Sample records for including subcritical cases

1. Iterative optimal subcritical aerodynamic design code including profile drag

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kuhlman, J. M.

1983-01-01

A subcritical aerodynamic design computer code has been developed, which uses linearized aerodynamics along with sweep theory and airfoil data to obtain minimum total drag preliminary designs for multiple planform configurations. These optimum designs consist of incidence distributions yielding minimum total drag at design values of Mach number and lift and pitching moment coefficients. Linear lofting is used between airfoil stations. Solutions for isolated transport wings have shown that the solution is unique, and that including profile drag effects decreases tip loading and incidence relative to values obtained for minimum induced drag solutions. Further, including effects of variation of profile drag with Reynolds number can cause appreciable changes in the optimal design for tapered wings. Example solutions are also discussed for multiple planform configurations.

2. Iterative optimal subcritical aerodynamic design code including profile drag

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kuhlman, J. M.

1983-01-01

A subcritical aerodynamic design computer code has been developed, which uses linearized aerodynamics along with sweep theory and airfoil data to obtain minimum total drag preliminary designs for multiple planform configurations. These optimum designs consist of incidence distributions yielding minimum total drag at design values of Mach number and lift and pitching moment coefficients. Linear lofting is used between airfoil stations. Solutions for isolated transport wings have shown that the solution is unique, and that including profile drag effects decreases tip loading and incidence relative to values obtained for minimum induced drag solutions. Further, including effects of variation of profile drag with Reynolds number can cause appreciable changes in the optimal design for tapered wings. Example solutions are also discussed for multiple planform configurations.

3. Benchmarking criticality safety calculations with subcritical experiments

SciTech Connect

Mihalczo, J.T.

1984-06-01

Calculation of the neutron multiplication factor at delayed criticality may be necessary for benchmarking calculations but it may not be sufficient. The use of subcritical experiments to benchmark criticality safety calculations could result in substantial savings in fuel material costs for experiments. In some cases subcritical configurations could be used to benchmark calculations where sufficient fuel to achieve delayed criticality is not available. By performing a variety of measurements with subcritical configurations, much detailed information can be obtained which can be compared directly with calculations. This paper discusses several measurements that can be performed with subcritical assemblies and presents examples that include comparisons between calculation and experiment where possible. Where not, examples from critical experiments have been used but the measurement methods could also be used for subcritical experiments.

4. Numerical simulation of CO2 leakage from a geologic disposal reservoir including transitions from super- to sub-critical conditions, and boiling of liquid of CO2

SciTech Connect

Pruess, Karsten

2003-03-31

The critical point of CO{sub 2} is at temperature and pressure conditions of T{sub crit} = 31.04 C, P{sub crit} = 73.82 bar. At lower (subcritical) temperatures and/or pressures, CO{sub 2} can exist in two different phase states, a liquid and a gaseous state, as well as in two-phase mixtures of these states. Disposal of CO{sub 2} into brine formations would be made at supercritical pressures. However, CO{sub 2} escaping from the storage reservoir may migrate upwards towards regions with lower temperatures and pressures, where CO{sub 2} would be in subcritical conditions. An assessment of the fate of leaking CO{sub 2} requires a capability to model not only supercritical but also subcritical CO{sub 2}, as well as phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2} in sub-critical conditions. We have developed a methodology for numerically simulating the behavior of water-CO{sub 2} mixtures in permeable media under conditions that may include liquid, gaseous, and supercritical CO{sub 2}. This has been applied to simulations of leakage from a deep storage reservoir in which a rising CO{sub 2} plume undergoes transitions from supercritical to subcritical conditions. We find strong cooling effects when liquid CO{sub 2} rises to elevations where it begins to boil and evolve a gaseous CO{sub 2} phase. A three-phase zone forms (aqueous - liquid - gas), which over time becomes several hundred meters thick as decreasing temperatures permit liquid CO{sub 2} to advance to shallower elevations. Fluid mobilities are reduced in the three-phase region from phase interference effects. This impedes CO{sub 2} upflow, causes the plume to spread out laterally, and gives rise to dispersed CO{sub 2} discharge at the land surface. Our simulation suggests that temperatures along a CO{sub 2} leakage path may decline to levels low enough so that solid water ice and CO{sub 2} hydrate phases may be formed.

5. Accelerator driven sub-critical core

DOEpatents

McIntyre, Peter M; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

2015-03-17

Systems and methods for operating an accelerator driven sub-critical core. In one embodiment, a fission power generator includes a sub-critical core and a plurality of proton beam generators. Each of the proton beam generators is configured to concurrently provide a proton beam into a different area of the sub-critical core. Each proton beam scatters neutrons within the sub-critical core. The plurality of proton beam generators provides aggregate power to the sub-critical core, via the proton beams, to scatter neutrons sufficient to initiate fission in the sub-critical core.

6. Non-normal and stochastic amplification of magnetic energy in the turbulent dynamo: subcritical case.

PubMed

Fedotov, Sergei

2003-12-01

Our attention focuses on the stochastic dynamo equation with non-normal operator that gives an insight into the role of stochastics and non-normality in magnetic field generation. The main point of this Brief Report is a discussion of the generation of a large-scale magnetic field that cannot be explained by traditional linear eigenvalue analysis. The main result is a discovery of nonlinear deterministic instability and growth of finite magnetic field fluctuations in alpha beta dynamo theory. We present a simple stochastic model for the thin-disk axisymmetric alpha Omega dynamo involving three factors: (a) non-normality generated by differential rotation, (b) nonlinearity reflecting how the magnetic field affects the turbulent dynamo coefficients, and (c) stochastic perturbations. We show that even for the subcritical case (all eigenvalues are negative), there are three possible mechanisms for the generation of magnetic field. The first mechanism is a deterministic one that describes an interplay between transient growth and nonlinear saturation of the turbulent alpha effect and diffusivity. It turns out that the trivial state is nonlinearly unstable to small but finite initial perturbations. The second and third are stochastic mechanisms that account for the interaction of non-normal effect generated by differential rotation with random additive and multiplicative fluctuations.

7. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

SciTech Connect

Pruess, K.

2011-05-15

Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative

8. Breaking rocks made easy: subcritical processes and tectonic predesign

Voigtlaender, Anne; Krautblatter, Michael

2017-04-01

In geomorphic studies, to change in landforms, e.g. by rock slope failure, fluvial or glacial erosion, a threshold is commonly assumed, which is crossed either by an increase in external driving or a decrease of internal resisting forces, respectively. If the threshold is crossed, bedrock breaks and slope fails, rivers incise and glaciers plug and sew their bed. Here we put forward a focus on the decrease of the resisting forces, as an increase in the driving forces, to match the strength of bedrock, is not that likely. We suggest that the degradation of resisting forces of bedrock can be better explained by subcritical processes like creep, fatigue and stress corrosion interplaying with tectonic predesign. Both concepts, subcritical processes and tectonic predesign have been issued in the last century, but have not been widely accepted nor have their assumptions been explicitly stressed in recent case studies. Moreover both concepts profit especially on scale issues if merged. Subcritical crack growth, includes different mechanisms promoting fractures well below the ultimate strength. Single infinitesimal but irreversible damage and deformations are induced in the material over time. They interact with inherent microstructural flaws and low applied stresses, limiting local strength and macroscopic behavior of bedrock. This reissues the concept of tectonic predesigned, as proposed by A.E. Scheidegger, which not only encompasses structural features that determine the routing of drainage patterns and shear planes, e.g. joints, faults and foliations, but also the (neo)tectonic stress-field and the (in-situ) strain state of bedrocks and mountains. Combining subcritical processes and tectonic predesign we can better explain, why and where we see a dissected, eroded and geomorphic divers' landscape. In this conceptual framework actual magnitudes of the driving forces are accounted for and so is the nature of the bedrock material, to better understand the trajectories of

9. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

SciTech Connect

Pruess, K.

2011-04-01

ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

10. Subcritical crack growth in marble

Nara, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Yuki; Toshinori, Ii; Harui, Tomoki; Tanaka, Mayu; Kashiwaya, Koki

2016-04-01

It is essential to study time-dependent deformation and fracturing in various rock materials to prevent natural hazards related to the failure of a rock mass. In addition, information of time-dependent fracturing is essential to ensure the long-term stability of a rock mass surrounding various structures. Subcritical crack growth is one of the main causes of time-dependent fracturing in rock. It is known that subcritical crack growth is influenced by not only stress but also surrounding environment. Studies of subcritical crack growth have been widely conducted for silicate rocks such as igneous rocks and sandstones. By contrast, information of subcritical crack growth in carbonate rocks is not enough. Specifically, influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in carbonate rock should be clarified to ensure the long-term stability of a rock mass. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated. Especially, the influence of the temperature, relative humidity and water on subcritical crack growth in marble is investigated. As rock samples, marbles obtained in Skopje-City in Macedonia and Carrara-City in Italy were used. To measure subcritical crack growth, we used the load relaxation method of the double-torsion (DT) test. All measurements by DT test were conducted under controlled temperature and relative humidity. For both marbles, it was shown that the crack velocity in marble in air increased with increasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. Additionally, the crack velocity in water was much higher than that in air. It was also found that the crack velocity increased with increasing temperature. It is considered that temperature and water have significant influences on subcritical crack growth in marble. For Carrara marble in air, it was recognized that the value of subcritical crack growth index became low when the crack velocity was higher than 10-4 m/s. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth

11. A Proposal for a Subcritical Reactivity Meter based on Gandini and Salvatores' point kinetics equations for Multiplying Subcritical Systems

SciTech Connect

Pinto, Leticia N.; Dos Santos, Adimir

2015-07-01

Multiplying Subcritical Systems were for a long time poorly studied and its theoretical description remains with plenty open questions. Great interest on such systems arose partly due to the improvement of hybrid concepts, such as the Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS). Along with the need for new technologies to be developed, further study and understanding of subcritical systems are essential also in more practical situations, such as in the case of a PWR criticalization in their physical startup tests. Point kinetics equations are fundamental to continuously monitor the reactivity behavior to a possible variation of external sources intensity. In this case, quickly and accurately predicting power transients and reactivity becomes crucial. It is known that conventional Reactivity Meters cannot operate in subcritical levels nor describe the dynamics of multiplying systems in these conditions, by the very structure of the classical kinetic equations. Several theoretical models have been proposed to characterize the kinetics of such systems with special regard to the reactivity, as the one developed by Gandini and Salvatores among others. This work presents a discussion about the derivation of point kinetics equations for subcritical systems and the importance of considering the external source. From the point of view of the Gandini and Salvatores' point kinetics model and based on the experimental results provided by Lee and dos Santos, it was possible to develop an innovative approach. This article proposes an algorithm that describes the subcritical reactivity with external source, contributing to the advancement of studies in the field. (authors)

12. ITEP Subcritical Neutron Generator driven by charged particle accelerator

SciTech Connect

Shvedov, O.V.; Chuvilo, I.V.; Vasiliev, V.V.

1995-10-01

A research facility prototype including a combination of a linear accelerator, a neutron generating target, a nuclear safety ensuring and means of its attainment for Subcritical Neutron Generator are considered. The scheme of the multiplying is shown. The assembly will be mounted in the body of the partly dismantled ITEP HWR. Requirements for subcritical assembly are worked out and their feasibility within the framework of the heavy-water blanket is shown. The facilitys application as a full-scale model of more powerful installations of this kind and for fundamental experimental research has been investigated.

13. Modeling new coal projects: supercritical or subcritical?

SciTech Connect

Carrino, A.J.; Jones, R.B.

2006-11-15

Decisions made on new build coal-fired plants are driven by several factors - emissions, fuel logistics and electric transmission access all provide constraints. The crucial economic decision whether to build supercritical or subcritical units often depends on assumptions concerning the reliability/availability of each technology, the cost of on-fuel operations including maintenance, the generation efficiencies and the potential for emissions credits at some future value. Modeling the influence of these key factors requires analysis and documentation to assure the assets actually meet the projected financial performance. This article addresses some of the issue related to the trade-offs that have the potential to be driven by the supercritical/subcritical decision. Solomon Associates has been collecting cost, generation and reliability data on coal-fired power generation assets for approximately 10 years using a strict methodology and taxonomy to categorize and compare actual plant operations data. This database provides validated information not only on performance, but also on alternative performance scenarios, which can provide useful insights in the pro forma financial analysis and models of new plants. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

14. Influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in marble

Nara, Yoshitaka; Kashiwaya, Koki; Nishida, Yuki; , Toshinori, Ii

2017-06-01

Understanding subcritical crack growth in rock is essential for determining appropriate measures to ensure the long-term integrity of rock masses surrounding structures and for construction from rock material. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated experimentally, focusing on the influence of the surrounding environment on the relationship between the crack velocity and stress intensity factor. The crack velocity increased with increasing temperature and/or relative humidity. In all cases, the crack velocity increased with increasing stress intensity factor. However, for Carrara marble (CM) in air, we observed a region in which the crack velocity still increased with temperature, but the increase in the crack velocity with increasing stress intensity factor was not significant. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth observed in glass in air. Region II in glass is controlled by mass transport to the crack tip. In the case of rock, the transport of water to the crack tip is important. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contain water. Because the porosity of CM is very low, the amount of water contained in the marble is also very small. Therefore, our results imply that we observed Region II in CM. Because the crack velocity increased in both water and air with increasing temperature and humidity, we concluded that dry conditions at low temperature are desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass. Additionally, mass transport to the crack tip is an important process for subcritical crack growth in rock with low porosity.

15. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

SciTech Connect

Rothe, R.E.

1998-04-01

Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

16. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

SciTech Connect

Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

2010-01-25

Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

17. A thermodynamic analysis of propagating subcritical cracks with cohesive zones

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allen, David H.

1993-01-01

The results of the so-called energetic approach to fracture with particular attention to the issue of energy dissipation due to crack propagation are applied to the case of a crack with cohesive zone. The thermodynamic admissibility of subcritical crack growth (SCG) is discussed together with some hypotheses that lead to the derivation of SCG laws. A two-phase cohesive zone model for discontinuous crack growth is presented and its thermodynamics analyzed, followed by an example of its possible application.

18. Subcritical crack growth under mode I, II, and III loading for Coconino sandstone

Ko, Tae Young

of 34 to 38 and the parameter A has the range of 1.02x10-2 to 6.52x10-2 m/s. The effect of confining stress, specimen size, and water saturation on subcritical crack growth under mode II loading has also been investigated. Finally strength parameters for Coconino sandstone were determined experimentally, including tensile strength, uniaxial compressive strength, cohesion, internal friction angle, in-plane/our-of-plane shear strength and the fracture toughness under mode I, II, and III loading.

19. ENHANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SUBCRITICAL WATER

SciTech Connect

Steven B. Hawthorne

2000-07-01

This project involved designing and performing preliminary electrochemical experiments in subcritical water. An electrochemical cell with substantially better performance characteristics than presently available was designed, built, and tested successfully. The electrochemical conductivity of subcritical water increased substantially with temperature, e.g., conductivities increased by a factor of 120 when the temperature was increased from 25 to 250 C. Cyclic voltammograms obtained with platinum and nickel demonstrated that the voltage required to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water can be dropped by a factor of three in subcritical water compared to the voltages required at ambient temperatures. However, no enhancement in the degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl was observed with applied potential in subcritical water.

20. Feedback control of subcritical oscillatory instabilities.

PubMed

Golovin, A A; Nepomnyashchy, A A

2006-04-01

Feedback control of a subcritical oscillatory instability is investigated in the framework of a globally-controlled complex Ginzburg-Landau equation that describes the nonlinear dynamics near the instability threshold. The control is based on a feedback loop between the system linear growth rate and the maximum of the amplitude of the emerging pattern. It is shown that such control can suppress the blow up and result in the formation of spatially localized pulses similar to oscillons. In the one-dimensional case, depending on the values of the linear and nonlinear dispersion coefficients, several types of the pulse dynamics are possible in which the computational domain contains: (i) a single stationary pulse; (ii) several coexisting stationary pulses; (iii) competing pulses that appear one after another at random locations so that at each moment of time there is only one pulse in the domain; (iv) spatiotemporally chaotic system of short pulses; (v) spatially-synchronized pulses. Similar dynamic behavior is found also in the two-dimensional case. The effect of the feedback delay is also studied. It is shown that the increase of the delay leads to an oscillatory instability of the pulses and the formation of pulses with oscillating amplitude.

1. Accelerator-driven subcritical facility:Conceptual design development

Gohar, Yousry; Bolshinsky, Igor; Naberezhnev, Dmitry; Duo, Jose; Belch, Henry; Bailey, James

2006-06-01

A conceptual design development of an accelerator-driven subcritical facility has been carried out in the preparation of a joint activity with Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology of Ukraine. The main functions of the facility are the medical isotope production and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. An electron accelerator is considered to drive the subcritical assembly. The neutron source intensity and spectrum have been studied. The energy deposition, spatial neutron generation, neutron utilization fraction, and target dimensions have been quantified to define the main target performance parameters, and to select the target material and beam parameters. Different target conceptual designs have been developed based the engineering requirements including heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. The subcritical assembly is designed to obtain the highest possible neutron flux level with a Keff of 0.98. Different fuel materials, uranium enrichments, and reflector materials are considered in the design process. The possibility of using low enrichment uranium without penalizing the facility performance is carefully evaluated. The mechanical design of the facility has been developed to maximize its utility and minimize the time for replacing the target and the fuel assemblies. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements, upgrades, and new missions. In addition, it has large design margins to accommodate different operating conditions and parameters. In this paper, the conceptual design and the design analyses of the facility will be presented.

2. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

SciTech Connect

G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, S. Lutz, C. Mitton, et al.

2008-02-01

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources with the following specifications: 4-rad dose at 1 m, 1-mm spot size, 50-ns pulse length, 2.25-MeV endpoint energy. The facility is located in an underground tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Here SubCritical Experiments (SCEs) are performed to study the dynamic properties of plutonium. The Cygnus sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for these tests. Since SCEs are single-shot, high-value events - reliability and reproducibility are key issues. Enhanced reliability involves minimization of failure modes through design, inspection, and testing. Many unique hardware and operational features were incorporated into Cygnus to insure reliability. Enhanced reproducibility involves normalization of shot-to-shot output also through design, inspection, and testing. The first SCE to utilize Cygnus, Armando, was executed on May 25, 2004. A year later, April - May 2005, calibrations using a plutonium step wedge were performed. The results from this series were used for more precise interpretation of the Armando data. In the period February - May 2007 Cygnus was fielded on Thermos, which is a series of small-sample plutonium shots using a one-dimensional geometry. Pulsed power research generally dictates frequent change in hardware configuration. Conversely, SCE applications have typically required constant machine settings. Therefore, while operating during the past four years we have accumulated a large database for evaluation of machine performance under highly consistent operating conditions. Through analysis of this database Cygnus reliability and reproducibility on Armando, Step Wedge, and Thermos is presented.

3. High-value use of weapons-plutonium by burning in molten salt accelerator-driven subcritical systems or reactors

SciTech Connect

Bowman, C.D.; Venneri, F.

1993-11-01

The application of thermal-spectrum molten-salt reactors and accelerator-driven subcritical systems to the destruction of weapons-return plutonium is considered from the perspective of deriving the maximum societal benefit. The enhancement of electric power production from burning the fertile fuel {sup 232}Th with the plutonium is evaluated. Also the enhancement of destruction of the accumulated waste from commercial nuclear reactors is considered using the neutron-rich weapons plutonium. Most cases examined include the concurrent transmutation of the long-lived actinide and fission product waste ({sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 126}Sn and {sup 79}Se).

4. An experimental investigation of the subcritical and supercritical flow about a swept semispan wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockman, W. K.; Seegmiller, H. L.

1983-01-01

An experimental investigation of the turbulent, subcritical and supercritical flow over a swept, semispan wing in a solid wall wind tunnel is described. The program was conducted over a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and angles of attack to provide a variety of test cases for assessment of wing computer codes and tunnel wall interference effects. Wing flows both without and with three dimensional flow separation are included. Data include mean surface pressures for both the wing and tunnel walls; surface oil flow patterns on the wing; and mean velocity, flow field surveys. The results are given in tabular form and presented graphically to illustrate some of the effects of the test parameters. Comparisons of the wing pressure data with the results from two inviscid wing codes are also shown to assess the importance of viscous flow and tunnel wall effects.

5. Dynamics of parabolic problems with memory. Subcritical and critical nonlinearities

Li, Xiaojun

2016-08-01

In this paper, we study the long-time behavior of the solutions of non-autonomous parabolic equations with memory in cases when the nonlinear term satisfies subcritical and critical growth conditions. In order to do this, we show that the family of processes associated to original systems with heat source f(x, t) being translation bounded in Lloc 2 ( R ; L 2 ( Ω ) ) is dissipative in higher energy space M α , 0 < α ≤ 1, and possesses a compact uniform attractor in M 0 .

6. Detector positioning for the initial subcriticality level determination in accelerator-driven systems

SciTech Connect

Uyttenhove, W.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. J. H. H.; Wols, F.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Thybault, H. E.

2012-07-01

Within the GUINEVERE project (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol, the continuous deuteron accelerator GENEPI-3C was coupled to the VENUS-F fast simulated lead-cooled reactor. Today the FREYA project (Fast Reactor Experiments for hYbrid Applications) is ongoing to study the neutronic behavior of this Accelerator Driven System (ADS) during different phases of operation. In particular the set-up of a monitoring system for the subcriticality of an ADS is envisaged to guarantee safe operation of the installation. The methodology for subcriticality monitoring in ADS takes into account the determination of the initial subcriticality level, the monitoring of reactivity variations, and interim cross-checking. At start-up, the Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) technique is envisaged to determine the initial subcriticality level. Thanks to its reference critical state, the PNS technique can be validated on the VENUS-F core. A detector positioning methodology for the PNS technique is set up in this paper for the subcritical VENUS-F core, based on the reduction of higher harmonics in a static evaluation of the Sjoestrand area method. A first case study is provided on the VENUS-F core. This method can be generalised in order to create general rules for detector positions and types for full-scale ADS. (authors)

7. Preliminary design concept of a subcritical reactor using available resources

SciTech Connect

Churnetski, E.L.; Hoyny, V.; Chaudhuri, B.R.; Taprantzis, A.; Yavas, A.

1993-12-31

During the Fall 1993 semester, a project was initiated within the Nuclear Engineering Department of the University of Tennessee with the objective of developing a design for a subcritical reactor with maximized multiplication factor using materials currently available. Such a device, if constructed, would serve as a teaching tool for the Department of Nuclear Engineering. Design work was conducted as a large number of computer calculations, with trial pile configurations based on fundamental nuclear engineering principles, in an effort to maximize multiplication factor through fuel element geometry, moderator type, fissile/moderator ratio, and reflector character. The principal objective of the design group for the early phase of this project was to present several possible baseline reactor designs and identify directions for improvements. For the sake of calculational ease, the cores analyzes to date have been of nearly cubic shape. The SCALE CSAS25 software which runs KENO.Va, a Monte Carlo code, was used for all neutronics calculations. The baseline reactors resulting from work to date are cuboidal in shape and graphite reflected. Two types of fuel element geometries are proposed, a typical triangular pitch rod lattice and an arrangement of discrete fuel slugs placed in a lattice corresponding to body centered cubic packing. The latter arrangement provides slightly higher multiplication factors than the former. Calculations were performed for both graphite and heavy water moderation with heavy water moderation producing considerably higher multiplication factors, as expected. In general, the maximum k{sub eff} for the reactors are in the range of 0.5 to 0.9, well subcritical, except in the cases of the extreme possible values of fuel assay where critical configurations are possible. In these cases, designs with reduced fuel loading are recommended to assure a subcritical multiplication factor.

8. Subcritical convection in an internally heated layer

Xiang, Linyan; Zikanov, Oleg

2017-06-01

Thermal convection in a horizontal layer with uniform internal heating and stress-free constant-temperature boundaries is analyzed numerically. The work is motivated by the questions arising in the development of liquid metal batteries, in which convection is induced by the Joule heating of electrolyte. It is demonstrated that three-dimensional convection cells exist at subcritical Rayleigh numbers.

9. Hydrodynamic Limit of Condensing Two-Species Zero Range Processes with Sub-critical Initial Profiles

Dirr, Nicolas; Stamatakis, Marios G.; Zimmer, Johannes

2017-08-01

Two-species condensing zero range processes (ZRPs) are interacting particle systems with two species of particles and zero range interaction exhibiting phase separation outside a domain of sub-critical densities. We prove the hydrodynamic limit of nearest neighbour mean zero two-species condensing ZRP with bounded local jump rate for sub-critical initial profiles, i.e., for initial profiles whose image is contained in the region of sub-critical densities. The proof is based on H.T. Yau's relative entropy method, which relies on the existence of sufficiently regular solutions to the hydrodynamic equation. In the particular case of the species-blind ZRP, we prove that the solutions of the hydrodynamic equation exist globally in time and thus the hydrodynamic limit is valid for all times.

10. Hydrodynamic Limit of Condensing Two-Species Zero Range Processes with Sub-critical Initial Profiles

Dirr, Nicolas; Stamatakis, Marios G.; Zimmer, Johannes

2017-07-01

Two-species condensing zero range processes (ZRPs) are interacting particle systems with two species of particles and zero range interaction exhibiting phase separation outside a domain of sub-critical densities. We prove the hydrodynamic limit of nearest neighbour mean zero two-species condensing ZRP with bounded local jump rate for sub-critical initial profiles, i.e., for initial profiles whose image is contained in the region of sub-critical densities. The proof is based on H.T. Yau's relative entropy method, which relies on the existence of sufficiently regular solutions to the hydrodynamic equation. In the particular case of the species-blind ZRP, we prove that the solutions of the hydrodynamic equation exist globally in time and thus the hydrodynamic limit is valid for all times.

11. Candida-induced prosthetic joint infection. A literature review including 72 cases and a case report.

PubMed

Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; López, Enrique M; Jiménez, Gemma; Sampedro, Antonio; Aliaga-Martínez, Luis; Navarro-Marí, José María

2017-02-01

The clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by Candida species is described, including 72 cases in the literature and a case of Candida glabrata infection handled at the present centre. We describe one patient and using the key words 'fungal prosthetic joint infection' and 'candida prosthetic joint infection' we searched MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane systematic review databases for case reports of this condition. Out of the 73 patients, 38 were female; mean age at diagnosis was 65.7 (± SD 18) yrs; 50 had risk factors for candidal infection such as systemic disease (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus) and/or immunosuppressive therapy in 18 (24.6%) cases, diabetes mellitus in 14 (19.1%), immunosuppression due to malignant or chronic disease in 24 (32.8%) and long-term antibiotic use in four (5.4%) patients. Infection site was the knee in 36 patients and hip in 35; pain was present in 43 patients and swelling in 23 and the mean surgery-diagnosis interval was 32 months. The most frequent species was C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. The diagnosis was obtained from joint fluid aspirate in 33 cases and intra-operative samples in 16. Susceptibility to antifungals was tested in only 21 isolates. The most frequently used antifungals were fluconazole and amphotericin B. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty was performed in 30 patients and resection arthroplasty in 31; 56 patients were cured with a combination of medical and surgical treatment; one patient died from the infection. PJI caused by Candida requires a high index of suspicion; surgery with long-term antifungal therapy is recommended.

12. The Nonlinear Dynamics of Time Dependent Subcritical Baroclinic Currents

Pedlosky, J.; Flierl, G. R.

2006-12-01

The nonlinear dynamics of baroclinically unstable waves in a time dependent zonal shear flow is considered in the framework of the two-layer Phillips model on the beta plane. In most cases considered in this study the amplitude of the shear is well below the critical value of the steady shear version of the model. Nevertheless, the time dependent problem in which the shear oscillates periodically is unstable, and the unstable waves grow to substantial amplitudes, in some cases with strongly nonlinear and turbulent characteristics. For very small values of the shear amplitude in the presence of dissipation an analytical, asymptotic theory predicts a self-sustained wave whose amplitude undergoes a nonlinear oscillation whose period is amplitude dependent. There is a sensitive amplitude dependence of the wave on the frequency of the oscillating shear when the shear amplitude is small. This behavior is also found in a truncated model of the dynamics, and that model is used to examine larger shear amplitudes. When there is a mean value of the shear in addition to the oscillating component, but such that the total shear is still subcritical, the resulting nonlinear states exhibit a rectified horizontal buoyancy flux with a nonzero time average as a result of the instability of the oscillating shear. For higher, still subcritical, values of the shear we have detected a symmetry breaking in which a second cross-stream mode is generated through an instability of the unstable wave although this second mode would by itself be stable on the basic time dependent current. For shear values that are substantially subcritical but of order of the critical shear, calculations with a full quasi-geostrophic numerical model reveal a turbulent flow generated by the instability. If the beta effect is disregarded the inviscid, linear problem is formally stable. However, our calculations show that a small degree of nonlinearity is enough to destabilize the flow leading to large amplitude

13. Subcritical crack growth and mechanical weathering: a new consideration of how moisture influences rock erosion rates.

Eppes, Martha-Cary; Keanini, Russell; Hancock, Gregory S.

2016-04-01

The contributions of moisture to the mechanical aspects of rock weathering and regolith production are poorly quantified. In particular, geomorphologists have largely overlooked the role of subcritical crack growth processes in physical weathering and the fact that moisture strongly influences the rates of those processes. This influence is irrespective of the function that moisture plays in stress loading mechanisms like freezing or hydration. Here we present a simple numerical model that explores the efficacy of subcritical crack growth in granite rock subaerially exposed under a range of moisture conditions. Because most weathering-related stress loading for rocks found at, or near, Earth's surface (hereafter surface rocks) is cyclic, we modeled crack growth using a novel combination of Paris' Law and Charles' Law. This combination allowed us to apply existing empirically-derived data for the stress corrosion index of Charles' Law to fatigue cracking. For stress, we focused on the relatively straightforward case of intergranular stresses that arise during solar-induced thermal cycling by conductive heat transfer, making the assumption that such stresses represent a universal minimum weathering stress experienced by all surface rocks. Because all other tensile weathering-related stresses would be additive in the context of crack growth, however, our model can be adapted to include other stress loading mechanisms. We validated our calculations using recently published thermal-stress-induced cracking rates. Our results demonstrate that 1) weathering-induced stresses as modeled herein, and as published by others, are sufficient to propagate fractures subcritically over long timescales with or without the presence of water 2) fracture propagation rates increase exponentially with respect to moisture, specifically relative humidity 3) fracture propagation rates driven by thermal cycling are strongly dependent on the magnitude of diurnal temperature ranges and the

14. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON

SciTech Connect

Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

1999-08-01

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C

15. Subcritical string and large N QCD

SciTech Connect

Thorn, Charles B.

2008-10-15

We pursue the possibility of using subcritical string theory in 4 spacetime dimensions to establish a string dual for large N QCD. In particular we study the even G-parity sector of the 4 dimensional Neveu-Schwarz dual resonance model as the natural candidate for this string theory. Our point of view is that the open string dynamics given by this model will determine the appropriate subcritical closed string theory, a tree level background of which should describe the sum of planar multiloop open string diagrams. We examine the one-loop open string diagram, which contains information about the closed string spectrum at weak coupling. Higher loop open string diagrams will be needed to determine closed string interactions. We also analyze the field theory limit of the one-loop open string diagram and recover the correct running coupling behavior of the limiting gauge theory.

16. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

SciTech Connect

Johnson, Roland

2011-08-03

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

17. Critical and Subcritical 0-Power Experiment at Rensselaer (CaSPER)

SciTech Connect

Arthur, Jennifer Ann

2016-05-09

This report discusses the 0-power experiment at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (CaSPER). Keff simulation results, list-mode multiplication results, and related work are included. The aim of the work is subcritical measurements for code and nuclear data validation.

18. Neutron noise measurements at the Delphi subcritical assembly

SciTech Connect

Szieberth, M.; Klujber, G.; Kloosterman, J. L.; De Haas, D.

2012-07-01

The paper presents the results and evaluations of a comprehensive set of neutron noise measurements on the Delphi subcritical assembly of the Delft Univ. of Technology. The measurements investigated the effect of different source distributions (inherent spontaneous fission and {sup 252}Cf) and the position of the detectors applied (both radially and vertically). The evaluation of the measured data has been performed by the variance-to-mean ratio (VTMR, Feynman-{alpha}), the autocorrelation (ACF, Rossi-{alpha}) and the cross-correlation (CCF) methods. The values obtained for the prompt decay constant show a strong bias, which depends both on the detector position and on the source distribution. This is due to the presence of higher modes in the system. It has been observed that the {alpha} value fitted is higher when the detector is close to the boundary of the core or to the {sup 252}Cf point-source. The higher alpha-modes have also been observed by fitting functions describing two alpha-modes. The successful set of measurement also provides a good basis for further theoretical investigations including the Monte Carlo simulation of the noise measurements and the calculation of the alpha-modes in the Delphi subcritical assembly. (authors)

19. Review of Subcritical Source-Driven Noise Analysis Measurements

SciTech Connect

Valentine, T.E.

1999-11-01

Subcritical source-driven noise measurements are simultaneous Rossia and randomly pulsed neutron measurements that provide measured quantities that can be related to the subcritical neutron multiplication factor. In fact, subcritical source-driven noise measurements should be performed in lieu of Rossia measurements because of the additional information that is obtained from noise measurements such as the spectral ratio and the coherence functions. The basic understanding of source-driven noise analysis measurements can be developed from a point reactor kinetics model to demonstrate how the measured quantities relate to the subcritical neutron multiplication factor.

20. Review of Subcritical Source-Driven Noise Analysis Measurements

SciTech Connect

Valentine, T.E.

1999-11-24

Subcritical source-driven noise measurements are simultaneous Rossi-{alpha} and randomly pulsed neutron measurements that provide measured quantities that can be related to the subcritical neutron multiplication factor. In fact, subcritical source-driven noise measurements should be performed in lieu of Rossi-{alpha} measurements because of the additional information that is obtained from noise measurements such as the spectral ratio and the coherence functions. The basic understanding of source-driven noise analysis measurements can be developed from a point reactor kinetics model to demonstrate how the measured quantities relate to the subcritical neutron multiplication factor. More elaborate models can also be developed using a generalized stochastic model. These measurements can be simulated using Monte Carlo codes to determine the subcritical neutron multiplication factor or to determine the sensitivity of calculations to nuclear cross section data. The interpretation of the measurement using a Monte Carlo method is based on a perturbation model for the relationship between the spectral ratio and the subcritical neutron multiplication factor. The subcritical source-driven noise measurement has advantages over other subcritical measurement methods in that reference measurements at delayed critical are not required for interpreting the measurements. Therefore, benchmark or in-situ subcritical measurements can be performed outside a critical experiment facility. Furthermore, a certain ratio of frequency spectra has been shown to be independent of detection efficiency thereby making the measurement more robust and unaffected by drifts or changes in instrumentation during the measurement. Criteria have been defined for application of this measurement method for benchmarks and in-situ subcritical measurements. An extension of the source-driven subcritical noise measurement has also been discussed that eliminates the few technical challenges for in-situ applications.

1. The physical mechanisms of subcritical collisionless shock-wave formation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mellott, M. M.

1984-01-01

The key process in shock wave formation is related to energy dissipation, and the nature of the operative dissipation mechanism determines the basic character of the resulting shock. In the case of collisionless plasmas, the primary problem consists in the identification of the processes which can provide the necessary dissipation in relatively short spatial scale lengths. The present investigation is concerned with the various collisionless dissipation mechanisms which can operate in weak shocks, taking into account the effects of different mechanisms on shock structure. Particular attention is given to a restricted class of quasi-perpendicular low beta low Mach number shocks. Such shocks are traditionally called 'laminar shocks'. Resistive shocks are considered along with subcritical shocks observed with the aid of the ISEE spacecraft.

2. Upper Subcritical Calculations Based on Correlated Data

SciTech Connect

Sobes, Vladimir; Rearden, Bradley T; Mueller, Don; Marshall, William BJ J; Scaglione, John M; Dunn, Michael E

2015-01-01

The American National Standards Institute and American Nuclear Society standard for Validation of Neutron Transport Methods for Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculations defines the upper subcritical limit (USL) as “a limit on the calculated k-effective value established to ensure that conditions calculated to be subcritical will actually be subcritical.” Often, USL calculations are based on statistical techniques that infer information about a nuclear system of interest from a set of known/well-characterized similar systems. The work in this paper is part of an active area of research to investigate the way traditional trending analysis is used in the nuclear industry, and in particular, the research is assessing the impact of the underlying assumption that the experimental data being analyzed for USL calculations are statistically independent. In contrast, the multiple experiments typically used for USL calculations can be correlated because they are often performed at the same facilities using the same materials and measurement techniques. This paper addresses this issue by providing a set of statistical inference methods to calculate the bias and bias uncertainty based on the underlying assumption that the experimental data are correlated. Methods to quantify these correlations are the subject of a companion paper and will not be discussed here. The newly proposed USL methodology is based on the assumption that the integral experiments selected for use in the establishment of the USL are sufficiently applicable and that experimental correlations are known. Under the assumption of uncorrelated data, the new methods collapse directly to familiar USL equations currently used. We will demonstrate our proposed methods on real data and compare them to calculations of currently used methods such as USLSTATS and NUREG/CR-6698. Lastly, we will also demonstrate the effect experiment correlations can have on USL calculations.

3. Subcritical Noise Measurements with a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Sphere

SciTech Connect

Jesson D. Hutchinson; John D. Bess

2009-11-01

Subcritical measurements were conducted with an a-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel hemishells using the 252Cf Source-Driven Noise Analysis (CSDNA) method to provide criticality safety benchmark data. Measured configurations included a bare plutonium sphere as well as the plutonium sphere reflected by the following nickel thicknesses: 1.27, 2.54, 3.81, 5.08, and 7.62 cm. A certain ratio of spectral quantities was measured for each configuration which varies linearly with the keff of the system. In addition, two types of Monte Carlo calculations were employed: a modified version of MCNP to calculate the ratio of spectral quantities and a KCODE calculation. From the measured and computed quantities the multiplication of each configuration can be approximated. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis was then performed that includes uncertainties in the geometry and materials present in the system in addition to the uncertainties in the method and nuclear data.

4. Subcritical water extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass

DOEpatents

Deng, Shuguang; Reddy, Harvind K.; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, Francisco Omar

2016-05-03

Methods of lipid extraction from biomass, in particular wet algae, through conventionally heated subcritical water, and microwave-assisted subcritical water. In one embodiment, fatty acid methyl esters from solids in a polar phase are further extracted to increase biofuel production.

5. Subcritical water extraction of organic matter from sedimentary rocks.

PubMed

Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A; Watson, Jonathan S

2015-06-16

Subcritical water extraction of organic matter containing sedimentary rocks at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts comparable to conventional solvent extraction. Subcritical water extraction of previously solvent extracted samples confirms that high molecular weight organic matter (kerogen) degradation is not occurring and that only low molecular weight organic matter (free compounds) are being accessed in analogy to solvent extraction procedures. The sedimentary rocks chosen for extraction span the classic geochemical organic matter types. A type I organic matter-containing sedimentary rock produces n-alkanes and isoprenoidal hydrocarbons at 300°C and 1500 psi that indicate an algal source for the organic matter. Extraction of a rock containing type II organic matter at the same temperature and pressure produces aliphatic hydrocarbons but also aromatic compounds reflecting the increased contributions from terrestrial organic matter in this sample. A type III organic matter-containing sample produces a range of non-polar and polar compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated aromatic compounds at 300°C and 1500 psi reflecting a dominantly terrestrial origin for the organic materials. Although extraction at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts that are comparable to solvent extraction, lower temperature steps display differences related to organic solubility. The type I organic matter produces no products below 300°C and 1500 psi, reflecting its dominantly aliphatic character, while type II and type III organic matter contribute some polar components to the lower temperature steps, reflecting the chemical heterogeneity of their organic inventory. The separation of polar and non-polar organic compounds by using different temperatures provides the potential for selective extraction that may obviate the need for subsequent preparative chromatography steps. Our results indicate that subcritical water extraction can act as a suitable

6. Properties of rice stem extracts obtained by using subcritical fluids.

PubMed

Tangkhavanich, Boonnakhom; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

2013-01-01

Rice stems were subjected to a subcritical fluid treatment at 230 °C, using ethanol or acetone at a dilution of 0-100% in water. The obtained extracts were determined for their yield, carbohydrate content, phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging ability, and color. The highest yield and carbohydrate content were achieved with the subcritical 20% (v/v) organic solvent, while the highest phenolic content was obtained with subcritical 80% (v/v) acetone. The highest radical scavenging ability was achieved with subcritical 60% (v/v) ethanol and 80% (v/v) acetone. The lightness of the extracts obtained with subcritical ethanol and acetone was negatively correlation with their radical scavenging ability (R=-0.85). The relationship between the lightness and phenolic content of the extracts was not significant, suggesting that other substances in the extract could also possess radical scavenging ability.

7. Off-line coupling of subcritical water extraction with subcritical water chromatography via a sorbent trap and thermal desorption.

PubMed

Lamm, Lori J; Yang, Yu

2003-05-15

In this study, the off-line coupling of subcritical water extraction (SBWE) with subcritical water chromatography (SBWC) was achieved using a sorbent trap and thermal desorption. The sorbent trap was employed to collect the extracted analytes during subcritical water extraction. After the extraction, the trap was connected to the subcritical water chromatography system, and thermal desorption of the trapped analytes was performed before the SBWC run. The thermally desorbed analytes were then introduced into the subcritical water separation column and detected by a UV detector. Anilines and phenols were extracted from sand and analyzed using this off-line coupling technique. Subcritical water extraction of flavones from orange peel followed by subcritical water chromatographic separation was also investigated. The effects of water volume and extraction temperature on flavone recovery were determined. Because a sorbent trap was used to collect the extracted analytes, the sensitivity of this technique was greatly enhanced as compared to that of subcritical water extraction with solvent trapping. Since no organic solvent-water extractions were necessary prior to analysis, this technique eliminated any use of organic solvents in both extraction and chromatography processes.

8. 30 CFR 250.415 - What must my casing and cementing programs include?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.415 What must my casing and cementing programs include? Your casing... (incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198), if you drill a well in water depths greater than 500...

9. On a 1D nonlocal transport equation with nonlocal velocity and subcritical or supercritical diffusion

Lazar, Omar

2016-11-01

We study a 1D transport equation with nonlocal velocity with subcritical or supercritical dissipation. For all data in the weighted Sobolev space Hk (wλ,κ) ∩L∞, where k = max ⁡ (0 , 3 / 2 - α) and wλ,κ is a given family of Muckenhoupt weights, we prove a global existence result in the subcritical case α ∈ (1 , 2). We also prove a local existence theorem for large data in H2 (wλ,κ) ∩L∞ in the supercritical case α ∈ (0 , 1). The proofs are based on the use of the weighted Littlewood-Paley theory, interpolation along with some new commutator estimates.

10. Polychlorinated biphenyls degradation in subcritical water

Doctor, Ninad; Yang, Larry; Yang, Yu

2017-08-01

In this work, the degradation of PCB-118, PCB-156, and PCB-180 congeners under subcritical conditions has been investigated. Stainless reaction vessels were used to carry out the heating of reaction mixtures. Liquid-liquid extraction of the reaction mixtures was conducted prior to GC analysis. Approximately 30% PCBs were degraded by 30% hydrogen peroxide after 24 hours of reaction time but without heating the mixtures. The percent degradation of PCBs was however improved to approximately 60% after heating the mixtures at 300 °C for an hour. In general, the PCB degradation efficiency was enhanced by increasing the reaction temperature from 300 and 350 °C. The percent degradation of PCBs was mostly improved by increasing the heating time from 1 hour to 6 hours. In addition, increasing the percentage of hydrogen peroxide significantly increases the rate of PCB destruction.

11. Microdeformation and subcritical cracking in chalk

Bergsaker, Anne; Dysthe, Dag Kristian

2016-04-01

Deformation processes in chalks, both in relation to changing pore fluids and stress conditions has been of great interest as chalk is an important reservoir rock for both hydrocarbons and ground water. Lately it has also gained interest as a potential reservoir rock for captured CO2. Chalks are composed of large amounts of biogenic calcite grains, the skeletal debris of marine microorganisms. Its deformation is highly time and stress dependent, and governed by a transition from distributed to localized deformation at the onset of yield, affected by mechanisms such as subcritical crack growth and pore collapse. We present a microdeformation rig which makes use of thermal expansion as a means of subjecting small samples to strictly controlled tensile stresses. High resolution imaging provides resolutions down to 0.5 micrometers, enabling study of pore scale processes during slow deformation. Examples of localized and distributed deformation are presented.

12. Carbon dioxide modified subcritical water chromatography.

PubMed

Fogwill, Michael O; Thurbide, Kevin B

2008-07-18

A novel method of increasing the elution strength in subcritical water chromatography (SWC) by adding CO2 to the water mobile phase is presented. Since the polarity of water reduces dramatically with increasing temperature, this property is used in SWC to create an isocratic mobile phase with tunable elutropic strength in reversed-phase separations. Unfortunately, thermal stability of the stationary phase dictates the upper temperature limit and therefore also the minimum available mobile phase polarity. As a result SWC is often not very effective at eluting non-polar analytes. However, when CO2 is blended into subcritical water, a considerable reduction in mobile phase polarity results and improves such separations. For example, in conventional SWC 1-octanol is not observed to elute from a PRP-1 column after several hours at the maximum column temperature of 200 degrees C. In contrast to this, when CO2 is present at 180atm (1atm=101325Pa) in the mobile phase, 1-octanol elutes with good peak shape in less than 4min at only 100 degrees C. The technique is applied to the separation of a variety of analytes which have previously been challenging or even not possible to analyze by conventional SWC. Further, the ability to use temperature and composition programming with the blended CO2/water mobile phase in SWC is also presented and discussed. Overall, the developed method considerably extends the range of non-polar analytes amenable to SWC analysis, while maintaining the beneficial conventional SWC features of flame ionization detection and environmental compatibility.

13. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids

Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.

2016-10-01

A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

14. Structural changes in microcrystalline cellulose in subcritical water treatment.

PubMed

Tolonen, Lasse K; Zuckerstätter, Gerhard; Penttilä, Paavo A; Milacher, Walter; Habicht, Wilhelm; Serimaa, Ritva; Kruse, Andrea; Sixta, Herbert

2011-07-11

Subcritical water is a high potential green chemical for the hydrolysis of cellulose. In this study microcrystalline cellulose was treated in subcritical water to study structural changes of the cellulose residues. The alterations in particle size and appearance were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and those in the degree of polymerization (DP) and molar mass distributions by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Further, changes in crystallinity and crystallite dimensions were quantified by wide-angle X-ray scattering and (13)C solid-state NMR. The results showed that the crystallinity remained practically unchanged throughout the treatment, whereas the size of the remaining cellulose crystallites increased. Microcrystalline cellulose underwent significant depolymerization in subcritical water. However, depolymerization leveled off at a relatively high degree of polymerization. The molar mass distributions of the residues showed a bimodal form. We infer that cellulose gets dissolved in subcritical water only after extensive depolymerization.

15. 30 CFR 250.415 - What must my casing and cementing programs include?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... include? 250.415 Section 250.415 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.415 What must my casing...

16. 30 CFR 250.527 - What must I include in my casing pressure request?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.527 What must I include in...: (a) API number; (b) Lease number; (c) Area name and OCS block number; (d) Well number; (e)...

17. Determination of subcritical frequency and damping from B-1 flight flutter test data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dobbs, S. K.; Hodson, C. H.

1979-01-01

The application of the time-lag products correlation/frequency analysis procedure to determine subcritical frequency and damping from structural response measurements made during flight flutter test of the B-1 prototype airplane is described. The analysis procedure, the test airplane, and flight test procedures are discussed. Summary frequency and damping results are presented for six transonic flight conditions. Illustrative results obtained by applying various options and variations of the analysis method are included for one flight condition.

18. Subcritical growth of natural hydraulic fractures

Garagash, D.

2014-12-01

Joints are the most common example of brittle tensile failure in the crust. Their genesis at depth is linked to the natural hydraulic fracturing, which requires pore fluid pressure in excess of the minimum in situ stress [Pollard and Aidyn, JSG1988]. Depending on the geological setting, high pore pressure can result form burial compaction of interbedded strata, diagenesis, or tectonics. Common to these loading scenarios is slow build-up of pore pressure over a geological timescale, until conditions for initiation of crack growth are met on favorably oriented/sized flaws. The flaws can vary in size from grain-size cracks in igneous rocks to a fossil-size flaws in clastic rock, and once activated, are inferred to propagate mostly subcritically [Segall JGR 1984; Olson JGR 1993]. Despite many observational studies of natural hydraulic fractures, the modeling attempts appear to be few [Renshaw and Harvey JGR 1994]. Here, we use boundary integral formulation for the pore fluid inflow from the permeable rock into a propagating joint [Berchenko et al. IJRMMS 1997] coupled with the criteria for subcritical propagation assisted by the environmental effects of pore fluid at the crack tip to solve for the evolution of a penny-shape joint, which, in interbedded rock, may eventually evolve to short-blade geometry (propagation confined to a bed). Initial growth is exceedingly slow, paced by the stress corrosion reaction kinetics at the crack tip. During this stage the crack is fully-drained (i.e. the fluid pressure in the crack is equilibrated with the ambient pore pressure). This "slow" stage is followed by a rapid acceleration, driven by the increase of the mechanical stress intensity factor with the crack length, towards the terminal joint velocity. We provide an analytical expression for the latter as a function of the rock diffusivity, net pressure loading at the initiation (or flaw lengthscale), and parameters describing resistance to fracture growth. Due to a much slower

19. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

2016-11-01

When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

20. Experimental study of elliptical jet from supercritical to subcritical conditions using planar laser induced fluorescence

Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

2015-03-01

The study of fluid jet dynamics at supercritical conditions involves strong coupling between fluid dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena. Beyond the critical point, the liquid-vapor coexistence ceases to exist, and the fluid exists as a single phase known as supercritical fluid with its properties that are entirely different from liquids and gases. At the critical point, the liquids do not possess surface tension and latent heat of evaporation. Around the critical point, the fluid undergoes large changes in density and possesses thermodynamic anomaly like enhancement in thermal conductivity and specific heat. In the present work, the transition of the supercritical and near-critical elliptical jet into subcritical as well as supercritical environment is investigated experimentally with nitrogen and helium as the surrounding environment. Under atmospheric condition, a liquid jet injected from the elliptical orifice exhibits axis switching phenomena. As the injection temperature increases, the axis switching length also increases. Beyond the critical temperature, the axis switching is not observed. The investigation also revealed that pressure plays a major role in determining the thermodynamic transition of the elliptical jet only for the case of supercritical jet injected into subcritical chamber conditions. At larger pressures, the supercritical jet undergoes disintegration and formation of droplets in the subcritical environment is observed. However, for supercritical jet injection into supercritical environment, the gas-gas like mixing behavior is observed.

1. Experimental study of elliptical jet from supercritical to subcritical conditions using planar laser induced fluorescence

SciTech Connect

Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

2015-03-15

The study of fluid jet dynamics at supercritical conditions involves strong coupling between fluid dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena. Beyond the critical point, the liquid-vapor coexistence ceases to exist, and the fluid exists as a single phase known as supercritical fluid with its properties that are entirely different from liquids and gases. At the critical point, the liquids do not possess surface tension and latent heat of evaporation. Around the critical point, the fluid undergoes large changes in density and possesses thermodynamic anomaly like enhancement in thermal conductivity and specific heat. In the present work, the transition of the supercritical and near-critical elliptical jet into subcritical as well as supercritical environment is investigated experimentally with nitrogen and helium as the surrounding environment. Under atmospheric condition, a liquid jet injected from the elliptical orifice exhibits axis switching phenomena. As the injection temperature increases, the axis switching length also increases. Beyond the critical temperature, the axis switching is not observed. The investigation also revealed that pressure plays a major role in determining the thermodynamic transition of the elliptical jet only for the case of supercritical jet injected into subcritical chamber conditions. At larger pressures, the supercritical jet undergoes disintegration and formation of droplets in the subcritical environment is observed. However, for supercritical jet injection into supercritical environment, the gas-gas like mixing behavior is observed.

2. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

SciTech Connect

Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

2016-06-01

This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

3. Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems

SciTech Connect

Bell, C.R.

1995-10-01

Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved is very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible.

4. Subcritical transmutation of spent nuclear fuel

Sommer, Christopher M.

2011-07-01

A series of fuel cycle simulations were performed using CEA's reactor physics code ERANOS 2.0 to analyze the transmutation performance of the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR). SABR is a fusion-fission hybrid reactor that combines the leading sodium cooled fast reactor technology with the leading tokamak plasma technology based on ITER physics. Two general fuel cycles were considered for the SABR system. The first fuel cycle is one in which all of the transuranics from light water reactors are burned in SABR. The second fuel cycle is a minor actinide burning fuel cycle in which all of the minor actinides and some of the plutonium produced in light water reactors are burned in SABR, with the excess plutonium being set aside for starting up fast reactors in the future. The minor actinide burning fuel cycle is being considered in European Scenario Studies. The fuel cycles were evaluated on the basis of TRU/MA transmutation rate, power profile, accumulated radiation damage, and decay heat to the repository. Each of the fuel cycles are compared against each other, and the minor actinide burning fuel cycles are compared against the EFIT transmutation system, and a low conversion ratio fast reactor.

5. Neutrino Physics with Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

Ciuffoli, Emilio

2017-09-01

Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS) reactors are being developed around the world, to produce energy and, at the same time, to provide an efficient way to dispose of and to recycle nuclear waste. Used nuclear fuel, by itself, cannot sustain a chain reaction; however in ADS reactors the additional neutrons which are required will be supplied by a high-intensity accelerator. This accelerator will produce, as a by-product, a large quantity of {\\bar{ν }}μ via muon Decay At Rest (µDAR). Using liquid scintillators, it will be possible to to measure the CP-violating phase δCP and to look for experimental signs of the presence of sterile neutrinos in the appearance channel, testing the LSND and MiniBooNE anomalies. Even in the first stage of the project, when the beam energy will be lower, it will be possible to produce {\\bar{ν }}e via Isotope Decay At Rest (IsoDAR), which can be used to provide competitive bounds on sterile neutrinos in the disappearance channel. I will consider several experimental setups in which the antineutrinos are created using accelerators that will be constructed as part of the China-ADS program.

6. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate in sub-critical water in fused silica capillary reactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pan, Z.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

2009-01-01

The advantages of using fused silica capillary reactor (FSCR) instead of conventional autoclave for studying chemical reactions at elevated pressure and temperature conditions were demonstrated in this study, including the allowance for visual observation under a microscope and in situ Raman spectroscopic characterization of polycarbonate and coexisting phases during hydrolysis in subcritical water. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

7. Fibrous hamartoma of infancy: a clinicopathologic study of 145 cases, including 2 with sarcomatous features.

PubMed

Al-Ibraheemi, Alyaa; Martinez, Anthony; Weiss, Sharon W; Kozakewich, Harry P; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R; Tran, Henry; Parham, David M; Sukov, William R; Fritchie, Karen J; Folpe, Andrew L

2017-04-01

clinicopathologic features, including the triphasic morphologic appearance of most cases. In contrast to earlier studies, our series illustrates a broader histologic spectrum than previously appreciated, including its close resemblance to giant cell fibroblastoma in one quarter of cases and the rare presence of 'sarcomatous' areas, the latter providing evidence that these are complex neoplasms rather than hamartomas.

8. MCNPX, MONK, and ERANOS analyses of the YALINA booster subcritical assembly.

SciTech Connect

Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Aliberti, G.; Cao, Y.; Smith, D.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.; Serafimovich, I.

2011-05-01

This paper compares the numerical results obtained from various nuclear codes and nuclear data libraries with the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly (Minsk, Belarus) experimental results. This subcritical assembly was constructed to study the physics and the operation of accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS) for transmuting the light water reactors (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. The YALINA Booster facility has been accurately modeled, with no material homogenization, by the Monte Carlo codes MCNPX (MCNP/MCB) and MONK. The MONK geometrical model matches that of MCNPX. The assembly has also been analyzed by the deterministic code ERANOS. In addition, the differences between the effective neutron multiplication factor and the source multiplication factors have been examined by alternative calculational methodologies. The analyses include the delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime, generation time, neutron flux profiles, and spectra in various experimental channels. The accuracy of the numerical models has been enhanced by accounting for all material impurities and the actual density of the polyethylene material used in the assembly (the latter value was obtained by dividing the total weight of the polyethylene by its volume in the numerical model). There is good agreement between the results from MONK, MCNPX, and ERANOS. The ERANOS results show small differences relative to the other results because of material homogenization and the energy and angle discretizations.The MCNPX results match the experimental measurements of the {sup 3}He(n,p) reaction rates obtained with the californium neutron source.

