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Sample records for income elderly women

  1. Survival strategies of elderly women in Ngangelizwe Township, Mthatha, South Africa: Livelihoods, social networks and income.

    PubMed

    Sidloyi, Sinethemba S; Bomela, Nolunkcwe J

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the critical issue of how the elderly women of Ngangelizwe, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa address the challenges they encounter in their attempts to provide for their needs and those of their dependants. These challenges include among others lack of education, access to resources, caring for their sick children suffering from AIDS related diseases as well as their orphaned grandchildren. In-depth interviews were held with 15 retired women above 60 years old who are also heads of households, receiving or not receiving state pension, and/or a child support grant. The study reveals that friendship-based ties, social networks and their impact on the livelihoods, health, survival and social adjustment of the elderly women are essential components of their lives. The study also reports on the strategies they employ to alleviate poverty through their own and school-going age grandchildren's participation in income generating activities. The study indicates that for most women, the inability to attain basic essentials of life leads to loss of self-dignity. Socio-economic factors such as low levels of education, unemployment, little or no income, poor access to resources, many dependants and looking after their children who are ill creates a situation where they operate within the "little opportunities" circle. The evidence in this study suggests that friendship-based ties, social groups, including social capital, pension grants, child support grants and remittances from their employed children help to mitigate some of the poverty experiences of the elderly women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  3. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  4. Elder mistreatment in women.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, Terry; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton, Marguarette M

    2004-01-01

    Elder mistreatment is a serious syndrome that affects more than 1.5 million older Americans every year. Actions such as abuse, neglect, exploitation, and abandonment by caregivers, relatives, friends, or acquaintances can have devastating sequelae for the elderly. Such actions may be intentional or unintentional, but the detrimental outcomes for older individuals can destroy the elder's quality of life and health. A lack of empirical research addresses gender differences in elder mistreatment. There is also confusion and debate over what constitutes elder mistreatment in older women versus what is domestic violence that has continued into later life. Professional nurses need to include both types of screening for their older female patients in order to address both types of family violence.

  5. Elderly Immigrants’ Labor Supply Response to Supplemental Security Income

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined how the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which banned Supplemental Security Income to the majority of elderly immigrants, affected their employment, retirement, and family incomes. The policy was found to be associated with a 3.5 percentage point (9.5 percent) increase in the employment and a 3.8 percentage point (7 percent) decrease in the retirement of foreign-born elderly men. Partly as a result of their employment response, SSI ineligibility and the consequent decline in SSI receipt did not have any statistically significant effects on the family incomes of elderly foreign-born men. Noncitizen elderly women, on the other hand, did not experience any increase in employment, and those without family support suffered a 10 to 17 percent decline in income. These findings suggest that access to SSI did not create work disincentives for noncitizen elderly women and that SSI restrictions have imposed financial hardship on those without any family support, many of whom perhaps cannot effectively increase their employment. PMID:25382897

  6. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  7. Price and income changes for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bridges, B; Packard, M D

    1981-01-01

    It is widely believed that inflation is harmful to the elderly. Two frequent arguments in support of this belief are that some important income sources for the elderly are less than fully indexed to inflation and that the elderly spend heavily on goods and services whose prices rise faster than the average inflation rate. This article focuses on both the income issue and the expenditure issue. The first part of the article evaluates the question of whether an economy-wide consumer price index is an adequate measure of the cost of living for the elderly population. The evaluation is made by constructing a consumer price index using expenditure weights that are more appropriate for the elderly population. It is found that over the 1967-79 period the movement of this constructed index was very similar to that of the economy-wide index. The constructed index did grow slightly faster than the economy-wide index, however. The second part of the article focuses on changes in average real incomes of the elderly over the 1970-77 period. Two dimensions of income changes are examined. First, the incomes of families headed by persons aged 65 or over are compared at different points in time. It is found that average real income of this age class was 10 percent higher in 1977 than in 1970. Second, the 1970 and 1977 incomes of the cohort of families headed by persons aged 65 or over in 1970 are compared. It is found that average real income of this cohort fell by 4 percent between 1970 and 1977.

  8. Elderly poverty and Supplemental Security Income.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, poverty is generally assessed on the basis of income, as reported in the Current Population Survey's (CPS's) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), using an official poverty standard established in the 1960s. The prevalence of receipt of means-tested transfers is underreported in the CPS, with uncertain consequences for the measurement of poverty rates by both the official standard and by using alternative "relative" measures linked to the contemporaneous income distribution. The article reports results estimating the prevalence of poverty in 2002. We complete this effort by using a version of the 2003 CPS/ASEC for which a substantial majority (76 percent) of respondents have individual records matching administrative data from the Social Security Administration on earnings and receipt of income from the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Adjustment of the CPS income data with administrative data substantially improves coverage of SSI receipt. The consequence for general poverty is sensitive to the merge procedures employed, but under both sets of merge procedures considered, the estimated poverty rate among all elderly persons and among elderly SSI recipients is substantially less than rates estimated using the unadjusted CPS. The effect of the administrative adjustment is less significant for perception of relative poverty than for absolute poverty. We emphasize the effect of these adjustments on perception of poverty among the elderly in general and elderly SSI recipients in particular.

  9. [Disability among elderly women in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Parahyba, Maria Isabel; Veras, Renato; Melzer, David

    2005-06-01

    To estimate disability rates and explore associations, identifying the most significant socioeconomic markers associated with the prevalence of mobility disability among elderly women. National mobility disability rates were estimated based on information from the 1998 National Household Survey (PNAD), conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. The present study analyzes the elderly women population, totaling 16,186 subjects. Logistic regression models were constructed considering 'difficulty walking 100 meters' as the dependent variable. The prevalence of markers of mild, moderate and severe disability was greater among women, and increased with age. In logistic regression analysis, markers most strongly associated with increased prevalence of mobility disability were age, gender, low schooling, and low income. Rural residence was also associated with reduced prevalence. Our results suggest potential risk factors for the development of functional decline in elderly women, given that the associations encountered were consistent with those reported by other studies in the literature.

  10. Low-Income and Elderly Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, Judy K.; Clancy, Katherine L.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendations are given in this task force report which focus on nutrition education programs for the low income and elderly. Issues include: accessibility to food, national policy, nutritionally vulnerable individuals, program development, health care, preparation of nutrition educators, and evaluation of existing nutrition programs. (SA)

  11. Low-Income and Elderly Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, Judy K.; Clancy, Katherine L.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendations are given in this task force report which focus on nutrition education programs for the low income and elderly. Issues include: accessibility to food, national policy, nutritionally vulnerable individuals, program development, health care, preparation of nutrition educators, and evaluation of existing nutrition programs. (SA)

  12. Reverse mortgages and the economic status of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Morgan, B A; Megbolugbe, I F; Rasmussen, D W

    1996-06-01

    Data from the 1990 Census of Population and Housing are used to estimate the potential demand for reverse mortgages among elderly women householders. A reverse mortgage product is simulated using parameters based on the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage insurance demonstration, and its effect on poverty and income distribution among this group is calculated. Approximately 1.8 million women with low incomes and home equity of $40,000 and above could see a significant increase in income under such a program.

  13. [Stress incontinence in elderly women].

    PubMed

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P

    2013-06-01

    Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women.

  14. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health. PMID:23063218

  15. Individual income and falls among the elderly in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Hyder, Adnan A

    2011-04-01

    The burden of falls amongst the elderly raises important public health concerns. Empirical evidence suggests that macroeconomic growth may not be sufficient to reduce mortality and morbidity from injuries among the elderly. This paper consolidates macro- and microeconomic evidence of the effect of income on elderly falls in Latin America. Using household databases, we estimate an empirical model to assess the relationship between income and falls. The estimations indicate that an increase in personal income reduces the probability of falling; yet, the size of the effect is negligible. A 10% increase in income reduces the probability of falling between 0.001 and 0.002% while a 20% increase reduced the probability by up to 1%. These findings are consistent with macroeconomic data where morbidity and mortality among seniors are inelastic to economic growth. Policy implications of cash transfer programs targeting the elderly are discussed. © 2010 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection.

  17. Elderly Immigrants' Labor Supply Response to Supplemental Security Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushal, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined how the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which banned Supplemental Security Income (SSI) for the majority of elderly immigrants, affected their employment, retirement, and family incomes. The policy was found to be associated with a 3.5 percentage point (9.5 percent) increase in the…

  18. Elderly Immigrants' Labor Supply Response to Supplemental Security Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushal, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined how the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which banned Supplemental Security Income (SSI) for the majority of elderly immigrants, affected their employment, retirement, and family incomes. The policy was found to be associated with a 3.5 percentage point (9.5 percent) increase in the…

  19. Elder mistreatment: its relevance to older women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, M F

    1997-01-01

    Elder mistreatment, both abuse and neglect, is an important health care problem for women since they are involved as victims and as perpetrators. The incidence of both forms of such mistreatment is increasing, and both often occur within the context of long-term care. Elder abuse occurs in both unidirectional and dual directional forms, and includes parent abuse and spouse abuse. Elder neglect occurs in two forms; neglect by others and self-neglect. While elderly men and women are both neglected and/or abused, women may suffer greater physical and psychological consequences. To date, researchers have inadequately addressed the relevance of gender to both forms of elder mistreatment. This literature review addresses what is currently known about elder abuse and neglect that is of particular relevance to older women.

  20. [Taxing the income of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Sander, H

    1990-01-01

    If we agree that retirement income means those receipts past the age limit of 64 years, there will be a comparable situation for taxation. Such comparison shows that membership in the public annuity insurance gives strong advantages because of lower taxation. This uneven situation should be ended in the future by the opinion of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Supreme court of constitutional affairs). There are two ways to solve this problem. Either the whole taxation of seniority income follows the rules of social security taxation, or the taxation of social security must loose its priority. The author prefers the second, because he argues that the social security taxation is wrong and irreparable: The author offers a general application of the "intertemporal correspondence principle" of taxation. This means that income can be taxed only once. Under this rule he prefers the "ex post taxation" of retirement income for reasons of justice, practicality, and economic principles.

  1. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095

  2. Outcomes of Screening Mammography in Elderly Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    34 submitted to Medical Care. SOW #4: Evaluate breast cancer treatments by mammographic screening a) Perform literature reviews on variables that are associated...screening mammography, and there are substantial differences in breast cancer treatments by age and race/ethnicity, particularly the percentage of women...Medicine. " We found age, race/ethnic, and geographic differences in the use of mammography and breast cancer treatments among elderly women. "Racial

  3. Elderly poverty and supplemental security income, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program is the nation's safety net for the aged, blind, and disabled. SSI receipt is often not reported by individuals interviewed in the Current Population Survey (CPS), the statistical base for the Census Bureau's annual estimates of poverty rates. In an earlier article, we explored the effect on estimated poverty rates in 2002 of adjusting CPS income reports using administrative data on earnings and benefits from the SSI and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance programs. We assessed poverty using both the official standard and a "relative" standard based on half of median pretax, posttransfer income. This article extends that work through 2005. We find that including administrative data presents challenges, but under the methodology we adopt, such adjustments lower estimated official poverty overall and increase estimated poverty rates for elderly SSI recipients. Relative poverty rates are much higher than official poverty rates. By any of the applied standards and procedures for income adjustment, poverty changed little over the 2002-2005 interval.

  4. Income and "Outcomes" for Elderly: Do the Poor Have a Poorer Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Jacob Neilsen

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between income and living conditions and well-being of elderly. The best from two worlds is used for this purpose: a Danish survey covering 1440 elderly aged 72 and 77 from 1997, connected to reliable register information on income, 1988-1996. Indicators of physical activity, social and…

  5. Income and "Outcomes" for Elderly: Do the Poor Have a Poorer Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Jacob Neilsen

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between income and living conditions and well-being of elderly. The best from two worlds is used for this purpose: a Danish survey covering 1440 elderly aged 72 and 77 from 1997, connected to reliable register information on income, 1988-1996. Indicators of physical activity, social and…

  6. A higher level of education amplifies the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly.

    PubMed

    Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.

  7. Poverty among elderly women: assessing SSI options to strengthen Social Security reform.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul S

    2003-11-01

    We explore the potential of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program to reduce poverty among elderly women. We develop a methodological framework that compares how well various reform proposals are targeted to reducing poverty among elderly women. Using a microsimulation model and survey data matched to SSI administrative records, we model the effects of eight alternative policies on current and potential SSI recipients. We develop an evaluation methodology that systematically compares poverty outcomes, using multiple measures of effectiveness, at given levels of program expansion. All but two of the SSI reforms are clearly more target efficient at various degrees of simulated program expansion than popular proposals to reform Social Security. For a given cost increase, modifying the SSI asset test is the most effective option for reducing severe poverty among elderly women, but several reforms of the SSI income test are also highly effective. The SSI program is target efficient in providing a broad safety net to economically vulnerable elderly women. The relationship between SSI and Social Security and the relationship between the SSI asset and income tests have to be reevaluated to make the program more effective and appropriate to changing household structure and work patterns among the elderly population.

  8. Income generation for women with renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1996-10-01

    70% of the world`s poor are women. The poverty that is especially hard hitting for rural women throughout the world has many causes. The lack of access to education, credit and new technologies make it almost impossible for women to earn an income. Yet, when women earn an income, it not only improves their lives, but also improves the lives of their children and their communities. Solar energy technologies, along with access to credit, can help rural women improve the quality of their lives through income generating enterprises. The technologies discussed are solar cooking, solar food drying, solar blenders, and photovoltaics.

  9. Overview of the diets of lower- and higher-income elderly and their food assistance options.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    With the elderly becoming an ever-larger proportion of the American population, their dietary well-being is of increasing concern. In particular, lower-income elderly may face special challenges in maintaining a healthful diet. This group makes up a sizeable proportion of the elderly population; we estimate that almost 1 in 5 (19%) of the elderly have household incomes at or below 130% of the federal poverty level, the income level that generally qualifies a household to participate in the federal Food Stamp Program. Here we examine the dietary intakes and related behaviors, as well as the food security status, of lower- and higher-income elderly and review major US government food and nutrition assistance programs that can be of benefit to the elderly, particularly those of low income. Our subjects are individuals 60 years of age and over, living in community (noninstitutionalized) settings. Data on dietary intakes and behaviors were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-96. Food security data were obtained from the 1999 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the US Census Bureau. For both the CSFII and the CPS, sampling weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates. We found that lower-income elderly consume significantly fewer calories than higher-income elderly, fewer servings of major Food Guide Pyramid food groups, and most nutrients. Approximately 6% of elderly households report some degree of food insecurity. Although food and nutrition assistance programs can benefit elderly individuals, many do not participate. Many lower-income elderly also face physiological and social obstacles to obtaining a healthful diet. How best to meet these varied needs is a challenge for nutrition educators, researchers, and policy makers.

  10. The Significance of Marital Status for Morale and Life Satisfaction Among Lower-Income Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Ira W.

    1975-01-01

    Survey data obtained from 893 very low-income elderly is presented utilizing a poverty, low-income dichotomy. The relationships between income level, sex and marital status are explored for a variety of items related to morale and life satisfaction. (Author)

  11. The Significance of Marital Status for Morale and Life Satisfaction Among Lower-Income Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Ira W.

    1975-01-01

    Survey data obtained from 893 very low-income elderly is presented utilizing a poverty, low-income dichotomy. The relationships between income level, sex and marital status are explored for a variety of items related to morale and life satisfaction. (Author)

  12. Low Income Women and Physician Breastfeeding Advice: A Regional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzer, J; Zeece, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the pilot study presented here were to determine whether low income women were receiving compendious breastfeeding advice from their attending physicians. Design: This study assessed low income women's reports of physician breastfeeding advice using a newly designed Likert scaled survey based on the American Surgeon…

  13. Low Income Women and Physician Breastfeeding Advice: A Regional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzer, J; Zeece, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the pilot study presented here were to determine whether low income women were receiving compendious breastfeeding advice from their attending physicians. Design: This study assessed low income women's reports of physician breastfeeding advice using a newly designed Likert scaled survey based on the American Surgeon…

  14. Buying power? Some outcomes of income for women.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M

    1987-01-01

    Proponents of income generation as a development strategy for women assume it will foster independence and economic power. However, household relationships affect women's ability to control their income. Prevailing codes of gender relationships may place the husband in control of all income. Women's participation in income generating projects may be inhibited if they do not expect to control the proceeds of their effort. Case histories from eastern Kenya of the Giriama and Mijikenda demonstrate how husbands control not only income but even group membership and participation. While household heads control the labor and income of other household members, how they choose to exercise these rights may vary. The wife's participation is viewed as withdrawing labor and cash from the household, so the husband has a claim on her income. The arrangement usually functions to benefit the household and ensure its success. Conflicts arise when the wife perceives that the arrangement is not beneficial to the household. Cultural differences between different ethnic groups may result in very different patterns of expenditures of women's income. Women are invariably in a subordinate position, dependent on their husbands to fulfill their share of the household responsibilities. Income generation enthusiasts are often ill informed about the context in which their programs operate.

  15. Mediating factors in the relationship between income and mammography use in low-income insured women.

    PubMed

    Park, Alice N; Buist, Diana S M; Tiro, Jasmin A; Taplin, Stephen H

    2008-10-01

    We used secondary data from a prospective randomized mammography recruitment trial to examine whether attitudinal and facilitating characteristics mediate the observed relationship between annual household income and mammogram receipt among women in an integrated health plan. We compared 1419 women due for a screening mammogram based on the 1995 annual household income poverty definition for a family of four (<$15,000 vs. >$15,000). A telephone survey was used to collect information on household income, demographics, health behavior, attitudinal and facilitating variables. Administrative databases were used to document mammography receipt. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of subsequent mammography use separately for women with and without a prior mammogram. Several variables, including employment, living alone, believing that mammograms are unnecessary, having friends supportive of mammography, and ease of arranging transportation, completely mediated the effect of income on mammography use. In multivariable models, the direct predictive effect of income on mammography was reduced to nonsignificance (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.82-1.54 in women with previous mammogram and HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.41-2.00 in women without previous mammogram). Providing insurance does not ensure low-income populations will seek screening mammography. Efficacious interventions that address attitudes and facilitating conditions may motivate mammography use among low-income women with insurance.

  16. Elderly Black Farm Women: A Population at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-LaNey, Iris

    1992-01-01

    Elderly black farm women are neglected segment of elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. Ten such women recalled their productive lifestyles in oral-history interviews and described problems faced because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities,…

  17. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  18. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  19. Excluding Institutionalized Elderly from Surveys: Consequences for Income and Poverty Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Hans; Debels, Annelies; Verpoorten, Rika

    2013-01-01

    Growing life expectancy and changes in financial, marriage and labour markets have placed the income position of the elderly at the center of scientific and political discourse. As a consequence, the last decades witnessed the publication of various influential reports that contained comparative statistics on old age income inequalities on the…

  20. Excluding Institutionalized Elderly from Surveys: Consequences for Income and Poverty Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Hans; Debels, Annelies; Verpoorten, Rika

    2013-01-01

    Growing life expectancy and changes in financial, marriage and labour markets have placed the income position of the elderly at the center of scientific and political discourse. As a consequence, the last decades witnessed the publication of various influential reports that contained comparative statistics on old age income inequalities on the…

  1. Outreach Program in the Arts for the Low-Income Elderly: Analysis of Pilot Program for the Low-Income Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blocker, Merrie D.; Gurian, B. S.

    An outreach program was conducted during the 1978-79 year by the DeCordova Museum in Lincoln, Massachusetts for the low-income elderly in conjunction with the local councils on aging and funded by the National Endowment for the Arts and Title III of the Older Americans Act. Components of the program are described, including drop-in workshops at…

  2. [Nutritional status and risk factors for malnutrition in low-income urban elders].

    PubMed

    Hyun, Hye Sun; Lee, Insook

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of low-income urban elders by diversified ways, and to analyze the risk factors for malnutrition. The participants in this study were 183 low-income elders registered at a visiting healthcare facility in a public health center. Data were collected using anthropometric measurements, and a questionnaire survey. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, χ²-test, t-test, Fisher's exact test, multiple logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 20.0. Regarding the nutritional status of low-income elders as measured by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), 10.4% of the elders were classified as malnourished; 57.4% as at high risk for malnutrition; and 32.2% as having normal nutrition levels. The main factors affecting malnutrition for low-income elders were loss of appetite (OR=3.34, 95% CI: 1.16~9.56) and difficulties in meal preparation (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.13~4.88). In order to effectively improve nutrition in low-income urban elders, it is necessary to develop individual intervention strategies to manage factors that increase the risk of malnutrition and to use systematic approach strategies in local communities in terms of a nutrition support system.

  3. Elderly black farm women: a population at risk.

    PubMed

    Carlton-LaNey, I

    1992-11-01

    Elderly black farm women are a neglected segment of the elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. This article describes the productive life-styles that 10 such women in southeastern North Carolina recalled in oral-history interviews and the problems these women face because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities, and isolation and the deterioration of traditional resources.

  4. Job Training for Low Income Women: The Need for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiger, JoAnn M.; Szanton, Eleanor S.

    This document presents the conclusions and recommendations of a study conducted to explain the inequalities faced by low-income women in job training, employment, and earnings. The study explored the dimensions of the problems such women face, possible solutions, and the extent to which a group of Health Education and Welfare (HEW) and HEW-related…

  5. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  6. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  7. [Elderly women: revealing their experiences and care needs].

    PubMed

    Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; de Oliveira, Deíse Moura; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Souto, Rafaella Queiroga; Thamada, Andressa Akina

    2013-04-01

    This qualitative study used a social phenomenology approach to elucidate the experiences, care needs and expectations of the elderly women. Nine elderly women were interviewed between February and May 2011 using a semi-structured questionnaire. The elderly women referred to their physical, mental, and social limitations. They valued ​​the preservation of their autonomy in daily activities and in self-care and considered their families to be a fundamental support. They had expectations of remaining healthy, pursuing leisure activities, and having improved access to healthcare information and treatment. The absence of prospects at this stage of life was related to the loss of significant people and the loss of health. The results of this study reveal important aspects of the experiences of elderly women and encourage further research and improvement in teaching, clinical practice and management policies in relation to the needs of these women.

  8. Poverty variations among the elderly: the roles of income security policies and family co-residence.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Lisa; Boyd, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Despite a rapid overall decline in poverty among older people since the 1970s, poverty among elderly immigrants is persistently high in Canada. Using data from the 2006 Canadian Census of Population, this article presents results of a study on the poverty of elderly immigrants in comparison to the Canadian-born elderly population. Results from logistic regression analysis suggest that a large portion of the higher poverty rates among elderly immigrants can be explained by the lack or inadequacy of state income support. Nevertheless, the high poverty levels among elderly immigrants are mitigated by financial assistance from their kin. This article concludes by highlighting the role of family support as a coping strategy for escaping poverty and by assessing two mechanisms of state intervention that could improve the economic well-being of elderly immigrants.

  9. Productive activity and life satisfaction in Korean elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of participation in productive activities on life satisfaction and its implications for social evaluation of productive aging. This study uses data collected from 1,250 elderly women living in urban areas. The regression model was used to examine the influence of elderly women's participation in productive activities on their life satisfaction. Elderly women who participate in volunteer work, learning, and social group activities commonly recognized their activities as meaningful, feeling like worthwhile members of society, and evaluated such activities as very positive. In contrast, elderly women who participated in household chores and family care activities expressed a negative life satisfaction. The difference in life satisfaction regarding productive activities stems not only from the physical and environmental differences but also from the gap between the official social value underpinned by the recognition of surrounding people, their support, and the value of productive activities.

  10. Equal Employment Opportunity Legislation and the Income of Women and Nonwhites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Paul

    1979-01-01

    The incomes of White women, non-White women, and non-White men are compared with those of White men. The effect of equal employment opportunity laws on the incomes of women and minorities is assessed. (Author/MC)

  11. Under-representation of elderly and women in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Cristiana; Fini, Massimo; Spoletini, Ilaria; Lainscak, Mitja; Seferovic, Petar; Rosano, Giuseppe Mc

    2017-04-01

    Elderly and women have been often under-represented in randomised clinical trials (RCTs) testing the effect of treatments on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) even though these diseases highly affect both of them. Taking into account these issues, the aim of this review is to critically analyse the topic of under-representation of elderly and women in cardiovascular RCTs. Compared to their younger counterparts, elderly have a higher incidence of disease-related morbidities, take more medicines and account for more adverse drug related events. Similarly, women present several differences in CVD pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and outcomes in comparison to their male counterparts. For these reasons, the results of RCTs obtained in younger men cannot be simply translated in elderly and women. Unfortunately, although international guidelines have been published to increase the enrolment of elderly and women, their recruitment is still insufficient. Thus, the inclusion of these subgroups in cardiovascular RCTs is a key aspect to acquire evidence-based knowledge in the understanding and management of CVDs in elderly and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Women's Changing Roles and Help to Elderly Parents: Attitudes of Three Generations of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Elaine M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied attitudes of 403 women concerning responsibility for care of elderly adults. Results showed significant generational differences, but values about care of the elderly have not eroded despite social changes. Majorities of all generations favored sharing of tasks by men and women. (WAS)

  13. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    CIANELLI, ROSINA; FERRER, LILIAN; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.

    2008-01-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428

  14. Effects of income supplementation on health of the poor elderly: the case of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P

    2015-01-06

    We use an income supplementation experiment we designed in the state of Yucatan in Mexico for residents 70 y and older to evaluate health impacts of additional income. Two cities in the State of Yucatan, Valladolid (treatment) and Motul (control), were selected for the income supplementation experiment. Elderly residents of Valladolid were provided the equivalent of an additional $67 per month, a 44% increase in average household income. We designed a survey given to residents of both cities before and 6 mo after the income supplement about their health and other aspects of overall well-being. Both baseline and follow-up surveys collect self-reported data on health, physical functioning, and biomarkers. Anthropometric measurements for every age-eligible respondent, including height, weight, and waist circumference, were collected. We also collected lung capacity, grip strength, a series of balance tests, and a timed walk. Our results show significant health benefits associated with the additional income. Relative to the control site, there was a statistically significant improvement in lung function and an improvement in memory. These improvements are equivalent to a reduction in age of 5-10 y. Residents used their extra income to go to the doctor, buy their medications, and alleviate their hunger. The fear that this extra income could be undone by reduced transfers from other family members or unwise expenditures by the poor elderly appears to be unfounded.

  15. Effect of acculturation and income on Hispanic women's health.

    PubMed

    Leybas-Amedia, Velia; Nuño, Thomas; Garcia, Francisco

    2005-11-01

    This research examines how acculturation and income affect health care access, utilization, and prevention knowledge among a population of Hispanic women living along the U.S.-Mexico border in Yuma, Arizona, a rural agricultural county. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 417 Hispanic women with mean age 61.3 years (s.d.=9.2). Most were long-term residents of Yuma County with some elementary and middle school education. Respondents had low monthly household incomes (average: USD $927.77, s.d.=550.40) and 10% reported current employment. The results show that income may be a more important predictor of actual utilization of health care services while acculturation may play a more prominent role with respect to provider preferences. A better understanding of the complex interplay between the individual and the society she inhabits is required in order to develop a meaningful public health intervention that will affect disease risk.

  16. Factors Influencing the General Well-Being of Low-Income Korean Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2011-01-01

    This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…

  17. Factors Influencing the General Well-Being of Low-Income Korean Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2011-01-01

    This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…

  18. Associations of income and wealth with health status in the Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo Hyun; Jung, Minsoo; Lee, Tae Jin

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to verify the association between wealth or income level and health status after adjusting for other socio-economic position (SEP) indicators among Korean adults aged 45 and over. Data were obtained from the 1st wave of Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (households: 6,171, persons: 10,254). We used self-rated health status and activities of daily living (ADLs) as dependent variables. Explanatory variables included both net wealth measured by savings, immovables, the other valuated assets and total income including pay, transfer, property and so on. Binary logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationships. Also, in order to determine the relative health inequality across economic groups, we estimated the relative index of inequality (RII). The inequality of health status was evident among various wealth and income groups. The wealthiest group (5th quintile) was much healthier than the poorest group, and this differential increased with age. Likewise, higher income was associated with better health status among the elderly. However, these effects, as measured by the odds ratio and RII, showed that wealth was more important in determining health status of elderly people. This study suggests that economic capability plays a significant role in determining the health status and other health-related problems among the elderly. Particularly, our results show that health status of the aged is related more closely to the individual's wealth than income.

  19. Living arrangement choices of elderly singles: Effects of income and disability

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    Logit regression is used to explain living arrangement choice of elderly single individuals. The propensity to live independently is found to increase with income and decrease with disability; an interaction effect for females suggests that income may lessen the impact of disability on the propensity to seek shared living arrangements. Independent living is less likely for people who are not white, foreign-born males, those with at least one adult child, and those in States with higher living costs; and more likely for the ever-married and those in States with high per capita nursing home use. If home care services are preferentially allocated to disabled elderly who live alone, resources may flow to higher income individuals who have been able to maintain independent households. PMID:10317709

  20. Bell v. Low Income Women of Texas.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    Court Decision: 95 South Western Reporter, 3d Series 253; 2002 Dec 31 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of Texas reversed a lower court and held that the Texas Medical Assistance Program's restrictions on abortion funding for indigent women were constitutional because they did not violate the U.S. Equal Rights Amendment, the constitutional right to privacy, or the Texas Equal Protection Clause. The plaintiffs challenged the constitutionality of Texas's Medicaid program's funding restrictions which only provided funding for medically necessary abortions if the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest, or if the woman was in danger of death. The court held that the restrictions did not violate the Equal Rights Amendment because there was no evidence of discriminatory intent and the restrictions were rationally related to legitimate governmental purposes of only funding services for which federal reimbursement is available and of encouraging childbirth and protecting potential life. The court noted that the state may make a value judgment favoring childbirth and may implement that judgment through the allocation of public funds. The court also held that the restrictions did not violate the right to privacy because there is a fundamental difference between prohibiting abortion and encouraging childbirth as a matter of policy in the public interest. Moreover, the indigent woman retained the same range of choice she would have had if the state did not subsidize any health care costs. Finally, the court held that the restrictions did not violate the Equal Protection Clause because the underlying purpose of Texas's Medicaid Program was to provide indigent health care only to the extent that matching federal funds were available and the restrictions were rationally related to this underlying purpose.

  1. Factors influencing the general well-being of low-income Korean immigrant elders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2011-07-01

    This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of English proficiency and longer residence in the United States were significant predictors of higher anxiety, higher depression,lower self-control,lower vitality, and lower general health among Korean immigrant elders. Losing a spouse was a significantly negative factor in vitality. Financial problems were significantly associated with lower positive well-being. Social support was a significant factor in lower anxiety, lower depression, higher positive well-being, higher self-control, and higher vitality. Spiritual coping was significantly associated with lower anxiety,lower depression, higher positive well-being, and higher vitality. The findings of this study show that low-income Korean immigrant elders are at high risk for psychological and physical health problems influenced by difficulties with the acculturation or adjustment and socioeconomic stress of living in a new society. The study discusses essential implications for culturally competent social work practice among low-income Korean immigrant elders.

  2. Employment Options for Low-Income Women: Microenterprise versus the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Cynthia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study builds on research that examines the effects of microenterprise on poor women in the United States. Household income, income from the business, and poverty status were examined over time and comparisons were drawn among three groups of women: low-income women who participated in one of seven U.S. microenterprise assistance programs;…

  3. Employment Options for Low-Income Women: Microenterprise versus the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Cynthia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study builds on research that examines the effects of microenterprise on poor women in the United States. Household income, income from the business, and poverty status were examined over time and comparisons were drawn among three groups of women: low-income women who participated in one of seven U.S. microenterprise assistance programs;…

  4. Boomerang pillows and respiratory capacity in frail elderly women.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K L; Brittin, M; deClifford, J

    1995-11-01

    An exploratory study was done to determine whether frail elderly women placed on boomerang pillows would have an altered minute volume after 10 minutes. A convenience sample of 18 subjects took part in the study. A repeated measures design was used in which subjects served as their own controls. After 10 minutes on the boomerang pillows, there was a significant reduction in the minute volume of subjects. Boomerang pillows may be contraindicated in people with reduced lung capacity due to age; however, further research on a larger sample of frail elderly women is indicated.

  5. Physical abuse in low-income women in Aleppo, Syria.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Asfar, Taghrid

    2003-04-01

    Violence against women is a vicious practice present in all societies. Yet data about its occurrence and associated factors are scarce in the Arab world. In this study, we attempt to determine the spread of physical abuse and its sociodemographic correlates among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria. A sample of 411 women was recruited from 8 randomly selected primary care centers in Aleppo. Response rate was 97%, mean age of participants 28 +/- 8 years, and most women (88%) were married. A special questionnaire was used including questions about physical abuse, the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), and questions about relevant sociodemographic information. Current physical abuse (battering at least 3 times during the previous year) was found in 23% of the investigated and among 26% of married women, while regular abuse (battering at least once weekly) was found in 3.3% of married women. Correlates of physical abuse were women's education, religion, age, marital status, economic status, mental distress, smoking, and residence. Our data show that physical abuse is prevalent in this population and that women's education is the most important modifiable factor.

  6. Sleep Quality and Quantity in Low-Income Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jennifer J; Szabo, Aniko; Goyal, Deepika; Babler, Elizabeth

    To describe and explore patterns of postpartum sleep, fatigue, and depressive symptoms in low-income urban women. In this descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental study, participants were recruited from an inpatient postpartum unit. Subjective measures were completed by 132 participants across five time points. Objective sleep/wake patterns were measured by 72-hour wrist actigraphy at 4 and 8 weeks. Mean sample age was 25 years, high school educated with 3.1 children. Over half the sample reported an annual income less than 50% of the federal poverty level. Objectively, total nighttime sleep was 5.5 hours (week 4) and 5.4 hours (week 8). Subjectively, 85% met criteria for "poor sleep quality" at week 4, and nearly half were persistently and severely fatigued through 8 weeks postpartum. The majority (65%) of women in this study met the definition of "short sleep duration," defined as sleeping ≤ 6 hours per night. Adverse effects of this short sleep on physical and mental health as well as safety and functioning, especially within the context of poverty, may be profound. There is an urgent need for further research on sleep in low-income underrepresented women to identify interventions that can improve sleep and fatigue as well as discern the implications of sleep deprivation on the safety and physical and mental health of this population.

  7. Sudden death due to swimming in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Škavić, Petar; Duraković, Din

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to analyze the rate of sudden death in elderly Croatian women in comparison to elderly Croatian men, who died suddenly due to swimming. In the period from 2002 to 2011 one elderly Croatian woman and five elderly men died suddenly during swimming. In the same time, the same number of elderly foreigners died due to swimming at the Croatian Adriatic coast. One Croatian woman aged 66, who suffered of arterial hypertension with left ventricular hyper- trophy of 15 mm, diabetes mellitus and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, drowned in the sea during swimming. She was intoxi- cated with alcohol and had alcohol level in urine of 3.03 per thousand. One foreign woman, aged 82, who suffered coronary heart disease with left ventricular scar after myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension with excessive left ventricular hypertrophy of 22 mm and nephroangiosclerosis, suddenly lost conscionsness during swimming. The death rate in elderly Croatian women due to swimming reached 0.25, and the death rate in men is eight times higher: 1.97 (p = 0.0701), but the difference is not significant probably because of a small observational number.

  8. Heterogeneous impact of Taiwan's national health insurance on labor force participation of married women by income and family structures.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-An

    2011-02-01

    In this study, I investigate how the impact of the National Health Insurance (NHI) introduction in Taiwan in 1995 on the labor force participation (LFP) decisions of married women varies with income and family structures. Employing the difference-in-differences (DID) approach, I find that the NHI introduction reduced LFP of married women in the twenty-fifth to fiftieth percentiles of the income distribution between 17.8 and 21.7 percentage points (33%-40%). The difference-in-differences-in-differences (DIDID) results suggest that married women in different family structures (the presence of children under 3 or less healthy elderly household members) did not respond differently to the NHI introduction.

  9. [Economic potential of the elderly: changes in wealth, income, and expenditures].

    PubMed

    Fachinger, U

    2012-10-01

    Changes of wealth, income, and expenditure under the aspect of the economic potential of the elderly are considered in this article. Overall, it is shown that it is necessary to take a skeptical view regarding the conclusions about an on-going positive development of the economic potential. On the one hand, the reduction of the statutory pension level will lead to a reduction of the household income because pensions from the statutory old age pension systems will continue be the main component of household income after retirement. On the other hand, the inequality of the old age income distribution will rise because of the different adjustments of old age income. The expenditures will change both the amount and the structure compared to today. Due to the reduction of the pension level and therewith the purchasing power, the amount of expenditures will decrease overall and the demand for luxuries will be lower. However, statements about the structural changes of consumption are hampered by the fact that not only material resources and the price of goods and services but other factors also influence demand. For example, the human capital of the elderly of the future will be different and cohort effects will potentially account for different demand behavior.

  10. Income inequality and elderly self-rated health in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-12-01

    To test the association between income inequality and elderly self-rated health and to propose a pathway to explain the relationship. We analyzed a sample of 2143 older individuals (60 years of age and over) from 49 distritos of the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. Bayesian multilevel logistic models were performed with poor self-rated health as the outcome variable. Income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) was found to be associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for age, sex, income and education (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% credible interval, 1.01-1.38). When the practice of physical exercise and homicide rate were added to the model, the Gini coefficient lost its statistical significance (P > .05). We fitted a structural equation model in which income inequality affects elderly health by a pathway mediated by violence and practice of physical exercise. The health of older individuals may be highly susceptible to the socioeconomic environment of residence, specifically to the local distribution of income. We propose that this association may be mediated by fear of violence and lack of physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clearance of the antihistamine doxylamine. Reduced in elderly men but not in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H; Greenblatt, D J; Scavone, J M; Burstein, E S; Ochs, H R; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1989-05-01

    A single oral dose of doxylamine succinate 25 mg was administered to 21 young (20 to 43 years) and 22 elderly (60 to 87 years) volunteers. Multiple plasma doxylamine concentrations were determined during a 30-hour period after each dose. Elderly and young women did not differ significantly in peak plasma doxylamine concentration (Cmax) [116 vs 103 micrograms/L], time to Cmax (tmax) [2.4 vs 2.4 h], elimination half-life (12.2 vs 10.1 h), volume of distribution (179 vs 176 L) or clearance (191 vs 218 ml/min). Cmax (107 vs 108 micrograms/L) and tmax (2.1 vs 1.6 h) also did not differ between elderly and young men. However, elderly men had reduced doxylamine clearance (174 vs 240 ml/min, p less than 0.02; 2.5 vs 3.2 ml/min/kg, p less than 0.07) and prolonged half-life (15.5 vs 10.2 h, p less than 0.05). The reduced doxylamine clearance and prolonged half-life in elderly men, but not in elderly women, is similar to results for many other drugs which are transformed by oxidation.

  12. Specific Aspects of Breast Cancer Therapy of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women, and its incidence increases with age. The average age at diagnosis is 61 years, and the majority of deaths occurs after the age of 65 years. Optimal approach to elderly women with breast cancer is still a major challenge. Elderly patients with cancer should have at least a brief geriatric assessment to detect potentially treatable problems not always adequately evaluated by the oncologists. Therapeutic nihilism should be avoided and effective treatment provided, unless there are compelling reasons against it. Sharing the care for the patient with geriatricians or primary care physicians trained in geriatrics should be considered for all vulnerable and frail elderly patients. PMID:27807536

  13. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574

  14. Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.

    2010-01-01

    Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…

  15. Through Wise Eyes: Thriving Elder Women's Perspectives on Thriving in Elder Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by increasing U.S. longevity and aging demographics, this phenomenological study explored what it is like for 13 women, 75-91, to thrive in elder adulthood. Through multiple interviews, projective inventories, and focus groups, 6 group patterns emerged: (a) vital involvement and service, (b) desire to learn, (c) appreciation of basic life…

  16. Through Wise Eyes: Thriving Elder Women's Perspectives on Thriving in Elder Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by increasing U.S. longevity and aging demographics, this phenomenological study explored what it is like for 13 women, 75-91, to thrive in elder adulthood. Through multiple interviews, projective inventories, and focus groups, 6 group patterns emerged: (a) vital involvement and service, (b) desire to learn, (c) appreciation of basic life…

  17. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatment in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Louise H.; Homan, Sharon M.; Campbell, Claudia; McSweeney, Maryellen; Gallagher, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims This study estimated the prevalence of twenty-two 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 744 low-income pregnant women and the frequency that women with psychiatric disorders received treatment. Method To identify psychiatric disorders, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was administered to Medicaid or Medicaid-eligible pregnant women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). The sample was stratified by the rural or urban location of the WIC sites in southeastern Missouri and the city of St. Louis. Eligible women were enrolled at each site until their numbers were proportional to the racial distribution of African American and Caucasian pregnant women served there. Results The 12-month prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders was 30.9%. Most common were affective disorders (13.6%), particularly major depressive disorder (8.2%) and bipolar I disorder (5.2%). Only 24.3% of those with a psychiatric disorder reported that they received treatment in the past year. Lifetime prevalence of at least one disorder was 45.6%, with affective disorders being the most frequent (23.5%). Caucasian women were more likely than African Americans to have at least one 12-month disorder, with the difference largely accounted for by nicotine dependence. Higher prevalence of lifetime disorders was also found in Caucasian women, particularly affective disorders and substance use disorders. There were no differences in the prevalence of 12-month or lifetime psychiatric disorders by the urban or rural residence of subjects. Conclusions With nearly one third of pregnant women meeting criteria for a 12-month psychiatric disorder and only one fourth receiving any type of mental health treatment, comprehensive psychiatric screening during pregnancy is needed along with appropriate treatment. PMID:20524895

  18. [A comparative study of institutionalized nonagenarian and younger elderly women].

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro Paulo; Gac, Homero; Hoyl, Trinidad; Carrasco, Marcela; Duery, Patricio; Cabezas, Mauricio; Petersen, Kristina; Dussaillant, Catalina; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    The number of nonagenarians is rapidly growing in Chile. This age group is mainly female, with higher frailty markers and in higher risk of being placed at nursing homes. To describe features of nonagenarian women and compare them with a group of women between 60-89 years, both living in nursing homes, in terms of disability and resource use at the institution. A total of 230 nonagenarian women and 460 women, aged 60-89 years, were evaluated in the nursing home Fundación Las Rosas de Ayuda Fraterna (only for poor elderly) in Santiago, Chile. The assessment instruments were the Geriatric Assessment instrument FEGAUC, functional and mental evaluation scales of Spanish Red Cross and the Resource Utilization System, RUG T18, an independent diagnostic classification system that allows the determination of resource use in terms of cost and personnel needs. Nonagenarian women had significantly (p <0.05) more disability (falls, urinary incontinence, memory problems and mobility difficulties), and were classified in RUG categories of higher resource utilization and dependency than younger women. Nevertheless, nonagenarians were a very heterogeneous group, almost half of them were able of moving by themselves or required little assistance and had minimal memory problems. Nonagenarian women assessed in this institution are an heterogeneous group, some with minimal disability and other more frail and dependent than the younger elderly women, being classified in higher categories of resource utilization RUG T18.

  19. The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zahra; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Akbari, Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly. Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women’s happiness. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test. Results: From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times. Conclusions: The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions. PMID:26734470

  20. Grip strength norms for elderly women.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patrick; Bohannon, Richard; Pescatello, Linda; Marschke, Lisa; Hasson, Scott; Murphy, Mary

    2004-12-01

    As part of community health screenings, the grip strength of 113 independently ambulatory women (M age=75.2 +/- 7.3 yr.) was measured. Norms derived from the measurements are presented and compared with (a) norms reported for similar procedures about 20 years ago and (b) values for disabled women.

