to restrictive hypotropia in adduction in BrS is generally not associated with changes in muscle bulk or in SO contractility. Unlike skeletal muscles, the bulk and contractility of extraocular muscles can therefore be regarded as independent of isometric exercise history. Restriction to elevation in BrS typically arises in the trochlea-tendon complex.

  10. 5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 2. General oblique view of south and east sides showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General oblique view of south and east sides showing boiler room at right - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Company Maintenance Shop & Arms Room, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  13. Oblique view showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  16. Oblique view showing western abutment, looking ENE along main line. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view showing western abutment, looking ENE along main line. Septa commuter train in foreground. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Whitford Bridge, Spanning Amtrak tracks at Whitford Road, Whitford, Chester County, PA

  17. West side, oblique, partially hidden by trees, utility safety fence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side, oblique, partially hidden by trees, utility safety fence, and the deep shadow of the 1962 annex. View to northeast. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) elevations, looking north. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  19. 3. Oblique view of front (northwest) and left side (northeast) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of front (northwest) and left side (northeast) elevations, looking south. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  20. 7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete landings, window treatments. Very obscured by unremovable vegetation. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 11, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  5. 4. WEST SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 333, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 3. NORTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 333, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST, WITH BUILDING 441-B AT FAR LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF FIRE PUMP HOUSE, WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF FIRE PUMP HOUSE, WATER TREATMENT PLANT IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHEAST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Fire Pump House, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  8. 12. Oblique view of station from northwest at corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Oblique view of station from northwest at corner of Stillwell Avenue and Neptune Avenue. Looking southeast. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  9. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. OBLIQUE SHOWING NORTHEAST END AND NORTHWEST SIDE. FACILITY 252 PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE SHOWING NORTHEAST END AND NORTHWEST SIDE. FACILITY 252 PORTION OF BUILDING IS ON LEFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Combat Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. OBLIQUE OF NORTHEAST END WITH FACILITY 252 PORTION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF NORTHEAST END WITH FACILITY 252 PORTION OF BUILDING (FIRST-FLOOR CONCRETE PORTION) IN FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Combat Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. OBLIQUE OF THE NORTHEAST END (MAIN ENTRY) AND NORTHWEST SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF THE NORTHEAST END (MAIN ENTRY) AND NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH FACILITY 346 ON LEFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 5. Oblique view of center and south sections of building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of center and south sections of building. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF CENTER SECTION. - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 3022, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  14. Facility No. 171, oblique view of west side and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 171, oblique view of west side and north end, with Facility Nos. 170 and S169 in the background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Inert Ammunition Storehouses, Avocet and Kingfisher Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Facility No. 176, oblique view of north and east sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 176, oblique view of north and east sides, corner of Facility No. 175 is to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, SHOWING THE PROJECTING ENTRY FOYER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, First Aid & Decontamination Building, Wasp Boulevard near Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Facility No. 175, exterior oblique view of northeast and northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 175, exterior oblique view of northeast and northwest sides, corner of Facility No. 176 is in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Oblique of north end and west side, brig is in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique of north end and west side, brig is in background to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, United States All-Steel Hangar, Wasp Boulevard between Kingfisher Street and Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 17. Oblique view of northwest corner of main plant looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Oblique view of northwest corner of main plant looking southeast with railroad tracks in foreground - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  20. Oblique view of southeast side, showing onestory section, camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast side, showing one-story section, camera facing north - Golden Gate International Exposition, Hall of Transportation, 440 California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Attendant's Quarters, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Attendant's Quarters, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  3. 17. Oblique view to southsoutheast of downstream (west) side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Oblique view to south-southeast of downstream (west) side of bridge, with southbound 'piggyback' train on structure. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG FRONT OF SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG FRONT OF SANTA ANA RIVER DIVERSION DAM. NOTE CABLE CAR SUSPENSION CABLE AT GATE ATOP DAM. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Santa Ana River Diversion Dam, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  7. Oblique view to the northwest of the Antenna Array ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the northwest of the Antenna Array - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Antenna Array, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  8. Oblique view to the south of the Transmitter Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the south of the Transmitter Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Five Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  9. 7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. 9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH DERRICK AND RAILWAY PASS-TROUGH ON WHARF, LOOKING NORTH - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH RAILROAD TRACKS PASSING UNDER DERRICK ALONG WHARF - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED BY LATE METAL BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, Observation Bunker, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  15. 3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  16. 10. General oblique view of steel pedestrian bridge spanning mouth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. General oblique view of steel pedestrian bridge spanning mouth of raceway; view to northwest. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  17. 14. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF GAME ROOM IN BUILDING 746, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF GAME ROOM IN BUILDING 746, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Gymnasium-Cafeteria-Theater, East K Street between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  19. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear beyond, mizzen gaff boom above. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Exterior overall oblique view of the northeast and southeast sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior overall oblique view of the northeast and southeast sides - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Scrap Metal Packaging Facility, Seventh Street between Facility Nos. 6 & 247, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Oblique view of building 11050, showing east and south sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of building 11050, showing east and south sides, looking northwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Fire Station & Marine Barracks, D Street, at corner of 4th Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  3. 12. Oblique view of northeast facade, showing missing rain gutter, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Oblique view of northeast facade, showing missing rain gutter, deteriorated slate roof, broken windows in tower; view west-northwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  4. 9. Oblique view northwest of east elevation at northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Oblique view northwest of east elevation at northeast corner of building; previous view taken at corner visible at extreme right. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  5. 5. Contextual oblique view to northwest showing upstream (east) side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Contextual oblique view to northwest showing upstream (east) side of bridge in setting, with Jacob Meyer Park at right. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