9. Fermentable hexose production from corn stalks and wheat straw with combined supercritical and subcritical hydrothermal technology.

PubMed

Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hong-Tao; Yang, Jin-Long

2009-12-01

Lignocellulosic wastes, including corn stalks and wheat straw, were pretreated and hydrolyzed with combined supercritical and subcritical hydrothermal technology. Soluble sugars were collected by pre-washing the crushed materials before hydrolysis. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, temperature, and reaction time on oligosaccharide production were investigated and the optimum supercritical conditions were found to be 20 mg/2.5 ml water, 384 degrees C, 17 s for corn stalks and 20 mg/2.5 ml water, 384 degrees C, 19 s for wheat straw. Subsequent subcritical processing of the hydrolyzate (with or without the water extract) from supercritical treatment was guided by a previous analysis of cellulose hydrolysis kinetics. The highest yield of fermentable hexoses from corn stalks (27.4% of raw material) was obtained at 280 degrees C, 27 s, and from wheat straw (6.7% of raw material) at 280 degrees C, 54 s. This study provides novel key parameters for fermentable hexose production from lignocellulosic feedstocks using combined supercritical and subcritical hydrothermal treatment.

10. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

PubMed

Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

2014-03-01

All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material.

11. CD34 + tumours of the orbit including solitary fibrous tumours: a six-case series.

PubMed

Jung, Su Kyung; Paik, Ji Sun; Park, Gyeong Sin; Yang, Suk-Woo

2017-04-27

To report six cases of CD34+ fibroblastic mesenchymal tumours, which are uncommon neoplasms in the orbit. Six patients presenting with proptosis and palpable mass who were later diagnosed with fibrous solitary tumours, fibrous histocytoma or haemangiopericytoma in the orbit were included. All patients received radiologic examinations and surgical excision for histopathology and immunohistochemistry examinations. Five patients had no recurrence after a minimum follow-up of 12 months. One patient (case 6) experienced recurrence twice, and had debulking surgeries each time. At present, the patient still has remnant tumour in the orbit, but no growth has been detected during the past two years. The tumour size will be closely monitored. Even though fibroblastic tumours are rarely found in the orbit, they can present as a palpable mass with proptosis. Complete surgical excision is important for long-term prognosis, and immunohistochemical study is helpful for confirming pathologic diagnosis.

12. Lifestyle factors including diet and leukemia development: a case-control study from Mumbai, India.

PubMed

Balasubramaniam, Ganesh; Saoba, Sushama Laxman; Sarhade, Monika Nilesh; Kolekar, Suvarna Anand

2013-01-01

In India, among males, leukemia rates vary across the country. The present unmatched hospital-based case- control study conducted at Tata Memorial Hospital included subjects registered between the years 1997-99. There were 246 leukemia cases and 1,383 normal controls. Data on demographics, lifestyle, diet and occupation history were recorded. Cigarette (OR=2.1) and bidi smoking (OR=3.4) showed excess risk for leukemia. Odds ratios were 3.9 for fish-eaters, 0.40 for chilli eaters, 1.5 for milk drinkers and 0.60 for coffee drinkers, compared to non-drinkers/eaters. However, neither exposure to use of pesticides nor cotton dust showed any excess risk for leukemia.

13. Reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water

Olanrewaju, Kazeem Bode

The uncertainties in the continuous supply of fossil fuels from the crisis-ridden oil-rich region of the world is fast shifting focus on the need to utilize cellulosic biomass and develop more efficient technologies for its conversion to fuels and chemicals. One such technology is the rapid degradation of cellulose in supercritical water without the need for an enzyme or inorganic catalyst such as acid. This project focused on the study of reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water. Cellulose reactions at hydrothermal conditions can proceed via the homogeneous route involving dissolution and hydrolysis or the heterogeneous path of surface hydrolysis. The work is divided into three main parts. First, the detailed kinetic analysis of cellulose reactions in micro- and tubular reactors was conducted. Reaction kinetics models were applied, and kinetics parameters at both subcritical and supercritical conditions were evaluated. The second major task was the evaluation of yields of water soluble hydrolysates obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulose and starch in hydrothermal reactors. Lastly, changes in molecular weight distribution due to hydrothermolytic degradation of cellulose were investigated. These changes were also simulated based on different modes of scission, and the pattern generated from simulation was compared with the distribution pattern from experiments. For a better understanding of the reaction kinetics of cellulose in subcritical and supercritical water, a series of reactions was conducted in the microreactor. Hydrolysis of cellulose was performed at subcritical temperatures ranging from 270 to 340 °C (tau = 0.40--0.88 s). For the dissolution of cellulose, the reaction was conducted at supercritical temperatures ranging from 375 to 395 °C (tau = 0.27--0.44 s). The operating pressure for the reactions at both subcritical and supercritical conditions was 5000 psig. The results show that the rate-limiting step in

14. Subcritical and supercritical fuel injection and mixing in single and binary species systems

Roy, Arnab

Subcritical and supercritical fluid injection using a single round injector into a quiescent atmosphere comprising single and binary species was investigated using optical diagnostics. Different disintegration and mixing modes are expected for the two cases. In the binary species case, the atmosphere comprised an inert gas of a different composition than that of the injected fluid. In single species case, the atmosphere consisted of the same species as that of the injected fluid. Density values were quantified and density gradient profiles were inferred from the experimental data. A novel method was applied for the detection of detailed structures throughout the entire jet center plane. Various combinations of injectant and chamber conditions were tested and a wide range of density ratios were covered. The subcritical cases demonstrated the importance of surface tension and inertial forces, while the supercritical cases showed no signs of surface tension and, in most situations, resembled the mixing characteristics of a gaseous jet injected into a gaseous environment. A comparison between the single and binary species systems has also been provided. A detailed laser calibration procedure was undertaken to account for the laser absorption through the gas and liquid phases and for fluorescence in the non-linear excitation regime for high laser pulse energy. Core lengths were measured for binary species cases and correlated with visualization results. An eigenvalue approach was taken to determine the location of maximum gradients for determining the core length. Jet divergence angles were also calculated and were found to increase with chamber-to-injectant density ratio for both systems. A model was proposed for the spreading angle dependence on density ratio for both single and binary species systems and was compared to existing theoretical studies and experimental work. Finally, a linear stability analysis was performed for the jet injected into both subcritical and

15. Mesoscopic approach to subcritical fatigue crack growth

Araújo, Maycon S.; Vieira, André P.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

2016-10-01

We investigate a model for fatigue crack growth in which damage accumulation is assumed to follow a power law of the local stress amplitude, a form that can be generically justified on the grounds of the approximately self-similar aspect of microcrack distributions. Our aim is to determine the relation between model ingredients and the Paris exponent governing subcritical crack-growth dynamics at the macroscopic scale, starting from a single small notch propagating along a fixed line. By a series of analytical and numerical calculations, we show that, in the absence of disorder, there is a critical damage-accumulation exponent γ , namely γc=2 , separating two distinct regimes of behavior for the Paris exponent m . For γ >γc , the Paris exponent is shown to assume the value m =γ , a result that proves robust against the separate introduction of various modifying ingredients. Explicitly, we deal here with (i) the requirement of a minimum stress for damage to occur, (ii) the presence of disorder in local damage thresholds, and (iii) the possibility of crack healing. On the other hand, in the regime γ <γc , the Paris exponent is seen to be sensitive to the different ingredients added to the model, with rapid healing or a high minimum stress for damage leading to m =2 for all γ <γc , in contrast with the linear dependence m =6 -2 γ observed for very long characteristic healing times in the absence of a minimum stress for damage. Upon the introduction of disorder on the local fatigue thresholds, which leads to the possible appearance of multiple cracks along the propagation line, the Paris exponent tends to m ≈4 for γ ≲2 while retaining the behavior m =γ for γ ≳4 .

16. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

PubMed

Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

2017-08-01

We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

17. Quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease after arsenic injections 40 years earlier: report of a case.

PubMed

Murata, K; Iwazawa, T; Takayama, T; Yamashita, K; Okagawa, K

1994-01-01

This report describes the successful treatment of quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease in a 71-year-old man who had been given injections of salvarsan, an arsenic compound, for syphilis more than 40 years earlier. Resection of a skin lesion on his chest subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of Bowen's disease, 3 years after which he was operated on for concurrent gastric cancer and sigmoid colon cancer. A fourth cancer was discovered on his left vocal cord 2 weeks after this operation; it was resected 2 years later. A discussion of multiple malignant neoplasms and the possible relationship between arsenic and cancer is presented following this case report.

18. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case

PubMed Central

de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

2017-01-01

We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures. PMID:28767982

19. Complications of Urethral Bulking Agents for Stress Urinary Incontinence: An Extensive Review Including Case Reports.

PubMed

de Vries, Allert M; Wadhwa, Harpreet; Huang, Jason; Farag, Fawzy; Heesakkers, John P F A; Kocjancic, Ervin

2017-09-26

Stress urinary incontinence in women is a common problem that significantly impacts quality of life. Periurethral injection of urethral bulking agents (UBAs) is a simple, noninvasive, and cost-effective treatment. However, complications associated with UBA are often underappreciated. Objective of this review was to get a complete overview of all published complications of UBA. An extensive search of the scientific literature was conducted to quantitatively summarize the complications and their treatments of 8 UBAs. A total of 117 articles (original articles and case reports) were included in the final analysis. Complication incidence, treatment incidence, and follow-up time were extracted when mentioned. Statistical analysis of complication incidence of each UBA was calculated if possible. A total of 2095 complications in 6462 treated patients were reported in 79 studies. Sixty-seven (3%) were considered serious implying operative correction (Clavien grade III); of these, 46 (69%) required incision and drainage, and 21 (31%) required a more invasive procedure. In 38 case reports and small case series, 49 patients were treated for 110 complications. Of these 110 complications, 41 (37%) can be classified as Clavien grade III. This extensive review shows that various UBAs have different complication rates, with certain UBAs being more prone to serious complications. Based on available publications, most UBAs have a good safety profile, with low complication rates. However, although the majority of UBA complications are transient and require no or noninvasive treatment, serious complications may require invasive intervention and treatment.

20. A fuel for sub-critical fast reactor

SciTech Connect

Moiseenko, V. E.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Agren, O.; Noack, K.

2012-06-19

Along with the problem of the nuclear waste transmutation, the problem of minimization of waste production is of current interest. It is not possible to eliminate production of waste at a nuclear power plant, but, as is shown in this report, it is in principle possible to arrange a fuel composition with no net production of transuranic elements. The idea is to find the transuranic elements composition to which the depleted uranium is continuously supplied during frequent reprocessing, and amount of each other transuranic fuel component remains unchanged in time. For each transuranic component, the balance is achieved by equating burnup and production rates. The production is due to neutron capture by the neighboring lighter isotope and subsequent beta-decay. The burnup includes fission, neutron capture and decays. For the calculations a simplified burnup model which accounts for 9 isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium is used. The calculated fuel composition consists mainly of uranium with minority of plutonium isotopes. Such a fuel, after usage in a sub-critical fast reactor, should be reprocessed. The fission product content increases during burnup, representing a net production of waste, while the transuranic elements and {sup 238}U should be recycled into a new fuel. For such a fuel cycle, the net consumption is only for 238U, and the net waste production is just fission products.

1. A fuel for sub-critical fast reactor

Moiseenko, V. E.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Ågren, O.; Noack, K.

2012-06-01

Along with the problem of the nuclear waste transmutation, the problem of minimization of waste production is of current interest. It is not possible to eliminate production of waste at a nuclear power plant, but, as is shown in this report, it is in principle possible to arrange a fuel composition with no net production of transuranic elements. The idea is to find the transuranic elements composition to which the depleted uranium is continuously supplied during frequent reprocessing, and amount of each other transuranic fuel component remains unchanged in time. For each transuranic component, the balance is achieved by equating burnup and production rates. The production is due to neutron capture by the neighboring lighter isotope and subsequent beta-decay. The burnup includes fission, neutron capture and decays. For the calculations a simplified burnup model which accounts for 9 isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium is used. The calculated fuel composition consists mainly of uranium with minority of plutonium isotopes. Such a fuel, after usage in a sub-critical fast reactor, should be reprocessed. The fission product content increases during burnup, representing a net production of waste, while the transuranic elements and 238U should be recycled into a new fuel. For such a fuel cycle, the net consumption is only for 238U, and the net waste production is just fission products.

2. Kinetic behavior of liquefaction of Japanese beech in subcritical phenol.

PubMed

Mishra, Gaurav; Saka, Shiro

2011-12-01

Non-catalytic liquefaction of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) wood in subcritical phenol was investigated using a batch-type reaction vessel. After samples were treated at 160 °C/0.9 MPa-350 °C/4.2 MPa for 3-30 min, they were fractionated into a phenol-soluble portion and phenol-insoluble residues. These residues were then analyzed for their chemical composition. Based on the obtained data, the kinetics for liquefaction was modeled using first-order reaction rate law. Subsequently, the liquefaction rate constants of the major cell wall components including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were determined. The different kinetic mechanisms were found to exist for lignin and cellulose at two different temperature ranges, lower 160-290 °C and higher 310-350 °C, whereas for hemicellulose, it was only liquefied in the lower temperature range. Thus, the liquefaction behaviors of these major cell wall components highlighted hemicellulose to be the most susceptible to liquefaction, followed by lignin and cellulose.

3. Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) Risk Management Plan

SciTech Connect

Urban, Mary Elizabeth

2016-05-02

Risk is a factor, element, constraint, or course of action that introduces an uncertainty of outcome that could impact project objectives. Risk is an inherent part of all activities, whether the activity is simple and small, or large and complex. Risk management is a process that identifies, evaluates, handles, and monitors risks that have the potential to affect project success. The risk management process spans the entire project, from its initiation to its successful completion and closeout, including both technical and programmatic (non-technical) risks. This Risk Management Plan (RMP) defines the process to be used for identifying, evaluating, handling, and monitoring risks as part of the overall management of the Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) ‘Project’. Given the changing nature of the project environment, risk management is essentially an ongoing and iterative process, which applies the best efforts of a knowledgeable project staff to a suite of focused and prioritized concerns. The risk management process itself must be continually applied throughout the project life cycle. This document was prepared in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, its associated guide for risk management DOE G 413.3-7, Risk Management Guide, and LANL ADPM AP-350-204, Risk and Opportunity Management.

4. Metastatic atypical fibroxanthoma: a series of 11 cases including with minimal and no subcutaneous involvement.

PubMed

Wang, Wei-Lien; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Curry, Jonathan L; Ivan, Doina; McLemore, Michael; Tetzlaff, Michael; Zembowicz, Artur; Prieto, Victor G; Lazar, Alexander J

2015-06-01

5. Reactor Dynamics Experiments with a Sub-Critical Assembly

SciTech Connect

Miley, G.H.; Yang, Y.; Wu, L.; Momota, H.

2004-10-06

A resurgence in use of nuclear power is now underway worldwide. However due to the shutdown of many university research reactors , student laboratories must rely more heavily on use of sub-critical assemblies. Here a driven sub-critical is described that uses a cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device to provide a fusion neutron source. The small IEC neutron source would be inserted in a fuel element position, with its power input controlled externally at a control panel. This feature opens the way to use of the critical assembly for a number of transient experiments such as sub-critical pulsing and neutron wave propagation. That in turn adds important new insights and excitement for the student teaching laboratory.

6. Nonlinear excitation of subcritical fast ion-driven modes

Lesur, M.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Inagaki, S.; Osakabe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shimizu, A.; Ida, K.; the LHD experiment Group

2016-05-01

In collisionless plasma, it is known that linearly stable modes can be destabilized (subcritically) by the presence of structures in phase-space. The growth of such structures is a nonlinear, kinetic mechanism, which provides a channel for free-energy extraction, different from conventional inverse Landau damping. However, such nonlinear growth requires the presence of a seed structure with a relatively large threshold in amplitude. We demonstrate that, in the presence of another, linearly unstable (supercritical) mode, wave-wave coupling can provide a seed, which can lead to subcritical instability by either one of two mechanisms. Both mechanisms hinge on a collaboration between fluid nonlinearity and kinetic nonlinearity. If collisional velocity diffusion is low enough, the seed provided by the supercritical mode overcomes the threshold for nonlinear growth of phase-space structure. Then, the supercritical mode triggers the conventional subcritical instability. If collisional velocity diffusion is too large, the seed is significantly below the threshold, but can still grow by a sustained collaboration between fluid and kinetic nonlinearities. Both of these subcritical instabilities can be triggered, even when the frequency of the supercritical mode is rapidly sweeping. These results were obtained by modeling the subcritical mode kinetically, and the impact of the supercritical mode by simple wave-wave coupling equations. This model is applied to bursty onset of geodesic acoustic modes in an LHD experiment. The model recovers several key features such as relative amplitude, timescales, and phase relations. It suggests that the strongest bursts are subcritical instabilities, with sustained collaboration between fluid and kinetic nonlinearities.

7. Subcritical-supercritical bifurcation crossover in directional solidification

SciTech Connect

Liu, D.; Williams, L.; Cummins, H. )

1994-12-01

The Mullins-Sekerka planar-cellular instability in directional solidification should be subcritical when the partition coefficient [ital k][lt]0.45 and latent heat is ignored. However, Merchant and Davis [Phys. Rev. Lett. [bold 63], 573 (1989)] predicted that as the solute concentration is reduced, the increasingly important thermal diffusion field would lead to a crossover from a subcritical to a supercritical bifurcation. We have performed directional solidification experiments on a series of succinonitrile samples containing different concentrations of Coumarin 152, and have found preliminary evidence for the predicted crossover at a concentration [ital C][sub [ital t

8. Spinal meningiomas in dogs: Description of 8 cases including a novel radiological and histopathological presentation

PubMed Central

José-López, Roberto; de la Fuente, Cristian; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sonia

2013-01-01

Clinical, imaging, and histological features of 8 canine spinal meningiomas, including a cervical cystic meningioma with imaging and intraoperative features of an arachnoid cyst, are described. All meningiomas were histologically classified and graded following the international World Health Organization human classification for tumors. Six meningiomas were located in the cervical spinal cord. Myelography showed intradural/ extramedullary lesions in 3/4 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense intradural/extramedullary masses on pre-contrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with homogeneous contrast enhancement in 7/8 cases. One dog had a cerebrospinal fluid-filled subarachnoid cavity dorsal to the cervical spinal cord. A spinal arachnoid cyst was diagnosed on imaging, but the histopathological study of the resected tissue revealed a grade I meningothelial cystic meningioma. There were no differences in outcome associated with tumor grade and surgical treatment (6/8). Cystic meningioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraspinal cystic lesions, and biopsy is necessary for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24155414

9. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: A Case Report Including a Provocation Test

PubMed Central

Bok, Gene Hyun; Kim, Yang-Ki; Lee, Young Mok; Kim, Ki-Up; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Dong Won

2008-01-01

The mechanism and cause of acute eosinophilic pneumonia are largely unknown. Many factors including the smoking of cigarettes have been suggested, but none have been proven to directly cause acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The authors report a case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a young Asian male who recently started smoking. The diagnosis was made based on his clinical course and results of chest radiography, lung spirometry, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial lung biopsies. After administration of methylprednisolone, his clinical course rapidly improved. A provocation test was designed to establish a connection between cigarette smoking and the development of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. After the provocation test, the patient showed identical symptoms, increase in sputum eosinophils, and worsening of pulmonary function. The results of the provocation test suggest that smoking may directly cause acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and support previous reports of cigarette smoking-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:18303214

10. Verrucous Oesophageal Carcinoma: Single Case Report and Case Series Including 15 Patients – Issues for Consideration of Therapeutic Strategies

PubMed Central

Behrens, Angelika; Stolte, Manfred; Pech, Oliver; May, Andrea; Ell, Christian

2014-01-01

Background Verrucous carcinomas (VC) of the oesophagus are a rarity. Due to their histological resemblance to squamous cell carcinoma, the diagnostic and treatment standards applicable to the latter have so far also been applied to VC as a disease entity. Quite limited data are available including two case series of 5 or 11 patients. The present study reports on a single case treated by local endoscopic therapy and a series of 15 patients, 9 of whom received local endoscopic therapy. Methods The data for patients diagnosed with VC of the oesophagus who had been treated from January 1999 to May 2011 were analysed retrospectively. Results 15 patients with the diagnosis of oesophageal VC were included. The male-female ratio was 3:1. 9 of 11 pT1-VC patients presented with the cardinal symptom dysphagia or odynophagia. For the majority of the patients, the growth pattern is one of extensive superficial expansion showing a median length of 9 cm (range: 2-22 cm). Surprisingly, none of the VC patients showed lymph node or distant metastasis. 9 of 15 VC patients received local endoscopic therapy; 4 were treated with curative intent and 5 were treated palliatively. 3 patients underwent oesophageal resection, and definitive chemoradiotherapy was administered in a further 3 patients. One severe complication, consisting of a postoperative anastomotic insufficiency with a fatal outcome, occurred in this group of patients. Conclusion This is the largest published study describing patients diagnosed with VC of the oesophagus so far. The option of local endoscopic therapy and its results in 9 patients are reported for the first time. The superficial growth pattern of the tumour and the frequent absence of lymph node or distant metastasis suggest that endoscopic resection can be carried out as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic approach. Due to the rarity of this entity, the case numbers are unfortunately so limited that evidence-based recommendations are unlikely to become available

11. GATA-3 EXPRESSION IN TROPHOBLASTIC TISSUES: An Immunohistochemical Study of 445 Cases, Including Diagnostic Utility

PubMed Central

Banet, Natalie; Gown, Allen M.; Shih, Ie-Ming; Li, Qing Kay; Roden, Richard B.S.; Nucci, Marisa R.; Cheng, Liang; Przybycin, Christopher G.; Nasseri-Nik, Niloofar; Wu, Lee-Shu-Fune; Netto, George J.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vang, Russell

2014-01-01

Immunohistochemical expression of GATA-3 is seen predominantly in non-neoplastic bladder and breast epithelium and their respective carcinomas; however, data on expression in normal and lesional trophoblastic tissues are limited. Immunohistochemical staining for GATA-3 was assessed in a range of normal/lesional trophoblastic tissues and tumors in the differential diagnosis (n=445), including non-molar products of conceptions/2nd and 3rd trimester placentas/ ectopic pregnancies, hydatidiform moles, placental site nodules, normal/exaggerated implantation sites, choriocarcinomas, epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, placental site trophoblastic tumors, atypical smooth muscle tumors (including leiomyosarcoma), and cervical and pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas. The extent of expression (0 to 4+) and intensity (weak to strong) were recorded. All cases with developing trophoblast/non-neoplastic trophoblastic proliferations and 81% of trophoblastic neoplasms were positive. Of all non-neoplastic trophoblast cell types, expression was observed in cytotrophoblast in 89% of cases, syncytiotrophoblast in 50%, intermediate trophoblast in 100%, and villous trophoblastic columns in 100%. Increasing gestational age was associated with a decrease in extent/intensity of expression in non-neoplastic cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast while intermediate trophoblast maintained diffuse and strong expression from early to late gestation (p<0.0001). Eighty-nine percent of normal/exaggerated implantation sites showed 3+ or 4+ expression while staining in 55% of placental site nodules was 1+ or 2+. Staining for GATA-3 was present in 78% of choriocarcinomas, 95% of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, and 71% of placental site trophoblastic tumors. While the number of choriocarcinomas and placental site trophoblastic tumors that showed a spectrum of expression ranging from negative to diffuse was relatively evenly distributed, 81% of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors had 3+ or 4+ staining

12. An atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes FMRI gene

SciTech Connect

Quan, F.; Zonana, J.; Gunter, K.; Peterson, K.L.; Magenis, R.E., Popovich, B.W.

1995-05-01

Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene. In the vast majority of cases, this is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat in the first exon of the FMR1 gene. We describe here a phenotypically atypical case of fragile X syndrome, caused by a deletion that includes the entire FMR1 gene and {ge}9.0 Mb of flanking DNA. The proband, RK, was a 6-year-old mentally retarded male with obesity and anal atresia. A diagnosis of fragile X syndrome was established by the failure of RKs DNA to hybridize to a 558-bp PstI-XhoI fragment (pfxa3) specific for the 5{prime}-end of the FMR1 gene. The analysis of flanking markers in the interval from Xq26.3-q28 indicated a deletion extending from between 160-500 kb distal and 9.0 Mb proximal to the FMR1 gene. High-resolution chromosome banding confirmed a deletion with breakpoints in Xq26.3 and Xq27.3. This deletion was maternally transmitted and arose as a new mutation on the grandpaternal X chromosome. The maternal transmission of the deletion was confirmed by FISH using a 34-kb cosmid (c31.4) containing most of the FMR1 gene. These results indicated that RK carried a deletion of the FMR1 region with the most proximal breakpoint described to date. This patients unusual clinical presentation may indicate the presence of genes located in the deleted interval proximal to the FMR1 locus that are able to modify the fragile X syndrome phenotype. 36 refs., 7 figs.

13. Intracranial hypotension producing reversible coma: a systematic review, including three new cases.

PubMed

Loya, Joshua J; Mindea, Stefan A; Yu, Hong; Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Chang, Steven D; Burns, Terry C

2012-09-01

Intracranial hypotension is a disorder of CSF hypovolemia due to iatrogenic or spontaneous spinal CSF leakage. Rarely, positional headaches may progress to coma, with frequent misdiagnosis. The authors review reported cases of verified intracranial hypotension-associated coma, including 3 previously unpublished cases, totaling 29. Most patients presented with headache prior to neurological deterioration, with positional symptoms elicited in almost half. Eight patients had recently undergone a spinal procedure such as lumbar drainage. Diagnostic workup almost always began with a head CT scan. Subdural collections were present in 86%; however, intracranial hypotension was frequently unrecognized as the underlying cause. Twelve patients underwent one or more procedures to evacuate the collections, sometimes with transiently improved mental status. However, no patient experienced lasting neurological improvement after subdural fluid evacuation alone, and some deteriorated further. Intracranial hypotension was diagnosed in most patients via MRI studies, which were often obtained due to failure to improve after subdural hematoma (SDH) evacuation. Once the diagnosis of intracranial hypotension was made, placement of epidural blood patches was curative in 85% of patients. Twenty-seven patients (93%) experienced favorable outcomes after diagnosis and treatment; 1 patient died, and 1 patient had a morbid outcome secondary to duret hemorrhages. The literature review revealed that numerous additional patients with clinical histories consistent with intracranial hypotension but no radiological confirmation developed SDH following a spinal procedure. Several such patients experienced poor outcomes, and there were multiple deaths. To facilitate recognition of this treatable but potentially life-threatening condition, the authors propose criteria that should prompt intracranial hypotension workup in the comatose patient and present a stepwise management algorithm to guide the

14. 30 CFR 250.527 - What must I include in my casing pressure request?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

..., riser, and tubing sizes, weights, grades, and MIYP; (g) All casing/riser calculated MAWOPs; (h) All casing/riser pre-bleed down pressures; (i) Shut-in tubing pressure; (j) Flowing tubing pressure; (k) Date...) Volumes and types of fluid bled from each casing or riser evaluated; (r) Type of diagnostic test...

15. Subcritical crack growth behavior of dispersion oxide ceramics.

PubMed

Kirsten, Armin; Begand, Sabine; Oberbach, Thomas; Telle, Rainer; Fischer, Horst

2010-10-01

Zirconia (Y-TZP) is used as material for components of implants and prostheses because of its high short-term strength. The mechanical long-term reliability, however, is limited for Y-TZP because of hydrothermal aging effects and a pronounced tendency for subcritical crack growth. The hypothesis of this study was that a substantial amount of alumina in a zirconia matrix can help to significantly suppress subcritical crack growth and thereby improve the mechanical long-term reliability. The Weibull parameters as well as the parameters of the subcritical crack growth were determined for Alumina, Y-TZP, and two dispersion ceramics, that is Alumina Toughened Zirconia (ATZ, 20% alumina/80% Y-TZP), and Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA, 75% alumina/25% Y-TZP). The long-term failure probability as a function of service time was predicted for the four ceramics. The parameter n of the subcritical crack growth was approx. 80% higher for ATZ compared to Y-TZP. In consequence, the estimated lifetime revealed a significant better mechanical long-term reliability for ATZ. It can be concluded that tailored dispersion oxide ceramics can address the aging problem of monolithic zirconia. This makes ATZ very interesting for components of joint replacement as well as for dental prostheses and implants.

16. Extraction of antioxidants from Chlorella sp. using subcritical water treatment

Zakaria, S. M.; Mustapa Kamal, S. M.; Harun, M. R.; Omar, R.; Siajam, S. I.

2017-06-01

Chlorella sp. microalgae is one of the main source of natural bioactive compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subcritical water extraction is the technique that offers an efficient, non-toxic, and environmental-friendly method to obtain natural ingredients. In this work, the extracts of Chlorella sp. microalgae was evaluated in terms of: chemical composition, extraction (polysaccharides) yield and antioxidant activity, using subcritical water extraction. Extractions were performed at temperatures ranging from 100°C to 300°C. The results show that by using subcritical water, the highest yield of polysaccharides is 23.6 that obtained at 150°C. Analysis on the polysaccharides yield show that the contents were highly influenced by the extraction temperature. The individual antioxidant activity were evaluated by in vitro assay using a free radical method. In general, the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained at different water temperatures was high, with values of 31.08-54.29 . The results indicated that extraction by subcritical water was effective and Chlorella sp. can be a useful source of natural antioxidants.

17. Subcritical Destabilization of African Easterly Waves by Saharan Mineral Dust

Nathan, T. R.; Grogan, D.; Chen, S. H.

2016-12-01

A theoretical framework is presented that exposes the radiative-dynamical relationships that govern the subcritical destabilization of African easterly waves (AEWs) by Saharan mineral dust (SMD) aerosols. The framework is built on coupled equations for quasigeostrophic potential vorticity, temperature, and SMD mixing ratio. A perturbation analysis yields, for a subcritical, but otherwise arbitrary, zonal-mean background state, analytical expressions for the growth rate and frequency of the AEWs. The expressions are functions of the domain-averaged wave activity, which is primarily modulated by the background potential vorticity gradient, Doppler-shifted phase speed, and spatial variations in the background SMD field. Using an idealized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that is coupled to an interactive dust model, a linear analysis shows, in agreement with the theoretical prediction, that for a realistic, subcritical African easterly jet (AEJ) and background SMD distribution consistent with observations, the SMD destabilizes the AEWs and slows their eastward propagation. The SMD-induced growth rates are commensurate with those obtained in previous dust-free studies in which the AEWs grow on AEJs that are supercritical with respect to the threshold for barotropic-baroclinic instability. The clarity of the theoretical framework can serve as a tool for understanding and predicting the effects of SMD aerosols on the linear instability of AEWs in subcritical, zonally averaged AEJs.

18. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

SciTech Connect

Salvatores, Massimo

2012-06-19

The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

19. Subcritical crack-growth behavior in advanced silicon nitride ceramics

Bhatnagar, Ajay

20. Conversion of Japanese red pine wood (Pinus densiflora) into valuable chemicals under subcritical water conditions.

PubMed

Asghari, Feridoun Salak; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

2010-01-11

A comparative study on the decomposition of Japanese red pine wood under subcritical water conditions in the presence and absence of phosphate buffer was investigated in a batch-type reaction vessel. Since cellulose makes up more than 40-45% of the components found in most wood species, a series of experiments were also carried out using pure cellulose as a model for woody biomass. Several parameters such as temperature and residence time, as well as pH effects, were investigated in detail. The best temperature for decomposition and hydrolysis of pure cellulose was found around 270 degrees C. The effects of the initial pH of the solution which ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 were studied. It was found that the pH has a considerable effect on the hydrolysis and decomposition of the cellulose. Several products in the aqueous phase were identified and quantified. The conditions obtained from the subcritical water treatment of pure cellulose were applied for the Japanese red pine wood chips. As a result, even in the absence of acid catalyst, a large amount of wood sample was hydrolyzed in water; however, by using phosphate buffer at pH 2, there was an increase in the hydrolysis and dissolution of the wood chips. In addition to the water-soluble phase, acetone-soluble and water-acetone-insoluble phases were also isolated after subcritical water treatment (which can be attributed mainly to the degraded lignin, tar, and unreacted wood chips, respectively). The initial wood:acid ratio in the case of reactions catalyzed by phosphate buffer was also investigated. The results showed that this weight ratio can be as high as 3:1 without changing the catalytic activity. The size of the wood chips as one of the most important experimental parameters was also investigated.

1. Subcritical transition scenarios via linear and nonlinear localized optimal perturbations in plane Poiseuille flow

Farano, Mirko; Cherubini, Stefania; Robinet, Jean-Christophe; De Palma, Pietro

2016-12-01

Subcritical transition in plane Poiseuille flow is investigated by means of a Lagrange-multiplier direct-adjoint optimization procedure with the aim of finding localized three-dimensional perturbations optimally growing in a given time interval (target time). Space localization of these optimal perturbations (OPs) is achieved by choosing as objective function either a p-norm (with p\\gg 1) of the perturbation energy density in a linear framework; or the classical (1-norm) perturbation energy, including nonlinear effects. This work aims at analyzing the structure of linear and nonlinear localized OPs for Poiseuille flow, and comparing their transition thresholds and scenarios. The nonlinear optimization approach provides three types of solutions: a weakly nonlinear, a hairpin-like and a highly nonlinear optimal perturbation, depending on the value of the initial energy and the target time. The former shows localization only in the wall-normal direction, whereas the latter appears much more localized and breaks the spanwise symmetry found at lower target times. Both solutions show spanwise inclined vortices and large values of the streamwise component of velocity already at the initial time. On the other hand, p-norm optimal perturbations, although being strongly localized in space, keep a shape similar to linear 1-norm optimal perturbations, showing streamwise-aligned vortices characterized by low values of the streamwise velocity component. When used for initializing direct numerical simulations, in most of the cases nonlinear OPs provide the most efficient route to transition in terms of time to transition and initial energy, even when they are less localized in space than the p-norm OP. The p-norm OP follows a transition path similar to the oblique transition scenario, with slightly oscillating streaks which saturate and eventually experience secondary instability. On the other hand, the nonlinear OP rapidly forms large-amplitude bent streaks and skips the phases

2. Severe third molar complications including death-lessons from 100 cases requiring hospitalization.

PubMed

Kunkel, Martin; Kleis, Wilfried; Morbach, Thomas; Wagner, Wilfried

2007-09-01

In this study we investigated patients that were hospitalized due to third molar (M3) complications. Specifically we analyzed frequency, age distribution, and outcome with respect to the M3 clinical status. We set up a prospective cohort study and included 100 subjects admitted for management of acute M3-associated complications. The clinical status of the M3 was defined as 1) prophylactic M3 removal, 2) therapeutic (nonelective) M3 removal, or 3) M3 present at the time of admission. Outcome variables were clinical infection markers (C-reactive protein, leukocyte counts) and economic parameters (treatment costs, length of hospital stay, and days of disability). Nonparametric tests were used for comparison of subpopulations (surgical vs nonsurgical, prophylaxis-related vs nonprophylaxis-related). One third of the 100 patients were age 40 or older. Overall 80 severe infections, 11 mandibular fractures, 3 nerve injuries, 5 tooth/root luxations, and 1 postoperative hemorrhage were noticed. Twenty-seven complications resulted from prophylactic surgery, 44 from nonelective removal, and 29 from pericoronitis. Postoperatively, a 77-year-old male patient hospitalized with nonelective removal sustained fatal myocardial infarction. Treatment costs were 260,086 euro (mean 2,608 euro/case); total days of disability were 1,534. The postsurgical complications showed higher C-reactive protein values compared with pericoronitis-induced complications. Within the catchment area of our institution, the majority of complications requiring hospitalization resulted from diseased third molars or their removal. Side effects of observational strategies such as the shifting of complications to higher ages deserve future attention.

3. Caroli's disease: study of six cases, including one with epithelial dysplasia.

PubMed

Meroño-Cabajosa, E A; Celdran-Uriarte, A; Moreno-Caparros, A; Solera-Arroyo, J C; Marijuan-Martin, J L

1993-01-01

Six cases of Caroli's Disease are reviewed. Three of the patients had an associated form of the disease, one of which had a congenital hepatic fibrosis, another a cystic dilatation of extrahepatic bile duct and the last one suffered both the above mentioned associated anomalies. Three patients presented with the simple form which was initially described by Caroli. The distribution of the biliary lesions was a bilobar one in four cases and monolobar in two. One patient presented areas of biliary ectasia partially lined by dysplastic epithelium. Surgical treatment was used in four cases, a left hepatectomy being carried out in two of them and an internal biliary drainage by Roux-Y hepaticojejunostomy in the other two. This is a rare disease, frequently associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis, possibly pre-malignant and whose treatment of choice is hepatic resection.

4. Multiple and various anaesthetics, ketamine included, in a young patient with familial dysautonomia, Case report.

PubMed

Dell'oste, C; Vincenti, E; Torre, G

1996-03-01

A case report is presented of a 16-year-old patient who had undergone 16 general anaesthetics by different anaesthesists and under various anaesthetic techniques for dental, endoscopic, orthopaedic and ophthalmic surgical procedures over a period of 14 years. Use of ketamine, especially in an ambulatory setting, was found more suitable in terms of cardiovascular stability, safety and patient preference.

5. 30 CFR 250.415 - What must my casing and cementing programs include?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.415 What must my casing and cementing... in Deep Water Wells (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198), if you drill a well in water...

6. 30 CFR 250.415 - What must my casing and cementing programs include?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.415 What must my casing and cementing... in Deep Water Wells (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198), if you drill a well in water...

7. 30 CFR 250.415 - What must my casing and cementing programs include?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.415 What must my casing and cementing... in Deep Water Wells (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198), if you drill a well in water...

8. Pneumoconiosis in Makers of Artificial Grinding Wheels, Including a Case of Caplan's Syndrome*

PubMed Central

Posner, E.

1960-01-01

Mass miniature radiography surveys in a factory producing artificial grinding wheels detected cases of pneumoconiosis, mostly of the silicotic type. All cases were traced to the department where the so-called “bond” is prepared and mixed with the abrasive grains of carborundum and artificial corundum. This ceramic-vitrified bond, similar in composition to English general earthenware, contained until recently a significant proportion of free silica. The miniature film survey was followed up by an investigation on full-sized films, in which 92% of all workers in the bond department participated. The radiographs were subjected to dual independent viewing and it was found that 66% of the men who had worked in the bond department for more than 10 years showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis with a high proportion of progressive massive fibrosis (P.M.F.) Recently the amount of free silica in the ceramic bond has been reduced by the introduction of “frits” in place of powdered flint and part of the factory has been rebuilt and new methods of dust suppression and dust extraction have been introduced. One of the cases presented with the rheumatoid-pneumoconiotic syndrome, first described by Caplan. It is suggested that some of the cases of pneumoconiosis, attributed to carborundum, may be due to the binding materials of artificial grinding wheels. Images PMID:14434374

9. Feedback control of transient energy growth in subcritical plane Poiseuille flow

Martinelli, Fulvio; Quadrio, Maurizio; McKernan, John; Whidborne, James F.

Subcritical flows may experience large transient perturbation energy amplifications, that could trigger nonlinear mechanisms and eventually lead to transition to turbulence. In plane Poiseuille flow, controlled via wall blowing/suction with zero net mass flux, optimal and robust control theory has been recently applied to a state-space representation of the Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire equations, leading to reduced transient growth as well as increased transition thresholds. However, to date no feedback control law has been found that is capable of ensuring the closed-loop Poiseuille flow to be monotonically stable. The present paper addresses first the possibility of complete feedback suppression of the transient growth mechanism in subcritical plane Poiseuille flow when wall actuation is available, and demonstrates that closed-loop monotonic stability cannot be achieved in such a case. Secondly, a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) technique is employed to design controllers that directly target the energy growth mechanism. The performance of such control laws is quantified by using Direct Numerical Simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow, and the increase in transition thresholds due to the control action is assessed.

10. Fatigue of Self-Healing Nanofiber-based Composites: Static Test and Subcritical Crack Propagation.

PubMed

Lee, Min Wook; Sett, Soumyadip; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L

2016-07-20

Here, we studied the self-healing of composite materials filled with epoxy-containing nanofibers. An initial incision in the middle of a composite sample stretched in a static fatigue test can result in either crack propagation or healing. In this study, crack evolution was observed in real time. A binary epoxy, which acted as a self-healing agent, was encapsulated in two separate types of interwoven nano/microfibers formed by dual-solution blowing, with the core containing either epoxy or hardener and the shell being formed from poly(vinylidene fluoride)/ poly(ethylene oxide) mixture. The core-shell fibers were encased in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix. When the fibers were damaged by a growing crack in this fiber-reinforced composite material because of static stretching in the fatigue test, they broke and released the healing agent into the crack area. The epoxy used in this study was cured and solidified for approximately an hour at room temperature, which then conglutinated and healed the damaged location. The observations were made for at least several hours and in some cases up to several days. It was revealed that the presence of the healing agent (the epoxy) in the fibers successfully prevented the propagation of cracks in stretched samples subjected to the fatigue test. A theoretical analysis of subcritical cracks was performed, and it revealed a jumplike growth of subcritical cracks, which was in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

11. Sequential extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using subcritical water.

PubMed

Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Reid, Brian J

2010-02-01

A rapid sequential subcritical (superheated) water extraction method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and sediment is presented. Decreasing the polarity of water by successive increase of the extraction temperature from 50 degrees C to 200 degrees C at the moderate pressure (10.3MPa) enabled selective, non-exhaustive extractions to be performed. Concurrent with increasing temperatures to 150 degrees C there was an increase in PAH extraction efficiencies. For the majority of determinations no significant differences between extractions at 150 degrees C and 200 degrees C were observed. Varied extraction efficiencies of PAHs at the same extraction conditions reflected dissimilarities between environmental matrices investigated. Selective subcritical water extraction of PAHs was proportional to their octanol-water partition coefficients. This technique may be applicable in evaluation of risks associated with PAH contaminated sites and in assessments of their bioremediation potential.

12. Implementing School Policies That Include Sexual Orientation: A Case Study in School and Community Politics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Macgillivray, Ian K.

This paper highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in a Rocky Mountain state in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop…

13. Subcritical patterns and dissipative solitons due to intracavity photonic crystals

SciTech Connect

Gomila, Damia; Oppo, Gian-Luca

2007-10-15

Manipulation of the bifurcation structure of nonlinear optical systems via intracavity photonic crystals is demonstrated. In particular, subcritical regions between spatially periodic states are stabilized by modulations of the material's refractive index. An family of dissipative solitons within this bistability range due to the intracavity photonic crystal is identified and characterized in both one and two transverse dimensions. Nontrivial snaking of the modulated-cavity soliton solutions is also presented.

14. Droplet turbulence interactions under subcritical and supercritical conditions

Coy, E. B.; Greenfield, S. C.; Ondas, M. S.; Song, Y.-H.; Spegar, T. D.; Santavicca, D. A.

1993-11-01

The goal of this research is to experimentally characterize the behavior of droplets in vaporizing liquid sprays under conditions typical of those encountered in high pressure combustion systems such as liquid fueled rocket engines. Of particular interest are measurements of droplet drag, droplet heating, droplet vaporization, droplet distortion, and secondary droplet breakup, under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. The paper presents a brief description of the specific accomplishments which have been made over the past year.

15. Droplet turbulence interactions under subcritical and supercritical conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coy, E. B.; Greenfield, S. C.; Ondas, M. S.; Song, Y.-H.; Spegar, T. D.; Santavicca, D. A.

1993-01-01

The goal of this research is to experimentally characterize the behavior of droplets in vaporizing liquid sprays under conditions typical of those encountered in high pressure combustion systems such as liquid fueled rocket engines. Of particular interest are measurements of droplet drag, droplet heating, droplet vaporization, droplet distortion, and secondary droplet breakup, under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. The paper presents a brief description of the specific accomplishments which have been made over the past year.

16. Subcritical dynamo bifurcation in the Taylor-Green flow.

PubMed

Ponty, Y; Laval, J-P; Dubrulle, B; Daviaud, F; Pinton, J-F

2007-11-30

We report direct numerical simulations of dynamo generation for flow generated using a Taylor-Green forcing. We find that the bifurcation is subcritical and show its bifurcation diagram. We connect the associated hysteretic behavior with hydrodynamics changes induced by the action of the Lorentz force. We show the geometry of the dynamo magnetic field and discuss how the dynamo transition can be induced when an external field is applied to the flow.

17. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the lowest-lying electronic state in subcritical and supercritical water

DOE PAGES

Marin, Timothy W.; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M.; ...

2017-05-17

The nature and extent of hydrogen bonding in water has been scrutinized for decades, including how it manifests in optical properties. Here we report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of subcritical and supercritical water. For subcritical water, the spectrum redshifts considerably with increasing temperature, demonstrating the gradual breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Tuning the density at 381°C gives insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in supercritical water. The known gas-phase spectrum, including its vibronic structure, is duplicated in the low-density limit. With increasing density, the spectrum blueshifts and the vibronic structure is quenched as themore » water monomer becomes electronically perturbed. Fits to the supercritical water spectra demonstrate consistency with dimer/trimer fractions calculated from the water virial equation of state and equilibrium constants. As a result, using the known water dimer interaction potential, we estimate the critical distance between molecules (ca. 4.5 Å) needed to explain the vibronic structure quenching.« less

18. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the lowest-lying electronic state in subcritical and supercritical water

PubMed Central

Marin, Timothy W.; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M.; Chipman, Daniel M.

2017-01-01

The nature and extent of hydrogen bonding in water has been scrutinized for decades, including how it manifests in optical properties. Here we report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of subcritical and supercritical water. For subcritical water, the spectrum redshifts considerably with increasing temperature, demonstrating the gradual breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Tuning the density at 381 °C gives insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in supercritical water. The known gas-phase spectrum, including its vibronic structure, is duplicated in the low-density limit. With increasing density, the spectrum blueshifts and the vibronic structure is quenched as the water monomer becomes electronically perturbed. Fits to the supercritical water spectra demonstrate consistency with dimer/trimer fractions calculated from the water virial equation of state and equilibrium constants. Using the known water dimer interaction potential, we estimate the critical distance between molecules (ca. 4.5 Å) needed to explain the vibronic structure quenching. PMID:28513601

19. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the lowest-lying electronic state in subcritical and supercritical water

Marin, Timothy W.; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M.; Chipman, Daniel M.

2017-05-01

The nature and extent of hydrogen bonding in water has been scrutinized for decades, including how it manifests in optical properties. Here we report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of subcritical and supercritical water. For subcritical water, the spectrum redshifts considerably with increasing temperature, demonstrating the gradual breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Tuning the density at 381 °C gives insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in supercritical water. The known gas-phase spectrum, including its vibronic structure, is duplicated in the low-density limit. With increasing density, the spectrum blueshifts and the vibronic structure is quenched as the water monomer becomes electronically perturbed. Fits to the supercritical water spectra demonstrate consistency with dimer/trimer fractions calculated from the water virial equation of state and equilibrium constants. Using the known water dimer interaction potential, we estimate the critical distance between molecules (ca. 4.5 Å) needed to explain the vibronic structure quenching.

20. PNS and statistical experiments simulation in subcritical systems using Monte-Carlo method on example of Yalina-Thermal assembly

Sadovich, Sergey; Talamo, A.; Burnos, V.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Fokov, Yu.

2014-06-01

In subcritical systems driven by an external neutron source, the experimental methods based on pulsed neutron source and statistical techniques play an important role for reactivity measurement. Simulation of these methods is very time-consumed procedure. For simulations in Monte-Carlo programs several improvements for neutronic calculations have been made. This paper introduces a new method for simulation PNS and statistical measurements. In this method all events occurred in the detector during simulation are stored in a file using PTRAC feature in the MCNP. After that with a special code (or post-processing) PNS and statistical methods can be simulated. Additionally different shapes of neutron pulses and its lengths as well as dead time of detectors can be included into simulation. The methods described above were tested on subcritical assembly Yalina-Thermal, located in Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research SOSNY, Minsk, Belarus. A good agreement between experimental and simulated results was shown.

1. Subcritical Hopf bifurcations in low-density jets

Zhu, Yuanhang; Gupta, Vikrant; Li, Larry K. B.

2016-11-01

Low-density jets are known to bifurcate from a steady state (a fixed point) to self-excited oscillations (a periodic limit cycle) when the Reynolds number increases above a critical value corresponding to the Hopf point, ReH . In the literature, this Hopf bifurcation is often considered to be supercritical because the self-excited oscillations appear only when Re > ReH . However, we find that under some conditions, there exists a hysteretic bistable region at ReSN < Re < ReH , where ReSN denotes a saddle-node bifurcation point. This shows that the Hopf bifurcation can also be subcritical, which has three main implications. First, low-density jets could be triggered into self-excited oscillations even when Re < ReH . Second, in the modeling of low-density jets, the subcritical or supercritical nature of the Hopf bifurcation should be taken into account because the former is caused by cubic nonlinearity whereas the latter is caused by square nonlinearity. Third, the response of the system to external forcing and noise depends on its proximity to the bistable region. Therefore, when investigating the forced response of low-density jets, it is important to consider whether the Hopf bifurcation is subcritical or supercritical.

2. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA booster subcritical assembly, Part III : low enriched uranium conversion analyses.

SciTech Connect

Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.

2011-05-12

This study investigates the performance of the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly, located in Belarus, during operation with high (90%), medium (36%), and low (21%) enriched uranium fuels in the assembly's fast zone. The YALINA Booster is a zero-power, subcritical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was constructed for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven subcritical systems, and to serve as a fast neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinides. The first part of this study analyzes the assembly's performance with several fuel types. The MCNPX and MONK Monte Carlo codes were used to determine effective and source neutron multiplication factors, effective delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime, neutron flux profiles and spectra, and neutron reaction rates produced from the use of three neutron sources: californium, deuterium-deuterium, and deuterium-tritium. In the latter two cases, the external neutron source operates in pulsed mode. The results discussed in the first part of this report show that the use of low enriched fuel in the fast zone of the assembly diminishes neutron multiplication. Therefore, the discussion in the second part of the report focuses on finding alternative fuel loading configurations that enhance neutron multiplication while using low enriched uranium fuel. It was found that arranging the interface absorber between the fast and the thermal zones in a circular rather than a square array is an effective method of operating the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly without downgrading neutron multiplication relative to the original value obtained with the use of the high enriched uranium fuels in the fast zone.

3. Local heat transfer measurement with liquid crystals on rotating surfaces including non-axisymmetric cases

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metzger, D. E.; Kim, Y. K.

1993-01-01

An overview and summary of test methods and results are given for the problem of measuring local heat transfer on rotating surfaces that model gas turbine engine disks. Disk cavity situations generically similar to those encountered in the high pressure stage disk cooling are considered, with cooling air supplied both at or near the wheel centerline as well as through single or multiple jets impinging outboard on the wheel near the blade attachment region. In some situations provision has been made for ingestion into the disk-cavity from the gas path region radially outboard of the disk. Local heat transfer rates in all cases are determined from the color display from a thin coating of encapsulated liquid crystals sprayed onto the disk, in conjunction with use of a video camera and computer vision system. For cases with axisymmetric disk surfaces, the coated surfaces are illuminated and viewed continuously, and detailed radial distributions of local Nusselt number are obtained. For non-axisymmetric disk surfaces, such as encountered in the vicinity of bolt heads, the disk is illuminated with stroboscopic light, and a method has been developed and used to synchronize the computer frame grabber with the illumination.

4. Ready for School: The Case for Including Babies and Toddlers as We Expand Preschool Opportunities.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilen, Julie Rubins

While the notion of starting education early with children has gained momentum in the public's mind, our public policies and investments still do not reflect society's increasing knowledge of how the human brain grows and how very early experiences beginning at birth affect a child's future. Arguing that if policymakers fail to include the needs…

5. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

2006-01-01

Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

6. Coma blisters after poisoning caused by central nervous system depressants: case report including histopathological findings.

PubMed

Branco, Maira Migliari; Capitani, Eduardo Mello De; Cintra, Maria Letícia; Hyslop, Stephen; Carvalho, Adriana Camargo; Bucaretchi, Fabio

2012-01-01

Blister formation and eccrine sweat gland necrosis is a cutaneous manifestation associated with states of impaired consciousness, most frequently reported after overdoses of central nervous system depressants, particularly phenobarbital. The case of a 45-year-old woman who developed "coma blisters" at six distinct anatomic sites after confirmed (laboratory) phenobarbital poisoning, associated with other central nervous system depressants (clonazepam, promethazine, oxcarbazepine and quetiapine), is presented. A biopsy from the left thumb blister taken on day 4 revealed focal necrosis of the epidermis and necrosis of sweat gland epithelial cells; direct immunofluorescence was strongly positive for IgG in superficial blood vessel walls but negative for IgM, IgA, C3 and C1q. The patient was discharged on day 21 with no sequelae.

7. Genetic or Psychogenic? A Case Study of "Folie à Quatre" Including Twins.

PubMed

Ohnuma, Tohru; Arai, Heii

2015-01-01

Shared psychotic disorder, characterized by shared delusion among two or more subjects (termed "Folie à deux," "trois," etc.), is often associated with strong religious beliefs or social isolation, factors creating strong psychological sympathy. Recently, we treated a rare familial case of "Folie à quatre" in central Tokyo without such influences. The proband was a schizophrenia patient and younger brother within monozygotic twins. Positive symptoms were "transmitted" to remaining family members, his elder brother, mother, and father father, in a relatively short period of three months. Although the pathophysiology of these positive symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) remains unclear, the transmission pattern suggests the primacy of social and environmental factors (and/or their interaction), while genetics appeared less influential in this "Folie à famille." Although undiagnosed psychoses in the whole family cannot be excluded, they did not share the other negative schizophrenia symptoms of the proband. A strong familial connection appeared to be the most important factor for the common delusion and hallucination.

8. Ultrasound-Enhanced Subcritical CO2 Extraction of Lutein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

PubMed

Fan, Xiao-Dan; Hou, Yan; Huang, Xing-Xin; Qiu, Tai-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2015-05-13

Lutein is an important pigment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with many beneficial functions in human health. The main purpose of this study was to extract lutein from C. pyrenoidosa using ultrasound-enhanced subcritical CO2 extraction (USCCE). Effects of operating conditions on the extraction, including extraction pretreatment, temperature, pressure, time, CO2 flow rate, and ultrasonic power, were investigated, and an orthogonal experiment was designed to study the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, cosolvent amount, and time on the extraction yields. The USCCE method was compared with other extraction methods in terms of the yields of lutein and the microstructure of C. pyrenoidosa powder by scanning electron microscopy. A maximal extraction yield of 124.01 mg lutein/100 g crude material was achieved under optimal conditions of extraction temperature at 27 °C, extraction pressure at 21 MPa, cosolvent amount at 1.5 mL/g ethanol, and ultrasound power at 1000 W. Compared to other methods, USCCE could significantly increase the lutein extraction yield at lower extraction temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the kinetic models of USCCE and subcritical CO2 extraction (SCCE) of lutein from C. pyrenoidosa were set as E = 130.64 × (1 - e(-0.6599t)) and E = 101.82 × (1 - e(-0.5683t)), respectively. The differences of parameters in the kinetic models indicate that ultrasound was able to enhance the extraction process of SCCE.

9. High order statistical signatures from source-driven measurements of subcritical fissile systems

Mattingly, John Kelly

1998-11-01

This research focuses on the development and application of high order statistical analyses applied to measurements performed with subcritical fissile systems driven by an introduced neutron source. The signatures presented are derived from counting statistics of the introduced source and radiation detectors that observe the response of the fissile system. It is demonstrated that successively higher order counting statistics possess progressively higher sensitivity to reactivity. Consequently, these signatures are more sensitive to changes in the composition, fissile mass, and configuration of the fissile assembly. Furthermore, it is shown that these techniques are capable of distinguishing the response of the fissile system to the introduced source from its response to any internal or inherent sources. This ability combined with the enhanced sensitivity of higher order signatures indicates that these techniques will be of significant utility in a variety of applications. Potential applications include enhanced radiation signature identification of weapons components for nuclear disarmament and safeguards applications and augmented nondestructive analysis of spent nuclear fuel. In general, these techniques expand present capabilities in the analysis of subcritical measurements.