  1. Gait analysis of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aenon; Park, Junhyuck; Lee, Seungwon

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate ability and muscle activities of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare them with those of healthy ones. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen female patients with TKA due to advanced degenerative arthritis of the measured on knee joint and 19 healthy elderly females participated. Tibiofemoral angles of TKA patients were using a gait analysis system anterioposterior X-rays of the weight-bearing knee. The knee flexion angle and gait parameters were measured. Muscle activities and prolongation time were EMG system. The gait of the treated limb of each participant was evaluated in three consecutive trials at fast speed and comfortable speed. [Results] The knee flexion angle %stance phase, stride length, step length, speed, cadence, and gait cycle significantly decreased at both the fast speed and comfortable speeds, and the onset and duration time of rectus femoris activity was significantly increased at the comfortable speed in the TKA group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, elderly women who received TKA showed decreased gait ability and muscle activity compared to the healthy elderly women.

  2. Gait analysis of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aenon; Park, Junhyuck; Lee, Seungwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate ability and muscle activities of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare them with those of healthy ones. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen female patients with TKA due to advanced degenerative arthritis of the measured on knee joint and 19 healthy elderly females participated. Tibiofemoral angles of TKA patients were using a gait analysis system anterioposterior X-rays of the weight-bearing knee. The knee flexion angle and gait parameters were measured. Muscle activities and prolongation time were EMG system. The gait of the treated limb of each participant was evaluated in three consecutive trials at fast speed and comfortable speed. [Results] The knee flexion angle %stance phase, stride length, step length, speed, cadence, and gait cycle significantly decreased at both the fast speed and comfortable speeds, and the onset and duration time of rectus femoris activity was significantly increased at the comfortable speed in the TKA group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, elderly women who received TKA showed decreased gait ability and muscle activity compared to the healthy elderly women. PMID:25931687

  3. Determinants of coronary heart disease risk for women on a low income: literature review.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Ann

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review of the determinants of health and health behaviour relevant to coronary heart disease risk for women living on a low income. Coronary heart disease is now recognized as the biggest killer of women in both developed and developing countries. As in men, women's mortality rates for coronary heart disease seem to be directly related to income inequality and social deprivation. The Medline, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Psychinfo and Web of Science databases were searched from 1996 to 2006 using the search terms 'women and CHD risk', 'women and health behaviour', 'women low income and health behaviour', 'women low income and smoking', 'women low income and diet' and 'women low income and exercise'. In relation to the wider determinants of health 'women low income and CHD', 'women education and CHD', 'women employment and CHD' and 'women housing and CHD'. Seminal research reports before this period were included if they proved highly influential on later research. A narrative review was conducted. All the wider determinants of health considered had a negative impact on heart disease risk for women living on low incomes. The latter also appears to have a negative impact on health behaviour. Although the impact of the wider determinants of health on coronary heart disease risk are well-understood, their impact on health behaviour (specifically diet, exercise and smoking) is less well-understood. If effective interventions are to be designed to tackle inequalities in health, then this deficiency needs to be addressed urgently.

  4. [Therapeutic Strategies. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia in elderly and women].

    PubMed

    Morales, Clotilde; Royuela, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    The management of cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia are justified in guidelines. In the elderly, when they are in primary prevention, recommendations are controversial, even if there is evidence in reducing morbidity. In secondary prevention, between 65 and 85 years, there is enough evidence to recommend statins. The decision to start or to continue further treatment must be complemented by comprehensive assessment of the risk-benefit factor. In elderly patients we have to support in decision-making, we take clinical judgment and not just the age criteria. In women the risk is underestimated and may be untreated. The recomendations are the same as in men. During pregnancy there are particular recommendations.

  5. Household electromagnetic fields and breast cancer in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Beniashvili, Djemal; Avinoach, Ilana; Baazov, David; Zusman, Itshak

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of household low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) and incidences of mammary tumors was studied in 1290 clinical case-records of female patients aged 60 and more over a period of 26 years, based on the materials of the Edith Wolfson Medical Center, Israel. The studied material was divided into two groups, each corresponding to a period of 13 years. Group I included patients with mammary tumors under observation from 1978 to 1990, who rarely used EMF-generating appliances. Group II consisted of patients being under observation in the period between 1991 and 2003, characterized by much more extensive use of personal computers (more than 3 hours a day), mobile telephones, television sets, air conditioners and other household electrical appliances generating EMF. 200,527 biopsy and surgery samples were analyzed. Mammary tumors were found in 2824 women (1.4%), of which 1290 cases (45.6%) were observed in elderly women. Most of the observed tumors--1254 (97.2%)--were epithelial neoplasms. Mammary tumors were found in 585 elderly women in Group I and 705 women in Group II. The case records of these patients showed that 114 elderly women (19.5%) in Group I and 360 (51.1%) in Group II were regularly exposed to EMF (mostly from personal computers) for at least 3 hours a day (chi2=57.2, p<0.001). There was a statistically significant influence of EMF on the formation of all observed epithelial mammary tumors in Group II. This influence is most evident for invasive ductal carcinomas, which was the commonest form of cancer in elderly women.

  6. Cough physiology in elderly women with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infections.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Fennelly, Kevin; Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Adams, Sherry; Condrey, Jillian; Hosford, Jennifer L; Davenport, Paul W

    2017-05-01

    Elderly white, thin, nonsmoking women appear to be more susceptible to lung infections with Mycobacterium avium complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It has been postulated that such disease in women is related to suppression of their cough. We hypothesized that patients with pulmonary NTM (pNTM) infections may have altered cough physiology compared with unaffected control subjects. We used capsaicin-induced cough to assess the cough reflex in pNTM subjects. Eight elderly white women with stable chronic pNTM infections and six unaffected age-matched control subjects were recruited. There was no significant difference between groups in capsaicin-elicited cough motor response, airflow pattern, or cough frequency. The urge-to-cough (UTC) score at the lowest capsaicin concentration was significantly lower in pNTM than control subjects (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the UTC score between pNTM and control subjects at >50 μM capsaicin. These results suggest lower UTC sensitivity to the lowest concentration of capsaicin in pNTM than control subjects. In other words, the pNTM subjects do not sense a UTC when the stimulus is relatively small.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study investigates the cough motor response and cough sensitivity in patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. In elderly white female pulmonary NTM subjects, we demonstrated a capacity to produce coughs similar to that of age-matched control subjects but decreased cough sensitivity in response to a low dose of capsaicin compared with control subjects. These findings are important to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms resulting in NTM disease in elderly white women and/or the syndrome developing in elderly white female NTM patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The Impact of Reagan Economics on Aging Women: Oregon. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, Portland, Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    In this report transcripts of panel discussions dealing with the status of elderly women in Oregon are presented in relation to current political legislation and policy. Following opening statements by Representatives Ron Wyden and Don Bonker, issues of social security and income maintenance are addressed by representatives of the Older Women's…

  8. Special situations in epilepsy: women and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Forcadas, María Isabel; Peña Mayor, Pilar; Salas Puig, Javier

    2007-11-01

    The treatment of epilepsy requires special considerations for certain groups of patients. In this review we will address some of these situations, such as epilepsy in women and the elderly. Epilepsy in women has specific implications, because a significant proportion of women will present epilepsy during reproductive age, affecting contraception, pregnancy, fetal development, and lactation. Moreover, the influence of sex hormones on the evolution of epilepsy is known, as well as the effects of treatment with antiepileptic drugs on fertility, endocrine function and possible adverse effects on weight, to say nothing of cosmetic aspects, sexual function, and bone metabolism. All these factors must be taken into account in the treatment and monitoring of women with epilepsy. The incidence of epilepsy is greater in the elderly than in other population groups and is under diagnosed. The special characteristics of this population, such as the presence of concomitant diseases or greater sensitivity to adverse effects, requires a thorough knowledge of the different options of antiepileptic drugs for each situation. This article reviews the different types of epilepsy most frequently observed in the elderly, etiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

  9. Upstream Solutions: Does the Supplemental Security Income Program Reduce Disability in the Elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Pamela; Schoeni, Robert F; House, James S

    2008-01-01

    Context The robust relationship between socioeconomic factors and health suggests that social and economic policies might substantially affect health, while other evidence suggests that medical care, the main focus of current health policy, may not be the primary determinant of population health. Income support policies are one promising avenue to improve population health. This study examines whether the federal cash transfer program to poor elderly, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, affects old-age disability. Methods This study uses the 1990 and 2000 censuses, employing state and year fixed-effect models, to test whether within-state changes in maximum SSI benefits over time lead to changes in disability among people aged sixty-five and older. Findings Higher benefits are linked to lower disability rates. Among all single elderly individuals, 30 percent have mobility limitations, and an increase of $100 per month in the maximum SSI benefit caused the rate of mobility limitations to fall by 0.46 percentage points. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses. First, analyses limited to those most likely to receive SSI produced larger effects, but analyses limited to those least likely to receive SSI produced no measurable effect. Second, varying the disability measure did not meaningfully alter the findings. Third, excluding the institutionalized, immigrants, individuals living in states with exceptionally large benefit changes, and individuals living in states with no SSI supplements did not change the substantive conclusions. Fourth, Medicaid did not confound the effects. Finally, these results were robust for married individuals. Conclusions Income support policy may be a significant new lever for improving population health, especially that of lower-income persons. Even though the findings are robust, further analyses are needed to confirm their reliability. Future research should examine a variety of different income support policies, as

  10. Systematic bias in self-reported annual household incomes among unpartnered elderly cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Rankin, Sally H; Carroll, Diane L

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine whether specific patient characteristics were associated with not reporting individual incomes among elderly unpartnered cardiac patients. Two hundred forty-seven unpartnered patients (age, >/=65 years) who were admitted with coronary artery disease to one of five university medical centers were interviewed during their hospitalization. Their average age was 76 years (SD = 6.3 years, range = 65-101 years). Of the sample, approximately 34% were men, 92% were Caucasian, 19% had less than 12 years of education, and 55% had at least 12 years (but not more than 16 years) of education. Approximately 13% of the patients did not report their annual household income. In a logistic regression analysis, higher education and greater social and economic satisfaction were significantly related to refusal to self-report income after controlling for age and sex (p < .05). The interaction between education and sex was not significant in the model (p > .05). Our findings indicate that there was a potential systematic bias regarding self-reporting of annual household income. Thus, this systematic bias needs to be examined before performing a multivariate analysis that includes income as a covariate.

  11. Correlates for healthful snacking among middle-income midwestern women.

    PubMed

    Schunk, Johanna M; McArthur, Laura H; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy A

    2009-01-01

    To assess snacking patterns, self-efficacy, barriers, stage of change, and awareness of healthful snacks among middle-income midwestern women. Self-administered questionnaire. An urban church. Convenience sample of 56 women, mean age 43.9 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 25.9 kg/m(2). A snack quality index (SQI) assessed healthfulness of snack choices; subscales identified self-efficacy and barriers; and a test measured knowledge of healthful snacks. SQI scores were based on energy density and frequency of consumption. Correlations identified associations between SQI scores and self-efficacy and barriers. Analysis of variance identified significant differences between subscale scores for self-efficacy and barriers. Statistical significance was P < .05. The mean SQI score was 64.9%. Participants felt least confident to choose healthful snacks when experiencing negative emotions, and the most important barrier to healthful snacking was an unfavorable taste perception. The majority of the women (86%) were in the pre-action and 14% in the action stages of change for healthful snacking. The mean score on the snack knowledge test was 84.2%. These women need information concerning snacks high in fiber and low in trans fat, and interventions for enhancing self-confidence for healthful snack selection under challenging circumstances and for overcoming barriers.

  12. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they

  13. Mortality in elderly men and women in a Swedish municipality.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, T M; Isacson, D G; Thorslund, M

    1998-09-01

    to analyse the relationship between age, self-rated global health, morbidity, mobility, life satisfaction, marital status, social network and 6-year mortality in elderly men and women living at home. the study area was a municipality in mid-eastern Sweden with a population of about 21,000. Data from interviews with non-institutionalized people aged 75 years and older in 1986 (n = 421) were linked to an individual-based research registry of prescription drug purchases. The elderly subjects were followed for 6 years. Information on mortality was obtained from the national cause of death register. A combined measure of morbidity captured both self-reported symptoms/diseases and prescription drugs. mortality was higher in men than women (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis. Among elderly men, morbidity-related factors-self-rated global health, heart problems and diabetes mellitus, for example--were the most important predictors of mortality. Among women, the predictors were spread over more domains (morbidity, mobility, social network).

  14. Balance training in elderly women using public parks.

    PubMed

    Leiros-Rodríguez, Raquel; García-Soidan, José L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a balance training program developed in public parks on functionality and general state of health in elderly women. It was a randomized controlled trial. Women older than 65 years (n = 28; 68.5 ± 2.9) participated in a balance training program that lasted 6 weeks, with sessions taking place twice a week (12 exercises/session, 50 min). Balance was analyzed by the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up & Go Test. The generic health status was measured by the SF-12 Health Survey. These tests showed statistically significant differences in the experimental group (p < .05). Public parks are adequate installations for developing balance.

  15. Nonsurgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Parker, William P; Griebling, Tomas Lindor

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in elderly women with significant associated morbidity. Incontinence can by grouped into several types: stress incontinence, urgency incontinence, overflow incontinence, functional incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. Careful evaluation, including history and physical examination, is critical to making the correct diagnosis and guiding therapy. A variety of nonsurgical treatments, including behavioral therapies, pelvic floor muscle exercise, medications, and other treatments, are available; can be successful for many older women; and may preclude the need for surgery. Working closely with the patient, understanding her goals of care, and targeting treatments accordingly are essential for success.

  16. Elderly Mexican women's perceptions of exercise and conflicting role responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, B C; Jirovec, M M

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore elderly Mexican women's readiness to exercise, and their multiple roles. Fifty older women were sampled from two separate neighborhoods of low socio-economic status. Readiness to exercise was examined using the Stages of Change - Exercise instrument with six categories: precontemplation nonbelievers, precontemplation believers, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Time devoted to the following functional roles was explored: wife, household, grandmother, personal care, and recreational. Women fell mainly under the first three stages of change both, precontemplation nonbelievers and believers, and the contemplation stage. The stages of change scale and role commitments were not significantly related. Nevertheless, precontemplators devoted less time in all the roles than the women in the other categories of stage of change.

  17. [Induced abortion among low income women: dimensions of the problem].

    PubMed

    Martins, I R; Costa, S H; Freitas, S R; Pinto, C S

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of abortion, especially induced abortion among low income women. The discussion is based on survey data collected between 1984 and 1985 in seven slum communities (favelas) situated in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Despite restrictive law, induced abortion is extremely frequent. Among married women 21.4 per cent reported experience of induced abortion. Most abortions were performed by physicians, however the quality of care of these procedures can be questioned since almost all induced abortions are illegal there is no possible supervision by health authorities. The incidence of post-abortion complication is very high, especially for those performed by traditional midwifes or by the woman herself. More than 60 per cent of the women were not using contraception at the time of pregnancy. About, 21 per cent reported that they were using the pill. Such a high pill failure rate is inacceptable, and probably was related to incorrect use. This points to the need for a better access to family planning care within the health services. The consequences of the restrictive abortion laws in Brazil are also discussed. Restrictions that in practice prove to have little impact on the practice of induced abortion, appear to be very effective in brooding even more the social-economic inequalities.

  18. Women, Poverty, and Educational Success: A Critical Exploration of Low-Income Women's Experience in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Kate R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…

  19. Women, Poverty, and Educational Success: A Critical Exploration of Low-Income Women's Experience in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Kate R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…

  20. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Korean Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310

  1. [Analysis of the self-medication pattern among Brazilian elderly women].

    PubMed

    Bortolon, Paula Chagas; de Medeiros, Eloá Fátima Ferreira; Naves, Janeth Oliveira Silva; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Nóbrega, Otávio de Tolêdo

    2008-01-01

    The elderly consume more medications than other age groups, being susceptible to irrational use of therapeutic drugs. This work describes a cross-sectional study that evaluated self-medication practiced by elderly women, who were assisted at the Elderly Care Facility of the hospital of the Catholic University of Brasilia. The socio-economical variables analyzed were age group, educational level and monthly family income. The pharmaceuticals were evaluated according to prevalence, suitability for the age group and possible drug interactions. Among the 218 patients interviewed, 26% declared self-medication practices, part of them (40%) were prescription drugs. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic drugs were the most frequently consumed without professional orientation, followed by phytotherapeutic/natural and cardiovascular agents. Among the self-medicated patients 65% had incomplete or no formal basic education whereas 32% had earnings equal to or inferior to one minimum wage. The mean consumption of drugs by self-medication was not influenced by socio-economical variables. The practice of self-medication involves potentially harmful drug interactions and use of agents inappropriate for the age group.

  2. Training response speed in young and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, F W; Hoyer, W J; Treat, N J; Baltes, P B

    Effectiveness of response speed training on the performance of thirty adult women was assessed. Five young and five elderly female volunteers were tested in each of three experimental conditions: (1) one training session with cognitive feedback in which participants were given response rate information (control); (2) five training sessions with cognitive feedback (practice); or (3) five training sessions with cognitive feedback in which the number of S&H green stamp units earned was directly proportional to response rate (conjugate reinforcement). Dependent variables were (a) response speed on three paper-pencil tasks, and (b) postraining performance on twelve intelligence subtests chosen as far transfer tasks. Response speed increased significantly with training in both age groups, but contrary to expectation, young adults showed greater training effects than elderly adults. No significant far transfer effects were obtained.

  3. 78 FR 17631 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S... Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC). These income eligibility...

  4. Depressive symptoms in low-income women in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Fernald, Lia C; Hubbard, Alan E

    2007-11-01

    Depression is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. This paper reports a cross-sectional analysis of demographic, socioeconomic, physical, and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms among poor women in rural Mexico. A cross-sectional study of 5457 women, age 20-70 years, were interviewed from a random sample of households from 279 poor communities with fewer than 2500 inhabitants in 7 rural Mexican states. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spanish translation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Several other individual- and household-level variables were also obtained. Using hierarchical modeling, linear regression analysis, and population intervention model parameters, we explored correlates of depressive symptoms in this population. Most of the variation in depressive symptoms was at the individual level. Psychosocial factors were most strongly correlated with depressive symptoms; perceived stress, lack of personal control or social support, and low social status exhibited the strongest associations. Using the US-based standard Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression cutoff score of 16, 51% of this population fall into the category "at risk" for clinical depression; however, this cutoff may not be the most appropriate in this context. This sample of low-income women in rural Mexico reported a relatively high prevalence of depressive symptoms. The analyses suggest that reducing perceived stress would have the largest potential impact on depressive symptoms in this population. However, any interventions should take into account the broad context of the population's overall health. The alleviation of poverty, improvement of educational opportunities, and other interventions to address root causes of poor mental health must also be considered.

  5. Do age-friendly characteristics influence the expectation to age in place? A comparison of low-income and higher income Detroit elders.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J; Smith, Richard J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2015-03-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place.

  6. Do Age-Friendly Characteristics Influence the Expectation to Age in Place? A Comparison of Low-Income and Higher Income Detroit Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lehning, Amanda J.; Smith, Richard J.; Dunkle, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place. PMID:24652879

  7. What do pregnant low-income women say about breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Ashley; Dowling, Donna; Furman, Lydia

    2010-02-01

    Although low socioeconomic status and African-American race have been shown to be risk factors for low rates of breastfeeding, maternal reasons for selection of infant feeding method are not well understood in these populations. Healthy women > or =15 years of age receiving routine obstetrical care from nurses and nurse midwives at the outpatient clinic of MacDonald Women's Hospital, Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH were surveyed using a questionnaire interview including Likert-scaled and open-ended questions. All responses to the six open-ended queries were transcribed. Content analysis was used to categorize these responses into three to seven descriptive themes for each question. The authors and two other clinically experienced reviewers participated in theme development, which involved categorization by individual reviewers and then by the group; a full consensus was achieved at each stage. University Hospitals Institutional Review Board approved the study. Of 186 eligible women, 179 (96%) consented, and 176 (95%) were interviewed. Median age was 22 years (range, 15-41 years), 68 (41%) had greater than a high school education, 167 (95%) were African-American, 167 (non-identical 95%) were unmarried, and 87 (49%) were multiparous. When interviewees were asked, "What is the biggest reason you want to breastfeed?," responses included maternal reasons, infant-related reasons, and advice of others. When women were asked, "What would stop you from breastfeeding?," responses included lifestyle reasons, pain-related reasons, lactation process issues, hypothetical medical reasons, and maternal reluctance. Expectant low-income African-American inner-city women appear well informed about the benefits of breastfeeding. Obstacles to breastfeeding that may be susceptible to intervention include fear of pain, lifestyle issues, and lactation process concerns. "I want to breastfeed because I don't want to get up in the middle of the night." "I wouldn't breastfeed if it hurt

  8. The income and wealth packages of older women in cross-national perspective.

    PubMed

    Gornick, Janet C; Sierminska, Eva; Smeeding, Timothy M

    2009-05-01

    We assess the income and wealth packages of older women's (age 65+ years) households and the extent to which low income is paired with low wealth, across a group of six high-income countries. We use data on income and net worth from the Luxembourg Wealth Study, a new cross-national microdatabase. We define income poverty as having household income less than 50% of the national median and asset poverty as holding financial assets equivalent to less than 6 months of income at the poverty threshold. Older women typically have less income than do members of younger households at the national median, but their wealth holdings are generally much higher than their country's median wealth holdings. Older women's households in the United States report the highest net worth across these countries, in part because older American women have comparatively high rates of homeownership. However, American older women are also substantially more likely to be income poor. They also report high levels of asset poverty, as do women across all our comparison countries, with Sweden as a partial exception. Further research is needed to identify the most vulnerable subgroups, to integrate analyses of necessary expenditures, and to assess policy implications.

  9. Correlation between static balance and functional autonomy in elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Noronha Ribeiro Daniel, Fernanda; de Souza Vale, Rodrigo Gomes; Giani, Tania Santos; Bacellar, Silvia; Escobar, Tatiane; Stoutenberg, Mark; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify the correlation between static balance and functional autonomy in elderly women. The sample was a random selection of 32 sedentary elderly women (mean age=67.47 ± 7.37 years, body mass index=BMI=27.30 ± 5.07 kg/m(2)), who live in the city of Teresina in the state of Piauí, Brazil. Static balance was analyzed by stabilometric assessment using an electronic baropodometer which measured the average of the amplitude of postural oscillations in the right (RLD) and left (LLD) lateral displacements, anterior (AD) and posterior (PD) displacements, and in the elliptical area (EA) formed by the body's center of gravity. Functional autonomy was evaluated by a battery of tests from the LADEG protocol which is composed of: a 10 m walk (10 mW), getting up from a seated position (GSP), getting up from the prone position (GPP), getting up from a chair and movement around the house (GCMH), and putting on and taking off a shirt (PTS). The Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) indicated a positive and significant correlation between GPP and LLD (r=0.382; p=0.031), GPP and PD (r=0.398; p=0.024) and GPP and EA (r=0.368; p=0.038). These results show that sedentary elderly women who spent the greatest amount of time performing the GPP test achieved the largest mean amplitude of displacement leading to greater levels of instability.

  10. Inpatient procedures in elderly women: an analysis over time.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Sallie S; Ghetti, Chiara; McGough, Richard L; Wang, Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Lowder, Jerry L

    2013-08-01

    To describe inpatient surgical and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures in women ≥65 years old and assess procedure trends over time. Procedure data for all women ≥65 years was collected using the National Hospital Discharge Survey, a federal dataset drawn from a representative sampling of U.S. inpatient hospitals which includes patient and hospital demographics and ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes for admissions from 1979 to 2006. Age-adjusted rates (AAR) per 1000 women were created using 1990 U.S. Census data to compare trends over time. Over 96 million procedures were performed in women age≥65 years from 1979 to 2006. Women age≥65 years constituted 17% of women with ≥1 inpatient procedure in 1979, rising to 32% in 2006. The most common surgical procedures were lower extremity joint replacement, open reduction internal fixation, and cholecystectomy. The most common concurrent diagnosis was femoral neck fracture. Women with femoral neck fracture were more likely to undergo open reduction internal fixation compared to joint replacement. AARs for ORIF fell from 4.3 to 3.2 (p=.02) from 1979 to 2006, while AARs for joint replacement increased from 0.2 to 3.4 (p≤.001, 1979-1988; p=.14, 1990-2006). The rate of women age≥65 years undergoing inpatient procedures has increased dramatically in the last 30 years. Hip fracture was the most common diagnosis for elderly women, highlighting the impact of osteoporosis and falls and the importance of prevention strategies and optimization of peri-operative care in this population. Further comparative study of hip fracture treatment strategies in this population is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-income women's perceptions of family planning service alternatives.

    PubMed

    Severy, L J; McKillop, K

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 665 low-income women from a predominantly rural area of north central Florida rated the value of 25 features of family planning providers and reported their perceptions of how characteristic each feature was of different types of providers. A well-trained, trustworthy and friendly staff, the presence of a doctor if you need one and a staff that is gentle with the examination were the most desirable features of family planning services. The respondents' perceptions of public health clinics suggest that the strongest qualities of such facilities are that they treat people from different backgrounds, accept Medicaid, are easy to find and teach you how to avoid pregnancy and how to take care of yourself and stay healthy. Features thought most characteristic of private physician services were a well-trained staff, privacy and the presence of a doctor if you need one. Voluntary organizations were seen as providing services for people of different backgrounds, having a friendly staff, serving as a referral agency and teaching about staying healthy and avoiding pregnancy. However, voluntary organizations were rated lower than public health clinics or private physicians on nearly all features. The total scores for public health clinics and private physicians were not significantly different from each other, but both were noticeably higher than the score for voluntary organizations. Ethnicity affected ratings dramatically, with black respondents clearly more favorable toward public health clinics and private physicians than white respondents; conversely, whites were more positive toward voluntary organizations than were blacks. For many of these low-income respondents, the high ratings of private physicians may have represented their expectations rather than their actual experience.

  12. Work and Elder Care: Facts for Caregivers and Their Employers. Facts on Working Women No. 98-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    As the elderly population continues to grow, more elderly persons are requiring assistance with activities of daily living. Women are the traditional caregivers to the elderly, and the many women who also participate in the paid labor force must face the challenges of meeting both work and family obligations. Types of elder care assistance not…

  13. The Lived Experience of Depression in Elderly African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; White, Tracela; Hannum, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article focuses on the lived experience of depression in 20 elderly African American women. Methods Data on depression emerged from research that qualitatively explored experiences of depression, sadness, and suffering in 120 community-dwelling persons aged 80 and older, stratified by gender, ethnicity, and self-reported health. Results We placed women’s narratives under three general themes: Depression was (a) linked with diminishment of personal strength, (b) related to sadness and suffering, and (c) preventable or resolvable through personal responsibility. Brief accounts illustrate how themes emerged in women’s discussion of depression. Discussion African American women created a language for depression that was rooted in their personal and cultural history and presented in vivid vignettes through their life stories. Their belief systems and the language they used to describe depression are integral aspects of the lived experience of depression. PMID:18079427

  14. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  15. "Dr. Right": Elderly Women in Pursuit of Negotiated Health Care and Mutual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kevin; Robertson, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a group of elderly women who were searching for physicians that were interested in providing negotiated health care options with particular interest in mutual decision making. The grounded theory approach was used to explore the health care interactions between the physicians and the elderly women (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).…

  16. "Dr. Right": Elderly Women in Pursuit of Negotiated Health Care and Mutual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kevin; Robertson, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a group of elderly women who were searching for physicians that were interested in providing negotiated health care options with particular interest in mutual decision making. The grounded theory approach was used to explore the health care interactions between the physicians and the elderly women (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).…

  17. Molecular mechanisms of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Föger-Samwald, Ursula; Vekszler, György; Hörz-Schuch, Edith; Salem, Sylvia; Wipperich, Markus; Ritschl, Peter; Mousavi, Mehdi; Pietschmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A common manifestation of age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis are fractures of the hip. Age-related osteoporosis is thought to be determined by a number of intrinsic factors including genetics, hormonal changes, changes in levels of oxidative stress, or an inflammatory status associated with the aging process. The aim of this study was to investigate gene expression and bone architecture in bone samples derived from elderly osteoporotic women with hip fractures (OP) in comparison to bone samples from age matched women with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA). Femoral heads and adjacent neck tissue were collected from 10 women with low-trauma hip fractures (mean age 83±6) and consecutive surgical hip replacement. Ten bone samples from patients undergoing hip replacement due to osteoarthritis (mean age 80±5) served as controls. One half of each bone sample was subjected to gene expression analysis. The second half of each bone sample was analyzed by microcomputed tomography. From each half, samples from four different regions, the central and subcortical region of the femoral head and neck, were analyzed. We could show a significantly decreased expression of the osteoblast related genes RUNX2, Osterix, Sclerostin, WNT10B, and Osteocalcin, a significantly increased ratio of RANKL to Osteoprotegerin, and a significantly increased expression of the enzymes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase GPX3, and of the inflammatory cytokine IL6 in bone samples from hip fracture patients compared to controls. Major microstructural changes in OP bone were seen in the neck and were characterized by a significant decrease of bone volume, trabecular number, and connectivity density and a significant increase of trabecular separation. In conclusion, our data give evidence for a decreased expression of osteoblast related genes and increased expression of osteoclast related genes. Furthermore, increased expression of SOD2 and GPX3 suggest increased

  18. A comparison of the clinical characteristics of elderly and non-elderly women with community-onset, non-obstructive acute pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, U-Im; Kim, Hyung Wook; Noh, Yong-sun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is the most common cause of community-onset bacteremia in hospitalized elderly patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in the clinical and microbiological data of hospitalized elderly and non-elderly women with community-onset APN. Methods Women with community-onset APN as a discharge diagnosis were identified from January 2004 to December 2013 using an electronic medical records system. We compared the clinical and microbiologic data in elderly and non-elderly women with community-onset APN due to Enterobacteriaceae. Results Of the 1,134 women with community-onset APN caused by Enterobacteriaceae, 443 were elderly and 691 were non-elderly women. The elderly group had a lower frequency of upper and lower urinary tract symptoms/signs than the non-elderly. The incidence of bacteremia, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, patients with a C-reactive protein (CRP) level ≥ 15 mg/dL, and patients with a leukocyte count ≥ 15,000/mm3 in the blood, were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the non-elderly group. The proportion of patients requiring hospitalization for 10 days or more was significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the non-elderly group (51.5% vs. 26.2%, p < 0.001). The clinical cure rates at 4 to 14 days after the end of therapy were 98.3% (338/344) and 97.4% (519/533) in the elderly and non-elderly groups, respectively (p = 0.393). Conclusions Elderly women with APN exhibit higher serum CRP levels, a higher frequency of bacteremia, a higher proportion of ESBL-producing uropathogens, and require a longer hospitalization than non-elderly women, although these patients may not complain of typical urinary symptoms. PMID:25995668

  19. A comparison of the clinical characteristics of elderly and non-elderly women with community-onset, non-obstructive acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, U-Im; Kim, Hyung Wook; Noh, Yong-sun; Wie, Seong-Heon

    2015-05-01

    Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is the most common cause of community-onset bacteremia in hospitalized elderly patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in the clinical and microbiological data of hospitalized elderly and non-elderly women with community-onset APN. Women with community-onset APN as a discharge diagnosis were identified from January 2004 to December 2013 using an electronic medical records system. We compared the clinical and microbiologic data in elderly and non-elderly women with community-onset APN due to Enterobacteriaceae. Of the 1,134 women with community-onset APN caused by Enterobacteriaceae, 443 were elderly and 691 were non-elderly women. The elderly group had a lower frequency of upper and lower urinary tract symptoms/signs than the non-elderly. The incidence of bacteremia, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, patients with a C-reactive protein (CRP) level ≥ 15 mg/dL, and patients with a leukocyte count ≥ 15,000/mm(3) in the blood, were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the non-elderly group. The proportion of patients requiring hospitalization for 10 days or more was significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the non-elderly group (51.5% vs. 26.2%, p < 0.001). The clinical cure rates at 4 to 14 days after the end of therapy were 98.3% (338/344) and 97.4% (519/533) in the elderly and non-elderly groups, respectively (p = 0.393). Elderly women with APN exhibit higher serum CRP levels, a higher frequency of bacteremia, a higher proportion of ESBL-producing uropathogens, and require a longer hospitalization than non-elderly women, although these patients may not complain of typical urinary symptoms.

  20. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  1. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  2. Elder Mistreatment in U.S. Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Women.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Chen, Ruijia; Simon, Melissa A

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment among community-dwelling Chinese women in the U.S. Data were from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE), a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above. Of the 1,833 older women, 289 (15.8%) reported suffering from elder mistreatment. Higher educational levels, lower overall health status, and worsening health over the past year were positively correlated with elder mistreatment, while a greater number of children and grandchildren were negatively correlated with elder mistreatment. Considerable efforts should be put into designing tailored interventions to reduce elder mistreatment in U.S. Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Balance and Muscle Strength in Elderly Women Who Dance Samba.

    PubMed

    Serra, Marcos Maurício; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Peterson, Mark; Mochizuki, Luis; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group-elderly participants of the carnival parades in the "Wing of Baianas", and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.04); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.007); larger amplitudes of medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.001); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.001); increased mean velocity (p < 0.01); and elliptical area (p < 0.01) There were no differences in the isokinetic peak torque corrected by body weight, total work and flexor/extensor ratio. Participation in the Wing of Baianas is associated with better balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength.

  4. Balance and Muscle Strength in Elderly Women Who Dance Samba

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Marcos Maurício; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Peterson, Mark; Mochizuki, Luis; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group—elderly participants of the carnival parades in the “Wing of Baianas”, and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.04); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.007); larger amplitudes of medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.001); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.001); increased mean velocity (p < 0.01); and elliptical area (p < 0.01) There were no differences in the isokinetic peak torque corrected by body weight, total work and flexor/extensor ratio. Participation in the Wing of Baianas is associated with better balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength. PMID:27906984

  5. Effectiveness of telemedicine: videoconferencing for low-income elderly with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hanna; Kim, Jeongeun

    2014-12-01

    Develop educational materials and a classification system for remote consultations and home-based healthcare through videoconferencing, manage the blood pressure of patients through a ubiquitous-health (u-health) service, and identify its effects on the blood pressure and level of depression of the service recipients (i.e., low-income elderly patients with hypertension). This study is a nonequivalent control group pre-test-post-test, quasi-experimental study. Low-income essential hypertensive patients above 65 years of age living in public rental housing were our target group. They were divided into two groups: an experimental group of 25 who had received blood pressure monitoring as well as inbound-outbound remote video consultation and a control group of 24 who received blood pressure monitoring through u-health equipment but no other management. In total, 16 sessions were conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. (1) The hypothesis that there would be a difference in the level of depression between the control group and the experimental group who received the u-health service was rejected because of the lack of a significant statistical difference (t=-0.142, p=0.889). However, there was a significant difference before and after the service in the experimental group (t=2.49, p=0.021). (2) Concerning the second hypothesis-that there would be a difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the control group and the experimental group-there was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (F=10.26, p=0.003), but diastolic blood pressure showed no significant difference (F=2.802, p=0.101). Thus, the hypothesis was partially adopted. (3) The third hypothesis stated that the rates of sleep (p=0.012) and hobbies (p=0.036) as aspects of a healthy lifestyle in the experimental group would be significantly higher than those of the control group. These findings confirm that the u-health nursing service via videoconferencing made a measurable

  6. Effectiveness of Telemedicine: Videoconferencing for Low-Income Elderly with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongeun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Develop educational materials and a classification system for remote consultations and home-based healthcare through videoconferencing, manage the blood pressure of patients through a ubiquitous-health (u-health) service, and identify its effects on the blood pressure and level of depression of the service recipients (i.e., low-income elderly patients with hypertension). Materials and Methods: This study is a nonequivalent control group pre-test–post-test, quasi-experimental study. Low-income essential hypertensive patients above 65 years of age living in public rental housing were our target group. They were divided into two groups: an experimental group of 25 who had received blood pressure monitoring as well as inbound–outbound remote video consultation and a control group of 24 who received blood pressure monitoring through u-health equipment but no other management. In total, 16 sessions were conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Results: (1) The hypothesis that there would be a difference in the level of depression between the control group and the experimental group who received the u-health service was rejected because of the lack of a significant statistical difference (t=−0.142, p=0.889). However, there was a significant difference before and after the service in the experimental group (t=2.49, p=0.021). (2) Concerning the second hypothesis—that there would be a difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the control group and the experimental group—there was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (F=10.26, p=0.003), but diastolic blood pressure showed no significant difference (F=2.802, p=0.101). Thus, the hypothesis was partially adopted. (3) The third hypothesis stated that the rates of sleep (p=0.012) and hobbies (p=0.036) as aspects of a healthy lifestyle in the experimental group would be significantly higher than those of the control group. Conclusions: These findings confirm

  7. Physical activity and nutritional weight loss interventions in obese, low-income women: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Moredich, Cheryl A; Kessler, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the United States and is considered a public health issue that disproportionally affects low-income women. Combating obesity among low-income women presents unique challenges that must be addressed if weight loss interventions are to be successful. The aim of this integrative review was to explore and synthesize the literature that addresses physical activity and nutrition interventions used to combat obesity in obese, low-income women. A search for original research published between 2006 and 2011 was conducted in online databases. In addition, a hand search of references was performed, and one author was contacted to clarify outcome data. Articles that met inclusion criteria targeted obese, low-income adult women; focused on physical activity or nutrition behavior as an intervention; and measured change in weight as a primary outcome. Studies that focused on women who were postpartum or breastfeeding and those that used pharmacologic or surgical interventions to augment weight loss were excluded. A total of 7 articles were chosen for critical appraisal. According to a synthesis of the current studies, specific weight loss interventions for physical activity and nutrition behavior change for obese, low-income women produced the desired outcome of weight loss. Participants among these studies voiced a preference for group interventions led by peers or medical professionals. Interventions led by peer educators were successful and had the advantage of lowering cost and increasing sustainability. Pragmatic nutrition education worked best, especially when cognizant of cost, food preferences, and culture. Even small increases in physical activity augmented weight loss; however, safety concerns prevented some low-income women from engaging in exercise. According to this synthesis of the best-available evidence, customized weight loss interventions are effective in obese, low-income women. By incorporating these evidence-based interventions

  8. The impact of minority group status on the projected retirement income of divorced women in the baby boom cohort.

    PubMed

    Butrica, Barbara A; Iams, Howard M

    2003-01-01

    Using projections from the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT1), we examine the characteristics and retirement income of white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic divorced women in the baby boom cohort. Although we find significant differences in retirement income for divorced women of different racial and ethnic groups, the characteristics associated with higher or lower retirement income are very similar. That is, being college educated, owning a home, and having pension and asset income, for example, correspond to increased retirement income for all racial and ethnic groups. However, because black and Hispanic women are less likely than white women to be college educated, to own their home, and to have pension and asset income, their retirement income tends to be lower than that of white women. We conclude the paper by briefly discussing policy options to address the retirement needs of divorced women.

  9. Achievement Values and Anomie Among Women in a Low-Income Housing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the results of an administration of Rosen's Achievement Values Scale and Srole's Anomie Scale to adult women residents of a low-income housing project indicated no intrinsic relationship between anomie and achievement values. (JM)

  10. Achievement Values and Anomie Among Women in a Low-Income Housing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the results of an administration of Rosen's Achievement Values Scale and Srole's Anomie Scale to adult women residents of a low-income housing project indicated no intrinsic relationship between anomie and achievement values. (JM)

  11. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  12. 76 FR 16599 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... income eligibility of persons applying to participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for...

  13. 77 FR 17006 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... determining the income eligibility of persons applying to participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition...

  14. Religious Involvement and Attitudes toward Parenting among Low-Income Urban Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Terrence D.; Burdette, Amy M.; Regnerus, Mark; Angel, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors employ data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project, a probability sample of 2,402 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, to test whether religious attendance is associated with parental satisfaction, perceived parental demands, and parental distress over 2 years.…

  15. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  16. [Syndrome of emotional burnout among women-physicians elderly].

    PubMed

    Myakotnykh, V S; Borovkova, T A

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of a comparative study of clinical symptoms of syndrome of emotional burnout among 84 working in the specialty physician of older women and 48 officially ceasing operations in this specialty. The findings suggest that burnout can take place among representatives of older age and more it is continued, provided professional activities. The cessation of the work activities leads to stress, often with the subsequent development post-traumatic stress disorder and stress-induced diseases. However in this case the clinical symptoms of the syndrome of emotional burnout, does not disappear, but only happens their clinical transformation attach various psychosomatic disorders. Thus, the elderly, suffering the syndrome of emotional burnout, are at high risk group with regard to the formation and development of diseases, associated with stress and require close monitoring in the framework of the compulsory program of medical examination.

  17. Apparel shopping behavior of elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, U

    1989-06-01

    70 interested elderly (65 yr. and over) men and women participated in an investigation of older consumers' apparel-shopping behavior and satisfactions and dissatisfactions with available clothing and facilities. Analysis showed that the participants considered shopping ease, wide variety, and label/brand as some of the important factors while shopping for clothes. The respondents were satisfied with good selection, closeness of the mall, and reasonable sales. However, their dissatisfactions ranged from service to fit and size, youthful styles, and abundance of imported clothing. In-store displays, mail order catalogs, and window shopping were the most commonly used sources of apparel information. Several implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for further research were made.

  18. The Relationship of Victimization Experiences to Psychological Well-Being among Homeless Women and Low-Income Housed Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The effects of stressful experiences on the psychological well-being of 113 homeless women and 116 low-income housed women were investigated. Measures of victimization assessed multiple dimensions of this construct, including criminal victimization, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse. Measures of daily environmental hassles and quality of family…

  19. Body image, body dissatisfaction, and eating attitudes in midlife and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D M; Cachelin, F M

    2001-01-01

    Cohort differences in body image, drive for thinness, and eating attitudes in middle-aged and elderly women were examined. Participants were 125 women between the ages of 50 and 65 (middle-aged group), and 125 women 66 years old and older (elderly group). Instruments used were figure ratings (Stunkard, Sorensen, & Schulsinger, 1983), and scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI; Garner,Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983). Items were developed to assess fear of aging. The middle-aged group, as compared to the elderly group, had more drive for thinness, disinhibited eating, and interoceptive confusion. The elderly group reported body size preferences and levels of body dissatisfaction that were similar to the younger women. There was a positive relationship between fear of aging and disordered eating. Sociocultural standards of body image and pressures toward thinness affect different generations of older women in similar ways.

  20. Preventing obesity: exercise and daily activities of low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Seonae; Logan, Jeongok G

    2014-01-01

    Low-income women are at risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular moderate exercise may contribute to the risk of weight gain. This study was conducted to (1) determine the rate and characteristics of low-income pregnant women who exercised regularly and met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation and (2) describe how these women spent time for other physical activities compared with those who did not exercise regularly. Medicaid-recipient or uninsured pregnant women (n = 816) were asked to complete a physical activity questionnaire at rural and urban county health departments located in North Carolina. Twenty percent of low-income women met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation for moderate exercise (≥10 METs-h/wk [metabolic equivalent task-hours per week]). The women who met the recommendation spent 3 hours 45 minutes per week walking as exercise, whereas those who did not meet the recommendation spent 1 hour per week (P < .0001). Women who exercised regularly spent longer hours at work (4.25 vs. 1.75 hours per day; P = .019) and on household tasks (5.25 vs. 4.0 hours per day; P = .002) than women who did not exercise regularly. Time spent on domestic and occupation activities does not seem to prohibit low-income women from engaging in moderate exercise on a regular basis.