  6. 4. Contextual oblique view to southsouthwest from near north abutment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Contextual oblique view to south-southwest from near north abutment in Jacob Meyer Park, showing upstream (east) side of bridge in setting. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST SIDE. NOTE THE LAVA ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST SIDE. NOTE THE LAVA ROCK FOUNDATION PIERS AND DETAILING AT THE WINDOWS. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 1. Building 15 west elevation oblique showing coal conveyor, chute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building 15 west elevation oblique showing coal conveyor, chute and hopper. Coal feeds boiler in Building 3. View looking SE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 15, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 11. View toward southwest, northeast oblique of perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View toward southwest, northeast oblique of perimeter acquisition radar building showing - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING EC; CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING EC; CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters E Garage, Walnut Avenue behind Quarters E, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  12. Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE AT THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE AT THE EAST END. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH WEST END TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH WEST END TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST END WITH SOUTH SIDE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST END WITH SOUTH SIDE TO THE LEFT. VIEW FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CULVERT UNDER LATROBE ROAD WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CULVERT UNDER LATROBE ROAD WEST OF THE WHITE ROCK RD. INTERSECTION; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  18. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  19. Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards the southwest, with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  20. Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  1. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4403 and 4404, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  2. Oblique view of front and southeast sides, view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front and southeast sides, view towards the north, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  3. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  4. Oblique view of front and northwest sides, view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front and northwest sides, view towards the northeast, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4409, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  5. Oblique view of front and south sides, view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front and south sides, view towards the northeast without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4414, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  6. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  7. Oblique view of front (east) and south sides of ammunition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front (east) and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4403 and 4404, view towards the northwest without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  8. Oblique view of front and northwest sides, view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front and northwest sides, view towards the northeast, with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4409, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  9. Oblique view of arches and ironwork on south breezeway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of arches and ironwork on south breezeway - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Exterior oblique view of south end of Building 7 from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of south end of Building 7 from across Francisco Street, looking north-northwest - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Oblique view of Building 477 showing the southeast end (left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Building 477 showing the southeast end (left) and the northeast side (right), view facing west - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Oblique view of the northwest end (left) and the southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the northwest end (left) and the southwest side (right), view facing east - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  13. FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Duplex Housing Type with Corner Entries, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Y, 27 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. FACILITY 846, TOILET AND SHOWER WINGS, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 846, TOILET AND SHOWER WINGS, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangles I & J Barracks Type, Between Wright-Smith & Capron Avenues near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 10. OBLIQUE VIEW, PORTION OF EAST TRUSS AND TIMBER DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE VIEW, PORTION OF EAST TRUSS AND TIMBER DECK, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TOP CHORD, VERTICALS, METAL RAILING, AND TRANSVERSE DECK PLANKS - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  17. 9. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH PORTAL AND TIMBER DECK, FROM NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH PORTAL AND TIMBER DECK, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING INCLINED ENDPOSTS, OVERHEAD BRACING, VERTICALS OF EASTTRUSS PANELS, EAST RAILING, AND TRANSVERSE DECK PLANKS - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  18. 20. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE CONTEXT VIEW OF WEST FACADE OF BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE CONTEXT VIEW OF WEST FACADE OF BUILDINGS 711 FOREGROUND AND 741 IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING SOUTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Warehouse Type D, Maritime Street at Seventh Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 8. OVERALL CONTEXT OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE RAILROAD TRACKS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OVERALL CONTEXT OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE RAILROAD TRACKS WITH BUILDINGS 711 ON THE LEFT, AND 741 IN THE DISTANCE ON THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing south and east (front) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing south and east (front) elevations; camera facing northwest - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Blacksmith Shop, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  1. Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing north and west (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing north and west (rear) elevations; camera facing southeast - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Blacksmith Shop, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  2. 13. OBLIQUE VIEW, THREE DWARF SIGNALS, EAST OF CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE VIEW, THREE DWARF SIGNALS, EAST OF CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Oblique view of east end and south side, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east end and south side, view facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Temporary Storehouse & Gas Cylinder Storage, Avenue D, adjacent to east side of Facility No. 29, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Interior oblique view with wagon in foreground; camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior oblique view with wagon in foreground; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. FACILITY 710, FRONT FACADE AND PORTION OF NORTHWEST SIDE, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, FRONT FACADE AND PORTION OF NORTHWEST SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. FACILITY 728, LIVING ROOM FROM DINING ROOM, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 728, LIVING ROOM FROM DINING ROOM, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  7. FACILITY 805, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTHNORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 805, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. FACILITY 703, FRONT FACADE AND PORTION OF SOUTHEAST SIDE, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 703, FRONT FACADE AND PORTION OF SOUTHEAST SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. FACILITY 713, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 713, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Central-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club House, view to south (90mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  11. 14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  12. 10. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF MBE BUILDING (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 24. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH RETAINING WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH RETAINING WALL AND PARKING STRUCTURE BELOW REA LOADING DOCK (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 12. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF MBE BUILDING AND ADJOINING TRACK SHED (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 8. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF MBE BUILDING (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Oblique of east facade of Hangar 1 with Building 32 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique of east facade of Hangar 1 with Building 32 in the background. View toward south - Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Hanger No. 1, Cummins Avenue, Moffett Field, Sunnyvale, Santa Clara County, CA

  17. 3. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN FACADE OF UNITY PLANT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN FACADE OF UNITY PLANT SHOWING LANDSCAPING AND HILL. NOTE THE CORBELED BRICK SUPPORT FOR THE FIRE WALL BETWEEN SECTIONS OF THE MILL. - Unity Spinning Mill, 1402 Austin Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  18. Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. OBLIQUE VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. OBLIQUE VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SHOWING NORTH END OF EAST ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. OBLIQUE DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. OBLIQUE DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NORTH ENTRANCE SHOWING LIGHT FIXTURE ALONG WESTERN WALL, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. OBLIQUE VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. OBLIQUE VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SHOWING WESTERN END OF NORTH ENTRANCE PORCH, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. OBLIQUE VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bruce D. Judd, FAIA, Photographer August 1997. OBLIQUE VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  3. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  4. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  5. 12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  8. 11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST TRUSS AND EAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST TRUSS AND EAST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SEEN FROM SOUTH BANK OF WINTER'S RUN. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  9. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ENTRY STAIRWAY ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ENTRY STAIRWAY ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVEGROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW. NOTE THE ROUGHSURFACED EXTERIOR OF THE CONCRETE WALLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW. NOTE THE ROUGH-SURFACED EXTERIOR OF THE CONCRETE WALLS. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME BOXES FOR COUNTERWEIGHTS, AND FURNACE HEATING PIPES AT RIGHT. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  14. Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main entry, and mission coping, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. 3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing rear (west) facade and north side, Fairbanks Company appears at left and 215 Division Street is visible at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  17. 1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing front (east) facade and north side, 213 Division Street is visible at left and 217 Division Street appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  18. 2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 217 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  19. 3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 215 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 213 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  20. 19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  1. 2. BUILDING 522, NORTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 522, NORTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 421, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 431, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. Oblique view of west front and north side facing southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of west front and north side facing southeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Oblique view of east front and north side facing southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east front and north side facing southwest - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  7. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  8. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  10. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  11. Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. Building 930, oblique view to southeast from fill slope covering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 930, oblique view to southeast from fill slope covering building 932, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Snack Bar, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  13. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  14. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SIDE AND FRONT ELEVATIONS OF THE CHURCH AND THE GAZEBO BAND STAND (LEFT) - St. Mark's Catholic Church, 1040 Tenth Avenue West, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 15. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST OF FURNACE 1, SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST OF FURNACE 1, SHOWING COUNTER-WEIGHTED PIVOT ARMS TO RAISE AND LOWER DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  16. 6. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTH & WEST FACADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTH & WEST FACADES WITH SHED ROOF BUILDING 8 JUTTING FROM NORTH FACADE OF WEST BAY. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  17. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE. NOTE THE CANTILEVERED CANOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE. NOTE THE CANTILEVERED CANOPY OVER THE FRONT DOOR AND BELT COURSE OF THREE FLARED BANDS. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type M, 113 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 6. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique of missile site control building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. 7. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique of missile site control building, emphasizing southwest face - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 11. View from heat sink, south oblique of missile site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View from heat sink, south oblique of missile site control building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. 2. Building J oblique, showing south and east elevations from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building J oblique, showing south and east elevations from Lena Street. View looking northwest. - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building J, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. FACILITY 846, NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 846, NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangles I & J Barracks Type, Between Wright-Smith & Capron Avenues near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 1. Building J oblique, showing north and south elevations from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building J oblique, showing north and south elevations from cartway (between Building L and M) looking northeast. - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building J, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. FACILITY 847, NORTHWEST END AND NORTHEAST SIDE, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 847, NORTHWEST END AND NORTHEAST SIDE, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangles I & J Barracks Type, Between Wright-Smith & Capron Avenues near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side of 1955 addition, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of northwest corner showing screened openings at ground floor and mission scrolls, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. 9. WEST ELEVATION OBLIQUE FROM UNDER DRISCOLL BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTHBYNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST ELEVATION OBLIQUE FROM UNDER DRISCOLL BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTH-BY-NORTHEAST. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  8. 2. Oblique view of north corner shows mostly NW side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of north corner shows mostly NW side and how stack connects to NE side of building. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Boiler Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. The Clinical Implications of the Oblique Retinacular Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Adkinson, Joshua M.; Johnson, Shepard P.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The oblique retinacular ligament originates from the flexor tendon sheath, courses past the proximal interphalangeal joint, and merges with the lateral extensor tendon. There has been disagreement regarding the contribution of the oblique retinacular ligament to coordinated movements between the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. Landsmeer postulated that it acts as a dynamic tenodesis that tightens with proximal interphalangeal joint extension causing obligatory distal interphalangeal joint extension. Studies have shown, however, that the oblique retinacular ligament is variably present and often attenuated, thus diminishing its presumed role in finger movement. Despite this, the concept of a checkrein linking interphalangeal joint motion heralded the development of effective and reproducible surgical interventions for swan-neck and mallet deformities. This paper examines the controversy regarding the existence of the oblique retinacular ligament, its plausible functionality, and clinical implications in the practice of hand surgery. PMID:24559632