10. Including the introduction of exotic species in life cycle impact assessment: the case of inland shipping.

PubMed

Hanafiah, Marlia M; Leuven, Rob S E W; Sommerwerk, Nike; Tockner, Klement; Huijbregts, Mark A J

2013-12-17

While the ecological impact of anthropogenically introduced exotic species is considered a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystems functioning, it is generally not accounted for in the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of products. In this article, we propose a framework that includes exotic species introduction in an LCA context. We derived characterization factors for exotic fish species introduction related to the transport of goods across the Rhine-Main-Danube canal. These characterization factors are expressed as the potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of native freshwater fish species in the rivers Rhine and Danube integrated over space and time per amount of goods transported (PDF·m(3)·yr·kg(-1)). Furthermore, we quantified the relative importance of exotic fish species introduction compared to other anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater environment (i.e., eutrophication, ecotoxicity, greenhouse gases, and water consumption) for transport of goods through the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway. We found that the introduction of exotic fish species contributed to 70-85% of the total freshwater ecosystem impact, depending on the distance that goods were transported. Our analysis showed that it is relevant and feasible to include the introduction of exotic species in an LCA framework. The proposed framework can be further extended by including the impacts of other exotic species groups, types of water bodies and pathways for introduction.

11. Cutaneous anthrax in Lima, Peru: retrospective analysis of 71 cases, including four with a meningoencephalic complication.

PubMed

Maguiña, Ciro; Flores Del Pozo, Jorge; Terashima, Angélica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guerra, Humberto; Vidal, José E; Legua, Pedro; Solari, Lely

2005-01-01

Anthrax is a zoonosis produced by Bacillus anthracis, and as an human infection is endemic in several areas in the world, including Peru. More than 95% of the reported naturally acquired infections are cutaneous, and approximately 5% of them can progress to meningoencephalitis. In this study we review the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients with diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax evaluated between 1969 and 2002 at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH) and the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt in Lima, Peru. Seventy one patients were included [49/71 (69%) of them men], with a mean age of 37 years. The diagnoses were classified as definitive (44%) or probable (56%). The most common occupation of the patients was agriculture (39%). The source of infection was found in 63 (88.7%) patients. All the patients had ulcerative lesions, with a central necrosis. Most of the patients (65%) had several lesions, mainly located in the upper limbs (80%). Four patients (5.6%) developed meningoencephalitis, and three of them eventually died. In conclusion, considering its clinical and epidemiological characteristics, cutaneous anthrax must be included in the differential diagnosis of skin ulcers. A patient with clinical suspicion of the disease should receive effective treatment soon, in order to avoid neurological complications which carry a high fatality rate.

12. Forgotten, excluded or included? Students with disabilities: A case study at the University of Mauritius

PubMed Central

Gunputh, Rajendra P.

2017-01-01

Background Students with disabilities in the tertiary education sector are more than a just a phenomenon, they are a reality. In general, little attention is devoted to their needs despite the fact that they need more care and attention. Objectives This paper, through a case study at the University of Mauritius, sought to answer some pertinent questions regarding students with disabilities. Does the University of Mauritius have sufficient facilities to support these students? Are students aware of existing facilities? What additional structures need to be put in place so that students with any form of disability are neither victimised, nor their education undermined? Are there any local laws about students with disabilities in higher education? Method To answer these questions and others, an online questionnaire was sent to 500 students and the responses were then analysed and discussed. The response rate was 24.4% which showed that students were not reticent to participate in this study. Results Our survey revealed that most students were not aware of existing facilities and were often neglected in terms of supporting structures and resources. ICT facilities were found to be the best support that is provided at the University of Mauritius. The right legal framework for tertiary education was also missing. Conclusion Ideally, students with disabilities should have access to special facilities to facilitate their learning experiences at tertiary institutions. Awareness about existing facilities must also be raised in order to offer equal opportunities to them and to enable a seamless inclusion. PMID:28936422

13. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: the first submandibular case reported including findings on fine needle aspiration cytology.

PubMed

Petersson, Fredrik; Lian, Derrick; Chau, Yuk Ping; Yan, Benedict

2012-03-01

We present the first case (male, 35 years old) of a mammary analogue secretory carcinoma occurring in a submandibular gland and document findings on fine needle aspiration cytology. On histology, the tumor displayed characteristic features: circumscribed nodules composed of bland, pink to light red neoplastic cells with low proliferative/mitotic activity arranged in tubular, vaguely cribriform, and microcystic structures containing Periodic acid Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant secretory material. Immunohistochemistry showed strong and diffuse positivity for cytokeratin 7, S100 protein, and vimentin, as well as moderate to strong immunoreactivity for c-kit in the majority of tumor cells. A rearrangement of the ETV6 gene on fluorescence in situ hybridization was documented. The patient underwent an ipsilateral selective (levels I-IV) neck dissection which showed metastasis in 3 out of 36 lymph nodes (levels 1-3). Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered. No local recurrence or metastatic disease has been detected during a follow up period of 28 months.

14. Genetic or Psychogenic? A Case Study of “Folie à Quatre” Including Twins

PubMed Central

Ohnuma, Tohru; Arai, Heii

2015-01-01

Shared psychotic disorder, characterized by shared delusion among two or more subjects (termed “Folie à deux,” “trois,” etc.), is often associated with strong religious beliefs or social isolation, factors creating strong psychological sympathy. Recently, we treated a rare familial case of “Folie à quatre” in central Tokyo without such influences. The proband was a schizophrenia patient and younger brother within monozygotic twins. Positive symptoms were “transmitted” to remaining family members, his elder brother, mother, and father father, in a relatively short period of three months. Although the pathophysiology of these positive symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) remains unclear, the transmission pattern suggests the primacy of social and environmental factors (and/or their interaction), while genetics appeared less influential in this “Folie à famille.” Although undiagnosed psychoses in the whole family cannot be excluded, they did not share the other negative schizophrenia symptoms of the proband. A strong familial connection appeared to be the most important factor for the common delusion and hallucination. PMID:26199782

15. Caudal regression: a review of seven cases, including the mermaid syndrome.

PubMed

Guidera, K J; Raney, E; Ogden, J A; Highhouse, M; Habal, M

1991-01-01

Caudal regression consists of sacral agenesis combined with variable lower extremity deformities. The patients have contractures of the lower extremities, hip dislocations, neurologic impairment, and spine instability. Treatment consists of soft tissue releases, osteotomies, or orthotics. The goal of orthopaedic intervention is proper seating and standing, which may be achieved without amputation. In our patients, the lower extremity deformities were corrected surgically, but long-term function is unknown. We report the problems and treatment of seven patients with caudal regression syndrome, including the only known survivor with sirenomelia (mermaid syndrome), who underwent separation of the lower extremities.

16. [Can men be included in the population subjected to puerperal psychosis? A case report].

PubMed

Colombel, M; Rebillard, C; Nathou, C; Dollfus, S

2016-08-01

Puerperal psychosis (PP) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 1 out of 1000 pregnancies. Well known since antiquity, its symptoms have often been described in mothers, but few studies have successfully investigated a related disorder in fathers. The characteristic of this pathology is more related to its appearance than to its semiological description which is why its nosographic place is always discussed. The objective here is to focus on the definition of PP and to suggest an entity for both genders. Our case report focused on the clinical description of an eighteen-year-old man suffering from an acute psychosis episode that occurred around the birth of his first child. Delusion followed a sudden decline in mood that lasted for a short period of time during the course of the third trimester of his wife's pregnancy. The delirium was rich with auditory and cenesthesic hallucinations, pregnancy and birth denial, feeling movements and hearing voices in his stomach. The symptoms disappeared after one month of treatment via an antipsychotic drug, risperidone. We can confirm that the symptomatic description of the disorder in this patient fits the classical descriptions of PP. Two elements make the PP different from other acute psychoses: the context of pregnancy and delirium focused on the child which can lead to a child murder. The absence of a framework precisely defining the PP does not improve its prevention and can lead to legal attitudes rather than medical care. Men suffering from acute psychosis in a context of pregnancy are submitted to the same risks as women. It is necessary to emphasize descriptions of PP in men to redefine the disease and consider that this entity involves both men and women. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

17. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility.

SciTech Connect

Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-05-15

Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,p), and ({gamma},n). In the second part

18. Sediment budget including the role of floodplains: the case of Lake Tana Basin (Ethiopia)

Lemma, Hanibal; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Fentie, Derbew; Poesen, Jean; Lanckriet, Sil; Adgo, Enyew; Nyssen, Jan

2016-04-01

Based on the collection of a large new dataset, we quantify the sediment 1) mobilized on the hillslopes surrounding Lake Tana (Ethiopia), 2) stored on the floodplains, 3) transported into the lake, 4) deposited in the lake and 5) delivered out of the lake so as to establish a sediment budget. In 2012 and 2013, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge measurements were made at 13 monitoring stations, including two lake outlets. 4635 SSC samples were collected and sediment rating curves that account for land cover conditions and rainfall seasonality were established for the 11 river stations, and mean monthly SSC was calculated for the outlets. Effects of the floodplain on rivers' sediment yield (SY) were investigated using the measurements at the upper and lower stations of Gilgel Abay, Gumara, Megech and Rib Rivers. SY from ungauged rivers was assessed using a model that includes catchment area and rainfall, whereas bedload and direct sediment input from lake shores were estimated. As a result, the gross annual SY from both gauged and ungauged rivers, bedload and lake shores was ca. 3.14 million tons, dominantly from Gilgel Abay and Gumara Rivers. The 0.48 million tons sedimentation in floodplains indicate that the floodplains serve as sediment sink. Moreover, annually about 1.09 million tons of sediment leaves the lake through the two outlets. Annual deposition in Lake Tana was about 1.56 million tons with a trapping efficiency of 60%. Furthermore, SSC and SY are generally higher at the beginning of the rainy season because soil in cultivated fields is bare and loose due to frequent ploughing and seedbed preparation. Later on in the season, increased crop and vegetation cover lead to a decrease in sediment supplies. Based on the established sediment budget and its calculated components, one can conclude that the expected lifetime of Lake Tana (20,396 years) is longer than what was anticipated in earlier studies.

19. A case for integrity: gains from including more than animal welfare in animal ethics committee deliberations.

PubMed

Röcklinsberg, H; Gamborg, C; Gjerris, M

2014-01-01

From January 2013, a new EU Directive 63/2010/EU requires that research using animals must undergo a harm-benefit analysis, which takes ethical considerations into account (Art. 38 (2) d) - a so-called 'project authorization' (Art. 36). A competent authority in each member state has to ensure that no project is carried out without such a project validation process, but often delegates the actual assessment to an animal ethics committee (AEC) or its equivalent. The core task of the AEC is to formulate a justifiable balance between the animals' suffering caused by research and the potential human benefit. AECs traditionally focus on animal welfare issues, but according to the new directive other public concerns must also be taken into account. Taking the new EU Directive as a point of departure, the central aim of this paper is to discuss the evaluation process in relation to animal welfare and animal ethics through the concept of animal integrity. A further aim is to elaborate on possible improvements to project evaluation by considering animal integrity. We argue that concepts like animal integrity are often left out of project authorization processes within AECs, because animal ethics is often interpreted narrowly to include only certain aspects of animal welfare. Firstly, we describe the task of an AEC and discuss what has typically been regarded as ethically relevant in the assessment process. Secondly, we categorize four notions of integrity found in the literature to show the complexity of the concept and furthermore to indicate its strengths. Thirdly, we discuss how certain interpretations of integrity can be included in AEC assessments to encapsulate wider ethical concerns and, perhaps even increase the democratic legitimacy of AECs.

20. Include dispersion in quantum chemical modeling of enzymatic reactions: the case of isoaspartyl dipeptidase.

PubMed

Zhang, Hai-Mei; Chen, Shi-Lu

2015-06-09

The lack of dispersion in the B3LYP functional has been proposed to be the main origin of big errors in quantum chemical modeling of a few enzymes and transition metal complexes. In this work, the essential dispersion effects that affect quantum chemical modeling are investigated. With binuclear zinc isoaspartyl dipeptidase (IAD) as an example, dispersion is included in the modeling of enzymatic reactions by two different procedures, i.e., (i) geometry optimizations followed by single-point calculations of dispersion (approach I) and (ii) the inclusion of dispersion throughout geometry optimization and energy evaluation (approach II). Based on a 169-atom chemical model, the calculations show a qualitative consistency between approaches I and II in energetics and most key geometries, demonstrating that both approaches are available with the latter preferential since both geometry and energy are dispersion-corrected in approach II. When a smaller model without Arg233 (147 atoms) was used, an inconsistency was observed, indicating that the missing dispersion interactions are essentially responsible for determining equilibrium geometries. Other technical issues and mechanistic characteristics of IAD are also discussed, in particular with respect to the effects of Arg233.

1. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

2016-04-01

The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

2. Autoimmunity Including Intestinal Behçet Disease Bearing the KRAS Mutation in Lymphocytes: A Case Report.

PubMed

Moritake, Hiroshi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Kinoshita, Mariko; Ohara, Osamu; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Moriguchi, Sayaka; Nunoi, Hiroyuki

2016-03-01

We experienced the case of a 3-year-old male with a very rare combination of autoimmunity, including immune thrombocytopenia, recurrent Henoch-Schönlein purpura and intestinal Behçet disease. Exome sequencing of the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells identified a KRAS G13C mutation. Interestingly, the KRAS G13C mutation was observed in T and B lymphocytes, as well as natural killer cells, but not granulocytes. Our case was completely phenotypically different from RASopathies and did not meet the criteria for Ras-associated lymphoproliferative disease or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. This is the first reported case in which the KRAS mutation existed only in the lymphoid lineage. Based on the findings of our case and the current literature, it is clear that the RAS mutation in lymphoid cells is tightly linked with various autoimmune symptoms. The presence of the RAS mutation in lymphocytes should be reconsidered as a pathogenesis in cases of autoimmunity.

3. The Case to Include Brand of Moist Snuff in Health Surveys.

PubMed

Timberlake, David S

2016-08-01

for studies whose surveys do not include detailed information on snuff use and behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

4. The Otosclerosis Problem: including Reports of Two Cases Pathologically Examined (Dalby Memorial Lecture)

PubMed Central

Gray, Albert A.

1934-01-01

The essential causative factor of otosclerosis is a gradually increasing defect in the vasomotor mechanism which governs the nutrition of the structures of the organ of hearing as a whole. The axon reflexes are, of course, included in this vasomotor mechanism, and the stimulus which excites the vasomotor mechanism is sound and sound alone. Consequently the vestibular apparatus and the semicircular canals are unaffected in otosclerosis. There is no evidence whatever of any defect in any of the endocrine glands or their secretions in otosclerosis. Neither is there any evidence of any defect in the bone metabolism of the body. On the contrary the subjects of otosclerosis are, apart from their deafness, perfectly normal individuals with ordinary average health. The deafness of otosclerosis bears very little relationship to the extent of the disease in the bone. The deafness may be very severe when the stapes is hardly fixed at all. The severity of the tinnitus bears no relationship at all to the extent of the disease in the bone. The extent of the change in the bone bears very little relationship to the duration of the disease. The extent of the changes in the bone appears to depend upon the age of onset of the disease. The earlier in life that the otosclerosis begins, the more extensive will the bone lesion become. The deafness of otosclerosis is to a large extent functional, and is the result of the insufficient supply of blood to all the nerve-structures concerned in the perception of sound. The preponderance of women as subjects of otosclerosis is the result of the greater instability of their vasomotor system and the more frequent disturbances to which it is exposed. The changes in the bone show a remarkable bilateral symmetry even to minute details. This symmetrical distribution is readily explained by the writer's view of the causative factor of otosclerosis. The vasomotor nerves governing the nutrition of the organ of hearing are anatomically symmetrical like

5. Experiences integrating productivity, pollution prevention, and energy conservation including case studies

SciTech Connect

Kasten, D.J.; Muller, M.R.; Barnish, T.J.

1997-07-01

, or even space to expand operations. An intimate knowledge of a corporations' burden, market share, and financial stability is necessary in order for the assessment team to gain the confidence of management; failure to do so can be disastrous. Excessive movement, redundant inspections, scheduling issues, and floor layout are critical issues, and ones that are sometimes impossible to evaluate during a short visit to a plant. Before an energy audit is made, much information must be gathered, such as tax rates and purchasing policies (including acceptable defect rates of the raw materials from suppliers). These issues are forcing the one-dimensional energy expert to expand into previously unchartered territories. This paper will attempt to illustrate some generic necessities, but also use actual experiences of the Office of Industrial Productivity and Energy Assessment team at Rutgers University in three facilities to highlight the industrial triage method of presenting the client with an integrated package of analysis of the efficiency of their production facility and methods.

6. On the asymptotic behavior of a subcritical convection-diffusion equation with nonlocal diffusion

Cazacu, Cristian M.; Ignat, Liviu I.; Pazoto, Ademir F.

2017-08-01

In this paper we consider a subcritical model that involves nonlocal diffusion and a classical convective term. In spite of the nonlocal diffusion, we obtain an Oleinik type estimate similar to the case when the diffusion is local. First we prove that the entropy solution can be obtained by adding a small viscous term μ uxx and letting μ\\to 0 . Then, by using uniform Oleinik estimates for the viscous approximation we are able to prove the well-posedness of the entropy solutions with L 1-initial data. Using a scaling argument and hyperbolic estimates given by Oleinik’s inequality, we obtain the first term in the asymptotic behavior of the nonnegative solutions. Finally, the large time behavior of changing sign solutions is proved using the classical flux-entropy method and estimates for the nonlocal operator.

7. Spatial and spectral effects in subcritical system pulsed experiments

SciTech Connect

Dulla, S.; Nervo, M.; Ravetto, P.; Carta, M.

2013-07-01

Accurate neutronic models are needed for the interpretation of pulsed experiments in subcritical systems. In this work, the extent of spatial and spectral effects in the pulse propagation phenomena is investigated and the analysis is applied to the GUINEVERE experiment. The multigroup cross section data is generated by the Monte Carlo SERPENT code and the neutronic evolution following the source pulse is simulated by a kinetic diffusion code. The results presented show that important spatial and spectral aspects need to be properly accounted for and that a detailed energy approach may be needed to adequately capture the physical features of the system to the pulse injection. (authors)

8. A useful observable for estimating keff in fast subcritical systems

Saracco, Paolo; Borreani, Walter; Chersola, Davide; Lomonaco, Guglielmo; Ricco, Gianni; Ripani, Marco

2017-09-01

The neutron multiplication factor keff is a key quantity to characterize subcritical neutron multiplying devices and for understanting their physical behaviour, being related to the fundamental eigenvalue of Boltzmann transport equation. Both the maximum available power - and all quantities related to it, like, e.g. the effectiveness in burning nuclear wastes - as well as reactor kinetics and dynamics depend on keff. Nevertheless, keff is not directly measurable and its determination results from the solution of an inverse problem: minimizing model dependence of the solution for keff then becomes a critical issue, relevant both for practical and theoretical reasons.

9. Theoretical prediction of airplane stability derivatives at subcritical speeds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tulinius, J.; Clever, W.; Nieman, A.; Dunn, K.; Gaither, B.

1973-01-01

The theoretical development and application is described of an analysis for predicting the major static and rotary stability derivatives for a complete airplane. The analysis utilizes potential flow theory to compute the surface flow fields and pressures on any configuration that can be synthesized from arbitrary lifting bodies and nonplanar thick lifting panels. The pressures are integrated to obtain section and total configuration loads and moments due side slip, angle of attack, pitching motion, rolling motion, yawing motion, and control surface deflection. Subcritical compressibility is accounted for by means of the Gothert similarity rule.

10. Extending non-fatigue Mode I subcritical crack growth data to subcritical fatigue crack growth: Demonstration of the equivalence of the Charles' law and Paris law exponents

Keanini, Russell; Eppes, Martha-Cary

2016-04-01

Paris's law connects fatigue-induced subcritical crack growth and fatigue loading. Environmentally-driven subcritical crack growth, while a random process, can be decomposed into a spectrum of cyclic processes, where each spectral component is governed by Paris's law. Unfortunately, almost no data exists concerning the Paris law exponent, m; rather, the great majority of existing sub-critical crack growth measurements on rock have been carried out via Mode I tensile tests, where corresponding data are generally correlated using Charles' law, and where the latter, similar to Paris's law, exposes a power law relationship between crack growth rate and stress intensity. In this study, a statistical argument is used to derive a simple, rigorous relationship between the all-important Paris law and Charles law exponents, m and n. This result has a significant practical implication: subcritical fatigue crack growth in rock, driven by various random environmental weathering processes can now be predicted using available Mode I stress corrosion indices, n.

11. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

12. NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS OF CO-EXISTING SUPER-CRITICAL AND SUB-CRITICAL FLOWS BASED UPON CRD SCHEMES

Horie, Katsuya; Okamura, Seiji; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hyodo, Makoto; Hida, Yoshihisa; Nishimoto, Naoshi; Mori, Akio

Stream flows in steep gradient bed form complicating flow configurations, where co-exist super-critical and sub-critical flows. Computing numerically such flows are the key to successful river management. This study applied CRD schemes to 1D and 2D stream flow computations and proposed genuine ways to eliminate expansion shock waves. Through various cases of computing stream flows conducted, CRD schemes showed that i) conservativeness of discharge and accuracy of four significant figures are ensured, ii) artificial viscosity is not explicitly used for computational stabilization, and thus iii) 1D and 2D computations based upon CRD schemes are applicable to evaluating complicating stream flows for river management.

13. Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hull using subcritical water technology.

PubMed

Ciftci, Deniz; Saldaña, Marleny D A

2015-10-01

Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hulls was conducted in this study using subcritical water technology. Effects of process parameters, such as pressure (50-200 bar), temperature (160-220°C), flow rate (2-10 mL/min), and pH (2-12), were studied to optimize maximum hemicellulose sugars recovery in the extracts. Extracts were analyzed for total hemicellulose sugars, phenolics and organic carbon contents and solid residues left after treatments were also characterized. Temperature, flow rate, and pH had a significant effect on hemicellulose sugar removal; however, the effect of pressure was not significant. The highest yield of hemicellulose sugars in the extracts (85.5%) was found at 180°C, 50 bar, 5 mL/min and pH 6.2. The thermal stability of the solid residue obtained at optimum conditions improved after treatment and the crystallinity index increased from 11.5% to 58.6%. The results suggest that subcritical water treatment is a promising technology for hemicellulose sugars removal from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

14. Extraction of defatted rice bran with subcritical aqueous acetone.

PubMed

Chiou, Tai-Ying; Neoh, Tze Loon; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

2012-01-01

Defatted rice bran extracts were obtained by subcritical treatment using aqueous acetone as extractant. Treatment with 40% (v/v) acetone at 230 °C for 5 min yielded an extract with the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (0.274 mmol of ascorbic acid/g of bran), total carbohydrate (0.188 g/g of bran), protein (0.512 g/g of bran), and total phenolic contents (88.2 mg of gallic acid/g of bran). The effect of treatment temperature (70-230 °C) was investigated using 40% (v/v) acetone, and the extract under 230 °C treatment showed the highest levels of all the determinations described above. The extracts obtained with various concentrations of aqueous acetone were subjected to UV absorption spectra and HPLC analysis, and the results showed changes in composition and polarity. Antioxidative activity evaluated against oxidation of bulk linoleic acid of the extract obtained with 80% (v/v) acetone was higher than that not only of the extract from subcritical water treatment but also of that obtained 40% (v/v) acetone treatment.

15. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate using subcritical water.

PubMed

Espinoza, Ashley D; Morawicki, Rubén O; Hager, Tiffany

2012-01-01

Hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) is used in the food industry for protein enrichment and modification of functional properties. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) on WPI and to determine the temperature and reaction time effects on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the production of peptides and free amino acids (AAs). Effects of temperature (150 to 320 °C) and time (0 to 20 min) were initially studied with a central composite rotatable design followed by a completely randomized factorial design with temperature (250 and 300 °C) and time (0 to 50 min) as factors. SWH was conducted in an electrically heated, 100-mL batch, high pressure vessel. The DH was determined by a spectrophotometric method after derivatization. The peptide molecular weights (MWs) were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and AAs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromotography. An interaction of temperature and time significantly affected the DH and AA concentration. As the DH increased, the accumulation of lower MW peptides also increased following SWH (and above 10% DH, the majority of peptides were <1000 Da). Hydrolysis at 300 °C for 40 min generated the highest total AA concentration, especially of lysine (8.894 mg/g WPI). Therefore, WPI was successfully hydrolyzed by subcritical water, and with adjustment of treatment parameters there is reasonable control of the end-products.

16. Transition to subcritical turbulence in a tokamak plasma

van Wyk, F.; Highcock, E. G.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Roach, C. M.; Field, A. R.; Dorland, W.

2016-12-01

Tokamak turbulence, driven by the ion-temperature gradient and occurring in the presence of flow shear, is investigated by means of local, ion-scale, electrostatic gyrokinetic simulations (with both kinetic ions and electrons) of the conditions in the outer core of the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST). A parameter scan in the local values of the ion-temperature gradient and flow shear is performed. It is demonstrated that the experimentally observed state is near the stability threshold and that this stability threshold is nonlinear: sheared turbulence is subcritical, i.e. the system is formally stable to small perturbations, but, given a large enough initial perturbation, it transitions to a turbulent state. A scenario for such a transition is proposed and supported by numerical results: close to threshold, the nonlinear saturated state and the associated anomalous heat transport are dominated by long-lived coherent structures, which drift across the domain, have finite amplitudes, but are not volume filling; as the system is taken away from the threshold into the more unstable regime, the number of these structures increases until they overlap and a more conventional chaotic state emerges. Whereas this appears to represent a new scenario for transition to turbulence in tokamak plasmas, it is reminiscent of the behaviour of other subcritically turbulent systems, e.g. pipe flows and Keplerian magnetorotational accretion flows.

17. Subcritical water extractor for Mars analog soil analysis.

PubMed

Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank J; Patrick, Steven B; Yung, Pun To

2008-06-01

Abstract Technologies that enable rapid and efficient extraction of biomarker compounds from various solid matrices are a critical requirement for the successful implementation of in situ chemical analysis of the martian regolith. Here, we describe a portable subcritical water extractor that mimics multiple organic solvent polarities by tuning the dielectric constant of liquid water through adjustment of temperature and pressure. Soil samples, collected from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert (martian regolith analogue) in the summer of 2005, were used to test the instrument's performance. The total organic carbon was extracted from the samples at concentrations of 0.2-55.4 parts per million. The extraction data were compared to the total organic carbon content in the bulk soil, which was determined via a standard analytical procedure. The instrument's performance was examined over the temperature range of 25-250 degrees C at a fixed pressure of 20.7 MPa. Under these conditions, water remains in a subcritical fluid state with a dielectric constant varying between approximately 80 (at 25 degrees C) and approximately 30 (at 250 degrees C).

18. Accelerated subcritical drying of large alkoxide silica gels

Wang, Shiho; Kirkbir, Fikret; Chaudhuri, S. R.; Sarkar, Arnab

1992-12-01

Fracture during drying has been the key hurdle in fabrication of large monolithic silica glass from alkoxide gels. Although existing literature suggests pore enlargement, aging, chemical additives, supercritical drying and freeze drying as helpful in avoiding fracture during drying, successful accelerated sub-critical drying of large silica monoliths from alkoxide gels has not yet been reported. In the present approach, acid catalyzed sols of TEOS, ethanol and water (pH equals 2) were cast as cylindrical rods in plastic molds of 8.0 and 10.0 cm diameter with volumes of 2000 cc and 3000 cc respectively. The resultant gels were aged for about 7 days and dried in a specially designed chamber under sub-critical conditions of the pore field. We have obtained monolithic dry gels in drying times of 3 - 7 days for sizes of 2000 - 3000 cc. The dry gels have narrow unimodal pore size distributions, with average pore radius of about 20 angstroms as measured by BET. Although capillary stress during drying increases with reduction of pore size, it was found that in this approach it is easier to dry gels of smaller pore size.

19. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

1989-01-01

A mixture of ammonium hydroxide with acetic acid and a slurry of human feces, urine, and wipes were used as CELSS model wastes to be wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500 C, i.e. below and above the critical point of water (374 C and 218 kg/sq cm or 21.4 MPa). The effects of oxidation temperature ( 250-500 C) and residence time (0-120 mn) on carbon and nitrogen and on metal corrosion from the reactor material were studied. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500 C, above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. A substantial amount of nitrogen remained in solution in the form of ammonia at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 C suggesting that, around 400 C, organic carbon is completely oxidized and most of the nitrogen is retained in solution. The Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during subcritical and supercritical water oxidation.

20. Sub-critical insonification of buried elastic shells

Veljkovic, Irena; Schmidt, Henrik

2002-11-01

In a shallow water environment a high frequency high grazing angle mine-hunting sonar approach is vastly limited by the coverage rate, making the detection and classification of buried objects using subcritical grazing incidence an attractive alternative. One of the central issues in mine countermeasurements regarding the physics of scattering from spherical shells is the isolation and the analysis of the resonant excitations of the system distinguishing the manmade elastic targets from rocks or other clutter. Burial of an elastic target in the seabed results in a variety of modifications to the scattered response caused by different physical mechanisms, geometric constrains, and intrinsic sediment properties. The aim of this research is to identify, analyze, and explain the fundamental effects of the sediment and the proximity of the seabed interface on the scattering of sound from elastic spherical shells insonified using low frequencies at subcritical incident angles. A new, comprehensive understanding of the goats98 experimental data was obtained distinguishing the effects of the acoustics environment from the resonant signature of a buried elastic target. To achieve this and to further investigate the more intricate details of the scattering process, a numerically improved, OASES-3D modeling framework was used. [Work supported by ONR.

1. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

1989-01-01

A mixture of ammonium hydroxide with acetic acid and a slurry of human feces, urine, and wipes were used as CELSS model wastes to be wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500 C, i.e. below and above the critical point of water (374 C and 218 kg/sq cm or 21.4 MPa). The effects of oxidation temperature ( 250-500 C) and residence time (0-120 mn) on carbon and nitrogen and on metal corrosion from the reactor material were studied. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500 C, above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. A substantial amount of nitrogen remained in solution in the form of ammonia at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 C suggesting that, around 400 C, organic carbon is completely oxidized and most of the nitrogen is retained in solution. The Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during subcritical and supercritical water oxidation.

2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and molecular study including 2 cases harboring ETV6-X fusion.

PubMed

Ito, Yohei; Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Masaki, Ayako; Fujii, Kana; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Kawakita, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Manabu; Miyabe, Satoru; Shimozato, Kazuo; Nagao, Toshitaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi

2015-05-01

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade carcinoma with morphologic and genetic similarity, including ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, to secretory carcinoma of the breast. ETV6 is frequently involved in other epithelial and nonepithelial tumors, and many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported. In the present study, 14 Japanese MASC cases were clinicopathologically and molecularly analyzed. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and the male:female ratio was 6:8. All cases showed histopathologic findings compatible with those previously described for MASC and harbored an ETV6 split as visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two cases showed thick fibrous septa and invasive features including vascular or perineural tumor involvement, findings that are rare in MASC. In addition, in these 2 cases, non-NTRK3 genes appeared to fuse with ETV6 (ETV6-X fusion). NTRK1 and NTRK2, both members of the NTRK family, were not involved. Of the 14 MASC cases, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was positive in 6 cases, and the relative expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was variable, ranging from 1 to 5.8. Results of the present study of MASC suggest that (1) ETV6 occasionally fuses with unknown non-NTRK3 genes, (2) ETV6-X cases might have an invasive histology, (3) for molecular diagnosis of MASC, fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect ETV6 splits is the method of choice, and (4) the expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript is considerably variable. These findings provide a novel insight into the oncogenesis, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this newly recognized carcinoma.

3. Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma, a potential diagnostic pitfall: A report of two cases including a review of literature

PubMed Central

Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C.; Sirohi, Deepika

2013-01-01

Macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (MFVPTC) is one of the rarest histologic types of papillary carcinoma. This tumor may mimic an adenomatoid/colloid nodule or follicular neoplasm (macrofollicular type) both on histology and cytology. There are very few articles describing the cytologic features of MFVPTC. We report the cytologic findings of two surgically confirmed MFVPTC. The first case showed abundant thin colloid with moderate amount of follicular cells arranged in a honeycombed and syncytial pattern. Some but not all the follicular cells showed enlarged round to ovoid nuclei, overlapping nuclei, few nuclear grooves and rare intranuclear inclusions. The second case showed abundant thin colloid and predominantly benign appearing follicular cells with few overlapping nuclei, enlarged round to ovoid nuclei and rare nuclear grooves. No intranuclear inclusions were identified. A review of the literature was done and the cytologic findings of MFVPTC including our two cases were tabulated. The cytologic findings showed moderate to abundant thin with focally thick colloid in 75% of cases and sheet like arrangement of follicular cells in 76%. Although nuclear features such as chromatin clearing, overlapping and grooves were present in majority of cases, the quantity varied from rare to focal. Small to prominent nucleoli were present in all of the evaluable cases. Intranuclear inclusions were seen only in 45% of patients. Hence, the cytologic features of macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma though present can be subtle and intranuclear inclusions may not be present always. PMID:24082912

4. Critical thresholds in sea lice epidemics: evidence, sensitivity and subcritical estimation

PubMed Central

Frazer, L. Neil; Morton, Alexandra; Krkošek, Martin

2012-01-01

Host density thresholds are a fundamental component of the population dynamics of pathogens, but empirical evidence and estimates are lacking. We studied host density thresholds in the dynamics of ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on salmon farms. Empirical examples include a 1994 epidemic in Atlantic Canada and a 2001 epidemic in Pacific Canada. A mathematical model suggests dynamics of lice are governed by a stable endemic equilibrium until the critical host density threshold drops owing to environmental change, or is exceeded by stocking, causing epidemics that require rapid harvest or treatment. Sensitivity analysis of the critical threshold suggests variation in dependence on biotic parameters and high sensitivity to temperature and salinity. We provide a method for estimating the critical threshold from parasite abundances at subcritical host densities and estimate the critical threshold and transmission coefficient for the two epidemics. Host density thresholds may be a fundamental component of disease dynamics in coastal seas where salmon farming occurs. PMID:22217721

5. Highly Selective and Considerable Subcritical Butane Extraction to Separate Abamectin in Green Tea.

PubMed

Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Pang, Huili; Qin, Guangyong

2017-06-01

We specially carried out the subcritical butane extraction to separate abamectin from tea leaves. Four parameters, such as extraction temperature, extraction time, number of extraction cycles, and solid-liquid ratio were studied and optimized through the response surface methodology with design matrix developed by Box-Behnken. Seventeen experiments with three various factors and three variable levels were employed to investigate the effect of these parameters on the extraction of abamectin. Besides, catechins, theanine, caffeine, and aroma components were determined by both high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the tea quality before and after the extraction. The results showed that the extraction temperature was the uppermost parameter compared with others. The optimal extraction conditions selected as follows: extraction temperature, 42°C; number of extraction cycles and extraction time, 1 and 30 min, respectively; and solid-liquid ratio, 1:10. Based on the above study, the separation efficiency of abamectin was up to 93.95%. It is notable that there has a quite low loss rate, including the negligible damage of aroma components, the bits reduce of catechins within the range of 0.7%-13.1%, and a handful lessen of caffeine and theanine of 1.81% and 2.6%, respectively. The proposed method suggested subcritical butane possesses solubility for lipid-soluble pesticides, and since most of the pesticides are attached to the surfaces of tea, thus the as-applied method was successfully effective to separate abamectin because of the so practical and promising method.

6. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

PubMed

Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

2017-09-18

Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

7. Neutron spatial flux profile measurement in compact subcritical system using miniature neutron detectors

Shukla, Mayank; Desai, Shraddha S.; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Ray, Nirmal; Bajpai, Shefali; Patel, Tarun; Sinha, Amar

2015-02-01

A zero power multiplying assembly in subcritical regime serves as a benchmark for validating subcritical reactor physics. The utilization of a subcritical assembly for the determination of nuclear parameters in a multiplying medium requires a well-defined neutron flux to carry out the experiments. For this it is necessary to know the neutron flux profile inside a subcritical system. A compact subcritical assembly BRAHMMA has been developed in India. The experimental channels in this assembly are typically less than 8 mm diameter. This requires use of miniature detectors that can be mounted in these experimental channels. In this article we present the thermal neutron flux profile measurement in a compact subcritical system using indigenously developed miniature gas filled neutron detectors. These detectors were specially designed and fabricated considering the restrictive dimensional requirements of the subcritical core. Detectors of non-standard size with various sensitivities, from 0.4 to 0.001 cps/nv were used for neutron flux of interest ranging from 103 to 107 n-cm-2 s-1. A comparison of measured neutron flux using these detectors and simulated Monte Carlo calculations are also presented in this article.

8. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

SciTech Connect

Baxter, Van D

2007-02-01

--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of a centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006a). The present report is an update to that document which summarizes results of an analysis of the impact of adding a humidifier to the HVAC system to maintain minimum levels of space relative humidity (RH) in winter. The space RH in winter has direct impact on occupant comfort and on control of dust mites, many types of disease bacteria, and 'dry air' electric shocks. Chapter 8 in ASHRAE's 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals (HOF) suggests a 30% lower limit on RH for indoor temperatures in the range of {approx}68-69F based on comfort (ASHRAE 2005). Table 3 in chapter 9 of the same reference suggests a 30-55% RH range for winter as established by a Canadian study of exposure limits for residential indoor environments (EHD 1987). Harriman, et al (2001) note that for RH levels of 35% or higher, electrostatic shocks are minimized and that dust mites cannot live at RH levels below 40%. They also indicate that many disease bacteria life spans are minimized when space RH is held within a 30-60% range. From the foregoing it is reasonable to assume that a winter space RH range of 30-40% would be an acceptable compromise between comfort

9. Transesterification of activated sludge in subcritical solvent mixture.

PubMed

2015-12-01

Most previous studies reported in literature on biodiesel production from sludge were performed by acid catalyzed transesterification that required long reaction time (about 24h) and high methanol loading. The objective of this study was to investigate the in situ transesterification of sludge in subcritical mixture of methanol and acetic acid. At 250°C and a solvent (85% methanol and 15% acetic acid) to sludge ratio of 5 (mLg(-1)), a FAME yield of 30.11% can be achieved in 30min, compared to the yield of 35% obtained by the acid-catalyzed (4% H2SO4) transesterification which required 24h at 55°C and a methanol to sludge ratio of 25 (mLg(-1)). The method developed in this study avoided using mineral acid, significantly reduced reaction time and methanol loading to achieve comparable FAME yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

10. Glycolipid class profiling by packed-column subcritical fluid chromatography.

PubMed

Deschamps, Frantz S; Lesellier, Eric; Bleton, Jean; Baillet, Arlette; Tchapla, Alain; Chaminade, Pierre

2004-06-18

The potential of packed-column subcritical fluid chromatography (SubFC) for the separation of lipid classes has been assessed in this study. Three polar stationary phases were checked: silica, diol, and poly(vinyl alcohol). Carbon dioxide (CO2) with methanol as modifier was used as mobile phase and detection performed by evaporative light scattering detection. The influence of methanol content, temperature, and pressure on the chromatographic behavior of sphingolipids and glycolipids were investigated. A complete separation of lipid classes from a crude wheat lipid extract was achieved using a modifier gradient from 10 to 40% methanol in carbon dioxide. Solute selectivity was improved using coupled silica and diol columns in series. Because the variation of eluotropic strength depending on the fluid density changes, a normalized separation factor product (NSP) was used to select the nature, the number and the order of the columns to reach the optimum glycolipid separation.

11. Survey of aircraft subcritical flight flutter testing methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rosenbaum, R.

1974-01-01

The results of a survey of U. S., British and French subcritical aircraft flight flutter testing methods are presented and evaluation of the applicability of these methods to the testing of the space shuttle are discussed. Ten U. S. aircraft programs covering the large civil transport aircraft and a variety of military aircraft are reviewed. In addition, three major French and British programs are covered by the survey. The significant differences between the U. S., French and British practices in the areas of methods of excitation, data acquisition, transmission and analysis are reviewed. The effect of integrating the digital computer into the flight flutter test program is discussed. Significant saving in analysis and flight test time are shown to result from the use of special digital computer routines and digital filters.

12. Degradation kinetics of passion fruit pectin in subcritical water.

PubMed

Klinchongkon, Khwanjai; Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Adachi, Shuji

2017-04-01

The degradation of passion fruit pectin by subcritical water treatment in a continuous flow-type reactor was investigated in the temperature range of 80-160 °C at a constant pressure of 5 MPa. Changes in the degree of polymerization and reducing end formation were monitored and modeled by applying the Emsley equation and zeroth-order kinetics, respectively. The results showed that both the pectin degradation rate constant and the change in the amount of reducing end were enhanced by temperature, and that the temperature dependence of these parameters obeyed the Arrhenius relationship. The activation energies for pectin degradation and reducing end formation were 62.8 and 86.9 kJ/mol, respectively. The non-linear relationship between the ratio of broken galacturonic acid units to the total galacturonic acid units and the change in the amount of reducing end indicated that pectin cleavage became easier as hydrolysis progressed.

13. Safety and control of accelerator-driven subcritical systems

SciTech Connect

Rief, H.; Takahashi, H.

1995-10-01

To study control and safety of accelertor driven nuclear systems, a one point kinetic model was developed and programed. It deals with fast transients as a function of reactivity insertion. Doppler feedback, and the intensity of an external neutron source. The model allows for a simultaneous calculation of an equivalent critical reactor. It was validated by a comparison with a benchmark specified by the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee of Reactor Physics. Additional features are the possibility of inserting a linear or quadratic time dependent reactivity ramp which may account for gravity induced accidents like earthquakes, the possibility to shut down the external neutron source by an exponential decay law of the form exp({minus}t/{tau}), and a graphical display of the power and reactivity changes. The calculations revealed that such boosters behave quite benignly even if they are only slightly subcritical.

14. Monitoring of MNSR operation by measuring subcritical photoneutron flux.

PubMed

2011-03-01

Passive nondestructive assay methods are used to monitor the reactor's operation. It is required for nuclear regulatory, calculation validation and safeguards purposes. So, it plays a vital role in the safety and security of the nuclear plants. The possibility of MNSR operation monitoring by measuring the subcritical state photoneutron flux were investigated in this work. The photoneutron flux is induced by the fuels hard gamma radiation in the beryllium reflector. Theoretical formulation and experimental tests were performed. The results show that within a specified cooling time range, the photoneutron flux is induced by a single dominant hard gamma emitter such as (117)Cd (activation product) and (140)Ba ((140)La fission product). This phenomenon was utilized to monitor the cooling time and the operation neutron flux during the last campaign. Thus a passive nondestructive assay method is proposed with regard to the reactor operation's monitoring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

15. Subcritical transition to turbulence in planar shear flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orszag, S. A.; Patera, A. T.

1981-01-01

The two-dimensional steady and time dependent properties of plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows are analyzed using iterative techniques and full numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that the finite-amplitude two-dimensional states investigated are strongly unstable to very small three-dimensional perturbations. It is also shown, through full numerical simulation, that this explosive secondary instability can explain the subcritical transitions that occur in real flows. Finally, it is shown that the three-dimensional instability can be analyzed by a linear stability analysis of a two-dimensional flow consisting of the basic parallel flow and a steady (or quasi-steady) finite-amplitude two-dimensional cellular motion.

16. Gravity-driven soap film dynamics in subcritical regimes

Auliel, M. I.; Castro, F.; Sosa, R.; Artana, G.

2015-10-01

We undertake the analysis of soap-film dynamics with the classical approach of asymptotic expansions. We focus our analysis in vertical soap film tunnels operating in subcritical regimes with elastic Mach numbers Me=O(10-1) . Considering the associated set of nondimensional numbers that characterize this flow, we show that the flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) divergence free flow with variable mass density. When the soap film dynamics agrees with that of a 2D and almost constant mass density flow, the regions where the second invariant of the velocity gradient is non-null correspond to regions where the rate of change of film thickness is non-negligible.

17. Feedback control of subcritical Turing instability with zero mode.

PubMed

Golovin, A A; Kanevsky, Y; Nepomnyashchy, A A

2009-04-01

A global feedback control of a system that exhibits a subcritical monotonic instability at a nonzero wave number (short-wave or Turing instability) in the presence of a zero mode is investigated using a Ginzburg-Landau equation coupled to an equation for the zero mode. This system is studied analytically and numerically. It is shown that feedback control, based on measuring the maximum of the pattern amplitude over the domain, can stabilize the system and lead to the formation of localized unipulse stationary states or traveling solitary waves. It is found that the unipulse traveling structures result from an instability of the stationary unipulse structures when one of the parameters characterizing the coupling between the periodic pattern and the zero mode exceeds a critical value that is determined by the zero mode damping coefficient.

18. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

2007-01-01

Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

19. Studies on the stability of preservatives under subcritical water conditions.

PubMed

Kapalavavi, B; Marple, R; Gamsky, C; Yang, Y

2015-06-01

The goal of this work was to further validate the subcritical water chromatography (SBWC) methods for separation and analysis of preservatives through the evaluation of analyte stability in subcritical water. In this study, the degradation of preservatives was investigated at temperatures of 100-200°C using two different approaches. First, the peak areas obtained by SBWC at high temperatures were compared with those achieved using the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 25°C. In the second approach, several preservatives and water were loaded into a vessel and heated at high temperatures for 30 or 60 min. The heated mixtures were then analysed by GC/MS to determine the stability of preservatives. The t- and F-test on the results of the first approach reveal that the peak areas achieved by HPLC and SBWC are not significantly different at the 95% confidence level, meaning that the preservatives studied are stable during the high-temperature SBWC runs. Although the results of the second approach show approximately 10% degradation of preservatives into mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid and phenol at 200°C, the preservatives studied are stable at 100 and 150°C. This is in good agreement with the validation results obtained by the first approach. The findings of this work confirm that SBWC methods at temperatures up to 150°C are reliable for separation and analysis of preservatives in cosmetic and other samples. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

20. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles

2009-01-01

An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

1. Studies on subcritical and overcritical density laser ablated TAC foam targets

Chaurasia, S.; Leshma, P.; Murali, C. G.; Borisenko, N. G.; Munda, D. S.; Orekhov, A.; Gromov, A. I.; Merkuliev, Yu. A.; Dhareshwar, L. J.

2015-05-01

In this paper, the interaction of high power laser with low density polymer foam with density as low as 2 mg/cm3, 4 mg/cm3, 20 mg/cm3 30 mg/cm3 and 50 mg/cm3 targets are investigated and compared with solid polymer targets. An understanding of such interaction is important from fusion research point of view. Low density foam coating of fusion capsule has been proposed in order to smooth in direct drive scheme and also it is being used as efficient x-ray converter in indirect drive scheme. It is observed that about 75-80% of the laser energy is absorbed in the subcritical (with density <4 mg/cm3) foam targets and the soft x-ray yield in this case is almost two times that measured in the over dense (supper critical) targets. The optical shadowgraphy of the targets shows that the laser coupling in low density foam is associated with a supersonic heat wave while, with increasing density this phenomenon is replaced by subsonic absorption and shock formation. In the case of a 50 mg/cm3 foams the foil velocity reduced by 35% (i.e. 5×106 cm/s), which further reduced to 3.8×106 cm/s in case solid polymer targets.

2. Subcritical crack growth in a chemically reactive environment-implications for caprock integrity for CO2 storage

Fan, Z.; Eichhubl, P.; Callahan, O. A.; Major, J. R.; Chen, X.

2015-12-01

Seal integrity of cap-rock is a critical constraint on the long term performance of CO2 containment site. During fluid migration, the coupled geochemical reaction of minerals and geomechanical deformation of rock matrix may affect the seal integrity. The potential leakage of injected CO2 from cap-rock through preexisting fractures/faults represents a major concern associated with geological storage of CO2. To address the fundamental question of CO2 leakage through subcritical growth of fractures driven by chemically reactive fluid across caprocks, we build a Dugdale cohesive model. Ahead of the physical crack tip, a narrow band of cohesive zone is assumed to exist with the upper and lower cohesive surfaces held by the cohesive traction. In the vicinity of the crack tip, minerals dissolve due to the acidic environment and migrate from the physical crack tip into the cohesive zone causing damage of rock matrix in the form of a reduction of cohesive traction.Focusing on the dissolution of calcite and following the stress corrosion theory, we assume the degradation of cohesive traction is linearly proportional to the concentration of Ca2+whose evolution follows the reactive diffusion equation. Using a critical crack opening displacement criterion, the subcritical propagation behavior of crack due to stress corrosion is captured and the rate-limiting effects including the chemical reactions to produce the Ca2+ and the transport of minerals along the newly generated fracture cohesive zone are incorporated. Subcritical crack growth rate under different chemical environment conditions is examined and compared with the experimental fracture mechanics testing.

3. Burnup calculations for KIPT accelerator driven subcritical facility using Monte Carlo computer codes-MCB and MCNPX.

SciTech Connect

Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.; Talamo, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-06-09

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an electron accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) facility, using the KIPT electron accelerator. The neutron source of the subcritical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The electron beam has a uniform spatial distribution and electron energy in the range of 100 to 200 MeV. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the production of medical isotopes and the support of the Ukraine nuclear power industry. Neutron physics experiments and material structure analyses are planned using this facility. With the 100 KW electron beam power, the total thermal power of the facility is {approx}375 kW including the fission power of {approx}260 kW. The burnup of the fissile materials and the buildup of fission products reduce continuously the reactivity during the operation, which reduces the neutron flux level and consequently the facility performance. To preserve the neutron flux level during the operation, fuel assemblies should be added after long operating periods to compensate for the lost reactivity. This process requires accurate prediction of the fuel burnup, the decay behavior of the fission produces, and the introduced reactivity from adding fresh fuel assemblies. The recent developments of the Monte Carlo computer codes, the high speed capability of the computer processors, and the parallel computation techniques made it possible to perform three-dimensional detailed burnup simulations. A full detailed three-dimensional geometrical model is used for the burnup simulations with continuous energy nuclear data libraries for the transport calculations and 63-multigroup or one group cross sections libraries for the depletion calculations. Monte Carlo Computer code MCNPX and MCB are utilized for this study. MCNPX transports the

4. SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF OXYGENATES FROM SAVORY AND PEPPERMINT USING SUBCRITICAL WATER. (R825394)

EPA Science Inventory

The yields of oxygenated and non-oxygenated flavour and fragrance compounds from savory (Satureja hortensis) and peppermint (Mentha piperita) were compared using subcritical water extraction, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) and hydrodistillation. Extraction rates wi...

5. Supercritical (and Subcritical) Fluid Behavior and Modeling: Drops, Streams, Shear and Mixing Layers, Jets and Sprays

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bellan, J.

1999-01-01

A critical review of recent investigations in the real of supercritical (and subcritical) fluid behavior is presented with the goal of obtaining a perspective on the peculiarities of high pressure observations.

6. Subcritical propagation of an oil-filled penny-shaped crack during kerogen-oil conversion

Fan, Z. Q.; Jin, Z.-H.; Johnson, S. E.

2010-09-01

We conduct a parametric study on the subcritical propagation of an oil-filled, penny-shaped microcrack induced by the pressure increase caused by transformation of kerogen to oil. The excess oil pressure on the crack surfaces, and the subcritical crack propagation distance and duration, are obtained using a coupled model of fracture mechanics and kerogen-oil transformation kinetics. The numerical results show that the excess oil pressure and crack propagation distance/duration are significantly influenced by the temperature and elastic/fracture properties of the source rock, and the initial kerogen particle size. The subcritical propagation behaviour is relatively insensitive to the volume expansion rate associated with the conversion of kerogen to oil. Because the subcritical crack propagation rate is much faster than the kerogen-oil conversion rate, the crack propagation duration is primarily determined by the transformation kinetics.

7. SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF OXYGENATES FROM SAVORY AND PEPPERMINT USING SUBCRITICAL WATER. (R825394)

EPA Science Inventory

The yields of oxygenated and non-oxygenated flavour and fragrance compounds from savory (Satureja hortensis) and peppermint (Mentha piperita) were compared using subcritical water extraction, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) and hydrodistillation. Extraction rates wi...

8. Clinicopathological features of five unusual cases of intraosseous myoepithelial carcinomas, mimicking conventional primary bone tumours, including EWSR1 rearrangement in one case.

PubMed

Rekhi, Bharat; Joshi, Sujit; Panchwagh, Yogesh; Gulia, Ashish; Borges, Anita; Bajpai, Jyoti; Jambehekar, Nirmala A; Pant, Vinita; Mandholkar, Mahesh; Byregowda, Suman; Puri, Ajay

2016-04-01

Primary intraosseous myoepithelial tumours, including carcinomas are rare tumours. The concept of histopathological spectrum of these tumours is evolving. We describe clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of five myoepithelial carcinomas, including molecular cytogenetic results in one case. There were five male patients within age-range of 8-40 years (median = 26). Four tumours occurred in the long bones, including two tumours, each, in the femur and fibula, respectively, while a single tumour occurred in the proximal phalanges. Tumour size (n = 3 cases) varied from 5.6 to 8.6 cm. On radiological imaging, most tumours appeared as expansile, lytic and destructive lesions. Two tumours appeared as sclerotic lesions. Two cases were referred with diagnoses of chondrosarcomas and a single case was referred with two different diagnoses, including an adamantinoma and an osteosarcoma. Histopathological examination in all these cases showed multinodular tumours comprising mostly polygonal cells, exhibiting moderate nuclear atypia and interspersed mitotic figures within a stroma containing variable amount of myxoid, chondroid, hyalinised and osteoid-like material. Three tumours revealed prominent squamous differentiation. By immunohistochemistry, tumour cells were positive for EMA (5/5), pan CK (AE1/AE3) (3/3), CK5/6 (4/4), CK MNF116 (1/1), S100 protein (5/5) and GFAP (3/5). The first tumour revealed EWSR1 rearrangement. The first patient, 10 months after tumour resection and a simultaneous lung metastatectomy, is free-of-disease (FOD). The second patient, 11 months after tumour resection is FOD. The third and fourth patients underwent wide resections and are on follow-up. The fifth patient underwent resections, including a lung metastatectomy. Primary intraosseous myoepithelial carcinomas are rare and mimic conventional primary bone tumours. Some primary intraosseous myoepithelial carcinomas display EWSR1 rearrangement. Squamous differentiation may be

9. Subcritical Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a Hele-Shaw cell.

PubMed

Meignin, L; Gondret, P; Ruyer-Quil, C; Rabaud, M

2003-06-13

We investigate experimentally the subcritical behavior of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for a gas-liquid shearing flow in a Hele-Shaw cell. The subcritical curve separating the solutions of a stable plane interface and a fully saturated nonlinear wave train is determined. Experimental results are fitted by a fifth order complex Ginzburg-Landau equation whose linear coefficients are compared to theoretical ones.

10. Target normal sheath acceleration of foil ions by laser-trapped hot electrons from a long subcritical-density preplasma

SciTech Connect

Luan, S. X.; Yu, Wei; Shen, B. F.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yu, M. Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Xu, Han; Wong, A. Y.; Wang, J. W.

2014-12-15

In a long subcritical density plasma, an ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse can self-organize into a fast but sub-relativistic propagating structure consisting of the modulated laser light and a large number of trapped electrons from the plasma. Upon impact of the structure with a solid foil target placed in the latter, the remaining laser light is reflected, but the dense and hot trapped electrons pass through the foil, together with the impact-generated target-frontsurface electrons to form a dense hot electron cloud at the back of the target suitable for enhancing target normal sheath acceleration of the target-backsurface ions. The accelerated ions are well collimated and of high charge and energy densities, with peak energies a full order of magnitude higher than that from target normal sheath acceleration without the subcritical density plasma. In the latter case, the space-charge field accelerating the ions is limited since they are formed only by the target-frontsurface electrons during the very short instant of laser reflection.

11. Super- and sub-critical regions in shocks driven by radio-loud and radio-quiet CMEs

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

White-light coronagraphic images of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by SOHO/LASCO C2 have been used to estimate the density jump along the whole front of two CME-driven shocks. The two events are different in that the first one was a “radio-loud” fast CME, while the second one was a “radio quiet” slow CME. From the compression ratios inferred along the shock fronts, we estimated the Alfvén Mach numbers for the general case of an oblique shock. It turns out that the “radio-loud” CME shock is initially super-critical around the shock center, while later on the whole shock becomes sub-critical. On the contrary, the shock associated with the “radio-quiet” CME is sub-critical at all times. This suggests that CME-driven shocks could be efficient particle accelerators at the shock nose only at the initiation phases of the event, if and when the shock is super-critical, while at later times they lose their energy and the capability to accelerate high energetic particles. PMID:25685431

12. Super- and sub-critical regions in shocks driven by radio-loud and radio-quiet CMEs.

PubMed

2013-05-01

White-light coronagraphic images of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by SOHO/LASCO C2 have been used to estimate the density jump along the whole front of two CME-driven shocks. The two events are different in that the first one was a "radio-loud" fast CME, while the second one was a "radio quiet" slow CME. From the compression ratios inferred along the shock fronts, we estimated the Alfvén Mach numbers for the general case of an oblique shock. It turns out that the "radio-loud" CME shock is initially super-critical around the shock center, while later on the whole shock becomes sub-critical. On the contrary, the shock associated with the "radio-quiet" CME is sub-critical at all times. This suggests that CME-driven shocks could be efficient particle accelerators at the shock nose only at the initiation phases of the event, if and when the shock is super-critical, while at later times they lose their energy and the capability to accelerate high energetic particles.

13. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis of Peptides: Amino Acid Side-Chain Modifications

Powell, Thomas; Bowra, Steve; Cooper, Helen J.

2017-09-01

Previously we have shown that subcritical water may be used as an alternative to enzymatic digestion in the proteolysis of proteins for bottom-up proteomics. Subcritical water hydrolysis of proteins was shown to result in protein sequence coverages greater than or equal to that obtained following digestion with trypsin; however, the percentage of peptide spectral matches for the samples treated with trypsin were consistently greater than for those treated with subcritical water. This observation suggests that in addition to cleavage of the peptide bond, subcritical water treatment results in other hydrolysis products, possibly due to modifications of amino acid side chains. Here, a model peptide comprising all common amino acid residues (VQSIKCADFLHYMENPTWGR) and two further model peptides (VCFQYMDRGDR and VQSIKADFLHYENPTWGR) were treated with subcritical water with the aim of probing any induced amino acid side-chain modifications. The hydrolysis products were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, either collision-induced dissociation or electron transfer dissociation, and liquid chromatography collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results show preferential oxidation of cysteine to sulfinic and sulfonic acid, and oxidation of methionine. In the absence of cysteine and methionine, oxidation of tryptophan was observed. In addition, water loss from aspartic acid and C-terminal amidation were observed in harsher subcritical water conditions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

14. Associations between uterine fibroids and lifestyles including diet, physical activity and stress: a case-control study in China.

PubMed

He, Yuan; Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Shengyong; Qin, Liqiang; Li, Guowei; Wang, Peiyu

2013-01-01

This study was conducted to investigate the associations between uterine fibroids and lifestyles including diet, physical activity and stress from October 2009 to April 2011 in China. This case-control study composed of 73 women with uterine fibroids and 210 women without fibroids. Uterine fibroid cases were confirmed by ultrasound diagnosis or hysterectomy surgery. Information on women's dietary habits, physical activity and stress status were collected with a validated self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) after controlling for age, gravidity and parity. We found that vegetable and fruit intakes and occupational intensity played positive effects on uterine fibroids. For premenopausal women, vegetable and fruit intakes (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.9) and occupational intensity (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) significantly decreased the risk of fibroids; conversely, BMI significantly increased the risk (OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). However, the associations for postmenopausal women were not significant. Our findings suggested protective roles for vegetable and fruit intakes and occupational intensity on uterine fibroids, and supported the hypothesis that high BMI only increased the risk of uterine fibroids in premenopausal women.

15. Chromosomal analyses of 52 cases of follicular lymphoma with t(14;18), including blastic/blastoid variant.

PubMed

Mohamed, A N; Palutke, M; Eisenberg, L; Al-Katib, A

2001-04-01

We have identified 52 patients of follicular lymphoma (FL) with t(14;18)(q32;q21). Histologically, the lymphomas were placed into six groups according to their cellular composition and growth pattern. Chromosome analysis revealed that all cases but one had additional secondary chromosomal abnormalities. The most frequent numerical aberrations were gains of chromosomes 7 (38%), X (36%), 5 (15%), 12 (15%), 18/der(18)t(14;18) (25%), and 21 (15%). Structural abnormalities of chromosome 1 were seen in 19 tumors (36%) affecting both arms with breakpoints clustered at 1p36. Other structural abnormalities included partial deletions of 6q, 10q, and 13q. Breakpoint at 8q24 was seen in four cases. The chromosome aberrations were correlated with the morphological subtypes of follicular lymphoma. Gain of chromosome 7 appeared to be associated with follicular large cell lymphoma. The incidence of trisomy 5 and 12, and 13q- was higher in follicular lymphoma with aggressive histological features than in low-grade lymphoma. In addition, complexity of the karyotype and high degree of polyploidy increased with the grade. The most valuable cytogenetic markers in the t(14;18) lymphomas are those involving 8q24 which was found exclusively in the blastic/blastoid variant FL. Therefore, chromosome analysis in relation to histologic pattern of follicular lymphoma can provide additional information in predicting tumor evolution and transformation to a higher-grade malignancy.

16. Infection by rhinovirus: similarity of clinical signs included in the case definition of influenza IAn/H1N1.

PubMed

de Oña Navarro, Maria; Melón García, Santiago; Alvarez-Argüelles, Marta; Fernández-Verdugo, Ana; Boga Riveiro, Jose Antonio

2012-08-01

Although new influenza virus (IAn/H1N1) infections are mild and indistinguishable from any other seasonal influenza virus infections, there are few data on comparisons of the clinical features of infection with (IAn/H1N1) and with other respiratory viruses. The incidence, clinical aspects and temporal distribution of those respiratory viruses circulating during flu pandemic period were studied. Respiratory samples from patients with acute influenza-like symptoms were collected from May 2009 to December 2009. Respiratory viruses were detected by conventional culture methods and genome amplification techniques. Although IAn/H1N1 was the virus most frequently detected, several other respiratory viruses co-circulated with IAn/H1N1 during the pandemic period, especially rhinovirus. The similarity between clinical signs included in the clinical case definition for influenza and those caused by other respiratory viruses, particularly rhinovirus, suggest that a high percentage of viral infections were clinically diagnosed as case of influenza. Our study offers useful information to face future pandemics caused by influenza virus, indicating that differential diagnoses are required in order to not overestimate the importance of the pandemic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

17. Paroxysmal Autonomic Instability With Dystonia Managed Using Chemodenervation Including Alcohol Neurolysis and Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection: A Case Report

PubMed Central

Lee, Hye-Sun; Oh, Hyun-Seung

2015-01-01

Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) is a rare complication of brain injury. Symptoms of PAID include diaphoresis, hyperthermia, hypertension, tachycardia, and tachypnea accompanied by hypertonic movement. Herein, we present the case of a 44-year-old female patient, who was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalopathy caused by thyroid papillary cancer. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of PAID. On the basis that the symptoms were unresponsive to antispastic medication and her liver function test was elevated, we performed alcohol neurolysis of the musculocutaneous nerve followed by botulinum toxin type A (BNT-A) injection into the biceps brachii and brachialis. Unstable vital signs and hypertonia were relieved after chemodenervation. Accordingly, alcohol neurolysis and BNT-A injection are proposed as a treatment option for intractable PAID. PMID:25932429

18. Comparing methods for estimating R0 from the size distribution of subcritical transmission chains.

PubMed

Blumberg, S; Lloyd-Smith, J O

2013-09-01

Many diseases exhibit subcritical transmission (i.e. 0cases in each chain can be used to infer R0, which is of crucial importance for monitoring the risk that a disease will emerge to establish endemic circulation. However, the challenge of imperfect case detection has led authors to adopt a variety of work-around measures when inferring R0, such as discarding data on isolated cases or aggregating intermediate-sized chains together. Each of these methods has the potential to introduce bias, but a quantitative comparison of these approaches has not been reported. By adapting a model based on a negative binomial offspring distribution that permits a variable degree of transmission heterogeneity, we present a unified analysis of existing R0 estimation methods. Simulation studies show that the degree of transmission heterogeneity, when improperly modeled, can significantly impact the bias of R0 estimation methods designed for imperfect observation. These studies also highlight the importance of isolated cases in assessing whether an estimation technique is consistent with observed data. Analysis of data from measles outbreaks shows that likelihood scores are highest for models that allow a flexible degree of transmission heterogeneity. Aggregating intermediate sized chains often has similar performance to analyzing a complete chain size distribution. However, truncating isolated cases is beneficial only when surveillance systems clearly favor full observation of large chains but not small chains. Meanwhile, if data on the type and proportion of cases that are unobserved were known, we demonstrate that maximum likelihood inference of R0 could be adjusted accordingly. This motivates the need for future empirical and theoretical work to quantify observation error and incorporate relevant mechanisms into stuttering chain models used

19. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis.

PubMed

Glenton, Claire; Sorhaindo, Annik M; Ganatra, Bela; Lewin, Simon

2017-09-21

Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers' knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers' willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers' willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers' and co-workers' attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address some of these issues in the study countries included values

20. Retention behavior of phenols, anilines, and alkylbenzenes in liquid chromatographic separations using subcritical water as the mobile phase.

PubMed

Yang, Y; Jones, A D; Eaton, C D

1999-09-01

The unique characteristic of subcritical water is its widely tunable physical properties. For example, the polarity (measured by dielectric constant) of water is significantly decreased by raising water temperature. At temperatures of 200-250 °C (under moderate pressure to keep water in the liquid state), the polarity of pure water is similar to that of pure methanol or acetonitrile at ambient conditions. Therefore, pure subcritical water may be able to serve as the mobile phase for reversed-phase separations. To investigate the retention behavior in subcritical water separation, the retention factors of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene), phenol, aniline, and their derivatives have been determined using subcritical water, methanol/water, and acetonitrile/water systems. Subcritical water separations were also performed using alumina, silica-bonded C18, and poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) columns to study the influence of the stationary phase on analyte retention under subcritical water conditions.

1. Central nervous system infection by Listeria monocytogenes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of 26 cases, including the report of a new case.

PubMed

Horta-Baas, Gabriel; Guerrero-Soto, Omar; Barile-Fabris, Leonor

2013-01-01

Infections in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus cause significant morbidity. Infection due to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is considered an opportunistic disease, and has been published on rare occasions in patients with SLE. To review the presentation of listeria infections in the central nervous system (CNS) in SLE patients. We conducted a literature review, selecting cases with central nervous system infection and confirmation of LM infection through culture. Twenty six cases are described. The most common presentation was meningitis, with meningoencephalitis and brain abscesses being less frequent. The predisposing factors are: use of glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, renal replacement therapy and the activity flares. CNS infection by listeria is rare and sometimes fatal. The atypical presentation may lead to a delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. L. monocytogenes should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with SLE with neurological manifestations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

2. Pati-Salam version of subcritical hybrid inflation

Bryant, B. Charles; Raby, Stuart

2016-05-01

In this paper we present a model of subcritical hybrid inflation with a Pati-Salam (PS) symmetry group. Both the inflaton and waterfall fields contribute to the necessary e -foldings of inflation, while only the waterfall field spontaneously breaks PS hence monopoles produced during inflation are diluted during the inflationary epoch. The model is able to produce a tensor-to-scalar ratio, r <0.09 consistent with the latest BICEP2/Keck and Planck data, as well as scalar density perturbations and spectral index, ns, consistent with Planck data. For particular values of the parameters, we find r =0.084 and ns=0.0963 . The energy density during inflation is directly related to the PS breaking scale, vPS. The model also incorporates a Z4R symmetry which can resolve the μ problem and suppress dimension 5 operators for proton decay, leaving over an exact R parity. Finally the model allows for a complete three-family extension with a D4 family symmetry which reproduces low energy precision electroweak and LHC data.

3. Evaporation of LOX under supercritical and subcritical conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yang, A. S.; Hsieh, W. H.; Kuo, K. K.; Brown, J. J.

1993-01-01

The evaporation of LOX under supercritical and subcritical conditions was studied experimentally and theoretically. In experiments, the evaporation rate and surface temperature were measured for LOX strand vaporizing in helium environments at pressures ranging from 5 to 68 atmospheres. Gas sampling and chromatography analysis were also employed to profile the gas composition above the LOX surface for the purpose of model validation. A comprehensive theoretical model was formulated and solved numerically to simulate the evaporation process of LOX at high pressures. The model was based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species concentrations for a multicomponent system, with consideration of gravitational body force, solubility of ambient gases in liquid, and variable thermophysical properties. Good agreement between predictions and measured oxygen mole fraction profiles was obtained. The effect of pressure on the distribution of the Lewis number, as well as the effect of variable diffusion coefficient, were further examined to elucidate the high-pressure transport behavior exhibited in the LOX vaporization process.

4. Catalytic upgrading of duckweed biocrude in subcritical water.

PubMed

Zhang, Caicai; Duan, Peigao; Xu, Yuping; Wang, Bing; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Lei

2014-08-01

Herein, a duckweed biocrude produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Lemna minor was treated in subcritical water with added H₂. Effects of several different commercially available materials such as Ru/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, Pt/γ-Al₂O₃, Pt/C-sulfide, Rh/γ-Al₂O₃, activated carbon, MoS₂, Mo₂C, Co-Mo/γ-Al₂O₃, and zeolite on the yields of product fractions and the deoxygenation, denitrogenation, and desulfurization of biocrude at 350°C were examined, respectively. All the materials showed catalytic activity for deoxygenation and desulfurization of the biocrude and only Ru/C showed activity for denitrogenation. Of those catalysts examined, Pt/C showed the best performance for deoxygenation. Among all the upgraded oils, the oil produced with Ru/C shows the lowest sulfur, the highest hydrocarbon content (25.6%), the highest energy recovery (85.5%), and the highest higher heating value (42.6 MJ/kg). The gaseous products were mainly unreacted H₂, CH₄, CO₂, and C₂H6. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. Degradation of benzoic acid and its derivatives in subcritical water.

PubMed

Lindquist, Edward; Yang, Yu

2011-04-15

In this research, the stability of benzoic acid and three of its derivatives (anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, and syringic acid) under subcritical water conditions was investigated. The stability studies were carried out at temperatures ranging from 50 to 350°C with heating times of 10-630 min. The degradation of the benzoic acid derivatives increased with rising temperature and the acids became less stable with longer heating time. The three benzoic acid derivatives showed very mild degradation at 150°C. Severe degradation of benzoic acid derivatives was observed at 200°C while their complete degradation occurred at 250°C. However, benzoic acid remained stable at temperatures up to 300°C. The degradation products of benzoic acid and the three derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC and confirmed by GC/MS. Anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, and benzoic acid in high-temperature water underwent decarboxylation to form aniline, phenol, syringol, and benzene, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

6. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

SciTech Connect

Nolen, Steven Douglas

2000-06-01

The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

7. Co-liquefaction of micro- and macroalgae in subcritical water.

PubMed

Jin, Binbin; Duan, Peigao; Xu, Yuping; Wang, Feng; Fan, Yunchang

2013-12-01

Co-liquefaction of microalgae (Spirulina platensis, SP) and macroalgae (Entermorpha prolifera, EP) was studied in subcritical water by using a stainless-steel batch reactor at different temperature (250 to 370°C), time (5 to 120 min), SP/EP mass ratio (0 to 100%), and water/algae mass ratio (1:1 to 6:1). The results suggested that a positive synergetic effect existed during the co-liquefaction of SP and EP, and this synergetic effect was dependent on reaction conditions. Co-liquefaction alleviated the severe reaction conditions compared to the separate liquefaction of SP and EP and also promoted the in situ deoxygenation of the bio-oil. The higher-heating-value of bio-oil produced from the co-liquefaction of SP and EP (wSP:wEP=1) is 35.3 MJ/kg. The energy recovery from the co-liquefaction is larger than the average value from the separate liquefaction of SP and EP. Co-liquefaction did not affect the molecular composition but affect the relative amount of each component in the bio-oil.

8. Subcritical solvent extraction of anthocyanins from dried red grape pomace.

PubMed

Monrad, Jeana K; Howard, Luke R; King, Jerry W; Srinivas, Keerthi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

2010-03-10

Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was used to optimize and determine the effectiveness of an alternative, environmentally friendly extraction procedure using subcritical solvents to recover anthocyanins from freeze-dried, ground Sunbelt red grape pomace. Anthocyanins were extracted from pomace using the following ASE variables: pressure (6.8 MPa), one extraction cycle, and temperature (40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 degrees C). Conventional solvent extraction with methanol/water/formic acid (60:37:3 v/v/v) was compared to four hydroethanolic solvents (10, 30, 50, and 70% ethanol in water, v/v). Anthocyanins in the extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC-MS and HPLC. There was an insignificant interaction between solvent and temperature (p = 0.0663). Solvents containing 70 and 50% ethanol in water extracted more total anthocyanins (463 and 455 mg/100 g of DW, respectively) than other solvents. The total amounts of anthocyanins extracted at 100 degrees C (450 mg/100 g of DW), 80 degrees C (436 mg/100 g of DW), and 120 degrees C (411 mg/100 g of DW) were higher than at the other temperatures. Solvents containing 70 and 50% ethanol in water extracted similar amounts of anthocyanins as conventional extraction solvent.

9. Evaporation of LOX under supercritical and subcritical conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yang, A. S.; Hsieh, W. H.; Kuo, K. K.; Brown, J. J.

1993-01-01

The evaporation of LOX under supercritical and subcritical conditions was studied experimentally and theoretically. In experiments, the evaporation rate and surface temperature were measured for LOX strand vaporizing in helium environments at pressures ranging from 5 to 68 atmospheres. Gas sampling and chromatography analysis were also employed to profile the gas composition above the LOX surface for the purpose of model validation. A comprehensive theoretical model was formulated and solved numerically to simulate the evaporation process of LOX at high pressures. The model was based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species concentrations for a multicomponent system, with consideration of gravitational body force, solubility of ambient gases in liquid, and variable thermophysical properties. Good agreement between predictions and measured oxygen mole fraction profiles was obtained. The effect of pressure on the distribution of the Lewis number, as well as the effect of variable diffusion coefficient, were further examined to elucidate the high-pressure transport behavior exhibited in the LOX vaporization process.

10. Advances in Subcritical Hydro-/Solvothermal Processing of Graphene Materials.

PubMed

Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

2017-02-28

Many promising graphene-based materials are kept away from mainstream applications due to problems of scalability and environmental concerns in their processing. Hydro-/solvothermal techniques overwhelmingly satisfy both the aforementioned criteria, and have matured as alternatives to wet-chemical methods with advances made over the past few decades. The insolubility of graphene in many solvents poses considerable difficulties in their processing. In this context hydro-/solvothermal techniques present an ideal opportunity for processing of graphenic materials with their versatility in manipulating the physical and thermodynamic properties of the solvent. The flexibility in hydro-/solvothermal techniques for manipulation of solvent composition, temperature and pressure provides numerous handles to manipulate graphene-based materials during synthesis. This review provides a comprehensive look at the subcritical hydro-/solvothermal synthesis of graphene-based functional materials and their applications. Several key synthetic strategies governing the morphology and properties of the products such as temperature, pressure, and solvent effects are elaborated. Advances in the synthesis, doping, and functionalization of graphene in hydro-/solvothermal media are highlighted together with our perspectives in the field.

11. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

PubMed

Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

2017-03-30

As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

12. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

Sooby, E.; Baty, A.; Beneš, O.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Salanne, M.; Sattarov, A.

2013-09-01

We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. A molecular dynamics (MD) code has been used to estimate properties of the molten salt system which are important for ADSMS design but have never been measured experimentally. Results from the MD studies are reported. Experimental measurements of fuel salt properties and studies of corrosion and radiation damage on candidate metals for the core vessel are anticipated. A special thanks is due to Prof. Paul Madden for introducing the ADSMS group to the concept of using the molten salt as the spallation target, rather than a conventional heavy metal spallation target. This feature helps to optimize this core as a Pu/TRU burner.

13. Subcritical Transition to Turbulence in Couette-Poiseuille flow

Wesfreid, Jose Eduardo; Klotz, Lukasz

2016-11-01

We study the subcritical transition to turbulence in the plane Couette-Poiseuille shear flow with zero mean advection velocity. Our experimental configuration consists on one moving wall of the test section (the second one remains stationary), which acts like a driving force for the flow, imposing linear streamwise velocity profile (Couette) and adverse pressure gradient in the streamwise direction (Poiseuille) at the same time. This flow, which had only been studied theoretically up to now, is always linearly stable. The transition to turbulence is forced by a very well controlled finite-size perturbation by injection, into the test section, of a water jet during a very short time. Using PIV technique, we characterized quantitatively the initial development of the triggered turbulent spot and compared its energy evolution with the theoretical predictions of the transient growth theory. In addition, we show results concerning the importance of nonlinearities, when waviness of streaks in streamwise direction induced self-sustained process in the turbulent spot. We also measured precisely the large-scale flow which is generated around the turbulent spot and studied its strength as a function of the Reynolds number.

14. Rapid column heating method for subcritical water chromatography.

PubMed

Fogwill, Michael O; Thurbide, Kevin B

2007-01-19

A novel resistive heating method is presented for subcritical water chromatography (SWC) that provides higher column heating rates than those conventionally obtained from temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) convection ovens. Since the polarity of water reduces dramatically with increasing temperature, SWC employs column heating to achieve gradient elution. As such, the rate at which the mobile phase is heated directly impacts the magnitude of such gradients applied in SWC. Data from the current study demonstrate that the maximum column heating rate attainable in a typical SWC apparatus (i.e. using a GC convection oven) is around 10 degrees C/min, even at instrument oven settings of over three times this value. Conversely, by wrapping the separation column with ceramic insulation and a resistively heated wire, the column heating rates are increased five-fold. As a result, elution times can be greatly decreased in SWC employing gradients. Separations of standard alcohol test mixtures demonstrate that the retention time of the latest eluting component decreases by 35 to 50% using the prototype method. Additionally, solute retention times in this mode deviate by less than 1% RSD over several trials, which compares very well to those obtained using a conventional GC convection oven. Results suggest that the developed method can be a useful alternative heating technique in SWC.

15. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions.

PubMed

Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang

2014-10-01

A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

16. Conceptual design of thorium-fuelled Mitrailleuse accelerator-driven subcritical reactor using D-Be neutron source

SciTech Connect

Kokubo, Y.; Kamei, T.

2012-07-01

A distributed accelerator is a charged-particle accelerator that uses a new acceleration method based on repeated electrostatic acceleration. This method offers outstanding benefits not possible with the conventional radio-frequency acceleration method, including: (1) high acceleration efficiency, (2) large acceleration current, and (3) lower failure rate made possible by a fully solid-state acceleration field generation circuit. A 'Mitrailleuse Accelerator' is a product we have conceived to optimize this distributed accelerator technology for use with a high-strength neutron source. We have completed the conceptual design of a Mitrailleuse Accelerator and of a thorium-fuelled subcritical reactor driven by a Mitrailleuse Accelerator. This paper presents the conceptual design details and approach to implementing the subcritical reactor core. We will spend the next year or so on detailed design work, and then will start work on developing a prototype for demonstration. If there are no obstacles in setting up a development organization, we expect to finish verifying the prototype's performance by the third quarter of 2015. (authors)

17. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study

PubMed Central

Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Taira, Kumiko

2015-01-01

Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4–87 year-old). Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough) were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5–69 year-old); the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5–78 year-old). N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum)), followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb) and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb), however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb), but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, not quantified) and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified). Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified), and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb). Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb). The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5–57). Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

18. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

PubMed

Marfo, Jemima Tiwaa; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Taira, Kumiko

2015-01-01

Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old). Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough) were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old); the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old). N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum)), followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb) and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb), however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb), but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, not quantified) and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified). Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified), and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb). Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb). The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57). Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

19. The Physics Design for a Fusion Driven Sub-critical System

Bin, Wu

2002-11-01

The Fusion Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is a sub-critical nuclear energy system drive by fusion neutron source, which provides a feasible, safe, economic and highly efficient potential of disposing High Level Waste (HLW) and produce fission nuclear fuel as a early application of fusion technology. This paper reviews the past physics reactor design of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China, and a low aspect ratio tokamak energy system that has been proposed, which aims at high β, good confinement, and steady-state operation in a compact configuration at modest field. The system includes a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, a radioactivity clean nuclear power system as blanket and novel concept of liquid metal conductor as centre conductor post. Parameters of such kind reactor are the following. Major radius 1.4m, Minor radius 1m, plasma current 9.2MA, Toroidal field 2.5T, Plasma edge q=5, Average density 1.6 10^20m^3, Average temperature 10keV, Plasma volume 50m^3, Bootstrap current fraction 0.72, Fusion power 100MW, Drive power 28MW, Neutron wall loading 1.0MW/m-2. The plasma configuration is an important part in the low-A tokamak. The Eq code has been used to get a equilibrium. From this calculation, we have found a simple set of PF coils that satisfies the requirements of the large elongation plasma configuration and a vertical field with less curve field lines in the low-A tokamak. The natural elongation can be attributed mostly to differences in the current density profile. In order to determine the feasibility of the low-A tokamak operation, a transient simulation has been made which includes the equilibrium, transport and plasma position shape control in the low-A tokamak. A 1-1/2 equilibrium evolution code has been used to make this simulation. The code is two-dimensional time dependent free boundary simulation code that advances the MHD equations describing the transport time-scale evolution of a axisymmetric tokamak plasma.

20. An atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes the FMR-1 gene

SciTech Connect

Quan, F.; Johnson, D.B.; Anoe, K.S.

1994-09-01

Fragile X syndrome results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR-1 gene. This is commonly caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the FMR-1 gene. We describe here an atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes the FMR-1 gene. RK is a 6-year-old hyperactive, mentally retarded male. Southern analysis of PstI digested genomic DNA was performed using a 558 bp XhoI-PstI fragment specific for the 5-end of the FMR-1 gene. This analysis revealed the absence of the normal 1.0 kb PstI fragment, indicating the deletion of at least a portion of the FMR-1 gene. PCR analysis using Xq27.3 microsatellite and STS markers confirmed the presence of a deletion of at least 600 kb encompassing the FMR-1 gene. Southern blot and PCR analysis demonstrated that this deletion was maternally transmitted and arose as a new mutation on the grandpaternal X-chromosome. High resolution chromosome banding revealed an extremely small deletion of a portion of band Xq27 which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridrization (FISH) analysis using a 34 kb cosmid containing the FMR-1 gene. As expected, RK manifests physical features typical of fragile X syndrome, including a high arched palate, prognathism, and large ears. Interestingly, RK also presents with anal atresia, obesity and short stature, features not part of fragile X syndrome. In addition, RK has normal sized testicles and does not exhibit the characteristic gaze avoidance, hand-flapping, and crowd anxiety behaviors. These atypical features may result from the deletion of additional genes in the vicinity of the FMR-1 gene. Further work is underway to determine more precisely the extent of the deletion in RKs DNA.

1. Physics analyses of an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly

Naberezhnev, Dmitry G.; Gohar, Yousry; Bailey, James; Belch, Henry

2006-06-01

Physics analyses have been performed for an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly as a part of the Argonne National Laboratory activity in preparation for a joint conceptual design with the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine. KIPT has a plan to construct an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly targeted towards the medical isotope production and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. The external neutron source is produced either through photonuclear reactions in tungsten or uranium targets, or deuteron reactions in a beryllium target. KIPT intends using the high-enriched uranium (HEU) for the fuel of the sub-critical assembly. The main objective of this paper is to study the possibility of utilizing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel instead of HEU fuel without penalizing the sub-critical assembly performance, in particular the neutron flux level. In the course of this activity, several studies have been carried out to investigate the main choices for the system's parameters. The external neutron source has been characterized and a pre-conceptual target design has been developed. Several sub-critical configurations with different fuel enrichments and densities have been considered. Based on our analysis, it was shown that the performance of the LEU fuel is comparable with that of the HEU fuel. The LEU fuel sub-critical assembly with 200-MeV electron energy and 100-kW electron beam power has an average total flux of ˜2.50×10 13 n/s cm 2 in the irradiation channels. The corresponding total facility power is ˜204 kW divided into 91 and 113 kW deposited in the target and sub-critical assemblies, respectively.

2. A Case of 9.7 Mb Terminal Xp Deletion Including OA1 Locus Associated with Contiguous Gene Syndrome

PubMed Central

Cho, Eun-Hae; Kim, Sook-Young

2012-01-01

Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2→Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13.5 yr old boy and sister with a same terminal deletion of Xp22.2 resulting in the absence of genes from the telomere of Xp to GPR143 of Xp22. The boy manifested the findings of all of the disorders mentioned above. We began a testosterone enanthate monthly replacement therapy. His sister, 11 yr old, manifested only Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and had engaged in growth hormone therapy for 3 yr. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a male with a 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including the OA1 locus in Korea. PMID:23091330

3. How to detect polymorphisms undergoing selection in marine fishes? A review of methods and case studies, including flatfishes

Guinand, Bruno; Lemaire, Christophe; Bonhomme, François

2004-05-01

Populations of marine organisms are potentially affected by numerous selective pressures such as temperature and salinity, or anthropogenic pressures such as xenobiotics that may preclude adaptation to particular habitats. Such selective pressures may also affect their demography. Examples include modifications of the population dynamics through shifts in growth rate, and in life history traits affecting fitness such as size or age of first reproduction. However, the documentation of variation in phenotypically plastic traits specific to distinct environments cannot be taken as the ultimate proof that natural selection has occurred. Measurement of the impact of selection and subsequent local adaptation of fish populations based exclusively on morphological or physiological characters is one of the most difficult things to achieve because it depends on the use of phenotypic characters that closely match the genotype. Molecular markers can help to overcome this problem and, under some circumstances, can record the footprints of selection. A combination of polymorphisms that are under selection and those that are not can provide complementary information. In this paper, we review how and why selection can be detected at the molecular level, using genetic markers analysed in a population genetic framework. We then report and discuss case studies in fish.

4. Beyond the ponderomotive limit: Direct laser acceleration of relativistic electrons in sub-critical plasmas

Arefiev, A. V.; Khudik, V. N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Shvets, G.; Willingale, L.; Schollmeier, M.

2016-05-01

We examine a regime in which a linearly polarized laser pulse with relativistic intensity irradiates a sub-critical plasma for much longer than the characteristic electron response time. A steady-state channel is formed in the plasma in this case with quasi-static transverse and longitudinal electric fields. These relatively weak fields significantly alter the electron dynamics. The longitudinal electric field reduces the longitudinal dephasing between the electron and the wave, leading to an enhancement of the electron energy gain from the pulse. The energy gain in this regime is ultimately limited by the superluminosity of the wave fronts induced by the plasma in the channel. The transverse electric field alters the oscillations of the transverse electron velocity, allowing it to remain anti-parallel to laser electric field and leading to a significant energy gain. The energy enhancement is accompanied by the development of significant oscillations perpendicular to the plane of the driven motion, making trajectories of energetic electrons three-dimensional. Proper electron injection into the laser beam can further boost the electron energy gain.

5. Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid gland: report of three cases including one case with breast cancer history.

PubMed

Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Xi; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Johnstone, Marianne; Deng, Yuan; Ke, Yongqiang; Nunes, Quentin M; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Xuebin

2015-01-01

Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant tumor of the thyroid or adjacent neck soft tissues, whose histogenesis is still debated. It may resemble other primary or metastatic poorly differentiated tumors histologically and the differential diagnosis is crucial for CASTLE has a better prognosis. However, CASTLE as a second primary tumor has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of thyroid CASTLE, including a unique tumor following breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast invasive carcinoma. There were two female and one male. All three tumors were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, and one tumor showed extension into the surrounding soft tissue. Histologically, all tumors showed expansive growth and consisted of cords, nests or sheets of epithelial cells divided into irregularly shaped lobules by fibrous connective tissue with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Focal squamous differentiation resembling Hassall's corpuscles were observed. All cases stained positively for CD5, CD117, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin, P63, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive staining for Bcl-2 in two cases and chromogranin A in one case was noted. Ki-67 expression ranged from 15 to 25%. Thyroid transcription factor and CD3 were negative. There was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at following surgery. These features demonstrated CASTLE may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid solid cell nests. CASTLE is a rare entity, awareness of its occurrence as a second primary tumor is important to avoid overtreatment because it is associated with a favorable prognosis.

6. Case studies on recent fossil-fired plants

SciTech Connect

Henderson, C.

2007-12-31

The article summarises the findings of case studies on fossil-fired power plants carried out by the IEA Clean Coal Centre for the IEA at the request of world leaders at the Gleneagles G8 Summit in July 2005. The studies compared the cost, efficiency and emissions of eight recently constructed coal-fired plants using pulverized coal combustion with subcritical, supercritical or ultra-supercritical steam turbine cycles. Also included was a review of IGCC developments. A case study of a natural gas combined-cycle plant was included for comparison. The full report has been published by the IEA. 1 tab.

7. CFD Analysis and Design of Detailed Target Configurations for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System

SciTech Connect

Kraus, Adam; Merzari, Elia; Sofu, Tanju; Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry

2016-08-01

High-fidelity analysis has been utilized in the design of beam target options for an accelerator driven subcritical system. Designs featuring stacks of plates with square cross section have been investigated for both tungsten and uranium target materials. The presented work includes the first thermal-hydraulic simulations of the full, detailed target geometry. The innovative target cooling manifold design features many regions with complex flow features, including 90 bends and merging jets, which necessitate three-dimensional fluid simulations. These were performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+. Conjugate heat transfer was modeled between the plates, cladding, manifold structure, and fluid. Steady-state simulations were performed but lacked good residual convergence. Unsteady simulations were then performed, which converged well and demonstrated that flow instability existed in the lower portion of the manifold. It was established that the flow instability had little effect on the peak plate temperatures, which were well below the melting point. The estimated plate surface temperatures and target region pressure were shown to provide sufficient margin to subcooled boiling for standard operating conditions. This demonstrated the safety of both potential target configurations during normal operation.

8. Cyproterone acetate induces a wide spectrum of acute liver damage including corticosteroid-responsive hepatitis: report of 22 cases.

PubMed

Bessone, Fernando; Lucena, M I; Roma, Marcelo G; Stephens, Camilla; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada; Frider, Bernardo; Tsariktsian, Guillermo; Hernández, Nelia; Bruguera, Miquel; Gualano, Gisela; Fassio, Eduardo; Montero, Joaquín; Reggiardo, María V; Ferretti, Sebastián; Colombato, Luis; Tanno, Federico; Ferrer, Jaime; Zeno, Lelio; Tanno, Hugo; Andrade, Raúl J

2016-02-01

Cyproterone acetate (CPA), an anti-androgenic drug for prostate cancer, has been associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aim to expand the knowledge on the spectrum of phenotypes and outcomes of CPA-induced DILI. Twenty-two males (70 ± 8 years; range 54-83) developing liver damage as a result of CPA therapy (dose: 150 ± 50 mg/day; range 50-200) were included. Severity index and causality by RUCAM were assessed. From 1993 to 2013, 22 patients were retrieved. Latency was 163 ± 97 days. Most patients were symptomatic, showing hepatocellular injury (91%) and jaundice. Liver tests at onset were: ALT 18 ± 13 × ULN, ALP 0.7 ± 0.7 × ULN and total serum bilirubin 14 ± 10 mg/dl. International normalized ratio values higher than 1.5 were observed in 14 (66%) patients. Severity was mild in 1 case (4%), moderate in 7 (32%), severe in 11 (50%) and fatal in 3 (14%). Five patients developed ascitis, and four encephalopathy. One patient had a liver injury that resembled autoimmune hepatitis. Eleven (50%) were hospitalized. Nineteen patients recovered after CPA withdrawal, although three required steroid therapy (two of them had high ANA titres). Liver biopsy was performed in seven patients (two hepatocellular collapse, one submassive necrosis, two cholestatic hepatitis, one cirrhosis with iron overload and one autoimmune hepatitis). RUCAM category was 'highly probable' in 19 (86%), 'probable' in 1 (4%), and 'possible' in 2 (9%). CPA-induced liver injury is severe and can be fatal, and may occasionally resemble autoimmune DILI. The benefit/risk ratio of this drug should be thoroughly assessed in each patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

9. Organic Sulfur and HAP Removal from Coal with Subcritical Water

SciTech Connect

1996-12-31

To date, no economically feasible organic sulfur and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursor removal process has been developed; however, an effective sulfur and selected HAP removal process is needed to enhance the utilization of high-sulfur coals and to comply with increasingly stringent regulations. Subcritical water has been shown by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) researchers on this project to be an extremely effective fluid for the removal of organic sulfur from coals. A multigram reactor designed and built at the EERC for supercritical water extraction was used to scale up from milligram-sized samples to 10-20 grams of coal charge. Work performed during this project year resulted in production of low-sulfur (as low as 0.5% S) extracted coal first at supercritical conditions, i.e., 450{degrees}C and 400 atm (5880 psig), but then at conditions below the critical conditions, i.e., 420{degrees}C and 156 atm (2300 psig). Still milder conditions of 400{degrees}C and 156 atm (2300 psig) resulted in sulfur values similar to those of obtained under the supercritical conditions. IBC-102 extracted with supercritical water had a sulfur value of 0.7 wt%. Extraction of IBC-102 at subcritical conditions of 420{degrees}C and 156 atm (2300 psig) resulted in a sulfur content of 0.490A. The tar obtained from the extracted coal had sulfur values ranging from 1.4 to 6.5 wt% and when treated by catalytic desulfurization, tar was quantitatively recovered with a sulfur value of 0.6 wt%. Float-sink physical cleaning of IBC-102 with Certigrav 1.4 reduced the sulfur content of the coal to 1.5 wt% in a recovered float fraction of 83.3%. Approximately 300 lb of IBC-102 was obtained for use in preparing 100 lb of low-sulfur fuel. Float- sink cleaning on a sample of this new coal returned 87.1 wt% as float fraction, with 1.7 wt% sulfur. 158 lb of physically cleaned IBC-102 was used for the continuous process test on the pilot scale. An additional 150 lb of physically

10. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

SciTech Connect

Tahar, Malek Haj

2016-08-07

High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

11. Evaporation and combustion of LOX under supercritical and subcritical conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yang, A. S.; Hsieh, W. H.; Kuo, K. K.

1993-01-01

The objective is to study the evaporation and combustion of LOX under supercritical and subcritical conditions both experimentally and theoretically. In the evaporation studies, evaporation rate and surface temperature were measured when LOX vaporizing in helium environments at pressures ranging from 5 to 68 atm. A Varian 3700 gas chromatograph was employed to measure the oxygen concentration above the LOX surface. For the combustion tests, high-magnification video photography was used to record direct images of the flame shape of a LOX/H2/He laminar diffusion flame. The gas composition in the post-flame region is also being measured with the gas sampling and chromatography analysis. These data are being used to validate the theoretical model. A comprehensive theoretical model with the consideration of the solubility of ambient gases as well as variable thermophysical properties was formulated and solved numerically to study the gasification and burning of LOX at elevated pressures. The calculated flame shape agreed reasonably well with the edge of the observed luminous flame surface. The effect of gravity on the flame structure of laminar diffusion flames was found to be significant. In addition, the predicted results using the flame-sheet model were compared with those based upon full equilibrium calculations (which considered the formation of intermediate species) at supercritical pressures. Except at the flame front where temperature exceeded 2,800 K, the flame-sheet and equilibrium solutions in terms of temperature distributions were in very close agreement. The temperature deviation in the neighborhood of the flame front is caused by the effect of high-temperature dissociation.

12. Well Wishes: A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M.

2004-01-01

The case of Well Wishes involves students in a thorough examination of the interaction among nitrogen-composed species in the septic systems and well water, which helps to clean household water. The case supports the attainment of five goals for students, and can be analyzed through classroom discussions or laboratory experiments.

13. Well Wishes: A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M.

2004-01-01

The case of Well Wishes involves students in a thorough examination of the interaction among nitrogen-composed species in the septic systems and well water, which helps to clean household water. The case supports the attainment of five goals for students, and can be analyzed through classroom discussions or laboratory experiments.

14. Effect of water on critical and subcritical fracture properties of Woodford shale

Chen, Xiaofeng; Eichhubl, Peter; Olson, Jon E.

2017-04-01

Subcritical fracture behavior of shales under aqueous conditions is poorly characterized despite increased relevance to oil and gas resource development and seal integrity in waste disposal and subsurface carbon sequestration. We measured subcritical fracture properties of Woodford shale in ambient air, dry CO2 gas, and deionized water by using the double-torsion method. Compared to tests in ambient air, the presence of water reduces fracture toughness by 50%, subcritical index by 77%, and shear modulus by 27% and increases inelastic deformation. Comparison between test specimens coated with a hydrophobic agent and uncoated specimens demonstrates that the interaction of water with the bulk rock results in the reduction of fracture toughness and enhanced plastic effects, while water-rock interaction limited to the vicinity of the propagating fracture tip by a hydrophobic specimen coating lowers subcritical index and increases fracture velocity. The observed deviation of a rate-dependent subcritical index from the power law K-V relations for coated specimens tested in water is attributed to a time-dependent weakening process resulting from the interaction between water and clays in the vicinity of the fracture tip.

15. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

PubMed

Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

2012-01-01

Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

16. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Coupling of Acoustical Plane p-Wave to a Cased Borehole

Qiu, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Bi-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Cui, Zhi-Wen

2009-11-01

Theoretical and numerical study on the coupling acoustic field of the plane p-wave to a cased borehole is carried out. The medium outside the cased borehole is modeled as the porous medium. The scattering field characteristics in the cased borehole are investigated when a plane fast p-wave is incident in tilt to the cased borehole from the porous medium. The scattering fields inside and outside the cased borehole are analyzed and deduced by Biot's theory under the boundary conditions on each interface, and they are numerically studied. It is found that the scattering field has strong resonant characteristics and there exists a series of resonant frequencies and peaks. The effects of the frequency, radii of each interface, incident angle, porosity, and other parameters on the resonant acoustic field have been investigated in detail in the fast and slow formations respectively. The resonant characteristics of the scattering field are also analyzed from the physical sense.

17. Sugars and char formation on subcritical water hydrolysis of sugarcane straw.

PubMed

Lachos-Perez, D; Tompsett, G A; Guerra, P; Timko, M T; Rostagno, M A; Martínez, Julian; Forster-Carneiro, T

2017-11-01

Subcritical water has potential as an environmentally friendly solvent for applications including hydrolysis, liquefaction, extraction, and carbonization. Here, we report hydrolysis of sugarcane straw, an abundant byproduct of sugar production, in a semi-continuous reactor at reaction temperatures ranging from 190 to 260°C and at operating pressures of 9 and 16MPa. The target hydrolysis products were total reducing sugars. The main products of sugarcane straw hydrolysis were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in addition to 5- hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural as minor byproducts. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis provided additional information on the surface and bulk composition of the residual biomass. Char was present on samples treated at temperatures equal to and greater than 190°C. Samples treated at 260°C contained approximately 20wt% char, yet retained substantial hemicellulose and cellulose content. Hydrolysis temperature of 200°C provided the greatest TRS yield while minimizing char formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

2017-05-01

Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

19. Energy conversion of biomass with supercritical and subcritical water using large-scale plants.

PubMed

Okajima, Idzumi; Sako, Takeshi

2014-01-01

Exploiting unused or waste biomass as an alternative fuel is currently receiving much attention because of the potential reductions in CO2 emissions and the lower cost in comparison to expensive fossil fuels. If we are to use biomass domestically or industrially, we must be able to convert biomass to high-quality and easy-to-use liquid, gas, or solid fuels that have high-calorific values, low moisture and ash contents, uniform composition, and suitable for stored over long periods. In biomass treatment, hot and high-pressure water including supercritical and subcritical water is an excellent solvent, as it is clean and safe and its action on biomass can be optimized by varying the temperature and pressure. In this article, the conversion of waste biomass to fuel using hot and high-pressure water is reviewed, and the following examples are presented: the production of large amounts of hydrogen from waste biomass, the production of cheap bioethanol from non-food raw materials, and the production of composite powder fuel from refractory waste biomass in the rubble from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Several promising techniques for the conversion of biomass have been demonstrated in large-scale plants and commercial deployment is expected in the near future.

20. Subcritical co-solvents extraction of lipid from wet microalgae pastes of Nannochloropsis sp

PubMed Central

Chen, Min; Liu, Tianzhong; Chen, Xiaolin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Lili; Chen, Yu; Peng, Xiaowei

2012-01-01

In this paper subcritical co-solvents extraction (SCE) of algal lipid from wet pastes of Nannochloropsis sp. is examined. The influences of five operating parameters including the ratio between ethanol to hexane, the ratio of mixed solvents to algal biomass (dry weight), extraction temperature, pressure, and time were investigated. The determined optimum extraction conditions were 3:1 (hexane to ethanol ratio), 10:1 ratio (co-solvents to microalgae (dry weight) ratio), 90°C, 1.4 MPa, and 50 min, which could produce 88% recovery rate of the total lipids. In addition, electron micrographs of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to show that the algal cell presented shrunken, collapsed with some wrinkles and microholes after SCE extraction. The main composition of total lipids extracted under the optimum conditions was TAG which represented more than 80%. And the fatty acid profile of triglycerides revealed that C16:0 (35.67 ± 0.2%), C18:1 (26.84 ± 0.044%) and C16:1 (25.96 ± 0.011%) were dominant. Practical applications: The reported method could save energy consumption significantly through avoiding deep dewatering (for example drying). The composition of the extracted lipid is suitable for the production of high quality biodiesel. PMID:22745570

1. Complete degradation of Orange G by electrolysis in sub-critical water.

PubMed

Yuksel, Asli; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

2011-06-15

Complete degradation of azo dye Orange G was studied using a 500 mL continuous flow reactor made of SUS 316 stainless steel. In this system, a titanium reactor wall acted as a cathode and a titanium plate-type electrode was used as an anode in a subcritical reaction medium. This hydrothermal electrolysis process provides an environmentally friendly route that does not use any organic solvents or catalysts to remove organic pollutants from wastewater. Reactions were carried out from 30 to 90 min residence times at a pressure of 7 MPa, and at different temperatures of 180-250°C by applying various direct currents ranging from 0.5 to 1A. Removal of dye from the product solution and conversion of TOC increased with increasing current value. Moreover, the effect of salt addition on degradation of Orange G and TOC conversion was investigated, because in real textile wastewater, many salts are also included together with dye. Addition of Na(2)CO(3) resulted in a massive degradation of the dye itself and complete mineralization of TOC, while NaCl and Na(2)SO(4) obstructed the removal of Orange G. Greater than 99% of Orange G was successfully removed from the product solution with a 98% TOC conversion.

2. Particle formation of budesonide from alcohol-modified subcritical water solutions.

PubMed

Carr, Adam G; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil R

2011-02-28

3. Optimization of subcritical water extraction of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa using response surface methodology

PubMed Central

Yang, Liuqing; Qu, Hongyuan; Mao, Guanghua; Zhao, Ting; Li, Fang; Zhu, Bole; Zhang, Bingtao; Wu, Xiangyang

2013-01-01

Background: This research is among the few that has been conducted on the feasibility of subcritical water extraction (SWE) as a rapid and efficient extraction tool for polysaccharides. Objective: The aim of the study was to extractand optimize the parameter conditions of SWE of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa using response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: In the study, SWEwas applied to extractbioactive compounds from G. frondosa. A preliminary analysis was made on the physical properties and content determination of extracts using SWE and hot water extraction (HWE). Analysis of the sample residues and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides extracted by SWE and HWE were then evaluated. Results: The optimal extraction conditions include: extraction temperature of 210°C, extraction time of 43.65 min and the ratio of water to raw material of 26.15:1. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental yield of the polysaccharides (25.1 ± 0.3%) corresponded with the mean value predicted by the model and two times more than the mean value obtained by the traditional HWE. The antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted by SWE were generally higher than those extracted by HWE. From the study, the SWE technology could be a time-saving, high yield, and bioactive technique for production of polysaccharides. PMID:23772107

4. Decontamination of PCBs-containing soil using subcritical water extraction process.

PubMed

Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun; Shin, Moon-Su; Park, Ha-Seung

2014-08-01

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the excision compounds listed at the Stockholm convention in 2001. Although their use has been heavily restricted, PCBs can be found in some specific site-contaminated soils. Either removal or destruction is required prior to disposal. The subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of organic hazardous compounds from contaminated soils is a promising technique for hazardous waste contaminated-site cleanup. In this study, the removal of PCBs by the SCWE process was investigated. The effects of temperature and treatment time on removal efficiency have been determined. In the SCWE experiments, a removal percentage of 99.7% was obtained after 1h of treatment at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but it was oppositely observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation. Several degradation products including mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons were identified in the effluent water, which were not initially present in the contaminated soil.

5. Super/subcritical fluid chromatography chiral separations with macrocyclic glycopeptide stationary phases.

PubMed

Liu, Ying; Berthod, Alain; Mitchell, Clifford R; Xiao, Tom Ling; Zhang, Bo; Armstrong, Daniel W

2002-11-29

The chiral recognition capabilities of three macrocyclic glycopeptide chiral selectors, namely teicoplanin (Chirobiotic T), its aglycone (Chirobiotic TAG) and ristocetin (Chirobiotic R), were evaluated with supercritical and subcritical fluid mobile phases. A set of 111 chiral compounds including heterocycles, analgesics (nonsteroidal antiinflamatory compounds), beta-blockers, sulfoxides, N-protected amino acids and native amino acids was separated on the three chiral stationary phases (CSPs). All separations were done with an outlet pressure regulated at 100 bar, 31 degrees C and at 4 ml/min. Various amounts of methanol ranging from 7 to 67% (v/v) were added to the carbon dioxide along with small amounts (0.1 to 0.5%, v/v) of triethylamine and/or trifluoroacetic acid. The Chirobiotic TAG CSP was the most effective closely followed by the Chirobiotic T column. Both columns were able to separate, partially or fully, 92% of the enantiomers of the compound set. The ristocetin chiral selector could partially or baseline resolve only 60% of the enantiomers tested. All separations were done in less than 15 min and 70% were done in less than 4 min. The speed of the separations is the main advantage of the use of SFC compared to normal-phase HPLC. In addition, SFC is advantageous for preparative separations with easy solute recovery and solvent disposal.

6. 50 mm Diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator for subcritical reactor test

Li, Gang; Zhang, Zhong-Shuai; Chi, Qian; Liu, Lin-Mao

2012-11-01

A 50 mm diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator was developed with 25 mm ceramic drive-in target neutron tube. It was applied in the subcritical reactor test of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The generator can produce neutron in three modes: DC, pulse and multiple pulse. The maximum neutron yield of the generator is 1 × 108 n/s, while the maximum pulse frequency is 10 kHz, and the minimum pulse width is 10 μs. As a remote controlled generator, it is small in volume, easy to be connected and controlled. The tested results indicate that penning ion source has the feature of delay time in glow discharge, and it is easier for glow discharge to happen when switching the DC voltage of penning ion source into pulse. According to these two characteristics, the generator has been modified. This improved generator can be used in many other areas including Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA), neutron testing and experiment.

7. Enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by subcritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.

PubMed

Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

2014-04-01

Most biomass pretreatment processes for sugar production are run at low-solid concentration (<10 wt.%). Subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) could provide a more sustainable pretreatment medium while using relative high-solid contents (15 wt.%). The effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to the solid and glucan recoveries at different pretreatment conditions were investigated. Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis at different hydrolysis time was applied to obtain maximal glucose yield, which can be used for ethanol fermentation. The maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 38.5 g based on 100g raw material after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, representing 93.0% glucose in sugarcane bagasse. The enhanced digestibilities of subcritical CO2 pretreated sugarcane bagasse were due to the removal of hemicellulose, which were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA analyses.

8. Environmentally friendly assessment of organic compound bioaccessibility using sub-critical water.

PubMed

Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Swindell, Annika L; Reid, Brian J

2008-11-01

The evaluation of microbial availability of contaminants is of high importance for better reflecting the processes governing contaminant fate in soil and for establishing the risk associated with contaminated sites. A sub-critical water extraction technique was assessed for its potential to determine the microbially degradable fraction of [(14)C]phenanthrene-associated activity in two dissimilar soils at three different ageing times (14, 28 and 49 days). For the majority of determinations, no significant (p>0.05) difference between sub-critical water-extracted (14)C-activity at 160 degrees C and the fraction mineralized by catabolically active Pseudomonas sp. was observed. Collectively, the results suggested that the sub-critical water extraction technique was an appropriate technique for predicting the biodegradable fraction of phenanthrene-associated (14)C-activity in dissimilar soils following increasing soil-contaminant contact time.

9. Prompt neutron decay constants and subcritical measurements for material control and accountability in SHEBA

SciTech Connect

Sanchez, R.; Jaegers, P.

1998-08-01

Rossi-Alpha measurements were performed on the SHEBA assembly to determine the prompt neutron decay constants. These prompt neutron decay constants represent an eigenvalue characteristic of this particular assembly, which can be used to infer the amount of fissile material in the assembly. In addition, subcritical measurements using Rossi-Alpha and the source-jerk techniques were also performed on the SHEBA assembly. These measurements were compared against TWODANT calculations and agreed quite well. The subcritical measurements were also used to obtain a unique signature that represented the amount of material associated with the degree of subcriticality of the SHEBA assembly. Finally, the Feynman variance-to-mean technique in conjunction with TWODANT, were used to determine the effective delayed neutron fraction for the SHEBA assembly.

10. Invariance Under Quasi-isometries of Subcritical and Supercritical Behavior in the Boolean Model of Percolation

Coletti, Cristian F.; Miranda, Daniel; Mussini, Filipe

2016-02-01

In this work we study the Poisson Boolean model of percolation in locally compact Polish metric spaces and we prove the invariance of subcritical and supercritical phases under mm-quasi-isometries. More precisely, we prove that if a metric space M is mm-quasi-isometric to another metric space N and the Poisson Boolean model in M exhibits any of the following: (a) a subcritical phase; (b) a supercritical phase; or (c) a phase transition, then respectively so does the Poisson Boolean model of percolation in N. Then we use these results in order to understand the phase transition phenomenon in a large family of metric spaces. Indeed, we study the Poisson Boolean model of percolation in the context of Riemannian manifolds, in a large family of nilpotent Lie groups and in Cayley graphs. Also, we prove the existence of a subcritical phase in Gromov spaces with bounded growth at some scale.

11. Influence of humidity and water on subcritical crack growth in marble

Nara, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Yuki

2014-05-01

For the prevention of natural hazards related to the failure of rock, it is essential to investigate time-dependent deformation and fracturing in various rock materials. In addition, to ensure the long-term stability of a rock mass surrounding various structures, information of subcritical crack growth is essential. Subcritical crack growth is one of the main causes of time-dependent fracturing in rock. It is known that subcritical crack growth is influenced by not only stress but also surrounding environment. Studies of subcritical crack growth have been widely conducted for silicate rocks such as igneous rocks and sandstones. On the other hand, information of subcritical crack growth in carbonate rocks is not enough. Especially, influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in carbonate rock should be clarified to ensure the long-term integrity of a rock mass. However, influence of surrounding environmental conditions on subcritical crack growth in carbonate rock has not been clarified yet. In this study, we investigated subcritical crack growth in carbonate rocks. Specifically, we investigated the influence of relative humidity and water on subcritical crack growth in air at a constant temperature (50 °C). A marble obtained in Skopje-City in Macedonia was used as a rock sample, because this is a homogeneous, fine-grained and brittle carbonate rock. To measure subcritical crack growth, we used the load relaxation method of the double-torsion (DT) test. In order to investigate the influence of environmental condition, all measurements by DT test were conducted under controlled temperature and relative humidity. It was shown that the crack velocity in marble in air increased with increasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. Additionally, the crack velocity in water was much higher than that in air. It was also found that the crack velocity in air was higher than that predicted from a calculation theoretically at 100 % relative

12. Production of rare sugars from common sugars in subcritical aqueous ethanol.

PubMed

Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

2015-05-15

A new isomerization reaction was developed to synthesize rare ketoses. D-tagatose, D-xylulose, and D-ribulose were obtained in the maximum yields of 24%, 38%, and 40%, respectively, from the corresponding aldoses, D-galactose, D-xylose, and D-ribose, by treating the aldoses with 80% (v/v) subcritical aqueous ethanol at 180°C. The maximum productivity of D-tagatose was ca. 80 g/(Lh). Increasing the concentration of ethanol significantly increased the isomerization of D-galactose. Variation in the reaction temperature did not significantly affect the production of D-tagatose from D-galactose. Subcritical aqueous ethanol converted both 2,3-threo and 2,3-erythro aldoses to the corresponding C-2 ketoses in high yields. Thus, the treatment of common aldoses in subcritical aqueous ethanol can be regarded as a new method to synthesize the corresponding rare sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

13. Subcritical transition to turbulence: What we can learn from the physics of glasses.

PubMed

Dauchot, Olivier; Bertin, Eric

2012-09-01

In this note, we discuss possible analogies between the subcritical transition to turbulence in shear flows and the glass transition in supercooled liquids. We briefly review recent experimental and numerical results, as well as theoretical proposals, and compare the difficulties arising in assessing the divergence of the turbulence lifetime in subcritical shear flow with that encountered for the relaxation time in the study of the glass transition. In order to go beyond the purely methodological similarities, we further elaborate on this analogy and propose a simple model for the transition to turbulence, inspired by the random energy model (a standard model for the glass transition), with the aim to possibly foster yet-unexplored directions of research in subcritical shear flows.

14. Incubation time for sub-critical crack propagation in SiC-SiC composites

SciTech Connect

El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M.