  1. Relationship between health-related fitness and educational and income levels in Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, José M; Torres, Silvia; Caro, Berta; Escalante, Yolanda; De la Cruz, Ernesto; Durán, María J; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between health-related fitness, taken as an indicator of regular physical activity, and educational and income levels in adult Spanish women. Descriptive, correlation, cross-sectional study. A stepwise stratification procedure according to population size, age and level of physical activity according to a previous epidemiological survey was used for sampling. Two thousand and thirty-eight women gave their written consent to participate (62.8% of those invited). The final sample consisted of 1709 healthy women (aged 18-88 years). Subjects were categorized into high, medium and low level groups for education and income. All participants were assessed for morphological and physical health-related fitness. Three-way MANCOVA (age as covariate) and Bonferroni's post hoc test were used to determine the differences between groups. No significant relationships were found between age-adjusted educational and income levels. The lowest values for health-related fitness were found in the lowest educational and income groups (P<0.001). The higher the level of education and income, the better the values for all fitness variables (P<0.001), except anterior trunk flexibility. A positive relationship was found between health-related fitness and educational and income levels, which appeared to be most evident in the lowest educational and income groups. This implies that health-related promotion policies in Spain should stress the importance of regular physical activity in social classes with low levels of education and income.

  2. Food and Nutrient Intakes According to Income in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Inyoung; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Oh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated associations between income and intake of nutrients and food in adults (n = 11,063) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Methods To examine relationships between individual dietary intake and anthropometric measures and family income, multiple linear regression models were constructed for each outcome variable. All models were adjusted for age, education, energy intake, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. Results For men, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin C were lower in low-income compared to high-income groups. For women, intakes of protein and niacin were lower in low-income groups. Lowest income group ate less dairy products in men and less fruits and fishes or shellfishes in women. Conclusion Low-income groups had severe food insecurity and low diet quality compared to high-income groups. The study results will provide direction for public health efforts regarding dietary intakes according to economic status among Korean men and women. PMID:24159472

  3. Pill count adherence to prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Sunitha; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Cogswell, Mary E; Hartzema, Abraham G; Bentley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    In the United States, the prevalence of third trimester anemia among low-income pregnant women is 29% and has not improved since the 1980s. Although low adherence has been linked to the ineffectiveness of iron supplementation programs, data regarding adherence to supplementation in low-income women are currently lacking. Hence this study was conducted to better understand the factors associated with adherence to the use of iron-containing prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements among low-income pregnant women. Adherence to supplement use was assessed by pill counts among 244 pregnant women of 867 women who were initially randomized to receive 1 of 3 prenatal supplements. All women received care at a public prenatal clinic. Maternal characteristics associated with adherence were identified using predictive modeling. Women took 74% of supplements as prescribed. Adherence was higher among non-Hispanic white women than among non-Hispanic black women (79% vs. 72%, P women education beyond high school, unmarried status, nulligravidity, and smoking were positively associated with adherence. In contrast, among the black women, supplement use 3 mo prior to current pregnancy and no loss of appetite were positively associated with adherence. Further research investigating the influence of cultural factors is necessary to better understand adherence to supplement use and the differences in adherence among ethnic groups.

  4. Biological determinants of postural disorders in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lion, Alexis; Spada, Rosario S; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Anello, Guido; Bosco, Paolo; Calabrese, Santa; Iero, Antonella; Stella, Giuseppe; Elia, Maurizio; Perrin, Philippe P

    2013-01-01

    Postural control impairments and dizziness, which are major health problems with high secondary morbidity and mortality, increase with aging. Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is an age-related metabolic disorder, known to be involved in cardiovascular, neurological, and multisensory dysfunctions. Elevated Hcy level might be involved in sensory balance control systems impairment and dizziness occurrence. Dizziness, fitness Instrumental Activity of Daily Living scale (fitness IADL), systolic arterial pressure with ankle-brachial blood pressure index and homocysteinemia were studied in 61 noninstitutionized elderly women. Clinical balance tests (timed "Up and Go", 10-m walking and one-leg balance) and posturography (including sensory conflicting situations [SCS] and cognitive conflicting situations [CCS]) were performed. Clinical balance control was lower in dizzy women who presented particularly poor stability in SCS. Dizziness was related to low fitness IADL scores (odds ratio [OR] 0.452, 95% CI 0.216-0.946) and to elevated Hcy (OR 8.084, 95% CI 1.992-32.810). Elevated Hcy was correlated with balance disorders both in SCS and CCS. Dizziness is associated with a reduced ability in balance control management. Hcy is related both to dizziness and low postural performance. This relation between elevated Hcy levels and balance impairments, resulting in dizziness, may be explained by its angiotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

  5. The Relationship Context: Its Effects on Low-Income Women's Desire for a Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ellen K.; Koo, Helen P.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of relationship characteristics on a womans desire for a baby with her partner. This study addresses that gap, using data from a study of 1,114 low-income women in the southeast who were in a relationship. Controlling for sociodemographic factors, women who were in more established relationships, who had not had…

  6. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  7. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  8. Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence: How do Rural, Low-Income Women Cope?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721

  9. Identifying healthy eating strategies in low-income pregnant women: applying a positive deviance model.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Hendricks, Jennifer A; Walker, Lorraine O

    2005-10-01

    Using positive deviance methodology, we identified strategies that enabled some low-income pregnant women to eat healthy meals while others did not. We used a descriptive design consisting of small group interviews of low-income pregnant women and identified 6 of 18 women as eating healthy diets. Women with healthy diets knew to eat balanced meals, had family support, were willing to prepare foods that were different than other family members, and ate at home more frequently than women with unhealthy diets. Health care providers can use the positive deviance approach to guide the development of interventions to improve women's diets using community-specific solutions to enhance the health of mothers and infants.

  10. Stories of pain and health by elderly Pakistani women in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sverre, Beate Lie; Solbrække, Kari Nyheim; Eilertsen, Grethe

    2014-11-01

    This ethnographic study investigates the stories of elderly Pakistani women living in Norway. Migration studies indicate that elderly migrant women are passive, ill victims caught in a marginalized position due to age, ethnicity and gender, and thus have little access to opposition and agency. To broaden the picture it is necessary to develop an innovative approach to understand what is implicated in the process of migration. The importance of considering life conditions that surrounds potential health promotion behaviors of immigrants is stressed by several researchers. However, up to now limited research guided by this perspective has been done in Norway. Therefore, this study explored how elderly Pakistani women in Norway promote their health and well-being through some distinct social interactions. The intention is to bring awareness to how health, even by so-called disadvantaged social groups, may take place. These practices are important to take into consideration when developing health-promoting policies for elderly immigrants. An ethnographic study of 15 Pakistani women, aged 53-75, was carried out in a multisided fieldwork in Oslo using participant observation and ethnographic interviews. The analytical approach was inspired by the constructivist theoretical framework of narrative ethnography. The elderly Pakistani women in Norway construct stories of living in-between cultures and experiences of acculturative stress caused by being elderly, immigrants and women. However, this analysis also suggests that through distinct social relationships, primarily in the context of a voluntary organization, elderly Pakistani women do health by the way they interact and construct a repertoire of social identities. The healing practices taking place among elderly Pakistani women may counteract the negative health outcomes associated with age, migration and gender implications for immigrant health-promoting policy in Norway may be to increase the establishment and

  11. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  12. Prevention of domestic violence against women and children in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Erminia; Hassan, Ghayda

    2014-09-01

    Violence against women and children is increasingly recognized as an important and urgent public health, social and human rights issue cutting across geographical, socioeconomic and cultural boundaries. There is a large and growing body of literature that demonstrates the negative impact of such violence on the victim's mental and physical health, as well as several other consequences on them, their families and communities. However, this literature for the most part comes from the so-called 'developed countries'. This review, at the opposite, focused on current literature on prevention of domestic/family violence against children and women in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Establishing effective prevention programmes for domestic violence against women and children in LMICs requires an understanding of the sociopolitical, economic and cultural settings and a multilevel collaboration among various stakeholders. This review confirms the lack of research in the so-called 'developing countries' and provides suggestions for further research and prevention efforts in this setting.

  13. Perceived risk of cervical cancer among low-income women

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu, Gladys B.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Breitkopf, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk perception is an important predictor of cancer prevention behaviors. We examined perceived risk of cervical cancer among an ethnically diverse population of women of lower socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods Females attending a women's health clinic were recruited for a study addressing cervical cancer prevention. Survey questions evaluated lifetime perceived risk of cervical cancer (0% to 100%), beliefs about the accuracy of the Pap test, and estimated incidence of abnormal Pap test results. Risk estimates for oneself were followed with an item seeking a brief, qualitative explanation of the risk estimate. Results Surveys were completed by 338 women. The mean (M ±SD) age of respondents was 29.9 ±8.6 years. Women self-identified as Hispanic/Latina (32%, n=107), White (34%, n=116), and African American (34%, n=115). Estimated perceived lifetime risk of getting cervical cancer ranged from 0% to 100% (M=59.2 ±29.5). Risk estimates were associated with perceived prevalence of abnormal results, r=0.24, p<0.001, and perceptions regarding the accuracy of the Pap test, r=0.13, p<0.05. On average, women estimated that nearly half of all women have ever had an abnormal result (49.2 ± 26.9; n=335; range 0%-100%), with African-American women estimating a higher percentage compared to Hispanic/Latina and White women. Women who themselves experienced an abnormal Pap test result reported higher proportions of other women experiencing an abnormal result, t(333) = −3.67, p<0.01. Conclusions This study advances our understanding of misperception of risk and how women qualitatively view their risk of cervical cancer. The findings underscore areas for practitioners to enhance patient education efforts. PMID:24633172

  14. Lifestyle and Genetic Predictors of Stiffness Index in Community-dwelling Elderly Korean Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ae; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Suh, Min-Hee; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2015-09-01

    Differing lifestyle, nutritional, and genetic factors may lead to a differing stiffness index (SI) determined by quantitative ultrasound in elderly men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine SI and the gender-specific factors associated with low SI in a Korean elderly cohort. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study identifying the gender-specific factors related to SI in 252 men and women aged 65 years and greater from local senior centers in Seoul, Korea between January and February 2009. The mean SI of elderly men was significantly higher than that of the women's. A multiple regression analysis reveals that age, nutritional status, and physical activity were predictive factors of lower SI in men, whereas age, alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were predictive factors for elderly women. Low SI was common in both elderly men and women. We found gender differences in factors linked to low SI. In multiple regression analysis, nutritional status and physical activity were more important factors in men, whereas alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were significant factors predicting low SI in women. Gender-specific modifiable risk factors associated with low SI should be considered when developing osteoporosis prevention programs for the elderly. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The influence of income, education, and work status on women's well being.

    PubMed

    Mead, H; Witkowski, K; Gault, B; Hartmann, H

    2001-01-01

    This article, based on data from the Commonwealth Fund 1998 Survey of Women's Health, examines the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and women's health. Women living in poverty are less likely than their higher-income counterparts to have health insurance and use preventive services, and more likely to have access problems, suffer from chronic illnesses, and report low overall health scores. Women with low educational attainment are also less likely to have health insurance and to use preventive services, and more likely to report poorer health status than women with a college education. We conclude with implications for public policy.

  16. Income Generation and Money Management: Training Women as Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Sheila

    Based on a workshop in Gambia in 1989, this manual was developed to help Peace Corps workers to develop training techniques for teaching women to run businesses producing and selling local products and to manage money. Topics covered include the following: (1) the role of the facilitator in adult learning; (2) problems women face in controlling…

  17. Determinants of life satisfaction among Japanese elderly women attending health care and welfare service facilities.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Chiemi; Yuasa, Kyoko; Sei, Masako; Ewis, Ashraf A; Nakano, Takuro; Munakata, Hokuma; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2010-02-01

    Prolonged life expectancy must be recognized as an excellent achievement of modern medicine, but not all the elderly people are satisfied with their lives. Life satisfaction is a multi-dimensional issue that depends on many objective and subjective characteristics. In this study, we aimed at investigating the factors affecting life satisfaction of 314 elderly Japanese women attending in 28 elderly-care and welfare facilities at Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Our results indicated that elderly subjects with depression tendencies always show significantly lower degrees of life satisfaction than others who are not depressed (p<0.001) regardless of their cognitive status. Furthermore, elderly women who shared decision for their living place and whose opinions were considered for daily life decisions reported significantly more life satisfaction levels than others. We conclude that elderly life satisfaction is affected by various determinants however, with different influencing weight. Life satisfaction of elderly people, with or without dementia, is greatly affected by their mood status and share in decision making. Avoiding elderly people depressive mood, sharing them in various daily decisions, considering their opinions, and allowing them to decide their elderly-care facility placement are crucial determinants for their life satisfaction and essential for their coping, adaptation, well-being and successful aging.

  18. Determining Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse Using Promotores: Low Income Immigrant Latinos Report High Rates of Abuse and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Homeier, Diana C.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2012-01-01

    Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, we recruited and trained promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, to interview a sample of Latino adults age 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of Latino elders experienced some form of abuse and/or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% indicated physical assault, 9% reported sexual abuse, 16.7% indicated financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with increased risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the U.S. was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elders, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment, or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community. PMID:22697790

  19. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Abbey B; Laz, Tabassum H; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p < 0.01). The YFAS symptom count score significantly differed by race/ethnicity (p < 0.01) with black women having higher scores than Hispanic women. Racial differences were also observed among some of the YFAS symptoms. These findings demonstrated a low prevalence of food addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction.

  20. A Qualitative Exploration of Low-Income Women's Experiences Accessing Abortion in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Amanda; Manski, Ruth; Blanchard, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    At a time when most states are working to restrict abortion, Massachusetts stands out as one of the few states with multiple state-level policies in place that support abortion access for low-income women. In 2006, Massachusetts passed health care reform, which resulted in almost all residents having insurance. Also, almost all state-level public and subsidized insurance programs cover abortion and there are fewer restrictions on abortion in Massachusetts compared with other states. We explored low-income women's experiences accessing abortion in Massachusetts through 27 in-depth telephone interviews with a racially diverse sample of low-income women who obtained abortions. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically. Most women described having access to timely, conveniently located, affordable, and highly acceptable abortion care. However, a sizable minority of women had difficulty enrolling in or staying on insurance, making abortion expensive. A small minority of women said their abortion care could be improved by increasing emotional support and privacy, and decreasing appointment times. Some limited data also suggest that young women and immigrant women face specific barriers to care. This study provides important, novel information about the need for state-level policies that support access to health insurance and comprehensive abortion coverage. Such policies, along with a well-functioning health care environment, help to ensure that low-income women have access to abortion. However, not all abortion access challenges have been resolved in Massachusetts. More work is needed to ensure that all women can access affordable, confidential care that is responsive to their specific needs and preferences. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Declarative memory performance is associated with the number of sleep spindles in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Seeck-Hirschner, Mareen; Baier, Paul Christian; Weinhold, Sara Lena; Dittmar, Manuela; Heiermann, Steffanie; Aldenhoff, Josef B; Göder, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memory relies on the nonrapid eye movement rather than the rapid eye movement phase of sleep. In addition, it is known that aging is accompanied by changes in sleep and memory processes. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the overnight consolidation of declarative memory in healthy elderly women. Sleep laboratory of University. Nineteen healthy elderly women (age range: 61-74 years). We used laboratory-based measures of sleep. To test declarative memory, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test was performed. Declarative memory performance in elderly women was associated with Stage 2 sleep spindle density. Women characterized by high memory performance exhibited significantly higher numbers of sleep spindles and higher spindle density compared with women with generally low memory performance. The data strongly support theories suggesting a link between sleep spindle activity and declarative memory consolidation.

  2. Women's empowerment and its differential impact on health in low income communities in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lwendo Moonzwe; Schensul, Stephen L.; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalized area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined. PMID:24766149

  3. Severe fatigue and depressive symptoms in lower-income urban postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Doering Runquist, Jennifer J; Morin, Karen; Stetzer, Frank C

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether severe postpartum fatigue at 1 and 3 months postpartum was associated with depressive symptomatology at 6 months in lower-income urban women. A convenience sample of 43 lower-income postpartum women completed the Modified Fatigue Symptoms Checklist and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum. Participants who were severely fatigued at both 1 and 3 months postpartum were significantly more likely to exhibit depressive symptomatology at 6 months. Fatigue and depressive symptoms were moderately to strongly correlated at 1 (r = .68), 3 (r = .74), and 6 (r = .70) months postpartum (p = .001). Severe fatigue and depressive symptomatology often co-exist for months after childbirth. Future research should examine whether interventions to targeting severe postpartum fatigue in lower-income urban women may also effectively reduce depressive symptoms.

  4. Relationship between gender, income and education and self-perceived oral health among elderly Mexicans. An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Ramírez-Amador, Velia; Jarillo-Soto, Edgar Carlos; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-perceived oral health (SPOH) among the elderly. A cross-sectional, exploratory examination of 150 elderly subjects whose ages ranged from 60-86 was conducted. These subjects used the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) to assess their SPOH. In addition, sociodemographic data were collected from study participants. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, the examination of odds ratio (OR) of logistic regression analysis, the chi-square test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index for the study participants was 20.1 ± 5.8; 21.3% of subjects were edentulous, and 69.3% of subjects wore removable dentures. 62.7% of study participants had poor SPOH (defined as GOHAI score <44). Poor SPOH was significantly more frequent among males (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.03-7.13, p < 0.05), low-income individuals (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3 -5.8, p < 0.01), and subjects with less education (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.1-4.6, p < 0.05) than among the overall subject population. The findings suggest that gender (male), low income and low educational levels have a significant influence on the self-perceived oral health status of elderly individuals, irrespective of tooth loss.

  5. Relationship violence and psychological distress among low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Hill, Terrence D; Mossakowski, Krysia N; Angel, Ronald J

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we examined the association between relationship violence and psychological distress among low-income urban women. Extending prior research, we considered the effects of relationship violence within the context of other chronic stressors that are common in the lives of these women. Using data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project (1999), a probability sample of 2,402 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we predicted psychological distress with multiple measures of relationship violence, a wide range of sociodemographic variables, and several chronic stressors. Our results show that relationship violence is associated with higher levels of economic hardship, neighborhood disorder, and household disrepair. We also find that relationship violence is associated with higher levels of psychological distress, net of these other chronic stressors. Finally, we observe that the effects of relationship violence do not vary according to the chronic stressors under study. Because the adverse effects of relationship violence are similar for women despite other adverse circumstances, interventions and treatment efforts focused exclusively on relationship violence may make a unique contribution to the psychological well-being of low-income urban women.

  6. Reminiscence Activity and Increased Communication Interaction among Cognitively Disabled Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupar, Karen R.; Smith, N. Richmond

    Designed as the first phase of a larger project to explore the relationships between the possible impact of reminiscence on memory deterioration in elderly women confined to nursing home environments, a study demonstrated that reminiscence activity is positively correlated with increases in communication interactions. Women were chosen as the…

  7. The Association of Health and Income in the Elderly: Experience from a Southern State of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.; Pieper, Carl F.; King, Katherine E.; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Gastal, Fábio L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50th-66th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions. Methods Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥60 (N=6963), in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status), depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale) together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures. Results In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status). For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association), and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes. Conclusion Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled. PMID:24058505

  8. Long-term care for elder women in Spain: advances and limitations.

    PubMed

    Vara, María-Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In Spain, elder women are the largest group in need of long-term care. Significant improvements in this issue took place between 2007 and 2011, thanks to the Dependency Law (2006). But severe limitations showed the difficulty of overcoming the historical backwardness of Spanish social policy. This article describes the situation of Spanish people with dependency in activities of daily living. It analyzes changes driven by this law, especially in their impacts on elder women. It assesses the extent to which those changes can alter the traditional model of care. There are three major findings: First, measures promoted by the law have improved the previous situation but are incapable of developing a new model. Care for elders still relies on family, with lack of professionalism, little socialization, and expanding commodification. Second, the current care model is fundamentally detrimental to older women and women caregivers. Third, this kind of model hinders the overcoming of gender inequalities in intrafamily, generational, and social relations.

  9. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  10. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and its relationship with sarcopenia in elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Souza Genaro, Patrícia; de Medeiros Pinheiro, Marcelo; Szejnfeld, Vera Lúcia; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Low dietary intake of calcium and poor vitamin D status during aging can result in mild secondary hyperparathyroidism, which may be associated with low muscle mass and reduced strength in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low vitamin D, high parathormone (PTH), or both, are associated with sarcopenia. A total of 105 women, 35 with sarcopenia and 70 without sarcopenia, were enrolled in the present study. Body composition measurements were performed by DXA and sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle mass index<5.45 kg/m2 and grip strength lower than 20 kg. Three-day dietary records were taken and adjustments for energy intake made. The estimated average requirement (EAR) method was adopted as a cut-off point for estimating the prevalence of inadequate intake. Serum total calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, intact PTH, and 25(OH)D were measured. Only 1% of the patients met the daily adequate intake for vitamin D and 11% met the daily adequate intake for calcium. Notably, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in hyperparathyroidism (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL and PTH>65 pg/dL) than in the absence of hyperparathyroidism (41.2 vs 16.2%, respectively; p=0.046). The odds ratio for sarcopenia in hyperparathyroidism cases was 6.81 (95%CI 1.29-35.9) compared with participants who had low PTH and a high 25(OH)D concentration. The present study showed that vitamin D insufficiency associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism increased the risk of sarcopenia, suggesting that the suppression of hyperparathyroidism by ensuring adequate calcium and vitamin D intake should be considered in interventional studies to confirm potential benefits.

  11. Resistance exercise and bone turnover in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Kevin R; Braith, Randy W

    2002-01-01

    This investigation examined the effect of 6 months of high- or low-intensity resistance exercise (REX) on bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in adults aged 60-83 yr. Sixty-two men and women (68.4 +/- 6 yr) were stratified for strength and randomly assigned to a control (CON, N = 16), low-intensity (LEX, N = 24), or high-intensity (HEX, N = 22) group. Subjects participated in 6 months of progressive REX training. Subjects trained at either 50% of their one repetition maximum (1-RM) for 13 repetitions (LEX) or 80% of 1-RM for 8 repetitions (HEX) 3 times x wk(-1) for 24 wk. One set each of 12 exercises was performed. 1-RM was measured for eight exercises. BMD was measured for total body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), and pyridinoline cross-links (PYD) were measured. 1-RM significantly increased for all exercises tested for both the HEX and LEX groups (P < and = 0.050). The percent increases in total strength (sum of all eight 1-RMs) were 17.2% and 17.8% for the LEX and HEX groups, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 1.96% for the HEX group. No other significant changes for BMD were found. OC increased by 25.1% and 39.0% for the LEX and HEX groups, respectively (P < 0.05). BAP significantly (P < 0.05) increased 7.1% for the HEX group. These data indicate high-intensity REX training was successful for improving BMD of the femoral neck in healthy elderly subjects. Also, these data suggest REX increased bone turnover, which over time may lead to further changes in BMD.

  12. The politics of invisibility: homophobia and low-income HIV-positive women who have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Arend, Elizabeth D

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the participants' percepHIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the participants' percepHIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the

  13. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women.

    PubMed

    León-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmerón, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L; Thrasher, James F; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico's early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women's perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women's understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender. Women's confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men's sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes' desire for sex as natural but understood men's negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women's HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission. These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women's negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could be ameliorated with better health education and

  14. Knowledge, facilitators and perceived barriers for early detection of breast cancer among elderly Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Kissal, Aygul; Beşer, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with elderly Turkish women's experiences with breast self examination, clinical breast examination and mammography screening, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators in the theoretical framework of the Health Belief Model and the Health Promotion Model. This is a qualitative study performed on 46 elderly women aged 60-75 years. Data were collected with focus group interviews and analyzed systematically with qualitative analysis techniques to determine themes concerning knowledge and facilitators of and perceived barriers to early detection of breast cancer among elderly women. Barriers to screening were insufficient knowledge, fear, neglect/postponement, embarrassment/religious beliefs, inability to make an appointment, lack of a physician's recommendation and health professionals' attitudes. Facilitating factors were being informed about screening, fear, awareness of cancer screening, familial history of breast cancer and social support, making an appointment, health professionals' communication and physicians' recommendations. Public health nurses and health professionals from other health disciplines should be aware of elderly women's need for knowledge about screening, understand elderly women's fear and worries about their health and know barriers to and facilitators of screening.

  15. Patient and Clinical Site Factors Associated with Rescreening Behavior Among Older Multiethnic, Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick; Arnsberger, Pamela; Owens, Desi; Nussey, Brenda; Zhang, Xiluan; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Tabnak, Farzaneh; Otero-Sabogal, Regina

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to identify factors predictive of mammography rescreening within 18 months of baseline screening in multiethnic, low-income older women. Design and Methods: We interviewed a cross-sectional survey of staff of 102 randomly selected clinics that provided screening and diagnostic services. We also surveyed a random sample of 391…

  16. Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…

  17. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  18. Group Interventions with Low-Income African American Women Recovering from Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents finding from an investigation of two group therapy modalities involving 93 women with dependent children and limited education and income levels. An overview of intervention activities that participants found beneficial is presented. Programs were found to help participants develop a sense of community, reduce stress, improve…

  19. 78 FR 19180 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-6547 appearing on pages 17631-17632 in...

  20. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  1. Estimating dietary costs of low-income women in California: A comparison of two approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Compare two approaches for estimating individual daily diet costs in a population of low-income women in California. Design: Cost estimates based on time-intensive Method 1 (three 24-h recalls and associated food prices on receipts) were compared with estimates using a lesser intensive M...

  2. Patient and Clinical Site Factors Associated with Rescreening Behavior Among Older Multiethnic, Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick; Arnsberger, Pamela; Owens, Desi; Nussey, Brenda; Zhang, Xiluan; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Tabnak, Farzaneh; Otero-Sabogal, Regina

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to identify factors predictive of mammography rescreening within 18 months of baseline screening in multiethnic, low-income older women. Design and Methods: We interviewed a cross-sectional survey of staff of 102 randomly selected clinics that provided screening and diagnostic services. We also surveyed a random sample of 391…

  3. Household Risk and Child Sexual Abuse in a Low Income, Urban Sample of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David L.; Zabin, Laurie S.; Emerson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Explored the impact of household environment and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on psychosocial development. Data on low-income, urban CSA victims, and non-CSA women indicated that household conditions indicative of parental dysfunction, antisocial behavior, and instability set the stage for CSA by interfering with parental protection. Victims'…

  4. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  5. Household Risk and Child Sexual Abuse in a Low Income, Urban Sample of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David L.; Zabin, Laurie S.; Emerson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Explored the impact of household environment and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on psychosocial development. Data on low-income, urban CSA victims, and non-CSA women indicated that household conditions indicative of parental dysfunction, antisocial behavior, and instability set the stage for CSA by interfering with parental protection. Victims'…

  6. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  7. Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…

  8. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  9. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  10. A racial and ethnic comparison of family formation and contraceptive practices among low-income women.

    PubMed Central

    Radecki, S E

    1991-01-01

    Low-income women's histories of pregnancies, their use or nonuse of contraception, and their marital status showed racial and ethnic differences in family formation patterns and fertility control practices. Data were analyzed from a survey of 918 low-income women in Los Angeles County. The sample contained about equal numbers of non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Hispanics. The use of stratified samples equalized the poverty-level composition of the three racial and ethnic groups. First pregnancies for white and black women resulted primarily from nonuse of contraception while unmarried, but almost half of first pregnancies among Hispanics were intentional. Marital dissolution following pregnancy or childbearing was common among low-income whites and blacks, but Hispanics were more likely to have an intact marriage along with a higher average parity. Analyses of histories of pregnancies while controlling for demographic characteristics showed that racial and ethnic differences in rates of different types of pregnancies (classified as intended, accidental, or unprotected) and rates of abortion did not remain significant after adjustment for respondent characteristics and years of exposure to possible pregnancy. Actual parity, however, remained significant when these factors were controlled. Thus, results document distinctive patterns of family formation for low-income women in racial and ethnic subgroups of this population. Implications of these patterns of family formation for economic well-being are discussed. PMID:1910183

  11. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  12. The Effect of Marital Breakup on the Income Distribution of Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth O.; Michaels, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up. Using this exogenous variation, recent work finds that divorce has little effect on women's mean household income. We further investigate the effect of divorce using Quantile Treatment Effect methodology and find that it increases…

  13. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  14. The Effect of Marital Breakup on the Income Distribution of Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth O.; Michaels, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up. Using this exogenous variation, recent work finds that divorce has little effect on women's mean household income. We further investigate the effect of divorce using Quantile Treatment Effect methodology and find that it increases…

  15. Effects of two exercise protocols on postural balance of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Laiana Sepúlveda de Andrade; de Carvalho, Fabiana Texeira; Freire, Lara Sepúlveda de Andrade; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Zângaro, Renato Amaro

    2015-06-02

    The aging process reduces both sensory capabilities and the capabilities of the motor systems responsible for postural control, resulting in a high number of falls among the elderly. Some therapeutic interventions can directly interrupt this process, including physical exercise. This study compares and examines the effects of two exercise protocols on the balance of elderly women. Elderly women who participated in a local church project (n = 63) were randomly divided into three groups: the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation group (PNFG), Pilates group (PG), and control group (CG). Of the 63 women, 58 completed the program. A training program involving 50-min sessions was performed in the PNFG and PG three times a week for 4 weeks. The elderly women in the CG received no intervention and continued with their daily activities. Stabilometric parameters, the Berg Balance Scale score, functional reach test, and timed up and go test (TUG test) were assessed before and 1 month after participation. In the comparison among groups, the women in the PNFG showed a significant reduction in most of the stabilometric parameters evaluated and better Berg Balance Scale score, functional reach test result, and TUG test result than did women in the CG (p < 0.05). Women in the PG showed significantly better performance on the functional reach test and TUG test than did women in the CG (p < 0.05). Women in the PNFG showed significantly better static and dynamic balance than did women in the CG. Women in the PG also showed better dynamic balance than did women in the CG. However, no significant differences were observed in any of the balance variables assessed between the PNFG and PG. clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02278731.

  16. The Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Selected data from the Southern Regional S-44 Project entitled "Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas" were analyzed to determine the work patterns of women in low-income rural areas. Objectives of the study were to describe the labor force experience of women, to report the attitudes of employed…

  17. Closing the Gap in Mammogram Screening: An Experimental Intervention among Low-Income Hispanic Women in Community Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavenport, Alexis; Modeste, Naomi; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Neish, Christine

    2011-01-01

    A low rate of mammogram screening exists among low-income Hispanic women. To address this disparity, an experimental intervention containing audiovisual and written media was conducted using the health belief model as a framework. The purpose of this study was to determine if low-income Hispanic women, more than 40 years of age, who received…

  18. Closing the Gap in Mammogram Screening: An Experimental Intervention among Low-Income Hispanic Women in Community Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavenport, Alexis; Modeste, Naomi; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Neish, Christine

    2011-01-01

    A low rate of mammogram screening exists among low-income Hispanic women. To address this disparity, an experimental intervention containing audiovisual and written media was conducted using the health belief model as a framework. The purpose of this study was to determine if low-income Hispanic women, more than 40 years of age, who received…

  19. Relationship between sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and arterial stiffness in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Galbreath, M Melyn; Shibata, Shigeki; Jarvis, Sara S; VanGundy, Tiffany B; Meier, Rhonda L; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Previous human studies have shown that large-artery stiffness contributes to an age-related decrease in cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity. Whether this is also true with sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity is associated with the stiffness of baroreceptor segments (the carotid artery and the aorta) in elderly individuals and that sex affects this relationship. Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity was assessed from the spontaneous changes in beat-by-beat diastolic pressure and corresponding muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) during supine rest in 30 men (mean±SEM: 69±1 years) and 31 women (68±1 years). Carotid artery stiffness (B-mode ultrasonography) and aortic stiffness (MRI) were also determined. We found that elderly women had lower sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity than elderly men (-2.33±0.25 versus -3.32±0.25 bursts · 100 beats(-1) · mm Hg(-1); P=0.007). β-Stiffness indices of the carotid artery and the aorta were greater in elderly women than in men (6.68±0.48 versus 5.10±0.50 and 4.03±0.47 versus 2.68±0.42; both P<0.050). Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity was inversely correlated with carotid artery stiffness in both men and women (r=0.49 and 0.50; both P<0.05), whereas this relation was shifted in parallel upward (toward a reduced sensitivity) in women with no changes in the slope (0.26 versus 0.24 arbitrary units). Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and aortic stiffness showed similar trends. Thus, barosensory artery stiffness seems to be one independent determinant of sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity in elderly men and women. The lower sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity in elderly women may predispose them to an increased prevalence of hypertension.

  20. Oxytocin, social support, and sleep quality in low-income minority women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Erin M; Seay, Julia; Antoni, Michael H; Mendez, Armando J; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Szeto, Angela; Schneiderman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in women with HIV, and few studies examine potential protective factors that may reduce risk for sleep disturbances in this high-risk population. This study predicted that HIV-specific social support from various sources (i.e., friends, family members, and spouses), as well as oxytocin (OT), would explain sleep quality in 71 low-income minority women living with HIV. Social support from family members was associated with better sleep quality in women. For women with high OT, support from friends was associated with better sleep quality, whereas for women with low OT, support from friends was associated with poorer sleep quality. Women with low OT may not effectively interpret and utilize available support resources, which may be associated with sleep disturbances.

  1. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    PubMed

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  2. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Methods A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing “bean health benefits” and “food behaviors.” Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. Results The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered ‘neutral’ to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Conclusions Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition. PMID:26820889

  3. [Personality characteristics in elderly men and women with initiatory stages of brain ischemia].

    PubMed

    Abramenko, Iu V; Iakovlev, N A; Sliusar', T A

    2014-01-01

    52 elderly women and 36 matched by age and education men with initiatory stages of chronic brain ischemia (CBI) have been studied using comparative analysis of personality characteristics. Women with CBI had higher level of psychosocial stress than men. The results demonstrate the predomination of extrapunitive frustration reactions among women. Intropunitive ones prevailed in men. Women-patients had higher levels of excitement, stress and anxiety than men that surpassed women by the indicators of emotional security. The received data may be important for individualization of therapeutic intervention.

  4. Cardiovascular inflammation in healthy women: multilevel associations with state-level prosperity, productivity and income inequality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular inflammation is a key contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and the prediction of cardiovascular events among healthy women. An emerging literature suggests biomarkers of inflammation vary by geography of residence at the state-level, and are associated with individual-level socioeconomic status. Associations between cardiovascular inflammation and state-level socioeconomic conditions have not been evaluated. The study objective is to estimate whether there are independent associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and individual-level biomarkers of inflammation, in excess of individual-level income and clinical covariates among healthy women. Methods The authors examined cross-sectional multilevel associations among state-level socioeconomic conditions, individual-level income, and biomarkers of inflammation among women (n = 26,029) in the Women's Health Study, a nation-wide cohort of healthy women free of cardiovascular diseases at enrollment. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and fibrinogen were measured between 1993 and 1996. Biomarker levels were examined among women within quartiles of state-level socioeconomic conditions and within categories of individual-level income. Results The authors found that favorable state-level socioeconomic conditions were correlated with lower hsCRP, in excess of individual-level income (e.g. state-level real per capital gross domestic product fixed effect standardized Βeta coefficient [Std B] -0.03, 95% CI -0.05, -0.004). Individual-level income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 (Std B -0.04, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) and fibrinogen (Std B -0.05, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) than state-level conditions. Conclusions We found associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and hsCRP among healthy women. Personal household income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 and fibrinogen than state

  5. Mental health literacy and postpartum depression: a qualitative description of views of lower income women.

    PubMed

    Guy, Sarah; Sterling, Bobbie Sue; Walker, Lorraine O; Harrison, Tracie C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand mental health literacy (MHL) (Jorm, 2000) in lower income women postpartum and share participant experiences of recognizing and seeking help for depressive symptoms. Focus group textual data were received from 25 participants who completed a weight and psychosocial health longitudinal study. Iterative content data analysis using Jorm's framework provided thematic understandings descriptive of MHL. Women recognized behavioral changes indicating mental distress, but fears prevented them from seeking help, and some resorted to risky behaviors. This framework could guide providers to identify women who may benefit from early intervention for postpartum depressive symptoms.

  6. "What Do You Want To Be?": Lower-Income Women Face the Job Market. A Report by the Women Employed Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women Employed Inst., Chicago, IL.

    A study examined the factors that influence lower-income women's career decision making and planning. The 24 women interviewed included African American, white, and Hispanic American women ages 20-60 years or older. The women were employed in a variety of industries. All were college graduates, and none earned more than $24,000 annually. Most…

  7. Social and cultural construction of urinary incontinence among Korean American elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population.

  8. First trimester predictors of diet and birth outcomes in low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Gabrielson, Marcena

    2005-01-01

    The purpose1 of this study is to test a model describing the relations of various biopsychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors on the health outcomes of nutritional adequacy and infant birth weight in low-income pregnant women. Descriptive, cohort design assessed low-income women (N=55) in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Eighty percent of the women did not meet the recommended number of food servings outlined in the Food Guide Pyramid. Prepregnant body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy-related dietary changes explained 19% of the variance in nutritional adequacy. Maternal age, prepregnant BMI, nutritional knowledge, and infant gestation at birth explained 52% of the variance in infant birth weight. Nutritional adequacy in the 1st trimester and infant birth weight were not significantly related. Most low-income women are not meeting the nutritional requirements of pregnancy. Careful monitoring of dietary quality may help target women in need of additional nutritional education. Providing nutritional education throughout pregnancy may lead to improved dietary patterns that may reduce low birth weight.

  9. Low-income women's employment experiences and their financial, personal, and family well-being.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2014-02-01

    Low-income women's rates of employment have grown dramatically in recent years, yet the stability and quality of their employment remain low. Using panel data from the Three-City Study following 1,586 low-income African American, Latina, and European American women, this study assessed associations between women's employment quality (wages; receipt of health insurance) and stability (work consistency; job transitions) and their financial, personal, and family well-being. Hierarchical linear models assessing within-person effects found that increases in wages were associated with improved financial well-being and physical health. Average wages over time similarly were associated with greater levels of income and financial stability as well as mental and physical health at the end of the study. In contrast, few significant associations emerged for receipt of health insurance or for the stability and consistency of women's employment. Results have implications for programs and policies seeking to support disadvantaged women's employment in order to improve family resources and functioning.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.

    PubMed

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns.

  11. Perceptions of older, low-income women about increasing intake of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dye, Cheryl J; Cason, Katherine L

    2005-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 28 older, low-income women in order to identify factors that affected their fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. Themes emerging from data analysis include barriers to making dietary changes, specifically to increasing F&V consumption; beliefs about benefits of consuming F&V as compared with other dietary changes; and use of supplements as a substitution for eating F&V. A prominent subtheme concerned the conflict women felt between their desire to consume more F&V and their desire not to waste food. Focus group participants gave concrete suggestions on how to help older, low-income women increase F&V consumption, which included environmental supports.

  12. Vitamin B12 status of elderly persons from urban low-income households.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L B; Wagner, P A; Christakis, G J; Araujo, P E; Appledorf, H; Davis, C G; Dorsey, E; Dinning, J S

    1980-06-01

    Vitamin B12 status was evaluated in 111 noninstitutional elderly persons (age range, 60-87 years) living in an urban poverty area. The sample was predominantly black (90 subjects); the rest were Spanish Americans. Serum vitamin B12 levels were all normal (greater than 200 pg/ml) and ranged from 226 to 1200 pg/ml (mean +/- SD = 700 +/- 191 pg/ml). The findings indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency was not a problem in this elderly population.

  13. Immune dysregulation and glucocorticoid resistance in minority and low income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Guo, Ying; Pajer, Kathleen; Lowe, Nancy; McCarthy, Donna; Schmiege, Sarah; Weber, Mary; Pace, Thaddeus; Stafford, Brian

    2013-09-01

    Chronic prenatal stress contributes to poor birth outcomes for women and infants. Importantly, poor birth outcomes are most common among minority and low income women. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that chronic stress related to minority or low income status is associated with glucocorticoid resistance as indicated by disruption in the cytokine-glucocorticoid feedback circuit. Home visits were conducted during which 3rd trimester pregnant women completed stress and depression surveys and provided blood for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Saliva was collected 5 times the preceding day for diurnal cortisol levels. For statistical analyses, women were grouped 3 ways, by race, income, and the presence or absence of either of those risk factors; this last group was labeled high or low general risk. Immune regulation was evaluated by evidence of a functioning negative feedback relationship between cytokines and cortisol. Of 96 participants, 18 were minority, 22 of low income, and 29 either minority or low income (high general risk). Pearson partial correlation identified a significant negative relationship between cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios in the low general risk women (i.e., Caucasian, higher income) including IFNγ/IL10 (r=-0.73, p<0.0001), IL6/IL10 (r=-0.38, p=0.01), IL1β/IL10 (r=-0.44, p=0.004) and TNFα/IL10 (r=-0.41; p=0.005); no such correlations existed in the high general risk women (i.e., minority, low income) for (IFNγ/IL10: r=-0.25, p=0.43; IL6/IL10: r=0.12, p=0.70; IL1 β/IL10: r=0.05, p=0.87; TNFα/IL10: r=0.10; p=0.75), suggestive of glucocorticoid resistance. Cortisol levels throughout the day also were higher in minority and high general risk groups (p<0.05). Without cytokine glucocorticoid feedback, a pregnant woman's ability to regulate inflammation is limited, potentially contributing to adverse maternal and infant outcomes.

  14. Effect of different types of exercise on postural balance in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C

    2014-01-01

    Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acculturation Influences Postpartum Eating, Activity, and Weight Retention in Low-Income Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Martin, Chantel L; Tate, Deborah F; Schaffner, Andrew; Brannen, Anna; Hatley, Karen Erickson; Diamond, Molly; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Sanchez, Teresa; Mercado, Adrian; Hagobian, Todd; Phelan, Suzanne

    2017-08-17

    Low-income Hispanic women experience elevated rates of high postpartum weight retention (PPWR), which is an independent risk factor for lifetime obesity. Sociocultural factors might play an important role among Hispanic women; however, very few studies have examined this association. The purpose of our study was to examine the associations between acculturation and maternal diet, physical activity, and PPWR. This is a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 282 Hispanic women participating in the FitMoms/Mamás Activas study, a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of primarily an internet-based weight control program, in reducing PPWR among low-income women. We performed multivariable linear regression to examine the association of acculturation with diet quality, physical activity, and PPWR at study entry. A total of 213 (76%) women had acculturation scores reflecting Mexican orientation or bicultural orientation, whereas 69 (24%) had scores that represented assimilation to Anglo culture. Women who were more acculturated had lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, lower HEI scores, and lower physical activity levels than women who were less acculturated (p < 0.05). We found an association between acculturation and PPWR in that for every 1-unit increase in acculturation score, PPWR increased, on average, by 0.80 kg. Higher acculturation was associated with poorer diet and physical activity behaviors and greater PPWR.