  10. Oblique view of the northwest end of the rear facade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the northwest end of the rear facade showing structural glue-laminated beams, view facing southeast - Pearl Harbor Memorial Community Church, 20 Bougainville Drive, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 13. 64 foot truss oblique view of the 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 64 foot truss - oblique view of the 64 foot pony truss showing its general configuration. The 80 foot pony trusses are similar. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF FIRE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF FIRE PUMP HOUSE WITH MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP AND DOCKS IN FOREGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTH - Moore Haven Lock, Fire Pump House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF FIRE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF FIRE PUMP HOUSE WITH MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP AND DOCKS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Moore Haven Lock, Fire Pump House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  14. COURTYARD CREATED BY FACILITIES 176, 177, AND 178, OBLIQUE VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COURTYARD CREATED BY FACILITIES 176, 177, AND 178, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING SE. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Housing Area 1, Bounded by Kamehameha Highway, Plantation Drive, South Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES OF WEST SPAN, AND PORTION OF WEST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  16. 19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM AT UPPER LEFT HOLDING PULLEY SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC MOTOR TO ACTIVATE DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  17. 9. CARRIAGE HOUSE, OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION. REMAINDER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CARRIAGE HOUSE, OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION. REMAINDER OF ELEVATION OBSCURED BY EXTERIOR STAIR AND CHAIN LINK FENCING. - Charles G. Carpenter House, 408-410 Cooper Street, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  18. 8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING MEZZANINE WITH FILTER TANKS AT REAR - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking to southeast, showing meeting of north and central building elements. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  20. Chemonucleolysis technique. New oblique approach requires no measurements.

    PubMed

    Romy, M

    1986-01-01

    The author describes a new technique for intradiscal therapy that eliminates the need for measurements. The new technique for entering the lumbar disk for discolysis from the oblique approach is described as simple, accurate and safe.

  1. Oblique perspective of portal, due north. Bridge has gable roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique perspective of portal, due north. Bridge has gable roof clad with wood shingles and has board and batten siding. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  2. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF WEST WING. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF WEST WING. THE VAULT ROOM IS ATTACHED TO THE WEST WALL, SHOWN AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Army Base, General Purpose Administration Building, Chungking & Algiers Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  4. Oblique view to the west of two communications antennas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the west of two communications antennas - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  5. Oblique view to the west of the southeast elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the west of the southeast elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  6. Oblique view of center portion of west elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of center portion of west elevation; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. 16. Oblique, guard quarters; shower stalls at left; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Oblique, guard quarters; shower stalls at left; view to south-southwest, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  8. 15. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST OF SOUTH FACADE A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST OF SOUTH FACADE A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  9. 9. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE NORTHWEST OF NORTH FACADE A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE NORTHWEST OF NORTH FACADE A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  10. 12. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE NORTH OF EAST FACADE A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE NORTH OF EAST FACADE A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  11. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST OF WEST (FRONT) PORCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST OF WEST (FRONT) PORCH A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  12. 3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PRESENT CONTROL ROOM (ORIGINALLY THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PRESENT CONTROL ROOM (ORIGINALLY THE TRANSFORMER ROOM). - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  13. 1. Oblique view of Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building looking north from roof of 1960 high-rise hospital - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  14. 8. OBLIQUE VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE VIEW, DRAWBRIDGE SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 32. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING ASHAPED SUPPORT, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING A-SHAPED SUPPORT, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTH NORWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW, HOME SIGNAL, WESTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 518 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW, HOME SIGNAL, WESTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 518 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 23. OBLIQUE VIEW, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. OBLIQUE VIEW, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE, VIEW TOWARDS WEST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  19. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST AND NORTHEAST SIDES OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST AND NORTHEAST SIDES OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE, OLD BYPASS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTH - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  20. Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the main floor and on the mezzanine are visible behind and above the generators. - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  1. Building G interior, second floor oblique looking southwest, showing storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building G interior, second floor oblique looking southwest, showing storage area for samples - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building G, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 7. General oblique view of south side, view to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General oblique view of south side, view to northeast showing dock area and canopy; note projecting entrance at egg candling room - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  3. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE HANDLE, LOOKING NORTH - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  4. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, BRAKE HANDLE, AND REDUCTION GEARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  5. 9. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. DETAIL, OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. DETAIL, OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST APPROACH SPAN. NOTE PIN CONNECTIONS, UNDERSIDE DETAILS, SHADOW PATTERN CAST BY STEEL OPEN GRATE DECK. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  6. 32. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. OBLIQUE VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. OBLIQUE VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE FROM WEST BANK Photographer unknown, January 12, 1955 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  7. 3. Oblique view of south side of eastern end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of south side of eastern end of raised drawbridge and operator's house, facing west. - Palm Valley Bridge, County Road 210 spanning Intracoastal Waterway, Ponte Vedra Beach, St. Johns County, FL