1995-04-01

The objective of this work is to investigate the time for sub-critical crack propagation is SiC-SiC composites at high temperatures. The effects of fiber thermal creep on the relaxation of crack bridging tractions in SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is considered in the present work, with the objective of studying the time-to propagation of sub-critical matrix cracks in this material at high temperatures. Under the condition of fiber stress relaxation in the bridiging zone, it is found that the crack opening and the stress intensity factor increase with time for sub-critical matrix cracks. The time elapsed before the stress intensity reaches the critical value for crack propagation is calculated as a function of the initial crack length, applied stress and temperature. Stability domains for matrix cracks are defined, which provide guidelines for conducting high-temperature crack propagation experiments.

15. An alternative experimental approach for subcritical configurations of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor

Gonnelli, E.; Lee, S. M.; Pinto, L. N.; Landim, H. R.; Diniz, R.; Jerez, R.; dos Santos, A.

2015-07-01

This work presents an alternative approach for the reactivity worth experiments analysis in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor considering highly subcritical arrays. In order to reach the subcritical levels, the removal of a specific number of fuel rods is proposed. Twenty three configurations were carried out for this purpose. The control bank insertion experiment was used only as reference for the fuel rod experiment and, in addition, the control banks were maintained completely withdrawn during all the fuel rods experiment. The theoretical simulation results using the MCNP5 code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 library neutron data are in a very good agreement to experimental results.

16. Experiments on Substrate Erosion via Subcritical Turbidity Currents

McElroy, B.; Mohrig, D.; Buttles, J.

2006-12-01

system. This experiment points out turbulence generated near the bed is not the only contributor to sediment transport in relatively thin, subcritical turbidity currents. Turbulence produced by breaking internal waves at the current-ambient fluid interface can augment vertical mixing throughout the entire current affecting local sediment transport and patterns of bed erosion and deposition.

17. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: clinical and pathologic review of 10 cases including a subset with aggressive clinical course.

PubMed

Parra-Herran, Carlos; Quick, Charles M; Howitt, Brooke E; Dal Cin, Paola; Quade, Bradley J; Nucci, Marisa R

2015-02-01

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is currently regarded as a neoplasm with intermediate biological potential and a wide anatomic distribution. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the female genital tract are rare, and to date reported cases behaved indolently. We describe, herein, 10 cases of uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, 3 of which had an aggressive clinical course. Subject age ranged from 29 to 73 years. Tumors were composed of spindle and epithelioid myofibroblastic cells admixed with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in a variably myxoid stroma. Two growth patterns, myxoid and fascicular (leiomyoma-like), were noted. All tumors were positive for ALK expression by immunohistochemistry, which was stronger in the myxoid areas. Smooth muscle marker and CD10 expression was variable in extent, but typically positive. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ALK rearrangements was positive in both fascicular and myxoid areas in all 8 cases tested. Three subjects showed clinical evidence of tumor aggressiveness as defined by extrauterine spread, local recurrence, or distant metastasis. Aggressive tumors were larger, had a higher proportion of myxoid stroma, and higher mitotic activity than indolent tumors. Tumor cell necrosis was seen only in cases with adverse outcome. This is the first report to describe aggressive biological behavior in uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. This diagnosis is often underappreciated and merits inclusion in the differential diagnosis of myxoid mesenchymal lesions of the uterus, particularly because patients with an aggressive course may benefit from targeted therapy.

18. Mathematical Speech and Practical Action: A Case Study of the Challenges of Including Mathematics in a School Technology Project

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bungum, Berit; Manshadi, Saeed; Lysne, Dag Atle

2014-01-01

This paper presents a case study of how a teacher and nine-year-old students deal with mathematics in a practical technology project. By analysing videotaped dialogues between teacher and a pair of students working on constructing a house model, we identify challenges of meaningful inclusion of mathematics in the project. The dialogues are…

19. Recycling high-performance carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites using sub-critical and supercritical water

Knight, Chase C.

Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are composite materials that consist of carbon fibers embedded in a polymer matrix, a combination that yields materials with properties exceeding the individual properties of each component. CFRP have several advantages over metals: they offer superior strength to weight ratios and superior resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. These advantages, along with continuing improvement in manufacturing processes, have resulted in rapid growth in the number of CFRP products and applications especially in the aerospace/aviation, wind energy, automotive, and sporting goods industries. Due to theses well-documented benefits and advancements in manufacturing capabilities, CFRP will continue to replace traditional materials of construction throughout several industries. However, some of the same properties that make CFRP outstanding materials also pose a major problem once these materials reach the end of service life. They become difficult to recycle. With composite consumption in North America growing by almost 5 times the rate of the US GDP in 2012, this lack of recyclability is a growing concern. As consumption increases, more waste will inevitably be generated. Current composite recycling technologies include mechanical recycling, thermal processing, and chemical processing. The major challenge of CFRP recycling is the ability to recover materials of high-value and preserve their properties. To this end, the most suitable technology is chemical processing, where the polymer matrix can be broken down and removed from the fiber, with limited damage to the fibers. This can be achieved using high concentration acids, but such a process is undesirable due to the toxicity of such materials. A viable alternative to acid is water in the sub-critical and supercritical region. Under these conditions, the behavior of this abundant and most environmentally friendly solvent resembles that of an organic compound, facilitating the breakdown

20. Including Ideology

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allan, Julie

2013-01-01

Ellen Brantlinger's paper, "Using ideology: cases of non-recognition of the politics of research and practice in special education" (Brantlinger, E. 1997. "Using ideology: Cases of nonrecognition of the politics of research and practice in special education." "Review of Educational Research" 67, no. 4: 425-59),…

1. Including Ideology

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allan, Julie

2013-01-01

Ellen Brantlinger's paper, "Using ideology: cases of non-recognition of the politics of research and practice in special education" (Brantlinger, E. 1997. "Using ideology: Cases of nonrecognition of the politics of research and practice in special education." "Review of Educational Research" 67, no. 4: 425-59),…

2. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

PubMed

Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

2014-01-01

A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium.

3. Sudden hearing loss and vertigo after tooth extraction successfully treated with combined therapy including HBO2: a case report.

PubMed

Yilmaz, Huseyin Baki; Erdogan, Raziye Banu Atalay; Paksoy, Mustafa; Sanli, Arif

2015-01-01

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a decrease in hearing of at least 30 dB that occurs within three days and which affects at least three consecutive frequencies in either ear or both ears. This case report describes a woman who had sudden hearing loss and vertigo in the right ear after tooth extraction. As the first-line therapy, systemic and intratympanic steroid injections were used this led to a slight improvement; however, the majority of improvement in hearing was not observed until hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy was instituted on the 20th day of hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss and vertigo after tooth extraction is an otologic emergency and early evaluation and treatment are effective. HBO2, although employed beyond the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society's recommended initial 14 days of symptom onset, very was effective for this particular case.

4. [A case of Sjögren syndrome associated with multiple mononeuritis and dysautonomia including bilateral tonic pupils].

PubMed

Tajima, Y; Tsukishima, E; Sudo, K; Aimoto, Y; Tashiro, K

1997-09-01

Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is a glandular disease characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth. Extraglandular manifestations in SjS are also common, and peripheral nerve involvement has been reported in 10-20% of cases. We report a case of Sjögren syndrome with bilateral tonic pupils, dysautonomia, and multiple mononeuritis. The fact that sural nerve sections, in addition to marked loss of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, showed an increased number of infiltrating macrophages without lymphocytes and aberrant expression of HLA-DR (class II) antigen in Schwann cells was an especially interesting finding. No evidence of active vasculitis was detected. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and her condition gradually improved, as confirmed by thermography. Our findings suggested the presence of specific immunological abnormalities simultaneously involving the ciliary ganglia, autonomic ganglia, and dorsal root ganglia in this peculiar form of SjS.

5. Anisotropic etching of monocrystalline silicon under subcritical conditions

Gonzalez-Pereyra, Nestor Gabriel

Sub- and supercritical fluids remain an underexploited resource for materials processing. Around its critical point a common compound such as water behaves like a different substance exhibiting changes in its properties that modify its behavior as a solvent and unlock reaction paths not viable in other conditions. In the subcritical region water's properties can be directed by controlling temperature and pressure. Water and silicon are two of the most abundant, versatile, environmentally non-harmful, and simplest substances on Earth. They are among the most researched and best-known substances. Both are ubiquitous and essential for present-day world. Silicon is fundamental in semiconductor fabrication, microelectromechanical systems, and photovoltaic cells. Wet etching of silicon is a fabrication strategy shared by these three applications. Processing of silicon requires large amounts of water, often involving dangerous and environmentally hazardous chemicals. Yet, minimal knowledge is available on the ways high temperature water interacts with crystalline silicon. The purpose of this project is to identify and implement a method for the modification of monocrystalline silicon surfaces with three important characteristics: 1) requires minimal amounts of added chemicals, 2) controllability of morphological features formed, 3) reduced processing time. This will be accomplished by subjecting crystalline silicon to diluted alkaline solutions working in the subcritical region of water. This approach allows for variations on surface morphologies and etching rates by adapting the reactions conditions, with focus on composition and temperature of the solutions used. The work reported discusses the techniques used for producing surfaces with a variety of morphologies that ultimately allowed to create patterns and textures on silicon wafers, using highly diluted alkaline solutions that can be used for photovoltaic applications. These morphologies were created with a

6. Environmental risk assessment of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the aquatic environment: a case study including a cocktail scenario.

PubMed

Styrishave, Bjarne; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Ingerslev, Flemming

2011-01-01

We present an environmental risk assessment of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; citalopram, sertraline, and fluoxetine) in the aquatic environment based on two case scenarios. Abiotic and biotic degradation experiments and sorption estimates were used to predict environmental concentrations of three SSRIs from the wastewater of two psychiatric hospitals, the primary sector, and wastewater entering and leaving wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Assuming a sewage treatment retention time of 8 h, abiotic degradation was low, for all three SSRIs inhibitors, ranging between 0 and 2% for hydrolysis and 0 and 6% for photolysis. The biodegradation was also slow, ranging from 0 to 3% within an 8-h period. In untreated sewage, citalopram (CIT) and sertraline (SER) concentrations may be high enough to exert effects on the aquatic biota (CIT: 0.19-10.3 µg/L; SER: 0.14-17.1 µg/L). Removal of the pharmaceuticals is due primarily to sorption in the WWTP. Sertraline was estimated to have the highest concentrations in the sewage effluents, 4.4 and 19.9 ng/L for the two cases, respectively. In treated wastewater, individual SSRI concentrations are probably too low to exert effects on biota. By using concentration addition, a cocktail exposure scenario was estimated. The predicted concentration in the biota calculated from the cocktail effect was 0.05 and 0.16 nmol/g for the two cases, respectively, and SER was found to give the highest contribution to this cocktail effect. The results indicate that the concentrations in the wastewater effluents are one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations likely to cause an effect in the aquatic biota. © 2010 SETAC.

7. Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis with Mucosal Involvement: An Unusual Case Presentation including Successful Treatment with Miltefosine

PubMed Central

2013-01-01

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatologic manifestation that usually occurs after visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. It is characterized by hypopigmented patches, a macular or maculopapular rash and nodular skin lesions on the body surface. Involvement of the mucosae is very rare and unusual in PKDL. We report a case of PKDL that presented with polymorphic skin lesions, along with involvement of peri-oral mucosa and tongue from an endemic area for kala-azar in Bangladesh. In the absence of a definite past history of kala-azar, a clinical suspicion for PKDL was confirmed by positive rapid serological tests against two recombinant (rK39 and rK28) leishmanial antigens, demonstration of Leishmania donovani (LD) body in the slit skin smear, and isolation of promastigotes by culture from a nodular lesion. The patient was treated with oral Miltefosine for three consecutive months and showed significant clinical improvement as demonstrated by a negative slit skin smear at two months after initiation of therapy. We report this case as an unusual presentation of mucosal involvement in PKDL and subsequent treatment success with Miltefosine. PMID:23930349

8. [Four cases of 5-fluorouracil-related hyperammonemia in patients with large intestinal cancer and multiple liver metastases, including a case of hyperammonemia treated using hemodialysis].

PubMed

Iida, Tomoya; Wagatsuma, Kohei; Tani, Motohiro; Sasaki, Hajime; Naganawa, Yumiko; Isshiki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Kayo; Satoh, Shuji; Shimizu, Haruo; Kaneto, Hiroyuki

2015-02-01

Systemic chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a standard treatment for unresectable or recurrent large intestinal cancer. Although hyperammonemia is a known side effect of 5-FU that can cause serious pathological conditions, only a few cases have been reported. We describe 4 cases of 5-FU-related hyperammonemia with impairment of consciousness in patients who received 5-FU chemotherapy for large intestinal cancer with multiple liver metastases. Hemodialysis was effective in 1 severe case. There have been no detailed reports on the use of hemodialysis for hyperammonemia caused by 5-FU. Renal dysfunction is considered to be a risk factor for hyperammonemia caused by 5-FU and it is necessary to pay particular attention in patients with renal dysfunction who receive chemotherapy with 5-FU. Here we summarize our cases together with 16 previously reported cases of hyperammonemia caused by 5-FU in Japan.

9. ELUTION OF ORGANIC SOLUTES FROM DIFFERENT POLARITY SORBENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER. (R825394)

EPA Science Inventory

The intermolecular interactions between organic solutes and sorbent matrices under subcritical water conditions have been investigated at a pressure of 50 bar and temperatures ranging from 50 to 250°C. Both polar and nonpolar organics (chlorophenols, amines, n-alkanes...

10. Development of reactivity feedback effect measurement techniques under sub-critical condition in fast reactors

SciTech Connect

Kitano, A.; Nishi, H.; Suzuki, T.; Okajima, S.; Kanemoto, S.

2012-07-01

The first-of-a-kind reactor has been licensed by a safety examination of the plant design based on the measured data in precedent mock-up experiments. The validity of the safety design can be confirmed without a mock-up experiment, if the reactor feed-back characteristics can be measured before operation, with the constructed reactor itself. The 'Synthesis Method', a systematic and sophisticated method of sub-criticality measurement, is proposed in this work to ensure the safety margin before operation. The 'Synthesis Method' is based on the modified source multiplication method (MSM) combined with the noise analysis method to measure the reference sub-criticality level for MSM. A numerical simulation for the control-rod reactivity worth and the isothermal feed-back reactivity was conducted for typical fast reactors of 100 MWe-size, 300 MWe-size, 750 MWe-size, and 1500 MWe-size to investigate the applicability of Synthesis Method. The number of neutron detectors and their positions necessary for the measurement were investigated for both methods of MSM and the noise analysis by a series of parametric survey calculations. As a result, it was suggested that a neutron detector located above the core center and three or more neutron detectors located above the radial blanket region enable the measurement of sub-criticality within 10% uncertainty from -$0.5 to -$2 and within 15% uncertainty for the deeper sub-criticality. (authors)

11. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

SciTech Connect

Ocampo Mansilla, H.

1983-01-01

This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations.

12. Time-delayed feedback control of coherence resonance near subcritical Hopf bifurcation: Theory versus experiment

SciTech Connect

2015-03-15

Using the model of a generalized Van der Pol oscillator in the regime of subcritical Hopf bifurcation, we investigate the influence of time delay on noise-induced oscillations. It is shown that for appropriate choices of time delay, either suppression or enhancement of coherence resonance can be achieved. Analytical calculations are combined with numerical simulations and experiments on an electronic circuit.

13. Production of keto-disaccharides from aldo-disaccharides in subcritical aqueous ethanol.

PubMed

Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

2016-05-01

Isomerization of disaccharides (maltose, isomaltose, cellobiose, lactose, melibiose, palatinose, sucrose, and trehalose) was investigated in subcritical aqueous ethanol. A marked increase in the isomerization of aldo-disaccharides to keto-disaccharides was noted and their hydrolytic reactions were suppressed with increasing ethanol concentration. Under any study condition, the maximum yield of keto-disaccharides produced from aldo-disaccharides linked by β-glycosidic bond was higher than that produced from aldo-disaccharides linked by α-glycosidic bond. Palatinose, a keto-disaccharide, mainly underwent decomposition rather than isomerization in subcritical water and subcritical aqueous ethanol. No isomerization was noted for the non-reducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose. The rate constant of maltose to maltulose isomerization almost doubled by changing solvent from subcritical water to 80 wt% aqueous ethanol at 220 °C. Increased maltose monohydrate concentration in feed decreased the conversion of maltose and the maximum yield of maltulose, but increased the productivity of maltulose. The maximum productivity of maltulose was ca. 41 g/(h kg-solution).

14. Measuring alpha eigenvalue of a subcritical system by a intense pulsed neutron source

SciTech Connect

Hu, Meng-chun; Gong, Jian; Peng, Tai-ping; Li, Zhong-bao; Zhang, Jian-hua; Tang, Deng-pan; Bai, Yun; Peng, Xian-jue; Zeng, Qing

2015-07-01

Intense-Pulsed-Neutron-Source (IPNS) technique is a new approach to measure the subcriticality of a reactor system, which has been theoretically analyzed by us while not been verified in experiment in other reference. In INPS technique the reactivity is derived via the system response to a prompt pulsed neutron source. The method utilizes very intense neutron pulses (about 1010 neutrons/pulse) with the duration ranging from 10 ns to 100 ns, which are generated by the dense plasma focus (DPF) device filled with pure DT mixture as the working gas. The neutron pulse in high intensity provides the opportunity to measure the signal using a scintillator and a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) (the intense pulse radiation measure method) with the flight distance of only twenty centimeters. The attenuation of the dense plasma focus device must be faster than the subcritical system so that the attenuation of the system can be researched. In this paper, after a neutron pulse is injected into the subcritical reactor, the subcriticality is determined by measuring the instantaneous characteristics of the leaking reactor neutron. The Monte Carlo analysis shows that, with the linear arrangement of the dense plasma focus, the subcritical system and the detector, the signal-to-noise ratio at the measure point meets the investigate requirement, in which the 14 MeV neutrons are attenuated by the subcritical system. The detector is close with the subcritical system to reduce the influence of the outer background and the spread of time-of-flight of the neutrons. The measure system utilizing gated detection technology is characterized with fast attenuation time and large linear current, the a value obtained with this method is 2.05 μs{sup -1} while the measurements using the {sup 252}Cf stochastic pulsed source method and the Rossi-a method were 2.18μs{sup -1} and 2.16μs{sup -1}.It showed that the measured result obtained with dense plasma focus instantaneous pulsed source is consistent

15. On parameterization of spectral line profiles including the speed-dependence in the case of gas mixtures

Kochanov, V. P.

2017-03-01

The physically grounded parameterization of a line profile including the speed-dependence was performed. It was shown that two actual parameters of the quadratic speed-dependence appear in gas mixtures instead of a single parameter in a pure gas. One of the parameters is associated with hard elastic velocity-changing collisions; the second is connected with the other sorts of collisions. For comparable concentrations of gas species, they may differ by 50% and depend nonlinearly on partial gas pressures. The dimensionless line narrowing parameter also reveals nonlinear pressure-dependence. The computational expressions for the line profile including all main physical mechanisms of its forming in conditions of gas mixtures are derived.

16. Mathematical speech and practical action: a case study of the challenges of including mathematics in a school technology project

Bungum, Berit; Manshadi, Saeed; Atle Lysne, Dag

2014-11-01

This paper presents a case study of how a teacher and nine-year-old students deal with mathematics in a practical technology project. By analysing videotaped dialogues between teacher and a pair of students working on constructing a house model, we identify challenges of meaningful inclusion of mathematics in the project. The dialogues are analysed in terms of an analytical framework where four categories of interaction patterns are combined with two main paradigms of mathematics teaching: the exercise paradigm and landscapes of interaction. The project in itself has a potential for facilitating landscapes of investigation in mathematics teaching. However, we find that the teacher as well as students adheres to the exercise paradigm when mathematics is involved in the activity. Two illustrating episodes from the project are examined and presented in detail in this paper. The findings illustrate that the conceptions teachers and students hold of what mathematics teaching means can act as an obstacle in attempts to realize mathematics teaching in creative and meaningful contexts for young students. We suggest that making the various purposes of a project more explicit may help overcome this obstacle, and that the mathematics involved might be taught in separate sessions in order to form a constructive part of a cross-curricular project.

17. Plutonium Critical Mass Curve Comparison to Mass at Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) Using Whisper

SciTech Connect

Alwin, Jennifer Louise; Zhang, Ning

2016-09-27

Whisper is computational software designed to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst with validation studies with the MCNP® Monte Carlo radiation transport package. Standard approaches to validation rely on the selection of benchmarks based upon expert judgment. Whisper uses sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) methods to select relevant benchmarks to a particular application or set of applications being analyzed. Using these benchmarks, Whisper computes a calculational margin. Whisper attempts to quantify the margin of subcriticality (MOS) from errors in software and uncertainties in nuclear data. The combination of the Whisper-derived calculational margin and MOS comprise the baseline upper subcritical limit (USL), to which an additional margin may be applied by the nuclear criticality safety analyst as appropriate to ensure subcriticality. A series of critical mass curves for plutonium, similar to those found in Figure 31 of LA-10860-MS, have been generated using MCNP6.1.1 and the iterative parameter study software, WORM_Solver. The baseline USL for each of the data points of the curves was then computed using Whisper 1.1. The USL was then used to determine the equivalent mass for plutonium metal-water system. ANSI/ANS-8.1 states that it is acceptable to use handbook data, such as the data directly from the LA-10860-MS, as it is already considered validated (Section 4.3 4) “Use of subcritical limit data provided in ANSI/ANS standards or accepted reference publications does not require further validation.”). This paper attempts to take a novel approach to visualize traditional critical mass curves and allows comparison with the amount of mass for which the keff is equal to the USL (calculational margin + margin of subcriticality). However, the intent is to plot the critical mass data along with USL, not to suggest that already accepted handbook data should have new and more rigorous requirements for validation.

18. Developing an explicit strategy towards social responsibility in the NHS: a case for including NHS managers in this strategy.

PubMed

Merali, Faruk

2006-01-01

To explore the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the UK National Health Service (NHS) and to examine how it may be developed to positively influence the psyche, behaviour and performance of NHS managers. Primary research based upon semi-structured individual face to face interviews with 20 NHS managers. Theoretical frameworks and concepts relating to organisational culture and CSR are drawn upon to discuss the findings. The NHS managers see themselves as being driven by altruistic core values. However, they feel that the public does not believe that they share the altruistic NHS value system. The study is based on a relatively small sample of NHS managers working exclusively in London and may not necessarily represent the views of managers either London-wide or nation-wide. It is suggested that an explicit recognition by the NHS of the socially responsible commitment of its managers within its CSR strategy would help challenge the existing negative public image of NHS managers and in turn improve the managers' self esteem and morale. This paper addresses the relative lacunae in research relating to public sector organisations (such as the NHS) explicitly including the role and commitment of its staff within the way it publicises its CSR strategy. This paper would be of interest to a wide readership including public sector and NHS policy formulators, NHS practitioners, academics and students.

19. Integrated wastewater management reporting at tourist areas for recycling purposes, including the case study of Hersonissos, Greece.

PubMed

Borboudaki, K E; Paranychianakis, N V; Tsagarakis, K P

2005-10-01

Wastewater treatment facilities in tourist areas, in comparison to other municipal facilities, require specific configurations and additional management actions in order to achieve a reliable and cost-effective treatment. For example, the same facility operates during winter with minimum flows and in summer with peak flows. Moreover, careful effluent management is required to minimize environmental impact and health effects on tourists. In this study, effluent management data, including quantitative and qualitative effluent characteristics, reuse, and economic aspects of the Hersonissos Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) in Greece, are discussed. It has been designed to treat both municipal wastewater from the Hersonissos Municipality and septage from the wider area. Analysis of effluent quantitative data showed two flow peaks in the summer period and only one in winter. The WTP was found to provide a reliable level of treatment in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (95.9%), total suspended solids (97.2%), and total nitrogen (87.7%) removal, but increased numbers of fecal coliforms were measured at some peak flow periods, suggesting the need for additional management strategies. Effluent is reused mainly for agricultural irrigation; secondary uses include fire protection and landscape irrigation. Economic analysis showed that for each cubic meter treated, the total annual economic cost for treatment, filtration, and reuse infrastructure was 1.07 euro, 0.05 euro, and 0.08 euro, respectively.

20. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

PubMed Central

2011-01-01

Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas. PMID:21682872

1. The impact of including passive benefits in cost-effectiveness analysis: the case of automated external defibrillators on commercial aircraft.

PubMed

Cram, Peter; Vijan, Sandeep; Wolbrink, Alex; Fendrick, A Mark

2003-01-01

Traditional cost-utility analysis assumes that all benefits from health-related interventions are captured by the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained by the few individuals whose outcome is improved by the intervention. However, it is possible that many individuals who do not directly benefit from an intervention receive utility, and therefore QALYs, because of the passive benefit (aka sense of security) provided by the existence of the intervention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact that varying quantities of passive benefit have on the cost-effectiveness of airline defibrillator programs. A decision analytic model with Markov processes was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of defibrillator deployment on domestic commercial passenger aircraft over 1 year. Airline passengers were assigned small incremental utility gains (.001-.01) during an estimated 3-hour flight to evaluate the impact of passive benefit on overall cost-effectiveness. In the base case analysis with no allowance for passive benefit, the cost-effectiveness of airline automated external defibrillator deployment was US dollars 34000 per QALY gained. If 1% of all passengers received utility gain of.01, the cost-effectiveness declined to US dollars 30000. Cost-effectiveness was enhanced when the quantity of passive benefit was raised or the percentage of individuals receiving passive benefit increased. Automated external defibrillator deployment on passenger aircraft is likely to be cost-effective. If a small percentage of airline passengers receive incremental utility gains from passive benefit of automated external defibrillator availability, the impact on overall cost-effectiveness may be substantial. Further research should attempt to clarify the magnitude and percentage of patients who receive passive benefit.

2. A review of eight cases of cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to sphenoid sinusitis, including a12-year-old girl at the present department.

PubMed

Wang, Yun-Hu; Chen, Po-Yen; Ting, Pei-Ju; Huang, Fang-Liang

2017-09-01

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a severe disease which can result from infection of any of the tissues drained by the cavernous sinus. We here review eight cases, including a 12-year-old girl, all secondary to sphenoid sinusitis. The clinical manifestations, laboratory data, imaging findings, pathogens, medications, surgical treatment and clinical outcomes were analyzed. All eight patients had headache and five of them fever. All cases were associated with one or more ophthalmic symptoms. In four cases, computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging showed isolated sphenoid sinusitis. In three cases, streptococci were isolated from blood culture and two cases showed Staphylococcus aureus in blood and sinus cultures. In seven cases, surgery was undertaken. All eight subjects received antibiotics, and 5 were administered intravenous ceftriaxone and metronidazole. Six subjects received anticoagulation therapy and one received corticosteroids. No mortality was recorded. Three cases showed sequelae, including Lemierre syndrome, ophthalmic complaints, and cranial nerve paralysis. In conclusion, the management of CST should include intravenous antibiotic therapy, combined with endonasal sinus surgery.

3. Development of a computer algorithm for the analysis of variable-frequency AC drives: Case studies included

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kankam, M. David; Benjamin, Owen

1991-01-01

The development of computer software for performance prediction and analysis of voltage-fed, variable-frequency AC drives for space power applications is discussed. The AC drives discussed include the pulse width modulated inverter (PWMI), a six-step inverter and the pulse density modulated inverter (PDMI), each individually connected to a wound-rotor induction motor. Various d-q transformation models of the induction motor are incorporated for user-selection of the most applicable model for the intended purpose. Simulation results of selected AC drives correlate satisfactorily with published results. Future additions to the algorithm are indicated. These improvements should enhance the applicability of the computer program to the design and analysis of space power systems.

4. Effects of management policies, including artificial recharge, on salinization in a sloping aquifer: The Israeli Coastal Aquifer case

Assouline, S.; Shavit, U.

2004-04-01

Overexploitation of aquifers may impair groundwater quality and cause salinization, as occurs in the sloping Coastal Aquifer in Israel. The current management policy risks the future of the aquifer as the country's most important water reservoir. The paper examines a variety of policies and studies their impact on the salinization of the aquifer. Two quantitative approaches were applied: (1) a balance approach which was used to calculate the mean salinity of the aquifer water and (2) a 2-D numerical solution of the flow and transport equations in a 10 × 15 km cell representing a portion of the aquifer. The policy alternatives include desalination of imported freshwater (180-250 ppm Cl-), desalination of treated wastewater, and injection of the desalinated water. An increased pumping from the aquifer compensates for the injection of these waters. The results show that desalination of imported freshwater or wastewater with no injection would reduce the salinization rate of the aquifer only slightly, and that the effect would be noticeable only after a period corresponding to the retention time of the vadose zone. The alternatives that involve injection of desalinated water would stop the salinization process; the aquifer mean salinity would stabilize around the level that prevailed at the time of implementation of the injection policy. The numerical solution confirmed the conclusions of the balance approach while including the complex effect of the high-salinity boundary condition on the east and the role of thickness variations in a sloping aquifer. This approach addressed the influence of the spatial densities of pumping and of injection and showed that as the density increases, the numerical and balance solutions converge. It is shown that the numerical simulation should be used for future planning of the injection and pumping layout. Finally, calculations based on our results show that the alternatives involving injection of desalinated freshwater provide the

5. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

2015-12-01

In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

6. Kinetic and Thermodynamics studies for Castor Oil Extraction Using Subcritical Water Technology.

PubMed

Abdelmoez, Wael; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M; Hilal, Amr; Al Mahdy, Dalia A; Mahrous, Engy A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

2016-06-01

In this work both kinetic and thermodynamics of castor oil extraction from its seeds using subcritical water technique were studied. It was found that the extraction process followed two consecutive steps. In these steps, the oil was firstly extracted from inside the powder by diffusion mechanism. Then the extracted oil, due to extending the extraction time under high temperature and pressure, was subjected to a decomposition reaction following first order mechanism. The experimental data correlated well with the irreversible consecutive unimolecular-type first order mechanism. The values of both oil extraction rate constants and decomposition rate constants were calculated through non-linear fitting using DataFit software. The extraction rate constants were found to be 0.0019, 0.024, 0.098, 0.1 and 0.117 min(-1), while the decomposition rate constants were 0.057, 0.059, 0.014, 0.019 and 0.17 min(-1) at extraction temperatures of 240, 250, 260, 270 and 280°C, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of the oil extraction process were investigated using Arrhenius equation. The values of the activation energy, Ea, and the frequency factor, A, were 73 kJ mol(-1) and 946, 002 min(-1), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the extracted castor oil including the specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, pH value and calorific value were found to be 0.947, 7.487, 1.094 mg KOH/g, 6.1, and 41.5 MJ/Kg, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that ricinoleic acid (83.6%) appears as the predominant fatty acid in the extracted oil followed by oleic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (2.3%).

7. Influence of temperature and water on subcritical crack growth parameters and long-term strength for igneous rocks

Nara, Yoshitaka; Yamanaka, Hiroshi; Oe, Yuma; Kaneko, Katsuhiko

2013-04-01

Understanding of time-dependent deformation and fracture propagation in rock is essential, since the knowledge of the long-term integrity of rock is required for many subsurface structures excavated in a rock mass. Time-dependent fracture propagation has been invoked as a potential key mechanism responsible for the increase in seismicity preceding earthquake ruptures and volcanic eruptions. In engineering projects, and in preventing natural hazards, the study of subcritical crack growth and the long-term strength of rock is necessary. Since the long-term strength is affected by the values of the subcritical crack growth parameters, it is important to know the influence of the surrounding environment on the subcritical crack growth parameters and long-term strength. The influence of the surrounding environment on the subcritical crack growth parameters, however, has not been completely clarified yet. In this study, the subcritical crack growth parameters were estimated under various environmental conditions on igneous rocks (andesite and granite) using the Double-Torsion method. Based on the results of subcritical crack growth parameters estimations, we calculated the long-term strength of rock. It was shown that the subcritical crack growth parameters were affected by the environmental conditions such as the temperature, humidity and existence of water. Especially, it was shown that the subcritical crack growth index in water was smaller than that in air. When the relative humidity of the air was higher, subcritical crack growth index tended to be smaller. The subcritical crack growth index at 90 per cent relative humidity was close to the value in water. By the calculation based on the results of our subcritical crack growth parameters estimation, it was shown that long-term strength decreased under the conditions of higher temperature, humidity in air and in water. It is concluded that the subcritical crack growth parameters and long-term strength are affected by

8. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

PubMed

Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

2011-10-01

Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

9. Chemical alternatives assessment of different flame retardants - A case study including multi-walled carbon nanotubes as synergist.

PubMed

Aschberger, Karin; Campia, Ivana; Pesudo, Laia Quiros; Radovnikovic, Anita; Reina, Vittorio

2017-04-01

Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals used as additives in a wide range of products to inhibit, suppress, or delay ignition and to prevent the spread of fire. Halogenated FRs (HFRs) are widely used because of their low impact on other material properties and the low loading levels necessary to meet the required flame retardancy. Health and environmental hazards associated with some halogenated FRs have driven research for identifying safer alternatives. A variety of halogen-free FRs are available on the market, including organic (phosphorus and nitrogen based chemicals) and inorganic (metals) materials. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been demonstrated to act as an effective/synergistic co-additive in some FR applications and could thereby contribute to reducing the loading of FRs in products and improving their performance. As part of the FP7 project DEROCA we carried out a chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). This is a methodology for identifying, comparing and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern based on criteria for categorising human and environmental toxicity as well as environmental fate. In the project we assessed the hazard data of different halogen-free FRs to be applied in 5 industrial and consumer products and here we present the results for MWCNT, aluminium diethylphosphinate, aluminium trihydroxide, N-alkoxy hindered amines and red phosphorus compared to the HFR decabromodiphenylether. We consulted the REACH guidance, the criteria of the U.S.-EPA Design for Environment (DfE) and the GreenScreen® Assessment to assess and compare intrinsic properties affecting the hazard potential. A comparison/ranking of exposure reference values such as Derived No Effect Levels (DNELs) showed that FRs of concern are not identified by a low DNEL. A comparison based on hazard designations according to the U.S.-EPA DfE and GreenScreen® for human health endpoints, aquatic toxicity and environmental fate showed that the

10. The inflammatory paradental cyst: a critical review of 342 cases from a literature survey, including 17 new cases from the author's files.

PubMed

Philipsen, H P; Reichart, P A; Ogawa, I; Suei, Y; Takata, T

2004-03-01

A total of 325 cases of inflammatory paradental cysts (IPCs) and 17 own cases were reviewed. Although known since 1930, the IPC is still unrecognized by many clinicians. The IPCs show a relative frequency of 0.9-4.7%. The majority of cysts occur distally or distobuccally to vital, permanent mandibular molars with a history of pericoronitis (IPC/3rd mandibular molar alone accounts for 64.9%). Radiologically, the cyst appears as a well-defined, semilunar unilocular radiolucency. Cases of inflammatory paradental cysts and related lesions were retrieved from a worldwide literature survey. In addition, 17 new cases from the files of the authors have been added. The mean ages for patients with IPC/1st, 2nd and 3rd mandibular molars are 8.7, 17.4 and 27.6 years, respectively. The male:female ratio was 1 : 0.9 for IPC/1st and 2nd mandibular molars, and 1 : 0.4 for 3rd mandibular molar. Reduced enamel epithelium, cell rests of Malassez and remnants of the dental lamina stimulated by inflammation are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of IPC. Histological features are indistinguishable from those of the inflammatory, periapical (radicular) cyst.

11. Preparation of salvianolic acid A by the degradation reaction of salvianolic acid B in subcritical water integrated with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

PubMed

Li, Huaizhi; Cheng, Yan; Dong, Hongjing; Wang, Xiao; Li, Jia; Gao, Qianshan

2016-10-14

Salvianolic acid A is the major bioactive compound in Danshen, however, due to the chemical instability and low content in Danshen, it is difficult to extract amount of salvianolic acid A. Therefore, this study was to establish an effective strategy for obtaining adequate amount of salvianolic acid A, subcritical water extraction was used to degrade salvianolic acid B and prepare salvianolic acid A. Different reaction conditions including temperature, time, concentration and pH value in subcritical water were investigated. Under 40mg/mL of reactant concentration, 180°C of temperature, 4.0 of pH value and 60min of reaction time, the highest yield rate of salvianolic acid A reached 34.86%. Then, the degradation products were successfully separated by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with the solvent system Pet-EtAc-n-BuOH-H2O (2:3:1:9, v/v), where 10mM TFA was added in stationary phase and 10mM NH3·H2O in mobile phase. As a result, a total of 227.3mg of salvianolic acid A at 98.2% purity, 38.9mg of danshensu at 99.3% purity, 9.5mg of salvianolic acid D at 92.7% purity, and 32.8mg of protocatechuic aldehyde at 93.1% purity were obtained from 1.2g degradation products of salvianolic acid B by one-step purification. The results demonstrated that the combinative application of subcritical water and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography is a potential technique for the preparative separation of salvianolic acid A from salvianolic acid B. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

12. American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8. 6, Safety in conducting subcritical neutron---Multiplication measurement in situ

SciTech Connect

McLaughlin, T.P.

1991-01-01

There are many examples of expeditious and cost effective in situ measurements dating from the 1940's and 50's. These subcritical experiment, upon which the safety of operations were based, were paralleled by numerous critical experiments which provide most of the bases for computer code validations presently. As the capability to expeditiously and cost effectively perform critical experiments withers, in situ subcritical measurements may provide the information necessary to further reduce uncertainties and biases in safety margins and thus incorporate more safety and efficiency into process operations. Finally, certain site restoration activities may demand knowledge of the subcritical state before disturbing the buried material. In situ neutron multiplication measurements may offer the only practical means to this knowledge. This document discusses the standard of conducting subcritical Neutron-Multiplication measurements, in situ. 4 refs., 1 fig.

13. Fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics (FICTION) detects BCL6 abnormalities, including gene amplification, in most cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

PubMed

Bakhirev, Alexei G; Vasef, Mohammad A; Zhang, Qian-Yun; Reichard, Kaaren K; Czuchlewski, David R

2014-04-01

BCL6 translocations are a frequent finding in B-cell lymphomas of diverse subtypes, including some cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). However, reliable analysis of BCL6 rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization is difficult in NLPHL because of the relative paucity of neoplastic cells. Combined immunofluorescence microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization, or fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for the investigation of neoplasms (FICTION), permits targeted analysis of neoplastic cells. To better define the spectrum of BCL6 abnormalities in NLPHL using FICTION analysis. We performed an optimized FICTION analysis of 24 lymph nodes, including 11 NLPHL, 5 follicular hyperplasia with prominent progressive transformation of germinal centers, and 8 follicular hyperplasia without progressive transformation of germinal centers. BCL6 rearrangement was identified in 5 of 11 cases of NLPHL (46%). In addition, BCL6 gene amplification, with large clusters of BCL6 signals in the absence of chromosome 3 aneuploidy, was detected in 3 of 11 cases of NLPHL (27%). One NLPHL showed extra copies of BCL6 present in conjunction with multiple copies of chromosome 3. Altogether, we detected BCL6 abnormalities in 9 of 11 cases of NLPHL (82%). None of the progressive transformation of germinal centers or follicular hyperplasia cases showed BCL6 abnormalities by FICTION. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BCL6 gene amplification in NLPHL. Our optimized protocol for FICTION permits detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in most NLPHL cases and may represent a useful ancillary diagnostic technique.

14. Coupling MCNP-DSP and LAHET Monte Carlo Codes for Designing Subcriticality Monitors for Accelerator-Driven Systems

SciTech Connect

Valentine, T.E.; Rugama, Y. Munoz-Cobos, J.; Perez, R.

2000-10-23

The design of reactivity monitoring systems for accelerator-driven systems must be investigated to ensure that such systems remain subcritical during operation. The Monte Carlo codes LAHET and MCNP-DSP were combined together to facilitate the design of reactivity monitoring systems. The coupling of LAHET and MCNP-DSP provides a tool that can be used to simulate a variety of subcritical measurements such as the pulsed neutron, Rossi-{alpha}, or noise analysis measurements.

15. Granular cell tumor of the oral cavity; a case series including a case of metachronous occurrence in the tongue and the lung.

PubMed

van de Loo, Sander; Thunnissen, Erik; Postmus, Pieter; van der Waal, Isaäc

2015-01-01

The granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare, benign tumor that most commonly occurs in the oral cavity, particularly in the anterior part of the tongue. In this study the experience with 16 patients with a GCT observed in a single Institution will be discussed. Although no radicality has been obtained in most cases, recurrences are rare. In one patient, a recurrence was noted four years after excision of the primary. In the same patient a pulmonary lesion occurred five years after excision of the recurrence in the oral cavity, most likely representing an example of metachronous occurrence and not a distant metastasis. Since recurrences and metachronous lesions are rare, as are distant metastases, routine follow-up does not seem warranted in patients treated for a granular cell tumor of the oral cavity.

16. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

PubMed

Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

2017-03-01

A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

17. Comparing the new generation accelerator driven subcritical reactor system (ADS) to traditional critical reactors

Kemah, Elif; Akkaya, Recep; Tokgöz, Seyit Rıza

2017-02-01

In recent years, the accelerator driven subcritical reactors have taken great interest worldwide. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has been used to produce neutron in subcritical state by the external proton beam source. These reactors, which are hybrid systems, are important in production of clean and safe energy and conversion of radioactive waste. The ADS with the selection of reliability and robust target materials have been the new generation of fission reactors. In addition, in the ADS Reactors the problems of long-lived radioactive fission products and waste actinides encountered in the fission process of the reactor during incineration can be solved, and ADS has come to the forefront of thorium as fuel for the reactors.

18. The use of linear superconducting electron accelerator for subcritical reactor driving

Guk, I. S.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Kononenko, S. G.; Peev, F. A.; Tarasenko, A. S.; van der Wiel, M.; Botman, J. I. M.

2008-12-01

At the National Science Centre, Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (NSC KIPT) the possibility of creating an installation with a subcritical reactor driven by an electron accelerator is examined. To obtain the maximal stream of neutrons from a neutron-producing target at a minimal density of energy emission, the electron energy should be in the range of 100-200 MeV and the size of the target should be as large as possible. Other important requirements are beam continuity with time and long-term stability of the accelerator parameters. The variants of using the superconducting linear accelerator on the basis of a TESLA accelerating structure as of subcritical reactor driver are considered. The basic design parameters and characteristics of this installation are presented.

19. Sub-critical water hydrolysis of hog hair for amino acid production.

PubMed

Esteban, M B; García, A J; Ramos, P; Márquez, M C

2010-04-01

A recycling method using sub-critical water hydrolysis to convert hog hair from slaughterhouses into amino acids was developed. The influence of the reaction parameters such as temperature, time of reaction and initial substrate concentration were investigated in a batch reactor. The quality and quantity of amino acids in hydrolysates were determined and 17 kinds of amino acids were obtained. Under the tested conditions, the highest amino acid yield (325 mg/g protein) was reached at an initial substrate concentration of 10 g/l, a temperature of 250 degrees C and a reaction time of 60 min. A large amount of low-molecular weight amino acids, such alanine and glycine, was observed at these operating conditions. Sub-critical water hydrolysis was confirmed as an effective and practical process to recover amino acids from hog hair waste.

20. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

SciTech Connect

Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

2015-09-14

Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument’s LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

1. Research program for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Buttseva, G. L.; Dudarev, S. Ju.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.

2000-07-01

This paper presents the research program of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (25% PuO2+75% UO2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff=0.945, energetic gain G=30, and accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW.

2. Solvent tailoring in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1982-August 1982. [Comparison of subcritical and supercritical conditions

SciTech Connect

Tarrer, A.R.; Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Williams, D.C.

1982-01-01

The initial objective of this work was to study the phase distribution of donor solvents and solvent mixtures during the liquefaction of coal, to investigate the effects of phase distribution on coal conversion, and to determine the advantages, if any, of operating at subcritical and/or supercritical conditions. Computer simulations were used to predict the phase distribution, for various binary systems, as a function of temperature. The FLASH program was used to theoretically predict phase distribution for various model systems. Due to limitations in the computer program, success was achieved only in a few cases. Even in these cases, the existence of two-phase regions was observed only at temperatures and pressures far below normal liquefaction conditions. An extensive review of the literature was carried out in order to survey methods of experimentally studying vapor-liquid equilibria. Finally, some preliminary laboratory studies were carried out with the use of benzothiophene-dodecane as the model reaction system. It was felt that the study of the effect of reactor configuration on conversion would provide insight into whether phase distribution or mass transfer was the limiting consideration for coal conversion. However, no conclusive results were obtained from these studies.

3. YALINA-booster subcritical assembly pulsed-neutron experiments : data processing and spatial corrections.

SciTech Connect

Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-10-11

The YALINA-Booster experiments and analyses are part of the collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory of USA and the Joint Institute for Power & Nuclear Research - SOSNY of Belarus for studying the physics of accelerator driven systems for nuclear energy applications using low enriched uranium. The YALINA-Booster subcritical assembly is utilized for studying the kinetics of accelerator driven systems with its highly intensive D-T or D-D pulsed neutron source. In particular, the pulsed neutron methods are used to determine the reactivity of the subcritical system. This report examines the pulsed-neutron experiments performed in the YALINA-Booster facility with different configurations for the subcritical assembly. The 1141 configuration with 90% U-235 fuel and the 1185 configuration with 36% or 21% U-235 fuel are examined. The Sjoestrand area-ratio method is utilized to determine the reactivities of the different configurations. The linear regression method is applied to obtain the prompt neutron decay constants from the pulsed-neutron experimental data. The reactivity values obtained from the experimental data are shown to be dependent on the detector locations inside the subcritical assembly and the types of detector used for the measurements. In this report, Bell's spatial correction factors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo model to remove the detector dependences. The large differences between the reactivity values given by the detectors in the fast neutron zone of the YALINA-Booster are reduced after applying the spatial corrections. In addition, the estimated reactivity values after the spatial corrections are much less spatially dependent.

4. Accelerator Driven System Based on Plutonium Subcritical Reactor and 660 MeV Phasotron

SciTech Connect

Arkhipov, V.A.; Barashenkov, V.S.; Buttsev, V.S.; Chultem, D.; Dudarev, S.Yu.; Furman, V.I.; Gudowski, W.; Janczyszyn, J.; Maltsev, A.A.; Onischenko, L.M.; Pogodajev, G.N.; Polanski, A.; Popov, Yu.P.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sissakian, A.N.; Taczanowski, S.

1999-12-31

The proposal presents a PLUTONIUM BASED ENERGY AMPLIFIER TESTING CONCEPT which employs a plutonium subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator. operating in the JINR (Dubna, Russia). To make the present conceptual design of the Plutonium Energy Amplifier we have chosen a nominal unit capacity of 20 kW (thermal). This corresponds to a multiplication coefficient, keff, between 0.94 and 0.95 and an energy gain about 20.

5. Accelerator driven system based on plutonium subcritical reactor and 660 MeV phasotron

SciTech Connect

Arkhipov, V. A.; Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Chultem, D.; Furman, V. I.; Maltsev, A. A.; Onischenko, L. M.; Pogodajev, G. N.; Popov, Yu. P.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.; Dudarev, S. Yu.; Gudowski, W.; Janczyszyn, J.; Polanski, A.; Taczanowski, S.

1999-11-16

The proposal presents a PLUTONIUM BASED ENERGY AMPLIFIER TESTING CONCEPT which employs a plutonium subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator, operating in the the JINR (Dubna, Russia). To make the present conceptual design of the Plutonium Energy Amplifier we have chosen a nominal unit capacity of 20 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff between 0.94 and 0.95 and the energetic gain about 20.

6. Evaluation of sub-critical fatigue crack propagation in a restorative composite.

PubMed

Loughran, Galyna M; Versluis, Antheunis; Douglas, William H

2005-03-01

Fracture is a major reason for clinical failure of dental restorations. Many clinical fractures are likely to be preceded by a slow sub-critical crack propagation. The purpose of this study was to determine slow crack propagation in a restorative composite. Notched composite (Z100, 3M ESPE) specimens were fatigued in a four-point bending test. The notch (1 mm) was created by embedding a sharpened razor blade in the specimen mold. The specimens were load-cycled at 5 Hz between -5 and -30 N until failure. Displacement and load were recorded during the fatigue tests and used to derive crack propagation based on beam-compliance. The number of cycles until failure ranged between 34 and 82,481. In the last 1500 cycles prior to final fracture, the beam compliance increased consistently, indicating sub-critical crack propagation. It was calculated from the compliance change that the crack length increased 8% (77 +/- 14 microm) before final failure. The crack growth rate during sub-critical crack propagation was determined as a function of the stress intensity for the last 1500 cycles before fracture. A method is presented to determine slow crack propagation using a four-point bending test. Although fatigue lifetime varied widely, stable crack growth prior to fracture was consistent. This consistency allowed formulation of stress-based crack propagation relationships that can be used in concert with numerical simulations to predict composite restoration performance. The large variation found for specimen lifetime was attributed to the initiation process that precedes sub-critical crack propagation.

7. The effect of fluid composition, salinity, and acidity on subcritical crack growth in calcite crystals

Bergsaker, Anne Schad; Røyne, Anja; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Aubry, Jérôme; Renard, François

2016-03-01

Chemically activated processes of subcritical cracking in calcite control the time-dependent strength of this mineral, which is a major constituent of the Earth's brittle upper crust. Here experimental data on subcritical crack growth are acquired with a double torsion apparatus to characterize the influence of fluid pH (range 5-7.5) and ionic strength and species (Na2SO4, NaCl, MgSO4, and MgCl2) on the propagation of microcracks in calcite single crystals. The effect of different ions on crack healing has also been investigated by decreasing the load on the crack for durations up to 30 min and allowing it to relax and close. All solutions were saturated with CaCO3. The crack velocities reached during the experiments are in the range 10-9-10-2 m/s and cover the range of subcritical to close to dynamic rupture propagation velocities. Results show that for calcite saturated solutions, the energy necessary to fracture calcite is independent of pH. As a consequence, the effects of fluid salinity, measured through its ionic strength, or the variation of water activity have stronger effects on subcritical crack propagation in calcite than pH. Consequently, when considering the geological sequestration of CO2 into carbonate reservoirs, the decrease of pH within the range of 5-7.5 due to CO2 dissolution into water should not significantly alter the rate of fracturing of calcite. Increase in salinity caused by drying may lead to further reduction in cracking and consequently a decrease in brittle creep. The healing of cracks is found to vary with the specific ions present.

8. Pressure recovery, drag, and subcritical stability characteristics of conical supersonic diffusers with boundary-layer removal

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Obey, Leonard T; Englert, Gerald W; Nussdorfer, Theodore J , Jr

1952-01-01

A study of two 20 degrees half-angle, low mass-flow ratio conical supersonic inlets with cone boundary-layer bleed was made on a 16-inch ram-jet engine in the Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel. A greater stable subcritical range of operation was obtained with the bleed inlets than with the corresponding inlet without boundary-layer bleed. The drag added by the bleed system was small.

9. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Davila, Jesus; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio

2015-07-01

During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides 232Th, 238U and 237Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

10. Subcritical crack propagation as a mechanism of crevasse formation and iceberg calving

Weiss, Jérôme

Recent investigations of crevassing on alpine glaciers and ice shelves have been based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). However, LEFM is unable to explain some aspects of crevasse formation such as the initiation of crevasse propagation from crystal-scale (mm) microcracks, the slow propagation of large fractures in ice shelves, and the acceleration of crevasse opening before breaking of the ice terminus. Here another mechanism to account for these observations is proposed: subcritical crevassing. Subcritical crack growth, documented in many materials though not yet explored in ice, is characterized by a crack velocity that scales as a power of the tensile stress intensity factor, but is much less than that associated with critical crack propagation. This mechanism allows crevasse propagation from mm-scale microcracks at velocities much lower than body wave speeds, and explains crevasse-opening accelerations in a natural way. Subcritical crevassing is theoretically explored for several simplified situations but is limited by a lack of available data on crevasse evolution.

11. Subcritical crack growth in soda-lime glass in combined mode I and mode II loading

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Singh, Dileep; Shetty, Dinesh K.

1990-01-01

Subcritical crack growth under mixed-mode loading was studied in soda-lime glass. Pure mode I, combined mode I and mode II, and pure mode II loadings were achieved in precracked disk specimens by loading in diametral compression at selected angles with respect to the symmetric radial crack. Crack growth was monitored by measuring the resistance changes in a microcircuit grid consisting of parallel, electrically conducting grid lines deposited on the surface of the disk specimens by photolithography. Subcritical crack growth rates in pure mode I, pure mode II, and combined mode I and mode II loading could be described by an exponential relationship between crack growth rate and an effective crack driving force derived from a mode I-mode II fracture toughness envelope. The effective crack driving force was based on an empirical representation of the noncoplanar strain energy release rate. Stress intensities for kinked cracks were assessed using the method of caustics and an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in the subcritical crack growth rates of kinked cracks were shown to correlate with the variations of the mode I and the mode II stress intensities.

12. Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration

Arias, F. J.

A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (α, n) reactions between the α particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious α disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

13. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

SciTech Connect

Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio; Davila, Jesus

2015-07-23

During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

14. Optimization of subcritical fluid extraction of bioactive compounds using Hansen solubility parameters.

PubMed

Srinivas, K; King, J W; Monrad, J K; Howard, L R; Hansen, C M

2009-08-01

Process engineering operations in food and nutraceutical industries pertaining to the design of extraction of value-added products from biomass using pressurized liquids involve a careful selection of the solvent and optimal temperature conditions to achieve maximum yield. Complex molecular structure and limited physical property data in the literature of biological solutes extracted from biomass compounds have necessitated the process modeling of such operations. In this study, we have applied the Hansen 3-dimensional solubility parameter concept to optimize the extraction of molecularly complex solutes using subcritical fluid solvents. Hansen solubility spheres characterized by the relative energy differences (RED) have been used to characterize and quantify the solute-subcritical solvent interactions as a function of temperature. The solvent power of subcritical water and compressed hydroethanolic mixtures above their boiling points has been characterized using the above-mentioned method. The use of group contribution methods in collaboration with computerized algorithms to plot the Hansen spheres provides a quantitative prediction tool for optimizing the design of extraction conditions. The method can be used to estimate conditions for solute-solvent miscibility, an optimum temperature range for conducting extractions under pressurized conditions, and approximate extraction conditions of solutes from natural matrices.

15. Subcritical crack growth in soda-lime glass in combined mode I and mode II loading

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Singh, Dileep; Shetty, Dinesh K.

1990-01-01

Subcritical crack growth under mixed-mode loading was studied in soda-lime glass. Pure mode I, combined mode I and mode II, and pure mode II loadings were achieved in precracked disk specimens by loading in diametral compression at selected angles with respect to the symmetric radial crack. Crack growth was monitored by measuring the resistance changes in a microcircuit grid consisting of parallel, electrically conducting grid lines deposited on the surface of the disk specimens by photolithography. Subcritical crack growth rates in pure mode I, pure mode II, and combined mode I and mode II loading could be described by an exponential relationship between crack growth rate and an effective crack driving force derived from a mode I-mode II fracture toughness envelope. The effective crack driving force was based on an empirical representation of the noncoplanar strain energy release rate. Stress intensities for kinked cracks were assessed using the method of caustics and an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in the subcritical crack growth rates of kinked cracks were shown to correlate with the variations of the mode I and the mode II stress intensities.

16. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

Lebedev, G. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

2014-12-01

According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1-20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ˜0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

17. Observation of subcritical geodesic acoustic mode excitation in the large helical device

Ido, T.; Itoh, K.; Lesur, M.; Osakabe, M.; Shimizu, A.; Ogawa, K.; Nishiura, M.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; the LHD Experiment Group

2017-07-01

The abrupt and strong excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) has been found in the large helical device (LHD), when the frequency of a chirping energetic particle-driven GAM (EGAM) approaches twice that of the GAM frequency. The temporal evolution of the phase relation between the abrupt GAM and the chirping EGAM is common in all events. The result indicates a coupling between the GAM and the EGAM. In addition, the nonlinear evolution of the growth rate of the GAM is observed, and there is a threshold in the amplitude of the GAM for the appearance of nonlinear behavior. A threshold in the amplitude of the EGAM for the abrupt excitation of the GAM is also observed. According to one theory (Lesur et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 015003, Itoh et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Rep. 42 418) the observed abrupt phenomenon can be interpreted as the excitation of the subcritical instability of the GAM. The excitation of a subcritical instability requires a trigger and a seed with sufficient amplitude. The observed threshold in the amplitude of the GAM seems to correspond with the threshold in the seed, and the threshold in the amplitude of the EGAM seems to correspond with the threshold in the magnitude of the trigger. Thus, the observed threshold supports the interpretation that the abrupt phenomenon is the excitation of a subcritical instability of the GAM.

18. Turbulence effect on crossflow around a circular cylinder at subcritical Reynolds numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sadeh, W. Z.; Saharon, D. B.