  16. Breast-feeding initiation in low-income women: Role of attitudes, support, and perceived control.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Amal J; Moazzem, S Wakerul; Jarjoura, Chad M; Carothers, Cathy; Hinton, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    Despite the documented health and emotional benefits of breast-feeding to women and children, breast-feeding rates are low among subgroups of women. In this study, we examine factors associated with breast-feeding initiation in low-income women, including Theory of Planned Behavior measures of attitude, support, and perceived control, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. A mail survey, with telephone follow-up, of 733 postpartum Medicaid beneficiaries in Mississippi was conducted in 2000. The breast-feeding initiation rate in this population was 38%. Women who were older, white, non-Hispanic, college-educated, married, not certified for the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and not working full-time were more likely to breast-feed than formula-feed at hospital discharge. Attitudes regarding benefits and barriers to breast-feeding, as well as health care system and social support, were associated with breast-feeding initiation at the multivariate level. Adding the health care system support variables to the regression model, and specifically support from lactation specialists and hospital nurses, explained the association between breast-feeding initiation and women's perceived control over the time and social constraints barriers to breast-feeding. The findings support the need for health care system interventions, family interventions, and public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding in low-income women.

  17. Factors related to self-reported health status in low income midlife women.

    PubMed

    Barry Hultquist, Teresa; Laux Kaiser, Katherine; Rajaram, Shireen

    2015-01-01

    Transition throughout midlife can affect women's perception of their health status. Multiple factors are potentially related to self-reported health status (SRHS), but it was not clear what factors are related to SRHS for midlife women, especially those with low income. This study examined factors related to SRHS in low income midlife women over time. A multi-step linear regression of longitudinal Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) data (n = 310) from July 2000 through November 2006 was used. Participants completed SRHS at initial (baseline) enrollment into MMC (T1), with a second assessment completed 11 to 23 months later for those retaining MMC eligibility (T2). Results indicated that disability and number of medical conditions were the factors most related to SRHS. SRHS scores differed significantly between non-disabled and disabled women. For disabled women, SRHS improved significantly between T1 and T2 (p < .001), but not for non-disabled women. Those with lower SRHS scores used community agencies more often. Further studies of SRHS and health-related factors are needed as SRHS is frequently an indicator of population health. Greater evidenced-based knowledge of SRHS in midlife women will inform preventive interventions for this population.

  18. Postpartum contraception utilization among low-income women seeking immunization for infants in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Sheila K; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Raj, Anita; Donta, Balaiah; Saggurti, Niranjan; Naik, DD; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine postpartum contraception utilization among Indian women seeking immunization for their infants in three low-income communities in Mumbai, India. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire of low-income postpartum women seeking immunization for their infants at three large urban health centers in Mumbai. Contraceptive utilization data was collected as part of a larger study focused on the impact of postpartum domestic violence on maternal and infant health. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to describe and identify predictors of postpartum contraceptive utilization. Results Postpartum women aged 17–45 years (N=1049) completed the survey; 44.5% (n= 467) reported resuming sexual relations with their husbands. Among these women, the majority (65.3%; n=305) reported not currently using contraception. In multivariate analyses, women who did not discuss postpartum family planning with their husbands, had not used contraception previous to the recent birth, and who had experienced physical violence or forced sex were more likely to not use postpartum contraception (AORs = 1.47–1.77). Among the 162 women using contraception, the most common time to initiation of contraception was 5 weeks postpartum and the most common method used was condoms 77.8% (n=126). Conclusion Contraception non-use was common among urban, low-income postpartum women in India. This study highlights the importance of developing interventions to increase use of highly effective contraceptive methods postpartum, and that spousal violence and lack of marital communication may present barriers to postpartum contraception utilization. Infant immunization may represent an opportunity for provision of contraceptives and contraceptive counseling. Implications This original research study is a unique contribution to the literature because it presents data regarding the non-use of postpartum contraception among women seeking immunizations for

  19. [Reproductive risk and family income: analysis of the profile of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rozania Bicego; Jannotti, Claudia Bonan; da Silva, Katia Silveira; Martins, Aline de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Faced with the challenge of tackling maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, the discussion of reproductive risk and its association with health vulnerability situations is relevant to public health. The research carried out at Instituto Fernandes Figueira/Fiocruz sought to describe the reproductive risk profile of women admitted to prenatal care between 2006 and 2008 and investigating its relation to family income and health vulnerability situations. This is a cross-sectional study which used the prenatal care database as its source. The economic profile of the group under scrutiny is a low income group. An association between low income and fetal malformations, pregnancy before 15 years of age, and HIV was detected. A higher family income was associated with the mother's age over 35 years, abnormal nuchal translucency, gynecopathies, and habitual abortion. The findings may reflect vulnerability situations of low income women, such as unfavorable health conditions and limited access to and use of health services. It is necessary to acquire in-depth knowledge of the reproductive risk profile in Brazil and its distribution according to socio-demographic characteristics, seeking to enhance health care practices provided.

  20. Hospitalisation among the elderly in urban China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Raven, Joanna H; Tang, Shenglan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the trend of hospitalisation amongst the elderly in urban China and analyse the main socio-economic factors which are affecting the use of inpatient care. Data from the Chinese national household health interview surveys conducted in 1993, 1998 and 2003 were analysed. The following variables were selected: gender, health insurance coverage and household income. Elderly people with insurance are more likely to use inpatient services than those who were not insured. Elderly people in the low income group are less likely than ones in the high income group to use inpatient services. Non-hospitalisation is more common amongst elderly women than elderly men and amongst the non-insured. The likelihood of elderly people in the low income groups not using inpatient services has increased dramatically from 12% in 1993 to 134% in 2003. Financial difficulty appeared to be the most common reason for not accessing inpatient care, particularly for elderly people without health insurance. Elderly people with low income, without health insurance, and women appear to be more vulnerable in their access to inpatient care. Appropriate policies could be developed to protect these groups of people from high health care expenses.

  1. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.

  2. Income and the Use of Prescription Drugs by the Elderly: Evidence from the Notch Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, John R.; Simon, Kosali Ilayperuma

    2006-01-01

    We use exogenous variation in Social Security payments created by the Social Security benefits notch to estimate how retirees' use of prescription medications responds to changes in their incomes. Using data from the 1993 Wave of the AHEAD, we obtain instrumental variables estimates of the income elasticity of prescription drug use that are…

  3. Socio-demographic correlates of psychiatric morbidity among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Asfar, Taghrid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; Kilzieh, Nael

    2002-05-01

    Interest in mental morbidity as an important component of health is increasing worldwide. Women generally suffer more than men from common mental disorders, and discrimination against women adds to their mental sufferings. Studies looking into the socio-demographic correlates of women's mental morbidity are lacking in most Arab countries. In this study we wanted to determine the spread and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria. A sample of 412 women was recruited from 8 randomly selected primary care centers in Aleppo. Response rate was 97.2%, mean age of participants 28 + 8.4 years, where married women constituted 87.9%. A special questionnaire was prepared for the study purpose, utilizing the SRQ-20 non-psychotic items and questions about background information considered relevant to the mental health of women in the studied population. Interviews were conducted in an anonymous one-to-one fashion. The prevalence of psychiatric distress in our sample was 55.6%. Predictors of women's mental health in the logistic regression analysis were; physical abuse, women's education, polygamy, residence, age and age of marriage. Among these predictors, women's illiteracy, polygamy and physical abuse were the strongest determinants of mental distress leading to the worse outcomes. Our data show that mental distress is common in the studied population and that it is strongly associated with few, possibly modifiable, factors.

  4. Expanding wallets and waistlines: the impact of family income on the BMI of women and men eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    PubMed

    Schmeiser, Maximilian D

    2009-11-01

    The rising rate of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now one of the most serious public health challenges facing the US. However, the underlying causes for this increase are unclear. This paper examines the effect of family income changes on body mass index (BMI) and obesity using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. It does so by using exogenous variation in family income in a sample of low-income women and men. This exogenous variation is obtained from the correlation of their family income with the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program benefits. Income is found to significantly raise the BMI and probability of being obese for women with EITC-eligible earnings, and have no appreciable effect for men with EITC-eligible earnings. The results imply that the increase in real family income from 1990 to 2002 explains between 10 and 21% of the increase in sample women's BMI and between 23 and 29% of their increased obesity prevalence.

  5. Relationship violence and frequency of intoxication among low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Hill, Terrence D; Nielsen, Amie L; Angel, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project (1999), a probability sample of 2,280 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we examine the effects of relationship violence before age 18 and in the past year on frequency of adult intoxication. Results obtained from a series of ordered logistic regression models suggest that sexual coercion before age 18 and minor and severe physical assault in the past year are independently associated with greater frequency of intoxication, net of a range of sociodemographic controls. The study's limitations are noted.

  6. [Nutritional status and perceived body image of elderly women in the Northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tribess, Sheila; Virtuoso Junior, Jair Sindra; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the association between perceived body image and nutritional status in elderly women. The methodology used was a cross-sectional cohort study of a sample of 265 elderly women aged 60 to 96 and selected by randomized proportional stratification by groups of convenience in the town of Jequié, Bahia, Brazil. Each subject was interviewed in order to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics (age, marital status, educational level and economic class) and perceived body image (on a nine-silhouette scale) and their body mass and height were measured in order to calculate their Body Mass Index as a parameter of nutritional status. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics, measures of association and non-parametric analysis. A total of 43.8% of the elderly women interviewed were well-nourished, 3.4% were underweight and 52.8% were overweight. With reference to perceived body image, 54% of the women were unsatisfied, primarily due to excess body mass (35.1%), and this was associated with nutritional status, in that increases in BMI raised the percentage of unsatisfied women. The elderly from Bahia were unsatisfied with their body images, and this dissatisfaction was associated with the prevalence of obesity.

  7. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit–stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by “The Montreal Cognitive Assessment” questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality. PMID:27330282

  8. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of urinary tract infection in community-dwelling elderly women.

    PubMed

    Marques, Luiz Paulo José; Flores, Juliana Timóteo; Barros Junior, Onofre de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Giovana Breda; Mourão, Carla de Medeiros; Moreira, Rosa Maria Portella

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in elderly patients can be a complex problem in terms of approach to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, because the patients often present nonspecific symptoms. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of UTI in elderly women were studied, in order to make early diagnosis and prevent serious clinical complications secondary to UTI. This was a prospective population-based study, with elderly women, during their first medical office visit. Medical records were obtained by clinical history and physical examination in order to detect signs and symptoms of UTI and the presence of co-morbidities. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens for urinary dipstick test, sediment, and culture were collected; cervical samples for conventional Pap smears were also collected. UTI was found in 16.55% of elderly women. The most frequent urinary symptom was foul smelling urine, in 60.6%. E. coli was responsible for 98 (76.56%) cases of significant bacteriuria; 34 (34.69%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 21 (21.42%) to fluoroquinolones. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) was not treated. The presence of predisposing factors demonstrated that the history of previous UTI (p < 0.001), vaginitis (p < 0.001), and diabetes (p = 0.042) increased the risk for UTI. This study confirmed the high prevalence of UTI among elderly women and its unusual clinical presentation. Diabetes, history of previous UTI, and vaginitis were shown to be predisposing factors for UTI; it is not necessary to treat AB in elderly women, even among diabetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit-stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment" questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality.

  10. Abortion Stigma Among Low-Income Women Obtaining Abortions in Western Pennsylvania: A Qualitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Amanda; Rosenfeld, Elian A.; Nikolajski, Cara; Freedman, Lori R.; Steinberg, Julia R.; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion stigma may cause psychological distress in women who are considering having an abortion or have had one. This phenomenon has been relatively underexplored in low-income women, who may already be at an increased risk for poor abortion-related outcomes because of difficulties accessing timely and safe abortion services. METHODS A qualitative study conducted between 2010 and 2013 used semistructured interviews to explore pregnancy intentions among low-income women recruited from six reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania. Transcripts from interviews with 19 participants who were planning to terminate a pregnancy or had had an abortion in the last two weeks were examined through content analysis to identify the range of attitudes they encountered that could contribute to or reflect abortion stigma, the sources of these attitudes and women’s responses to them. RESULTS Women commonly reported that partners, family members and they themselves held antiabortion attitudes. Such attitudes communicated that abortion is morally reprehensible, a rejection of motherhood, rare and thus potentially deviant, detrimental to future fertility and an irresponsible choice. Women reacted to external and internal negative attitudes by distinguishing themselves from other women who obtain abortions, experiencing negative emotions, and concealing or delaying their abortions. CONCLUSIONS Women’s reactions to antiabortion attitudes may perpetuate abortion stigma. Further research is needed to inform interventions to address abortion stigma and improve women’s abortion experiences. PMID:27984674

  11. Evaluation and Management of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Javier; Clifton, Marisa M; Goldman, Howard B

    2015-11-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common disease in elderly patients. The most important symptom is vaginal bulge (bulge sensation or the sensation of something coming down through the vaginal introitus). This symptom is not different than in the general population. Diagnosis can be confirmed using just vaginal examinations to identify the presence of protrusion beyond the hymen, and is not different than in the general population. Different treatment options are available, including observation, nonsurgical, and surgical techniques. Pessaries and colpocleisis are the treatment options used more often in elderly patients than in the general population.

  12. Clinical functional tests help identify elderly women highly concerned about falls.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moreira, Bruno; Mourão Barroso, Cristiano; Cavalcanti Furtado, Sheyla Rossana; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Drumond das Chagas e Vallone, Márcia Luciane; Kirkwood, Renata Noce

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Limited research exists on functional tests in the discrimination of elderly individuals with high concern about falls from individuals with low concern about falls. The purpose of this study was to determine which functional test best discriminates between elderly women with low and high concern about falls. One hundred thirty-five elderly women (72.6 ± 4.8 years) were divided into two groups based on their Falls Efficacy Scale-International score: low concern (n = 56) and high concern (n = 79) about falls. Five functional tests were applied: Timed Up and Go test (TUG), unipodal stance test, five-repetition sit-to-stand test (5-STS), gait velocity, and grip strength. Factorial analysis and discriminant analysis were used. Factorial analysis resulted in three factors that explained 83.8% of the total variance. Factor 1, with 49.5% of total variance explanation, was represented by the TUG, 5-STS, and gait velocity tests and was the only factor to discriminate between the groups, classifying correctly 68.9% of the observations. Among the original variables of Factor 1, the Fisher linear coefficient showed that the TUG was the most discriminant of the tests. The TUG test best discriminates elderly women with low and high concern about falls; therefore, it is an important test that should be performed during the assessment of elderly individuals afraid of falling.

  13. Financial difficulty in acquiring food among elderly disabled women: results from the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klesges, L M; Pahor, M; Shorr, R I; Wan, J Y; Williamson, J D; Guralnik, J M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study described the prevalence and characteristics of financial difficulty acquiring food and its relation to nutritional biomarkers in older disabled women. METHODS: Baseline data were analyzed from the Women's Health and Aging Study, a population-based survey of 1002 community-dwelling, disabled women 65 years and older from Baltimore, Md. RESULTS: Minority women (49.5%) were more likely than White women (13.4%) to report financial difficulty acquiring food (odds ratio [OR] = 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5, 8.6). Of the women reporting financial difficulty acquiring food, only 19.3% received food stamps and fewer than 7% participated in food assistance programs. Women reporting financial difficulty acquiring food had higher levels of psychologic depression than women not reporting such difficulty. Greater likelihood of financial difficulty acquiring food was associated with poorer quality of life and physical performance among White women and with more medical conditions among minority women. Finally, anemia (hemoglobin < 120 g/L) was associated with financial difficulty acquiring food (age-adjusted OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.9, 4.3). CONCLUSIONS: Financial difficulty acquiring food was common, and receipt of nutritional services was rare, in community-dwelling, older disabled women. Nutrition assistance programs for the elderly should reexamine their effectiveness in preventing nutritional deficits in older disabled women. PMID:11189828

  14. Factors associated with intention to breastfeed among low-income, inner-city pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Helen J; Rubio, Margarita R; Elo, Irma T; McCollum, Kelly F; Chung, Esther K; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2005-09-01

    To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, maternal characteristics, and intention to breastfeed among low-income, inner-city pregnant women. English and Spanish speaking low-income women recruited from local Philadelphia health centers were surveyed at the time of their first prenatal care visit. At the time of the visit, respondents were asked whether or not they planned to breastfeed their infant. The responses of 2,690 women were included in these analyses. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the independent associations of race/ethnicity, nativity status, education, and other factors on the odds of intending to breastfeed. About half (53%) of the respondents reported that they intended to breastfeed their infant. In adjusted logistic regression models, immigrant black (adjusted OR [aOR] 5.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.86, 8.77), other Hispanic (who were predominantly foreign-born) (aOR 6.05; 95% CI 3.92, 9.33), and island-born Puerto Rican (aOR 3.48; 95% CI 2.04, 5.95) women were significantly more likely to report that they intended to breastfeed than non-Hispanic whites. Somewhat surprisingly, non-Hispanic, US-born African Americans in this low-income sample were more likely to report that they intended to breastfeed than non-Hispanic white respondents (aOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.20, 2.11). Lower education, not living with the baby's father, multiparous pregnancy, and smoking were negatively and independently associated with intention to breastfeed. Maternal age, household income, public housing, and depressive symptoms were not significant predictors of breastfeeding intention in adjusted multivariate models. Significant differences were documented in breastfeeding intention in our sample of low-income, inner-city women. Most notable was the higher likelihood of anticipated breastfeeding among our immigrant sub-groups when compared with non-Hispanic white women. An unexpected finding was the higher likelihood of anticipated

  15. Elder American Indian women's knowledge of pelvic floor disorders and barriers to seeking care.

    PubMed

    Dunivan, Gena C; Komesu, Yuko M; Cichowski, Sara B; Lowery, Christine; Anger, Jennifer T; Rogers, Rebecca G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge among elder southwestern American Indian women and to assess barriers to care for pelvic floor disorders through community-engaged research. Our group was invited to provide an educational talk on urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse at an annual meeting of American Indian elders. Female attendees aged 55 years or older anonymously completed demographic information and 2 validated questionnaires, the Prolapse and Incontinence Knowledge Questionnaire (PIKQ) and Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire (BICS-Q). Questionnaire results were compared with historical controls from the original PIKQ and BICS-Q validation study. One hundred forty-four women completed the questionnaires. The mean age was 77.7 ± 9.1 years. The mean (SD) for PIKQ of urinary incontinence score was 6.6 (3.0) (similar to historic gynecology controls 6.8 [3.3], P = 0.49), and the mean (SD) for PIKQ on pelvic organ prolapse score was 5.4 (2.9) (better than historic gynecology controls 3.6 [3.2], P < 0.01). Barriers to care seeking reported by the elder women were highest on the BICS-Q subscales of "cost" and "inconvenience." Urinary incontinence knowledge is similar to historic gynecology controls, and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge is higher than historic gynecology controls among elder southwestern American Indian women. American Indian elder women report high levels of barriers to care. The greatest barriers to care seeking for this population were related to cost and inconvenience, reflecting the importance of assessing socioeconomic status when investigating barriers to care. Addressing these barriers may enhance care-seeking southwestern American Indian women.

  16. Elder American Indian Women's Knowledge of Pelvic Floor Disorders and Barriers to Seeking Care

    PubMed Central

    Dunivan, Gena C; Komesu, Yuko M; Cichowski, Sara B; Lowery, Christine; Anger, Jennifer T; Rogers, Rebecca G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge among elder Southwestern American Indian women and to assess barriers to care for pelvic floor disorders through Community Engaged Research. Methods Our group was invited to provide an educational talk on urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse at an annual meeting of American Indian Elders. Female attendees ≥55 years anonymously completed demographic information and two validated questionnaires; the Prolapse and Incontinence Knowledge Questionnaire (PIKQ) and Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire (BICS-Q). Questionnaire results were compared to historical controls from the original PIKQ and BICS-Q validation study. Results 144 women completed questionnaires. The mean age was 77.7 ± 9.1 years. The mean PIKQ UI score was 6.6 ± 3.0 (similar to historic gynecology controls 6.8 ± 3.3, p=0.49) and the mean PIKQ POP score was 5.4 ± 2.9 (better than historic gynecology controls 3.6 ± 3.2, p<0.01). Barriers to care seeking reported by the elder women were highest on the BICS-Q subscales of “Cost” and “Inconvenience”. Conclusions Urinary incontinence knowledge is similar to historic gynecology controls and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge is higher than historic gynecology controls among elder Southwestern American Indian women. American Indian elder women report high levels of barriers to care. The greatest barriers to care seeking for this population were related to cost and inconvenience, reflecting the importance of assessing socioeconomic status when investigating barriers to care. Addressing these barriers may enhance care seeking Southwestern American Indian women. PMID:25185612

  17. [Effects of a group exercise program on handgrip strength of elderly women with low bone mass].

    PubMed

    Costa, Eduarda Lubambo; Bastos Filho, Paulo Sérgio de Castro; Moura, Mariana de Sousa; Sousa, Tiago Siqueira de; Lemos, Andréa; Pedrosa, Márcia Alessandra Carneiro

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of an exercise program on handgrip strength (HS) in elderly women with low bone mass. Thirty-six elderly women were randomized to the intervention group - GI (n = 18) and control group - GC (n = 18). Participants were evaluated by means of a HS test, using a handgrip dynamometer. GI performed strength, balance and functional mobility exercises, and GC performed stretching exercises. Both groups had sessions twice a week for 50 minutes, during 4 months. GI had a significant increase in handgrip strength equal to 31.38%. No differences were observed in GC. There were correlations between HS test and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck (r = 0.582, p = 0.003) and total femur (r = 0.485, p = 0.01). Results indicate a propensity to increase elderly HS, and showed significant correlations between HS and BMD.

  18. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  19. Using Focus Groups To Develop a Heart Disease Prevention Program for Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettleman, Lynn; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups with diverse low-income women generated ideas about cardiovascular disease interventions. Women preferred programs that: addressed multiple risk factors; emphasized staying healthy for themselves; taught skills for adopting heart-healthy behaviors; and offered choices in effecting behavior change. Women stressed the need for health…

  20. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust.

  1. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust. PMID:21479146

  2. People Would Talk: Normative Barriers to Cross-Sex Friendships for Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rebecca G.

    1985-01-01

    A normative explanation for elderly women's lack of male friends is developed by showing that cross-sex friendship is defined as romance, that there are norms inhibiting romance during old age, and that other norms encourage them to reject potential mates who can no longer meet traditional sex role demands. (Author/BL)

  3. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  4. Difference in trunk stability during semicircular turns with and without a bag in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu; An, Duk-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Seop; Kim, Ki-Song; Kim, Tae-Ho; Choi, Jong-Sang

    2017-09-22

    Direction changes while walking are more likely to cause a hip fracture than is falling while walking in a straight line. Trunk stability is an important contributor to safe and effective walking, and arm movements influence trunk movement while walking. However, the difference in the trunk stability during semicircular turns performed by elderly women with a light bag has not been examined. To investigate the effects of carrying a bag on trunk stability during semicircular turns in elderly women. We enrolled 15 community-dwelling elderly women capable of independent walking. Participants walked with and without a bag at a self-selected speed along a marked path, which included semicircular turns, while fitted with an accelerometer attached over the L3 spinous process. Gait velocity was faster during semicircular turning with a bag versus without a bag. The normalized medial-lateral center of mass acceleration was lower during semicircular turning with a bag versus without a bag. We suggest that a light additional arm load and increased arm swing contributes to trunk stability and efficient walking during semicircular turning by elderly women.

  5. Nutritional Health of Elderly Women: Evidence of a Relationship between Dietary Intake and Taste Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Margaret I.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between dietary intake and taste perception for elderly women living independently in the community. It is unclear whether they have diminished taste perception, but it has been established that they are at high risk for nutrient deficiencies that may indirectly affect the taste process. (JOW)

  6. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  7. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  8. [RELEVANCE OF A PROGRAM BALANCE IN HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF OBESE ELDERLY WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Prieto, Jose Antonio; Del Valle, Miguel; Nistal, Paloma; Méndez, David; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a specific intervention program of strength and balance in the quality of life in obese women elderly. a total of 56 obese women elderly (average 67.2 +/- 2.1 age) were randomized into control group (28) and experimental (28). The experimental group carried out an exercise program based on balance and lower body strength, for 24 weeks. Balance and strength was measured before and after the intervention. Similarly, the perception health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was determined using SF-36 . the experimental group showed a significant improvement in all tests. In the test of the chair was observed an increase of 28.3% after the program (P <0.05). The test countermovement jump (CMJ) reflected an improvement of 20.8% (P <0.001). Equally positive changes were detected in the test of balance with closed eyes (P <0.001). However, the significance level with open eyes was lower than with closed eyes (P <0.05). Also, was observed a significant improvement in the experimental group on monitoring in all dimensions of SF-36. a specific program of balance produces positive changes in the stability of a sample of obese women elderly, significantly improving HRQOL in all dimensions, emphasizing physical health and social function and mental health mental components. Are opened new avenues for greater welfare of obese women elderly. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and recurrent falls in community-dwelling elderly women: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Bruno S.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Kirkwood, Renata N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Falling is a common but devastating and costly problem of aging. There is no consensus in the literature on whether the spatial and temporal gait parameters could identify elderly people at risk of recurrent falls. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict recurrent falls in elderly women. METHOD: One hundred and forty-eight elderly women (65-85 years) participated in this study. Seven spatiotemporal gait parameters were collected with the GAITRite(r) system. Falls were recorded prospectively during 12 months through biweekly phone contacts. Elderly women who reported two or more falls throughout the follow-up period were considered as recurrent fallers. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis followed by biplot graph interpretation were applied to the gait parameters. RESULTS: After 12 months, 23 elderly women fell twice or more and comprised the recurrent fallers group and 110 with one or no falls comprised the non-recurrent fallers group. PCA resulted in three components that explained 88.3% of data variance. Discriminant analysis showed that none of the components could significantly discriminate the groups. However, visual inspection of the biplot showed a trend towards group separation in relation to gait velocity and stance time. PC1 represented gait rhythm and showed that recurrent fallers tend to walk with lower velocity and cadence and increased stance time in relation to non-recurrent fallers. CONCLUSIONS: The analyzed spatiotemporal gait parameters failed to predict recurrent falls in this sample. The PCA-biplot technique highlighted important trends or red flags that should be considered when evaluating recurrent falls in elderly females. PMID:25714603

  10. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and recurrent falls in community-dwelling elderly women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Bruno S; Sampaio, Rosana F; Kirkwood, Renata N

    2015-01-01

    Falling is a common but devastating and costly problem of aging. There is no consensus in the literature on whether the spatial and temporal gait parameters could identify elderly people at risk of recurrent falls. To determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict recurrent falls in elderly women. One hundred and forty-eight elderly women (65-85 years) participated in this study. Seven spatiotemporal gait parameters were collected with the GAITRite(r) system. Falls were recorded prospectively during 12 months through biweekly phone contacts. Elderly women who reported two or more falls throughout the follow-up period were considered as recurrent fallers. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis followed by biplot graph interpretation were applied to the gait parameters. After 12 months, 23 elderly women fell twice or more and comprised the recurrent fallers group and 110 with one or no falls comprised the non-recurrent fallers group. PCA resulted in three components that explained 88.3% of data variance. Discriminant analysis showed that none of the components could significantly discriminate the groups. However, visual inspection of the biplot showed a trend towards group separation in relation to gait velocity and stance time. PC1 represented gait rhythm and showed that recurrent fallers tend to walk with lower velocity and cadence and increased stance time in relation to non-recurrent fallers. The analyzed spatiotemporal gait parameters failed to predict recurrent falls in this sample. The PCA-biplot technique highlighted important trends or red flags that should be considered when evaluating recurrent falls in elderly females.

  11. Understanding low-income African American women's expectations, preferences, and priorities in prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Tucker Edmonds, Brownsyne; Mogul, Marjie; Shea, Judy A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to explore factors affecting prenatal care attendance and preferences for prenatal care experiences among low-income black women by conducting a focus group study using a community-based participatory research framework and nominal group technique. Discussions were audiorecorded, transcribed, and coded by trained reviewers. Friends/family and baby's health were the top attendance motivators. Greatest barriers were insurance, transportation, and ambivalence. Facilitators included transportation services, social support, and resource education. In a "perfect system," women wanted continuity of care, personal connection, and caring/respect from providers. Relationship-centered maternity care models may mitigate disparities. Group prenatal care may provide the continuity and support system desired.

  12. Breastfeeding among low-income women with and without peer support.

    PubMed

    Arlotti, J P; Cottrell, B H; Lee, S H; Curtin, J J

    1998-01-01

    This research examined the effect of peer support on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity (breastfeeding without supplements) in a population of low-income women during the first 3 months postpartum. Participants in the peer counselor group (n = 18) exhibited higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding across time than those without a counselor (n = 18), and more exclusive breastfeeding was associated with long duration overall. Mother's career plans had the greatest effect on duration of breastfeeding. Women who intended to return to work, attend school, or both breastfed 6 to 9 weeks less than participants who intended to stay home. Attendance at a breastfeeding class and knowing someone who had breastfed was significantly correlated with a longer duration of breastfeeding. Nutritionists from the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program were the primary source of breastfeeding information. Two main factors discouraged women from breastfeeding: returning to work, school, or both and the perception of a diminished milk supply. Greater emphasis should be placed on prenatal breastfeeding education for low-income women, and their mothers and grandmothers should be included. Peer support is one important component of social support in the area of breastfeeding that community health nurses (CHNs) can utilize. CHNs are in a unique position to assist working mothers, provide support, and develop educational programs to enhance breastfeeding success in this population.

  13. Nutrition information-seeking behaviour of low-income pregnant Maghrebian women.

    PubMed

    Legault, Anik; Marquis, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition information-seeking behaviour was explored among low-income pregnant Maghrebian women living in Montreal. Environmental factors likely to influence nutrition information-seeking behaviour during pregnancy are discussed. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews with 14 primigravid pregnant women recruited via the Montreal Diet Dispensary, a nonprofit agency with the mission of promoting health among low-income pregnant women. Data collection was part of a larger project on pregnant women's nutrition decision-making. Environmental factors likely to influence information-seeking behaviour were identified. They were grouped within two major themes: culture and interactions with individuals from the social environment. The culture theme was divided into three minor themes: eating habits, food beliefs, and religious beliefs. The interactions with individuals from the social environment theme was divided into two minor themes: interactions with health care providers and interactions with family members. Understanding the influence of these environmental factors should help registered dietitians tailor communication strategies to pregnant immigrant women's specific information needs.

  14. Preventive Care for Low-Income Women in Massachusetts Post–Health Reform

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Jane; Riden, Heather; Tovar, Dora; Orton, Piper; Burdick, Elisabeth; Capistran, Mary Ellen; Morisset, Jennifer; Browne, Elizabeth E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Johnson, Paula A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Before enacting health insurance reform in 2006, Massachusetts provided free breast, cervical cancer, and cardiovascular risk screening for low-income uninsured women through a federally subsidized program called the Women's Health Network (WHN). This article examines whether, as women transitioned to insurance to pay for screening tests after health reform legislation was passed, cancer and cardiovascular disease screening changed among WHN participants between 2004 and 2010. Methods: We examined claims data from the Massachusetts health insurance exchange and chart review data to measure utilization of mammography, Pap smear, and blood pressure screening among WHN participants in five community health centers in greater Boston. We conducted a longitudinal analysis, by insurance type, using generalized estimating equations to examine the likelihood of screening at recommended intervals in the postreform period compared to the prereform period. Results: Pre- and postreform, we found a high prevalence of recommended mammography (86% vs. 88%), Pap smear (88% vs. 89%), and blood pressure screening (87% vs. 91%) that was similar or improved for most women postreform. Screening use differed by insurance type. Recommended mammography screening was statistically significantly increased among women with state-subsidized private insurance (odds ratio [OR] 1.58, p<0.05). Women with unsubsidized private insurance or Medicare had decreased Pap smear use postreform. Although screening prevalence was high, 31% of women required state safety-net funds to pay for screening tests. Conclusion: Our results suggest a continued need for safety-net programs to support preventive screening among low-income women after implementation of healthcare reform. PMID:24798240

  15. The role of mental health on maternal-fetal attachment in low-income women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J; Rose, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    To examine and describe the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) in predominantly low-income women. Mixed method. Three urban obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) clinics serving predominantly low-income women. A convenience sample of 166 women participated in the quantitative component and a purposeful subsample of 12 women participated in the qualitative component; all women were between 24 and 28 weeks gestation at the time of data collection. Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of depressive symptoms and social support on MFA. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted among a subsample of women to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on MFA. Fifty-nine percent (n = 98) of participants had scores that were clinically significant for depressive symptoms. In the final model of social support and depressive symptoms regressed on MFA, social support (b = .23, 95% CI [0.09, .37], p = .002) and depressive symptoms (b = -1.02, 95% CI [-1.32, -.73], p < 0.001) were significant predictors. This multivariate linear regression model with two variables accounted for 65.2% of the total variance in overall MFA. Qualitative participants discussed the importance of social support in contributing to their mood state and MFA. Findings from this study highlight the importance of assessing for depressive symptoms during pregnancy given its influence on MFA. By understanding how important it was for these women to have a supportive person to experience their pregnancies with, nurses can improve the pregnancy experience for vulnerable populations. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. Prenatal Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Oncken, Cheryl A.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Belizán, José M.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Berghella, Vincenzo; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Lando, Harry A.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Bloch, Michele H.

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of tobacco use is decreasing in many high-income countries, it is increasing in many low-and middle-income countries. The health and economic burden of increasing tobacco use and dependence is predictable and will have devastating effects in countries with limited resources, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women. We sought to review effective tobacco prevention and intervention strategies for decreasing tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure before and during pregnancy in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. We reviewed several types of interventions, including population-level efforts (increasing tobacco prices, implementing tobacco control policies), community interventions, clinical interventions, and pharmacological treatments. A second purpose of this report is to present findings of an international expert working group that was convened to review the evidence and to establish research priorities in the following areas: 1) preventing the uptake and reducing tobacco use among girls and women of reproductive age and 2) reducing tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women. The working group considered the evidence on existing interventions in terms of burden of disease, intervention impact, intervention costs, feasibility of integration into existing services, uniqueness of the contribution, and overall feasibility. Finally, we present the working group’s recommendations for intervention research priorities. PMID:20235895

  17. [Healthy eating, schooling and being overweight among low-income women].

    PubMed

    Lins, Ana Paula Machado; Sichieri, Rosely; Coutinho, Walmir Ferreira; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques; Fonseca, Vânia Matos

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the factors associated with the prevalence of being overweight and obesity in a population of low-income adult women living in a metropolitan region and its association with socioeconomic, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, highlighting the importance of healthy eating. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 758 women aged 20 or older living in Campos Elíseos - Duque de Caxias - State of Rio de Janeiro. Bivariate and multivariate hierarchical regression was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity. A prevalence of 23% of obesity was found, and a prevalence of 56% of being overweight and obesity combined. An inverse association was found between years of study, being overweight and obesity. Most of the women reported having a healthy diet (73.6%) that increased positively with income, education and age. Failure to consume vegetables weekly was associated with being overweight and not having a healthy diet was associated with obesity. The results of this study demonstrate that even in low-income populations, a higher level of education has an impact on prevention of this problem and in food choices.

  18. Challenges to Providing End-of-Life Care to Low-Income Elders with Advanced Chronic Disease: Lessons Learned from a Model Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Betty J.; Auer, Casey

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the challenges in providing end-of-life care to low-income elders with multiple comorbid chronic conditions in a fully "integrated" managed care program, and it highlighted essential recommendations. Design and Methods: A case-study design was used that involved an extensive analysis of qualitative data from five focus…

  19. Challenges to Providing End-of-Life Care to Low-Income Elders with Advanced Chronic Disease: Lessons Learned from a Model Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Betty J.; Auer, Casey

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the challenges in providing end-of-life care to low-income elders with multiple comorbid chronic conditions in a fully "integrated" managed care program, and it highlighted essential recommendations. Design and Methods: A case-study design was used that involved an extensive analysis of qualitative data from five focus…

  20. Folacin and iron status and hematological findings in predominately black elderly persons from urban low-income households.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L B; Wagner, P A; Christakis, G J; Araujo, P E; Appledorf, H; Davis, C G; Masteryanni, J; Dinning, J S

    1979-11-01

    The folacin and iron status and hemotological parameters of 193 persons 60 years of age and older from urban low-income households were evaluated. Of the serum folacin values 30% were between 3 and 6 ng/ml and 8% were below 3 ng/ml. Of these subjects 60% could be classified as "high risk" (less than 140 ng/ml) and 11% as "medium risk" (140 to 160 ng/ml) based on red blood cell folacin concentrations. Serum iron was normal (greater than 50 micrograms/dl) for all subjects as was transferrin saturation (greater than 15%). Hematological indices showed a 14% incidence of anemia (hemaglobin less than 12 g/dl), and 32% incidence of leukopenia (leukocytes less than 4.8 X 10(3)). These findings demonstrate widespread folacin deficiency and no evidence of iron deficiency in these elderly people.

  1. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    León-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmerón, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L.; Thrasher, James F.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico’s early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women’s perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women’s understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender. Results Women’s confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men’s sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes’ desire for sex as natural but understood men’s negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women’s HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission. Conclusions These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women’s negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could

  2. The Role of Mental Health on Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J.; Rose, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine and describe the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) in predominantly low-income women. Design Mixed method. Setting Three urban obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) clinics serving predominantly low-income women. Participants A convenience sample of 166 women participated in the quantitative component and a purposeful sub-sample of 12 women participated in the qualitative component; all women were between 24–28 weeks gestation at the time of data collection. Methods Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of depressive symptoms and social support on MFA. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted among a sub-sample of women to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on MFA. Results Fifty-nine percent (n=98) of participants had scores that were clinically significant for depressive symptoms. In the final model of social support and depressive symptoms regressed on MFA, social support (b = 0.23, 95% CI [0.09, .37], p = .002) and depressive symptoms (b = −1.02, 95% CI [−1.32, −.73], p < 0.001) were significant predictors. This multivariate linear regression model with two variables accounted for 65.2% of the total variance in overall MFA. Qualitative participants discussed the importance of social support in contributing to their mood state and MFA. Conclusions Findings from this study highlight the importance of assessing for depressive symptoms during pregnancy given its influence on MFA. By understanding how important it was for these women to have a supportive person to experience their pregnancies with, nurses can improve the pregnancy experience for vulnerable populations. PMID:22788921

  3. Aspects of the speaking voice of elderly women with choral singing experience.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Silva, Marta Assumpção Andrada E; Teles, Lídia Cristina da Silva; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2016-01-01

    Despite several studies related to singing and aging voice found in the literature, there is still the need for investigation seeking to understand the effects of this practice in the speaking voice of the elderly. To compare the characteristics of the speaking voice of elderlies with experience in choral singing with those of elderlies without this experience. Participants were 75 elderly women: 50 with experience in choral singing - group of singers (SG) and 25 without experience - group of nonsingers (NSG). A questionnaire was applied to characterize the elderly and collect data with respect to lifestyle and voice. Speech samples (sustained vowels, repetition of sentences, and running speech excerpts) were collected in a quiet room in sitting position. The voices were analyzed by three expert speech-language pathologists according to the protocol Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V). Data were submitted to descriptive and statistical analysis. The voices of elderly nonsingers (NSG) showed significant increase in scores related to the overall degree of deviance and presence of roughness and strain. Analysis of the aspects of the speaking voice of subjects in the SG, compared with that of subjects in the NSG, showed better overall degree of deviance due to lower roughness and strain.

  4. Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: power, beliefs and decision making.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L

    2003-01-01

    Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women.

  5. Self-reported consequences and healthcare costs of falls among elderly women.

    PubMed

    Alekna, Vidmantas; Stukas, Rimantas; Tamulaitytė-Morozovienė, Inga; Šurkienė, Genė; Tamulaitienė, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Although the falls in elderly people lead to serious health consequences, the economic burden is underestimated. The aim of this study was to calculate the medical costs of fall consequences in elderly women. Women aged 65 years and older were interviewed by phone recording the consequences and healthcare procedures related to every fall sustained during the previous 12 months. The healthcare costs were estimated by calculating the sum of costs for all self-reported contacts with medical care providers: ambulance, emergency department, visits to family doctor and other specialists, hospitalisations, and rehabilitation. The study population consisted of 878 community-dwelling women (mean age 72.2±4.8 years). Falls were reported by 310 (35.3%) women; one in three of them had fallen twice or more. Of all women who fell, 280 (90.3%) reported their fall resulted in an injury, and 77 (15.3%) falls led to bone fractures. Fear of falling was reported by 72.9% of women. Fall-related medical care was provided to 135 women (43.5% of those fallen), and 18 (5.8%) subjects were hospitalised, mostly for the fracture. The mean estimated healthcare cost was 254 EUR per patient receiving fall-related medical care, and 116 EUR per women fallen. The highest mean cost (1289 EUR) was estimated in falls resulted in hip fracture; the lowest (135 EUR), in nonfracture injury. The data on the self-reported consequences of falls in elderly women showed a significant number of fall-related injuries and a high cost of healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurological disorder screening in the elderly in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Felicity; Dewhurst, Matthew J; Orega, Golda; Gray, William K; Howlett, William; Warren, Naomi; Aris, Eric; Walker, Richard W

    2012-10-01

    There are few data on neurological disorder prevalence from developing countries, particularly in the elderly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This is in part due to the lack of a feasible and valid screening instrument. We aimed to develop (and pilot) a brief screening instrument for neurological disorders in an elderly population in SSA. Our study population of 2,232 was selected at random from the entire 70 years and over population of a demographic surveillance site in rural Tanzania. One village, with a population of 277, was randomly selected as a pilot site prior to screening the rest of the study population. We designed a screening questionnaire based on the neurological section of the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision for use by non-medical interviewers (NMI). Of the 277 participants aged 70 years and over in the pilot village, 82 had neurological disorders, with a further 267 identified as having neurological disorders during the study extension to the remaining study population of 1955. The questionnaire was practical, acceptable to recipients, and easily performed by an NMI. The sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 87.8 and 94.9 %, respectively, in the pilot and 97.0 and 90.4 %, respectively, in the extension. This is the first published screening instrument for measuring the prevalence of neurological disorders in a developing country, which is dedicated to the elderly population. It is feasible to use and has high sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  8. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women.

  9. Elderly women in the Nordic countries; level of living and situation in life.

    PubMed

    Helset, A

    1993-12-01

    A joint Nordic research project aiming to obtain more knowledge about the situation of elderly women, has been funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the authorities in each participating country (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). In essence and practice, the project is testing to what extent gender is a fruitful element in gerontological research, and whether high age as a topic can contribute to a better understanding of women's situation. In other words, the project integrates two academic traditions; feminist research and gerontological research, thus creating feminist gerontology as a field of study. Analysing the data of Nordic level of living surveys, the research group studies the variations in "Norden" in the situation regarding of elderly women the following topics: family pattern, resources of social contact and care, morbidity and infirmity, education, work, material and economic resources and fear of violence. The study also includes a description of the demographic development in "Norden".