  8. 3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDINGS 208 AND 214 FROM BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDINGS 208 AND 214 FROM BUILDING 204, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Bachelor Airmen Quarters, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  9. 5. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE MAIN ROOM IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE MAIN ROOM IN THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  10. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE POOL BUILDING 307 AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE POOL BUILDING 307 AND THE POOL 308, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Pool Building & Swimming Pool, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  11. 22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  12. 1. Exterior oblique view of north and east sides showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Exterior oblique view of north and east sides showing entrance and typical window - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Dispatcher House, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  13. Building L west elevation oblique from cartway (between Buildings L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building L west elevation oblique from cartway (between Buildings L and M), also showing west elevation of Building J - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building L, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST AND SOUTHWEST SIDES SHOWING THE VISOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST AND SOUTHWEST SIDES SHOWING THE VISOR WHICH EXTENDS AROUND THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST FRONT OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST FRONT OF BUILDING 13, FACING NORTH. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST BACK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST BACK OF BUILDING 13, FACING SOUTH. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  17. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST FRONT AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST FRONT AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 13, FACING WEST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  18. MAGAZINE # B10. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE # B-10. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM AND PART OF MAGAZINE B-9 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. MAGAZINE # B11. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE # B-11. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM AND ENTRY. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) AND COURTYARD OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) AND COURTYARD OF BUILDING 23, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 8. Oblique view northwest of south elevation. Industrial loft building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Oblique view northwest of south elevation. Industrial loft building in foreground middle, machine shop in background left, and foundry in foreground right. Looking down at Water Street. - Dry Dock Engine Works, 1801 Atwater Street, Detroit, MI

  4. 20. OBLIQUE VIEW, VANE LINE RELAY, CYLINDRICAL HOUSING, NEW HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OBLIQUE VIEW, VANE LINE RELAY, CYLINDRICAL HOUSING, NEW HAVEN SIGNAL SHOP - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  7. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  8. Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Breiner, J.; Quinn, T.R.; Meadows, V.S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 108 years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes. Key Words: Exoplanets—Habitable zone—Energy balance models. Astrobiology 14, 277–291. PMID:24611714

  9. Effects of extreme obliquity variations on the habitability of exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J C; Barnes, R; Domagal-Goldman, S; Breiner, J; Quinn, T R; Meadows, V S

    2014-04-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 10(8) years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.

  10. Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. C.; Barnes, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Breiner, J.; Quinn, T. R.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 108 years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.

  11. Comparison of numerical oblique detonation solutions with an asymptotic benchmark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grismer, Matthew J.; Powers, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to have confidence in a numerical method, the verification of its reproduction of known benchmark analytic solutions for simple model problems is of great importance. Attention is presently given to a novel benchmarking procedure for numerical models of high speed, reactive 2D flows. The procedure is illustrated by comparing asymptotic and numerical solutions for oblique detonations in which an attached oblique shock is followed by an exothermic reaction with a thick reaction zone.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Oblique Wing Aerodynamics at Low Speed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    being considered is oblique wings. An oblique wing is a wing that pivots about a point on the aircraft fuselage thereby having one side swept forward...different speeds. In order to simulate the missile dropping from an aircraft the model was inverted over a stationary ground plane in the tunnel and...making the missile better performing when dropped from an aircraft . iv AFIT/GAE/ENY/07-M10

  13. Mars Secular Obliquity Change Due to Water Ice Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David P.

    1998-01-01

    Mars may have substantially changed its average axial tilt over geologic time due to the waxing and waning of water ice caps. Depending upon Mars' climate and internal structure, the average obliquity could have increased or decreased through climate friction by tens of degrees. A decrease could account for the apparent youthfulness of the polar layered terrain. Alternatively, Mars' average obliquity may have changed until it became "stuck" at its present value of 24.4 deg.

  14. Epidemiology and Impact of Abdominal Oblique Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Christopher L.; Conte, Stan; Cohen, Steven B.; Thompson, Matthew; D’ Angelo, John; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Dines, Joshua S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oblique injuries are known to be a common cause of time out of play for professional baseball players, and prior work has suggested that injury rates may be on the rise in Major League Baseball (MLB). Purpose: To better understand the current incidence of oblique injuries, determine their impact based on time out of play, and to identify common injury patterns that may guide future injury prevention programs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Using the MLB Health and Injury Tracking System, all oblique injuries that resulted in time out of play in MLB and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) during the 2011 to 2015 seasons were identified. Player demographics such as age, position/role, and handedness were included. Injury-specific factors analyzed included the following: date of injury, timing during season, days missed, mechanism, side, treatment, and reinjury status. Results: A total of 996 oblique injuries occurred in 259 (26%) MLB and 737 (74%) MiLB players. Although the injury rate was steady in MiLB, the MLB injury rate declined (P = .037). A total of 22,064 days were missed at a mean rate of 4413 days per season and 22.2 days per injury. The majority of these occurred during batting (n = 455, 46%) or pitching (n = 348, 35%), with pitchers losing 5 days more per injury than batters (P < .001). The leading side was injured in 77% of cases and took 5 days longer to recover from than trailing side injuries (P = .009). Seventy-nine (7.9%) players received either a corticosteroid or platelet-rich plasma injection, and the mean recovery time was 11 days longer compared with those who did not receive an injection (P < .001). Conclusion: Although the rate of abdominal oblique injuries is on the decline in MLB, this is not the case for MiLB, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of time out of play in professional baseball. The vast majority of injuries occur on the lead side, and these injuries result in the

  15. Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.

  16. Ureter Injury as a Complication of Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sung; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Park, Choon Keun

    2017-06-01

    Oblique lumbar interbody fusion is a commonly used surgical method of achieving lumbar interbody fusion. There have been some reports about complications of oblique lumbar interbody fusion at the L2-L3 level. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports about ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion. We report a case of ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion to share our experience. A 78-year-old male patient presented with a history of lower back pain and neurogenic intermittent claudication. He was diagnosed with spinal stenosis at L2-L3, L4-L5 level and spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 level. Symptoms were not improved after several months of medical treatments. Then, oblique lumbar interbody fusion was performed at L2-L3, L4-L5 level. During the surgery, anesthesiologist noticed hematuria. A retrourethrogram was performed immediately by urologist, and ureter injury was found. Ureteroureterostomy and double-J catheter insertion were performed. The patient was discharged 2 weeks after surgery without urologic or neurologic complications. At 2 months after surgery, an intravenous pyelogram was performed, which showed an intact ureter. Our study shows that a low threshold of suspicion of ureter injury and careful manipulation of retroperitoneal fat can be helpful to prevent ureter injury during oblique lumbar interbody fusion at the upper level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional frictional plastic strain partitioning during oblique rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclaux, Guillaume; Huismans, Ritske S.; May, Dave

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the Wilson cycle the obliquity between lithospheric plate motion direction and nascent or existing plate boundaries prompts the development of intricate three-dimensional tectonic systems. Where oblique divergence dominates, as in the vast majority of continental rift and incipient oceanic domains, deformation is typically transtensional and large stretching in the brittle upper crust is primarily achieved by the accumulation of displacement on fault networks of various complexity. In continental rift depressions such faults are initially distributed over tens to hundreds of kilometer-wide regions, which can ultimately stretch and evolve into passive margins. Here, we use high-resolution 3D thermo-mechanical finite element models to investigate the relative timing and distribution of localised frictional plastic deformation in the upper crust during oblique rift development in a simplified layered lithosphere. We vary the orientation of a wide oblique heterogeneous weak zone (representing a pre-existing geologic feature like a past orogenic domain), and test the sensitivity of the shear zones orientation to a range of noise distribution. These models allow us to assess the importance of material heterogeneities for controlling the spatio-temporal shear zones distribution in the upper crust during oblique rifting, and to discuss the underlying controls governing oblique continental breakup.