1982-01-01

An investigation of the effect of freestream turbulence on the flow around a smooth circular cylinder at subcritical Reynolds numbers from 5.2 x 10 to the 4th power to 2.09 x 10 to the 5th power was conducted. Measurements show that the interaction of incident turbulence with the initial laminar boundary layer: (1) modifies the characteristics of the mean surface pressure distribution; (2) induces an aft shift in the separation point ranging from 5 to 50 beyond the laminar separation angle of 80 degrees; and, (3) reduces the mean drag coefficient to values between 97 and 46% of its nearly constant laminar counterpart. The extent of these changes depends on the particular Reynolds number background turbulence combination. These results demonstrate that a boundary-layer flow similar to that found in critical, supercritical and/or transcritical flow regimes is induced by turbulence at subcritical Reynolds numbers and, hence, the effect of turbulence is equivalent to an effective increase in the Reynolds number. The change in the nature and properties of the boundary layer in the subcritical regime, consequent upon the penetration of turbulence into it, is in agreement with the model proposed by the vorticity-amplification theory.

19. Feasibility study of noise analysis methods on virtual thermal reactor subcriticality monitoring

SciTech Connect

Kong, C.; Lee, D.; Lee, E.

2013-07-01

This paper presents the analysis results of Rossi-alpha, cross-correlation, Feynman-alpha, and Feynman difference methods applied to the subcriticality monitoring of nuclear reactors. A thermal spectrum Godiva model has been designed for the analysis of the four methods. This Godiva geometry consists of a spherical core containing the isotopes of H-l, U-235 and U-238, and the H{sub 2}O reflector outside the core. A Monte Carlo code, McCARD, is used in real time mode to generate virtual detector signals to analyze the feasibility of the four methods. The analysis results indicate that the four methods can be used with high accuracy for the continuous monitoring of subcriticality. In addition to that, in order to analyze the impact of the random noise contamination on the accuracy of the noise analysis, the McCARD-generated signals are contaminated with arbitrary noise. It is noticed that, even when the detector signals are contaminated, the four methods can predict the subcriticality with reasonable accuracy. Nonetheless, in order to reduce the adverse impact of the random noise, eight detector signals, rather than a single signal, are generated from the core, one signal from each equally divided eighth part of the core. The preliminary analysis with multiple virtual detector signals indicates that the approach of using many detectors is promising to improve the accuracy of criticality prediction and further study will be performed in this regard. (authors)

20. Characteristics of membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor under sub-critical flux operation.

PubMed

Su, Y C; Huang, C P; Pan, Jill R; Lee, H C

2008-01-01

Recently, the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process has become one of the novel technologies to enhance the performance of biological treatment of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor process uses the membrane unit to replace a sediment tank, and this can greatly enhance treatment performance. However, membrane fouling in MBR restricts its widespread application because it leads to permeate flux decline, making more frequent membrane cleaning and replacement necessary, which then increases operating and maintenance costs. This study investigated the sludge characteristics in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation and also assessed the effect of shear stress on membrane fouling. Membrane fouling was slow under sub-critical flux operation. However, as filamentous microbes became dominant in the reactor, membrane fouling increased dramatically due to the increased viscosity and polysaccharides. A close link was found between membrane fouling and the amount of polysaccharides in soluble EPS. The predominant resistance was the cake resistance which could be minimized by increasing the shear stress. However, the resistance of colloids and solutes was not apparently reduced by increasing shear stress. Therefore, smaller particles such as macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides) may play an important role in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation.

1. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

SciTech Connect

Lebedev, G. V. Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

2014-12-15

According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1–20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ∼0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

2. Efficiency comparison of subcritical OTEC power cycle using various working fluids

Yoon, Jung-In; Son, Chang-Hyo; Baek, Seung-Moon; Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Ho-Saeng

2014-07-01

This paper presents an investigation into the thermal efficiency and main component size of the subcritical ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power cycle using various working fluids under different operation conditions. The analysis procedure was performed with a simulation program written in Engineering Equation Solver. With the given analysis conditions, efficiencies of three types of working fluids were evaluated and compared. It was found that the thermal efficiencies of the subcritical OTEC power cycle depend strongly on the evaporating and condensing temperature, and turbine efficiency, while not roughly depending on superheating degrees and pump efficiencies. With a thorough grasp of these results, an efficient OTEC power cycle can be designed. R717 and R404A yielded the highest and lowest thermal efficiencies among the wet fluids, and R22 showed the largest efficiency among the dry fluids. For the iso-entropic fluids, R245fa provided the highest thermal efficiency. In comparison of main component sizes, R404A and R744 had the largest and smallest condenser size, respectively. Also, R744 exhibited the smallest evaporator size, and R404A and R227ea show the largest size. And R744 and R245fa gave the largest and smallest pump size, respectively. From the results of thermal efficiency and main components for various working fluids in the OTEC power cycle, R717 in the subcritical OTEC power cycle is the preferred working fluid, except for its toxicity and flammability.

3. Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and esophagus: an immunohistochemical study of 60 cases including comparison with normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa.

PubMed

Chlumská, Alena; Mukenšnabl, Petr; Mareček, Petr; Zámečník, Michal

2014-07-01

Recently, a new classification of intestinal metaplasia (IM) using immunohistochemical mucin markers was proposed. Two following types of IM were defined: (1) a mixed gastric and intestinal type also called incomplete IM; (2) a purely intestinal type, also called complete IM. We present a series of 30 cases of gastric IM and 30 cases of IM of the esophagus, using this new classification. In all gastric cases, IM developed in the mucus-neck region in the form of incomplete IM. Toward the mucosa surface, it matured gradually into complete IM. This maturation showed a gradual reduction of both foveolar mucin MUC5AC and pyloric gland mucin MUC6. In two of 30 cases, IM was of the incomplete hyperproliferative type. In one case, focal high-grade adenomatous dysplasia was found in the incomplete IM. In the esophageal cases, IM was found in inflamed cardiac-type mucosa, and it was usually of the incomplete type, with almost diffuse positivity for MUC5AC and with rare positivity of MUC6. The goblet cells and some cylindrical cells expressed intestinal mucin MUC2. The proliferation was higher than in the complete IM, and in one case, focal low grade adenomatous dysplasia was found. In addition, we examined the expression of mucins in normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa. These cases included 50 duodenal biopsies, 50 biopsies from the ileum, and 50 biopsies from the colon. The inflamed cases included celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Some goblet cells of the normal intestinal mucosa expressed both MUC2 and MUC5AC. More numerous MUC5AC+ goblet cells were found in the inflamed intestinal mucosa. In the duodenal and small intestinal mucosa, even the MUC6 positivity of a few goblet or cylindrical cells was found. In sum, our results indicate that incomplete IM is an initial step of the metaplastic process. It can mature into complete IM, or alternatively, it can develop dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. In addition, we found that gastric-type mucins are also

4. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of organic, wet wastes for carbon cycling in regenerative life support systems

Ronsse, Frederik; Lasseur, Christophe; Rebeyre, Pierre; Clauwaert, Peter; Luther, Amanda; Rabaey, Korneel; Zhang, Dong Dong; López Barreiro, Diego; Prins, Wolter; Brilman, Wim

2016-07-01

For long-term human spaceflight missions, one of the major requirements is the regenerative life support system which has to be capable of recycling carbon, nutrients and water from both solid and liquid wastes generated by the crew and by the local production of food through living organisms (higher plants, fungi, algae, bacteria, …). The European Space Agency's Life Support System, envisioned by the MELiSSA project, consists of a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem, in which the waste receiving compartment (so-called compartment I or briefly 'CI') is based on thermophilic fermentation. However, as the waste generated by the crew compartment and food production compartment contain typical plant fibres (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose), these recalcitrant fibres end up largely unaffected in the digestate (sludge) generated in the C-I compartment. Therefore, the C-I compartment has to be supplemented with a so-called fibre degradation unit (in short, FDU) for further oxidation or degradation of said plant fibres. A potential solution to degrading these plant fibres and other recalcitrant organics is their oxidation, by means of subcritical or supercritical water, into reusable CO2 while retaining the nutrients in an organic-free liquid effluent. By taking advantage of the altered physicochemical properties of water above or near its critical point (647 K, 22.1 MPa) - including increased solubility of non-polar compounds and oxygen, ion product and diffusivity - process conditions can be created for rapid oxidation of C into CO2. In this research, the oxidizer is provided as a hydrogen peroxide solution which, at elevated temperature, will dissociated into O2. The purpose of this study is to identify ideal process conditions which (a) ensure complete oxidation of carbon, (b) retaining the nutrients other than C in the liquid effluent and (c) require as little oxidizer as possible. Experiments were conducted on a continuous, tubular heated reactor and on batch

5. Rapid Improvement of thyroid storm-related hemodynamic collapse by aggressive anti-thyroid therapy including steroid pulse: A case report.

PubMed

Kiriyama, Hiroyuki; Amiya, Eisuke; Hatano, Masaru; Hosoya, Yumiko; Maki, Hisataka; Nitta, Daisuke; Saito, Akihito; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Minatsuki, Shun; Sato, Tatsuyuki; Murakami, Haruka; Uehara, Masae; Manaka, Katsunori; Makita, Noriko; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

2017-06-01

Heart failure is relatively common in patients with hyperthyroidism, but thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy with poor left ventricular (LV) systolic function is very rare. We experienced a representative case of a patient who presented with severe LV dysfunction related to thyroid storm and needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) temporally. Thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy. Aggressive antithyroid therapy, including steroid pulse to hyperthyroidism, leads to the dramatic improvement of cardiac function and she was successfully weaned from ECMO. The most outstanding feature of the current case was the rapid decrease of cardiac injury and improvement of cardiac function by strengthening antithyroid therapy, including steroid pulse, without thyroid hormone level normalization. In thyroid storm, various systemic inflammatory reactions have different time courses and among them, the cardiac phenotype emerges in most striking and critical ways.

6. Hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and subcritical-crack growth in high strength steels and nickel base alloys

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.; Chornet, E.

1973-01-01

Embrittlement, or the enhancement of crack growth by gaseous hydrogen in high strength alloys, is of primary interest in selecting alloys for various components in the space shuttle. Embrittlement is known to occur at hydrogen gas pressures ranging from fractions to several hundred atmospheres, and is most severe in the case of martensitic high strength steels. Kinetic information on subcritical crack growth in gaseous hydrogen is sparse at this time. Corroborative information on hydrogen adsorption and diffusion is inadequate to permit a clear determination of the rate controlling process and possible mechanism in hydrogen enhanced crack growth, and for estimating behavior over a range of temperatures and pressures. Therefore, coordinated studies of the kinetics of crack growth, and adsorption and diffusion of hydrogen, using identical materials, have been initiated. Comparable conditions of temperature and pressure will be used in the chemical and mechanical experiments. Inconel 718 alloy and 18Ni(200) maraging steel have been selected for these studies. Results from these studies are expected to provide not only a better understanding of the gaseous hydrogen embrittlement phenomenon itself, but also fundamental information on hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and crack growth information that can be used directly for design.

7. Active Folding In The Puli Basin, Constraints On Strain Across A Sub-Critical Region Of The Taiwanese Orogen

Wilcox, T.; Mueller, K.; Chen, Y.

2006-12-01

The Puli topographic embayment in central western Taiwan is interpreted as a region of sub-critical taper (assuming uniform decollement geometry) within the otherwise critically tapered wedge of the Taiwanese orogen. This sub-critical portion of the thrust belt drives the current orogenic architecture and reorganization of strain in and around Puli. Age dating and mapping of fold axis' that deform Late Quaternary terrace deposits in the Puli Basin suggest that at least 380 meters of fault slip (or a minimum of about 350 meters of horizontal shortening) has occurred over the last 50-60 Ka, yielding a minimum slip rate of 8mm/yr for the Shuilikeng blind thrust and fault-related fold. Given our existing age constraints, which only define the oldest Late Quaternary strata in the Puli Basin, the slip rate on this same structure could approach 13mm/yr (i.e. we use strain in younger deposits as a starting point for measuring shortening). Geodetic convergence rates (with respect to Asia) in the northern half of the island average ~10mm/yr or less, while convergence rates in the southwestern part of the orogen average ~40mm/yr. Previous maps of geodetic strain suggest the Puli Basin, corresponds with strain gradients of about 15mm/yr. Identifiable kink bends in terrace deposits were used to define the kinematics of actively growing folds, indicating the sense and magnitude of slip on blind thrusts that currently accommodate strain. This implies that active contraction occurs over a broader area across Puli than in other parts of Taiwan, but within the Basin contraction appears most likely limited to slip on a single fault (in addition to rapidly slipping thrusts in the foreland). Backstepping of thrusts at Puli is due to the first-order decrease in mass of the wedge at this latitude. While decreased mass in the wedge can be initially estimated by its thickness (as measured by the distance between the decollement as mapped at depth by microseismicity and average topography

8. Contributions of stress corrosion and cyclic fatigue to subcritical crack growth in a dental glass-ceramic.

PubMed

Joshi, Gaurav V; Duan, Yuanyuan; Della Bona, Alvaro; Hill, Thomas J; St John, Kenneth; Griggs, Jason A

2014-08-01

9. Continuous hydrolysis of Cuphea seed oil in subcritical water

USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

Cuphea seed oil (CSO) is a source of medium chain fatty acids for use in chemical manufacturing, including detergents, shampoos and lubricants. Cuphea seed oil is high in decanoic acid and this fatty acid is especially useful in the preparation of estolide biobased lubricants, which have excellent ...

10. Oxidative degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in subcritical and supercritical waters.

PubMed

Hashimoto, M; Taniguchi, S; Takanami, R; Giri, R R; Ozaki, H

2010-01-01

Presence of chlorinated organic compounds in water bodies has become a concern among governments, health authorities and general public. Oxidation of organic compounds in water under high temperature and pressure is considered as a promising technique, but usefulness of the technique to mineralize 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is not well understood. This article aimed to elucidate degradation characteristics of 2,4-D in both subcritical and supercritical waters by laboratory batch experiments. 2,4-D degradation, total organic carbon (TOC) removal and dechlorination increased with increasing reaction time and temperature especially in subcritical waters, while dechlorination was a major step. 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and acetic acid were the main degradation intermediates both in subcritical and supercritical waters. Though 2,4-D disappeared almost completely in subcritical waters near critical region ( approximately 99%), significant amounts of TOC and organic chlorine still remained as 2,4-DCP and acetic acid. But TOC removal and dechlorination were significantly enhanced ( approximately 95 and 91% respectively) in supercritical waters. Complete mineralization of 2,4-D in subcritical waters required a considerably longer reaction period, while the mineralization was almost complete within a short reaction period in supercritical waters. This is an important information of practical significance for oxidative degradation of chlorinated pesticides similar to 2,4-D.

11. Induced core formation time in subcritical magnetic clouds by large-scale trans-Alfvénic flows

SciTech Connect

Kudoh, Takahiro; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: basu@uwo.ca

2014-10-20

We clarify the mechanism of accelerated core formation by large-scale nonlinear flows in subcritical magnetic clouds by finding a semi-analytical formula for the core formation time and describing the physical processes that lead to them. Recent numerical simulations show that nonlinear flows induce rapid ambipolar diffusion that leads to localized supercritical regions that can collapse. Here, we employ non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ambipolar diffusion for gravitationally stratified sheets threaded by vertical magnetic fields. One of the horizontal dimensions is eliminated, resulting in a simpler two-dimensional simulation that can clarify the basic process of accelerated core formation. A parameter study of simulations shows that the core formation time is inversely proportional to the square of the flow speed when the flow speed is greater than the Alfvén speed. We find a semi-analytical formula that explains this numerical result. The formula also predicts that the core formation time is about three times shorter than that with no turbulence, when the turbulent speed is comparable to the Alfvén speed.

12. Subcritical and supercritical technology for the production of second generation bioethanol.

PubMed

Rostagno, Mauricio A; Prado, Juliana M; Mudhoo, Ackmez; Santos, Diego T; Forster-Carneiro, Tânia; Meireles, M Angela A

2015-01-01

There is increased interest in reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and increasing the share of renewable raw materials in our energy supply chain due to environmental and economic concerns. Ethanol is emerging as a potential alternative to liquid fuels due to its eco-friendly characteristics and relatively low production costs. As ethanol is currently produced from commodities also used for human and animal consumption, there is an urgent need of identifying renewable raw materials that do not pose a competitive problem. Lignocellulosic agricultural residues are an ideal choice since they can be effectively hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars and integrated in the context of a biorefinery without competing with the food supply chain. However, the conventional hydrolysis methods still have major issues that need to be addressed. These issues are related to the processing rate and generation of fermentation inhibitors, which can compromise the quality of the product and the cost of the process. As the knowledge of the processes taking place during hydrolysis of agricultural residues is increasing, new techniques are being exploited to overcome these drawbacks. This review gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hydrolysis with subcritical and supercritical water in the context of reusing agricultural residues for the production of suitable substrates to be processed during the fermentative production of bioethanol. Presently, subcritical and/or supercritical water hydrolysis has been found to yield low sugar contents mainly due to concurrent competing degradation of sugars during the hydrothermal processes. In this line of thinking, the present review also revisits the recent applications and advances to provide an insight of future research trends to optimize on the subcritical and supercritical process kinetics.

13. Surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical, and ultrasupercritical water

Rodriguez, David; Merwin, Augustus; Karmiol, Zachary; Chidambaram, Dev

2017-05-01

Corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical and ultrasupercritical water was studied as a function of temperature and time. The change in the chemistry of the as-received surface film on Inconel 625 and 718 after exposure to subcritical water at 325 °C and supercritical water at 425 °C and 527.5 °C for 2 h was studied. After exposure to 325 °C subcritical water, the CrO42- based film formed; however minor quantities of NiFexCr2-xO4 spinel compounds were observed. The oxide film formed on both alloys when exposed to supercritical water at 425 °C consisted of NiFexCr2-xO4 spinel. The surface films on both alloys were identified as NiFe2O4 when exposed to supercritical water at 527.5 °C. To characterize the fully developed oxide layer, studies were conducted at test solution temperatures of 527.5 and 600 °C. Samples were exposed to these temperatures for 24, 96, and 200 h. Surface chemistry was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Inconel 718 exhibited greater mass gain than Inconel 625 for all temperatures and exposure times. The differences in corrosion behavior of the two alloys are attributed to the lower content of chromium and increased iron content of Inconel 718 as compared to Inconel 625.

14. Method of cleaning plastics using super and subcritical media

DOEpatents

Sawan, Samuel P.; Spall, W. Dale; Talhi, Abdelhafid

1998-05-26

A method for treating a plastic, such as polyethylene or polypropylene, to remove at least a portion of at least one contaminant includes combining the plastic with a supercritical medium, such as carbon dioxide or sulfur hexafluoride, whereby at least a portion of the contaminant dissolves in the supercritical medium. Alternatively, the plastic can be combined with a suitable liquid medium, such as carbon dioxide or liquid sulfur hexafluoride. At least a portion of the medium, containing the dissolved contaminant, is separated from the plastic, thereby removing at least a portion of the contaminant from the plastic.

15. Method of cleaning plastics using super and subcritical media

DOEpatents

Sawan, S.P.; Spall, W.D.; Talhi, A.

1998-05-26

A method for treating a plastic, such as polyethylene or polypropylene, to remove at least a portion of at least one contaminant includes combining the plastic with a supercritical medium, such as carbon dioxide or sulfur hexafluoride, whereby at least a portion of the contaminant dissolves in the supercritical medium. Alternatively, the plastic can be combined with a suitable liquid medium, such as carbon dioxide or liquid sulfur hexafluoride. At least a portion of the medium, containing the dissolved contaminant, is separated from the plastic, thereby removing at least a portion of the contaminant from the plastic. 10 figs.

16. Simulator for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

SciTech Connect

Klein, Steven Karl; Day, Christy M.; Determan, John C.

2015-09-14

LANL has developed a process to generate a progressive family of system models for a fissile solution system. This family includes a dynamic system simulation comprised of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the time evolution of the system. Neutron kinetics, radiolytic gas generation and transport, and core thermal hydraulics are included in the DSS. Extensions to explicit operation of cooling loops and radiolytic gas handling are embedded in these systems as is a stability model. The DSS may then be converted to an implementation in Visual Studio to provide a design team the ability to rapidly estimate system performance impacts from a variety of design decisions. This provides a method to assist in optimization of the system design. Once design has been generated in some detail the C++ version of the system model may then be implemented in a LabVIEW user interface to evaluate operator controls and instrumentation and operator recognition and response to off-normal events. Taken as a set of system models the DSS, Visual Studio, and LabVIEW progression provides a comprehensive set of design support tools.

17. Analysis of subcritical experiments using fresh and spent research reactor fuel assemblies

Zino, John Frederick

1999-11-01

This research investigated the concepts associated with crediting the burnup of spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purposes of criticality safety. To accomplish this, a collaborative experimental research program was undertaken between Westinghouse, the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) facility and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the program was to characterize the subcritical behavior of a small array of fresh and spent MURR fuel assemblies using the 252Cf Source-driven noise technique. An aluminum test rig was built which was capable of holding up to four, highly enriched (93.15 wt.% 235U) MURR fuel assemblies in a 2 x 2 array. The rig was outfitted with one source and four detector drywells which allowed researchers to perform active neutron noise measurements on the array of fuel assemblies. The 1 atmosphere gas 3He neutron detectors used to perform the measurements were quenched with CF4 gas to allow improved discrimination of the neutron signals in the very high gamma-ray fields associated with spent fuel (˜8000 R/hr). In addition, the detector drywells were outfitted with 1″ lead collars to provide additional gamma-ray shielding from the spent fuel. Reactivity changes were induced in the subcritical lattice by replacing individual fresh assemblies (in a 4-assembly array) with spent assemblies of known, maximum burnup (143 Mw-D). The absolute and relative measured reactivity changes were then compared to those predicted by three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations. The purpose of these comparisons was to investigate the accuracy of modern transport theory depletion calculations to accurately simulate the reactivity effects of burnup in spent nuclear fuel. A total of seven subcritical measurements were performed at the MURR reactor facility on July 20th and 27th, 1998. These measurements generated several estimates of prompt neutron decay constants (alpha) and ratios of spectral densities through frequency correlations

18. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBCRITICAL MASS LIMIT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL

SciTech Connect

MITCHELL, MARK VON

2007-01-10

According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

19. Neutronics of accelerator-driven subcritical fission for burning transuranics in used nuclear fuel

SciTech Connect

Sattarov, A.; Assadi, S.; Badgley, K.; Baty, A.; Comeaux, J.; Gerity, J.; Kellams, J.; Mcintyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Sooby, E.; Tsvetkov, P.; Rosaire, G.; Mann, T.

2013-04-19

We report the development of a conceptual design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). ADSMS is capable of destroying all of the transuranics at the same rate and proportion as they are produced in a conventional nuclear power plant. The ADSMS core is fueled solely by transuranics extracted from used nuclear fuel and reduces its radiotoxicity by a factor 10,000. ADSMS offers a way to close the nuclear fuel cycle so that the full energy potential in the fertile fuels uranium and thorium can be recovered.

20. Simple No-Go Test for Subcritical Damage in Body Armor Panels

Fisher, Jason; Chimenti, D. E.

2011-06-01

The development of a simple test for subcritical damage in body armor panels using pressure-sensitive dye-indicator film has been performed and demonstrated effective. Measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Impacts from hard blunt impactors instrumented with an accelerometer and embedded force transducer were studied. Reliable correlations between the indicator film and instrumented impact force are shown for a range of impact energies. Force and acceleration waveforms with corresponding indicator film results are presented for impact events onto damaged and undamaged panels. We find that panel damage can occur at impact levels far below the National Institute of Justice acceptance test standard.

1. Kinetics and mechanism of the synthesis of a novel protein-based plastic using subcritical water.

PubMed

Abdelmoez, Wael; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

2008-01-01

We investigated the intermolecular mechanism and kinetics of the synthesis of a novel biodegradable protein-based plastic from bovine serum albumin under subcritical water conditions using batch reactors. The reaction mechanism could be viewed as a chain reaction stabilized by the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds. The kinetic analysis was based on non-steady-state kinetics using a theoretical model developed in one of our previous works. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor were found to be 7.2 kJ/mol and 0.9 s-1, respectively. These low values signify that the reaction is relatively temperature-insensitive with some diffusion limitation.

2. Criticality Safety Evaluation of the LLNL Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA)

SciTech Connect

Percher, Catherine

2012-06-19

The LLNL Nuclear Criticality Safety Division has developed a training center to illustrate criticality safety and reactor physics concepts through hands-on experimental training. The experimental assembly, the Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA), uses surplus highly enriched research reactor fuel configured in a water tank. The training activities will be conducted by LLNL following the requirements of an Integration Work Sheet (IWS) and associated Safety Plan. Students will be allowed to handle the fissile material under the supervision of LLNL instructors. This report provides the technical criticality safety basis for instructional operations with the ISSA experimental assembly.

3. Subcritical neutron generator-test facility for nuclear waste transmutation studies

SciTech Connect

Chuvilo, I.V.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Kozodaev, A.M.

1995-10-01

The development of the optimal design of high power facility for NPP transmutation and for a number of applications can not be carried out without preliminary tests of much cheaper prototypes. It has been proposed to combine in new test facility 36 MeV Linac ISTRA constructed in ITEP, original Be target and subcritical blanket that will be mounted on the place of partly disassembled heavy water ITEP experimental reactor. The basic parameters of Linac, schemes of the target and blanket are described. It will provide the direct experiments on installation which can be considered as prototype for future linac driven high power facilities.

4. Simple go/no-go test for subcritical damage in body armor panels

SciTech Connect

Fisher, Jason; Chimenti, D. E.

2011-06-23

The development of a simple test for subcritical damage in body armor panels using pressure-sensitive dye-indicator film has been performed and demonstrated effective. Measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Impacts from hard blunt impactors instrumented with an accelerometer and embedded force transducer were studied. Reliable correlations between the indicator film and instrumented impact force are shown for a range of impact energies. Force and acceleration waveforms with corresponding indicator film results are presented for impact events onto damaged and undamaged panels. We find that panel damage can occur at impact levels far below the National Institute of Justice acceptance test standard.

5. Subcritical flow past a circular cylinder surrounded by a porous layer

Sobera, M. P.; Kleijn, C. R.; Van den Akker, H. E. A.

2006-03-01

A study of the flow at subcritical Re =3900 around a circular cylinder, surrounded at some fixed small distance by a porous layer with a hydraulic resistance typical for that of textile materials, has been performed by means of direct numerical simulations. The flow in the space between the porous layer and the solid cylinder was found to be laminar and periodic, with a frequency locked to that of the vortex shedding in the wake behind the cylinder. Time averaged flow velocities underneath the porous material were in good agreement with experimental data from laser Doppler anemometry.

6. Subcritical microwave streamer discharge at the surface of a polymer foil

Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.; Esakov, I. I.; Gratchev, L. P.; Khodataev, K. V.

2002-09-01

An innovative type of subcritical streamer discharge, generated by bursts of focused microwave (MW) radiation in transverse electromagnetic mode with wavelength of 10 cm, pulse duration of 40 mus, and intensity of 5.6 x104 W/cm2, was initiated at the surface of a polymer foil at 420 Torr in air. The MW field of a quasioptical beam was three times lower than the critical breakdown field. Exposure of a polymer foil to the discharge caused a transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity.

7. High brightness 50 MeV Cyclotron for Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fission

Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Mann, Thomas; McIntyre, Peter; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

2011-10-01

The Accelerator Research Lab at Texas A&M University is developing new accelerator technology for a high-brightness, high-current cyclotron with capabilities that will be beneficial for applications to accelerator-driven subcritical fission, medical isotope production, and proton therapy. As a first embodiment of the technology, we are developing a detailed design for TAMU-50, a 50 MeV, 5 mA proton cyclotron with high beam brightness. In this presentation we present devices and beamline components for injection, extraction, controls and diagnostics. We emphasize the system integration and implementation of TAMU-50 for production of medical radioisotopes.

8. Three case studies of three high school teachers' definitions, beliefs, and implementation practices of inquiry-based science method including barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation

Blackburn-Morrison, Kimberly D.

This study involved three teachers in various stages of implementation of inquiry-based science method. The cases were chosen because one participant was a novice in using inquiry-based science method, one participant was in her second year of implementation, and the third participant was experienced with inquiry-based science method. The cases were set in a rural high school in three different science classrooms. One of the classrooms was a regular biology class. One of the classrooms was an honors oceanography class and another was an advanced placement environmental science classroom. Data sources included interviews, observations, and document collection. Interviews, observations, and document collection were used to triangulate data. Each classroom was observed five times. Interviews were conducted at the beginning of the semester with each participant and at the end of the semester. Follow-up interviews were conducted after each observation. Documents were collected such as each teacher's lesson plans, student work, and assignments. Data was initially organized according to the research areas of teacher's definition, teacher's beliefs, teacher's barriers to implementation, and teacher's enablers to implementation. Then, patterns emerging from each of these cases were organized. Lastly, patterns emerging across cases were compared in a cross-case analysis. Patterns shared between cases were: Participants related inquiry-based science method with hands-on learning activities. Participants saw students as the center of the learning process. Participants had positive beliefs about constructivist learning practices that were strengthened after implementation of inquiry-based teaching. Facilitators of successful implementation of inquiry-based science method were positive student motivation, students' retention of knowledge, and a positive experience for lower level students. Barriers to successful implementation were teachers not having complete control of the

9. Subcritical crack-growth behavior of borosilicate glass under cyclic loads: Evidence of a mechanical fatigue effect

SciTech Connect

Dill, S.J.; Dauskardt, R.H.; Bennison, S.J.

1997-03-01

Amorphous glasses are generally considered immune to mechanical fatigue effects associated with cyclic loading. In this study surprising new evidence is presented for a mechanical fatigue effect in borosilicate glass, in both moist air and dry nitrogen environments. The fatigue effect occurs at near threshold subcritical crack-growth rates (da/dt < 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s) as the crack extension per cycle approaches the dimensions of the borosilicate glass network. While subcritical crack growth under cyclic loads at higher load levels is entirely consistent with environmentally assisted crack growth, lower growth rates actually exceed those measured under monotonic loads. This suggests a mechanical fatigue effect which accelerates subcritical crack-growth rates. Likely mechanisms for the mechanical fatigue effect are presented.

10. A study of the effect of subcritical crack growth on the geometry dependence on nonlinear fracture toughness parameters

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jones, D. L.; Poulose, P. K.; Liebowitz, H.

1976-01-01

The effect of subcritical crack growth on the geometry dependence of nonlinear fracture toughness parameters was studied by comparing the toughness values for different specimen geometries at the onset of subcritical crack growth and at the initiation of unstable crack propagation. Center-cracked thin sheet specimens of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys were tested by varying the specimen length L, width w, and crack length-to-width ratio c/w. When the onset of unstable crack propagation was selected as the critical point, the nonlinear energy toughness and the R curve toughness increased with increasing w and decreasing L and c/w. However, when the onset of subcritical crack growth was taken as the critical point, energy toughness and the linear toughness values were independent of these geometrical variables.

11. Aeroacoustic Simulations of Tandem Cylinders with Subcritical Spacing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

Tandem cylinders are being studied because they model a variety of component level interactions of landing gear. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders with their centroids separated in the streamwise direction by 1.435 diameters. Experiments in the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel and Quiet Flow Facility at NASA Langley Research Center have provided an extensive experimental database of the nearfield flow and radiated noise. The measurements were conducted at a Mach number of 0.1285 and Reynolds number of 1.66x10(exp 5) based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent flow separation and, hence, to simulate a major aspect of high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The experiments exhibited an asymmetry in the surface pressure that was persistent despite attempts to eliminate it through small changes in the configuration. To model the asymmetry, the simulations were run with the cylinder configuration at a nonzero but small angle of attack. The computed results and experiments are in general agreement that vortex shedding for the spacing studied herein is weak relative to that observed at supercritical spacings. Although the shedding was subdued in the simulations, it was still more prominent than in the experiments. Overall, the simulation comparisons with measured near-field data and the radiated acoustics are reasonable, especially if one is concerned with capturing the trends relative to larger cylinder spacings. However, the flow details of the 1.435 diameter spacing have not been captured in full even though very fine grid computations have been performed. Some of the discrepancy may be associated with the simulation s inexact representation of the

12. Subcritical crack growth of selected aerospace pressure vessel materials

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hall, L. R.; Bixler, W. D.

1972-01-01

This experimental program was undertaken to determine the effects of combined cyclic/sustained loads, stress level, and crack shape on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior of cracks subjected to plane strain conditions. Material/environment combinations tested included: 2219-T87 aluminum plate in gaseous helium, room air, and 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen; 5Al-2.5 Sn (ELI) titanium plate in liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen and 6AL-4V (ELI) STA titanium plate in gaseous helium and methanol at room temperature. Most testing was accomplished using surface flawed specimens instrumented with a clip gage to continuously monitor crack opening displacements at the specimen surface. Tapered double cantilever beam specimens were also tested. Static fracture and ten hour sustained load tests were conducted to determine fracture toughness and apparent threshold stress intensity values. Cyclic tests were performed using sinusoidal loading profiles at 333 MHz (20 cpm) and trapezoidal loading profiles at both 8.3 MHz (0.5 cpm) and 3.3 MHz (0.2 cpm). Data were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.

13. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

PubMed

Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

2017-06-01

Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

14. Final Progress Report: FRACTURE AND SUBCRITICAL DEBONDING IN THIN LAYERED STRUCTURES: EXPERIMENTS AND MULTI-SCALE MODELING

SciTech Connect

Reinhold H. Dauskardt

2005-08-30

Final technical report detailing unique experimental and multi-scale computational modeling capabilities developed to study fracture and subcritical cracking in thin-film structures. Our program to date at Stanford has studied the mechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack-growth in structural ceramics at high temperature, bulk and thin-film glasses in selected moist environments where we demonstrated the presence of a true mechanical fatigue effect in some glass compositions. We also reported on the effects of complex environments and fatigue loading on subcritical cracking that effects the reliability of MEMS and other micro-devices using novel micro-machined silicon specimens and nanomaterial layers.

15. Subcritical convection of liquid metals in a rotating sphere using a quasi-geostrophic model

Guervilly, Céline; Cardin, Philippe

2016-12-01

We study nonlinear convection in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating for values of the Prandtl number relevant for liquid metals ($Pr\\in[10^{-2},10^{-1}]$). We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than $10^{-6}$, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of $10^{-8}$. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than $10^3$, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the nonlinear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl number. The two branches can co-exist for intermediate Ekman numbers, leading to hysteresis ($Ek=10^{-6}$, $Pr=10^{-2}$). Nonlinear oscillations are observed near the onset of convection for $Ek=10^{-7}$ and $Pr=10^{-1}$.

16. Subcritical thermal convection of liquid metals in a rotating sphere using a quasi-geostrophic model

Cardin, P.; Guervilly, C.

2016-12-01

We study non-linear convection in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating for values of the Prandtl number relevant for liquid metals (10-2-1). We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than 10-6, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of the interaction of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of 10-8. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than 1000, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the non-linear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl number. The two branches can co-exist for intermediate Ekman numbers, leading to hysteresis (E = 10-6, Pr =10-2). Non-linear oscillations are observed near the onset of convection for E = 10-7 and Pr = 10-1.

17. Functional properties and structure changes of soybean protein isolate after subcritical water treatment.

PubMed

Zhang, Qiu-Ting; Tu, Zong-Cai; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Fan, Liang-Liang; Bao, Zhong-Yu; Xiao, Hui

2015-06-01

Subcritical water is an emerging method in food industry. In this study, soybean protein isolate (SPI) was treated by subcritical water (SBW) at various temperatures (0, 120, 160, 200 °C) for 20 min. The changes in the appearances, physicochemical properties and structural changes were investigated. After SBW treatment, the color of SPI solution modified turned to be yellow. The mean particle size and turbidity of SPI had similar behaviors. The mean particle size was decreased from 263.7 nm to 116.8 nm at 120 °C and then reached the maximum at 160 °C (1446.1 nm) due to the aggregation of protein. Then it was decreased to 722.9 nm at 200 °C caused by the protein degradation. SBW treatment could significantly enhance the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of SPI. With increasing temperature, the crystalline structure of protein was gradually collapsed. The degradation of the protein advanced structure occurred, especially at 200 °C revealed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Better functional properties exhibited in hydrolysis products indicating that SBW treatment could be used as a good method to modify the properties of soy proteins isolate for specific purposes under appropriate treatment condition.

18. Initial instability of round liquid jet at subcritical and supercritical environments

SciTech Connect

Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

2016-07-15

In the present experimental work, the behavior of laminar liquid jet in its own vapor as well as supercritical fluid environment is conducted. Also the study of liquid jet injection into nitrogen (N{sub 2}) environment is carried out at supercritical conditions. It is expected that the injected liquid jet would undergo thermodynamic transition to the chamber condition and this would alter the behavior of the injected jet. Moreover at such conditions there is a strong dependence between thermodynamic and fluid dynamic processes. Thus the thermodynamic transition has its effect on the initial instability as well as the breakup nature of the injected liquid jet. In the present study, the interfacial disturbance wavelength, breakup characteristics, and mixing behavior are analysed for the fluoroketone liquid jet that is injected into N{sub 2} environment as well as into its own vapor at subcritical to supercritical conditions. It is observed that at subcritical chamber conditions, the injected liquid jet exhibits classical liquid jet characteristics with Rayleigh breakup at lower Weber number and Taylor breakup at higher Weber number for both N{sub 2} and its own environment. At supercritical chamber conditions with its own environment, the injected liquid jet undergoes sudden thermodynamic transition to chamber conditions and single phase mixing characteristics is observed. However, the supercritical chamber conditions with N{sub 2} as ambient fluid does not have significant effect on the thermodynamic transition of the injected liquid jet.

19. Subcritical Water Technology for Enhanced Extraction of Biochemical Compounds from Chlorella vulgaris

PubMed Central

Awaluddin, S. A.; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Izhar, Shamsul; Hiroyuki, Yoshida; Danquah, Michael K.; Harun, Razif

2016-01-01

Subcritical water extraction (SWE) technology has been used for the extraction of active compounds from different biomass materials with low process cost, mild operating conditions, short process times, and environmental sustainability. With the limited application of the technology to microalgal biomass, this work investigates parametrically the potential of subcritical water for high-yield extraction of biochemicals such as carbohydrates and proteins from microalgal biomass. The SWE process was optimized using central composite design (CCD) under varying process conditions of temperature (180–374°C), extraction time (1–20 min), biomass particulate size (38–250 μm), and microalgal biomass loading (5–40 wt.%). Chlorella vulgaris used in this study shows high volatile matter (83.5 wt.%) and carbon content (47.11 wt.%), giving advantage as a feedstock for biofuel production. The results showed maximum total carbohydrate content and protein yields of 14.2 g/100 g and 31.2 g/100 g, respectively, achieved under the process conditions of 277°C, 5% of microalgal biomass loading, and 5 min extraction time. Statistical analysis revealed that, of all the parameters investigated, temperature is the most critical during SWE of microalgal biomass for protein and carbohydrate production. PMID:27366748

20. Subcritical Thermal Convection of Liquid Metals in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere

Kaplan, E. J.; Schaeffer, N.; Vidal, J.; Cardin, P.

2017-09-01

Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here, we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superseded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are smoothly connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the smooth transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ek <10-6. Here, the strong branch persists even as the thermal forcing drops well below the linear onset of convection (Ra =0.7 Racrit in this study). We highlight the importance of the Reynolds stress, which is required for convection to subsist below the linear onset. In addition, the Péclet number is consistently above 10 in the strong branch. We further note the presence of a strong zonal flow that is nonetheless unimportant to the convective state. Our study suggests that, in the asymptotic regime of rapid rotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets through a subcritical bifurcation.

1. Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene waste in subcritical water optimized by response surface methodology.

PubMed

Wong, S L; Ngadi, N; Amin, N A S; Abdullah, T A T; Inuwa, I M

2016-01-01

Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene (LDPE) waste from local waste separation company in subcritical water was conducted to investigate the effect of reaction time, temperature, as well as the mass ratio of water to polymer on the liquid yield. The data obtained from the study were used to optimize the liquid yield using response surface methodology. The range of reaction temperature used was 162-338°C, while the reaction time ranged from 37 min to 143 min, and the ratio of water to polymer ranged from 1.9 to 7.1. It was found that pyrolysis of LDPE waste in subcritical water produced hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, while the liquid product contained alkanes and alkenes with 10-50 carbons atoms, as well as heptadecanone, dichloroacetic acid and heptadecyl ester. The optimized conditions were 152.3°C, reaction time of 1.2 min and ratio of water solution to polymer of 32.7, with the optimum liquid yield of 13.6 wt% and gases yield of 2.6 wt%.

2. YALINA-booster subcritical assembly pulsed-neutron e xperiments: detector dead time and apatial corrections.

SciTech Connect

Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-10-11

In almost every detector counting system, a minimal dead time is required to record two successive events as two separated pulses. Due to the random nature of neutron interactions in the subcritical assembly, there is always some probability that a true neutron event will not be recorded because it occurs too close to the preceding event. These losses may become rather severe for counting systems with high counting rates, and should be corrected before any utilization of the experimental data. This report examines the dead time effects for the pulsed neutron experiments of the YALINA-Booster subcritical assembly. The nonparalyzable model is utilized to correct the experimental data due to dead time. Overall, the reactivity values are increased by 0.19$and 0.32$ after the spatial corrections for the YALINA-Booster 36% and 21% configurations respectively. The differences of the reactivities obtained with He-3 long or short detectors at the same detector channel diminish after the dead time corrections of the experimental data for the 36% YALINA-Booster configuration. In addition, better agreements between reactivities obtained from different experimental data sets are also observed after the dead time corrections for the 21% YALINA-Booster configuration.

3. Initial instability of round liquid jet at subcritical and supercritical environments

Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

2016-07-01

In the present experimental work, the behavior of laminar liquid jet in its own vapor as well as supercritical fluid environment is conducted. Also the study of liquid jet injection into nitrogen (N2) environment is carried out at supercritical conditions. It is expected that the injected liquid jet would undergo thermodynamic transition to the chamber condition and this would alter the behavior of the injected jet. Moreover at such conditions there is a strong dependence between thermodynamic and fluid dynamic processes. Thus the thermodynamic transition has its effect on the initial instability as well as the breakup nature of the injected liquid jet. In the present study, the interfacial disturbance wavelength, breakup characteristics, and mixing behavior are analysed for the fluoroketone liquid jet that is injected into N2 environment as well as into its own vapor at subcritical to supercritical conditions. It is observed that at subcritical chamber conditions, the injected liquid jet exhibits classical liquid jet characteristics with Rayleigh breakup at lower Weber number and Taylor breakup at higher Weber number for both N2 and its own environment. At supercritical chamber conditions with its own environment, the injected liquid jet undergoes sudden thermodynamic transition to chamber conditions and single phase mixing characteristics is observed. However, the supercritical chamber conditions with N2 as ambient fluid does not have significant effect on the thermodynamic transition of the injected liquid jet.

4. Extraction of astaxanthin from Euphausia pacific using subcritical 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluoroethane

Han, Yuqian; Ma, Qinchuan; Wang, Lan; Xue, Changhu

2012-12-01

Euphausia pacific is an important source of natural astaxanthin. Studies were carried out to assess the extractability of astaxanthin from E. pacific using subcritical 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a). To examine the effects of multiple process variables on the extraction yield, astaxanthin was extracted under various conditions of pressure (30-150 bar), temperature (303-343 K), time (10-50 min), flow rate (2-10 g min-1), moisture content (5.5%-63.61%), and particle size (0.25-0.109 mm). The results showed that the extraction yield increased with temperature, pressure, time and flow rate, but decreased with moisture content and particle size. A maximum yield of 87.74% was obtained under conditions of 100 bar, 333 K, and 30 min with a flow rate of 6 g min-1 and a moisture content of 5.5%. The substantial astaxanthin yield obtained under low-pressure conditions demonstrates that subcritical R134a is a good alternative to CO2 for extraction of astaxanthin from E. pacific.

5. Subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and its enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production.

PubMed

Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

2013-12-01

The present work investigated the effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at different CO2 pressure, pretreatment time, and temperature with relative high-solid concentration (15% w/v) to the composition of prehydrolyzate and the enzymatic hydrolysis. The results indicated that the maximum xylose yields in prehydrolyzate liquid were 15.78 g (combined 3.16 g xylose and 12.62 g xylo-oligosaccharides per 100g raw material). Due to the effective removal of hemicellulose, the maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 37.99 g per 100g raw material, representing 91.87% of glucose in the sugarcane bagasse. The maximal total sugars yield (combined xylose and glucose both in prehydrolyzate and enzymatic hydrolyzate) were 52.95 g based on 100g raw material. These results indicated that subcritical CO2 pretreatment can effectively improve the enzymatic hydrolysis, so it could be successfully applied to sugarcane bagasse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

6. Kinetic analysis for the isomerization of cellobiose to cellobiulose in subcritical aqueous ethanol.

PubMed

Soisangwan, Nontanut; Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Adachi, Shuji

2016-10-04

The isomerization of cellobiose to cellobiulose, and other degradation reactions of cellobiose were investigated in subcritical aqueous ethanol with concentrations of ethanol ranging from 0 to 60% (w/w) and at temperatures ranging from 170 to 200 °C. The maximum yield of cellobiulose (ca. 40%) was obtained from the treatment of cellobiose in 60% (w/w) aqueous ethanol at 190 °C. Glucose and fructose were also detected as byproducts. The concentration-time integral method was employed to analyze the rate constants for the isomerization and degradation processes. The rate constant of cellobiose isomerization to cellobiulose was greater than those of the degradation reactions under all experimental conditions, and it increased significantly with treatment temperature and ethanol concentration. However, the use of higher temperatures and ethanol concentrations was restricted due to decomposition of the saccharides and the low solubility of cellobiose, respectively. The effect of initial feed concentration (0.5-5.5% w/w) was also studied. The maximum productivity of cellobiulose, 54.1 kg/(h m(3)-reactor), was accomplished at a feed concentration of 5.5% (w/w) in 20% (w/w) subcritical aqueous ethanol.

7. Terpene degradation and extraction from basil and oregano leaves using subcritical water.

PubMed

Yang, Yu; Kayan, Berkant; Bozer, Neval; Pate, Bryan; Baker, Christopher; Gizir, Ahmet M

2007-06-08

In the first part of this study, the stability of five terpenes (alpha-pinene, limonene, camphor, citronellol, and carvacrol) under subcritical water conditions was investigated. The stability studies were carried out at four different temperatures (100, 150, 200, and 250 degrees C) with two different heating times (30 and 300 min). When water temperature was increased, the degradation of terpenes became more serious. Prolonged exposure time to each heating temperature also caused decreased terpene stability. The terpene recoveries were determined by conducting subcritical water extraction of sand spiked with terpenes. The recoveries are typically around 70 to 80% for extractions at 100 degrees C. Terpene recoveries were decreased with increasing water temperature due to poorer stability of terpenes. After the degradation and recovery studies, basil and oregano leaves were extracted using water at both 100 and 150 degrees C. The concentrations of each individual terpene in the water extract generally ranged from trace quantity to 65 microg terpene/g herb. However, the concentration of carvacrol in the oregano-water extract at 150 degrees C was found to be as high as 4270 microg carvacrol/g oregano.

8. Production of valued materials from squid viscera by subcritical water hydrolysis.

PubMed

Uddin, M Salim; Ahn, Hyang-Min; Kishimura, Hideki; Chun, Byung-Soo

2010-09-01

Subcritical water hydrolysis was carried out to produce valued materials from squid viscera, the waste product of fish processing industries. The reaction temperatures for hydrolysis of rawand deoiled squid viscera were maintained from 180 to 280 degrees C for5 min. The ratio of material to water forhydrolysis was 1:50. Most of the proteins from deoiled squid viscera were recovered at high temperature. The protein yield in raw squid viscera hydrolyzate decreased with the rise of temperature. The reducing sugar yield was higher at high temperature in subcritical water hydrolysis of both raw and deoiled squid viscera. The highest yield of amino acids in raw and deoiled squid viscera hydrolyzates were 233.25 +/- 3.25 and 533.78 +/- 4.13 mg g(-1) at 180 and 280 degrees C, respectively. Most amino acids attained highest yield at the reaction temperature range of 180-220 degrees C and 260-280 degrees C for raw and deoiled samples, respectively. The recovery of amino acids from deoiled squid viscera was about 1.5 times higher than that of raw squid viscera.

9. Interaction of soil, water and TNT during degradation of TNT on contaminated soil using subcritical water.

PubMed

Kalderis, Dimitrios; Hawthorne, Steven B; Clifford, Anthony A; Gidarakos, Evangelos

2008-11-30

Subcritical water was used at laboratory scale to reveal information with respect to the degradation mechanism of TNT on contaminated soil. Highly contaminated soil (12% TNT) was heated with water at four different temperatures, 150, 175, 200 and 225 degrees C and samples were obtained at appropriate time intervals. At the same time, similar experiments were performed with TNT spiked on to clean soil, sand and pure water in order to compare and eliminate various factors that may be present in the more complex contaminated soil system. Subcritical water was successful at remediating TNT-contaminated soil. TNT destruction percentages ranged between 98 and 100%. The aim of this work was to study the soil-water-contaminant interaction and determine the main physical parameters that affect TNT degradation. It was shown that the rate-limiting step of the process is the extraction/diffusion of TNT molecules from the soil core to the soil surface, where they degrade. Additionally, it was determined that the soil matrix also catalyses degradation to a lesser extent. Autocatalytic effects were not clearly observed.

10. Experimental investigation on flow patterns of RP-3 kerosene under sub-critical and supercritical pressures

Wang, Ning; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu; Wang, Hui

2014-02-01

Active cooling with endothermic hydrocarbon fuel is proved to be one of the most promising approaches to solve the thermal problem for hypersonic aircraft such as scramjet. The flow patterns of two-phase flow inside the cooling channels have a great influence on the heat transfer characteristics. In this study, phase transition processes of RP-3 kerosene flowing inside a square quartz-glass tube were experimentally investigated. Three distinct phase transition phenomena (liquid-gas two phase flow under sub-critical pressures, critical opalescence under critical pressure, and corrugation under supercritical pressures) were identified. The conventional flow patterns of liquid-gas two phase flow, namely bubble flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow are observed under sub-critical pressures. Dense bubble flow and dispersed flow are recognized when pressure is increased towards the critical pressure whilst slug flow, churn flow and annular flow disappear. Under critical pressure, the opalescence phenomenon is observed. Under supercritical pressures, no conventional phase transition characteristics, such as bubbles are observed. But some kind of corrugation appears when RP-3 transfers from liquid to supercritical. The refraction index variation caused by sharp density gradient near the critical temperature is thought to be responsible for this corrugation.

11. Subcritical measurements using the /sup 252/Cf source-driven neutron noise analysis method

SciTech Connect

Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ragan, G.E.; Kryter, R.C.

1985-01-01

This paper describes recent measurements of the subcritical neutron multiplication factor using the /sup 252/Cf source-driven neutron noise analysis method. This work was supported by a program of collaboration between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan related to the development of fast breeder technology. The experiment reported consists of a configuration of two interacting tanks of uranyl nitrate aqueous solution with different uranium concentrations in each tank. The /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method obtains the subcriticality from the signals of three detectors: the first, a parallel plate ionization chamber with /sup 252/Cf electroplated on one of its plates that is located in or near the system containing the fissile material, and produces an electrical pulse for every spontaneous fission that occurs and thereby serves as a timed source of fission neutrons; and the second and third detectors that are placed in or near the system containing fissile material and serve to detect particles from the fission chain multiplication process. 9 refs.

12. Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Including Thrust Manipulation and Exercise in the Management of a Patient with Cervicogenic Headache: A Case Report

PubMed Central

van Duijn, Jacqueline; van Duijn, Arie J.; Nitsch, Wanda

2007-01-01

It has been reported that in Western society as many as 16% of individuals experience cervicogenic headache, which can lead to significant amounts of pain and perceived disability. Cervicogenic headache is characterized by unilateral occipital-temporal pain that is increased by neck movement; it is accompanied by cervical hypomobility, postural changes, and/or increased cervical muscle tone. This case report describes the physical therapy differential diagnosis, management, and outcomes of a patient with cervicogenic headache. The patient was a 40-year-old woman referred by her physiatrist with complaints of cervical pain and ipsilateral temporal headache. The patient presented with increased muscle tone, multiple-level joint hypomobility in the cervical and thoracic spine, muscle weakness, and postural changes. Self-report outcome measures included the Visual Analog Scale for headache pain intensity and the Neck Disability Index. Management consisted of various thrust and non-thrust manipulations, soft tissue mobilizations, postural re-education, and exercise to address postural deficits and cervical and thoracic hypomobility and diminished strength. At discharge, the patient demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements with regard to pain, disability, and headache. This case report indicates that a multimodal physical therapy treatment program may be effective in the management of a patient diagnosed with cervicogenic headache. PMID:19066640

13. Influence of temperature and water on subcritical crack growth in sandstone

Nara, Yoshitaka; Yoneda, Tetsuro; Kaneko, Katsuhiko

2010-05-01

Understanding time-dependent brittle deformation due to slow crack growth is important in many geological applications. Time-dependent fracture propagation has been invoked as the key mechanism responsible for the increase in seismicity preceding earthquake ruptures and volcanic eruptions. In addition, when designing sub-surface structures in the rock mass, such as repositories for radioactive waste and underground power plants, it is essential to consider their long-term stability. In order to ensure long-term stability, it is necessary to evaluate the long-term strength of the rock. In turn, this requires an understanding of time-dependent fracture propagation such as subcritical crack growth. Environmental dependence of subcritical crack growth in igneous rocks has been studied well. However, that in sedimentary rocks has not been clarified yet. In this study, the effects of the temperature and water on subcritical crack growth in sandstone were investigated. Berea sandstone and Shirahama sandstone were used as rock samples. The load relaxation method of Double Torsion (DT) testing method was used to measure the crack velocity and the stress intensity factor under controlled environmental conditions. In water, it was shown that the crack velocity at a given stress intensity factor increased when the temperature increased. This agrees well with the theory of stress corrosion. In air, however, it was shown that the change of the crack velocity at a given stress intensity factor was not clear when the temperature increased under a constant relative humidity. On the other hand, the crack velocity at a given stress intensity factor increased by several orders of magnitude when the relative humidity increased threefold or fourfold under a constant temperature. This increase is much larger than that expected from the conventional concept based on the theory of stress corrosion. Additionally, the increase of the crack velocity was larger for Shirahama sandstone which

14. Correlation of nuclear criticality safety computer codes with plutonium benchmark experiments and derivation of subcritical limits. [MGBS, TGAN, KEFF, HRXN, GLASS, ANISN, SPBL, and KENO

SciTech Connect

Clark, H.K.

1981-10-01

A compilation of benchmark critical experiments was made for essentially one-dimensional systems containing plutonium. The systems consist of spheres, series of experiments with cylinders and cuboids that permit extrapolation to infinite cylinders and slabs, and large cylinders for which separability of the neutron flux into a product of spatial components is a good approximation. Data from the experiments were placed in a form readily usable as computer code input. Aqueous solutions of Pu(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ are treated as solutions of PuO/sub 2/ in nitric acid. The apparent molal volume of PuO/sub 2/ as a function of plutonium concentration was derived from analyses of solution density data and was incorporated in the Savannah River Laboratory computer codes along with density tables for nitric acid. The biases of three methods of calculation were established by correlation with the benchmark experiments. The oldest method involves two-group diffusion theory and has been used extensively at the Savannah River Laboratory. The other two involve S/sub n/ transport theory with, in one method, Hansen-Roach cross sections and, in the other, cross sections derived from ENDF/B-IV. Subcritical limits were calculated by all three methods. Significant differences were found among the results and between the results and limits currently in the American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactor (ANSI N16.1), which were calculated by yet another method, despite the normalization of all four methods to the same experimental data. The differences were studied, and a set of subcritical limits was proposed to supplement and in some cases to replace those in the ANSI Standard, which is currently being reviewed.

15. Including screening in van der Waals corrected density functional theory calculations: The case of atoms and small molecules physisorbed on graphene

SciTech Connect

Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi; Ambrosetti, Alberto

2014-03-28

The Density Functional Theory (DFT)/van der Waals-Quantum Harmonic Oscillator-Wannier function (vdW-QHO-WF) method, recently developed to include the vdW interactions in approximated DFT by combining the quantum harmonic oscillator model with the maximally localized Wannier function technique, is applied to the cases of atoms and small molecules (X=Ar, CO, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) weakly interacting with benzene and with the ideal planar graphene surface. Comparison is also presented with the results obtained by other DFT vdW-corrected schemes, including PBE+D, vdW-DF, vdW-DF2, rVV10, and by the simpler Local Density Approximation (LDA) and semilocal generalized gradient approximation approaches. While for the X-benzene systems all the considered vdW-corrected schemes perform reasonably well, it turns out that an accurate description of the X-graphene interaction requires a proper treatment of many-body contributions and of short-range screening effects, as demonstrated by adopting an improved version of the DFT/vdW-QHO-WF method. We also comment on the widespread attitude of relying on LDA to get a rough description of weakly interacting systems.

16. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

SciTech Connect

Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-09-11

This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

17. Reflection and Transmission of Oblique Acoustic Waves by a Sub-Critical Elastic Barrier with Discontinuities Using Analytical Numerical Matching

Villa, Mauricio

This work focuses on developing models for the coupled structural-acoustic vibration of boundaries that reflect and transmit sound. First, the case of a infinitely long, fluid-loaded, sub-critical membrane that is periodically fixed and forced by oblique incident acoustic waves is considered. The method of Analytical Numerical Matching (ANM) is applied and extended to deal with the resulting phase-shifted periodic forcing. The high resolution content of the solution near the constraints is analytically treated with a polynomial known as the Local Solution. The remaining, rapidly converging, part of the solution is treated modally and is known as the Global Solution.The Composite ANM Solution is then determined for the motion of the structure, and the far-field acoustic fields can be described. It is shown that the use of ANM effectively addresses the sensitivity of the acoustic fields and structure motion to the accuracy of which the local region near the structural discontinuities is resolved. The use of ANM is extended to demonstrate a method to deal with the mathematical difficulty of acoustic coincidence.The second part of this thesis presents ongoing work on the development of a model for a finite membrane in an infinite baffle. Corrections to the in-vacuo structural wavenumber are developed to model the additional inertance and dissipative effects of the surrounding fluid mediums. The resulting dissipated energy as a function of frequency of the modified finite membrane is compared to energy radiated of the infinite, periodically fixed, fluid loaded membrane to motivate further refinements of the finite model.

18. Evaluation of the predisposing factors and involved outcome of surgical treatment in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw cases including bone biopsies

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

Objectives This study examined the statistical relevance of whether the systemic predisposing factors affect the prognosis of surgical treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). All cases had undergone bone biopsies to determine the characteristics of the mechanisms of BRONJ by optical microscopy. Materials and Methods The data included 54 BRONJ cases who underwent surgery and in whom bone biopsies were performed. The results of surgery were evaluated and the results were classified into 3 categories: normal recovery, delayed recovery, and recurrence after surgery. The medical history, such as diabetes mellitus, medication of steroids, malignancies on other sites was investigated for an evaluation of the systemic predisposing factors in relation to the prognosis. The three factors involved with the medication of bisphosphonate (BP) were the medication route, medication period, and drug holiday of BP before surgery. The serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (CTX) value and presence of microorganism colony in bone biopsy specimens were also checked. Statistical analysis was then carried out to determine the relationship between these factors and the results of surgery. Results The group of patients suffering from diabetes and on steroids tended to show poorer results after surgery. Parenteral medication of BP made the patients have a poorer prognosis after surgery than oral medication. In contrast, the medication period and drug holiday of BP before surgery did not have significance with the results of surgery nor did the serum CTX value and presence of microorganism colony. Necrotic bone specimens in this study typically showed disappearing new bone formation around the osteocytic lacunae and destroyed Howship's lacunae. Conclusion Although many variables exist, this study could in part, predict the prognosis of surgical treatment of BRONJ by taking the patient's medical history. PMID:27595086

19. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Lift and Drag Characteristics of Hydrofoils at Subcritical and Supercritical Speeds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wadlin, Kenneth L; Shuford, Charles L , Jr; Mcgehee, John R

1955-01-01

A theoretical and experimental investigation at subcavitation speeds was made of the effect of the free-water surface and rigid boundaries on the lift and drag of an aspect-ratio-10 hydrofoil at both subcritical and supercritical speeds and of an aspect ratio-4 hydrofoil at supercritical speeds. Approximate theoretical solutions for the effects of the free-water surface and rigid boundaries on drag at subcritical speeds are developed. An approximate theoretical solution for the effects of these boundaries on drag at subcritical speeds is also presented. The agreement between theory and experiment at both supercritical and subcritical speeds is satisfactory for engineering calculations of hydrofoil characteristics from aerodynamic data. The experimental investigation indicated no appreciable effect of the limiting speed of wave propagation on lift-curve slope or angle of zero lift. It also showed that the increase in drag as the critical speed is approached from the supercritical range is gradual. The result is contrary to the abrupt increase at the critical speed predicted by theory.

20. Effects of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Varying Subcritical Media on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties.

PubMed

Lee, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Bo-Bae; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hong, Geun-Pyo

2016-01-01

This study investigated the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) prepared by varying subcritical media on the physicochemical properties of pork patties. For resource of SPH, two different soybean species (Glycine max Merr.) of Daewonkong (DWK) and Saedanbaek (SDB) were selected. SPH was prepared by subcritical processing at 190℃ and 25 MPa under three different of media (water, 20% ethanol and 50% ethanol). Solubility and free amino group content revealed that water was better to yield larger amount of SPH than ethanol/water mixtures, regardless of species. Molecular weight (Mw) distribution of SPH was also similar between two species, while slightly different Mw distribution was obtained by subcritical media. For pork patty application, 50% ethanol treatment showed clear red color comparing to control after 14 d of storage. In addition, ethanol treatment had better oxidative stability than control and water treatment based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. For eating quality, although 20% ethanol treatment in SDB showed slightly higher cooking loss than control, generally addition of SPH did not affect the water-binding properties and hardness of pork patties. Consequently, the present study indicated that 50% ethanol was the best subcritical media to produce SPH possessing antioxidant activity, and the SPH produced from DWK exhibited better antioxidant activity than that produced SDB.

1. A portable measurement system for subcriticality measurements by the Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method

SciTech Connect

Mihalczo, J.T.; Ragan, G.E.; Blakeman, E.D.

1987-01-01

A portable measurement system consisting of a personal computer used as a Fourier analyzer and three detection channels (with associated electronics that provide the signals to analog-to-digital (A/D) convertors) has been assembled to measure subcriticality by the /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method. 8 refs.

2. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

EPA Science Inventory

Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid
state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides
from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were
used to determine conditions f...

3. Effects of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Varying Subcritical Media on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties

PubMed Central

Davaatseren, Munkhtugs

2016-01-01

This study investigated the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) prepared by varying subcritical media on the physicochemical properties of pork patties. For resource of SPH, two different soybean species (Glycine max Merr.) of Daewonkong (DWK) and Saedanbaek (SDB) were selected. SPH was prepared by subcritical processing at 190℃ and 25 MPa under three different of media (water, 20% ethanol and 50% ethanol). Solubility and free amino group content revealed that water was better to yield larger amount of SPH than ethanol/water mixtures, regardless of species. Molecular weight (Mw) distribution of SPH was also similar between two species, while slightly different Mw distribution was obtained by subcritical media. For pork patty application, 50% ethanol treatment showed clear red color comparing to control after 14 d of storage. In addition, ethanol treatment had better oxidative stability than control and water treatment based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. For eating quality, although 20% ethanol treatment in SDB showed slightly higher cooking loss than control, generally addition of SPH did not affect the water-binding properties and hardness of pork patties. Consequently, the present study indicated that 50% ethanol was the best subcritical media to produce SPH possessing antioxidant activity, and the SPH produced from DWK exhibited better antioxidant activity than that produced SDB. PMID:27499657

4. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

EPA Science Inventory

Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid
state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides
from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were
used to determine conditions f...

5. Benchmark Analysis of Subcritical Noise Measurements on a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere

SciTech Connect

John D. Bess; Jesson Hutchinson

2009-09-01

Subcritical experiments using californium source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) and Feynman variance-to-mean methods were performed with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel shells, up to a maximum thickness of 7.62 cm. Both methods provide means of determining the subcritical multiplication of a system containing nuclear material. A benchmark analysis of the experiments was performed for inclusion in the 2010 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Benchmark models have been developed that represent these subcritical experiments. An analysis of the computed eigenvalues and the uncertainty in the experiment and methods was performed. The eigenvalues computed using the CSDNA method were very close to those calculated using MCNP5; however, computed eigenvalues are used in the analysis of the CSDNA method. Independent calculations using KENO-VI provided similar eigenvalues to those determined using the CSDNA method and MCNP5. A slight trend with increasing nickel-reflector thickness was seen when comparing MCNP5 and KENO-VI results. For the 1.27-cm-thick configuration the MCNP eigenvalue was approximately 300 pcm greater. The calculated KENO eigenvalue was about 300 pcm greater for the 7.62-cm-thick configuration. The calculated results were approximately the same for a 5-cm-thick shell. The eigenvalues determined using the Feynman method are up to approximately 2.5% lower than those determined using either the CSDNA method or the Monte Carlo codes. The uncertainty in the results from either method was not large enough to account for the bias between the two experimental methods. An ongoing investigation is being performed to assess what potential uncertainties and/or biases exist that have yet to be properly accounted for. The dominant uncertainty in the CSDNA analysis was the uncertainty in selecting a neutron cross-section library for performing the analysis of the data. The uncertainty in the

6. Space-time analysis for reactivity determination in source-driven subcritical systems

Kulik, Viktoriya V.

Increasing worldwide interests in accelerator-driven systems is related to their potential role in transmutation of the spent reactor fuel. Margin of safety expressed in terms of reactivity, measuring proximity to criticality, has to be properly addressed for such systems. Monitoring of reactivity enables us to predict performance of a nuclear system and prevent unforeseen accidents. However, due to the presence of a localized spallation source in an accelerator-driven subcritical system leads to a significantly different neutron flux shape than a source-free fundamental mode in critical systems. As a result, the simple point kinetics approach commonly used for determination of reactivity in critical systems does not account properly for space-time effects in accelerator-driven subcritical systems, yielding inaccurate estimates in reactivity. To overcome this problem and account properly for spatial and spectral effects in reactivity determination, a method directly combining measurements with numerical simulations of the experimental data is developed within a quasi-static formulation. This method provides space-time corrections to a variety of traditional point kinetics techniques and determines the reactivity essentially independent of the detector position, as long as sufficiently accurate information on the reactor configuration is provided. In the dissertation, the space-time corrections are derived for two well-known point kinetics methods: the area-ratio technique and the alpha-method. Numerical simulations performed with the FX2-TH diffusion theory code along with a space-time analysis of MUSE-4 pulsed source experimental data illustrate the applicability of the proposed methods for the determination of significant subcriticality levels in fast and thermal reactor systems. To perform space-time reactivity corrections at reduced computational cost, a modal-local method is developed for source-driven systems and tested with the ERANOS code. This dissertation

7. Persistence of mixed cryoglobulinemia despite cure of hepatitis C with new oral antiviral therapy including direct-acting antiviral sofosbuvir: A case series.

PubMed

Cornella, Scott L; Stine, Jonathan G; Kelly, Virginia; Caldwell, Stephen H; Shah, Neeral L

2015-05-01

Obtaining a sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) can decrease hepatic complications and be curative, however, extrahepatic manifestations including mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCN) may persist with interferon-based therapy. Our objective was to review our experience in treating patients with new oral antiviral agents and to assess common factors associated with MCN persistence despite SVR. We analyzed a case series of five patients with genotype one chronic HCV complicated by MCN who had persistence of cryoglobulins despite completion of triple therapy with oral antiviral agents (boceprivir, telaprivir or sofosbuvir). Patients with cirrhosis appear to have a decreased ability to clear immune complexes. We observed that early viral response by week 8 of therapy and longer periods of undetectable virus on treatment correlated with eventual clearance of serum cryoglobulins in patients without cirrhosis. Two patients were treated with anti-B-cell agent rituximab prior to starting therapy for HCV; this did not lead to a more effective clearance of cryoglobulins. We suggest that a longer treatment course than the standard 24 weeks with triple therapy could aid in the clearance of these immune complexes and cryoglobulins in cirrhotics. More studies to determine the ideal duration of treatment for chronic HCV and coincident MCN are needed, especially in light of the new all oral direct-acting antiviral regimens that are now recommended for HCV treatment.

8. Epigenetics targeted protein-vorinostat nanomedicine inducing apoptosis in heterogeneous population of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells including refractory and relapsed cases.

PubMed

Chandran, Parwathy; Kavalakatt, Anu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Vasanthakumari, Divya Rani Vikraman Nair; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Pavithran, Keechilat; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

2014-05-01

Aberrant epigenetics play a key role in the onset and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein we report in silico modelling based development of a novel, protein-vorinostat nanomedicine exhibiting selective and superior anti-leukemic activity against heterogeneous population of AML patient samples (n=9), including refractory and relapsed cases, and three representative cell lines expressing CD34(+)/CD38(-) stem cell phenotype (KG-1a), promyelocytic phenotype (HL-60) and FLT3-ITD mutation (MV4-11). Nano-vorinostat having ~100nm size exhibited enhanced cellular uptake rendering significantly lower IC50 in AML cell lines and patient samples, and induced enhanced HDAC inhibition, oxidative injury, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis compared to free vorinostat. Most importantly, nanomedicine showed exceptional single-agent activity against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. Collectively, this epigenetics targeted nanomedicine appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British (FAB) classes of AML. Through the use of a protein-vorinostat agent, exceptional single-agent activity was demonstrated against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. The studied epigenetics targeted nanomedicine approach is a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British classes of acute myeloid leukemia. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9. Experimental investigation of inclination effect on subcritical and supercritical water flows heat transfer in an internally ribbed tube

2017-02-01

The effect of various inclination angles on heat transfer of water at subcritical and supercritical operating pressures is investigated experimentally. The test section was a SA213T12 steel six-headed internally ribbed tube with minimum inner diameter of 19.5 mm. The operating test pressures were 15, 21.5, 22.5, 25 and 28 MPa, the mass flux was 800 kg/m2 s and the heat flux was 400 kW/m2. To keep the mass flux to heat flux ratio equal to 2 kg/kJ. These operating conditions covered subcritical, near critical and supercritical water flows and also refers to low mass flux conditions. The inclination angles were 5, 20, 30, 45 and 90 (vertical) degrees respecting to horizontal plane. The heat flux was kept constant along the test tube by controlling of electric heating. As a result the inner wall temperature and convective heat transfer coefficient variations with respect to heated length and bulk enthalpy of fluid were considered in order to study the heat transfer characteristics of various flows at different inclinations. The corresponding correlation for heat transfer coefficient was developed which is applicable for wide range of inclination angles. The heat transfer enhancement was obvious for inclination angles other than 90°, however, this effect was more obvious in 5° and 20° in some operating conditions. It was also concluded that the effect of inclination on heat transfer of water was more considerable in subcritical flow conditions than supercritical ones. Also, it was observed that angle of 20° seems to be the best for subcritical flows from heat transfer point of view, but for supercritical flows 5 or 45 seem to be more advantageous. These differences could be related to different heat transfer mechanisms of subcritical and supercritical flows.

10. Optimization of subcritical water extraction of flavanols from green tea leaves.

PubMed

Ko, Min-Jung; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Chung, Myong-Soo

2014-07-16

The subcritical-water extraction (SWE) of six kinds of flavanols from green tea leaves and the effect of extraction conditions were investigated by varying the temperature and time. The maximum yield of total flavanols, 71.36 ± 4.23 mg/g green tea leaves (mean ± SD), was obtained under extraction temperature/time conditions of 150 °C/5 min. The efficiency of SWE for total flavanols was slightly higher than that of the conventional extraction solvents such as methanol and ethanol. The extraction of flavanols via SWE was specifically adequate for epimer structures such as catechin, catechin gallate, and gallocatechin gallate due to the epimerization of epicatechins. The extraction efficiency of epimers was increased at temperatures up to 170 °C, whereas that of epicatechins was decreased. Thus, most epicatechins were converted to epimers during SWE, leading to some flavanol destruction at high temperatures, except when a short extraction time of 5 min was used.

11. Subcritical instability on the attachment-line of an infinite swept wing

Sengupta, T. K.; Dipankar, A.

2005-04-01

The leading-edge contamination (LEC) problem of an infinite swept wing is shown here as vortex-induced instability. The governing equation for receptivity is presented for LEC in terms of disturbance energy based on the Navier-Stokes equation. The unperturbed shear layer given by the swept Hiemenz boundary-layer solution is two-dimensional and an exact solution of incompressible the Navier-Stokes equation. Thus, the LEC problem is solved numerically by solving the full two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation. The contamination at the attachment-line is shown by solving a receptivity to a convecting vortex moving outside the attachment-line boundary layer, which triggers subcritical spatio-temporal instability.

12. Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis

DOE PAGES

Sales, Emerson A.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Jorquera, Orlando

2016-08-23

Ethylic transesterification process for biodiesel production without any chemical or biochemical catalysts at different subcritical thermodynamic conditions was performed using wet animal fat, soybean and palm oils as feedstock. The results indicate that 2 h of reaction at 240 °C with pressures varying from 20 to 45 bar was sufficient to transform almost all lipid fraction of the samples to biodiesel, depending on the reactor dead volume and proportions between reactants. Conversions of 100%, 84% and 98.5% were obtained for animal fat, soybean oil and palm oil, respectively, in the presence of water, with a net energy ration values ofmore » 2.6, 2.1 and 2.5 respectively. Finally, these results indicate that the process is energetically favorable, and thus represents a cleaner technology with environmental advantages when compared to traditional esterification or transesterification processes.« less

13. Improved design of subcritical and supercritical cascades using complex characteristics and boundary layer correction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sanz, J. M.

1983-01-01

The method of complex characteristics and hodograph transformation for the design of shockless airfoils was extended to design supercritical cascades with high solidities and large inlet angles. This capability was achieved by introducing a conformal mapping of the hodograph domain onto an ellipse and expanding the solution in terms of Tchebycheff polynomials. A computer code was developd based on this idea. A number of airfoils designed with the code are presented. Various supercritical and subcritical compressor, turbine and propeller sections are shown. The lag-entrainment method for the calculation of a turbulent boundary layer was incorporated to the inviscid design code. The results of this calculation are shown for the airfoils described. The elliptic conformal transformation developed to map the hodograph domain onto an ellipse can be used to generate a conformal grid in the physical domain of a cascade of airfoils with open trailing edges with a single transformation. A grid generated with this transformation is shown for the Korn airfoil.

14. Subcritical Growth of Electron Phase-space Holes in Planetary Radiation Belts

Osmane, Adnane; Turner, Drew L.; Wilson, Lynn B.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

2017-09-01

The discovery of long-lived electrostatic coherent structures with large-amplitude electric fields (1≤slant E ≤slant 500 mV/m) by the Van Allen Probes has revealed alternative routes through which planetary radiation belts’ acceleration can take place. Following previous reports showing that small phase-space holes, with qφ /{T}ec≃ {10}-2{--}{10}-3, could result from electron interaction with large-amplitude whistlers, we demonstrate one possible mechanism through which holes can grow nonlinearly (i.e., γ \\propto \\sqrt{φ }) and subcritically as a result of momentum exchange between hot and cold electron populations. Our results provide an explanation for the common occurrence and fast growth of large-amplitude electron phase-space holes in the Earth’s radiation belts.

15. Nonlinear elastic behavior of sub-critically damaged body armor panel

Fisher, Jason T.; Chimenti, D. E.

2012-05-01

A simple go/no-go test for body armor panels using pressure-sensitive, dye-indicator film (PSF) has been shown to be statistically effective in revealing subcritical damage to body armor panels. Previous measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Further impact tests on armor worn by a human resuscitation dummy using instrumented masses with an attached accelerometer and embedded force transducer have been performed and analyzed. New impact tests have shown a reliable correlation between PSF indication (as digitized images) and impact force for a wide range of impactor energies and masses. Numerical evaluation of digital PSF images is presented and correlated with impact parameters. Relationships between impactor mass and energy, and corresponding measured force are shown. We will also report on comparisons between ballistic testing performed on panels damaged under various impact conditions and tests performed on undamaged panels.

16. Experimental study of subcritical laboratory magnetized collisionless shocks using a laser-driven magnetic piston

SciTech Connect

Schaeffer, D. B. Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.

2015-11-15

Recent experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles have successfully generated subcritical magnetized collisionless shocks, allowing new laboratory studies of shock formation relevant to space shocks. The characteristics of these shocks are compared with new data in which no shock or a pre-shock formed. The results are consistent with theory and 2D hybrid simulations and indicate that the observed shock or shock-like structures can be organized into distinct regimes by coupling strength. With additional experiments on the early time parameters of the laser plasma utilizing Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, and fast-gate filtered imaging, these regimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical shock formation criteria.

17. Utilization of /sup 252/Cf-/sup 235/U fueled subcritical multiplier for neutron activation analysis

SciTech Connect

Wogman, N.A.; Lepel, E.A.

1983-10-05

Neutron activation analysis is normally performed at thermal fluxes of 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2//s irradiating samples of a few milligrams. When a ten thousand-fold larger sample is available, neutron activation can be performed at proportionately lower fluxes. Thus, a 10 g sample irradiated at 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//s contains as much activity as a 1 mg sample irradiated at 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2//s. This paper describes the utilization of a subcritical multiplier operating at about 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//s for the activation of a broad range of sample types and elemental concentrations.

18. Experimental study of subcritical laboratory magnetized collisionless shocks using a laser-driven magnetic piston

Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Winske, D.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.

2015-11-01

Recent experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles have successfully generated subcritical magnetized collisionless shocks, allowing new laboratory studies of shock formation relevant to space shocks. The characteristics of these shocks are compared with new data in which no shock or a pre-shock formed. The results are consistent with theory and 2D hybrid simulations and indicate that the observed shock or shock-like structures can be organized into distinct regimes by coupling strength. With additional experiments on the early time parameters of the laser plasma utilizing Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, and fast-gate filtered imaging, these regimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical shock formation criteria.

19. Temperature effects on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol in subcritical water extraction

Ilia Anisa, Nor; Azian, Noor; Sharizan, Mohd; Iwai, Yoshio

2014-04-01

6-gingerol and 6-shogaol are the main constituents as anti-inflammatory or bioactive compounds from zingiber officinale Roscoe. These bioactive compounds have been proven for inflammatory disease, antioxidatives and anticancer. The effect of temperature on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were studied in subcritical water extraction. The diffusion coefficient was determined by Fick's second law. By neglecting external mass transfer and solid particle in spherical form, a linear portion of Ln (1-(Ct/Co)) versus time was plotted in determining the diffusion coefficient. 6-gingerol obtained the higher yield at 130°C with diffusion coefficient of 8.582x10-11 m2/s whilst for 6-shogaol, the higher yield and diffusion coefficient at 170°C and 19.417 × 10-11 m2/s.

20. Impact of bleaching on subcritical water- and Formosolv-pretreated tulip tree to enhance enzyme accessibility.

PubMed

Myint, Aye Aye; Kim, Dae Sung; Lee, Hun Wook; Yoon, Junho; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Joon Weon; Lee, Youn-Woo

2013-10-01

A novel method was developed for fractionating cellulose microfibrils from forest residue (tulip tree sawdust) to enhance cellulose digestibility, particularly at minimum enzyme loadings. This method involved three main stages: selective hemicellulose solubilization by subcritical water (SCW) pretreatment, delignification of the SCW-pretreated solids using the Formosolv process, and deformylation/bleaching of the cellulose pulp with alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. This process produced nearly 98% white cellulose microfibrils with 23-fold higher conversion to glucose as compared to the raw substrate after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. This study showed that cellulose swelling had the greatest effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of delignified pulp obtained by the Formosolv process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Subcritical Crack Growth in Ceramic Composites at High Temperature Measured Using Digital Image Correlation

SciTech Connect

Mumm, D.R.; Morris, W.L.; Dadkhah, M.S.; Cox, B.N.

1996-01-11

An in situ experimental technique is described that allows high resolution, high sensitivity determination of displacements and full-field strains during high temperature mechanical testing. The technique is used to investigate elevated temperature crack growth in SiC/Nicalon sub f composites. At 1150 degrees C, the reinforcing fibers have a higher creep susceptibility than the matrix. Fiber creep leads to relaxation of crack bridging tractions, resulting in subcritical crack growth. Differential image analysis is used to measure the crack opening displacement profile u(x) of an advancing, bridged crack. With appropriate modeling, such data can be used to determine the traction law, from which the mechanics of cracking and failure may be determined.

2. Surface Plasmon States in Inhomogeneous Media at Critical and Subcritical Metal Concentrations

DOE PAGES

Seal, Katyayani; Genov, Dentcho A.

2012-01-01

Semicontinuous metal-dielectric films are composed of a wide range of metal clusters of various geometries—sizes as well as structures. This ensures that at any given wavelength of incident radiation, clusters exist in the film that will respond resonantly, akin to resonating nanoantennas, resulting in the broad optical response (absorption) that is a characteristic of semicontinuous films. The physics of the surface plasmon states that are supported by such systems is complex and can involve both localized and propagating plasmons. This chapter describes near-field experimental and numerical studies of the surface plasmon states in semicontinuous films at critical and subcritical metalmore » concentrations and evaluates the local field intensity statistics to discuss the interplay between various eigenmodes.« less

3. Subcritical measurements with a cylindrical tank of Pu-U nitrate

SciTech Connect

Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; King, W.T.

1997-04-01

This series of measurements with a mixed Pu-U nitrate solution (280 g Pu/liter, 180 g U/liter) in a 35.54-cm-diam cylindrical tank provides a wide variety of experimental data for subcritical configurations that can be used to verify calculational methods and nuclear data. The Pu contained 7.85 wt% {sup 240}Pu and the uranium was natural uranium. The measurements performed were: inverse count rate, prompt neutron decay constants, inverse kinetics, and frequency analysis by the {sup 252}Cf source driven method. These data are presented in sufficient detail that the results of the experiments can be calculated directly. For purposes of extrapolating to the delayed critical height the ratio of spectral densities was linear with height and thus provided the best estimate of critical height.

4. A Subcritical, Gas-Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor with a Fusion Neutron Source

SciTech Connect

Stacey, W.M.; Beavers, V.L.; Casino, W.A.; Cheatham, J.R.; Friis, Z.W.; Green, R.D.; Hamilton, W.R.; Haufler, K.W.; Hutchinson, J.D.; Lackey, W.J.; Lorio, R.A.; Maddox, J.W.; Mandrekas, J.; Manzoor, A.A.; Noelke, C.A.; Oliveira, C. de; Park, M.; Tedder, D.W.; Terry, M.R.; Hoffman, E.A.

2005-05-15

A design is presented for a subcritical, He-cooled fast reactor, driven by a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The reactor is fueled with coated transuranic (TRU) particles and is intended for the deep-burn (>90%) transmutation of the TRUs in SNF without reprocessing of the coated fuel particles. The reactor design is based on the materials, fuel, and separations technologies under near-term development in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Program and on the plasma physics and fusion technologies under near-term development in the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program, with the objective of intermediate-term ({approx}2040) deployment. The physical and performance characteristics and research and development requirements of such a reactor are described.

5. A review on green trend for oil extraction using subcritical water technology and biodiesel production.

PubMed

Abdelmoez, Weal; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M

2015-01-01

It became a global agenda to develop clean alternative fuels which were domestically available, environmentally acceptable and technically feasible. Thus, biodiesel was destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. Utilization of the non edible vegetable oils as raw materials for biodiesel production had been handled frequently for the past few years. The oil content of these seeds could be extracted by different oil extraction methods, such as mechanical extraction, solvent extraction and by subcritical water extraction technology SWT. Among them, SWT represents a new promising green extraction method. Therefore this review covered the current used non edible oil seeds for biodiesel production as well as giving a sharp focus on the efficiency of using the SWT as a promising extraction method. In addition the advantages and the disadvantages of the different biodiesel production techniques would be covered.

6. Use of the subcritical-plasticity effect in manufacturing preforms for cutting tools

Malakhov, V. V.; Buyanskaya, T. A.; Yartsev, A. N.; Matveev, S. V.; Andreev, V. V.

1996-10-01

Increasing the efficiency of utilization of expensive high-speed steels is an important problem of modern production. It is solved by VAZ specialists by introducing low-waste technological processes in manufacturing tool preforms. At present, side milling cutters and edging saws are blanked out from square preforms of rolled sheets. Up to 40% of the sheet goes to waste in blanking. Gear cutters and shavers are commonly produced from forged preforms with a considerable (up to 15 mm for each dimension) size allowance for mechanical treatment. It should also be noted that the microstructure of the forgings often contains coarse grains and grains of different sizes. The aim of the present work consists in determining the possibility of using deformation at a subcritical temperature in industrial-scale production of tools (side milling cutters, edging saws, gear cutters, shavers).

7. Superconducting Accelerating Structure for High-Current Cyclotrons for Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fission

Pogue, Nathaniel; McIntyre, Peter; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

2011-10-01

An accelerator driven molten salt fission core is being designed to provide reliable power by subcritical nuclear fission for the next few millennia. Fission is driven by proton beams from a flux-coupled stack of three high-current cyclotrons. A key innovation in attaining the needed beam current and efficiency is a superconducting Niobium rf accelerating cavity that can accelerate bunches in the 200 orbits uniformly. The unique design allows for several cavities to be stacked, and also provides uniform acceleration and eliminates higher order modes in the cyclotron. The design and properties of the superconducting cavity will increase the efficiency of the cyclotron and the overall energy amplification from the molten salt core by an order of magnitude compared to conventional designs.

8. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Observations During Subcritical Heat Treatments of a High-Chromium Cast Iron

Karantzalis, A. E.; Lekatou, A.; Kapoglou, A.; Mavros, H.; Dracopoulos, V.

2012-06-01

In this study, Cr white iron of 18.23 wt.% was subjected to a series of subcritical heat treatments. At both temperatures of 350 and 450 °C, no precipitation of secondary carbides was observed, and the overall microstructure resembles to that of the as-cast condition. At 550 °C, hardness values increased slightly compared to the as-cast values. No evidence of secondary carbide formation was observed. At 650 and 750 °C, extensive-to-complete transformation to pearlite-ferrite structures has occurred. Some evidence of secondary carbide precipitation especially for prolonged treatment periods was not adequate to obstruct the hardness decrease due to the dominating effect of pearlitic-ferritic formation. At 850 °C, secondary carbide precipitation and martensite formation lead to high hardness values.

9. Out-of-equilibrium stationary states, percolation, and subcritical instabilities in a fully nonconservative system

Génois, Mathieu; Hersen, Pascal; Bertin, Eric; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Grégoire, Guillaume

2016-10-01

The exploration of the phase diagram of a minimal model for barchan fields leads to the description of three distinct phases for the system: stationary, percolable, and unstable. In the stationary phase the system always reaches an out-of-equilibrium, fluctuating, stationary state, independent of its initial conditions. This state has a large and continuous range of dynamics, from dilute—where dunes do not interact—to dense, where the system exhibits both spatial structuring and collective behavior leading to the selection of a particular size for the dunes. In the percolable phase, the system presents a percolation threshold when the initial density increases. This percolation is unusual, as it happens on a continuous space for moving, interacting, finite lifetime dunes. For extreme parameters, the system exhibits a subcritical instability, where some of the dunes in the field grow without bound. We discuss the nature of the asymptotic states and their relations to well-known models of statistical physics.

10. Out-of-equilibrium stationary states, percolation, and subcritical instabilities in a fully nonconservative system.

PubMed

Génois, Mathieu; Hersen, Pascal; Bertin, Eric; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Grégoire, Guillaume

2016-10-01

The exploration of the phase diagram of a minimal model for barchan fields leads to the description of three distinct phases for the system: stationary, percolable, and unstable. In the stationary phase the system always reaches an out-of-equilibrium, fluctuating, stationary state, independent of its initial conditions. This state has a large and continuous range of dynamics, from dilute-where dunes do not interact-to dense, where the system exhibits both spatial structuring and collective behavior leading to the selection of a particular size for the dunes. In the percolable phase, the system presents a percolation threshold when the initial density increases. This percolation is unusual, as it happens on a continuous space for moving, interacting, finite lifetime dunes. For extreme parameters, the system exhibits a subcritical instability, where some of the dunes in the field grow without bound. We discuss the nature of the asymptotic states and their relations to well-known models of statistical physics.

11. Subcritical crack growth and other time- and environment-dependent behavior in crustal rocks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Swanson, P. L.

1984-01-01

Stable crack growth strongly influences both the fracture strength of brittle rocks and some of the phenomena precursory to catastrophic failure. Quantification of the time and environment dependence of fracture propagation is attempted with the use of a fracture mechanics technique. Some of the difficulties encountered when applying techniques originally developed for simple synthetic materials to complex materials like rocks are examined. A picture of subcritical fracture propagation is developed that embraces the essential ingredients of the microstructure, a microcrack process zone, and the different roles that the environment plays. To do this, the results of (1) fracture mechanics experiments on five rock types, (2) optical and scanning electron microscopy, (3) studies of microstructural aspects of fracture in ceramics, and (4) exploratory tests examining the time-dependent response of rock to the application of water are examined.

12. Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis

SciTech Connect

Sales, Emerson A.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Jorquera, Orlando

2016-08-23

Ethylic transesterification process for biodiesel production without any chemical or biochemical catalysts at different subcritical thermodynamic conditions was performed using wet animal fat, soybean and palm oils as feedstock. The results indicate that 2 h of reaction at 240 °C with pressures varying from 20 to 45 bar was sufficient to transform almost all lipid fraction of the samples to biodiesel, depending on the reactor dead volume and proportions between reactants. Conversions of 100%, 84% and 98.5% were obtained for animal fat, soybean oil and palm oil, respectively, in the presence of water, with a net energy ration values of 2.6, 2.1 and 2.5 respectively. Finally, these results indicate that the process is energetically favorable, and thus represents a cleaner technology with environmental advantages when compared to traditional esterification or transesterification processes.

13. The mechanism of lipids extraction from wet microalgae Scenedesmus sp. by ionic liquid assisted subcritical water

Yu, Zhuanni; Chen, Xiaolin; Xia, Shuwei

2016-06-01

In this paper, the total sugar concentration, protein concentration, lipid yield and morphology characteristics of the algae residue were determined to explain the mechanism of lipids extraction from wet microalgae Scenedesmus sp. by ionic liquid assisted subcritical water. The results showed similar variation for the sugar, protein and lipid. However, the total sugar was more similar to lipids yield, so the results showed that the reaction between ionic liquid and cellulose and hemicellulose in cell wall was the most important step which determined the lipids extration directly. And the total sugar variation may be representing the lipids yield. For later lipids extraction, we can determine the total sugar concentration to predict the extraction end product.

14. Analysis of non-saponifiable lipids by super-/subcritical-fluid chromatography.

PubMed

Lesellier, E

2001-11-30

Because of the particular properties of carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide/modifier mobile phases, super- or subcritical-fluid chromatography (SFC) can be an alternative to more classical chromatographic methods such as gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the separation of unsaponifiable lipids. These fluids can also be helpful in the extraction and/or the concentration steps of sterols, tocopherols or carotenoids from complex samples. Supercritical extraction, off-line prefractionation or semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography, carried out before the analysis are described. The effects on separation of analytical parameters such as pressure, nature of and modifier percentage or stationary phase nature are also reported. The performance of capillary, packed or capillary packed columns is discussed, as well as the consequences of their use (choice of stationary phases, type of coupled detector). Numerous examples of fine separations are reported.

15. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

O'Kelly, David Sean

Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

16. Association between CYP1A1 Ile462Val Variation and Acute Leukemia Risk: Meta-Analyses Including 2164 Cases and 4160 Controls

PubMed Central

Zhuo, Wenlei; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Qiu, Zhiqun; Chen, Zhengtang

2012-01-01

Background Previously, CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism has been indicated to be a risk factor for several malignancies. Increasing reports have focused on the association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphisms with susceptibility to acute leukemia and have generated controversial results. The goal of the present study was to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. Methods Relevant literature has been rigorously searched and screened. Eligible studies were identified for the period up to Apr 2012. Meta-analyses evaluating the association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val variation with acute leukemia were carried out. Subgroup analyses on ethnicity, clinical types and source of controls were further performed. Results A total of thirteen publications including fourteen case-control studies with 2164 cases and 4160 controls were selected for analysis. The overall data indicated a significant association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism with acute leukemia risk (Val/Val vs Ile/Ile OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.11–1.98; dominant model: OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.05–1.51; recessive model: OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.04–1.83). In subgroup analysis on ethnicity, increased risk was shown among mixed ethnicities (Val/Val vs Ile/Ile: OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.46–3.82; dominant model: OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.01–1.86; recessive model: OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.37–3.53) but not Asians or Caucasians. In subgroup analysis on clinical types, increased risk was observed in the acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) subgroup (Val/Val vs Ile/Ile: OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.42–3.01; recessive model: OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.32–2.76) but not in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subgroup. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism might be a low-penetrant risk factor for acute leukemia. Subgroup analyses suggest that homozygous Val/Val alleles might modify the susceptibility to ALL. PMID:23056546

17. Circulating Folate and Vitamin B12 and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Collaborative Analysis of Individual Participant Data from Six Cohorts Including 6875 Cases and 8104 Controls.

PubMed

Price, Alison J; Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Albanes, Demetrius; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Bjørge, Tone; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Chen, Chu; Donovan, Jenny; Gislefoss, Randi; Goodman, Gary; Gunter, Marc; Hamdy, Freddie C; Johansson, Mattias; King, Irena B; Kühn, Tilman; Männistö, Satu; Martin, Richard M; Meyer, Klaus; Neal, David E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Nygård, Ottar; Stattin, Par; Tell, Grethe S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tumino, Rosario; Ueland, Per Magne; Ulvik, Arve; de Vogel, Stefan; Vollset, Stein Emil; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E

2016-12-01

18. Diethylstilbestrol in fish tissue determined through subcritical fluid extraction and with GC-MS

Qiao, Qinghui; Shi, Nianrong; Feng, Xiaomei; Lu, Jie; Han, Yuqian; Xue, Changhu

2016-06-01

As the key point in sex hormone analysis, sample pre-treatment technology has attracted scientists' attention all over the world, and the development trend of sample preparation forwarded to faster and more efficient technologies. Taking economic and environmental concerns into account, subcritical fluid extraction as a faster and more efficient method has stood out as a sample pre-treatment technology. This new extraction technology can overcome the shortcomings of supercritical fluid and achieve higher extraction efficiency at relatively low pressures and temperatures. In this experiment, a simple, sensitive and efficient method has been developed for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fish tissue using subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) extraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After extraction, freezing-lipid filtration was utilized to remove fatty co-extract. Further purification steps were performed with C18 and NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE). Finally, the analyte was derived by heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), followed by GC-MS analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimizing the extraction condition, and the optimized was as follows: extraction pressure, 4.3 MPa; extraction temperature, 26°C; amount of co-solvent volume, 4.7 mL. Under this condition, at a spiked level of 1, 5, 10 μg kg-1, the mean recovery of DES was more than 90% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Finally, the developed method has been successfully used to analyzing the real samples.

19. Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state

PubMed Central

Priesemann, Viola; Wibral, Michael; Valderrama, Mario; Pröpper, Robert; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Geisel, Theo; Triesch, Jochen; Nikolić, Danko; Munk, Matthias H. J.

2014-01-01

In self-organized critical (SOC) systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore, we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1) subsampling, (2) increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition), and (3) making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes), and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size. Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy. PMID:25009473

20. Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state.

PubMed

Priesemann, Viola; Wibral, Michael; Valderrama, Mario; Pröpper, Robert; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Geisel, Theo; Triesch, Jochen; Nikolić, Danko; Munk, Matthias H J

2014-01-01

In self-organized critical (SOC) systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore, we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1) subsampling, (2) increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition), and (3) making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes), and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size. Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy.

1. Nonlinear transverse cascade and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic subcritical turbulence in plane shear flows.

PubMed

Mamatsashvili, G R; Gogichaishvili, D Z; Chagelishvili, G D; Horton, W

2014-04-01

We find and investigate via numerical simulations self-sustained two-dimensional turbulence in a magnetohydrodynamic flow with a maximally simple configuration: plane, noninflectional (with a constant shear of velocity), and threaded by a parallel uniform background magnetic field. This flow is spectrally stable, so the turbulence is subcritical by nature and hence it can be energetically supported just by a transient growth mechanism due to shear flow non-normality. This mechanism appears to be essentially anisotropic in the spectral (wave-number) plane and operates mainly for spatial Fourier harmonics with streamwise wave numbers less than the ratio of flow shear to Alfvén speed, kysubcritical turbulence. The essence of the analyzed nonlinear MHD processes appears to be a transverse redistribution of kinetic and magnetic spectral energies in the wave-number plane [as occurs in the related hydrodynamic flow; see Horton et al., Phys. Rev. E 81, 066304 (2010)] and differs fundamentally from the existing concepts of (anisotropic direct and inverse) cascade processes in MHD shear flows.

2. Nonlinear transverse cascade and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic subcritical turbulence in plane shear flows

Mamatsashvili, G. R.; Gogichaishvili, D. Z.; Chagelishvili, G. D.; Horton, W.

2014-04-01

We find and investigate via numerical simulations self-sustained two-dimensional turbulence in a magnetohydrodynamic flow with a maximally simple configuration: plane, noninflectional (with a constant shear of velocity), and threaded by a parallel uniform background magnetic field. This flow is spectrally stable, so the turbulence is subcritical by nature and hence it can be energetically supported just by a transient growth mechanism due to shear flow non-normality. This mechanism appears to be essentially anisotropic in the spectral (wave-number) plane and operates mainly for spatial Fourier harmonics with streamwise wave numbers less than the ratio of flow shear to Alfvén speed, kysubcritical turbulence. The essence of the analyzed nonlinear MHD processes appears to be a transverse redistribution of kinetic and magnetic spectral energies in the wave-number plane [as occurs in the related hydrodynamic flow; see Horton et al., Phys. Rev. E 81, 066304 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.066304] and differs fundamentally from the existing concepts of (anisotropic direct and inverse) cascade processes in MHD shear flows.

3. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA- booster subcritical assembly Part II : pulsed neutron source.

SciTech Connect

Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Rabiti, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-10-22

One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology for characterizing the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly using the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the analytical and experimental time dependent reaction rates and the reactivity measurements. In this methodology, the reaction rate, detector response, is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the fission delayed neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The new calculation methodology has shown an excellent agreement with the experimental results available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. The facility has been driven by a Deuterium-Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium pulsed neutron source and the (n,p) reaction rate has been experimentally measured by a {sup 3}He detector. The MCNP calculation has utilized the weight window and delayed neutron biasing variance reduction techniques since the detector volume is small compared to the assembly volume. Finally, this methodology was used to calculate the IAEA benchmark of the YALINA-Booster experiment.

4. Effects of Pb and Bi cross sections on ATW subcriticality predictions.

SciTech Connect

Khalil, H. S.; Yang, W. S.

1999-06-25

The accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) system has been proposed for transmuting the long-lived radioactive nuclei of high-level waste to stable or short-lived species. In recent ATW design concepts, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), consisting of 44.5% Pb and 55.5% Bi by weight is used as the spallation target, system coolant, and reflector. Because of the excellent neutron reflection properties of LBE, the subcriticality level of ATW is quite sensitive to the cross sections of lead and bismuth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of these cross sections on subcriticality and other core characteristics of ATW and to compare the results obtained using cross sections in different evaluated nuclear data files. The effects of lead and bismuth cross sections on the core characteristics of ATW were studied using 33 group cross section sets derived from the ENDF/B-VI, ENDF/B-V, JENDL-3.2, and BROND-2.2 nuclear data. A 2000 MW(thermal) ATW configuration similar to that described in Reference 1 was used in this study. In this configuration, the spallation target region is 55 cm high and 25 cm in radius, and is surrounded by a 15-cm thick LBE buffer. The adjacent fueled region is {approximately}65 cm thick and 200 cm high. The volume fractions of fuel, coolant, and structure are 25.7%, 59.3%, and 15%, respectively. The metal alloy fuel is composed of roughly 70% zirconium, 25% transuranics (TRU), and 5% Tc-99 by weight. A thick LBE reflector surrounds the whole core; its axial thickness is 250 cm, and its radial thickness is 295.2 cm.

5. The GUINEVERE experiment: First PNS measurements in a lead moderated sub-critical fast core

SciTech Connect

Thyebault, H. E.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Lecolley, F. R.; Lecouey, J. L.; Lehaut, G.; Marie, N.; Ban, G.

2012-07-01

The GUINEVERE (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) experimental program is dedicated to the study of Accelerator Driven System reactivity monitoring. It was partly carried out within the EUROTRANS integrated project (EURATOM FP6). GUINEVERE consists in coupling the fast core of the VENUS-F reactor (SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)), composed of enriched uranium and solid lead, with a T(d,n) neutron source provided by the GENEPI-3C deuteron accelerator. This neutron source can be operated in several modes: pulsed mode, continuous mode and also continuous mode with short beam interruptions (the so called 'beam trips'). In the past, the key questions of the reactivity control and monitoring in a subcritical system were studied in the MUSE experiments (1998-2004). These experiments highlighted the difficulty to determine precisely the reactivity with a single technique. This led to investigate a new strategy which is based on the combination of the relative reactivity monitoring via the core power to beam current relationship with absolute reactivity cross-checks during programmed beam interruptions. Consequently, to determine the reactivity, several dynamical techniques of reactivity determination have to be compared. In addition, their accuracy for absolute reactivity determination must be evaluated using a reference reactivity determination technique (from a critical state: rod drop and MSM measurements). The first sub-critical configuration which was studied was around k{sub eff} = 0.96 (SCI). Pulsed Neutron Source experiments (PNS) were carried out. The neutron population decrease was measured using fission chambers in different locations inside the core and the reflector. Neutron population time decrease was analyzed using fitting techniques and the Area Method Results obtained for the SCI reactivity will be shown, discussed and compared to the reference value given by the MSM method. (authors)

6. TNT and RDX degradation and extraction from contaminated soil using subcritical water.

PubMed

Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Shin, Moon-Su; Jo, Young-Tae; Park, Jeong-Hun

2015-01-01

The use of explosives either for industrial or military operations have resulted in the environmental pollution, poses ecological and health hazard. In this work, a subcritical water extraction (SCWE) process at laboratory scale was used at varying water temperature (100-175 °C) and flow rate (0.5-1.5 mL min(-1)), to treat 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil, to reveal information with respect to the explosives removal (based on the analyses of soil residue after extraction), and degradation performance (based on the analyses of water extracts) of this process. Continuous flow subcritical water has been considered on removal of explosives to avoid the repartitioning of non-degraded compounds to the soil upon cooling which usually occurs in the batch system. In the SCWE experiments, near complete degradation of both TNT and RDX was observed at 175 °C based on analysis of water extracts and soil. Test results also indicated that TNT removal of >99% and a complete RDX removal were achieved by this process, when the operating conditions were 1 mL min(-1), and treatment time of 20 min, after the temperature reached 175 °C. HPLC-UV and ion chromatography analysis confirmed that the explosives underwent for degradation. The low concentration of explosives found in the process wastewater indicates that water recycling may be viable, to treat additional soil. Our results have shown in the remediation of explosives contaminated soil, the effectiveness of the continuous flow SCWE process.

7. Aphasia due to lesions confined to the right hemisphere in right handed patients: a review of the literature including the Italian cases.

PubMed

Faglia, L; Rottoli, M R; Vignolo, L A

1990-04-01

We review most of the work published, to our knowledge, between 1880 and 1988 on aphasia due to right cerebral lesions in right-handed patients ("crossed aphasia"). We summarize the 87 cases found in chronological order within defined groups, dealing in greater detail with the less well-known cases in English-language publications and with the cases from other sources that we consider most representative and convincing. The 87 cases fall into three groups on the following criteria: right-handedness (on standardized tests), absence of left-handers in the family, left hemisphere integrity. Group 1 comprises cases that are unreliable because the handedness data are missing and/or because left hemisphere lesions were known to be present or probably were so. Group 2 comprises cases with full clinical data but no formal test of handedness, with familial cases of left-handedness and/or without satisfactory evidence of left hemisphere integrity. Groups 3 comprises the 26 reliable cases, that is those with proven right-handedness, no left-handers in the family and with proven hemisphere integrity. We discuss the implications of these cases.

8. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

PubMed

Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

2016-01-01

Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

9. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea

PubMed Central

Smart, Jonathan J.; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; White, William T.

2016-01-01

Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species’ life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were  L¯∞ = 159 cm TL and  L¯0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more

10. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

SciTech Connect

SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

2006-05-12

With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can supply useful

11. Exploring How Weathering Related Stresses and Subcritical Crack Growth May Influence the Size of Sediment Produced From Different Rock Types.

Eppes, M. C.; Hallet, B.; Hancock, G. S.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Keanini, R.

2016-12-01

The formation and diminution of rock debris, sediment and soil at and near Earth's surface is driven in large part by in situ, non-transport related, rock cracking. Given the relatively low magnitude stresses that arise in surface and near-surface settings, this production and diminution of granular material is likely strongly influenced and/or driven by subcritical crack growth (Eppes et al., 2016), cracking that occurs under stress loading conditions much lower than a rock's strength as typically measured in the laboratory under rapid loading. Despite a relatively sound understanding of subcritical crack growth through engineering and geophysical studies, its geomorphic and sedimentologic implications have only been minimally explored. Here, based on existing studies, we formulate several hypotheses to predict how weathering-induced stresses combined with the subcritical crack growth properties of rock may influence sediment size distribution. For example, subcritical crack growth velocity (v) can be described by v = CKIn where KI is the mode I (simple opening mode) stress intensity factor, a function of tensile stress at the crack tip and crack length; C is a rock- and environment-dependent constant; and n is material constant, the subcritical crack growth index. Fracture length and spacing in rock is strongly dependent on n, where higher n values result in fewer, more distally spaced cracks (e.g. Olsen, 1993). Thus, coarser sediment might be expected from rocks with higher n values. Weathering-related stresses such as thermal stresses and mineral hydration, however, can disproportionally stress boundaries between minerals with contrasting thermal or chemical properties and orientation, resulting in granular disintegration. Thus, rocks with properties favorable to inducing these stresses might produce sediment whose size is reflective of its constituent grains. We begin to test these hypotheses through a detailed examination of crack and rock characteristics in

12. The Effect of Subcritical Bone Loss and Exposure on Recurrent Instability After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair in Intercollegiate American Football.

PubMed

Dickens, Jonathan F; Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Masini, Brendan D; Peck, Karen Y; Svoboda, Steven J

2017-07-01

There is no consensus on the optimal method of stabilization (arthroscopic or open) in collision athletes with anterior shoulder instability. To examine the effect of "subcritical" bone loss and football-specific exposure on the rate of recurrent shoulder instability after arthroscopic stabilization in an intercollegiate American football population. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty intercollegiate football players underwent primary arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability and returned to football for at least a single season. Preoperatively, 32 patients experienced recurrent subluxations, and 18 patients experienced a single or recurrent dislocation. Shoulders with glenoid bone loss >20%, an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, an off-track lesion, and concomitant rotator cuff repair were excluded from the study. The primary outcome of interest was the ability to return to football without subsequent instability. Patients were followed for time to a subsequent instability event after return to play using days of exposure to football and total follow-up time after arthroscopic stabilization. Fifty consecutive patients returned to American football for a mean 1.5 seasons (range, 1-3) after arthroscopic stabilization. Three of 50 (6%; 95% CI, 1.3%-16.5%) patients experienced recurrent instability. There were no subsequent instability events after a mean 3.2 years of military service. All shoulders with glenoid bone loss >13.5% (n = 3) that underwent arthroscopic stabilization experienced recurrent instability upon returning to sport, while none of the shoulders with <13.5% glenoid bone loss (n = 47) sustained a recurrent instability event during football ( X(2) = 15.80, P < .001). Shoulders with >13.5% glenoid bone loss had an incidence rate of 5.31 cases of recurrent instability per 1000 athlete-exposures of football. In 72,000 athlete-exposures to football with <13.5% glenoid bone loss, there was no recurrent instability. Significantly

13. Unusual histological findings after partial pancreaticoduodenectomy including benign multicystic mesothelioma, adenomyoma of the ampulla of Vater, and undifferentiated carcinoma, sarcomatoid variant: a case series

PubMed Central

2010-01-01

Introduction The standard operation for carcinoma of the pancreatic head is a partial pancreaticoduodenectomy. Unusual histological findings may occasionally occur in the surgical specimen. We present three unusual histologic diagnoses after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Case presentations In the first case, an 86-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. Preoperative evaluation showed a 3 cm cystic lesion in the head of the pancreas. Pathology revealed a benign multicystic mesothelioma. In the second case, a 45-year-old Caucasian man complained of nausea, vomiting and general malaise for several months. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic examination and a computed tomography scan showed a stenosis of the distal bile duct secondary to a mass in the head of the pancreas and duodenum. Histology showed an adenomyoma of the ampulla. In the third case, a 59-year-old Caucasian man presented with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. A computed tomography scan revealed a 3.5 cm lesion in the head of the pancreas with cystic and solid components. Pathology showed an undifferentiated carcinoma, sarcomatoid variant. Conclusion Partial pancreaticoduodenectomy is usually performed for ductal adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors or chronic pancreatitis. Compared to the majority of the above diagnoses, the three cases in our study are very rare. Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a very rare tumor that originates from the peritoneum. Although it demonstrates a benign clinical behaviour, it frequently recurs after resection. Adenomyoma of the bile duct or ampullary region is a very unusual, benign, localized lesion characterized by adenomyomatous hyperplasia. Undifferentiated carcinoma, sarcomatoid variant, is an aggressive tumor and is characterized by spindle cells. As the lesions were suspicious for carcinoma, partial pancreaticoduodenectomy was justified in all three patients. The histologic diagnosis after partial pancreaticoduodenectomy may

14. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall Defects Using a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap including the Vastus Lateralis Muscle: A Report of Two Cases

PubMed Central

Fujioka, Masaki; Ishiyama, Satoko

2016-01-01

The purpose of abdominal wall reconstruction is to prevent hernias and protect the abdominal viscera. In cases involving full-thickness defects of the rectus abdominis muscle, the muscle layer should be repaired. We present 2 cases in which full-thickness lower rectus abdominis muscle defects were reconstructed using vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flaps. The pedicled vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flap provides skin, fascia, and muscle tissue. Furthermore, it has a long neurovascular pedicle and can reach up to the periumbilical area and cover large defects. We consider that this muscle flap is a good option for repairing full-thickness lower abdominal defects. PMID:28074168

15. Long-Time Behavior and Critical Limit of Subcritical SQG Equations in Scale-Invariant Sobolev Spaces

Coti Zelati, Michele

2017-09-01

We consider the subcritical SQG equation in its natural scale-invariant Sobolev space and prove the existence of a global attractor of optimal regularity. The proof is based on a new energy estimate in Sobolev spaces to bootstrap the regularity to the optimal level, derived by means of nonlinear lower bounds on the fractional Laplacian. This estimate appears to be new in the literature and allows a sharp use of the subcritical nature of the L^∞ bounds for this problem. As a by-product, we obtain attractors for weak solutions as well. Moreover, we study the critical limit of the attractors and prove their stability and upper semicontinuity with respect to the strength of the diffusion.

16. Effects of subcritical crack growth on fracture toughness of ceramics assessed in chevron-notched three-point bend tests

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chao, L. Y.; Singh, D.; Shetty, D. K.

1988-01-01

A numerical computational study was carried out to assess the effects of subcritical crack growth on crack stability in the chevron-notched three-point bend specimens. A power-law relationship between the subcritical crack velocity and the applied stress intensity were used along with compliance and stress-intensity relationships for the chevron-notched bend specimen to calculate the load response under fixed deflection rate and a machine compliance. The results indicate that the maximum load during the test occurs at the same crack length for all the deflection rates; the maximum load, however, is dependent on the deflection rate for rates below the critical rate. The resulting dependence of the apparent fracture toughness on the deflection rate is compared to experimental results on soda-lime glass and polycrystalline alumina.

17. Effects of subcritical crack growth on fracture toughness of ceramics assessed in chevron-notched three-point bend tests

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chao, L. Y.; Singh, D.; Shetty, D. K.

1988-01-01

A numerical computational study was carried out to assess the effects of subcritical crack growth on crack stability in the chevron-notched three-point bend specimens. A power-law relationship between the subcritical crack velocity and the applied stress intensity were used along with compliance and stress-intensity relationships for the chevron-notched bend specimen to calculate the load response under fixed deflection rate and a machine compliance. The results indicate that the maximum load during the test occurs at the same crack length for all the deflection rates; the maximum load, however, is dependent on the deflection rate for rates below the critical rate. The resulting dependence of the apparent fracture toughness on the deflection rate is compared to experimental results on soda-lime glass and polycrystalline alumina.

18. Monte Carlo Modeling of Fast Sub-critical Assembly with MOX Fuel for Research of Accelerator-Driven Systems

Polanski, A.; Barashenkov, V.; Puzynin, I.; Rakhno, I.; Sissakian, A.