  10. Depression among Low-Income Female Muslim Uyghur and Kazakh Informal Caregivers of Disabled Elders in Far Western China: Influence on the Caregivers’ Burden and the Disabled Elders’ Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fuchen; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenting; Yang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Background Paying attention to and improving the mental health of the informal caregivers of disabled elders has become a global public health priority. This study focused on low-income female Uyghur and Kazakh informal caregivers of disabled elders residing in China’s far west. It investigated the prevalence of and the major related factors of depressive emotion. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from September 2013 to January 2014 in Shawan Prefectures, Tuokexun Prefectures, Bole Prefecture and Urumchi city. Shawan Prefecture has the highest proportion of Kazakhs, whereas Tuokexun Prefectures, Bole Prefecture and Urumchi city have the highest proportion of Uyghurs in Muslim ethnic Uygur and Kazakh communities. Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is located in remote western China; this area is approximately 3,105 km (1,929 miles) away from Beijing. A total of 444 female Uyghur and Kazakh informal caregivers of disabled elders participated in this study. The self-rating depression scale, the Zarit burden interview, and the SF-36 questionnaire were used to evaluate the state of caregiver depression, caregiver burden, and quality of life (QOL), respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression analyses, correlation with Spearman’s rho and independent-sample t-tests; a P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Up to 38.5% (n = 217) of informal caregivers reported having depression, whereas 61.5% (n = 273) of them reported a lack of depression. Age of disabled elders more than 60 years old, total hours spent on caring daily≥8h, duration of caring≥5 years, negative self-evaluation of health condition, having caregiver burden, elders’ medium degree of disability and elders’ heavy degree of disability had a higher risk of caregiver depression. By contrast, daughter/daughter-in-law of disabled elders; unemployed carers, family’s per capita income >US$235.48(1500 yuan), high social

  11. Women as agents of change: Female income and mobility in India

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

    2013-01-01

    Economic globalization will give many women in developing countries access to steady and relatively remunerative employment for the first time, potentially shifting bargaining power within their households and changing the choices that are made for their children. This paper exploits a unique setting — a group of tea plantations in South India where women are employed in permanent wage labor and where incomes do not vary by caste — to anticipate the impact of globalization on mobility across social groups in the future. The main result of the paper is that a relative increase in female income weakens the family's ties to the ancestral community and the traditional economy, but these mobility enhancing effects are obtained for certain historically disadvantaged castes alone. Although the paper provides a context-specific explanation for why the women from these castes emerge as agents of change, the first general implication of the analysis is that the incentive and the ability of women to use their earnings to influence household decisions depends importantly on their social background. The second implication is that historically disadvantaged groups may, in fact, be especially responsive to new opportunities precisely because they have fewer ties to the traditional economy to hold them back. PMID:24319310

  12. Knowledge of Abortion Laws and Services Among Low-Income Women in Three United States Cities.

    PubMed

    Lara, Diana; Holt, Kelsey; Peña, Melanie; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Low-income women and women of color are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy. Lack of knowledge of abortion laws and services is one of several factors likely to hinder access to services, though little research has documented knowledge in this population. Survey with convenience sample of 1,262 women attending primary care or full-scope Ob/Gyn clinics serving low-income populations in three large cities and multivariable analyses with four knowledge outcomes. Among all participants, 53% were first-generation immigrants, 25% identified the correct gestational age limit, 41% identified state parental consent laws, 67% knew partner consent is not required, and 55% knew where to obtain abortion services. In multivariable analysis, first-generation immigrants and primarily Spanish speakers were significantly less likely than higher-generation or primarily English speakers to display correct knowledge. Design and evaluation of strategies to improve knowledge about abortion, particularly among migrant women and non-primary English speakers, is needed.

  13. Effects of Social Injustice on Breast Health–Seeking Behaviors of Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann; Williams, Edith M.; Stoneberg-Cooper, Chayah M.; Glover, Saundra H.; Williams, Michelle S.; Byrd, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study uses qualitative research to gain a better understanding of what occurs after low-income women receive an abnormal breast screening and the factors that influence their decisions and behavior. A heuristic model is presented for understanding this complexity. Design Qualitative research methods used to elicited social and cultural themes related to breast cancer screening follow-up. Setting Individual telephone interviews were conducted with 16 women with confirmed breast anomaly. Participants Low-income women screened through a national breast cancer early detection program. Method Grounded theory using selective coding was employed to elicit factors that influenced the understanding and follow-up of an abnormal breast screening result. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into NVivo 8, a qualitative management and analysis software package. Results For women (16, or 72% of case management referrals) below 250% of the poverty level, the impact of social and economic inequities creates a psychosocial context underlined by structural and cultural barriers to treatment that forecasts the mechanism that generates differences in health outcomes. The absence of insurance due to underemployment and unemployment and inadequate public infrastructure intensified emotional stress impacting participants’ health decisions. Conclusion The findings that emerged offer explanations of how consistent patterns of social injustice impact treatment decisions in a high-risk vulnerable population that have implications for health promotion research and systems-level program improvement and development. PMID:23448411

  14. Perceptions of mental health services among low-income, perinatal African-American women.

    PubMed

    Leis, Julie A; Mendelson, Tamar; Perry, Deborah F; Tandon, S Darius

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions of mental health services as a barrier to service use among low-income, urban, perinatal African-American clients of home visiting programs. Inductive thematic analysis procedures were used to analyze data collected from focus groups conducted with clients (n = 38) and staff (n = 26) of two paraprofessional home visiting programs. Four complementary themes were identified: Perceptions of mental health care providers, concerns about confidentiality, beliefs about the effectiveness of psychotherapy, and perceptions of psychotropic medication. Overall, perceptions of mental health services were largely negative. Many women equated seeing a mental health care provider with being prescribed psychotropic medication, and providers were commonly described as uncaring and emotionally detached. In general, psychotherapy was perceived as ineffective, and many women expressed strong negative views about psychotropic medication. Perceptions of mental health services were clearly an impediment to service use in this population of low-income, perinatal African-American women. Findings from this study can inform efforts to overcome barriers to mental health service use and develop effective perinatal mental health interventions. Implications of this work include use of the home visitation setting as a context for delivering knowledge and shaping positive attitudes and behaviors with respect to mental health practices. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isokinetic assessment of knee flexor/extensor muscular strength in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Marcos de Amorim; Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Terreri, Antônio Sérgio A P; Andrusaitis, Félix Ricardo; Nardelli, Júlio César de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    To assess knee flexor-extensor muscular strength in elderly women with no previous history of musculoskeletal disorders on the lower limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer, in order to obtain data that could be used as a comparative parameter in the evaluation of elderly women with knee disorders, thus facilitating a better rehabilitation of these patients. Twenty-six volunteers aged 75 to 83 years were studied using a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. The chosen angular velocity was 60 degrees /s, and concentric exercise was used for either flexion or extension. The studied parameters were: peak torque, angle of peak torque, and flexor-extensor torque rate. There were no differences between dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) knee peak torque values. This was true for both flexor (D = 42.46 +/- 9.09 Nm / ND = 40.65 +/- 9.38 Nm) and extensor (D = 76.92 +/- 13.97 Nm / ND = 77.65 +/- 15.21 Nm) movements. The descriptive statistical analysis of the values obtained for the flexor-extensor peak torque rate and for the angle of occurrence of peak torque was the same for the dominant and nondominant sides. The values of peak torque for the contralateral side can be used as a reference during rehabilitation of elderly women with acute disease of the knee, and the angular velocity of 60 degrees /s is proper and safe for isokinetic assessment of elderly people.

  16. Daytime physical activity patterns and physical fitness in institutionalized elderly women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Tome; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Shima, Hiroto; Kishibuchi, Kaoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between daytime physical activity patterns and physical fitness in elderly women. The subjects comprised 19 elderly women who resided in a nursing home. Time spent lying, sitting, standing and walking and the number of steps taken during the daytime from 10:00 to 16:00 were measured to determine physical activity patterns. Physical fitness measures included muscle strength, balance, flexibility and physical performance. The elderly women spent 18.3% of their daytime walking, 7.31% in a standing position, 56.9% sitting and 17.4% lying down. Our results showed that the time spent in walking or standing positions was significantly associated with balance and physical performance such as walking speed, while the time spent in a sitting position was inversely associated with muscle strength, balance and physical performance. The results of this study suggest that the time the elderly spend on weight-bearing activities and in sedentary behavior are associated with physical fitness.

  17. Attitudes towards Intimate Partner Violence against Women among Women and Men in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Hau; Fisher, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner (IPV) is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). The aim was to describe the attitudes of women and men towards perpetration of physical violence to women by an intimate partner, in a large group of low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We used data from Round Four of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Attitudes towards IPV against women were assessed by a study-specific scale asking if ‘wife beating’ is justified in any of five circumstances. Overall, data from 39 countries (all had data from women and 13 countries also had data from men) were included in the analyses. The proportions of women who held attitudes that ‘wife-beating’ was justified in any of the five circumstances varied widely among countries from 2.0% (95% CI 1.7;2.3) in Argentina to 90.2% (95% CI 88.9;91.5) in Afghanistan. Similarly, among men it varied from 5.0% (95% CI 4.0;6.0) in Belarus to 74.5% (95% CI 72.5;76.4) in the Central African Republic. The belief that ‘wife-beating’ is acceptable was most common in Africa and South Asia, and least common in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. In general this belief was more common among people in disadvantaged circumstances, including being a member of a family in the lowest household wealth quintile, living in a rural area and having limited formal education. Young adults were more likely to accept physical abuse by a man of his intimate partner than those who were older, but people who had never partnered were less likely to have these attitudes. Conclusions Violence against women is an international priority and requires a multicomponent response. These data provide evidence that strategies should include major public education programs to change attitudes about the acceptability of IPV against women, and that these should be addressed to women and girls as well as to boys and men. PMID:27893861

  18. Attitudes towards Intimate Partner Violence against Women among Women and Men in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Hau; Fisher, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner (IPV) is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). The aim was to describe the attitudes of women and men towards perpetration of physical violence to women by an intimate partner, in a large group of low- and middle-income countries. We used data from Round Four of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Attitudes towards IPV against women were assessed by a study-specific scale asking if 'wife beating' is justified in any of five circumstances. Overall, data from 39 countries (all had data from women and 13 countries also had data from men) were included in the analyses. The proportions of women who held attitudes that 'wife-beating' was justified in any of the five circumstances varied widely among countries from 2.0% (95% CI 1.7;2.3) in Argentina to 90.2% (95% CI 88.9;91.5) in Afghanistan. Similarly, among men it varied from 5.0% (95% CI 4.0;6.0) in Belarus to 74.5% (95% CI 72.5;76.4) in the Central African Republic. The belief that 'wife-beating' is acceptable was most common in Africa and South Asia, and least common in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. In general this belief was more common among people in disadvantaged circumstances, including being a member of a family in the lowest household wealth quintile, living in a rural area and having limited formal education. Young adults were more likely to accept physical abuse by a man of his intimate partner than those who were older, but people who had never partnered were less likely to have these attitudes. Violence against women is an international priority and requires a multicomponent response. These data provide evidence that strategies should include major public education programs to change attitudes about the acceptability of IPV against women, and that these should be addressed to women and girls as well as to boys and men.

  19. HIV and AIDS Relative to Other Health, Social, and Relationship Concerns Among Low-Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Braaten, Laura S.; Jaworski, Beth C.; Durant, Lauren E.; Forsyth, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the priorities of low-income women regarding health, relationship, and social concerns. Method Street-intercept surveys conducted with 161 low-income urban women (M = 27 years; 85% African-American; 80% single mothers) regarding their perceptions of the threat associated with 48 health and social problems. Results Women rated AIDS as their most important health, social, or relationship concern; nearly one-half of all women indicated that they would attend risk reduction programs to learn how to avoid infection with HIV. Conclusions AIDS is perceived as a serious threat to women’s health, and that interventions to reduce risk are welcomed. PMID:10839652

  20. Association of osteoporosis and bone medication with the periodontal condition in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Penoni, D C; Torres, S R; Farias, M L F; Fernandes, T M; Luiz, R R; Leão, A T T

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether osteoporosis and its treatment may affect periodontal condition in elderly women. The findings highlighted that women with osteoporosis had a higher chance to present severe periodontitis than women with normal bone mineral density (BMD), particularly those who were not treated for osteoporosis. This study investigated whether osteoporosis increases the frequency and severity of chronic periodontitis in elderly women and evaluated the influence of vitamin D and osteoporosis treatment in the periodontal condition. In this cross-sectional study, elderly women were selected among 1266 subjects evaluated for lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and complete periodontal examination were recorded. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured by chemiluminescence. Forty-eight elderly women with normal BMD and 86 with osteoporosis were selected. Women with osteoporosis presented higher frequency of sites with clinical attachment level ≥6 mm (p = 0.003) and gingival recession ≥3 mm (p = 0.002) than those with normal BMD and were more than twice as likely to present severe periodontitis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.49, 95 % CI [1.14 to 5.43]). Osteoporotic women who were not treated for the condition had more chance to present severe periodontitis (OR = 3.16, 95 % CI [1.28 to 7.82]) than those who did use bisphosphonates (OR = 2.04, 95 % CI [0.85 to 4.89]). Among the participants who presented low levels of vitamin D, those with osteoporosis exhibited a higher chance to present severe periodontitis than those with normal BMD (p = 0.027), but the association between vitamin D levels and osteoporosis was not statistically significant after adjustment (p = 0.198). Elderly women with osteoporosis have a greater chance to present periodontitis, with higher severity than those with normal BMD. Osteoporosis treatment

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=-6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women.

  3. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  4. Perceived stress, unhealthy eating behaviors, and severe obesity in low-income women.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrea S; Arsenault, Joanne E; Cates, Sheryl C; Muth, Mary K

    2015-12-03

    Stress has been associated with poor eating behaviors and diet quality, as well as high body mass index (BMI). Low-income women may be particularly vulnerable to stress and severe obesity. Yet it is unknown how stress increases the risk of severe obesity through disordered eating behaviors and poor diet quality or through mechanisms independent of diet. We examined cross-sectional data from women (n = 101) with a child enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Cumberland County, North Carolina (spring 2012). We collected measured heights and weights to calculate BMI. Using structural equation modeling, we differentiated pathways from stress to weight status: (1) indirectly through eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, emotional eating, and uncontrolled eating) and diet quality, which we examined with the Healthy Eating Index 2010 and 24-h dietary recalls, and (2) directly through possible unmeasured risk factors independent of diet. The analysis controlled for race/ethnicity, income, age, whether the dietary recall day was typical, and whether the respondent completed one or two 24-h dietary recalls. Perceived stress was positively associated with uncontrolled eating (β = 0.38, p < 0.001) and emotional eating (β = 0.50, p < 0.001). However, higher stress was not associated with weight status through eating behaviors and diet quality. Independent of eating behaviors and diet quality, stress was positively associated with severe obesity (β = 0.26, p = 0.007). Improving stress coping strategies for low-income women may improve eating behaviors and reduce severe obesity.

  5. Breastfeeding support - the importance of self-efficacy for low-income women.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, Francesca; Kendall, Sally; Mead, Marianne

    2010-07-01

    Breastfeeding is a key determinant in promoting public health and reducing health inequality. Low-income women have a significantly lower level of breastfeeding. Midwives in the UK have been encouraged to implement the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, but to date, there has been no evaluation of the impact of the training initiative on the breastfeeding behaviours of low-income women. As part of a wider study, this qualitative component was designed to answer the question - what are the views and experiences of low-income women (defined by Jarman scores) in relation to their breastfeeding support received in the post-natal period? A sample of seven women was interviewed. The in-depth interviews were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach based on the self-efficacy theory. The four themes that emerged from the data were the following: breastfeeding related to the woman's self-confidence, the social environment in which the woman lived, knowledge of breastfeeding and the influence of maternity services on breastfeeding outcomes. These themes were interpreted in relation to the self-efficacy theory. The findings suggest that the components that inform self-efficacy are consistent with the themes from the data, suggesting that midwives and other health professionals should take the psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding support into account. As this important feature of breastfeeding support is not explicitly part of the current Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, we suggest that further research and debate could inform expansion of these minimum standards to include the psychosocial aspects.

  6. Maternal stress exposures, reactions, and priorities for stress reduction among low-income urban women

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Tina; Glass, Nancy; Ann Curry, Mary; Hernandez, Rebecca; Houck, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Maternal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse maternal-child outcomes. Vulnerable women’s experiences with stressors during pregnancy and their desires and priorities for appropriate and useful stress reduction interventions for pregnant women are not well-understood. METHODS Qualitative interviews with low-income, urban women explored their stress exposures and reactions during pregnancy, ways that stressors overlapped and interacted, and their priorities for stress reduction. Quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, My Exposure to Violence Instrument Danger Assessment, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale, Revised, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian) supplemented qualitative descriptions of women’s stress exposures and reactions. Analyses explored relationships between stressors and women’s priorities for stress intervention. Lay advisors from the sample population reviewed qualitative interview guides for appropriateness, completeness, and language prior to interviews, and reviewed study findings for validity. Study findings were returned to the community in newsletter form. RESULTS Twenty-four low-income urban women participated in interviews. Women in the sample reported high stress, lifetime violence exposure, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The most common stressors reported were financial strain, violence exposure, and feelings of intense isolation and loneliness. Few participants reported having discussed psychosocial stressors with prenatal care providers. Participants in this study described connections with other women as desirable to relieve their stress and provided input on ways healthcare providers could facilitate such connections. DISCUSSION Clinical and research implications of findings are discussed, including approaches that health care providers may find useful to facilitate connections among vulnerable pregnant women. PMID:23278984

  7. Cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for depression in low-income women.

    PubMed

    Beil, Heather; Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Lewis, Ginny

    2013-06-01

    Low-income mothers are more likely to experience depressive symptoms than their higher income counterparts, but they are less likely to receive treatment. One way to overcome common barriers to care for low-income women is to do therapy in the mother's home. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of in-home interpersonal therapy (IPT) to two standard therapies for depression treatment: office based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychotropic medication. This cost utility analysis used a Markov model with a 3-year time horizon to compare the cost-effectiveness of the alternate therapies from the public payer perspective. We followed a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 women age 19 to 35 years with depressive symptoms who had an income level at or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Costs were based on the number of women who completed the therapy. We used data from published literature on clinical trials with low-income minority women to determine the completion rates, duration, and effectiveness of each type of therapy. Additionally, costs for in-home IPT were calculated from unpublished trial data. Costs were determined using 2011 North Carolina Medicaid reimbursement rates; utility weights were taken from published literature. The endpoint was the total outpatient medical cost (therapy and outpatient medical visits). The study outcomes were depression free days (DFD), which were translated into quality of adjusted life years (QALY). We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of each therapy based on the number of QALYs gained. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to determine how robust the results were to uncertainty in the parameters. Treating patients with IPT resulted in an ICER of USD 13,479/QALY and USD 29,309/QALY as compared to CBT and medications, respectively. The results were most sensitive to the efficacy of IPT. Simulations showed that, with a threshold of USD 50

  8. Learning from “Knocks in Life”: Food Insecurity among Low-Income Lone Senior Women

    PubMed Central

    Green-LaPierre, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Glanville, N. Theresa; Norris, Deborah; Hunter, Heather C.; Watt, Cynthia G.

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an urban area of NS. Using a phenomenological inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore lone senior women's experiences accessing food with limited financial resources. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, we explored their perceived ability to access a nutritionally adequate and personally acceptable diet, and the barriers and enablers to do so; as well in light of our previous quantitative research, we explored their perceptions related to adequacy of income, essential expenses, and their strategies to manage personal finances. Seven key themes emerged: world view, income adequacy, transportation, health/health problems, community program use, availability of family and friends, and personal food management strategies. World view exerted the largest influence on seniors' personal perception of food security status. The implications of the findings and policy recommendations to reduce the nutritional health inequities among this vulnerable subset of the senior population are considered. PMID:22997580

  9. Women's knowledge and attitude towards pregnancy in a high-income developing country.

    PubMed

    Alkaabi, Mariam S; Alsenaidi, Lamia K; Mirghani, Hisham

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes among women in a high-income developing country regarding pregnancy and antenatal care. Women who participated in the study were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire enquired about age, level of education, Internet use, marital status, and employment. It also included questions regarding their knowledge of ultrasound, the effects of sexual activity and other exercise during pregnancy, breast feeding, and premature delivery. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The total number of women included in this study was 205. A total of 115 women (56.1%) thought that the most important benefit of ultrasound was to discover fetal abnormalities. Only 75 (36.6%) thought that regular exercise was not harmful during pregnancy. Of the total respondents 116 (56.6%) of 205 thought that sex during pregnancy was harmful to the fetus or did not know. Age (P=0.001), marital status (P=0.001) and working status (P=0.005) were found to significantly affect their knowledge. Knowledge about pregnancy among Emirati women is low. There is a need for effective prenatal classes that focus on educating women about issues related to pregnancy and antenatal care.

  10. Patterns of care and treatment outcomes for elderly women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Charu; Deutsch, Israel; Horowitz, David P; Hershman, Dawn L; Lewin, Sharyn N; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Neugut, Alfred I; Herzog, Thomas J; Chao, Clifford K; Wright, Jason D

    2012-07-15

    Cervical cancer is common in the elderly. The authors examined the patterns of care, treatment, and outcomes of elderly women with cervical cancer. Women with cervical cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2005 and registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were analyzed. Patients were stratified by age: <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and ≥80 years. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine treatment; cancer-specific survival was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. A total of 28,902 women were identified, including 2543 women 70 to 79 years old and 1364 ≥80 years. For women with early stage (IB1-IIA) tumors, primary surgery was performed in 82.0% of women <50 years old compared with 54.5% of those 70 to 79 years old and 33.2% of those ≥80 years old (P < .0001). For women treated surgically, lymphadenectomy was performed in 66.8% of women <50 years old versus 9.1% of patients ≥80 years old (P < .0001). Compared with patients <50 years old, those >80 years old were less likely to undergo radical hysterectomy (odds ratio [OR], 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.14) and lymphadenectomy (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08-0.16) and to receive adjuvant radiation therapy (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.35). Among women with stage IIB-IVA disease, use of brachytherapy declined with age (P < .0001). For women with stage IB1-IIA tumors, the hazard ratio for death from cancer was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.16-1.58) for women 70 to 79 years old and 2.08 (95% CI, 1.72-2.48) for those ≥80 years old compared with younger women. Elderly women with cervical cancer are less likely to undergo surgery, receive adjuvant radiation, and receive brachytherapy. After adjusting for treatment disparities, cancer-specific mortality is higher in older women. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  11. Does medicaid coverage matter?: A qualitative multi-state study of abortion affordability for low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Amanda; Manski, Ruth; Blanchard, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    Medicaid is designed to ensure low-income populations can afford health care. However, not all health services are covered by the program. Most state Medicaid programs restrict abortion coverage, though a small number of state programs offer such coverage. Little is known about how low-income women are affected by differing Medicaid coverage policies regarding abortion. We conducted in depth interviews with 98 low-income women who had abortions. We found that women's impressions about abortion costs and the availability of Medicaid coverage are generally accurate and that women rely predominantly on abortion facilities for confirmatory cost and coverage information. Additionally, when abortion is out of financial reach, women and the people in their lives experience numerous emotional and financial harms. Policies that aim to ensure abortion is affordable largely prevent these harms, though the availability of Medicaid coverage does not always guarantee access to affordable care. Findings can help advance evidence-based policies

  12. A Qualitative Study of Survival Strategies Used by Low-Income Black Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    St Vil, Noelle M; Sabri, Bushra; Nwokolo, Vania; Alexander, Kamila A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2017-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are often portrayed as helpless victims. Yet many women who experience IPV implement strategies to help them survive the abuse. This qualitative study sought to explore the survivor strategies used by low-income black women who experience IPV. Authors used a semistructured interview guide to survey 26 survivors who reported being in an IPV relationship in the past two years. Thematic analysis revealed three types of survivor strategies used by low-income black women: (1) internal (use of religion and becoming self-reliant), (2) interpersonal (leave the abuser or fight back), and (3) external (reliance on informal, formal, or both kinds of sources of support). This article informs social work practitioners of the strategies used by low-income black women in surviving IPV so that practitioners can develop interventions that support these strategies. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  13. Oral chemotherapy in elderly women with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garrido, M J; Mora-Rufete, A; Guillen-Ponce, C

    2014-06-01

    Life expectancy has significantly increased over the past 30 years, with a greater prevalence of diverse disease states, especially cancer. As older persons are a very heterogeneous group with an increased prevalence of comorbidities and a relative inability to tolerate the adverse effects of chemotherapy, the treatment of cancer in the elderly is particularly demanding. The principles of its management are similar to those in younger patients but with special considerations linked to comorbidities and clinical status. The objective of chemotherapeutic treatment in metastatic breast cancer has historically been primarily palliative. The introduction of newer approaches with improved or at least equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity is highly desirable. Such approaches may include the use of less toxic drugs, more convenient routes of administration (e.g., oral) and home-based (outpatient) rather than hospital-based therapies. The available oral cytostatic drugs include vinorelbine and capecitabine. In this review, we analyze oral cytostatic drugs in the elderly patient diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer.

  14. Associations between education and personal income with body mass index among Australian women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren K; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) determine the association between personal income and body mass index (BMI) and between individual education and BMI, and (2) examine the association between education and BMI across strata of personal income among women. The design of the study was a quantitative analysis of data from self-report questionnaires. The study setting was socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. The study included 4065 nonpregnant women (ages 18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The study used a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with BMI. Multiple linear regressions with imputation were used to assess the association between education level, personal income, and BMI, while controlling for covariates. Mean (SD) observed BMI was 26.0 (6.1) kg/m2. Compared with women with low education, women with medium (b = -0.81; 95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -0.27; p = .004) and high (b = -1.71; 95% confidence interval, -2.34 to -1.09; p < .001) education had statistically significantly lower BMI values. No differences in BMI were observed between income categories. Stratified analyses suggested that the education-BMI association may be stronger in low-income than higher-income women. Our data show that among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, high education level rather than personal income may be protective against overweight/obesity. High personal income, however, may buffer the effects of low education on BMI. Obesity prevention efforts should target women with amplified disadvantage.

  15. Neighborhood poverty and self-reported health among low-income, rural women, 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Kobetz, E; Daniel, M; Earp, J A

    2003-09-01

    We examined the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic context and self-reported health among low-income, rural women aged 50+ years, without a history of breast cancer. Tract-level census data were linked to individual level data from the baseline survey of a community trial to increase breast cancer screening rates. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze data for 1988 women and 56 census tracts. Neighborhood poverty was associated with a greater likelihood of poor self-reported health, adjusted for age, race and socioeconomic status (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.08-1.68). This effect was greatest for individuals with incomes below the median neighborhood income.

  16. Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Methods Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. Results The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6–79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6–8 hours per day, 11.5% slept five hours or less, and 8.7% slept nine hours or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around seven hours/day (6.5–7.4 hours/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. Conclusions In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of

  17. Analysis of the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bomjin; Park, Soyun; Han, Dongwook

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 83 healthy elderly women. The study's methods and purpose were explained and these women agreed to participate. The maximal-effort expiratory capacity was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). We measured forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%. [Results] Regarding forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, it was found that height and age were influential factors. Regarding forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity %, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%, it was found that only age was an influential factor. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the most influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women were age, and the second influential factor was height. We noticed that weight was the least influential factor among them.

  18. Analysis of the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bomjin; Park, Soyun; Han, Dongwook

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 83 healthy elderly women. The study’s methods and purpose were explained and these women agreed to participate. The maximal-effort expiratory capacity was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). We measured forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%. [Results] Regarding forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, it was found that height and age were influential factors. Regarding forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity %, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%, it was found that only age was an influential factor. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the most influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women were age, and the second influential factor was height. We noticed that weight was the least influential factor among them. PMID:27821963

  19. Adiposity of elderly women and its relationship with self-reported and observed physical performance.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Richard W; Brennan, Patrick J; Pescatello, Linda S; Marschke, Lisa; Hasson, Scott; Murphy, Mary

    2005-01-01

    There is a societal trend toward increasing obesity and a natural tendency for physical performance to decrease with age. Our purpose was to describe the adiposity of elderly women participating in a health screening and to determine the relationship between their adiposity and both observed and self-reported physical performance. Subjects were 104 communitydwelling elderly women (74.9+/-7.5 years). Their adiposity was described using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio. Physical performance was characterized using timed sit-to-stand, unilateral standing, 25-foot walk and the Physical Functioning subscale of the SF-36. Habitual activity was summarized as the number of daily hours patients estimated they spent moving about on their feet. The majority of women had excessive adiposity. Greater adiposity was associated with worse physical performance. Both Pearson correlations and multiple regression revealed BMI to be significantly predictive of all physical performance measures. Age added to the explanation of walking time and unilateral stance time. Time moving about contributed to the explanation of self-reported physical functioning. Adiposity should be documented as part of the physical therapist examination of elderly women. It may be an appropriate target of intervention if physical performance is limited.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of lumbar spondylolisthesis in elderly Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    He, Lai-Chang; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Gong, Jing-Shan; Griffith, James F; Zeng, Xian-Jun; Kwok, Anthony WL; Leung, Jason CS; Kwok, Timothy; Ahuja, Anil T; Leung, Ping Chung

    2014-01-01

    Objective A screening survey for osteoporotic fractures in men and women in Hong Kong represents the first large-scale prospective population-based study on bone health in elderly (≥65 years) Chinese men and women. This study aims to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of lumbar spondylolisthesis in these subjects. Methods The lateral lumbar radiographs of 1,994 male and 1,996 female patients were analysed using the Meyerding classification. Results Amongst the men, 380 (19.1 %) had at least one spondylolisthesis and 43 (11.3 %) had slips at two or more levels; 283 had anterolisthesis, 85 had retrolisthesis, whereas 12 subjects had both anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis. Amongst the women, 499 (25.0 %) had at least one spondylolisthesis and 69 (13.8 %) had slips at two or more levels; 459 had anterolisthesis, 34 had retrolisthesis, whereas 6 subjects had both anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis. Advanced age, short height, higher body mass index (BMI), higher bone mineral density (BMD) and degenerative arthritis are associated with spondylolisthesis. Lower Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score was associated with spondylolisthesis in men; higher body weight, angina and lower grip strength were associated with spondylolisthesis in women. Conclusion The male/female ratio of lumbar spondylolisthesis prevalence was 1:1.3 in elderly Chinese. Men are more likely to have retrolisthesis. PMID:24126641

  1. Handgrip explosive force is correlated with mobility in the elderly women.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lucio Santos; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Schettino, Ludmila; DA Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Pereira, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of explosive force, through rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI), from handgrip strength data seems to be useful and promising information to study the aging of musculoskeletal system and health status. We aimed to test the hypothesis that, in elderly women, the handgrip explosive force could be better associated to the functional mobility than maximum handgrip strength. Handgrip strength and the performance of Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) were measured from sixty-five community-dwelling healthy elderly women. The average slope of the moment-time curve (Δ moment/Δ time) over the time interval of 0-200 ms relative to the onset of contraction was calculated to provide the RFD and CI. The highest strength achieved during the isometric contraction was used as maximum handgrip strength. Pearson correlations were used to assess the strength of the relationship between the handgrip strength parameters (Maximum strength and explosive force from 0-200 ms) and TUG test performance from older women. The correlation analysis showed that the TUG test performance was inversely correlated to the handgrip strength parameters, with better relationship with explosive force parameters. The handgrip explosive force seems to be a promising predictor of functional mobility of elderly women, since it showed a better relationship with functional mobility than maximum handgrip strength.

  2. Smoking in Pregnancy Among Indigenous Women in High-Income Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Gould, Gillian S; Patten, Christi; Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Jayasinghe, Harshani

    2017-05-01

    Pregnant women in socioeconomically disadvantaged circumstances, such as Indigenous women, have a high prevalence of smoking. Tobacco smoking is the most significant reversible risk factor for the health of Indigenous pregnant women and their babies. As researchers working in this specialized area, we conducted a narrative review of the literature on smoking among Indigenous pregnant women in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. We summarize prevalence and factors influencing tobacco use, interventions, and evidence gaps for tobacco control and smoking cessation. Recommendations are made for future interventions, policy changes, and much-needed research. Common themes emerging across the four countries reveal opportunities for cross-cultural collaborative studies and trials. These include the social-normative use of tobacco as barriers to quitting in pregnancy and the need for evaluations of interventions at the family and community level. Socioeconomic disparities underscore the importance of enhancing the implementation and reach of strategies to prevent and reduce prenatal tobacco smoking among Indigenous women. Elders and community health care providers as role models for nontobacco use could be explored. Qualitative work is needed to understand the barriers and opportunities, such as cultural strengths supporting quitting tobacco to develop more effective approaches. Although a high-priority group, there remains a dearth of research on Indigenous women's smoking in pregnancy. Studies have assessed knowledge and attitudes to smoking in pregnancy, and small feasibility studies and a few empirical trials have been conducted. Recommendations for promising culturally appropriate cessation interventions have been made. Larger trials are warranted. Strategies to support quitting among pregnant Indigenous women need to be multifactorial and take account of the social determinants of smoking including historical antecedents, community norms, cultural

  3. Determining prevalence and correlates of elder abuse using promotores: low-income immigrant Latinos report high rates of abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Homeier, Diana C; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2012-07-01

    Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, were recruited and trained to interview a sample of Latino adults aged 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse; financial exploitation; and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of elderly Latino adults had experienced some form of abuse or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% physical assault, 9% sexual abuse, and 16.7% financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with greater risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the United States was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elderly adults, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community.

  4. Physical and mental health correlates of adverse childhood experiences among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    The present study used secondary data gathered from a statewide random sample of 1,073 adult women enrolled in Utah's single-parent cash assistance program and logistic regression to examine associations between self-reported physical, emotional, and sexual abuse during childhood and later life physical and mental health indicators. Results demonstrated significant associations between low-income women's self-reports of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse in childhood, and current and lifetime anxiety disorder, domestic violence, current posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, physical health or mental health issues, and any mental health diagnosis. These results build on previous research to paint a fuller picture of the associations between childhood abuse and physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Consistent with research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, findings suggest the applicability of conceptualizing childhood abuse as a public health issue. Social workers can play an integral role in promoting and implementing broader screening practices, connecting affected individuals with long-term interventions, and applying research findings to the design and provision of services within a public health model.

  5. Attitudes, beliefs, and barriers related to milk consumption in older, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Amy R; Jensen, Jakob D; Maulding, Melissa K

    2014-01-01

    To determine attitudes, beliefs, and barriers related to adequate milk consumption in low-income women ages ≥ 60 years. Nine focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 59 women at congregate meal sites in a metropolitan area. Grounded in Social Cognitive Theory, focus group questions were used to explore personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with milk consumption. Key response themes indicated a positive attitude for the taste of milk (except for low-fat), a primary belief that milk was important for bones and health, and a primary barrier of gastrointestinal side effects. Knowledge regarding the benefits of milk and the dislike of its taste were not the primary reason for the lack of consumption. Instead, gastrointestinal side effects seemed to be the major barrier to adequate consumption. Future nutrition campaigns should test strategies for lactose intolerance management when communicating with low-income older women. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress, sleep, depression and dietary intakes among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan; Smith, Barbara; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the mediating roles of sleep and depression on the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women by trimesters. Participants (N = 213) completed a self-administered survey including stress (exogenous variable), depression, sleep (mediators), fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake (endogenous variables). Path analysis was performed to compare mediation effects among pregnant women in each trimester. Consistently across three trimesters, stress was related to depression but not sleep duration, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency or fat intake. Sleep duration was not associated with depression. Depending on trimester, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, and sleep latency were related to depression; night time sleep disturbance and depression affected fat intake; stress influenced fruit and vegetable intake. Sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency and depression did not mediate the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake in the second and third trimesters. However, depression mediated the relationship between stress and fat intake in the first trimester. Stress management interventions may help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women decrease depressive symptoms and therefore contribute to overall nutritional health.

  7. Laterality and age-level differences between young women and elderly women in controlled force exertion (CFE).

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Demura, Shinichi; Kawabata, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine laterality and age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE using women as subjects. The subjects were 50 young women (mean age 20.9±1.9 years) and 50 elderly women (mean age 72.9±6.6 years). The maximal handgrip strength was measured twice with a 1-min interval, and the larger value was used in this study. In the CFE test, the subjects matched their submaximal grip strengths to the demand values changing at a constant frequency (range=5-25% of the maximal grip strength). The CFE test was performed twice after one practice trial (one trial was 40s). The sum of the percent of differences between the demand value and the grip exertion value was used as an estimate of CFE. CFE was estimated using a mean from two trials, excluding the first 15s of each trial. The elderly were significantly inferior in maximal handgrip strength of the dominant and non-dominant hands to young adults (about 70%), and the non-dominant hand was significantly inferior to the dominant hand. The elderly were significantly inferior in CFE of both hands to young adults (about 50%), and the non-dominant hand was significantly inferior. In conclusion, the age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE are found in the dominant and non-dominant hands, and laterality is also found in both young adults and the elderly. The CFE relating closely to nerve function may have a larger age-level difference than maximal handgrip strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome among women from low income communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Yen, Wong Chee; Yaw, Yong Heng; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between household food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among reproductive-aged women (n=625) in low income communities. The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument was utilized to assess food insecurity. Anthropometry, diet diversity, blood pressure and fasting venous blood for lipid and glucose profile were also obtained. MetS was defined as having at least 3 risk factors and is in accordance with the Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of food insecurity and MetS was 78.4% (household food insecure, 26.7%; individual food insecure, 25.3%; child hunger, 26.4%) and 25.6%, respectively. While more food secure than food insecure women had elevated glucose (food secure, 54.8% vs food insecure, 37.3-46.1%), total cholesterol (food secure, 54.1% vs food insecure, 32.1-40.7%) and LDL-cholesterol (food secure, 63.7% vs food insecure, 40.6-48.7%), the percentage of women with overweight/ obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low HDL-cholesterol and MetS did not vary significantly by food insecurity status. However, after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, women in food insecure households were less likely to have MetS (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05), abdominal obesity (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.01), elevated glucose (household food insecure), total cholesterol (child hunger) (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (household food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05) compared to food secure women. Efforts to improve food insecurity of low income households undergoing nutrition transition should address availability and accessibility to healthy food choices and nutrition education that could reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases.

  9. Body composition, physical performance and muscle quality of active elderly women.

    PubMed

    Vilaça, Karla Helena Coelho; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida Kilza da Costa; de Paula, Francisco José Albuquerque; Moriguti, Julio Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Fat gain is one of the major factors aggravating physical disability in the elderly population, which presents an increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean mass compared to the young population. For this reason it is important to assess body composition and the effects of these alterations in obese elderly women. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition, physical performance and muscle quality in active elderly women. Cross-sectional study included 75 elderly women (29 eutrophic and 46 obese) 65-80 years old. Body composition was evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the physical performance was determined by 6-minute walk test (6MWT), handgrip strength (HS) and knee extension strength (KES). Muscle quality was calculated as the ratio between muscle strength and lean mass. Fat free mass, lean mass, fat mass and percent body fat were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the obese group showed a poorer performance than the eutrophic group in the 6MWT (432.31±66.13 m and 472.07±74.03 m, respectively, p=0.01). HS and KES did not differ between groups, however, regarding muscle quality, the obese group exhibited a impaired in comparison to the eutrophic group in the upper (11.45±2.57 kg and 13.31±2.03 kg, respectively, p<0.01) and lower limb (2.91±1.16 kg and 3.44±0.97 kg, respectively, p=0.05). The increase in muscle mass detected in the obese elderly was not sufficient to maintain adequate muscle quality and physical function, showing a negative influence of the excess of body fat.

  10. [Living with pain--elderly women as experts in the management on their chronic musculoskeletal pain].

    PubMed

    Huber, Evelyn; Spirig, Rebecca

    2004-10-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain in the elderly is very common. The aim of this qualitative study was to gain insight in elderly people's pain medication beliefs. Problem-focused interviews with eight women were conducted. The results show them to be experts in managing pain, which task turns out to be too complex to be described in terms of pain medication beliefs. Using the method of qualitative content analyses five main categories including subcategories were inductively generated and presented in a structured way. The category "to be carried by one's life and illness trajectory" evolved as a basic category in the pain management. It includes the subcategories "to gain experiences from one's life and illness", "to have knowledge of the causes of pain and of their treatment", "to learn how to manage pain in everyday life" as well as "to rely on spiritual well-being". Most important for the women is their every day reality "to live with pain and its physical, psychological, practical and social effects". This leads to "weigh, to combine and to evaluate treatments for pain relief" which includes the subcategories "to be disciplined in carrying out non-pharmacological measures for pain relief", "to use pain medication sparingly but purposefully" and "to cooperate as a partner with health professionals". Some of the participants are challenged by "reaching their limits", which means "to reach the limits of endurable pain", "to experience the limits of failed treatment effects" as well as "to reach the limits of endurable treatment side effects". "To sustain one's quality of life in spite of pain" seems to be the aim of the elderly women's endeavour. The results of this study demand collaborative care in a partnership with elderly people with pain acknowledging their expertise. The results also ask for transdisciplinary efforts to support elderly persons with pain and for the development as well as the evaluation of self-management education programs.

  11. Factors affecting decision making of low-income young women with unplanned pregnancies in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Naravage, Wanapa; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch C; Van der Putten, Marc

    2005-05-01

    Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for young women. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's decision making when choosing the options available to them. The study was conducted in five shelters and low-income communities in the Bangkok area. Data were collected for five months, November 2003 to March 2004. Young women, age 13-24, who experienced an unplanned pregnancy at least once, or currently experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, were recruited into the study. One hundred and twenty volunteer cases were recruited. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the factors that affecting the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies. There were 6 potential influencing variables, in three broad categories of factors that influenced their choices. In this study, the influencing factors from the personal history variables were, age of the most recent unplanned pregnancy. The individual psychosocial variables were: attitude towards unplanned pregnancy, attitude towards contraception, and making a decision without consultation. The relationship variables were: relationship with partner, and consulting partner when having a problem. The results from discriminant analysis yielded 68.3% predictive accuracy. This result was satisfactory compared with a 33% chance of accuracy (classified as chance alone would yield a 33% accuracy). Knowing the influencing factors for the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies allows us to understand the women's decisions and their utilization of services with some degree of confidence. The program managers or implementers should do as much as possible to support the decision making process in these young women in order to provide

  12. Characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in selected low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sophia; Desai, Sheila; Crowell, Marjorie; Sedgh, Gilda; Singh, Susheela

    2017-01-01

    In 2010-2014, approximately 86% of abortions took place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although abortion incidence varies minimally across geographical regions, it varies widely by subregion and within countries by subgroups of women. Differential abortion levels stem from variation in the level of unintended pregnancies and in the likelihood that women with unintended pregnancies obtain abortions. To examine the characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in LMICs. We use data from official statistics, population-based surveys, and abortion patient surveys to examine variation in the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age at abortion, marital status, parity, wealth, education, and residence. We analyze data from five countries in Africa, 13 in Asia, eight in Europe, and two in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Women across all sociodemographic subgroups obtain abortions. In most countries, women aged 20-29 obtained the highest proportion of abortions, and while adolescents obtained a substantial fraction of abortions, they do not make up a disproportionate share. Region-specific patterns were observed in the distribution of abortions by parity. In many countries, a higher fraction of abortions occurred among women of high socioeconomic status, as measured by wealth status, educational attainment, and urban residence. Due to limited data on marital status, it is unknown whether married or unmarried women make up a larger share of abortions. These findings help to identify subgroups of women with disproportionate levels of abortion, and can inform policies and programs to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies; and in LMICs that have restrictive abortion laws, these findings can also inform policies to minimize the consequences of unsafe abortion and motivate liberalization of abortion laws. Program planners, policymakers, and advocates can use this information to improve access to safe abortion services

  13. Low-income, pregnant, African American women's views on physical activity and diet.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to gain insight into how low-income, pregnant, African American women viewed physical activity and approached nutrition during pregnancy. Three focus groups with a total of 26 women were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to physical activity and diet during pregnancy. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within-group and between-group levels to identify themes. Two themes that related to physical activity during pregnancy were identified: 1) fatigue and low energy dictate activity and 2) motivation to exercise is not there. Three themes were identified that related to diet: 1) despite best intentions, appetite, taste, and cravings drive eating behavior; 2) I'll decide for myself what to eat; and 3) eating out is a way of life. Women reported that being physically active and improving their diets was not easy. Women indicated that their levels of physical activity had decreased since becoming pregnant. Attempts at improving their diets were undermined by frequenting fast food restaurants and cravings for highly dense, palatable foods. Women ceded to the physical aspects of pregnancy, often choosing to ignore the advice of others. A combination of low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain in this sample of women, consequently increasing the risk for weight retention after pregnancy. Health care providers can promote healthy eating and physical activity by building on women's being "in tune with and listening to" their bodies. They can query women about their beliefs regarding physical activity and diet and offer information to ensure understanding of what contributes to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Intervention can focus on factors such as cravings and what tastes good, suggesting ways to manage pregnancy effects within a healthy diet. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  14. Characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in selected low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sheila; Crowell, Marjorie; Sedgh, Gilda; Singh, Susheela

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2010–2014, approximately 86% of abortions took place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although abortion incidence varies minimally across geographical regions, it varies widely by subregion and within countries by subgroups of women. Differential abortion levels stem from variation in the level of unintended pregnancies and in the likelihood that women with unintended pregnancies obtain abortions. Objectives To examine the characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in LMICs. Methods We use data from official statistics, population-based surveys, and abortion patient surveys to examine variation in the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age at abortion, marital status, parity, wealth, education, and residence. We analyze data from five countries in Africa, 13 in Asia, eight in Europe, and two in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Results Women across all sociodemographic subgroups obtain abortions. In most countries, women aged 20–29 obtained the highest proportion of abortions, and while adolescents obtained a substantial fraction of abortions, they do not make up a disproportionate share. Region-specific patterns were observed in the distribution of abortions by parity. In many countries, a higher fraction of abortions occurred among women of high socioeconomic status, as measured by wealth status, educational attainment, and urban residence. Due to limited data on marital status, it is unknown whether married or unmarried women make up a larger share of abortions. Conclusions These findings help to identify subgroups of women with disproportionate levels of abortion, and can inform policies and programs to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies; and in LMICs that have restrictive abortion laws, these findings can also inform policies to minimize the consequences of unsafe abortion and motivate liberalization of abortion laws. Program planners, policymakers, and advocates can use this

  15. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort.