  18. Analytical and experimental investigations of the oblique detonation wave engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1990-01-01

    Wave combustors, which include the oblique detonation wave engine (ODWE), are attractive propulsion concepts for hypersonic flight. These engines utilize oblique shock or detonation waves to rapidly mix, ignite, and combust the air-fuel mixture in thin zones in the combustion chamber. Benefits of these combustion systems include shorter and lighter engines which require less cooling and can provide thrust at higher Mach numbers than conventional scramjets. The wave combustor's ability to operate at lower combustor inlet pressures may allow the vehicle to operate at lower dynamic pressures which could lessen the heating loads on the airframe. The research program at NASA-Ames includes analytical studies of the ODWE combustor using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes which fully couple finite rate chemistry with fluid dynamics. In addition, experimental proof-of-concept studies are being performed in an arc heated hypersonic wind tunnel. Several fuel injection design were studied analytically and experimentally. In-stream strut fuel injectors were chosen to provide good mixing with minimal stagnation pressure losses. Measurements of flow field properties behind the oblique wave are compared to analytical predictions.

  19. Analytical and experimental investigations of the oblique detonation wave engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1991-01-01

    Wave combustors, which include the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE), are attractive propulsion concepts for hypersonic flight. These engines utilize oblique shock or detonation waves to rapidly mix, ignite, and combust the air-fuel mixture in thin zones in the combustion chamber. Benefits of these combustion systems include shorter and lighter engines which will require less cooling and can provide thrust at higher Mach numbers than conventional scramjets. The wave combustor's ability to operate at lower combustor inlet pressures may allow the vehicle to operate at lower dynamic pressures which could lessen the heating loads on the airframe. The research program at NASA-Ames includes analytical studies of the ODWE combustor using CFD codes which fully couple finite rate chemistry with fluid dynamics. In addition, experimental proof-of-concept studies are being carried out in an arc heated hypersonic wind tunnel. Several fuel injection designs were studied analytically and experimentally. In-stream strut fuel injectors were chosen to provide good mixing with minimal stagnation pressure losses. Measurements of flow field properties behind the oblique wave are compared to analytical predictions.

  20. Fluid model of the sheath in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field: Some comments on ion source terms and ion temperature effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2015-04-15

    A one-dimensional fluid model of the magnetized plasma-wall transition region in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field is presented. The Boltzmann relation is assumed for the electrons, while the positive ions obey the ion continuity and momentum exchange equation. The ions are assumed to be isothermal. By comparison with a two-fluid model, it is shown that assuming the Boltzmann relation for the electrons implies that there is no creation or annihilation of the electrons. Consequently, there should not be any creation and annihilation of the positive ions either. The models that assume the Boltzmann relation for the electrons and a non-zero ion source term at the same time are therefore inconsistent, but such models have nevertheless been used extensively by many authors. So, in this work, an extensive comparison of the results obtained using the zero source term on one hand and three different non-zero source terms on the other hand is made. Four different ion source terms are considered in total: the zero source term and three different non-zero ion source terms. When the zero source term is used, the model becomes very sensitive to the boundary conditions, and in some cases, the solutions exhibit large amplitude oscillations. If any of the three non-zero ion source terms is used, those problems are eliminated, but also the consistency of the model is broken. The model equations are solved numerically in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region. For zero ion temperature, the model can be solved even if a very small ion velocity is selected as a boundary condition. For finite ion temperature, the system of equations becomes stiff, unless the ion velocity at the boundary is increased slightly above the ion thermal velocity. A simple method how to find a solution with a very small ion velocity at the boundary also for finite ion temperature in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region is

  1. OBLIQUELY ROTATING PULSARS: SCREENING OF THE INDUCTIVE ELECTRIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Melrose, D. B.; Yuen Rai

    2012-02-01

    Pulsar electrodynamics has been built up by taking ingredients from two models, the vacuum-dipole model, which ignores the magnetosphere but includes the inductive electric field due to the obliquely rotating magnetic dipole, and the corotating-magnetosphere model, which neglects the vacuum inductive electric field and assumes a corotating magnetosphere. We argue that the inductive field can be neglected only if it is screened by a current, J{sub sc}, which we calculate for a rigidly rotating magnetosphere. Screening of the parallel component of the inductive field can be effective, but the perpendicular component cannot be screened in a pulsar magnetosphere. The incompletely screened inductive electric field has not been included in any model for a pulsar magnetosphere, and taking it into account has important implications. One effect is that it implies that the magnetosphere cannot be corotating, and we suggest that drift relative to corotation offers a natural explanation for the drifting of subpulses. A second effect is that this screening of the parallel inductive electric field must break down in the outer magnetosphere, and this offers a natural explanation for the acceleration of the electrons that produce pulsed gamma-ray emission.

  2. Velocity field measurements in oblique static divergent vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron

    2005-11-01

    During normal phonation, the vocal fold cycle is characterized by the glottal opening transitioning from a convergent to a divergent passage and then closing before the cycle is repeated. Under ordinary phonatory conditions, both vocal folds, which form the glottal passage, move in phase with each other, creating a time-varying symmetric opening. However, abnormal pathological conditions, such as unilateral paralysis, and polyps, can result in geometrical asymmetries between the vocal folds throughout the phonatory cycle. This study investigates pulsatile flow fields through 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with included divergence angles of 5 to 30 degrees, and obliquities between the vocal folds of up to 15 degrees. Flow conditions were scaled to match physiological parameters. Data were taken at the anterior posterior mid-plane using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Viscous flow phenomena including the Coanda effect, flow separation points, and jet "flapping" were investigated. The results are compared to previously reported work of flow through symmetric divergent vocal fold models.

  3. Ocular Manifestations of Oblique Facial Clefts

    PubMed Central

    Ortube, Maria Carolina; Dipple, Katrina; Setoguchi, Yoshio; Kawamoto, Henry K.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the Tessier classification, craniofacial clefts are numbered from 0 to 14 and extend along constant axes through the eyebrows, eyelids, maxilla, nostrils, and the lips. We studied a patient with bilateral cleft 10 associated with ocular abnormalities. Method Clinical report with orbital and cranial computed tomography. Results After pregnancy complicated by oligohydramnios, digoxin, and lisinopril exposure, a boy was born with facial and ocular dysmorphism. Examination at age 26 months showed bilateral epibulbar dermoids, covering half the corneal surface, and unilateral morning glory anomaly of the optic nerve. Ductions of the right eye were normal, but the left eye had severely impaired ductions in all directions, left hypotropia, and esotropia. Under anesthesia, the left eye could not be rotated freely in any direction. Bilateral Tessier cleft number 10 was implicated by the presence of colobomata of the middle third of the upper eyelids and eyebrows. As the cleft continued into the hairline, there was marked anterior scalp alopecia. Computed x-ray tomography showed a left middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst and calcification of the reflected tendon of the superior oblique muscle, trochlea, and underlying sclera, with downward and lateral globe displacement. Discussion Tessier 10 clefts are very rare and usually associated with encephalocele. Bilateral 10 clefts have not been reported previously. In this case, there was coexisting unilateral morning glory anomaly and arachnoid cyst of the left middle cranial fossa but no encephalocele. Conclusions Bilateral Tessier facial cleft 10 may be associated with alopecia, morning glory anomaly, epibulbar dermoids, arachnoid cyst, and restrictive strabismus. PMID:20856062

  4. A Hybrid Orbit-Finite Difference Treatment of Oblique Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanguansak, Nuanwan; Ruffolo, D.