It is considered a sub-critical assembly driven with existing 660 MeV JINR proton accelerator. The assembly consists of a central cylindrical lead target surrounded with a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (PuO2 + UO2) and with reflector made of beryllium. Dependence of the energetic gain on the proton energy, the neutron multiplication coefficient, and the neutron energetic spectra have been calculated. It is shown that for subcritical assembly with a mixed-oxide (MOX) BN-600 fuel (28%PuO 2 + 72%UO2) with effective density of fuel material equal to 9 g/cm 3 , the multiplication coefficient keff is equal to 0.945, the energetic gain is equal to 27, and the neutron flux density is 1012 cm˜2 s˜x for the protons with energy of 660 MeV and accelerator beam current of 1 uA.

19. Apparent activation energy of subcritical crack growth of SiC/SiC composites at elevated temperatures

SciTech Connect

Chou, Y.S.; Stackpoole, M.M.; Bordia, R.

1995-04-01

The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental effect of oxygen-containing gases on the subcritical crack growth of continuous fiber (Nicalon {open_quotes}SiC{close_quotes}) reinforced ceramic matrix (SiC) composites at elevated temperatures. This is a continuing project and the primary goal for this time period is to obtain an apparent activation energy for SiC/SiC materials with two different interfaces: carbon and boron nitride coatings. In the past six months, the authors have conducted studies of subcritical crack growth on SiC/SiC composite materials in a corrosive (O{sub 2}) as well as an inert (Ar) atmosphere for temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100{degree}C.

20. Unusual histological findings after partial pancreaticoduodenectomy including benign multicystic mesothelioma, adenomyoma of the ampulla of Vater, and undifferentiated carcinoma, sarcomatoid variant: a case series.

PubMed

Lehwald, Nadja; Cupisti, Kenko; Baldus, Stephan E; Kröpil, Patric; Schulte Am Esch, Jan; Eisenberger, Claus F; Knoefel, Wolfram T

2010-12-10

The standard operation for carcinoma of the pancreatic head is a partial pancreaticoduodenectomy. Unusual histological findings may occasionally occur in the surgical specimen. We present three unusual histologic diagnoses after pancreaticoduodenectomy. In the first case, an 86-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. Preoperative evaluation showed a 3 cm cystic lesion in the head of the pancreas. Pathology revealed a benign multicystic mesothelioma. In the second case, a 45-year-old Caucasian man complained of nausea, vomiting and general malaise for several months. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic examination and a computed tomography scan showed a stenosis of the distal bile duct secondary to a mass in the head of the pancreas and duodenum. Histology showed an adenomyoma of the ampulla. In the third case, a 59-year-old Caucasian man presented with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. A computed tomography scan revealed a 3.5 cm lesion in the head of the pancreas with cystic and solid components. Pathology showed an undifferentiated carcinoma, sarcomatoid variant. Partial pancreaticoduodenectomy is usually performed for ductal adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors or chronic pancreatitis. Compared to the majority of the above diagnoses, the three cases in our study are very rare. Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a very rare tumor that originates from the peritoneum. Although it demonstrates a benign clinical behaviour, it frequently recurs after resection. Adenomyoma of the bile duct or ampullary region is a very unusual, benign, localized lesion characterized by adenomyomatous hyperplasia. Undifferentiated carcinoma, sarcomatoid variant, is an aggressive tumor and is characterized by spindle cells. As the lesions were suspicious for carcinoma, partial pancreaticoduodenectomy was justified in all three patients. The histologic diagnosis after partial pancreaticoduodenectomy may differ from the preoperative and

1. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

Nevinitsa, V. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.

2015-12-01

A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing 233U from 232Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

2. Stability of localized solutions in a subcritically unstable pattern-forming system under a global delayed control.

PubMed

Rubinstein, B Y; Nepomnyashchy, A A; Golovin, A A

2007-04-01

The formation of spatially localized patterns in a system with subcritical instability under feedback control with delay is investigated within the framework of globally controlled Ginzburg-Landau equation. It is shown that feedback control can stabilize spatially localized solutions. With the increase of delay, these solutions undergo oscillatory instability that, for large enough control strength, results in the formation of localized oscillating pulses. With further increase of the delay the solution blows up.

3. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

SciTech Connect

Nevinitsa, V. A. Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.

2015-12-15

A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing {sup 233}U from {sup 232}Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

4. Effective area of energy interactions between the plasma of a deeply subcritical microwave discharge and its initiating electromagnetic field

Aleksandrov, K. V.; Grachev, L. P.; Esakov, I. I.; Ravaev, A. A.; Severinov, L. G.

2017-05-01

Experiments on initiating electrical air discharge in an airtight radiotransparent volume have been described. The discharge is initiated by a quasi-optical linearly polarized microwave beam with a deeply subcritical field by means of an electromagnetic vibrator mounted above a screen. The results make it possible to calculate the effective area of energy interaction between the plasma of the discharge and its initiating microwave field. It has been shown that this area considerably exceeds the cross-sectional area of the discharge.

5. Criticality Expermints with Subcritical Clusters of 2.35 Wt% and 4.31 Wt% 2.35U Enriched UO2 Rods in Water at a Water-to-Fuel Volume Ratio of 1.6

SciTech Connect

SR Bierman; ED Clayton

1980-07-01

The fourth in a series of Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded criticality experiments have provided data for 2.35 wt% and 4.31 wt% {sup 235}U enriched U0{sub 2} rods at a water-to-fuel volume ratio of 1.6. The results from some 147 critical experiments are presented. They include for each enrichment: {sm_bullet}The critical size of single lattices or clusters of fuel {sm_bullet}The critical separation between sub-critical clusters of fuel {sm_bullet}The critical separation between sub-critical clusters of fuel having fixed neutron absorbers between the fuel clusters {sm_bullet}The isolation distance between fuel clusters {sm_bullet}The critical size of fuel clusters containing water holes and voids {sm_bullet}The critical size of fuel clusters separated by flux traps The fixed neutron absorbers for which data were obtained include 304-L steel, borated 304-L steel, copper, copper containing 1 wt% cadmium, cadmium, aluminium, zirconium and two trade name materials containing boron (Boral and Borofl ex).

6. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

SciTech Connect

Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

2012-03-15

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

7. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

PubMed

Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

2016-01-01

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

8. Extraction of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) Seed Oil Using Subcritical Butane: Characterization and Process Optimization.

PubMed

Gu, Ling-Biao; Liu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Hua-Min; Pang, Hui-Li; Qin, Guang-Yong

2017-02-02

In this study, the subcritical butane extraction process of fenugreek seed oil was optimized using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for extracted oil from fenugreek seed was as follows: extraction temperature of 43.24 °C , extraction time of 32.80 min, and particle size of 0.26 mm. No significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted values. The physical and chemical properties of the oil showed that the oil could be used as edible oil. Fatty acid composition of oils obtained by subcritical butane under the optimum conditions and by accelerated solvent extraction showed negligible difference. The oils were rich in linoleic acid (42.71%-42.80%), linolenic acid (26.03%-26.15%), and oleic acid (14.24%-14.40%). The results revealed that the proposed method was feasible, and this essay shows the way to exploit fenugreek seeds by subcritical butane extraction under the scope of edible oils.

9. Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disability in National Assessment: Comparison of Three Country Case Studies through an Inclusive Assessment Framework

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Douglas, Graeme; McLinden, Mike; Robertson, Christopher; Travers, Joseph; Smith, Emma

2016-01-01

The assessment of educational progress and outcomes of pupils is important to all concerned with education. This includes testing which is undertaken for accountability and award bearing purposes. This article examines how students with special educational needs and disability (SEND) are included in assessment. An "inclusive assessment"…

10. Subcritical crack propagation due to chemical rock weakening: macroscale chemo-plasticity and chemo-elasticity modeling

Hueckel, T.; Hu, M.

2015-12-01

Crack propagation in a subcritically stressed rock subject to chemically aggressive environment is analyzed and numerically simulated. Chemically induced weakening is often encountered in hydraulic fracturing of low-permeability oil/gas reservoirs and heat reservoirs, during storage of CO2 and nuclear waste corroding canisters, and other circumstances when rock matrix acidizing is involved. Upon acidizing, mineral mass dissolution is substantially enhanced weakening the rock and causing crack propagation and eventually permeability changes in the medium. The crack process zone is modeled mathematically via a chemo-plastic coupling and chemo-elastic coupling model. In plasticity a two-way coupling is postulated between mineral dissolution and a yield limit of rock matrix. The rate of dissolution is described by a rate law, but the mineral mass removal per unit volume is also a function of a variable internal specific surface area, which is in turn affected by the micro-cracking (treated as a plastic strain). The behavior of the rock matrix is modeled as rigid-plastic adding a chemical softening capacity to Cam-Clay model. Adopting the Extended Johnson's approximation of processes around the crack tip, the evolution of the stress field and deformation as a function of the chemically enhanced rock damage is modeled in a simplified way. In addition, chemical reactive transport is made dependent on plastic strain representing micro-cracking. Depending on mechanical and chemical boundary conditions, the area of enhanced chemical softening is near or somewhat away from the crack tip.In elasticity, chemo-mechanical effect is postulated via a chemical volumetric shrinkage strain proportional to mass removal variable, conceived analogously to thermal expansion. Two versions are considered: of constant coefficient of shrinkage and a variable one, coupled to deviatoric strain. Airy Potential approach used for linear elasticity is extended considering an extra term, which is

11. Multifocal metastatic chordoma to the soft tissues of the fingertips: a case report including sonographic features and a review of the literature.

PubMed

Smith, Zachary; Girard, Nicole; Hansford, Barry G

2017-10-07

Chordoma is a rare, locally aggressive tumor which commonly metastasizes, most often to the lung, liver, and spine. In this case report, a 59-year-old male with history of sacral chordoma and pulmonary metastases presented to the emergency department with swelling and discoloration of multiple left fingertips. The initial radiographs led to a presumptive diagnosis of gout, which did not respond to medical therapy. An ultrasound demonstrated multiple solid masses with vascular hyperechoic septations which were subsequently biopsied and proven to be metastatic chordoma. Metastatic disease to the hand is a well documented but rare manifestation of many malignancies. The clinical presentation and radiographic features of multifocal hand metastases may mimic entities such as systemic deposition and granulomatous diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of soft tissue chordoma metastases to the fingertips as well as the first reported sonographic description of chordoma metastases.

12. Pooled analysis of case-control studies on malignant brain tumours and the use of mobile and cordless phones including living and deceased subjects.

PubMed

Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

2011-05-01

We studied the association between use of mobile and cordless phones and malignant brain tumours. Pooled analysis was performed of two case-control studies on patients with malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 and matched controls alive at the time of study inclusion and one case-control study on deceased patients and controls diagnosed during the same time period. Cases and controls or relatives to deceased subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Replies were obtained for 1,251 (85%) cases and 2,438 (84%) controls. The risk increased with latency period and cumulative use in hours for both mobile and cordless phones. Highest risk was found for the most common type of glioma, astrocytoma, yielding in the >10 year latency group for mobile phone use odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9-3.7 and cordless phone use OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. In a separate analysis, these phone types were independent risk factors for glioma. The risk for astrocytoma was highest in the group with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20; mobile phone use OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11, cordless phone use OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.7-8.7. In conclusion, an increased risk was found for glioma and use of mobile or cordless phone. The risk increased with latency time and cumulative use in hours and was highest in subjects with first use before the age of 20.

13. Examining the Including and Excluding Roles of Positive Evidence: A Study of a Case Where L2/L1 Grammar Intersects.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inaba, Midori

1993-01-01

This study argues that positive second-language (L2) data do not necessarily rule out inappropriate L2 grammar. Rather, L2 learners appear to postulate first-language (L1) grammar as an interim theory about the L2, at least in the initial stages of L2 acquisition. The case where L2 grammar intersects L1 concerning time adverbial clauses was chosen…

14. ACTH-producing microadenoma of the pituitary in a young female infant with Cushing's disease: report of a case including immunocytologic and ultrastructural studies.

PubMed

Kim, M S; Wilson, G J; Holland, F J; Kovacs, K

1986-01-01

A female infant, younger than any other case in the literature, with ACTH-producing microadenoma of the pituitary is reported. She had full-blown symptoms and signs as well as laboratory evidence of Cushing's disease. The tumor was investigated by histology, immunocytology (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique), and electron microscopy. The possibility that the tumor was derived from the fetal intermediate lobe is discussed.

15. Sub-critical crack growth in silicate glasses: Role of network topology

Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Bauchy, Mathieu

2015-10-01

The presence of water in the surrounding atmosphere can cause sub-critical crack growth (SCCG) in glasses, a phenomenon known as fatigue or stress corrosion. Here, to facilitate the compositional design of more fatigue-resistant glasses, we investigate the composition dependence of SCCG by studying fourteen silicate glasses. The fatigue curves (V-KI) have been obtained by indentation experiments through measurements of the crack length as a function of post-indentation fatigue duration. Interestingly, we find that the fatigue resistance parameter N is generally improved by increasing the alumina content and is thereby found to exhibit a fairly linear dependence on the measured Vickers hardness HV for a wide range of N and HV values. This finding highlights the important role of network topology in governing the SCCG in silicate glasses, since hardness has been shown to scale linearly with the number of atomic constraints. Our results therefore suggest that glasses showing under-constrained flexible networks, which feature floppy internal modes of deformation, are more readily attacked by water molecules, thus promoting stress corrosion and reducing the fatigue resistance.

16. Control of ZnO morphologies via surfactants assisted route in the subcritical water

Du, Jimin; Liu, Zhimin; Huang, Ying; Gao, Yanan; Han, Buxing; Li, Wenjing; Yang, Guanying

2005-06-01

ZnO micromaterials were fabricated from the decomposition of soluble [Zn(OH) 4] 2- precursor in subcritical water at 280 °C and 7.5 MPa in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), EO 17-PO 60-EO 17 (P103), and their mixture, respectively. The morphology and structure of the resultant materials were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results demonstrated that ZnO microflowers with an average size of about 1.7 μm were fabricated as the CTAB/P103 mixture was used as the structure-directing agents, while nanorods and microrods were synthesized in the presence of CTAB and P103 under similar conditions, respectively. Based on our serials of experimental results, surfactant-assisted growth mechanisms are responsible for the shape evolution of ZnO morphologies. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the samples were determined, and the catalytic activity of the ZnO flowers and rods for Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole and benzoyl chloride were tested. The results showed that ZnO flowers had more intense emission and higher catalytic activity for Friedel-Crafts acylation than the rods.

17. Investigation of radiation fields outside the Sub-critical Assembly in Dubna.

PubMed

Seltbor, P; Lopatkin, A; Gudowski, W; Shvetsov, V; Polanski, A

2005-01-01

The radiation fields outside the planned experimental Sub-critical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) have been studied in order to provide a basis for the design of the concrete shielding that cover the reactor core. The effective doses around the reactor, induced by leakage of neutrons and photons through the shielding, have been determined for a shielding thickness varying from 100 to 200 cm. It was shown that the neutron flux and the effective dose is higher above the shielding than at the side of it, owing to the higher fraction of high-energy spallation neutrons emitted in the direction of the incident beam protons. At the top, the effective dose was found to be -150 microSv s(-1) for a concrete thickness of 100 cm, while -2.5 microSv s(-1) for a concrete thickness of 200 cm. It was also shown that the high-energy neutrons (> 10 MeV), which are created in the proton-induced spallation interactions in the target, contribute for the major part of the effective doses outside the reactor.

18. Reduction of chemical oxygen demand of industrial wastes using subcritical water oxidation

SciTech Connect

Lin, J.C.; Chang, C.J. )

1992-10-01

If wastes have strong toxicity, high organic content, and a deep hue, they are difficult to handle in the waste disposal. It is very practical that waste of this kind is treated by Subcritical Water Oxidation (SWO). In our work, caprolactum (CPL) waste, purged from a petrochemical plant, and dyeing waste, purged from a textile plant, were individually treated by a semi-batch SWO process. Within a one-hour treatment, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction reached 89% for CPL waste (6.90 MPa, 260[degree]C) and 95% for dyeing waste (6.90 MPa, 240[degree]C). There is also a great improvement in hue, especially for the dyeing waste. When CPL wastewater was treated by the SWO process using a chromium metal powder as a catalyst, COD reduction improved further under the same operating conditions. A kinetic model was used to illustrate the oxidation mechanism and the effectiveness of the catalyst. The oxygen concentration in the effluent showed that oxygen consumption corresponded to COD reduction. With the monitoring of concentrations of total soluble chromium in the effluent, a suitable reaction period could be found in order to meet the standard of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

19. Subcritical Water Induced Complexation of Soy Protein and Rutin: Improved Interfacial Properties and Emulsion Stability.

PubMed

Chen, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Hou, Jun-Jie

2016-09-01

Rutin is a common dietary flavonoid with important antioxidant and pharmacological activities. However, its application in the food industry is limited mainly because of its poor water solubility. The subcritical water (SW) treatment provides an efficient technique to solubilize and achieve the enrichment of rutin in soy protein isolate (SPI) by inducing their complexation. The physicochemical, interfacial, and emulsifying properties of the complex were investigated and compared to the mixtures. SW treatment had much enhanced rutin-combined capacity of SPI than that of conventional method, ascribing to the well-contacted for higher water solubility of rutin with stronger collision-induced hydrophobic interactions. Compared to the mixtures of rutin with proteins, the complex exhibited an excellent surface activity and improved the physical and oxidative stability of its stabilized emulsions. This improving effect could be attributed to the targeted accumulation of rutin at the oil-water interface accompanied by the adsorption of SPI resulting in the thicker interfacial layer, as evidenced by higher interfacial protein and rutin concentrations. This study provides a novel strategy for the design and enrichment of nanovehicle providing water-insoluble hydrophobic polyphenols for interfacial delivery in food emulsified systems. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

20. Preparation and characterization of foxtail millet bran oil using subcritical propane and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

PubMed

Shi, Yuzhong; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ruitin; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

2015-05-01

The foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv) bran oil was extracted with traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and subcritical propane extraction (SPE) and analyzed the yield, physicochemical property, fatty acid profile, tocopherol composition, oil oxidative stability in this study. The yields of foxtail millet bran oil by SE, SCE and SPE were 17.14 %, 19.65 %, 21.79 % of raw material weight (corresponded to 75.54 %, 86.60 %, 96.03 % of the total amount of the oil measured by using Soxhlet extraction), respectively. The effect of the extraction methods on the physicochemical properties (peroxide value, saponification value and color) was significant while the difference in fatty acid profile was negligible based on GC analysis. The major components of vitamin E in the obtained oils were identified as α- and β-tocopherols by HPLC, and SPE was superior to SE and SCE in the extraction of tocopherols. In Rancimat test, the oil obtained by SPE showed the highest oil oxidative stability, which could attribute to its high tocopherol content and low peroxide value. In view of oil quality, SPE employed smaller times and lower pressures compared to SE and SCE. SPE was a suitable and selective method for the extraction of the foxtail millet bran oil.

1. Improved design of subcritical and supercritical cascades using complex characteristics and boundary-layer correction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sanz, J. M.

1984-01-01

The method of complex characteristics and hodograph transformation for the design of shockless airfoils was extended to design supercritical cascades with high solidities and large inlet angles. This capability was achieved by introducing a conformal mapping of the hodograph domain onto an ellipse and expanding the solution in terms of Tchebycheff polynomials. A computer code was developed based on this idea. A number of airfoils designed with the code are presented. Various supercritical and subcritical compressor, turbine and propeller sections are shown. The lag-entrainment method for the calculation of a turbulent boundary layer was incorporated to the inviscid design code. The results of this calculation are shown for the airfoils described. The elliptic conformal transformation developed to map the hodograph domain onto an ellipse can be used to generate a conformal grid in the physical domain of a cascade of airfoils with open trailing edges with a single transformation. A grid generated with this transformation is shown for the Korn airfoil. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24474

2. Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of the Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S and 4) Reactor

SciTech Connect

King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

2007-01-30

Detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses of the S and 4 reactor are performed to reduce the maximum fuel temperature of the Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S and 4) reactor to below 1300 K. The fuel pellet diameter is reduced from 1.315 cm to 1.25 cm, decreasing the thermal resistance of the pellets and each of the 1.54 cm diameter coolant channels in the reactor core are replaced with several 0.3 cm ID channels to increase the effective heat transfer area and to encourage mixing of the flowing helium-28% xenon coolant. The calculated maximum fuel temperature decreased from more than 1900 K to 1302 K and the relative pressure drop across the reactor core increased from 1.98% to 2.57% of the inlet pressure. Moving the concentric inlet and outlet pipes 1 cm towards the center of the reactor core encouraged more flow through the center region, further reducing the maximum fuel temperature by 14 degrees to 1288 K, with a negligible effect on the core pressure losses.

3. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

SciTech Connect

Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

2006-07-01

This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

4. Subcritical carbon dioxide-water hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pith for reducing sugars production.

PubMed

Liang, Jiezhen; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Linlin; Wei, Xiaojie; Wang, Huasheng; Lu, Songzhou; Li, Yunhua

2017-03-01

The aim of present study was to obtain total reducing sugars (TRS) by hydrolysis in subcritical CO2-water from sugarcane bagasse pith (SCBP), the fibrous residue remaining after papermaking from sugarcane bagasse. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by L16(4(5)) orthogonal experiments. The TRS yield achieved 45.8% at the optimal conditions: 200°C, 40min, 500rmin(-1), CO2 initial pressure of 1MPa and liquid-to-solid ratio of 50:1. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance were used to characterize hydrolysis liquor, treated and untreated SCBP, resulting in the removal of hemicelluloses to mainly produce xylose, glucose and arabinose during hydrolysis. The severity factors had no correlation to TRS yield, indicating that the simple kinetic processes of biomass solubilisation cannot perfectly describe the SCBP hydrolysis. The first-order kinetic model based on consecutive reaction was used to obtain rate constants, activation energies and pre-exponential factors.

5. Sub-critical crack growth in silicate glasses: Role of network topology

SciTech Connect

Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Bauchy, Mathieu

2015-10-05

The presence of water in the surrounding atmosphere can cause sub-critical crack growth (SCCG) in glasses, a phenomenon known as fatigue or stress corrosion. Here, to facilitate the compositional design of more fatigue-resistant glasses, we investigate the composition dependence of SCCG by studying fourteen silicate glasses. The fatigue curves (V-K{sub I}) have been obtained by indentation experiments through measurements of the crack length as a function of post-indentation fatigue duration. Interestingly, we find that the fatigue resistance parameter N is generally improved by increasing the alumina content and is thereby found to exhibit a fairly linear dependence on the measured Vickers hardness H{sub V} for a wide range of N and H{sub V} values. This finding highlights the important role of network topology in governing the SCCG in silicate glasses, since hardness has been shown to scale linearly with the number of atomic constraints. Our results therefore suggest that glasses showing under-constrained flexible networks, which feature floppy internal modes of deformation, are more readily attacked by water molecules, thus promoting stress corrosion and reducing the fatigue resistance.

6. Acceleration and localization of subcritical crack growth in a natural composite material

Lennartz-Sassinek, S.; Main, I. G.; Zaiser, M.; Graham, C. C.

2014-11-01

Catastrophic failure of natural and engineered materials is often preceded by an acceleration and localization of damage that can be observed indirectly from acoustic emissions (AE) generated by the nucleation and growth of microcracks. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of the statistical properties and spatiotemporal characteristics of AE signals generated during triaxial compression of a sandstone sample. We demonstrate that the AE event amplitudes and interevent times are characterized by scaling distributions with shapes that remain invariant during most of the loading sequence. Localization of the AE activity on an incipient fault plane is associated with growth in AE rate in the form of a time-reversed Omori law with an exponent near 1. The experimental findings are interpreted using a model that assumes scale-invariant growth of the dominating crack or fault zone, consistent with the Dugdale-Barenblatt "process zone" model. We determine formal relationships between fault size, fault growth rate, and AE event rate, which are found to be consistent with the experimental observations. From these relations, we conclude that relatively slow growth of a subcritical fault may be associated with a significantly more rapid increase of the AE rate and that monitoring AE rate may therefore provide more reliable predictors of incipient failure than direct monitoring of the growing fault.

7. Hydroxyapatite crystallization in shrimp cephalothorax wastes during subcritical water treatment for chitin extraction.

PubMed

Espíndola-Cortés, Angélica; Moreno-Tovar, Rosario; Bucio, Lauro; Gimeno, Miquel; Ruvalcaba-Sil, José Luis; Shirai, Keiko

2017-09-15

The extraction of calcareous chitin from shrimp cephalothorax was successfully achieved using a subcritical water treatment to attain a deproteinization up to 96%. The treatments also increased the crystalline domain size in the α-chitin fibers. An experimental design of Taguchi allowed the optimization of experiments. The macroelements identified in all samples were Ca, P, S, K, Cl and Al, whereas Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr were also detected as microelements. The assigned crystalline phases by XRD were α-chitin, calcite, HAP and traces of quartz. The presence of these phases was corroborated by ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDS analyses. The highest content of α-chitin (82.2wt%) was obtained for the 0.17 chitin:dH2O (wt/wt) ratio for 30min treatment at 260°C. Noteworthy, this treatment promotes the crystallization of both minerals as microcrystals of calcite and nanocrystals of hydroxyapatite with needle and flake shapes as well as intermediate morphologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

8. Structural elucidation and immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharide isolated by subcritical water extraction from Cordyceps militaris.

PubMed

Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing; Yang, Wenya; Zhang, Haihui; Li, Changzheng; Zhang, Jixian

2017-02-10

Water-soluble polysaccharides were obtained from Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) (CMP) by subcritical water extraction (SWE). Two polysaccharides fractions, CMP-W1 and CMP-S1, were isolated from CMP using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. The structural characteristics of CMP-W1 and CMP-S1 were investigated. The results showed that the molecular weight of CMP-W1 and CMP-S1 are 3.66×105Da and 4.60×105Da, respectively, and both of them were heteropolysaccharides composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, d-galactose with the molar ratios of 2.84:1:1.29 and 2.05:1:1.09, respectively. FT-IR spectra analysis suggested that CMP-W1 and CMP-S1 belonged to pyranose form sugar and protein free. For immunostimulatory activity assay in vitro, CMP-W1 and CMP-S1 significantly promoted lymphatic spleen cell proliferation of mice. Therefore, the polysaccharides obtained from C. militaris by SWE can be used as potential natural immunostimulant in functional foods or medicine.

9. Joule-heating-supported plasma filamentation and branching during subcritical microwave irradiation

Takahashi, Masayuki; Kageyama, Yoshiaki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

2017-05-01

Breakdown physics induced by a subcritical microwave was numerically reproduced by using a two-dimensional effective diffusion model for plasma transport and combining it with Maxwell's equations and a neutral gas dynamics equation. A discrete plasma structure was obtained when E0,rms/Ec ≧0.69 , where E0,rms is the root-mean-square of the incident electric field and Ec is the breakdown threshold, because an overcritical field that exceeded the breakdown threshold was formed in a region away from the bulk plasma by the wave reflection when the plasma reflectivity was increased by joule heating. However, a continuous plasma structure with a branching pattern was formed when E0,rms/Ec <0.69 because the enhanced electric-field region away from the bulk plasma never exceeded the breakdown threshold even when the plasma reflectivity increased. The propagation speed of the plasma front drastically decreased when E0,rms/Ec <0.69 because the plasma propagation was sustained by strong gas expansion, which required more time than wave-reflection and ionization processes.

10. Polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere : subcritical neutron and gamma measurements.

SciTech Connect

Mattingly, John K.

2009-11-01

Numerous benchmark measurements have been performed to enable developers of neutron transport models and codes to evaluate the accuracy of their calculations. In particular, for criticality safety applications, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) annually publishes a handbook of critical and subcritical benchmarks. Relatively fewer benchmark measurements have been performed to validate photon transport models and codes, and unlike the ICSBEP, there is no program dedicated to the evaluation and publication of photon benchmarks. Even fewer coupled neutron-photon benchmarks have been performed. This report documents a coupled neutron-photon benchmark for plutonium metal reflected by polyethylene. A 4.5-kg sphere of ?-phase, weapons-grade plutonium metal was measured in six reflected configurations: (1) Bare; (2) Reflected by 0.5 inch of high density polyethylene (HDPE); (3) Reflected by 1.0 inch of HDPE; (4) Reflected by 1.5 inches of HDPE; (5) Reflected by 3.0 inches of HDPE; and (6) Reflected by 6.0 inches of HDPE. Neutron and photon emissions from the plutonium sphere were measured using three instruments: (1) A gross neutron counter; (2) A neutron multiplicity counter; and (3) A high-resolution gamma spectrometer. This report documents the experimental conditions and results in detail sufficient to permit developers of radiation transport models and codes to construct models of the experiments and to compare their calculations to the measurements. All of the data acquired during this series of experiments are available upon request.

11. The sup 252 Cf-source-driven noise measurements of unreflected uranium hydride cylinder subcriticality

SciTech Connect

Mihalczo, J.T.; Pare, V.K.; Blakeman, E.D. )

1991-01-01

Subcritical neutron multiplication factors have been measured by the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis method for unreflected, 15.0-cm-diam uranium hydride cylinders of varying heights. Because of the difficulty and cost of controlling the H/U ratio in damp uranium (93.2 wt% {sup 235}U) oxide power and fabricating sufficient material for experiments, few experiments have been performed with materials of low H/U ratios. These measurements may provide alternate information that can be used for verifying calculational methods since the H/U ratio for this material is 3.00. These measurements, which are the first application of this method to uranium hydride, were performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility in 1989. These measurements were used to demonstrate the capability of this measurement method for this type of material and to provide a benchmark experiment for calculational methods with slightly moderated systems. Previous experiments by this method were for a wide variety of well-moderated systems or unmoderated uranium metal cylinders.

12. Dynamics of subcritical CO/sub 2//brine floods for heavy oil recovery

SciTech Connect

Rojas, G.; Faroug, S.M.

1985-03-01

Immiscible carbon dioxide flooding is an important, field-proven heavy oil recovery method, particularly suited for thin, marginal, or otherwise poor heavy oil reservoirs, where thermal recovery processes are likely to be uneconomical. This paper describes dynamics of this recovery technique, based upon experiments conducted in a scaled model. The experiments represent a medium heavy oil (1032 mPa.s at 23/sup 0/ C) occurring in a shallow, thin sand. Carbon dioxide was injected at subcritical conditions (5.5 MPa, 21-23/sup 0/ C), together with brine. The scaled experiment results showed that oil recoveries at CO/sub 2/ and brine breakthroughs were ratedependent. While recovery at CO/sub 2/ breakthrough decreased with increasing rate, recovery at brine breakthrough increased. Reduction of interfacial tension between brine and oil, leading to the formation of brine-in-oil emulsions, was found to be an additional effective mechanism of heavy oil recovery by CO/sub 2//brine injection.

13. High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces

SciTech Connect

Carmichael, Justin R; Rother, Gernot; Browning, Jim; Ankner, John Francis; Banuelos, Jose Leo; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David

2012-01-01

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300 473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

14. Subcritical hydrothermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste for biofuel production.

PubMed

Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Levy-Shalev, Odelia; Azaizeh, Hassan; Dosoretz, Carlos G

2016-01-01

The hydrothermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste amended with 0.6M organic acids was studied at temperatures between 100 and 170°C. Acetic and formic acids which are endogenous intermediates of hemiacetyl splitting at subcritical conditions were tested. Formic acid, with smaller molecular size and lower pKa, was found to be more effective than acetic in the entire range of temperatures tested. Yield of enzymatic hydrolysis was significantly enhanced (>2 folds) at temperatures above 140°C. Concentration of aldehyde byproducts in the medium increased with temperature and pressure and addition of organic acids, however, the highest concentration detected (ca 1g/L) did not surpass values reported as inhibitory of sugars fermentation to ethanol by either yeast or bacteria. Aldehyde production was more affected by temperature than by acid addition. Concluding, addition of formic acid to hydrothermal pretreatment at relatively mild temperatures (140-170°C) and pressure (10-13 atm) improved saccharification yield while saving energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

15. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation.

PubMed

Li, Jinwei; Sun, Dewei; Qian, Lige; Liu, Yuanfa

2016-12-07

Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO) production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE) and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

16. On the unsteady inviscid force on cylinders and spheres in subcritical compressible flow.

PubMed

Parmar, M; Haselbacher, A; Balachandar, S

2008-06-28

17. High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces.

PubMed

Carmichael, Justin R; Rother, Gernot; Browning, James F; Ankner, John F; Banuelos, Jose L; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R

2012-04-01

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300-473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO(2) in contact with quartz and Si/SiO(2) wafers are also shown. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

18. High performance curcumin subcritical water extraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

PubMed

2016-06-01

Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric rhizome, which consists about 2-5% of the total rhizome content and is a more valuable component of turmeric. For reducing the drawbacks of conventional extraction (using organic solvents) of curcumin, the water as a clean solvent was used for extracting curcumin. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) experimental setup was fabricated in a laboratory scale and the influences of some parameters (e.g. extraction temperature, particle size, retention time and pressure) on the yield of extraction were investigated. Optimum extraction conditions such as SWE pressure of 10bar, extractive temperature of 140°C, particle size of 0.71mm and retention time of 14min were defined. The maximum amount of curcumin extracted at the optimum condition was 3.8wt%. The yield of curcumin extraction was more than 76wt% with regards to the maximum possible curcumin content of turmeric, as known to be 5%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the outer surface of turmeric, before and after extraction, clearly demonstrated the effect of each parameter; changes in porosity and hardness of turmeric that is directly related to the amount of extracted curcumin in process optimization of the extraction parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

19. When noise vocoding can improve the intelligibility of sub-critical band speech.

PubMed

Bashford, James A; Warren, Richard M; Lenz, Peter W

2010-06-15

This study examined the redundancy of spectral and temporal information in everyday sentences, which were reduced to 16 rectangular spectral bands having center frequencies ranging from 250 to 8000 Hz, spaced at 1/3 octave intervals. High-order filtering eliminated contributions from transition bands, and the widths of the resulting effectively rectangular speech bands were varied from 4% down to 0.5%. Intelligibility of these sub-critical bandwidth stimuli ranged from nearly perfect in the 4% bandwidth conditions, down to nearly zero in the 0.5% bandwidth conditions. However, a large intelligibility increase was obtained under the narrower filtering conditions when the speech bands were used to vocode broader noise bands that approximated critical bandwidths (ERBn) at the 16 center frequencies. For example, the 0.5%-and 1%-bandwidth speech stimuli were only about 1% and 20% intelligible, respectively, whereas scores of about 26% and 60%, respectively, were obtained for the ERBn-wide noise bands modulated by the speech bands. These large intelligibility increases occurred despite elimination of spectral fine structure and the addition of stochastic fluctuations to the speech-envelope cues. Results from additional experiments indicate that optimal temporal processing requires that envelope cues stimulate a majority of the fibers comprising an ERBn.

20. Subcritical water extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga.

PubMed

Rodríguez-Meizoso, I; Jaime, L; Santoyo, S; Señoráns, F J; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

2010-01-20

In this work, extraction and characterization of compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga in red phase have been carried out. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE) has been combined with analytical techniques such as HPLC-DAD, HPLC-QqQ-MS and GC-MS and in vitro assays (i.e., for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity). The effect of the extraction temperature (50, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C) and solvent polarity has been studied in terms of yield and activity of the extracts. Results demonstrate that the extraction temperature has a positive influence in the extraction yield and antioxidant activity. Thus, the extraction yield achieved with this process was higher than 30% of dry weight at 200 degrees C as extraction temperature. Moreover, the extract obtained at 200 degrees C presented the highest antioxidant activity by far, while temperature does not seem to significatively affect the antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition was determined by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-QqQ-MS and GC-MS. Short chain fatty acids turned out to be responsible of the antimicrobial activity, whereas the antioxidant activity was correlated to vitamin E (present exclusively in the 200 degrees C extract), together with simple phenols, caramelization products and possible Maillard reaction products obtained during the extraction at high temperatures.

1. Subcritical water extraction of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity from oregano. Chemical and functional characterization.

PubMed

Rodríguez-Meizoso, I; Marin, F R; Herrero, M; Señorans, F J; Reglero, G; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

2006-08-28

In the present work, oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) are explored as natural source of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE), a new environmentally friendly technique, is employed as extraction procedure and HPLC coupled to DAD is used for the chemical characterization of the extracts. Moreover, the radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the determination of the total phenolic content (measured with the Folin test) are applied to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The extraction of antioxidants from oregano leaves by SWE is studied considering different temperatures (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C) to investigate the selectivity of the process. The highest antioxidant activity is observed for the extract obtained at the highest temperature, 200 degrees C (EC(50) equal to 10 microg/ml). Moreover, the extraction yield was also the highest (54% dry weight) at these extraction conditions. The total phenolic content showed no differences among the different extracts, concluding that the amount of phenolic compounds extracted was similar but the type and structure of the phenolics was different, providing in this way different antioxidant activity. Some compounds could be tentatively identified, proposing some probable chemical structures for some of them, such as flavanones, dihydroflavonols, favonols and flavones.

2. Production of monosaccharides and bio-active compounds derived from marine polysaccharides using subcritical water hydrolysis.

PubMed

Meillisa, Aviannie; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

2015-03-15

Polysaccharides are the major components of brown seaweed, accounting for approximately 40-65% of the total mass. The majority of the brown seaweed polysaccharides consists of alginate (40% of dry matter), a linear hetero-polysaccharides commonly developed in fields. However, depolymerisation of alginate is required to recover high-value compounds. In this report, depolymerisation was performed using subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) at 180-260°C, with a ratio of material to water of 1:25 (w/v) and 1% formic acid as a catalyst. Sugar recovery was higher at low temperatures in the presence of catalyst. The antioxidant properties of Saccharina japonica showed the best activity at 180°C in the presence of a catalyst. The mass spectra produced using MALDI-TOF showed that polysaccharides and oligosaccharides were produced during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrolysis treatment at 180°C in the presence of a catalyst may be useful for modifying the structure of S. japonica and purified alginate.

3. Co-liquefaction of microalgae and lignocellulosic biomass in subcritical water.

PubMed

Gai, Chao; Li, Yi; Peng, Nana; Fan, Aonan; Liu, Zhengang

2015-06-01

This study investigated co-liquefaction of microalgae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, CP) and lignocellulosic biomass (Rice husk, RH) in subcritical water for bio-oil production. The effects of liquefaction temperature (200-350°C), residence time (10-90min), solid concentration (10-30wt.%) and mass ratio of CP/RH on product distribution were investigated. The results showed that the highest yield of bio-crude oils at the combination of 50% CP with 50% RH was obtained at 300°C temperature, 60min residence time and 20wt.% solid concentration. The oil yields increased gradually with the increased mass ratio of CP/RH. The major compounds identified in bio-crude oils from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of RH were cyclic oxygenates (20.62%), followed by esters, ketones and alcohols (17.19%). As for CP, the main components were straight & branched amides (28.38%). A synergistic interaction was observed between CP and RH during co-liquefaction, resulting in decreased acidity and nitrogen content of bio-crude oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

4. Co-liquefaction of mixed culture microalgal strains under sub-critical water conditions.

PubMed

Dandamudi, Kodanda Phani Raj; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, F Omar; Lammers, Peter J; Deng, Shuguang

2017-07-01

We report the co-liquefaction performance of unicellular, red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Galdieria sulphuraria under sub-critical water conditions within a stainless-steel batch reactor under different temperatures (150-300°C), residence time (15-60min), and Cyanidioschyzon merolae to Galdieria sulphuraria mass loading (0-100%). Individual liquefaction of C. merolae and G. sulphuraria at 300°C achieved maximum biocrude oil yield of 18.9 and 14.0%, respectively. The yield of biocrude oil increased to 25.5%, suggesting a positive synergistic effect during the co-liquefaction of 80-20mass loading of C. merolae to G. sulphuraria. The biocrude oils were analyzed by FT-ICR MS which showed that co-liquefaction did not significantly affect the distribution of product compounds compared to individual oils. The co-liquefied biocrude and biochar have a higher-heating-value of 35.28 and 7.96MJ/kg. Ultimate and proximate analysis were performed on algae biomass, biocrude and biochar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. Effect of Porcine Placenta Extract from Subcritical Water Extraction on Photodamage in Human Keratinocytes

PubMed Central

Han, Bok Kyung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Hong, Yang Hee; Jung, Eun Young

2015-01-01

The objective of this study was to evaluated the photoprotective effects of porcine placenta extract (PPE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to evaluate its functional activities as a skin food ingredient. PPE prepared by subcritical water extraction was termed SPE, and subsequently digested by enzymes to prepare E-SPE. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels (192.0%) induced by UVB were decreased by SPE and E-SPE. SPE had more effective ROS scavenging activity than E-SPE treatment. UVB treatment increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and this elevated expression was decreased by E-SPE treatment. High-dose treatment with E-SPE (50 and 100 µg/mL) reduced TIMP-1 expression levels of UVB-C (control) to 33.5 and 34.6%, respectively. In contrast, at low SPE doses (1 and 10 µg/mL), the treatment slightly decreased TIMP-1 expression levels to 73.3% and 71.3% of UVB-C, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the protective effect of SPE and E-SPE against UVB damage in keratinocytes via ROS scavenging, down-regulating MMP-2 expression and up-regulating TIMP-1 expression. This highlights the potential for SPE as an ingredient in the preparation of functional food against photoaging. PMID:26761824

6. Efficient, high-speed methane fermentation for sewage sludge using subcritical water hydrolysis as pretreatment.

PubMed

Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Tokumoto, Hayato; Ishii, Kyoko; Ishii, Ryo

2009-06-01

A novel biomass-energy process for the production of methane from sewage sludge using a subcritical water (sub-CW) hydrolysis reaction as pretreatment is proposed. The main substances of sewage sludge hydrolyzed by sub-CW at 513 K for 10 min were acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, alanine, and glycine. Fermentation experiments were conducted in an anaerobic-sludge reactor for two different samples: real sewage sludge and a model solution containing components typically produced by the sub-CW pretreatment of sewage sludge. In the experiment for the sub-CW pretreatment of sewage sludge, methane generation was twice that for non-pretreatment after 3 days of incubation. In the model experiment, the methane conversion was about 40% with the application of mixture of organic acids and amino acids after 5 days of incubation. Furthermore, the methane conversion was about 60% for 2 days when only organic acids, such as acetic acid and formic acid, were applied. Because acetic acid is the key intermediate and main precursor of the methanogenesis step, fermentation experiments were conducted in an anaerobic-sludge reactor with high concentrations of acetic acid (0.01-0.1M). Nearly 100% of acetic acid was converted to methane and carbon dioxide in 1-3 days.

7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions.

PubMed

Toor, Saqib S; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang; Hoffmann, Jessica; Spangsmark, Dorte; Madsen, Linda B; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

2013-03-01

Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220–375 °C, 20–255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC–MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained on N. salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For S. platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for N. salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins.

8. Detection rate evaluation of ex-core detectors in the subcritical OPR-1000 reactor

SciTech Connect

Won, B. H.; Shin, C. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, H. C.; Park, J. J.; Kim, J. K.

2012-07-01

The OPR-1000 is a PWR reactor developed in Korea. One-type ex-core detectors for monitoring of power distributions were installed in the OPR-1000 reactor to alternate the three-types of the ex-core detectors. For the verification of the detection performances, neutron transport calculation was performed by using MCNP5 code. The reaction rate in the ex-core detectors and the neutron flux were evaluated by using MCNP5 code as changing the boron concentration from 1800 ppm to 1122 ppm in the subcritical condition. The reaction rate results in fission chamber show that minimum and maximum values are 0.03577 and 3.33563 reactions/cm{sup 3}-sec, respectively. This study can be directly used for the verification and improvement of fission chamber performance in using one-type ex-core detector. Also, it can be utilized for the production of the reference data in determining neutron source strength. It is expected the proposed simulation method can be utilized to the improvement of the dose monitoring system. (authors)

9. Subcritical hydrothermal treatment for the recovery of liquid fertilizer from scallop entrails.

PubMed

Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Abe, Natsuki; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

2015-01-01

Scallop entrails are organic wastes containing abundant proteins and minerals but are considered difficult to recycle because of high cadmium concentrations. In this work, the current problem of scallop entrails recycling was investigated and a subcritical hydrothermal treatment (SCHT) was examined for the recovery of liquid fertilizer from scallop entrails. Scallop entrails are mainly recycled for composting and feedstuff production. However, the dilution by mixing scallop entrails with other feed waste was the sole countermeasure to reduce the cadmium concentration of compost. For feedstuff production, whole product derived from scallop entrails was exported to other countries instead of domestic utilization. Temperature, retention time (RT) at given temperature, and liquid-to-solid (LS) ratio were examined as SCHT conditions for scallop entrails processing. The extraction ratio of each constituent mainly depends on the temperature rather than the RT or the LS ratio. Upon the SCHT of scallop entrails at 200°C, an RT of 20 min, and an LS ratio of 10, the extraction of fertilizer constituents such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from the liquid product was optimum, whereas the release of cadmium was suppressed. The concentrations of heavy metals in the liquid product obtained using the above-mentioned SCHT conditions were below the maximum permissible concentration stipulated by the Fertilizer Control Law. SCHT is considered to be a feasible recycling method for scallop entrails to recover fertilizer components with a concomitant separation of cadmium from the product.

10. Multi-drug resistant E.coli urosepsis in physicians following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies--three cases including one death.

PubMed

Carlson, William H; Bell, David G; Lawen, Joseph G; Rendon, Ricardo A

2010-04-01

Three male physicians underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies for elevated prostate-specific antigen levels or irregular digital rectal exam findings. All three of these patients developed urosepsis secondary to multi-drug resistant organisms despite antibiotic prophylaxis. There are increasing reports of infectious complications following prostate biopsy caused by multi-drug resistant organisms. These cases highlight the potentially lethal risks to healthcare workers who are more likely to harbor multi-drug resistant organisms than the general population. Further research into preoperative assessment and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis in all potentially high risk patients is warranted.

11. Feasibility study of character projection-based electron-beam direct writing for logic LSI wiring including automatically routed area with 14nm node technology case

Sugatani, Shinji; Maruyama, Takashi; Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Ito, Masaru

2012-03-01

Multi column cell (MCC) exposure system is a promising candidate for the next generation lithography tool. The concept of MCC is parallelization of the electron beam columns with character projection (CP) [1]. In this paper, we would like to describe current CP techniques being used for product manufacturing. We also would like to introduce CP based EBDW method to draw automatically routed wiring area with 14 nm node technology of 20nm half-pitch (hp) case. Pattern density influence for process margin and shot noise tolerance consideration are discussed. Feasibility study of the model character set for router generated wiring drawing is presented.

12. High-loading low-speed fan study. 4: Data and performance with redesign stator and including a rotor tip casing treatment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.; Burdsall, E. A.

1972-01-01

A single stage fan with a rotor tip speed of 1000 ft/sec(304.8 m/sec) and a hub-to-tip ratio of 0.392 was retested with a redesigned stator. Tests were conducted with uniform inlet, tip-radial, hub-radial, and circumferential inlet distortions. With uniform inlet flow, stall margin was improved 12 percentage points above that with the original stator. The fan demonstrated an efficiency of 0.883 and a stall margin of 15 percent at a pressure ratio of 1.488 and a specific flow of 41.17 lb/sec/sq ft. Tests were also made with a redesigned casing treatment consisting of skewed slots over the rotor blade tips. This casing treatment gave a 7 percentage point improvement in stall margin when tested with tip radial distortion (when the rotor tip initiated stall). Noise measurements at the fan inlet and exit indicate no effect from closing the stator 10 degrees, nor were there measurable effects from adding skewed slots over the blade tips.

13. BM platform, B Field, Offshore Northwest Java: A case history of multi-disciplinary integration including 3D seismic, reservoir simulation and horizontal drilling

SciTech Connect

Cooke, D.; Aziz, A.; Baldauff, J.; Diswarin, N.

1996-12-31

This case history describes how a multidisciplinary team used a 3D survey and reservoir simulation to review and revise the development plans for the BM platform, located in the B Field, Offshore Northwest Java, Indonesia. The case history starts with the collection of necessary parophysical, geologic and production data. These data are input to a reservoir simulation which shows there should be no problems with the new platform. However, this initial simulation has known problems with contradicting input structure maps and fluid contacts. Hopefully, these problems can be addressed with a new 3D seismic survey - if the seismic data can be acquired, processed, interpreted and input to the simulation before drilling starts at the BM platform. The seismic acquisition could not be done with the traditional towed seismic streamer cables - instead stationary ocean bottom cables with dual geophone-hydrophone sensors were used. Processing of the seismic data was done in a way that allowed interpretation of the critical area even before acquisition of the entire survey was finished. The new 3D structure maps changed the MDTs opinion of what reservoir and what areas contained the bulk of the oil reserves. Unfortunately, the new maps were not available until after the jacket was set but before the wells drilled. The NMT updated the simulation with the new 3D data, which led to changes in development well bottom hole locations and an ambitious horizontal well.

14. Spiradenocylindroma-like basaloid carcinoma of the anus and rectum: case report, including HPV studies and analysis of the CYLD gene mutations.

PubMed

Kacerovska, Denisa; Szepe, Peter; Vanecek, Tomas; Nemcova, Jana; Michal, Michal; Mukensnabl, Petr; Kazakov, Dmitry V

2008-10-01

The authors report a case of basaloid carcinoma involving the anus and rectum of a 57-year-old woman. Microscopically, the tumor showed unusual morphologic features strongly resembling a spiradenocylindroma because it consisted, in most parts, of basaloid cell nodules arranged in a jigsaw-puzzle fashion containing or surrounded by eosinophilic basal membrane material; in addition, there were intratumoral lymphocytes. The overlying squamous epithelium manifested dysplastic changes compatible with in situ squamous carcinoma that gradually became invasive and blended with basaloid cell islands; additionally, there were koilocytes in the squamous epithelium. A molecular biology study identified HPV-16 in the lesional tissue. Analysis of the CYLD gene did not prove any mutation.

15. Two patients with overlapping de novo duplications of the long arm of chromosome 9, including one case with Di George sequence.

PubMed

Lindgren, V; Rosinsky, B; Chin, J; Berry-Kravis, E

1994-01-01

Duplications of chromosome 9q are rare. We describe the cytogenetic and phenotypic findings in 2 patients, one with a large duplication covering most of 9q(q12-q33.2) and one with a smaller duplication (q21.12-q22.1) who had Di George sequence (DGS). The chromosome 9 origin of the extra material in the second case was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with a whole chromosome 9 paint. Microdeletions of chromosome 22 are common in DGS and have been reported in CHARGE association. This is the first report of an association of a chromosome 9 abnormality with DGS in the absence of a chromosome 22 abnormality and the seventh report of a patient with a duplication of a large portion of 9q (q11-q13 to q32-q33).

16. Two patients with overlapping de novo duplications of the long arm of chromosome 9, including one case with Di George sequence

SciTech Connect

Lindgren, V.; Rosinsky, B.; Chin, J.; Berry-Kravis, E.

1994-01-01

Duplications of chromosome 9q are rare. The authors describe the cytogenetic and phenotypic findings in 2 patients, one with a large duplication covering most of 9q (q12-q33.2) and one with a smaller duplication (q21.12-q22.1) who had Di George sequence (DGS). The chromosome 9 origin of the extra material in the second case was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with a whole chromosome 9 paint. Microdeletions of chromosome 22 are common in DGS and have been reported in CHARGE association. This is the first report of an association of a chromosome 9 abnormality with DGS in the absence of a chromosome 22 abnormality and the seventh report of a patient with a duplication of a large portion of 9q (q11-q13 to q32-q33). 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

17. A Multiscale Model of Cardiovascular System Including an Immersed Whole Heart in the Cases of Normal and Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).

PubMed

Lee, Wanho; Jung, Eunok

2015-07-01

A mathematical and computational model combining the heart and circulatory system has been developed to understand the hemodynamics of circulation under normal conditions and ventricular septal defect (VSD). The immersed boundary method has been introduced to describe the interaction between the moving two-dimensional heart and intracardiac blood flow. The whole-heart model is governed by the Navier-Stokes system; this system is combined with a multi-compartment model of circulation using pressure-flow relations and the linearity of the discretized Navier-Stokes system. We investigate the velocity field, flowmeters, and pressure-volume loop in both normal and VSD cases. Simulation results show qualitatively good agreements with others found in the literature. This model, combining the heart and circulation, is useful for understanding the complex, hemodynamic mechanisms involved in normal circulation and cardiac diseases.

18. Induction of thyroid remission using rituximab in a patient with type 3 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome including Graves' disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus: a case report.

PubMed

Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Narisawa, Manabu; Torimoto, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Sunao; Tanaka, Yoshiya

2015-01-01

Rituximab (RTX) is a monoclonal antibody that targets the B-cell-specific CD20 antigen. Recent reports indicate that RTX is effective against type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and hematologic as well as autoimmune diseases. Other studies have indicated that RTX therapy leads to the remission of recurrent or active Graves' disease (GD). However, the efficacy of RTX in Japanese patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) has not been reported to date. Herein, we report the case of a patient with GD and T1DM with sustained endogenous insulin secretion capacity. To protect pancreatic β cells, we administered RTX at a dose of 500 mg (approximately 300 mg/m2) on 2 occasions 1 week apart. After treatment, no adverse effects were observed, and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) was no longer detectable 4 months after RTX administration. In addition, the reduction in TRAb level improved thyroid function. Notably, the treatment induced remission over a period of 1 year after the diagnosis of GD.

19. An exome sequencing study of Moebius syndrome including atypical cases reveals an individual with CFEOM3A and a TUBB3 mutation

PubMed Central

Liu, David; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Jhangiani, Shalini; Lu, James T.; Sutton, V. Reid; Fernbach, Susan D.; Azamian, Mahshid; White, Lisa; Edmond, Jane C.; Paysse, Evelyn A.; Belmont, John W.; Muzny, Donna; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lewis, Richard Alan; Lee, Brendan H.; Lalani, Seema R.

2017-01-01

Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital unilateral or bilateral facial and abducens nerve palsies (sixth and seventh cranial nerves) causing facial weakness, feeding difficulties, and restricted ocular movements. Abnormalities of the chest wall such as Poland anomaly and variable limb defects are frequently associated with this syndrome. Most cases are isolated; however, rare families with autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity have been described. The genetic basis of this condition remains unknown. In a cohort study of nine individuals suspected to have Moebius syndrome (six typical, three atypical), we performed whole-exome sequencing to try to identify a commonly mutated gene. Although no such gene was identified and we did not find mutations in PLXND1 and REV3L, we found a de novo heterozygous mutation, p.E410K, in the gene encoding tubulin beta 3 class III (TUBB3), in an individual with atypical Moebius syndrome. This individual was diagnosed with near-complete ophthalmoplegia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and absence of the septum pellucidum. No substantial limb abnormalities were noted. Mutations in TUBB3 have been associated with complex cortical dysplasia and other brain malformations and congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3A (CFEOM3A). Our report highlights the overlap of genetic etiology and clinical differences between CFEOM and Moebius syndrome and describes our approach to identifying candidate genes for typical and atypical Moebius syndrome. PMID:28299356

20. Atrial Tachycardia Originating in the Vicinity of the Noncoronary Sinus of Valsalva: Report of a Series Including the First Case of Ablation-Related Complete Atrioventricular Block.

PubMed

Barkagan, Michael; Michowitz, Yoav; Glick, Aharon; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Rosso, Raphael; Belhassen, Bernard

2016-11-01

A few series of focal atrial tachycardia (AT) originating from the noncoronary sinus of Valsalva (NCSV) have been reported in the literature during the last decade. Of 147 patients with AT referred for radiofrequency ablation (RFA), we identified nine (6%) originating in the vicinity of the NCSV. Clinical AT was induced during electrophysiological study in all patients without (n = 6) and with (n = 3) isoproterenol infusion. Mean cycle length of the induced tachycardia was 399 ± 85 ms. Mapping of the right atrium and of the left atrium (LA) was initially performed in all nine patients and in four patients, respectively. Earliest tachycardia activation occurred at the His bundle area in all cases. Earliest activations in the LA were at the low paraseptal regions. In two patients with antegrade dual atrioventricular (AV) node physiology that rendered difficult accurate distinction between atrial and ventricular activation, slow pathway ablation was necessary. A retrograde aortic approach was used for mapping the aortic cusps. The earliest local atrial activation in the NCSV preceded the atrial activation in the His area in all patients by 27 ± 8 ms. RFA was performed in all nine patients and was acutely successful in eight. Two patients required radiofrequency (RF) energy outputs of 50 W in order to terminate the arrhythmia. In one patient, successful AT ablation was associated with complete AV block requiring implantation of permanent pacemaker. Focal AT can be successfully mapped and ablated in the NCSV. Higher than usual RF energy levels are sometimes required. Complete AV block is a possible complication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.