    PubMed

    Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66-96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m(2)). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects.

  16. Knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Renata Evangelista; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Machado, Daniel Rodrigues; Braga, Vanessa Augusta; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    to identify the knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women. an integrative review was conducted in February 2016 on the SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE databases, and in the SciELO journals directory. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 24 articles were selected. the knowledge produced comprises two main themes: "health in face of economic adversities" and "reciprocity in social support between low-income older women and their social network". health professionals, especially nurses, should be attentive to aspects related to social determinants and the health of low-income older women, highlighting the fact that they are not always the recipients of care. identificar o conhecimento produzido sobre a saúde das mulheres idosas de baixa renda. revisão integrativa realizada em fevereiro de 2016, nas bases de dados SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE e no diretório de revistas SciELO. Após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 24 artigos. o conhecimento produzido congrega dois temas principais: "a saúde diante das adversidades econômicas" e "reciprocidade no apoio social entre as mulheres idosas de baixa renda e sua rede social". os profissionais de saúde, em especial o enfermeiro, devem atentar para aspectos relacionados aos determinantes sociais e de saúde de mulheres idosas de baixa renda, destacando-se que elas, nem sempre, são apenas receptoras de cuidado.

  17. Anger as a moderator of safer sex motivation among low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kerstin E E; Carey, Michael P

    2005-10-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median split). The theoretically expected "rational pattern" was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an "irrational pattern" emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge- and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women.

  18. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention.

  19. Initiation of prenatal care by low-income Hispanic women in Houston.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, T L; Mullen, P D; Selwyn, B J; Lorimor, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand why many Hispanic women begin prenatal care in the later stages of pregnancy. METHODS: The authors compared the demographic profile, insurance status, and health beliefs--including the perceived benefits of and barriers to initiating prenatal care--of low-income Hispanic women who initiated prenatal care at different times during pregnancy or received no prenatal care. RESULTS: A perception of many barriers to care was associated with later initiation of care and non-use of care. Perceiving more benefits of care for the baby was associated with earlier initiation of care, as was having an eligibility card for hospital district services. Several barriers to care were mentioned by women on open-ended questioning, including long waiting times, embarrassment the physical examination, and lack of transportation. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for practice included decreasing the number of visits for women at low risk for poor pregnancy outcomes while increasing the time spent with the provider at each visit, decreasing the number of vaginal examinations for low risk women, increasing the use of midwives, training lay workers to do risk assessment, emphasizing specific messages about benefits to the baby, and increasing general health motivation to seek preventive care through community interventions. PMID:8955702

  20. Low-income HIV-infected women and the process of engaging in healthy behavior.

    PubMed

    Riley, Tracy A; Lewis, Brenda M; Lewis, Mary Pat; Fava, Joseph L

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional multimethod study sought to examine the process of engaging in healthy behaviors, particularly related to stress management, in HIV-infected women with low incomes. Recruited from northeast Ohio, 42 women completed standardized research measures to assess healthy behaviors (via the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II) and the processes of change espoused by the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change; 8 of those women participated in individual semistructured interviews conducted at a later point in time to gain additional insight into the phenomenon. Participants were 25 to 60 years of age (mean 38.44 +/- 8.08) and most of the frequently reported healthy behaviors related to spiritual growth and interpersonal relations. Self-reevaluation was the process of change most frequently reported. Qualitative analysis revealed several processes women use to enhance the adoption and maintenance of healthy behaviors; some themes were adequately reflected by the Transtheoretical Model's Processes of Change, whereas a few emerged as processes not usually associated with the Transtheoretical Model. This study yielded useful preliminary information to further explore the adoption and maintenance of health-promoting behavior for HIV-infected women.

  1. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  2. Self-Efficacy Scale for Weight Loss among Multi-Ethnic Women of Lower Income: A Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…

  3. Self-Concepts of Low-Income Older Women: Not Old or Poor, But Fortunate and Blessed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barusch, Amanda Smith

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways in which low-income older women define themselves in stigmatizing terms and explores strategies they use to preserve a positive sense of self. Results, based on 62 women interviewed, indicate that they defined themselves as "fortunate" and/or "blessed." Such an outlook may be a significant component of successful…

  4. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation did not help low income Hispanic women in Texas meet the dietary guidelines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-income Hispanic women are at a greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26–44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected us...

  5. Self-Concepts of Low-Income Older Women: Not Old or Poor, But Fortunate and Blessed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barusch, Amanda Smith

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways in which low-income older women define themselves in stigmatizing terms and explores strategies they use to preserve a positive sense of self. Results, based on 62 women interviewed, indicate that they defined themselves as "fortunate" and/or "blessed." Such an outlook may be a significant component of successful…

  6. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  7. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  8. Self-Efficacy Scale for Weight Loss among Multi-Ethnic Women of Lower Income: A Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…

  9. Employment Transitions, Child Care Conflict, and the Mental Health of Low-Income Urban Women With Children.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Anna W; Hill, Terrence D; Tope, Daniel; O'Brien, Laureen K

    2016-01-01

    Although studies suggest that employment promotes mental health, it is unclear whether this pattern extends to low-income urban women with children who are disproportionately employed in unstable jobs and often unable to obtain child care. In this paper, we consider whether becoming employed reduces symptoms of psychological distress among low-income women with children. We also assess whether having trouble securing adequate child care offsets these benefits. We use longitudinal data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project, a probability sample of low-income women with children living in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, to test whether becoming employed reduces symptoms of psychological distress over time and whether having trouble securing child care moderates this association. We find that employment is associated with lower levels of distress among women who have no trouble with child care and higher levels of distress among women who struggle with child care. Taken together, our results suggest that valuing the benefits of paid work over unpaid work is an oversimplification and that the emphasis on placing poor women with children into paid work could be misguided. Policies that focus on moving low-income women off of government assistance and into paid work could be more effective if greater resources were devoted to increasing access to quality child care. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  11. Lower income Hindu women's attitude towards abortion: a case study in urban India.

    PubMed

    Madhok, Bindu; Raj, Selva J

    2004-01-01

    After a brief discussion of Hindu views on abortion as reflected in classical Hindu philosophical and religious texts, this article examines, from an interdisciplinary perspective, current social attitudes towards abortion among lower-income Hindu women in Calcutta and attempts to identify the reasons for the striking disparity between traditional and modern Hindu views. Does Hindu dharma have the regulatory power it wielded in the past? What accounts for the changing face of mores in urban centers like Calcutta? These and related issues are the focus of this essay.

  12. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65 years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women. PMID:26157257

  13. Elderly Homosexual Women and Men: Report on a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.; Adelman, Marcy R.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study is described in which four- to five-hour tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 11 homosexual women and men, 60-77 years of age. Areas examined included: physical change and physical health; work, retirement and leisure time; social behavior; psychological functioning; sexual behavior; and personal perspectives on the life…

  14. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8-12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8%) and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%). Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%). After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%-80%) in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health.

  15. Aerobic training modulates T cell activation in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, W F; Lacerda, A C R; Brito-Melo, G E A; Fonseca, S F; Rocha-Vieira, E; Leopoldino, A A O; Amorim, M R; Mendonça, V A

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee (kOA) is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and can lead to major physical and functional limitations. However, the specific effects of walking, particularly on the immune system, are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of walking (3×/week) on the leukocyte profile and quality of life (QL) of elderly women with kOA. Sixteen women (age: 67±4 years, body mass index: 28.07±4.16 kg/m2) participated in a walking program. The variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training with a progressively longer duration (30-55 min) and higher intensity (72-82% of HRmax determined using a graded incremental treadmill test). The QL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and blood samples were collected for analysis with a cell counter and the San Fac flow cytometer. Walking training resulted in a 47% enhancement of the self-reported QL (P<0.05) and a 21% increase in the VO2max (P<0.0001) in elderly women with kOA. Furthermore, there was a reduction in CD4+ cells (pre=46.59±7%, post=44.58±9%, P=0.0189) and a higher fluorescence intensity for CD18+CD4+ (pre=45.30±10, post=64.27±33, P=0.0256) and CD18+CD8+ (pre=64.2±27, post=85.02±35, P=0.0130). In conclusion, the walking program stimulated leukocyte production, which may be related to the immunomodulatory effect of exercise. Walking also led to improvements in the QL and physical performance in elderly women with kOA.

  16. Association of ACTN3 polymorphisms with BMD, and physical fitness of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seok-Ki; Lim, Seung-Taek; Kim, Chang-Sun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Association of ACTN3 polymorphism with bone mineral density and the physical fitness of elderly women is still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the association between ACTN3 genotype and bone mineral density, and the physical fitness of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight elderly women (67.38 ± 3.68 years) were recruited at a Seongbuk-Gu (Seoul, Korea) Medical Service Public Health Center. Measurements of physical fitness included muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, balance and VO2max. Bone mineral density (BMD), upper limb muscle mass, lower limb muscle mass, percent body fat and body fat mass for the entire body were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and an analyzer. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. [Results] ACTN3 gene distribution of subjects were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p=0.694). The relative bone mineral density trunk, pelvis and spine differed significantly among the ACTN3 genotypes. There were no significant differences among bone mineral densities of the head, arms, legs, ribs and total, but the RR genotype tended to be higher than other genotypes. Physical fitness was not significantly different among the ACTN3 genotypes. [Conclusion] These results suggest that ACTN3 gene polymorphisms could be used as one of the genetic determinants of bone mass in elderly women, and in particular, they indicate that individuals with the RR genotype have higher BMD and bone mineral composition. PMID:27821924

  17. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8–12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. Results The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8%) and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%). Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%). After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%–80%) in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusion Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health. PMID:25342896

  18. Aerobic training modulates T cell activation in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, W.F.; Lacerda, A.C.R.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.; Fonseca, S.F.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Leopoldino, A.A.O.; Amorim, M.R.; Mendonça, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee (kOA) is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and can lead to major physical and functional limitations. However, the specific effects of walking, particularly on the immune system, are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of walking (3×/week) on the leukocyte profile and quality of life (QL) of elderly women with kOA. Sixteen women (age: 67±4 years, body mass index: 28.07±4.16 kg/m2) participated in a walking program. The variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training with a progressively longer duration (30–55 min) and higher intensity (72–82% of HRmax determined using a graded incremental treadmill test). The QL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and blood samples were collected for analysis with a cell counter and the San Fac flow cytometer. Walking training resulted in a 47% enhancement of the self-reported QL (P<0.05) and a 21% increase in the VO2max (P<0.0001) in elderly women with kOA. Furthermore, there was a reduction in CD4+ cells (pre=46.59±7%, post=44.58±9%, P=0.0189) and a higher fluorescence intensity for CD18+CD4+ (pre=45.30±10, post=64.27±33, P=0.0256) and CD18+CD8+ (pre=64.2±27, post=85.02±35, P=0.0130). In conclusion, the walking program stimulated leukocyte production, which may be related to the immunomodulatory effect of exercise. Walking also led to improvements in the QL and physical performance in elderly women with kOA. PMID:27828665

  19. A culturally targeted intervention to promote breast cancer screening among low-income women in East Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Garza, Mary A; Luan, Jingyu; Blinka, Marcela; Farabee-Lewis, Reverend Iris; Neuhaus, Charlotte E; Zabora, James R; Ford, Jean G

    2005-11-01

    In Maryland, outreach initiatives have been unsuccessful in engaging low-income African American women in mammography screening. This study aimed to identify factors influencing screening rates for low-income African American women. Based on the Health Belief Model, a modified time series design was used to implement a culturally targeted intervention to promote a no-cost mammography-screening program. Data were collected from women 40 years of age and older on their history of mammography use and their knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer. A 50% screening rate was achieved among 119 eligible participants. Significant predictors of screening behaviors were perceived barriers, lack of insurance, and limited knowledge. This culturally targeted intervention resulted in an unprecedented screening rate among low-income African American women in Baltimore, Maryland.

  20. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  1. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  2. Group interpersonal psychotherapy for low-income women with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Krupnick, Janice L; Green, Bonnie L; Stockton, Patricia; Miranda, Jeanne; Krause, Elizabeth; Mete, Mihriye

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for low-income women with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to interpersonal trauma. Non-treatment-seeking predominantly minority women were recruited in family planning and gynecology clinics. Individuals with interpersonal trauma histories (e.g., assault, abuse, and molestation) who met criteria for current PTSD (N=48) were randomly assigned to treatment or a wait list. Assessments were conducted at baseline, treatment termination, and 4-month follow-up; data analysis used a mixed-effects regression approach with an intent-to-treat sample. The results showed that IPT was significantly more effective than the wait list in reducing PTSD and depression symptom severity. IPT participants also had significantly lower scores than waitlist individuals on four interpersonal functioning subscales: Interpersonal Sensitivity, Need for Social Approval, Lack of Sociability, and Interpersonal Ambivalence.

  3. Low-Income Women and HIV Risk Reduction: Elaborations from Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Gordon, Christopher M.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; McLean, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 45 young, single, low-income women regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Risk in this sample was substantial as 53% had multiple sexual partners, and 55% reported a recent sexually transmitted disease. Qualitative analysis of transcribed focus groups identified six themes that emerged across groups: (a) misinformation about vertical transmission and treatment of HIV-related illnesses; (b) risk perception linked to emotive factors rather than objective data; (c) uncertainty regarding the risk-reducing value of monogamy; (d) fatalism linked with ambivalence about HIV-antibody testing and treatment; (e) recognition of the importance of discussing HIV-related topics with children, but concern that such discussion with other women might be inappropriate; and (f) inconsistent communication regarding HIV-transmission and prevention with partners, partly the result of concerns about violating trust in intimate relationships. These themes warrant attention in the development of HIV risk-reduction programs. PMID:18596895

  4. Evaluation of postural control and quality of life in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Júlia Guimarães; Gomes, Matheus Machado; Neves, Thamires Máximo; Petrella, Marina; de Oliveira, Renê Donizeti Ribeiro; de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    To assess the balance in dynamic tasks and in the quality of life in elderly women with and without knee osteoarthritis. Elderly women were divided into Group 1 (n = 12), consisting of participants with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (Kellgreen-Lawrence grade 1 and 2), and Group 2 (n = 12), consisting of controls. A force plate (EMG System do Brazil) was used to assess postural sway in dynamic tasks, whereas the quality of life was assessed by using the WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire. Student's t-test showed no statistical difference during sitting down and standing up from the chair (p > 0.05). However, stair ascent revealed difference in displacement speed (p < 0.05), whereas stair descent showed differences in both displacement speed and amplitude (p < 0.05). In the questionnaire, Group 1 showed values lower than those in the control group regarding physical domain (p < 0.05). Elderly women with knee osteoarthritis seemed to have more difficulty on stair descent task and had perception of worst physical domain. These findings were observed in OA group, even in the early stages of the disease, which shows the importance of even earlier interventions.

  5. Lack of Prognostic Impact of Adjuvant Radiation on Oncologic Outcomes in Elderly Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Omidvari, Shapour; Talei, Abdolrasoul; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Moaddabshoar, Leila; Dayani, Maliheh; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Ansari, Mansour; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role as adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer and in those patients who have undergone breast-conserving surgery. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of adjuvant radiation on oncologic outcomes in elderly women with breast cancer. In this retrospective study, we reviewed and analyzed the characteristics, treatment outcome and survival of elderly women (aged ≥ 60 years) with breast cancer who were treated and followed-up between 1993 and 2014. The median follow up for the surviving patients was 38 (range 3-207) months. One hundred and seventy-eight patients with a median age of 74 (range 60-95) years were enrolled in the study. Of the total, 60 patients received postoperative adjuvant radiation (radiation group) and the remaining 118 did not (control group). Patients in the radiation group were significantly younger than those in the control group (P value=0.004). In addition, patients in radiation group had higher node stage (P value<0.001) and disease stage (P=0.003) and tended to have higher tumor grade (P=0.031) and received more frequent (P value <0.001) adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to those in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding the local control, disease-free survival and overall survival rates. In this study, we did not find a prognostic impact for adjuvant radiation on oncologic outcomes in elderly women with breast cancer.

  6. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects' level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

  7. [Quality of life scale: structural analysis of a version for elderly women].

    PubMed

    Rufine, Marcela Ferreira Cipriani; Formiga, Nilton Soares; Valentini, Felipe; Melo, Gislane Ferreira de

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to analyze the structure of the young adult version of the Quality of Life Scale--QOLS--proposed by Soares in a sample of elderly women, considering more robust psychometric properties. To achieve this Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were conducted using AMOS GRAFICS (version 18.0). The sample was comprised of 143 women aged 67.45 ± 3.87 years, from the Elderly Center at a private University in Brasilia, Federal District. Two models were assessed, namely one-factor and two-factor models. The results suggest that the best items to the Quality of Life Scale were found in the two-factor model (psychological and behavioral) presenting, specifically, the following items of quality adjustment: χ²/gl ratio = 1.05, GFI = 0.89, AGFI = 0.85, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA (90%IC) = 0.02, CAIC = 632.85 e ECVI = 2.56. It was concluded that the scale presents psychometric properties able to ensure internal structure and consistency in a sample of elderly women.

  8. Effect of indoor air pollution caused by domestic cooking on respiratory problems of elderly women

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrychowski, W. ); Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Gomola, K. )

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of indoor air pollution resulting from the use of gas cookers by elderly women who may be more susceptible to the harmful effects of indoor air pollutants because they spend a greater proportion of their time at home. A total of 560 elderly women living in the Krakow city center were included in the survey. The survey data were collected using standardized interviews dealing with coughing; phlegm production; dyspnea on effort; past chest illnesses diagnosed by a doctor; smoking habits; education; socioeconomic conditions; the type of heating system in the household; passive smoking; the type of cooking oven; the average time spent daily cooking meals; and the proportion of time spent daily in the kitchen and other rooms of the household. In all respondents, lung function was tested with a Vitalograph spirometer. The relative risk of chronic phlegm was strongly related to exposure duration due to cooking time. Regarding dyspnea on effort, there was an increased risk among those with longer exposure times, but the trend was not as steep as it was for chronic phlegm. The mean FEV{sub 1} level was not related to domestic cooking time; however, the age-related FEV{sub 1} decline coefficient was much greater in those elderly women who on average were involved in cooking activities longer.

  9. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B.; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects’ level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:25931757

  10. Red Blood Cell Volume, Plasma Volume and Total Blood Volume in Healthy Elderly Men and Women Aged 64 to 100

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    had an adeguate oxygen supply to the tissues. The deficiency in red blood cell volume in our elderly subjects was consistent with an adaptive and... ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 BY C.R. VALERI, L.E. PIVACEK, H. SIEBENS, and M.D. ALTSCHULE NAVAL BLOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY BOSTON...TITLE (and Submit) RED BLOOD CELL VOLUME, PLASMA VOLUME AND TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IN HEALTHY ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 7. AUTHORf»J C

  11. Mental health care for the elderly in low-income countries: a health systems approach

    PubMed Central

    PRINCE, MARTIN; LIVINGSTON, GILL; KATONA, CORNELIUS

    2007-01-01

    Future development of services for older people needs to be tailored to suit the health systems context. Low-income countries lack the economic and human capital to contemplate widespread introduction of specialist services. The most cost-effective way to manage people with dementia will be through supporting, educating and advising family caregivers. The next level of care to be prioritized would be respite care, both in day centres and in residential or nursing homes. An important prerequisite to improving care for older persons is to create a climate that fosters such advances. Better awareness is a necessary precondition for appropriate help-seeking, and lack of awareness is a public health problem for which population level interventions are needed. PMID:17342213

  12. Eliciting Survival Expectations of the Elderly in Low-Income Countries: Evidence From India.

    PubMed

    Delavande, Adeline; Lee, Jinkook; Menon, Seetha

    2017-04-01

    We examine several methodological considerations when eliciting probabilistic expectations in a developing country context using the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI). We conclude that although, on average, individuals are able to understand the concept of probability, responses are sensitive to framing effects and to own versus hypothetical-person effects. We find that overall, people are pessimistic about their survival probabilities compared with state-specific life tables and that socioeconomic status does influence beliefs about own survival expectations as found in previous literature in other countries. Higher levels of education and income have a positive association with survival expectations, and these associations persist even when conditioning on self-reported health. The results remain robust to several alternative specifications. We then compare the survival measures with objective measures of health. We find that activities of daily life, height, and low hemoglobin levels covary with subjective expectations in expected directions.

  13. Exercise adoption among older, low-income women at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hays, Laura M; Pressler, Susan J; Damush, Teresa M; Rawl, Susan M; Clark, Daniel O

    2010-01-01

    Using an expanded Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) model, we hypothesized that self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and exercise self-definition would predict exercise adoption. This secondary analysis examined data from a prospective single-group study of low-income women who received a physician screen and referral to a community-based, free exercise program. The sample included 190 older, low-income women with a mean age of 64 years, the majority of whom were African American (66%) and had at least one cardiovascular risk factor (92%). Baseline values of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and exercise self-definition were measured using instruments developed for the study. Exercise adoption was defined as the number of exercise sessions completed over 8 weeks. Our hypothesis was tested using hierarchical multiple regression. The mean number of exercise sessions completed over the 8-week period was 5.7 out of a recommended 24. Value of Exercise scores, a subscale of the Exercise Self-Definition scale, predicted exercise adoption. Self-efficacy and outcome expectations were not predictive. The significance of Value of Exercise scores reinforces the importance of expanding SCT with additional variables such as exercise self-definition. Future work should emphasize the social and environmental factors that form an important part of SCT.

  14. Adherence to hysterosalpingogram appointments following hysteroscopic sterilization among low income women

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The few studies on post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) adherence rates show inconsistent results. This study examined associations between sociodemographic variables not examined in prior studies and HSG adherence among low income women. Study Design Medical records of 286 women who underwent sterilization between August 31, 2005 and September 30, 2011 were reviewed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine variable associations with HSG adherence. Results The adherence rate for the first HSG was 85.0% (243/286). Variables associated with adherence were: lower education level (p=.01), not working outside the home (p=.04), being married (p<.0001), lower gravidity (p=.03), fewer lifetime number of sexual partners (p<.0001), no sexually transmitted infection history (p<.01), Hispanic ethnicity (p<.0001), Spanish as a primary language (p<.0001) and living further from the clinic (p<.01). Conclusions This study demonstrates that achieving high rates of adherence with the recommended HSG following Essure placement is feasible among low income populations. Furthermore, not speaking English or having to commute a far distance to the clinic do not appear to be barriers. This is encouraging considering the importance of this test to confirm tubal occlusion. PMID:24012097

  15. The planning of pregnancy among low-income women in central Harlem.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M C; Brooks-Gunn, J; Shorter, T; Wallace, C Y; Holmes, J H; Heagarty, M C

    1987-01-01

    A planned pregnancy is considered desirable, in part because of the potential of a better pregnancy outcome. Since the improvement of pregnancy outcome is of particular relevance in low-income populations, we have compared the characteristics of women with planned and unplanned pregnancies in central Harlem with regard to those factors that might affect pregnancy planning such as sociodemographic factors, attitudes toward child-rearing, environmental stress, social support, and maternal mental health. Of the 416 women in the study, a minority (27%) reported their pregnancy as being planned. They differed from the remainder in being more likely to be married and/or living with a boyfriend or husband and to have been born outside New York City. The two groups did not differ in any other risk factor or in outcome in terms of birth weight and gestational age. The results provide little support for the lack of planning of pregnancy as an indicator of risk in a low-income population and suggest that improvement of perinatal outcome must involve more broadly based interventions that are not confined to the periconceptional period.

  16. Stress Buffering Effects of Oxytocin on HIV Status in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Erin M.; Antoni, Michael H.; Lopez, Corina; Mendez, Armando J.; Szeto, Angela; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated perceptions of psychosocial stress and stressful life events are linked to faster disease progression in individuals living with HIV and these associations may be stronger for women from ethnic minority populations. Levels of neurohormones such as oxytocin (OT), cortisol, and norepinephrine (NE) have been shown to influence the effects of psychosocial stress in different populations. Understanding how intrinsic neuroendocrine substances moderate the effects of stressors in minority women living with HIV (WLWH) may pave the way for interventions to improve disease management. Methods We examined circulating levels of plasma OT as a moderator of the effects of stress on disease status (viral load, CD4+ cell count) in 71 low-income ethnic minority WLWH. Results At low levels of OT, there was an inverse association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. Counter-intuitively, at high levels of OT there was a positive association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. This pattern was unrelated to women’s viral load. Other neuroendocrine hormones known to down-regulate the immune system (cortisol, norepinephrine) did not mediate the effects of OT and stress on immune status. Conclusions OT may have stress buffering effects on some immune parameters and possibly health status in low income ethnic minority WLWH reporting elevated stress. PMID:21215526

  17. Pregnant Turkish women with low income: their anxiety, health-promoting lifestyles, and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kavlak, Oya; Atan, Senay Unsal; Sirin, Ahsen; Sen, Emine; Guneri, Sezer Er; Dag, Hande Yagcan

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents anxiety levels, health-promoting lifestyles and related factors among pregnant Turkish women with low income. A descriptive correlation and cross-sectional study was conducted at a state maternity hospital in Western Turkey. The paper reports on the data (n = 195) from the Spielberg State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The average HPLP score was low (mean 2.57, SD 0.42). The average STAI score was high (40.67 ± 9.48; 46.40 ± 8.09, respectively). A significant relation was detected between the trait anxiety, state anxiety, antenatal visit, perception of social support, living environment, family type and HPLP (P < 0.05). A moderately negative relation was detected between the mean STAI and HPLP scores. The findings indicate information and data should be provided for service planning and community care to support pregnant Turkish women with low income in communities.

  18. Meaning of the Terms "Overweight" and "Obese" Among Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Samantha; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine how low-income United States women understand the meanings of the terms “overweight” and “obese”. Methods Low-income women [n = 145; 72% white, 12% black, 8% Hispanic; 59% obese, 21% overweight] each participated in an individual semi-structured interview during which they were asked to explain what the terms overweight and obese mean to them. Responses were transcribed and the constant comparative method was used to identify themes. Results Three themes emerged: (1) The terms are offensive and describe people who are unmotivated, depressed and do not care about themselves; (2) Obese is an extreme weight (e.g. 500 pounds and being immobile); (3) Being overweight is a matter of opinion; if a woman is “comfortable in her own skin” and “feels healthy” she is not overweight. Conclusions and Implications Health education focused on obesity should consider that vulnerable populations might consider the terms "overweight" and "obese" offensive and stigmatizing. PMID:24135314

  19. Maternal psychosocial factors associated with substance use in Mexican-origin and African American low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Zambrana, R E; Scrimshaw, S C

    1997-01-01

    To describe ethnic-specific patterns of substance use before and during pregnancy in low-income pregnant women, examine the associations between psychosocial factors and patterns of substance use within ethnic groups, and assess maternal sociodemographic, prenatal, and psychosocial factors of women who continue to use substances during pregnancy and those who do not. A prospective study of low-income, primiparous African American (n = 255), Mexican American (n = 525), and Mexican immigrant (n = 764) women was conducted in 22 prenatal care clinics in Los Angeles, CA. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews in both English and Spanish on prenatal life events, anxiety, sources of support, and substance use behaviors three months before and during pregnancy. Significant ethnic differences were found in use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit drugs. African American women were more likely than Mexican-origin women to report use of substances before and during pregnancy. Mexican American women were more likely than Mexican immigrant women to report use of substances before and during pregnancy. Women who continued to use substances during pregnancy were less likely to be living with the baby's father, to have planned the pregnancy, to report having been able to go for prenatal care as soon as they wanted, and more likely to be identified at medical risk. Providers must increase the assessment and monitoring of substance use behaviors of low-income women in prenatal care settings. The role of health care providers must encompass advocacy and public health education.

  20. Predictors of Depression Symptoms Among Low-Income Women Exposed to Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence (IPV).

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Sharps, Phyllis W; Bullock, Linda C

    2016-08-01

    Women experiencing perinatal intimate partner violence (IPV) may be at increased risk for depression. Baseline data was analyzed from 239 low-income pregnant women participating in an intervention study designed to reduce exposure to IPV. Depression risk was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and IPV factors were measured with the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised (CTS-2). Stepwise regression was conducted to identify predictors of risk for depression. Race (p = 0.028), psychological IPV (p = 0.035) and sexual IPV (p = 0.031) were strongly associated with risk for depression. Regression results indicated that women experiencing severe psychological IPV were more likely to develop depression (OR 3.16, 95 % CI 1.246, 8.013) than those experiencing severe physical or sexual IPV. Experiencing severe psychological IPV during pregnancy is strongly linked to risk for depression. Routine screening for psychological IPV may increase identification and treatment of women at high risk for depression during pregnancy.

  1. Excess Gestational Weight Gain in Low-Income Overweight and Obese Women: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cynthie K; Walch, Tanis J; Lindberg, Sara M; Smith, Aubrey M; Lindheim, Steven R; Whigham, Leah D

    2015-01-01

    Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. Qualitative study. Community-based perinatal center. Eight focus groups with women (black = 48%, white non-Hispanic = 41%, and Hispanic = 10%) in the first half (n = 12) and last half of pregnancy (n = 10) or postpartum (n = 7), 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (n = 9). Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG within different levels of the Social Ecological Model: for example, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational. Coding guide was based on the Social Ecological Model. Transcripts were coded by 3 researchers for common themes. Thematic saturation was reached. At an intrapersonal level, knowledge/skills and cravings were the most common barriers. At an interpersonal level, family and friends were most influential. At an organizational level, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and clinics were influential. At the community level, lack of transportation was most frequently discussed. At a policy level, complex policies and social stigma surrounding the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children were barriers. There was consensus that ideal intervention approaches would include peer-facilitated support groups with information from experts. Obstetrician-gynecologists felt uncomfortable counseling patients about GWG because of time constraints, other priorities, and lack of training. There are multilevel public health opportunities to promote healthy GWG. Better communication between nutrition specialists and obstetrician-gynecologists is needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Male behaviours towards unplanned pregnancy: experiences of Brazilian low-income women.

    PubMed

    Hoga, L A K; Manganiello, A

    2007-12-01

    Lone women are responsible for a quarter of Brazilian families. The unplanned pregnancy, a strong reality for many young poor women in this country, provokes a strong impact on physical, emotional, socio-economic and family dimensions. Do personal characteristics determine the behaviours of males towards unplanned pregnancy? Do the associations between the couple's bond and male behaviours influence attitudes towards unplanned pregnancy? This descriptive study was carried out in a low-income community in the City of São Paulo, Brazil. A structured form was composed to obtain data from 100 women who have lived out the unplanned pregnancy experience. Personal characteristics do not appear to determine male behaviours towards unplanned pregnancy. There was a statistically significant difference among men in different types of bonding relationship (married, cohabiting, dating, without bonding) with regard to the following behaviours: attention given during pregnancy; changes to the type of bond between partners; civil registration of the child by the father; financial support provided by the father and contact with the child. Bonding and correlated topics are essential in sexual and reproductive healthcare education and promotion. Population sampling was statistically calculated based on community demographic data and the conclusions refer to the estimated parameters of men's behaviours according to women's experiences.

  3. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Kathy R.; Paprocki, Christine; Fishman, Marget Thomas; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and therefore may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women’s sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001–2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention. PMID:26086275

  4. Neighborhood perceptions and hypertension among low-income black women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayan, Maliyhah; Islam, Nadia; Edwards, Shawneaqua; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-10-12

    The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women's perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure. Seventeen Black female participants, living in public housing communities in New York City, completed one semi-structured, audiotaped interview in July of 2014. All interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes using N'Vivo 10 software. Three major themes emerged: (1) social connectedness, (2) stress factors, and (3) availability of food options. For example, factors that caused stress varied throughout the study population. Sources of stress included family members, employment, and uncleanliness within the neighborhood. Many participants attributed their stress to personal issues, such as lack of employment and relationships. In addition, the general consensus among many participants was that there should be a greater density of healthy food options in their neighborhoods. Some believed that the pricing of fresh foods in the neighborhoods should better reflect the financial status of the residents in the community. Various neighborhood influences, including neighborhood disorder and lack of healthy food options, are factors that appear to increase Black women's risk of developing high blood pressure. Implications of this research include the need to develop interventions that promote good neighborhood infrastructure (e.g. healthy food stores to encourage good nutrition habits and well-lit walking paths to encourage daily exercise), in addition to interventions that increase hypertension awareness in low-income neighborhoods.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Dragsbæk, Katrine; Neergaard, Jesper S.; Laursen, Janne M.; Hansen, Henrik B.; Christiansen, Claus; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Karsdal, Morten A.; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is believed to vary with age. With an elderly population expecting to triple by 2060, it is important to evaluate the validity of MetS in this age group. We examined the association of MetS risk factors with later risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly Caucasian women. We further investigated if stratification of individuals not defined with MetS would add predictive power in defining future disease prevalence of individuals with MetS. The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor Study, a community-based cohort study, followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1 ± 6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information. Elderly women with defined MetS presented a 6.3-fold increased risk of T2DM (95% confidence interval: [3.74–10.50]) and 1.7-fold increased risk of CVD (1.44–2.05) compared to women with no MetS risk factors. Subdividing the control group without defined MetS revealed that both centrally obese controls and controls holding other MetS risk factors also had increased risk of T2DM (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.21 [1.25–3.93] and HR = 1.75 [1.04–2.96]) and CVD (HR = 1.51 [1.25–1.83] and HR = 1.36 [1.15–1.60]) when compared to controls with no MetS risk factors. MetS in elderly Caucasian women increased risk of future T2DM and CVD. While not defined with MetS, women holding only some risk factors for MetS were also at increased risk of T2DM or CVD compared to women with no MetS risk factors. PMID:27603394

  6. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  7. Abdominal adiposity and family income-to-poverty ratio in American women.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Ike S; Annor, Francis B; Seale, J Paul; Eriksen, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    We examined (a) secular changes in abdominal fat accumulation (AFA) and family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR) across race/ethnicity, education and age in Mexican (MA), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and (b) association between PIR and AFA among American women. Data (n = 9787) from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010 NHANES were used. Rates of AFA and poverty by race/ethnic, age and education categories were determined across study time points. Subjects with low and medium PIR values were classified as poor. Linear trends in AFA and PIR were evaluated. Study time-specific odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models were used to estimate risk of AFA due to low to medium PIR. Statistical adjustments were made for race/ethnicity, education, age, and marital status. Increased trends in low to medium PIR and AFA in MA, NHW, and NHB American women were observed between 2001 and 2010. Poor women had much higher prevalence of AFA compared to richer women. For each of the studied periods, medium and low PIR were each associated with increased odds of AFA. The association between poverty and AFA was weakest in 2001-2002 (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05-2.11) compared to 2009-2010 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.21-2.22). Compared to NHW, being of MA and NHB race/ethnicity was also each associated with increased odds of AFA, controlling for other independent variables. Increase in poverty and AFA, and positive association between decreased PIR and increased odds of AFA were observed in the period between 2001 and 2010 in MA, NHW, and NHB American women. A robust economic policy designed to alleviate poverty may be an important means of reducing the trajectory of AFA in American women. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in low and mid income countries: positive gradients among women?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Southern Europe, smoking among older women was more prevalent among the high educated than the lower educated, we call this a positive gradient. This is dominant in the early stages of the smoking epidemic model, later replaced by a negative gradient. The aim of this study is to assess if a positive gradient in smoking can also be observed in low and middle income countries in other regions of the world. Methods We used data of the World Health Survey from 49 countries and a total of 233,917 respondents. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model associations between individual level smoking and both individual level and country level determinants. We stratified results by education, occupation, sex and generation (younger vs. older than 45). Countries were grouped based on GDP and region. Results In Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, we observed a positive gradient in smoking among older women and a negative gradient among younger women. In Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America no clear gradient was observed: inequalities were relatively small. In South-East Asia and East Asia a strong negative gradient was observed. Among men, no positive gradients were observed, and like women the strongest negative gradients were seen in South-East Asia and East Asia. Conclusions A positive socio-economic gradient in smoking was found among older women in two regions, but not among younger women. But contrary to predictions derived from the smoking epidemic model, from a worldwide perspective the positive gradients are the exception rather than the rule. PMID:24502335

  9. Elderly Algerian women lose their sex-advantage in terms of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular profile.

    PubMed

    Temmar, Mohamed; Watfa, Ghassan; Joly, Laure; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Youcef, Merabia; Bensalah, Selt; Mustapha, Yahia; Salvi, Paolo; Gautier, Sylvie; Safar, Michel; Labat, Carlos; Benetos, Athanase

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have shown lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) levels in women compared to men, a difference that could partially explain the increased longevity in women. However, these studies have been performed in industrial countries while few data are available in emerging populations. We studied arterial stiffness, as evaluated by cfPWV, in elderly Algerian men and women. cfPWV was studied in 321 Algerian men (81.2 ± 5.3 years) and women (81.1 ± 4.4 years). An age-matched and sex-matched cohort of European individuals (n = 321) was used as a control group. Comparatively to men, Algerian women exhibited higher BMI and heart rate (HR), higher prevalence of hypertension, and were more frequently treated for hypertension. cfPWV was not different between Algerian men (14.8 ± 3.3 m/s) and women (14.9 ± 3.4 m/s). By contrast, in Europeans, women had lower cfPWV (12.7 ± 2.7 m/s) than men (14.0 ± 3.3 m/s; P <0.001). Comparatively to European women, Algerian women had a higher cfPWV (P <0.01). In both ethnic groups, multivariate analyses revealed that age, mean blood pressure (BP), HR, and diabetes were positively associated with cfPWV, whereas female sex was associated with lower cfPWV only in Europeans. Elderly Algerian women exhibit arterial stiffness similar to men, whereas European women display lower arterial stiffness than men. This loss of 'arterial sex advantage' in Algerians may be explained by higher BP, HR, and a worse metabolic profile in Algerian women. Interventions in emerging populations, especially in women, should be a priority in order to address these risk factors by acting on current lifestyle.

  10. Transportation and housing energy policies: the energy crisis, minorities, low income and elderly persons in rural and urban perspectives in the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.A.; Boone, W.; Grandison, C.; Wilson, Z.

    1981-09-01

    The low income, minorities, elderly and handicapped have derived great benefits from the creation of rural transportation systems and the maintenance of relatively low fares in urban mass transit systems made possible by the Section 147 and Section 5 programs. It is essential that the Section 18 program, which also provides operating subsidy monies to keep the fares affordable, be expanded and its funding increased substantially. The Section 5 program has been of major benefit to the transportation disadvantaged in urban centers. The proposed cutbacks and elimination of the programs in FY 1985 will create severe hardships for residents of the inner cities. Rather, the federal government should continue to assume the major financial responsibility for subsidizing mass transit and keeping fares low. Although there are some problems with the administration of several of the housing energy programs, they have been helpful to those persons who have suffered most from rising heating fuel costs. The FMHA programs have made possible the purchase or repair of homes by low income, minority and elderly persons. The participants have reduced their heating costs as well as improved their quality of life. Although their funding is insufficient, the weatherization and energy assistance programs have both aided low income, minority and elderly persons and should be expanded in scope through increased funding. Finally, the woodstove project offers some hope for reducing reliance on high cost gas and coal as heating fuels and increasing the utilization of wood. The project has been an unqualified success.

  11. Endurance training for elderly women: moderate vs low intensity.

    PubMed

    Foster, V L; Hume, G J; Byrnes, W C; Dickinson, A L; Chatfield, S J

    1989-11-01

    This investigation evaluated the efficacy of training at moderate-60% Maximal Heart Rate Reserve, HRRmax, (MOD) and low-40% HRRmax (LOW) intensities in a population of older American women (N = 16, mean age = 78.4 years). Prior to and immediately following a 10-week training program consisting of exercising at the prescribed heart-rate intensity with a caloric expenditure of 100 calories, the following measurements were performed: Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), Maximal Lactate Production (HLAmax), Maximal Heart Rate (HRmax), Maximal Workstage (WSmax), Total Cholesterol (TOTC), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDLC), and Rate Pressure Product Max (RPPmax). Significant differences, p less than .05, were noted pre- to post-training for measures of VO2max, whether expressed in 1.min-1 or ml.kg-1.min-1, and WSmax. No statistical differences existed between the groups pre- or post-training for these measures. The results suggest that the low-intensity exercise prescription provides an adequate training stimulus for older women who have been sedentary and who might be at higher risk for cardiac or musculoskeletal injury, particularly at the initiation of an exercise program.

  12. Waking Up the Mind: Qualitative Study Findings About the Process Through Which Programs Combining Income Generation and Health Education Can Empower Indigenous Guatemalan Women.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ballard, Anne; Kerr, Samantha; Walsh, Janée; Petrocy, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We explored the process through which two income-generation programs that include health education empower indigenous Guatemalan women artisans. Both artisans (n = 44) and program staff (n = 11) participated in semistructured interviews. Respondents expressed that women gained support about personal issues and experienced an awakening of the mind (despertar la mente). Through active participation, women's fear of strangers and speaking in public decreased. Women also gained mobility, awareness of their rights as women, and self-confidence from earning and managing their own income. Given our findings, we suggest that programs combining income generation and health education have the potential to empower women.