    We present a hybrid numerical technique for solving a pitch angle transport equation for energetic particles near an oblique shock, without recourse to the approximation of magnetic moment conservation. The transport equation on either side of the shock, which incorporates convection and pitch angle scattering and may also include adiabatic focusing and deceleration, is solved using well-tested finite difference code. Calculations of particle orbits near the shock are incorporated into a transfer matrix that treats the transmission or reflection of particles at the shock. We examine the range of validity of the assumption of gyrotropy outside the immediate vicinity of the shock. This technique provides solutions of the spatial, pitch angle, and momentum distribution of particles near an oblique shock for previously unexplored regions of particle velocity and shock velocity. This work was partially supported by a Basic Research Grant from the Thailand Research Fund.

  5. Superior Oblique Anterior Transposition with Horizontal Recti Recession-Resection for Total Third-Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Eraslan, Muhsin; Cerman, Eren; Onal, Sumru; Ogut, Mehdi Suha

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To report the results of lateral rectus muscle recession, medial rectus muscle resection, and superior oblique muscle transposition in the restoration and maintenance of ocular alignment in primary position for patients with total third-nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of patients who underwent surgery between March 2007 and September 2011 for total third-nerve palsy were reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative assessment, including a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Results. A total of 6 patients (age range, 14–45 years) were included. The median preoperative horizontal deviation was 67.5 Prism Diopter (PD) (interquartile range [IQR] 57.5–70) and vertical deviation was 13.5 PD (IQR 10–20). The median postoperative horizontal residual exodeviation was 8.0 PD (IQR 1–16), and the vertical deviation was 0 PD (IQR 0–4). The median correction of hypotropia following superior oblique transposition was 13.5 ± 2.9 PD (range, 10–16). All cases were vertically aligned within 5 PD. Four of the six cases were aligned within 10 PD of the horizontal deviation. Adduction and head posture were improved in all patients. All patients gained new area of binocular single vision in the primary position after the operation. Conclusion. Lateral rectus recession, medial rectus resection, and superior oblique transposition may be used to achieve satisfactory cosmetic and functional results in total third-nerve palsy. PMID:26640703

  6. Manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision for mature cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J; Lai, P; Wu, D; Long, Z

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To report the technique and outcomes of sutureless manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision for mature cataracts. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised of 112 eyes of 83 patients with mature cataract who all had manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision. A transconjunctival tunnel is fashioned with a 3.0 mm keratome, 0.5 mm behind the limbal vascular arcades. A limbal tunnel, with a transverse extent of 9 mm in the cornea and 7.0 mm in the limbus, is created beneath the conjunctival/Tenon's tissue using an angled bevel-up crescent blade. Outcome measures included visual acuity, intraoperative complications, surgically induced astigmatism, endothelial cell loss rate and surgery time. Results: Self-sealing wound was achieved in 112 eyes (98.2%). The nucleus was delivered in whole in 108 eyes (96.4%). Intraoperative complications included hyphema in 3 eyes (2.7%), iridodialysis in 2 eyes 1.8%), posterior capsular rupture and zonular dialysis in 2 eyes (1.8%). At the 3-month follow-up, 91% patients achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, the mean of surgically induced astigmatism was -0.62 ± 0.41 Diopters and endothelial cell loss was 4.2%. Average surgical time was 3.75 min per case. Conclusion: This subconjunctival limbus oblique incision has the potential to serve as safe and effective technique for mature cataracts. PMID:24722270

  7. Constraints on the Galilean protosatellite disk from Jupiter's obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, W. R.

    2003-12-01

    The obliquity of Jupiter is only 3 degrees. Although a small obliquity seems consistent with its gas accretion phase, there are processes that could have altered it after its formation. The current spin axis precession period of Jupiter is ˜ 4.5 \\langle 105 years due mostly to the solar torque exerted on the Galilean satellites (e.g., Ward 1975; Harris and Ward 1982; Tremaine 1991). However, this would have been up to ˜ O(102) shorter if a minimum mass pre-satellite disk had been present. If this disk were subsequently photoevaporated after the solar nebula itself was dissipated, Jupiter's precession frequency would have drifted through one of the mutual orbital precession frequencies of Jupiter and Saturn, i.e., the so-called ν16 that describes the precession of their orbital nodes with a period of P16 ˜ 5 \\langle 104 years. An adiabatic passage could generate an obliquity of 25.6 degrees (e.g., Henrard and Murigande 1987). This could be avoided if passage is fast enough to be non-adiabatic, in which case the final obliquity is rate dependent (i.e., Ward et al. 1976). If α S denotes the spin axis precession parameter, which is a function of the circumplanetary disk and satellite masses in addition to the Jovian oblateness (e.g., Ward 1975), and we define Ω pole \\{ Δ S / Δ S and calculate its value to yield an obliquity comparable to Jupiter's current obliquity, we obtain O(105) years. But since the change in α S would be due primarily to dissipation of the protosatellite disk, we conclude that a disk life much longer than this is not consistent with Jupiter's low obliquity spin state. Alternatively, the pre-satellite disk may have been of insufficient mass to cause passage through the Jupiter-Saturn resonance (e.g., Canup & Ward 2002).

  8. RTJ-303: Variable geometry, oblique wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antaran, Albert; Belete, Hailu; Dryzmkowski, Mark; Higgins, James; Klenk, Alan; Rienecker, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    This document is a preliminary design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) named the RTJ-303. It is a 300 passenger, Mach 1.6 transport with a range of 5000 nautical miles. It features four mixed-flow turbofan engines, variable geometry oblique wing, with conventional tail-aft control surfaces. The preliminary cost analysis for a production of 300 aircraft shows that flyaway cost would be 183 million dollars (1992) per aircraft. The aircraft uses standard jet fuel and requires no special materials to handle aerodynamic heating in flight because the stagnation temperatures are approximately 130 degrees Fahrenheit in the supersonic cruise condition. It should be stressed that this aircraft could be built with today's technology and does not rely on vague and uncertain assumptions of technology advances. Included in this report are sections discussing the details of the preliminary design sequence including the mission to be performed, operational and performance constraints, the aircraft configuration and the tradeoffs of the final choice, wing design, a detailed fuselage design, empennage design, sizing of tail geometry, and selection of control surfaces, a discussion on propulsion system/inlet choice and their position on the aircraft, landing gear design including a look at tire selection, tip-over criterion, pavement loading, and retraction kinematics, structures design including load determination, and materials selection, aircraft performance, a look at stability and handling qualities, systems layout including location of key components, operations requirements maintenance characteristics, a preliminary cost analysis, and conclusions made regarding the design, and recommendations for further study.