  13. Comparison of three interventions to increase mammography screening in low income African American women.

    PubMed

    Champion, Victoria L; Springston, Jeffrey K; Zollinger, Terry W; Saywell, Robert M; Monahan, Patrick O; Zhao, Qianqian; Russell, Kathleen M

    2006-01-01

    Low-income African American women are more likely to die of breast cancer than their Caucasian counterparts, and at least part of the difference in mortality results from differential screening adherence. The purpose of this study was to identify more efficacious methods of promoting routine mammography screening in underserved populations. A prospective randomized intervention study of 344 low income African American women compared the impact of three interventions on mammography adherence and stage of readiness: (1) pamphlet only; (2) culturally appropriate video; and (3) interactive computer-assisted instruction program. The interactive computer intervention program produced the greatest level of adherence to mammography (40.0%) compared to the video group (24.6%) and the pamphlet group (32.1%). When subjects in the pamphlet and video groups were combined to form a non-interactive group, this group had a significantly lower adherence than the group who received the interactive computer intervention (27.0% versus 40.0%). There was also significantly more forward movement in mammography stage of readiness among participants in the computer group (52.0%) compared to those in the pamphlet group (46.4%) or the video group (31.3%). When combining the non-interactive technology (pamphlet and video) there was also more forward movement in mammography stage of readiness for those in the interactive intervention group (52.0% moved 1 or 2 stages) compared to those in the non-interactive group (36.2%). These data indicate that tailored approaches are more effective than targeted messages either in print or video format. Another finding of this study is that interactive interventions are more effective than non-interactive interventions in increasing adherence and moving African American women forward in their mammogram stage of readiness.

  14. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation did not help low income Hispanic women in Texas meet the dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hilmers, Angela; Chen, Tzu-An; Dave, Jayna M; Thompson, Deborah; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-05-01

    Low-income Hispanic women are at greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26-44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected using standard methods. Analysis of variance and logistic regression examined the influence of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on diet after adjusting for household characteristics, body mass index, and food security status. Most women did not meet recommended dietary guidelines. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants consumed higher amounts of total sugars, sweets-desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages than Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program nonparticipants. High sodium intakes and low dairy consumption were observed in both groups. Only 27% of low-income eligible women received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits. Low-income Hispanic women participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program reported less healthful dietary patterns than nonparticipants. This may contribute to the increased obesity prevalence and related comorbidities observed in this population. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program should play an important role in enhancing the overall dietary quality of low-income households. Policy initiatives such as limiting the purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages and education to enable women to reduce consumption of high sodium processed foods deserve consideration as means to improve the dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants. Effective measures are needed to increase Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation rates among Hispanics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of intimate partner violence, substance use, and HIV on depressive symptoms among abused low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Illangasekare, Samantha L; Burke, Jessica G; McDonnell, Karen A; Gielen, Andrea C

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use, and HIV are often co-occuring health problems affecting low-income urban women, and have been described as connected epidemics making up a "syndemic." Research suggests that each issue separately is associated with depressive symptoms, but no studies have examined the combined effect of IPV, substance use and HIV on women's depression. Interviews were conducted with 96 women recruited from community health clinics serving low-income women in an urban U.S. city. All women were over 17, not pregnant, English-speaking, without private insurance and had experienced physical IPV in the past year. Women were primarily African American (82%) and 82% were receiving income assistance. Twenty seven percent were HIV-positive, and 27% had used heroin or cocaine in the past 6 months. Based on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D ), 73% were depressed. Women who experienced severe IPV in the past 6 months were compared to women who experienced no IPV or psychological IPV only in the past 6 months; those who experienced severe IPV were 5.3 times more likely to be depressed, controlling for HIV status, drug use, age, and relationship status. Women who experienced severe IPV, were HIV-positive, and used drugs (7.3% of sample) were 7.98 times as likely to be depressed as women without these characteristics. These findings confirm that severe IPV is significantly associated with depression among urban abused women. Furthermore, this research suggests that the syndemic effect of IPV, substance use, and HIV could be even more detrimental to women's mental health. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware of the combined impact of the IPV, substance use, and HIV syndemic and consider how they can address the mental health needs of urban women.

  16. Structural and functional markers of health depending on lifestyle in elderly women from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Skrzek, Anna; Ignasiak, Zofia; Sławińska, Teresa; Domaradzki, Jarosław; Fugiel, Jarosław; Sebastjan, Anna; Rożek, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To comparatively analyze the rate and magnitude of age-related changes between two groups of elderly women with different lifestyles living in Poland: women attending a University of the Third Age (active lifestyle) and less-active peers not involved in any seniors association. Methods The study was conducted in 2010–2012. The study design was approved by the Senate Ethics Committee for Scientific Research of the University School of Physical Education. In total, 417 women were recruited. Basic somatic characteristics, body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, respiratory function, postural stability, and body posture were measured. Regression analysis and Student’s t-tests for independent samples were calculated. Results and conclusion The best results among the tests assessing functional biological markers of health were found in the group of elderly women attending a University of the Third Age. The rate of change was larger in the group of seniors leading a less-active lifestyle, indicating the important role of a preventive gerontological approach and the participation of seniors in programs that accentuate the need for physical activity. PMID:25960643

  17. Association between reproductive variables and metabolic syndrome in chinese community elderly women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between reproductive variables and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese community elderly women. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a Beijing urban district. A two-stage stratified clustering sampling method was used and 1251 elderly women were included. The prevalence of MetS was 65.1% in this population. Women with MetS had younger menarche age, a greater number of years after menopause, higher gravidity and parity. The prevalence of MetS showed an increasing trend for tertiles of years after menopause (p=0.002) and number of children (p<0.001), while decreasing trend for menarche age (p=0.021). Logistic regression showed ORs of age at menarche, years after menopause and number of children for MetS were 0.94, 1.40, and 1.36 for second and 0.63, 1.58, and 1.75 for last tertiles. There is strong association between reproductive variables and higher risk of MetS. Simple information on timing of menarche and menopause could help identify women who may have higher risk of getting MetS and take early action to prevent related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between social support and well-being of rural elderly women.

    PubMed

    Wang, H H; Liu, Y Y

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social support and well-being of rural elderly women. A sample of 284 women aged 60 and older (M = 69.12, SD = 6.40) in a rural area of southern Taiwan completed all interview questions. The Chinese versions of the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were used to measure social support and well-being. Content validity of the Chinese versions of the instruments was estimated as satisfactory. The alpha reliability coefficients were .86 for the entire PRQ-85 Part 2 and from .65 to .78 for the subscales. The alpha reliability coefficients were .85 and .65 for the PA subscale and NA subscale respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between social support and well-being. The findings demonstrated that not only the entire social support but also its five dimensions were positively correlated with positive affect (r ranged from .24 to .48, p < .01) and were inversely correlated with negative affect (r ranged from -.15 to -.21, p < .05 or .01). A substantive intervention design may help verify the effectiveness of social support on elderly women's positive affect and negative affect. Using social support as a strategy to promote these women's well-being, therefore, should be the subject of future study.

  19. The reproducibility of VO2max, ventilatory, and lactate thresholds in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Foster, V L; Hume, G J; Dickinson, A L; Chatfield, S J; Byrnes, W C

    1986-08-01

    The reproducibility of VO2max, ventilatory, and lactate thresholds in elderly women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 425-430, 1986. This investigation examined the reproducibility of maximal (VO2max) and submaximal measures of fitness for elderly women. Eight subjects [age (yr): mean = 80.6 +/- 3.7; range = 73-86] volunteered to repeat three continuous, incremental maximal effort treadmill tests. Blood lactate determinations were made for each increment from blood samples taken from an indwelling venous catheter located in the back of the hand. Average VO2max values (ml X min-1 X kg X l-1) were 13.21 + 1.95 for test 1, 13.44 +/- 1.83 for test 2, and 13.62 + 2.95 for test 3. In all but one subject, a threshold was not definable by either ventilatory or lactate measurements. Maximal lactate values were low, with the average values for tests 1, 2, and 3 being 1.89, 1.46, and 1.86 mmol X l-1, respectively. The data demonstrates that VO2max is reproducible for older women and can, therefore, be used for fitness assessment and exercise prescription. The use of ventilatory or lactate thresholds as submaximal measures of fitness or as minimal intensities for exercise prescription was determined not to be applicable for women in the eighth and ninth decades of life.

  20. Mobility disability among elderly men and women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lundgren-Lindquist, B; Jette, A M

    1990-01-01

    This paper draws on a unique longitudinal study, '70-year-old people in Gothenburg, Sweden', to augment available knowledge of the incidence of physical disability in an ageing cohort. Among women the incidence of mobility disability was 0.12 between age 70 and 75 years, and 0.19 from age 75 to 79 years. One in 10 males became mobility disabled from age 70 to 75 years while the risk increased to 0.18 between age 75 and 79 years. Cohort members disabled at age 70 years were at significantly increased risk of dying by age 79 years compared with their non-disabled counterparts. The data were consistent with other research revealing a substantial annual risk of disability or death for people in their eighth decade of life.

  1. The effect of sex on immune cells in healthy aging: Elderly women have more robust natural killer lymphocytes than do elderly men.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Ahmad; Presnell, Steven R; Peterson, Charlotte A; Thomas, D Travis; Lutz, Charles T

    2016-06-01

    Immune gender differences have been reported, but are little studied in elderly humans. We compared monocyte and lymphocyte subsets, along with soluble immune mediators in healthy men and women over the age of 70. We also measured natural killer (NK) lymphocyte cytotoxic granule exocytosis, chemokine synthesis, and cytokine synthesis in response to a variety of stimuli. Elderly women had significantly more circulating B cells than men, whereas men had more CD4 central memory T cells and higher monocyte levels. Plasma adiponectin levels were higher in women, plasma retinol-binding protein 4 levels were higher in men, but there were no significant gender differences in C-reactive protein, IL-15, or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Women had a higher ratio of immature CD56(bright) NK cells to mature CD56(dim) NK cells, indicating a gender difference in NK cell maturation in the elderly. Comparing sexes, female mature NK cells had more vigorous cytotoxic granule responses to K562 leukemia cells and IFN-γ responses to NKp46 crosslinking. Moreover, female NK cells were more likely to produce MIP-1β in response to a variety of stimuli. These data show that gender influences NK cell activity in elderly humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. "It just happens": a qualitative study exploring low-income women's perspectives on pregnancy intention and planning.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Sonya; Nikolajski, Cara; Steinberg, Julia R; Freedman, Lori; Akers, Aletha Y; Ibrahim, Said; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla

    2015-02-01

    Unintended pregnancy is common and disproportionately occurs among low-income women. We conducted a qualitative study with low-income women to better typologize pregnancy intention, understand the relationship between pregnancy intention and contraceptive use, and identify the contextual factors that shape pregnancy intention and contraceptive behavior. Semistructured interviews were conducted with low-income, African-American and white women aged 18-45 recruited from reproductive health clinics in Pittsburgh, PA, to explore factors that influence women's pregnancy-related behaviors. Narratives were analyzed using content analysis and the constant comparison method. Among the 66 participants (36 African-American and 30 white), we identified several factors that may impede our public health goal of increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are consciously desired and planned. First, women do not always perceive that they have reproductive control and therefore do not necessarily formulate clear pregnancy intentions. Second, the benefits of a planned pregnancy may not be evident. Third, because preconception intention and planning do not necessarily occur, decisions about the acceptability of a pregnancy are often determined after the pregnancy has already occurred. Finally, even when women express a desire to avoid pregnancy, their contraceptive behaviors are not necessarily congruent with their desires. We also identified several clinically relevant and potentially modifiable factors that help to explain this intention-behavior discrepancy, including women's perceptions of low fecundity and their experiences with male partner contraceptive sabotage. Our findings suggest that the current conceptual framework that views pregnancy-related behaviors from a strict planned behavior perspective may be limited, particularly among low-income populations. This study identified several cognitive and interpersonal pathways to unintended pregnancy among low-income women in

  3. Intimate partner violence among women in Spain: the impact of regional-level male unemployment and income inequality.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Otero-García, Laura; Muntaner, Carles; Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a complex worldwide public health problem. There is scarce research on the independent effect on IPV exerted by structural factors such as labour and economic policies, economic inequalities and gender inequality. To analyse the association, in Spain, between contextual variables of regional unemployment and income inequality and individual women's likelihood of IPV, independently of the women's characteristics. We conducted multilevel logistic regression to analyse cross-sectional data from the 2011 Spanish Macrosurvey of Gender-based Violence which included 7898 adult women. The first level of analyses was the individual women' characteristics and the second level was the region of residence. Of the survey participants, 12.2% reported lifetime IPV. The region of residence accounted for 3.5% of the total variability in IPV prevalence. We determined a direct association between regional male long-term unemployment and IPV likelihood (P = 0.007) and between the Gini Index for the regional income inequality and IPV likelihood (P < 0.001). Women residing in a region with higher gender-based income discrimination are at a lower likelihood of IPV than those residing in a region with low gender-based income discrimination (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence intervals: 0.55-0.75). Growing regional unemployment rates and income inequalities increase women's likelihood of IPV. In times of economic downturn, like the current one in Spain, this association may translate into an increase in women's vulnerability to IPV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein Requirement of Elderly Women: Nitrogen Balance Responses to Three Levels of Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Morse, M. Hannah; Haub, Mark D.; Evans, William J.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Background For elderly women, insufficient data exist to assess the accuracy of the assumed mean protein requirement of 0.6 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1, and the adequacy of the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1. The aims of this study were to assess the mean protein requirement and suggested safe and adequate protein intake (protein allowance) of elderly women using a shorter-term nitrogen balance protocol. Methods During three separate 18-day trials, 11 elderly women (age range, 70–81 years) were randomly fed eucaloric diets designed to provide either 0.50, 0.75, or 1.00 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1. Nitrogen balance was determined at Weeks 2 and 3 (Days 7–10 and 14–17, respectively) of each trial using data from total nitrogen analyses of duplicate food composites, 24-hour urine collections, and stool collections. The mean protein requirement was calculated using linear regression of individual women's data from all three trials and inverse prediction. Results At protein intakes of 0.53 ± 0.02, 0.76 ± 0.02, or 1.06 ± 0.05 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1, net nitrogen balances during Week 2 were −14.5 ± 3.1, 3.8 ± 2.5 and 23.4 ± 3.3 mg of nitrogen · kg−1 · day−1, respectively, for these body weight– and body composition–stable women. At Week 3, the net nitrogen balances were −0.1 ± 2.7, 8.5 ± 3.6 and 42.0 ± 3.0 mg of nitrogen · kg−1 · day−1. From Week 2 to Week 3, shifts to more positive nitrogen balances occurred due to decreases in urinary nitrogen excretion. The mean protein requirement at Week 2 was calculated to be 0.70 ± 0.09 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1 (coefficient of variation [CV] = 13%) and at Week 3 was calculated to be 0.56 ± 0.09 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1 (CV = 17%). From these data, an adequate protein allowance was estimated to be greater than the RDA at Week 2 (0.90 g of protein · kg−1 · day [d]−1), and not different than the RDA

  5. Effect of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-09-01

    Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone.

  6. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  7. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  8. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  9. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  10. Prenatal care: associations with prenatal depressive symptoms and social support in low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2017-06-03

    We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p < 0.001) compared to women with both good partner support and low depressive symptoms. Those with good partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were less likely to have late care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.

  11. Obese elderly women exhibit low postural stability: a novel three-dimensional evaluation system

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, José Ailton O.; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E.G.; Vilaça, Karla H.C.; Pfrimer, Karina; Colafêmina, José F.; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton O.; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the multisegmental static postural balance of active eutrophic and obese elderly women using a three-dimensional system under different sensory conditions. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 31 elderly women (16 eutrophic and 15 obese) aged 65 to 75 years. The following anthropometric measurements were obtained: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and handgrip strength. The physical activity level was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Body composition was measured using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. The Polhemus® Patriot (three-dimensional) equipment was used to measure the parameters of postural balance along the anteroposterior and laterolateral axes. The data acquisition involved one trial of 60 s to test the limit of stability and four trials of 90 s each under the following conditions: (1) eyes open, stable surface; (2) eyes closed, stable surface; (3) eyes open, unstable surface; and (4) eyes closed, unstable surface. RESULTS: For the limit of stability, significant differences were observed in the maximum anteroposterior and laterolateral displacement (p<0.01) and in the parameter maximum anteroposterior displacement in the eyes closed stable surface condition (p<0.01) and maximum anteroposterior and laterolateral displacement in the eyes open unstable surface (p<0.01 and p = 0.03) and eyes closed unstable surface (p<0.01 and p<0.01) conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Obese elderly women exhibited a lower stability limit (lower sway area) compared with eutrophic women, leaving them more vulnerable to falls. PMID:22666792

  12. Variation in the utilization of reconstruction following mastectomy in elderly women.

    PubMed

    In, Haejin; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Neville, Bridget A; Weeks, Jane C; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2013-06-01

    Regardless of their age, women who choose to undergo postmastectomy reconstruction report improved quality of life as a result. However, actual use of reconstruction decreases with increasing age. Whereas this may reflect patient preference and clinical factors, it may also represent age-based disparity. Women aged 65 years or older who underwent mastectomy for DCIS/stage I/II breast cancer (2000-2005) were identified in the SEER-Medicare database. Overall and institutional rates of reconstruction were calculated. Characteristics of hospitals with higher and lower rates of reconstruction were compared. Pseudo-R² statistics utilizing a patient-level logistic regression model estimated the relative contribution of institution and patient characteristics. A total of 19,234 patients at 716 institutions were examined. Overall, 6 % of elderly patients received reconstruction after mastectomy. Institutional rates ranged from zero to >40 %. Whereas 53 % of institutions performed no reconstruction on elderly patients, 5.6 % performed reconstructions on more than 20 %. Although patient characteristics (%ΔR² = 70 %), and especially age (%ΔR² = 34 %), were the primary determinants of reconstruction, institutional characteristics also explained some of the variation (%ΔR² = 16 %). This suggests that in addition to appropriate factors, including clinical characteristics and patient preferences, the use of reconstruction among older women also is influenced by the institution at which they receive care. Variation in the likelihood of reconstruction by institution and the association with structural characteristics suggests unequal access to this critical component of breast cancer care. Increased awareness of a potential age disparity is an important first step to improve access for elderly women who are candidates and desire reconstruction.

  13. Hip fracture prevention with a multifactorial educational program in elderly community-dwelling Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, T; Löyttyniemi, E; Välimäki, M

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines suggest identification of women at fracture risk by bone density measurement and subsequently pharmacotherapy. However, most women who sustain a hip fracture do not have osteoporosis in terms of bone density. The present non-pharmacological intervention among elderly women unselected for osteoporosis reduced hip fracture risk by 55 % providing an alternative approach to fracture prevention. Hip fractures are expensive for society and cause disability for those who sustain them. We studied whether a multifactorial non-pharmacological prevention program reduces hip fracture risk in elderly women. A controlled trial concerning 60- to 70-year-old community-dwelling Finnish women was undertaken. A random sample was drawn from the Population Information System and assigned into the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). Of the 2,547 women who were invited to the IG, 1,004 (39 %) and of the 2,120 invited to the CG, 1,174 (55 %) participated. The IG participated in a fracture prevention program for 1 week at a rehabilitation center followed by review days twice. The CG received no intervention. During the 10-year follow-up, both groups participated in survey questionnaire by mail. Outcome of interest was occurrence of hip fractures and changes in bone-health-related lifestyle. During the follow-up, 12 (1.2 %) women in the IG and 29 (2.5 %) in the CG sustained a hip fracture (P = 0.039). The determinants of hip fractures by stepwise logistic regression were baseline smoking (odds ratio (OR) 4.32 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.14-8.71), age OR 1.15/year (95 % CI 1.03-1.28), fall history OR 2.7 (95 % CI 1.24-5.9), stroke history OR 2.99 (95 % CI 1.19-7.54) and participating in this program OR 0.45 (95 % CI 0.22-0.93). Starting vitamin D and calcium supplement use was more common in the IG compared with the CG. The results suggest that this non-pharmacological fracture prevention program may reduce the risk of hip fractures in elderly

  14. Environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases: the association of income inequality and green spaces in elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Kaio Henrique Correa; Pabayo, Roman; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to analyse the individual and contextual determinants associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) morbidity among the elderly. Methods The sample consisted of 1333 individuals aged 60 or older residing in the city of São Paulo, from the Health, Welfare and Aging (SABE) study survey performed in 2010. The association between CVD with both income inequality and green spaces was analysed using Bayesian multilevel models, controlling for individual and contextual factors. Results We found a significant association between income inequality and green spaces, and risk of CVD. In comparison to elderly residents in areas with low-income inequality, there was an increased risk for CVD among those residing in the medium–low (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.59), medium–high (OR=2.71, 95% CI 2.18 to 3.36) and high (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.79) quartiles of income inequality. Those living in medium–low (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.49), medium–high (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.65) and high (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.55) green spaces levels had lower risk of CVD. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of area-level characteristics on CVD risk and the need to develop healthcare policies focused on the effect of individual and contextual characteristics. PMID:27601497

  15. Age and education influence the performance of elderly women on the dual-task Timed Up and Go test.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gisele de Cássia; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Fonseca, Bruna Espeschit; Freitas, Flávia Alexandra Silveira de; Fonseca, Maria Luísa Morais; Pacheco, Bruna Débora; Gonçalves, Marisa Rocha; Caramelli, Paulo

    2015-03-01

    Gait variability is related to functional decline in the elderly. The dual-task Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-DT) reflects the performance in daily activities. Objective To evaluate the differences in time to perform the TUG with and without DT in elderly women with different ages and levels of education and physical activity. Method Ninety-two elderly women perfomed the TUG at usual and fast speeds, with and without motor and cognitive DT. Results Increases in the time to perform the TUG-DT were observed at older ages and lower educational levels, but not at different levels of physical activity. More educated women performed the test faster with and without DT at both speeds. When age was considered, significant differences were found only for the TUG-DT at both speeds. Conclusion Younger women with higher education levels demonstrated better performances on the TUG-DT.

  16. Changing healthcare issues and context for elderly women in Asia: implications for a research agenda for nursing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Wha; Kim, Sue; Joe, Seun Young

    2008-01-01

    In this descriptive review, the current healthcare issues and context for elderly women in Asia are discussed and a nursing research agenda to promote better health security is proposed. Chesney and Ozer's multilevel circular framework of key content areas of women's health was applied to organize and critique the literature. The results indicate that elderly Asian women display morbidity and mortality differentials and are influenced by gender and social factors, as well as health policy issues. The research agenda for nursing that is proposed in this article includes activating health promotion research, employing family and community-based participatory approaches, supporting gender-sensitive social and health policies, and promoting comprehensive and culturally competent international research on health transitions for elderly women.

  17. Association between rapid force production by the plantar flexors and balance performance in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Ema, Ryoichi; Saito, Megumi; Ohki, Shunsuke; Takayama, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yosuke; Akagi, Ryota

    2016-12-01

    Plantar flexion strength and balance ability are considered to be crucial for avoiding falls. However, no clear relationship has been established between these two factors in elderly population. This study aimed to examine the association between plantar flexion strength and balance performance in elderly men and women. Forty-three men and 35 women aged over 65 years performed isometric plantar flexion as fast and hard as possible. From the time-torque curve, the rate of torque development in time intervals of 30, 50, 100, 150, and 200 ms from the onset of contraction was determined and normalized to peak torque. In addition, the center of pressure displacement during single-leg standing was calculated and normalized to height. When the data were collapsed over sexes, the normalized rate of torque development was negatively correlated with the normalized center of pressure displacement, except for the time interval of 200 ms. By sex, regardless of the time interval, there was a negative correlation between the normalized rate of torque development and the normalized center of pressure displacement in the elderly men but not in the elderly women. No correlation was seen between the peak torque and normalized center of pressure displacement in either pooled or separated data. The findings suggest that the capability of rapid force production rather than maximal force production of the plantar flexion is important for balance ability in elderly men, but this capability may not be relevant in elderly women.

  18. Low-Income Women's Conceptualizations of Food Craving and Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Malika, Nipher M.; Hayman, Lenwood W.; Miller, Alison L.; Lee, Hannah J.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5 years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very “matter of fact” manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800

  19. Low-income women's conceptualizations of food craving and food addiction.

    PubMed

    Malika, Nipher M; Hayman, Lenwood W; Miller, Alison L; Lee, Hannah J; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-08-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very "matter of fact" manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs.

  20. Excess gestational weight gain in low-income overweight and obese women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthie K.; Walch, Tanis J.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Smith, Aubrey M.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Whigham, Leah D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. Design Qualitative study. Setting Community-based perinatal center. Participants 8 focus groups with women (Black=48%, White non-Hispanic=41%, Hispanic=10%) in the first half of (n=12) and last half of pregnancy (n=10), or post-partum (n=7); 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) (n=9). Phenomenon of Interest Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG within different levels of the Social Ecological Model (SEM), e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, etc. Analysis Coding guide was based on the SEM. Transcripts were coded by 3 researchers for common themes. Thematic saturation was reached. Results At an intrapersonal level, knowledge/skills and cravings were the most common barriers. At an interpersonal level, family and friends were most influential. At an organizational level, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program and clinics were influential. At the community level, lack of transportation was most frequently discussed. At a policy level, complex policies and social stigma surrounding WIC were barriers. There was consensus that ideal intervention approaches would include peer-facilitated support groups with information from experts. OB-GYNs felt uncomfortable counseling patients about GWG due to time constraints, other priorities, and lack of training. Conclusions and Implications There are multi-level public health opportunities to promote healthy GWG. Better communication between nutrition specialists and OB-GYNs is needed. PMID:26187348

  1. Risk of nonvertebral fractures among elderly postmenopausal women using antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Rabenda, Véronique; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between antidepressants, including TCAs, SSRIs, and miscellaneous antidepressants and the risk of nonvertebral fractures among women with osteoporosis. This study was a post-hoc analysis of pooled data from two international, phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies (the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention [SOTI] and TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis [TROPOS]). A nested case-control study was performed in the placebo treated population. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of nonvertebral fracture associated with the use of antidepressants. After 3 years of follow-up, 391 nonvertebral fractures cases were identified and matched to 1955 controls. Compared with non-users of antidepressants, antidepressants use was associated with an increased risk of nonvertebral fractures (adjusted OR=1.64; 95%CI, 1.03-2.62]). Particularly, there was a 2-fold risk increase (95%CI, 1.07-3.79) of nonvertebral fracture for current users of SSRIs and a 2.1-fold risk increase for subjects who were current users of TCAs (95%CI, 1.02-4.30). Among patients categorized as recent or past users, none of the classes of antidepressants were statistically associated with increased risk of nonvertebral fracture. Our findings confirm that both SSRIs and TCAs increase the risk of nonvertebral fracture in current users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of eating disorders and picking/nibbling in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Eva M; Gomes, Fabiana V S; Vaz, Ana R; Pinto-Bastos, Ana; Machado, Paulo P P

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the point prevalence of eating disorders and picking/nibbling in elderly women. This was a two-stage epidemiological study that assessed 342 women aged 65-94 years old. In Stage 1, the following screening measures were used to identify possible cases: the Mini-Mental State Examination, to screen and exclude patients with cognitive impairment; Weight Concerns Scale; SCOFF (Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food) Questionnaire; Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire-dietary restraint subscale; and three questions to screen for picking/nibbling and night eating syndrome. Women selected for Stage 2 (n = 118) were interviewed using the diagnostic items of the Eating Disorder Examination. According to the DSM-5, the prevalence of all eating disorders was 3.25% (1.83-5.7, 95% C.I.). Prevalence of binge-eating disorder was 1.68% (0.82-3.82, 95% C.I.), of other specified feeding or eating disorders was 1.48% (0.63-3.42, 95% C.I.), and of bulimia nervosa 0.3% (.05-1.7, 95% C.I.)]. Binge-eating episodes were reported by 5.62% of women. No cases of anorexia nervosa or night eating syndrome were identified. The prevalence of picking/nibbling was 18.9%. Picking/nibbling was associated with increased body mass index (t(322) = -3.28, p < .001) and binge-eating episodes (χ(2) (1) = 5.65, p < .017). Prevalence rates of eating disorders on elderly Portuguese women were comparable to those found on young women. Our data support the literature that suggests that binge-eating disorder is particularly prevalent in older adults. Picking/nibbling was the most prevalent eating behavior and we provide further evidence for its association with weight and disordered eating. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Do 12-week yoga program influence respiratory function of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-09-29

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women.

  4. Do 12-Week Yoga Program Influence Respiratory Function of Elderly Women?

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-01-01

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  5. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research.

  6. "You learn to go last": perceptions of prenatal care experiences among African-American women with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Mazul, Mary; Ngui, Emmanuel M; Bridgewater, Farrin D; Harley, Amy E

    2013-12-01

    African American infants die at higher rates and are at greater risk of adverse birth outcomes than White infants in Milwaukee. Though self-reported experiences of racism have been linked to adverse health outcomes, limited research exists on the impact of racism on women's prenatal care experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of racial discrimination during prenatal care from the perspectives of African American women in a low income Milwaukee neighborhood. Transcripts from six focus groups with twenty-nine women and two individual interviews were analyzed to identify important emergent themes. Validity was maintained using an audit trail, peer debriefing, and two individual member validation sessions. Participants identified three areas of perceived discrimination based on: (1) insurance or income status, (2) race, and (3) lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Women described being treated differently by support staff and providers based on type of insurance (public versus private), including perceiving a lower quality of care at clinics that accepted public insurance. While some described personally-mediated racism, the majority of women described experiences that fit within a definition of institutionalized racism-in which the system was designed in a way that worked against their attempts to get quality prenatal care. Women also described lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that African American women with limited incomes perceive many provider practices and personal interactions during prenatal care as discriminatory. Future studies could explore the relationship between perceptions of discrimination and utilization of prenatal care.

  7. About Eating: an online program with evidence of increased food resource management skills for low-income women.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Barbara; Belue, Rhonda; Smith, Stephanie; Wamboldt, Patricia; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Produce and evaluate About Eating (AE), an online program for low-income women aligned with the Satter eating competence model, congruent with best practices for nutrition education of low-income audiences. Responses from iterative cognitive interviews and online surveys with diverse samples of low-income women informed lesson revisions. The researchers conducted a randomized controlled trial of AE with low-income women to determine its impact on dietary behavior and food security. In all, 284 women reviewed at least 1 AE lesson and endorsed it. After AE, women (n = 288) increased in use of food resource management skills (eg, using a budget [P = .008] and planning meals to include all food groups [P = .002]). About Eating participants who were food secure had more confidence in managing money for food (P = .002) and keeping track of food-related purchases (P = .02) than food-insecure persons. Mixed-methods research with life stage and geodiverse samples confirmed the usefulness of AE. Food security assessment may enhance interpretation of intervention effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of obesity and type 2 diabetes on protein anabolic response to insulin in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jessica; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Goulet, Éric D B; Morais, José A

    2015-09-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have been shown to alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose and protein metabolism in middle-aged women. We aimed to determine whether these findings translate to the elderly who are at increased risk of muscle loss. We assessed whole-body protein (1-(13)C-leucine) and glucose (3-(3)H-glucose) kinetics in 10 healthy (age: 71.6±1.8years; BMI: 23.2±0.8kg/m(2)), 8 obese (age: 72.9±1.3; BMI: 33.1±1.0) and 8 obese well-controlled type 2 diabetic (age: 69.8±1.6; BMI: 34.4±1.5) elderly women in the postabsorptive state and during a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic, isoaminoacidemic clamp. All subjects followed an isoenergetic, protein-controlled diet for 6days preceding the clamp. The net protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinemia was similarly blunted in obese (0.08±0.06) and obese type 2 diabetic women (0.06±0.04) compared to healthy women (0.24±0.05μmol·kg fat free mass(-1)·min(-1); ANOVA p=0.018). In contrast, the insulin-mediated glucose disposal (healthy: 9.72±0.67) was decreased with obesity (6.96±0.86) and further with diabetes (5.23±0.27mg·kg fat free mass(-1)·min(-1); ANOVA p<0.001). Endogenous glucose production was not completely suppressed during the clamp only in diabetic women. Thus, the glucose infusion rate was the lowest in this group. Obese elderly women with and without type 2 diabetes have a similar degree of insulin resistance of protein anabolism, despite worse glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Similar to previous findings in middle-aged women, obesity exerted a blunting effect on protein anabolism, which may contribute to the development of sarcopenic obesity. Our results suggest that the presence of type 2 diabetes at an advancing age does not further aggravate this effect. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Shahirose S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Dosani (Mawji), Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W.; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  10. Adverse childhood experiences, depression and mental health barriers to work among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has connected childhood abuse to decreased physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Further, mental health has established a link to employment problems. This study conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from individuals accessing public assistance to investigate the relationships among retrospective self-reports of childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and prospective indicators of mental health and mental health barriers to work. Logistic regression models found strong relationships between childhood abuse and increased odds of depression and mental health barriers to work. Path models highlight the relative importance of depression for those reporting mental health as the biggest barrier to work. Recommendations for social workers, public health professionals, and program administrators are provided.

  11. Altered stress patterns and increased risk for postpartum depression among low-income pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Kathryn; Urizar, Guido G.

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been associated with a number of negative maternal and infant health outcomes. Despite these adverse health effects, few studies have prospectively examined patterns of pre- and postnatal stress that may increase a woman’s risk for PPD. The current study examined whether the timing of altered salivary cortisol patterns and perceived stress levels during pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum was associated with PPD symptoms among 100 low-income mothers. Higher levels of PPD were found among women with a lower cortisol awakening response (first and second trimester), lower average daily cortisol (second trimester), a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern (second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum), and a less abrupt drop in both cortisol and perceived stress from the third trimester to 3 months postpartum. These results support the need for early screening and regulation of stress levels to promote depression prevention efforts in at-risk populations. PMID:26275372

  12. Impacts of a support intervention for low-income women who smoke.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Miriam J; Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Greaves, Lorraine; Letourneau, Nicole; Spitzer, Denise; Boscoe, Madeline

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to implement and evaluate the impact of a support intervention tailored to the assessed support needs, resources and preferences of low-income women who smoke in three Canadian cities. The support intervention, informed by theoretical foundations, provided holistic one-to-one and group support over 14 weeks. The support intervention was facilitated by trained professional and peer facilitators. The impact was evaluated through analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected at pre-, post-, and delayed post-test contacts. This analysis revealed that the intervention exerted positive impacts on smoking reduction/cessation, social networks, coping, and health behaviors. Participants reported satisfaction with the intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A "contract for change" increases produce consumption in low-income women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heneman, Karrie; Block-Joy, Amy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Donohue, Susan; Garcia, Linda; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Smith, Dorothy; West, Estella; Steinberg, Francene M

    2005-11-01

    This study determined whether a "Contract for Change" goal-setting exercise enhanced the effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education programs to increase produce consumption in low-income (<130% of poverty) women after 4 weeks. Thirty-eight participants were randomized in this three-group parallel arm study: (a) control group participants received life-skills lessons, (b) the education group received the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education "Food Guide Pyramid" lessons, and (c) the contract group also received the "Food Guide Pyramid" series and completed a "Contract for Change." It was hypothesized that the contract group would have the greatest increases in advancement toward dietary change and produce consumption. Compared with controls, the contract group significantly moved toward acceptance of vegetable consumption (P < or = .05). Compared with the education group, the contract group significantly increased fruit consumption. Results suggest that nutrition professionals can effectively use goal-setting to assist low-income populations with dietary change.

  14. A tailored multimedia nutrition education pilot program for low-income women receiving food assistance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M K; Honess-Morreale, L; Farrell, D; Carbone, E; Brasure, M

    1999-04-01

    This article describes the development and pilot evaluation of a tailored multimedia program to improve dietary behavior among 378 low-income women enrolled in the Food Stamp program in Durham, North Carolina. After randomization to intervention or control groups, participants completed a baseline survey and were resurveyed 1-3 months post-intervention. Measures included dietary fat intake assessed using a brief food-frequency questionnaire, stage of change, knowledge of low-fat foods, self-efficacy and eating behavior questions. The computer-based intervention consisted of a tailored soap opera and interactive 'info-mercials' that provided individualized feedback about dietary fat intake, knowledge and strategies for lowering fat based on stage of change. At follow-up, intervention group participants had improved significantly in knowledge (P < 0.001), stage of change (P < 0.05) and certain eating behaviors (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. Both study groups had lowered their reported fat intake markedly at follow-up (P < 0.001), but did not differ significantly from each other. A majority of participants rated the program as very helpful and were interested in using a similar program in the future. The findings of this pilot study suggest that computerized tailored self-help health promotion programs may be effective educational interventions for lower income and minority populations.

  15. Concepts of healthful food among low-income African American women.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elizabeth B; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A

    2012-01-01

    Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food healthfulness. Nutrient content, physical effects of food, and food categories were used to judge the healthfulness of foods. Fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods were considered the most healthful and starchy foods the least healthful because they were believed to cause weight gain. Beliefs about which foods contain which nutrients and which foods have particular physical effects varied widely across participants. Participants demonstrated awareness of which foods are healthful but lacked understanding of why those foods are more healthful than others. Knowledge about the health effects of foods may be necessary to motivate individuals to choose healthful foods. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient participation in free cataract surgery: a cross-sectional study of the low-income elderly in urban China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haotian; Lin, Duoru; Long, Erping; Jiang, Haofeng; Qu, Bo; Tang, Jinzhu; Lin, Yingfen; Chen, Jingjing; Wu, Xiaohang; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Hui; Tan, Xuhua; Luo, Lixia; Liu, Yizhi; Chen, Weirong

    2016-04-15

    To explore the characteristics of the low-income elderly who underwent free cataract surgery and to determine the degree of patient satisfaction with the free cataract surgery programme in urban China. A free cataract surgery management workflow was designed as a poverty relief project in Guangzhou. In this study, participants who underwent free cataract surgery between January and August 2014 received a telephone interview based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on patient demographics, resources, health conditions, reasons for undergoing the free surgery and overall evaluation of the free cataract surgery programme. Among the 833 participants, the mean surgical age was 76.85±7.46 years (95% CI 76.34 to 77.36), and the male to female ratio was 385:448. The majority (94.31%, 746/791) of patients resided in the main urban districts. Patients underwent surgery 61.08±60.15 months (95% CI 56.17 to 66.00) after becoming aware of the cataract, although 66.83% of them reported that their daily lives were influenced by cataracts. Only 21.5% of the respondents underwent physical examinations that included regular eye screening, and only 6.30% were highly educated patients. Financial problems were the primary reason cited by patients for participating in the free surgery programme. Those patients with a monthly family income of 1000-2999¥ (US$161-482) per capita constituted the largest patient population. The free clinics in the parks and the free cataract surgery were highly rated (9.46 and 9.11 of 10 points) by the beneficiaries. The telephone survey revealed a high level of patient satisfaction regarding the free cataract surgery programme. Most of the patients who participated in the programme resided in major urban districts and had poor health awareness and a low level of education. The information provided by this study is crucial for improving and expanding the management of free cataract surgery programmes. NCT02633865; Post

  17. Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R; Mølgaard, C; Skovgaard, L T; Brot, C; Cashman, K D; Chabros, E; Charzewska, J; Flynn, A; Jakobsen, J; Kärkkäinen, M; Kiely, M; Lamberg-Allardt, C; Moreiras, O; Natri, A M; O'brien, M; Rogalska-Niedzwiedz, M; Ovesen, L

    2005-04-01

    To determine the vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; S-25OHD) in adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in four countries of northern Europe and to explain differences in S-25OHD concentrations between and within the countries. A cross-sectional observational study conducted in a standardised way during February-March. S-25OHD was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Vitamin D and calcium intake was calculated using a standardised food composition database. Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and Poland. A total of 199 girls (mean (s.d.) age 12.6 (0.5) y) and 221 women (mean (s.d.) age 71.8 (1.4) y). The median (inter quartiles) concentration of S-25OHD was 29.4 (20.3, 38.3) nmol/l for the girls and 40.7 (28.0, 54.2) nmol/l for the women. S-25OHD below 25 nmol/l was found in 37% of the girls and 17% of the women, and S-25OHD below 50 nmol/l was found in 92% of the girls and 37% of the women. Positive significant determinants for S-25OHD in girls were use of vitamin D supplements, and in women sun habits, dietary vitamin D intake, use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Body mass index and smoking were negative determinants in women. For women predictors could explain the differences between countries (P(country) = 0.09, R(2) = 0.39), but for girls the difference remained significant even after including predictors (P(country) = 0.03, R(2) = 0.15). Vitamin D status is low in northern Europe during winter. More than one-third of the adolescent girls have vitamin D status below 25 nmol/l and almost all are below 50 nmol/l. Two-thirds of the elderly community-dwelling women have vitamin D status below 50 nmol/l. Use of vitamin D supplements is a significant positive determinant for S-25OHD for both girls and women (P = 0.001). The European Fifth Framework Programme (Contract No. QLK1-CT-2000-00623).

  18. Effects of gait velocity and center of mass acceleration during turning gait in old-old elderly women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated gait velocity and center of mass acceleration in three directions during square and semicircular turning gait tasks in old-old elderly women. [Subjects] Fifteen community-dwelling, old-old elderly women (≥75 years old) who could walk independently were recruited. [Methods] We measured gait velocity and center of mass acceleration in three directions using an accelerometer during two different turning gait tasks. [Results] The velocity during square turning was significantly slower than that during semicircular turning gait. There were no significant differences between gait tasks with respect to normalized antero-posterior, medo-lateral, or vertical center of mass acceleration. [Conclusion] Changing the direction of travel while walking regardless of turning angle is one of the greatest challenges for balance in old-old elderly people. Furthermore, gait velocity is a useful clinical marker for predicting falls in old-old elderly populations.

  19. The important things in the life of older people: elderly women in social houses and home care.

    PubMed

    Kasepalu, Ulle; Laidmäe, Virve-Ines; Tulva, Taimi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze the aging experiences of elderly women in Estonia and the factors influencing them. The assessments of two groups using social services are compared-the elderly living in Tallinn's social houses and the elderly receiving care at home. From February to August 2011, a total of 80 elderly women were interviewed. Inhabitants of social houses find that their old age is satisfying more often (65% of the inhabitants of social houses and 40% of the people in home care). Many home care clients were convinced that it is best to spend old age among loved ones and in a familiar environment. Those living at home have many difficulties, which is why 20% of them are on a waiting list to go to a social house. Home services should include services with which the inhabitants of social houses are very satisfied.

  20. Predictors of binge drinking in elderly Americans.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Roopali B; Junquera, Patricia; Canaan, Yusef; Oms, Juan D

    2015-10-01

    The increasing trend in elderly binge drinking in the U.S. is cause for alarm. We sought to describe the predictors of binge drinking in elderly men and women and evaluate the relationship between binge drinking and mental health disorders in this population. The 2008 Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was utilized to identify a cohort of 4,815 individuals in the U.S. of age 65 or older. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported binge drinking, defined as an affirmative response to the question: "How many times in the past 30 days have you had more than five drinks (in men) or more than four drinks (in women) on an occasion?" Among 4,815 elderly participants studied, a total of 466 (9.7%) participants reported binge drinking over the past 30 days while 4,349 (90.3%) participants reported no binge drinking. Binge drinking was not associated with anxiety or depressive disorders in the overall population, however, elderly women reporting binge drinking had higher rates of depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of binge drinking in elderly participants included younger age, male gender, smoking, absence of college education, lower annual income, and absence of coronary artery disease. Predictors of binge drinking differed in elderly men and women. Younger age, male gender, smoking, lack of college education, lower annual income, and absence of coronary artery disease are independently associated with higher rates of binge drinking among elderly Americans. Elderly men and women had disparate predictors of binge drinking. This study provides valuable information to be applied to the substance abuse screening process in elderly men and women. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Association between Sleep Disturbances and Leisure Activities in the Elderly: A Comparison between Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hellström, Amanda; Hellström, Patrik; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945) aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27–11.81) and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75–8.61) were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep. PMID:24575303

  2. Wii Balance Board: Reliability and Clinical Use in Assessment of Balance in Healthy Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Puell, Vivian Neiva; Lattari, Eduardo; Machado, Sérgio; Otero Vaghetti, César Augusto; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Force plate is considered gold standard tool to assess body balance. However the Wii Balance Board (WBB) platform is a trustworthy equipment to assess stabilometric components in young people. Thus, we aim to examine the reliability of measures of center of pressure with WBB in healthy elderly women. Twenty one healthy and physically active women were enrolled in the study (age: 64 ± 7 years; body mass index: 29 ± 5 kg/m2. The WBB was used to assess the center of pressure measures in the individuals. Pressure was linearly applied to different points to test the platform precision. Three assessments were performed, with two of them being held on the same day at a 5- to 10-minute interval, and the third one was performed 48 h later. A linear regression analysis was used to find out linearity, while the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. The platform precision was adequate (R2 = 0.997, P = 0.01). Center of pressure measures showed an excellent reliability (all intraclass correlation coefficient values were > 0.90; p < 0.01). The WBB is a precise and reliable tool of body stability quantitative measure in healthy active elderly women and its use should be encouraged in clinical settings.