  9. Oblique Colloidal Lithography for the Fabrication of Nonconcentric Features.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi; Cao, Yang; Cai, Yangjun; Yang, Jian; He, Ximin; Nordlander, Peter; Cremer, Paul S

    2017-07-25

    Herein, we describe the development of oblique colloidal lithography (OCL) and establish a systematic patterning strategy for creating libraries of nanosized nonconcentric plasmonic structures. This strategy combines OCL, capillary force lithography, and several wet and ion etching steps. Hexagonal arrays of nonconcentric gold features were created on glass substrates with highly controllable geometric parameters. The size, geometry, and eccentricity of the gold features could be independently tuned by controlling the experimental conditions. Gaps within surface elements could be shrunk to as small as 30 nm, while the total patterned area was about l cm(2). The goal was to devise a method that offers a high degree of control over the resolution and morphology of asymmetric structures without the need to resort to electron beam lithography. This technique also enabled the development of numerous surface patterns through the stepwise fabrication of separate elements. Complex features, including dots-surrounded nonconcentric targets, nonconcentric hexagram-disks, and nonconcentric annular aperture arrays, were demonstrated, and their optical properties were characterized. Indeed, spectroscopic studies and FDTD simulations demonstrated that Fano resonances could readily be generated by the nonconcentric gold features. Consequently, our patterning strategy should enable the high-throughput investigation of plasmonic coupling and Fano resonances as a function of the physical parameters of the elements within the nanopattern array.

  10. Oblique corrections in the Dine-Fischler-Srednicki axion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanaeva, Alisa; Espriu, Domènec

    2016-11-01

    In the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) there is no degree of freedom for dark matter. There are several extensions of the MSM introducing a new particle - an invisible axion, which can be regarded as a trustworthy candidate at least for a part of the dark matter component. However, as it is extremely weakly coupled, it cannot be directly measured at the LHC. We propose to explore the electroweak sector indirectly by considering a particular model that includes the axion and derive consequences that could be experimentally tested. We discuss the Dine-Fischler-Srednicki (DFS) model, which extends the two-Higgs doublet model with an additional Peccei-Quinn symmetry and leads to a physically acceptable axion. The non-linear parametrization of the DFS model is exploited in the generic case where all scalars except the lightest Higgs and the axion have masses at or beyond the TeV scale. We compute the oblique corrections and use their values from the electroweak experimental fits to put constraints on the mass spectrum of the DFS model.

  11. POLARIZATION AND COMPRESSIBILITY OF OBLIQUE KINETIC ALFVEN WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Hunana, P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Laveder, D.; Zank, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that a complete description of the solar wind requires a kinetic description and that, particularly at sub-proton scales, kinetic effects cannot be ignored. It is nevertheless usually assumed that at scales significantly larger than the proton gyroscale r{sub L} , magnetohydrodynamics or its extensions, such as Hall-MHD and two-fluid models with isotropic pressures, provide a satisfactory description of the solar wind. Here we calculate the polarization and magnetic compressibility of oblique kinetic Alfven waves and show that, compared with linear kinetic theory, the isotropic two-fluid description is very compressible, with the largest discrepancy occurring at scales larger than the proton gyroscale. In contrast, introducing anisotropic pressure fluctuations with the usual double-adiabatic (or CGL) equations of state yields compressibility values which are unrealistically low. We also show that both of these classes of fluid models incorrectly describe the electric field polarization. To incorporate linear kinetic effects, we use two versions of the Landau fluid model that include linear Landau damping and finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections. We show that Landau damping is crucial for correct modeling of magnetic compressibility, and that the anisotropy of pressure fluctuations should not be introduced without taking into account the Landau damping through appropriate heat flux equations. We also show that FLR corrections to all the retained fluid moments appear to be necessary to yield the correct polarization. We conclude that kinetic effects cannot be ignored even for kr{sub L} << 1.

  12. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  13. The Triple Forced Duction Test(s) for diagnosis and treatment of superior oblique palsy -- with an updated flow chart for unilateral superior oblique palsy.

    PubMed

    Mims, James L

    2003-01-01

    To review and update the management of superior oblique extraocular muscle clinical paresis and palsy, (SOP) employing and applying recent advances in the diagnosis and surgical methods. These include three recently introduced forced duction tests, respectively for laxity of the SO tendon, absence of the SO tendon, and contracture of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle. Also discussed are the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind various modes of clinical presentation of SOP, older concepts requiring scrutiny, and prior surgical methods which should no longer be employed due to advances in our knowledge. These newer aspects of SOP management are organized and displayed in a revised Plager flow sheet to facilitate their application.

  14. Plume Flux, Spreading Rate, and Obliquity of Seafloor Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Gordon, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Most of Earth's surface is created by seafloor spreading, a fundamental global tectonic process. While most seafloor spreading is orthogonal, i.e., the strike of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) segments is perpendicular to transform faults, obliquity of up to 45° occurs. Here, building on the work of DeMets et al. [2010] we investigate the global relationship between obliquity of seafloor spreading, spreading rates, and the flux of nearby plumes. While we confirm the well-known tendency for obliquity to decrease with increasing spreading rate [Atwater and Macdonald, 1977], we find exceptions at both intermediate (up to 18°) and ultra-fast (up to 12°) rates of spreading. Thus, factors other than the minimization of power dissipation across mid-ocean ridges and transform faults [Stein, 1978] may influence the amount of obliquity. Abelson & Agnon [1997] modeled spreading centers as fluid-filled cracks and found that the variation of segment orientation depends on the ratio of the magma overpressure to the remote tectonic tension that drives plate separation. A high ratio promotes oblique spreading and a low ratio promotes segmentation that results in orthogonal spreading. They further argued that if a hotspot lies near a MOR segment, the hotspot contributes to magma overpressure along the segment. We quantify their argument as follows: (1) that magma overpressure increases with increasing flux of a plume. (2) that effective magma overpressure decreases with increasing distance between a MOR segment and a plume. From this we estimate the effective plume flux delivered to each mid-ocean ridge using published plume flux estimates. Not only does obliquity tend to decrease with increasing spreading rate, but also it tends to increase with increasing effective plume flux delivered to a MOR segment. Many exceptions occur, however. Along slow spreading centers, many segments are less oblique than along the Reykjanes Ridge and western Gulf of Aden despite having higher effective

  15. Assessment Of An Oblique ECE Diagnostic For ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Taylor and Robert W. Harvey

    2009-07-15

    A systematic disagreement between the electron temperature measured by electron cyclotron emission (TECE) and laser Thomson scattering (TTS), that increases with TECE, is observed in JET and TFTR plasmas, such that TECE ~ 1.2 TTS when TECE ~ 10 keV. The disagreement is consistent with a non-Maxwellian distortion in the bulk electron momentum distribution. ITER is projected to operate with Te(0) ~ 20-40 keV so the disagreement between TECE and TTS could be > 50%, with significant physics implications. The GENRAY ray tracing code predicts that a two-view ECE system, with perpendicular and moderately oblique viewing antennas, would be sufficient to reconstruct a two-temperature bulk distribution. If the electron momentum distribution remains Maxwellian the moderately oblique view could still be used to measure Te(R). A viewing dump will not be required for the oblique view and plasma refraction will be minimal. The oblique view has a similar radial resolution to the perpendicular view, but with some reduction in radial coverage. Oblique viewing angles of up to 20o can be implemented without a major revision to the front end of the existing ITER ECE diagnostic design.

  16. Use of Vertical Aerial Images for Semi-Oblique Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, D.; Moe, K.; Legat, K.; Toschi, I.; Lago, F.; Remondino, F.

    2017-05-01

    The paper proposes a methodology for the use of the oblique sections of images from large-format photogrammetric cameras, by exploiting the effect of the central perspective geometry in the lateral parts of the nadir images ("semi-oblique" images). The point of origin of the investigation was the execution of a photogrammetric flight over Norcia (Italy), which was seriously damaged after the earthquake of 30/10/2016. Contrary to the original plan of oblique acquisitions, the flight was executed on 15/11/2017 using an UltraCam Eagle camera with focal length 80 mm, and combining two flight plans, rotated by 90º ("crisscross" flight). The images (GSD 5 cm) were used to extract a 2.5D DSM cloud, sampled to a XY-grid size of 2 GSD, a 3D point clouds with a mean spatial resolution of 1 GSD and a 3D mesh model at a resolution of 10 cm of the historic centre of Norcia for a quantitative assessment of the damages. From the acquired nadir images the "semi-oblique" images (forward, backward, left and right views) could be extracted and processed in a modified version of GEOBLY software for measurements and restitution purposes. The potential of such semi-oblique image acquisitions from nadir-view cameras is hereafter shown and commented.

  17. Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminations.

    PubMed

    Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl

    2005-03-24

    The 100,000-year timescale in the glacial/interglacial cycles of the late Pleistocene epoch (the past approximately 700,000 years) is commonly attributed to control by variations in the Earth's orbit. This hypothesis has inspired models that depend on the Earth's obliquity (approximately 40,000 yr; approximately 40 kyr), orbital eccentricity (approximately 100 kyr) and precessional (approximately 20 kyr) fluctuations, with the emphasis usually on eccentricity and precessional forcing. According to a contrasting hypothesis, the glacial cycles arise primarily because of random internal climate variability. Taking these two perspectives together, there are currently more than thirty different models of the seven late-Pleistocene glacial cycles. Here we present a statistical test of the orbital forcing hypothesis, focusing on the rapid deglaciation events known as terminations. According to our analysis, the null hypothesis that glacial terminations are independent of obliquity can be rejected at the 5% significance level, whereas the corresponding null hypotheses for eccentricity and precession cannot be rejected. The simplest inference consistent with the test results is that the ice sheets terminated every second or third obliquity cycle at times of high obliquity, similar to the original proposal by Milankovitch. We also present simple stochastic and deterministic models that describe the timing of the late-Pleistocene glacial terminations purely in terms of obliquity forcing.

  18. Oblique ionospheric reflections in the MARSIS data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. J.; Duru, F.; Morgan, D. D.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Witasse, O. G.; Withers, P.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to reflections from the Martian ionosphere along the nadir direction, the Mars Advanced Radar for Sub-surface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on board ESA's Mars Express (MEX) orbiter frequently detects 'oblique reflections' from additional targets away from the nadir direction. Such oblique reflections have been attributed to the presence of anomalous horizontal structure within the ionosphere, in which the ionospheric scale height is thought to have increased in regions where Mars' remnant crustal magnetic field has a 'open' or cusp-like configuration, possibly allowing for the heating of the ionosphere by precipitating solar wind plasma. This spatial structuring gives constant-density surfaces which are not parallel to the planet's surface, from which the sounding pulse from the MARSIS instrument can be reflected back towards the spacecraft at what would otherwise be oblique incidence. These oblique reflections form distinctive hyperbolas in time and apparent range, the apices of which are generally above the surrounding ionosphere, strongly suggesting that they have an extended horizontal structure. Here, employing the substantial MARSIS data set, we examine both the spatial distribution and repeatability of detection of these oblique reflections. These results are then related to the highly structured Martian crustal magnetic field, utilising a simplified ray-tracing code.

  19. Oblique ionospheric reflections in the MARSIS data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David; Duru, Firdevs; Morgan, David; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Witasse, Olivier; Withers, Paul

    2013-04-01

    In addition to reflections from the Martian ionosphere along the nadir direction, the Mars Advanced Radar for Sub-surface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on board ESA's Mars Express (MEX) orbiter frequently detects 'oblique reflections' from additional targets away from the nadir direction. Such oblique reflections have been attributed to the presence of anomalous horizontal structure within the ionosphere, in which the ionospheric scale height is thought to have increased in regions where Mars' remnant crustal magnetic field has a 'open' or cusp-like configuration, possibly allowing for the heating of the ionosphere by precipitating solar wind plasma. This spatial structuring gives constant-density surfaces which are not parallel to the planet's surface, from which the sounding pulse from the MARSIS instrument can be reflected back towards the spacecraft at what would otherwise be oblique incidence. These oblique reflections form distinctive hyperbolas in time and apparent range, the apices of which are generally above the surrounding ionosphere, strongly suggesting that they have an extended horizontal structure. Here, employing the substantial MARSIS data set, we examine both the spatial distribution and repeatability of detection of these oblique reflections. These results are then related to the highly structured Martian crustal magnetic field, utilising a simplified ray-tracing code.

  20. RBA: Reduced Bundle Adjustment for oblique aerial photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanbiao; Sun, Huabo; Yan, Lei; Fan, Shiyue; Chen, Rui

    2016-11-01

    This study proposes an efficient Bundle Adjustment (BA) model for oblique aerial photogrammetry to reduce the number of unknown parameters and the dimensions of a non-linear optimization problem. Instead of serving as independent exterior orientations, oblique camera poses are parameterized with nadir camera poses and constant relative poses between oblique and nadir cameras. New observation functions are created with image points as a function of the nadir pose and the relative pose parameters. With these observation functions, the problem of BA is defined as finding optimal unknown parameters by minimizing the total difference between estimated and observed image points. A Gauss-Newton optimization method is utilized to provide a solution for this least-square problem with a reduced normal equation, which plays a very critical role in the convergence and efficiency of BA. Compared with traditional BA methods, the number of unknown parameters and the dimension of the normal equations decrease, this approach dramatically reduces the computational complexity and memory cost especially for large-scale scenarios with a number of oblique images. Four synthetic datasets and a real dataset were used to check the validation and the accuracy of the proposed method. The accuracy of the proposed method is very close to that of the traditional BA method, but the efficiency can be significantly improved by the proposed method. For very large-scale scenarios, the proposed method can still address the limitation of memory and orientate all images captured by an oblique aerial multi-camera system.