  3. Association between Sleep Disturbances and Leisure Activities in the Elderly: A Comparison between Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Amanda; Hellström, Patrik; Willman, Ania; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945) aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27-11.81) and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75-8.61) were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep.

  4. Empowering elderly women with osteoarthritis through hands-on exploration of adaptive equipment concepts.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Sharon R; Sanders, Elizabeth B-N; Yen, Wei-Ting; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Lavender, Steven A

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated the participation experiences of elderly women with hand limitations in a maketools-inspired activity for improving bottle openability and verified the usefulness of the results from this approach. Participatory design was used to stimulate participants' hands-on fabrication of new bottle lid concepts. Air-dry modeling clay, Crayola Model Magic® (Crayola LLC, 1100 Church Lane Easton, PA 18044-0431), clay modeling tools sets and empty bottles were the tools used to explore feasible and user-envisioned ideal lids that could potentially reduce hand pain and improve function when opening bottles. Twenty-five elderly women fully participated in the study. They generated 36 bottle lid design concepts. Qualitative analysis identified inclusion of four primary design features as follows: 1) surface texture; 2) increased leverage through lid shape or diameters; 3) increased contact surface with palm/fingers through lid shape or height; and 4) facilitation of alternative grip types. The major limitations of the study were inclusion of only women participants and healthier persons living in a retirement community. Future research is needed to investigate the bottle lid preferences of men and persons with more severe hand function living in places other than independent living communities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and others.

  6. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  7. Families at Risk: Home and Car Smoking Among Pregnant Women Attending a Low-Income, Urban Prenatal Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Thomas F.; Hutchinson, Maria S.; Pedroza, Claudia; Blackwell, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) has been identified as a distinct risk factor for adverse obstetric and gynecological outcomes. This study examined the prevalence of SHSe reduction practices (i.e., home and car smoking bans) among pregnant women in a large U.S. prenatal clinic serving low-income women. Methods: Pregnant women (N = 820) attending a university-based, urban prenatal clinic in Houston, Texas, completed a prenatal questionnaire assessing bans on household and car smoking and a qualitative urine cotinine test as part of usual care. Data were collected from April 2011 to August 2012. Results: Nearly one-third (n = 257) of the sample reported at least 1 smoker living in the home. About a quarter of the women in the full sample did not have a total smoking ban in their home and car. Within smoking households, 44% of the pregnant women reported smoking, 56% reported smoking by another household member, and in 26% of smoking households both the pregnant woman and at least one other person were smoking. Only 43% of women with a household smoker reported a total ban on smoking, with higher rates among Hispanic women. Smoking bans were less common when the pregnant women smoked, when more than 1 smoker resided in the home, and when pregnant with her first child. Conclusions: SHSe among low-income pregnant women is high, and interventions to raise awareness and increase the establishment of smoking bans in homes and cars are warranted. PMID:24692668

  8. Health-promoting aspects of a paid job: findings in a qualitative interview study with elderly women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Forssén, Annika S K; Carlstedt, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    This article is one aspect of a larger, qualitative interview study and deals with health-promoting aspects of gainful employment, as experienced by a group of elderly Swedish women. Through these interviews we demonstrate the central importance of outside employment for many of the women, although they belonged to a generation where outside work conflicted with societal norms. We will illustrate a wide variety of ways in which gainful employment can contribute to women's well-being and, ultimately, their health.

  9. Quality of life and functional capacity of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Alves, Janice Chaim; Bassitt, Debora Pastore

    2013-01-01

    To correlate functional ability and quality of life of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Cross-sectional study composed of 40 elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. We used the following instruments: identification questionnaire, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-OLD (WHOQOL-OLD). The significance level was 0.05 (5%), and confidence intervals were 95%. For statistical analysis we used parametric statistical tests, descriptive analysis, test for equality of two proportions, Pearson's correlation, correlation test, and analysis of variance. The mean age (± standard deviation) was 74.1 (± 6.7) years, and 47.5% of patients had osteoarthritis in both knees. Moderate pain was reported by 45% of patients when they walked on a flat plane and 40% when they were seated or lying down; 55% had severe or very severe pain when climbing or descending stairs; 50% reported moderate joint stiffness after sitting, lying, or resting; and 65% reported moderate or little stiffness after waking. In physical function, 60% of patients had moderate or severe difficulty in descending stairs and 67.5%, when climbing stairs; 60% reported severe or very severe difficulty in getting in and out of the car, and 70%, when performing strenuous housework. The correlation with WHOQOL-OLD and WOMAC was negative and not significant except for autonomy, which was significant. Sedentary and elderly women who used walking aid devices had worse WOMAC functional capacity, but this finding was not statistically significant. In WHOQOL-OLD, volunteers scored higher on social participation and engagement in physical activity on autonomy, which was statistically significant compared with the nonvoluntary and sedentary domains, respectively. It is possible to have a good quality of life even with functional impairment from knee osteoarthritis.

  10. Indoor Physical Activity Reduces All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Lee, Joongyub; Kang, Dong Yoon; Rhee, Chul Woo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether a medium to high degree of total physical activity and indoor physical activity were associated with reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among elderly Korean women. Methods A prospective cohort study was done to evaluate the association between physical activity and mortality. The cohort was made up of elderly (≥65 years of age) subjects. Baseline information was collected with a self-administered questionnaire and linked to death certificates retrieved from a database. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) levels. Results Women who did not suffer from stroke, cancer, or ischemic heart disease were followed for a median of 8 years (n=5079). A total of 1798 all-cause deaths were recorded, of which 607 (33.8%) were due to cardiovascular disease. The group with the highest level of total physical activity and indoor physical activity was significantly associated to a reduced all-cause mortality (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.71 and HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.67, respectively) compared to the group with the lowest level of total physical activity and indoor physical activity. Additionally, the group with the highest level of total physical activity and indoor physical activity was significantly associated to a lower cardiovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.71 and HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.67, respectively) compared to the group with the lowest level of total physical activity and indoor physical activity. Conclusions Our study showed that regular indoor physical activity among elderly Korean women has healthy benefits. PMID:22389755

  11. Quality of life and functional capacity of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Janice Chaim; Bassitt, Debora Pastore

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To correlate functional ability and quality of life of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Cross-sectional study composed of 40 elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. We used the following instruments: identification questionnaire, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-OLD (WHOQOL-OLD). The significance level was 0.05 (5%), and confidence intervals were 95%. For statistical analysis we used parametric statistical tests, descriptive analysis, test for equality of two proportions, Pearson's correlation, correlation test, and analysis of variance. Results: The mean age (± standard deviation) was 74.1 (±6.7) years, and 47.5% of patients had osteoarthritis in both knees. Moderate pain was reported by 45% of patients when they walked on a flat plane and 40% when they were seated or lying down; 55% had severe or very severe pain when climbing or descending stairs; 50% reported moderate joint stiffness after sitting, lying, or resting; and 65% reported moderate or little stiffness after waking. In physical function, 60% of patients had moderate or severe difficulty in descending stairs and 67.5%, when climbing stairs; 60% reported severe or very severe difficulty in getting in and out of the car, and 70%, when performing strenuous housework. The correlation with WHOQOL-OLD and WOMAC was negative and not significant except for autonomy, which was significant. Sedentary and elderly women who used walking aid devices had worse WOMAC functional capacity, but this finding was not statistically significant. In WHOQOL-OLD, volunteers scored higher on social participation and engagement in physical activity on autonomy, which was statistically significant compared with the nonvoluntary and sedentary domains, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to have a good quality of life even with functional impairment from knee osteoarthritis. PMID:23843063

  12. Association of sarcopenia and physical activity with femur bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhwan; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the association of femur bone mineral density (BMD) with body composition and physical activity in elderly women. [Methods] This was a cross sectional study involving 119 women with mean age of 73.1±5.5 years. Body composition parameters including body mass index (BMI), percent of body fat (%BF), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index and femur BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Physical activity was assessed by the uniaxial accelerometer for 7 consecutive days including weekends. Based on femur BMD T-scores, subjects were classified as optimal group, osteopenia group, and osteoporosis group. Based on ASM index, subjects were classified as normal group and sarcopenia group. According to WHO recommendations of physical activity for elderly, the subjects were classified as active group or inactive group. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the odds ratio (OR) for osteopenia and osteoporosis. [Results] There were linear decreases for body composition parameters including weight (P=.023), BMI (P=.039), lean mass (P=.032), ASM index (P=.007) and physical activity parameters including daily of step (P<.001), low intensity physical activity (P<.001), moderate intensity physical activity (P=.001) across femur BMD levels. Compared to the normal group (OR=1), the sarcopenia group had a significantly higher OR (OR=4.823; P=.042), and the inactive group had a significantly higher OR (OR=5.478; P=.005) having osteopenia and osteoporosis when compared to the active group (OR=1). [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggested that physical activity along with a healthy nutrition should be promoted as a preventive strategy against osteopenia and osteoporosis in elderly women. PMID:27298809

  13. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training.

  14. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals.

  15. Elderly Adi Women of Arunachal Pradesh: "Living Encyclopedias" and Cultural Refugia in Biodiversity Conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  16. Elderly Adi women of Arunachal Pradesh: "living encyclopedias" and cultural refugia in biodiversity conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjay K; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  17. Self-concepts of low-income older women: not old or poor, but fortunate and blessed.

    PubMed

    Barusch, A S

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which low-income older women define themselves in stigmatizing terms, then explores the strategies they use to preserve a positive sense of self. Instead of considering themselves "old" or "poor," the sixty-two women interviewed defined themselves as "fortunate" and/or "blessed." The ability to see oneself as fortunate may be a significant component of successful aging.

  18. Factors predicting dynamic balance and quality of life in home-dwelling elderly women.

    PubMed

    Karinkanta, S; Heinonen, A; Sievanen, H; Uusi-Rasi, K; Kannus, P

    2005-01-01

    Proper balance seems to be a critical factor in terms of fall prevention among the elderly. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine factors that are associated with dynamic balance and health-related quality of life in home-dwelling elderly women. One hundred and fifty-three healthy postmenopausal women (mean age: 72 years, height: 159 cm, weight: 72 kg) were examined. General health and physical activity were assessed by a questionnaire. Quality of life was measured using a health-related quality of life questionnaire (Rand 36-Item Health Survey 1.0). Dynamic balance (agility) was tested by a figure-of-eight running test. Static balance (postural sway) was tested on an unstable platform. Maximal isometric strength of the leg extensors was measured with a leg press dynamometer. Dynamic muscle strength of lower limbs was tested by measuring ground reaction forces with a force platform during common daily activities (sit-to-stand and step-on-a-stair tests). Concerning physical activity, 33% of the subjects reported brisk exercise (walking, Nordic walking, cross-country skiing, swimming and aquatic exercises) at least twice a week, and 22% some kind of brisk activity once a week in addition to lighter physical exercise. The remaining 45% did not exercise regularly and were classified as sedentary. The correlations of step-on-a-stair and sit-to-stand ground reaction forces, and leg extensor strength to dynamic balance were from -0.32 to -0.43 (the better the strength, the better the balance). In the regression analysis with backward elimination, step-on-a-stair and sit-to-stand ground reaction forces, and leg extensor strength, age, brisk physical activity, number of diseases and dynamic postural stability explained 42% of the variance in the dynamic balance. Similarly, dynamic balance (figure-of-eight running time), number of diseases and walking more than 3 km per day explained 14% of the variance in the quality of life score. Of these, figure

  19. Dietary protein intake is associated with better physical function and muscle strength among elderly women.

    PubMed

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2016-04-14

    Dietary protein intake might be beneficial to physical function (PF) in the elderly. We examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of protein intake of g/kg body weight (BW), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with PF in 554 women aged 65·3-71·6 years belonging to the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Fracture Prevention Study. Participants filled a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-d food record in 2002. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and PF measures were performed at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Sarcopaenia was defined using European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. At the baseline, women with higher protein intake (≥ 1·2 g/kg BW) had better performance in hand-grip strength/body mass (GS/BM) (P=0·001), knee extension/BM (P=0·003), one-leg stance (P=0·047), chair rise (P=0·043), squat (P=0·019), squat to the ground (P=0·001), faster walking speed for 10 m (P=0·005) and higher short physical performance battery score (P=0·004) compared with those with moderate and lower intakes (0·81-1·19 and ≤ 0·8 g/kg BW, respectively). In follow-up results, higher protein intake was associated with less decline in GS/BM, one-leg stance and tandem walk for 6 m over 3 years. Overall, results were no longer significant after controlling for FM. Associations were detected between protein intake and PF in non-sarcopaenic women but not in sarcopaenic women, except for change of GS (P=0·037). Further, FM but not LM was negatively associated with PF measures (P<0·050). This study suggests that higher protein intake and lower FM might be positively associated with PF in elderly women.

  20. Disparities in mammography use among US women aged 40-64 years, by race, ethnicity, income, and health insurance status, 1993 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Susan A; Coates, Ralph J; Uhler, Robert J; Breen, Nancy; Tangka, Florence; Shaw, Kate M

    2008-07-01

    To examine current disparities in mammography use, and changes in disparities over time by race, ethnicity, income, insurance, and combinations of these characteristics. Comparison of cross-sectional surveys of mammography use using the 1993 and 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Women aged 40-64 (1993, n = 4167; 2005, n = 7434). Mammogram within prior 2 years. In 2005, uninsured women reported the lowest mammography use (38.3%). Though screening increased 6.9 percentage points among low-income, uninsured women, the overall disparity between insured and uninsured women did not change significantly between 1993 and 2005. Screening seems to have declined among middle-income, uninsured women, increasing the gap compared with middle-income, insured women. The lower mammography use in 1993 among American Indian/Alaska Native compared with white women was not present in 2005; however, lower use among Asian compared with white women emerged in 2005. We found no differences between African American and white women. Hispanic women were less likely than non-Hispanic women to report screening in 2005 (58.1% vs. 69.0%). Although mammography use increased for some groups between 1993 and 2005, low-income, uninsured women continued to have the lowest screening rates in 2005 and the disparity for this group was not reduced. The gap in screening use for middle-income, uninsured women increased, resulting from possible declines in mammography even for uninsured women not in poverty. Asian women became less likely to receive screening in 2005. Continuing efforts are needed to eliminate disparities. Increased efforts are especially needed to address the large persistent disparity for uninsured women, including middle-income uninsured women.

  1. Low-income women's conceptualizations of emotional- and stress-eating.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; Lee, Hannah J; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-12-01

    Emotional- and stress-eating have been proposed as risk factors for obesity. However, the way that individuals conceptualize these behaviors is not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. We sought to understand how women conceptualize emotional- and stress-eating. Sixty-one low-income women from South-central Michigan with young children (ages 2-5 years) participated in either a focus group or individual semi-structured interview during which they were asked about their conceptualizations of eating behaviors among adults and children. Responses were transcribed and the constant comparative method was used to identify themes. Identified themes included that emotional- and stress-eating are viewed as uncommon, severe, pitiable behaviors that reflect a lack of self-control and are highly stigmatized; that when these behaviors occurred among children, the behaviors resulted from neglect or even abuse; and that bored-eating is viewed as distinct from emotional- or stress-eating and is a common and humorous behavior with which participants readily self-identified. Future research and interventions should seek to develop more detailed conceptualizations of these behaviors to improve measurement, destigmatize emotional- and stress-eating and potentially capitalize on the strong identification with bored-eating by targeting this behavior for interventions.

  2. "Let Me Count the Ways:" Fostering Reasons for Living among Low-Income, Suicidal, African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Davis, Telsie A.; Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2011-01-01

    Protective factors for fostering reasons for living were examined among low-income, suicidal, African American women. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher levels of optimism, spiritual well-being, and family social support predicted reasons for living. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that spiritual well-being showed…

  3. Intention to Consume Fruits and Vegetables Is Not a Proxy for Intake in Low-Income Women from Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Wall, Denise; Gromis, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Intention as an outcome measure for fruit and vegetable nutrition education interventions in low-income women was assessed through dietary assessment 3 weeks after a fruit and vegetable intervention in a federally funded program. Amount and variety of intake were compared to intentions expressed immediately following intervention. Findings…

  4. Intention to Consume Fruits and Vegetables Is Not a Proxy for Intake in Low-Income Women from Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Wall, Denise; Gromis, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Intention as an outcome measure for fruit and vegetable nutrition education interventions in low-income women was assessed through dietary assessment 3 weeks after a fruit and vegetable intervention in a federally funded program. Amount and variety of intake were compared to intentions expressed immediately following intervention. Findings…

  5. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  6. A Rural Perspective on Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Correlates, and Implications for Help-Seeking among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye; Proctor, Enola K.

    2009-01-01

    Context/Purpose: To examine a low-income sample of women in the rural Midwest (N = 1,086) who were screened for perinatal depression through the outreach and education activities within a Healthy Start Initiative project. Specifically, we describe the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, explore social and demographic correlates of…

  7. "Let Me Count the Ways:" Fostering Reasons for Living among Low-Income, Suicidal, African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Davis, Telsie A.; Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2011-01-01

    Protective factors for fostering reasons for living were examined among low-income, suicidal, African American women. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher levels of optimism, spiritual well-being, and family social support predicted reasons for living. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that spiritual well-being showed…

  8. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  9. A Rural Perspective on Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Correlates, and Implications for Help-Seeking among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye; Proctor, Enola K.

    2009-01-01

    Context/Purpose: To examine a low-income sample of women in the rural Midwest (N = 1,086) who were screened for perinatal depression through the outreach and education activities within a Healthy Start Initiative project. Specifically, we describe the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, explore social and demographic correlates of…

  10. One-Year Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial Treating Depression in Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.; Krupnick, Janice L.; Chung, Joyce; Siddique, Juned; Belin, Tom; Revicki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This study examines 1-year depressive symptom and functional outcomes of 267 predominantly low-income, young minority women randomly assigned to antidepressant medication, group or individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or community referral. Seventy-six percent assigned to medications received 9 or more weeks of guideline-concordant doses…

  11. One-Year Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial Treating Depression in Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.; Krupnick, Janice L.; Chung, Joyce; Siddique, Juned; Belin, Tom; Revicki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This study examines 1-year depressive symptom and functional outcomes of 267 predominantly low-income, young minority women randomly assigned to antidepressant medication, group or individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or community referral. Seventy-six percent assigned to medications received 9 or more weeks of guideline-concordant doses…

  12. Effect of Nordic Walking training on iron metabolism in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Kortas, Jakub; Prusik, Katarzyna; Flis, Damian; Prusik, Krzysztof; Ziemann, Ewa; Leaver, Neil; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite several, well-documented pro-healthy effects of regular physical training, its influence on body iron stores in elderly people remains unknown. At the same time, body iron accumulation is associated with high risk of different morbidities. Purpose We hypothesized that Nordic Walking training would result in pro-healthy changes in an elderly group of subjects by reducing body iron stores via shifts in iron metabolism-regulating proteins. Methods Thirty-seven women aged 67.7±5.3 years participated in this study. They underwent 32 weeks of training, 1-hour sessions three times a week, between October 2012 and May 2013. Fitness level, blood morphology, CRP, vitamin D, ferritin, hepcidin, and soluble Hjv were assessed before and after the training. Results The training program caused a significant decrease in ferritin, which serves as a good marker of body iron stores. Simultaneously, the physical cardiorespiratory fitness had improved. Furthermore, blood hepcidin was positively correlated with the ferritin concentration after the training. The concentration of blood CRP dropped, but the change was nonsignificant. The applied training resulted in a blood Hjv increase, which was inversely correlated with the vitamin D concentration. Conclusion Overall the Nordic Walking training applied in elderly people significantly reduced blood ferritin concentration, which explains the observed decrease in body iron stores. PMID:26664101

  13. The effects of dual-task gait training on foot pressure in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Park, Jin-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dual-task gait training on foot pressure in elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly people in local communities performed dual-task gait training for 20 minutes three times per week for 8 weeks. Foot pressure was measured using an F-scan System (Tekscan, South Boston, MA, USA) before the intervention and in the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention. [Results] Foot pressure increased significantly between the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention in the CFF (central forefoot); between before the intervention and the 4th week, between the 4th and 8th weeks, and between before the intervention and the 8th week in the MF (midfoot); and between before the intervention and the 4th and 8th weeks in the HL (heel). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that dual-task gait training may improve the gait ability of elderly persons residing in the community.

  14. Agaricus blazei Murrill and inflammatory mediators in elderly women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lima, C U J O; Souza, V C; Morita, M C; Chiarello, M D; Karnikowski, M G de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    There is scientific evidence to suggest that the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill (AbM) has immunomodulatory effects on cytokine synthesis, both in vitro and in vivo. This study was the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to investigate these purported actions in elderly women. The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of AbM intake on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in community-living seniors. The sample consisted of 57 elderly females who were carriers or homozygous for the majority allele of functional polymorphisms for the chosen cytokines. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive placebo (n = 29) or AbM dry extract (n = 28), 900 mg/day for 60 days. Body mass index, abdominal girth, body composition, blood pressure and cytokine (IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) levels were measured, and food intake was assessed as a possible confounder. Analysis of these parameters showed the sample was characterized by overweight and excess adiposity. After the study period, no changes from baseline were detectable for any parameter in either group. In this study, AbM extract had no modulating effect on IL-6, IFN-γ or TNF-α levels in elderly females.

  15. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Lee, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Siyeon; Jang, Young-Joon; Baek, Yoon-Jeong; Kang, Kwon-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155-341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions.

  16. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; LEE, Hyo-Hyun; KIM, Siyeon; JANG, Young-Joon; BAEK, Yoon-Jeong; KANG, Kwon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155–341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions. PMID:26632118

  17. Increasing Adherence to Follow-up of Breast Abnormalities in Low-Income Korean American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    abnormalities in low-income Korean American women. Era of Hope Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 8...Breast Abnormalities in Low-Income Korean American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Annette...burden to Department of Defense , Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis

  18. Perceived discrimination and depression among low-income Latina male-to-female transgender women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner violence and mistreatment on depression. Methods A total of 220 Latina male-to-female transgender women who resided in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through community based organizations and referrals. Participants completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Perceived discrimination was assessed using a fifteen-item measure that was designed to assess the experiences of maltreatment of transgender individuals. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depression after controlling for the presence of other variables. Results Of the sample, 35% reported significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15). Additionally, one-third of the participants indicated that in the two weeks prior to the interviews they had thought either of hurting themselves or that they would be better off dead. The extent of perceived discrimination in this population was extensive. Many of the participants experienced discrimination on a daily basis (14%) or at least once or twice a week (25%) as demonstrated by a positive response to at least 7 of 15 items in the measure of perceived discrimination. Almost six out of ten participants admitted that they had been victims of sexual partner violence. Those who reported more frequent discrimination were more likely to be identified with severe depression. There was also a notable association between self-reported history of sexual partner violence and depression severity. Conclusions A significant association between depression severity and perceived discrimination was identified. How exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of mental health problems

  19. Perceived discrimination and depression among low-income Latina male-to-female transgender women.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Galvan, Frank

    2012-08-15

    This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner violence and mistreatment on depression. A total of 220 Latina male-to-female transgender women who resided in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through community based organizations and referrals. Participants completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Perceived discrimination was assessed using a fifteen-item measure that was designed to assess the experiences of maltreatment of transgender individuals. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depression after controlling for the presence of other variables. Of the sample, 35% reported significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15). Additionally, one-third of the participants indicated that in the two weeks prior to the interviews they had thought either of hurting themselves or that they would be better off dead. The extent of perceived discrimination in this population was extensive. Many of the participants experienced discrimination on a daily basis (14%) or at least once or twice a week (25%) as demonstrated by a positive response to at least 7 of 15 items in the measure of perceived discrimination. Almost six out of ten participants admitted that they had been victims of sexual partner violence. Those who reported more frequent discrimination were more likely to be identified with severe depression. There was also a notable association between self-reported history of sexual partner violence and depression severity. A significant association between depression severity and perceived discrimination was identified. How exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of mental health problems needs additional investigation. Models

  20. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Holmes, Kathleen; Alcaraz, Kassandra; Kalesan, Bindu; Rath, Suchitra; Richert, Melissa; McQueen, Amy; Caito, Nikki; Robinson, Lou; Clark, Eddie M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compare effects of narrative and informational videos on use of mammography, cancer-related beliefs, recall of core content and a range of reactions to the videos. METHOD African American women (n=489) ages 40 and older were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO and randomly assigned to watch a narrative video comprised of stories from African American breast cancer survivors (Living Proof) or a content-equivalent informational video using a more expository and didactic approach (Facts for Life). Effects were measured immediately post-exposure and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS The narrative video was better liked, enhanced recall, reduced counterarguing, increased breast cancer discussions with family members and was perceived as more novel. Women who watched the narrative video also reported fewer barriers to mammography, more confidence that mammograms work, and were more likely to perceive cancer as an important problem affecting African Americans. Use of mammography at 6-month follow-up did not differ for the narrative vs. informational groups overall (49% vs. 40%, p=.20), but did among women with less than a high school education (65% vs. 32%, p<.01), and trended in the same direction for those who had no close friends or family with breast cancer (49% vs. 31%, p=.06) and those who were less trusting of traditional cancer information sources (48% vs. 30%, p=.06). CONCLUSIONS Narrative forms of communication may increase the effectiveness of interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Narratives appear to have particular value in certain population sub-groups; identifying these groups and matching them to specific communication approaches may increase effectiveness. PMID:21071167

  1. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Holmes, Kathleen; Alcaraz, Kassandra; Kalesan, Bindu; Rath, Suchitra; Richert, Melissa; McQueen, Amy; Caito, Nikki; Robinson, Lou; Clark, Eddie M

    2010-12-01

    Compare effects of narrative and informational videos on use of mammography, cancer-related beliefs, recall of core content and a range of reactions to the videos. African American women (n=489) ages 40 and older were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO and randomly assigned to watch a narrative video comprised of stories from African American breast cancer survivors (Living Proof) or a content-equivalent informational video using a more expository and didactic approach (Facts for Life). Effects were measured immediately post-exposure and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The narrative video was better liked, enhanced recall, reduced counterarguing, increased breast cancer discussions with family members and was perceived as more novel. Women who watched the narrative video also reported fewer barriers to mammography, more confidence that mammograms work, and were more likely to perceive cancer as an important problem affecting African Americans. Use of mammography at 6-month follow-up did not differ for the narrative vs. informational groups overall (49% vs. 40%, p=.20), but did among women with less than a high school education (65% vs. 32%, p<.01), and trended in the same direction for those who had no close friends or family with breast cancer (49% vs. 31%, p=.06) and those who were less trusting of traditional cancer information sources (48% vs. 30%, p=.06). Narrative forms of communication may increase the effectiveness of interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. Narratives appear to have particular value in certain population sub-groups; identifying these groups and matching them to specific communication approaches may increase effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between body composition and bone mineral density, related to physical activity, in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Muriel; Ndangang, Marie; Riaudel, Typhaine; de Decker, Laure; Benichou, Jacques; Berrut, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    Changes in body composition, including a decrease in muscle and bone mass, accompany aging. Analyse the influence of lean mass on bone mineral density, related to physical activity, in elderly women. 37 women were included in this study via an osteoporosis consultation. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry methodology (DXA). The BMD was measured at the femoral neck. Each participant had a physical activity test to respond and had to perform handgrip, a four meter walk and one leg balance. Simple regression analyze showed a positive association between lean masse et BMD; after multiple linear regression analysis, we found a positive association between BMD, lean mass, and one leg balance; lean masse and one leg balance were two independent variable. Bone Mineral density was signicantly associated to lean mass and one leg balance.

  3. Hereditary angioedema: special consideration in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, James L; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    This review on hereditary angioedema (HAE) focused on special topics regarding HAE in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly. HAE is a rare autosomal dominant bradykinin-mediated disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal swelling that usually affects the face, upper airway, extremities, gastrointestinal tract, or genitalia. These recurrent attacks cause significant morbidity and can be life threatening, especially when the swelling affects the airway. Our objective was to summarize the published data available on the disease epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, on demand and prophylactic therapy, and focus on management considerations for these special patient populations. Unique aspects of HAE in women with regard to contraception, hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause were also reviewed.

  4. Association Between High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I and Cardiac Events in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joshua R; Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Abbs, Samuel; Zhu, Kun; Lim, Ee M; Thompson, Peter L; Prince, Richard L

    2017-07-30

    Elderly women are at high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure. High-sensitivity assays allow detection of cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) well below diagnostic cutoffs for acute coronary syndrome. We investigated the association between these levels with future cardiac events in community-based ambulant white women aged over 70 years initially recruited for a 5-year randomized, controlled trial of calcium supplements. This was a prospective study of 1081 elderly women without clinical CHD at baseline (1998) or hsTnI above the diagnostic cutoffs for acute coronary syndrome with 14.5-year follow-up hospitalization and mortality (events). Two hundred forty-three (22%) women had CHD events, 163 (15%) myocardial infarction or CHD death (hard CHD), and 109 (10%) heart failure. In 99.6% of available serum samples, hsTnI was above the level of detection (median, 4.5 ng/L; interquartile range, 3.6-5.8). After adjusting for Framingham risk factors, each SD natural log-transformed hsTnI increase was associated with an increased hazard for CHD (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.53; P<0.001) hard CHD (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.29-1.76; P<0.001), and heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.36-1.99; P<0.001). Step-wise increases in relative hazards were observed with increasing quartiles of hsTnI (P for trend, <0.001), whereas the addition of hsTnI to conventional risk factors modestly improved discrimination indices: Harrell's c-statistic, net reclassification, and integrated discrimination (P<0.05). Cardiac troponin I is independently associated with future cardiac events in elderly women without apparent clinical manifestations. The addition of cardiac troponin I to conventional risk factors may modestly improve risk prediction in this setting. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Health indicators among low income women who report a history of sex work: the population based Northern California Young Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Cohan, D L; Kim, A; Ruiz, J; Morrow, S; Reardon, J; Lynch, M; Klausner, J D; Molitor, F; Allen, B; Green Ajufo, B; Ferrero, D; Bell Sanford, G; Page-Shafer, K; Delgado, V; McFarland, W

    2005-10-01

    We examined differences in demographic characteristics, HIV related risk behaviour, prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and HIV and other health concerns among women with and without a history of sex work. A secondary analysis of a population based, cross sectional survey of young, low income women in northern California. Of the 2543 women interviewed, 8.9% reported a history of sex work. These women reported more lifetime male sexual partners, were more likely to use drugs before sex, and were more likely to have a history of having sex with partners at high risk for HIV (that is, men who have sex with men, inject drugs, or were known to be HIV positive). They were significantly more likely to have positive serology for syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and hepatitis C regardless of their personal injecting drug use history; however, they were no more likely to have HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis A or hepatitis B infection compared to women without a history of sex work. Women with a history of sex work were significantly more likely to have a history of sexual coercion and tobacco use. These data measure the population prevalence of sex work among low income women and associated STI. Women with a history of sex work have health concerns beyond STI and HIV treatment and prevention.

  6. Variation in the PTH gene, hip fracture, and femoral neck geometry in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Tenne, M; McGuigan, F E; Ahlborg, H; Gerdhem, P; Akesson, K

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a principal regulator of calcium homeostasis. Previously, we studied single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in the major genes in the PTH pathway (PTH, PTHrP, PTHR1, PTHR2) in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture incidence. We found that haplotypes of the PTH gene were associated with fracture risk independent of BMD. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between PTH haplotypes and femoral neck bone size. Hip structure analysis and BMD of the femoral neck was assessed by DXA in elderly women from the Malmö Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study. Data on hip fracture, sustained as a result of low trauma, after the age of 45 years were also analyzed. Haplotypes derived from six polymorphisms in the PTH locus were analyzed in 750 women. Carriers of haplotype 9 had lower values for hip geometry parameters cross-sectional moment of inertia (P = 0.029), femoral neck width (P = 0.049), and section modulous (P = 0.06), suggestive of increased fracture risk at the hip. However, this did not translate into an increased incidence of hip fracture in the studied population. Women who suffered a hip fracture compared to those who had not had longer hip axis length (HAL) (P < 0.001). HAL was not significantly different among haplotypes. Polymorphisms in the PTH gene are associated with differences in aspects of femoral neck geometry in elderly women; however, the major predictor of hip fracture in our population was HAL, to which PTH gene variation does not contribute significantly.

  7. Involvement of Luteinizing Hormone in Alzheimer Disease Development in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a slow progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects more elderly women than elderly men. It impairs memory, typically progresses into multidomain cognitive decline that destroys the quality of life, and ultimately leads to death. About 5.3 million older Americans are now living with this disease, and this number is projected to rise to 14 million by 2050. Annual health-care costs in the United States alone are projected to increase to about US$1.1 trillion by 2050. The initial theory that decreasing estrogen levels leads to AD development in postmenopausal women has been proven inconclusive. For example, Women's Health Research Initiative Memory Study and the population-based nested case-control study have failed to demonstrate that estrogen/progesterone (hormone replacement therapy [HRT]) or estrogen replacement therapy could prevent the cognitive decline or reduce the risk of AD. This led to the realization that AD development could be due to a progressive increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in postmenopausal women. Accordingly, a large number of studies have demonstrated that an increase in LH levels is positively correlated with neuropathological, behavioral, and cognitive changes in AD. In addition, LH has been shown to promote amyloidogenic pathway of precursor protein metabolism and deposition of amyloid β plaques in the hippocampus, a region involved in AD. Cognate receptors that mediate LH effects are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Reducing the LH levels by treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists could provide therapeutic benefits. Despite these advances, many questions remain and require further research.

  8. Fish Consumption Moderates Depressive Symptomatology in Elderly Men and Women from the IKARIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsitsinakis, George; Siassos, Gerassimos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Galiatsatos, Nikos; Metaxa, Vasiliki; Lazaros, George; Miliou, Antigoni; Giakoumi, Evaggelia; Mylonakis, Charalambos; Zaromytidou, Marina; Economou, Evaggelos; Triantafyllou, Georgia; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0–15), while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8 ± 3.5 versus 3.3 ± 3.1, P = .001). Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all P < .05). Regarding fish consumption, 50% of the individuals reported consuming 1-2 times weekly, 32% 3 to 5 times weekly, 11% 2-3 times monthly, while the rest reported rare (4.5%) and everyday (1.2%) consumption. Logistic regression showed that increased fish consumption (>3 times/week versus never/rare) was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4) (odds  ratio = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61), after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood. PMID:21197433

  9. The effect of spinal curvature on the photogrammetric assessment on static balance in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Involutional changes to the body in elderly patients affect the shape of the spine and the activity of postural muscles. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age-related changes in spinal curvature on postural balance in elderly women. Methods The study population consisted of 90 women, with a mean age of 70 ± 8.01 years. Static balance assessments were conducted on a tensometric platform, and posturographic assessments of body posture were performed using a photogrammetric method based on the Projection Moiré method. Results The results obtained were analysed using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test. We found a statistically significant correlation between body posture and the quality of the balance system response based on the corrective function of the visual system. The shape of the spinal curvature influenced postural stability, as measured by static posturography. Improvement in the quality of the balance system response depended on corrective information from the visual system and proprioceptive information from the paraspinal muscles. Conclusions The sensitivity of the balance system to the change of centre of pressure location was influenced by the direction of the change in rotation of the shoulder girdle and spine. Development of spinal curvature in the sagittal plane and maintenance of symmetry in the coronal and transverse planes are essential for correct balance control, which in turn is essential for the development of a properly proportioned locomotor system. PMID:24885433

  10. High prevalence of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in hospitalized elderly women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Talasz, Helena; Jansen, Stephan C; Kofler, Markus; Lechleitner, Monika

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in hospitalized elderly women with urinary incontinence (UI). A cross-sectional study was performed using data of 704 patients, routinely collected by means of a clinical UI assessment. Only 25.5% of the patients were able to perform normal PFM contractions (Oxford grading scale score ≥3); 74.5% were unable to contract their PFM or showed weak PFM activity without circular contraction or elevation of the vagina. Vulvovaginal mucosal dystrophy was noted in 84% of the patients. A significant positive correlation of PFM function was found to cognitive status (MMSE score), mobility (Tinetti performance score), and history of previous PFM training; a negative correlation of PFM function was found to patients' age and vulvovaginal mucosal dystrophy, and no significant correlation to body mass index, parity, or history of hysterectomy. Targeted clinical UI assessment including digital vaginal palpation should be performed in all incontinent elderly women in order to detect PFM dysfunction and to optimize therapeutic measures.

  11. Salmon calcitonin in the treatment of elderly women with type 2 diabetes complicated with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Dexue, Liu; Yueyue, Zheng

    2014-11-01

    To explore the reasonable treatment scheme of salmon calciteonin in the treatment of elderly women with type 2 diabetes complicated with osteoporosis, patients were randomly divided into Group A, B and C, and they were given the salmon calcitonin every time 50 IU, subcutaneous injection. The Group A were 1 time a day, for 15 days; Group B were 1 time every 2 days, for 30 days; Group C, one time three days for 90 days. Then to observe the symptoms have efficiency, bone density T value change, incidence rate, incidence of side effects and treatment of loss rate of fracture. Efficiency of symptoms: Group A is lower and there is no difference in Group B and C. T Degree: Group C was significantly increased and Group A was the lowest. Fracture incidence of Group B and C were significantly lower than Group A, and there is no difference in Group B and C. Turnover rate: Group A was significantly lower than B and C, and there is no difference in Group B and C. There is low incidence of side effects in the three groups and they three have no significant difference. It is effective and safe to use salmon calcitonin in the treatment of elderly women with type 2 diabetes complicated with osteoporosis. 50 IU each time, subcutaneous injection, 1 time every 3 days, for 3 months is a reasonable solution.

  12. The effect of spinal curvature on the photogrammetric assessment on static balance in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Rachwał, Maciej; Podgórska-Bednarz, Justyna; Rykała, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew

    2014-05-29

    Involutional changes to the body in elderly patients affect the shape of the spine and the activity of postural muscles. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age-related changes in spinal curvature on postural balance in elderly women. The study population consisted of 90 women, with a mean age of 70 ± 8.01 years. Static balance assessments were conducted on a tensometric platform, and posturographic assessments of body posture were performed using a photogrammetric method based on the Projection Moiré method. The results obtained were analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test. We found a statistically significant correlation between body posture and the quality of the balance system response based on the corrective function of the visual system. The shape of the spinal curvature influenced postural stability, as measured by static posturography. Improvement in the quality of the balance system response depended on corrective information from the visual system and proprioceptive information from the paraspinal muscles. The sensitivity of the balance system to the change of centre of pressure location was influenced by the direction of the change in rotation of the shoulder girdle and spine. Development of spinal curvature in the sagittal plane and maintenance of symmetry in the coronal and transverse planes are essential for correct balance control, which in turn is essential for the development of a properly proportioned locomotor system.

  13. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-05-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  14. Effect of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. Material/Methods In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. Results The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone. PMID:22936190

  15. BMI, life-style and psychological conditions in a sample of elderly Italian men and women.

    PubMed

    Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Gagliardi, C; Malavolta, M; Mocchegiani, E

    2010-08-01

    To identify the relationship among cognitive status, psychological conditions, anthropometric measurements and life-style in a sample of elderly Italian men and women. Three hundred and six volunteers for ZINCAGE Project recruited. The sample was made up of healthy older adults living in the Marche Region aged 65 and over. All elderly were given a complete medical, anthropometric assessment, and psycho-social evaluation. Overall, the participants perceived themselves to be in very good or good (22%) or fair (69%) health; only 9% reported a poor health status. The 46% of the sample fell within the normal body mass index (BMI) range, though 38% were overweight, 12% were obese, and only 4% were underweight. In both sexes, BMI significantly decreased with age (p<0.001). BMI was positively associated with performing sedentary activities (r=0.188; p<0.001). Levels of both sedentary (r=0.221; p<0.001) and non-sedentary (r=0.258; p<0.001) leisure activities were positively associated with education level (p<0.05). It was found that lower scores of physical activity were associated to higher scores of Geriatric Depression Scale (r=-0.425; p<0.01), lower scores of Mini Mental State Examination (r=0.266; p<0.001) and higher score of Perceived Stress Scale (r=-0.131; p<0.05). Men and women lead different lifestyles and have a different psychological status, with advancing age consequently stressing the need for healthy lifestyle programmes particularly in the case of overweight and obese elderly people.

  16. Acute blood pressure response in hypertensive elderly women immediately after water aerobics exercise: A crossover study.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Raphael Martins; Vilaça-Alves, José; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Silva, Juliana Sá; Costa, Andressa Moura; Silva, Christoffer Novais Farias; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-01-01

    Water aerobics exercise is widely recommended for elderly people. However, little is known about the acute effects on hemodynamic variables. Thus, we assessed the effects of a water aerobic session on blood pressure in hypertensive elderly women. Fifty hypertensive elderly women aged 67.8 ± 4.1 years, 1.5 ± 0.6 m high and BMI 28.6 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), participated in a crossover clinical trial. The experiment consisted of a 45-minute water aerobics session (70%-75% HRmax adjusted for the aquatic environment) (ES) and a control session (no exercise for 45 minutes) (CS). Heart rate was monitored using a heart rate monitor and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measurements were taken using a semi-automatic monitor before and immediately after the sessions, and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. It was using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) with Bonferroni's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). At the end of the experimental session, ES showed a rise in SBP of 17.4 mmHg (14.3%, p < 0.001) and DBP of 5.4 mmHg (7.8%, p < 0.001) compared to CS. At 10 minutes after exercise, BP declined in ES by a greater magnitude than in CS (SBP 7.5 mmHg, 6.2%, p = 0.005 and DBP 3.8 mmHg, 5.5%, p = 0.013). At 20 minutes after exercise and thereafter, SBP and DBP were similar in both ES and CS. In conclusion, BP returned to control levels within 10-20 minutes remaining unchanged until 30 minutes after exercise, and post-exercise hypotension was not observed. Besides, BP changed after exercise was a safe rise of small magnitude for hypertensive people.

  17. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    PubMed

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  18. Overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia and urban Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Frost, Stephanie; Moore, Lucas; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S; Kuo, Tony

    2014-10-01

    We described the prevalence of overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia (WV) and urban Los Angeles County (LA County). Both communities participated in the national Communities Putting Prevention to Work program during 2010-2012. In each community, we completed health assessments on adult women recruited from public-sector clinics serving low-income populations. All participants answered survey questions regarding socio-demographics and diets. In both jurisdictions, we assessed obesity using objectively measured height and weight (calculated BMI). As part of each community case study, we performed multivariable regression analyses to describe the relationships between overweight and obesity and selected covariates (e.g., dietary behaviors). Overweight and obesity were prevalent among low-income women from WV (73%, combined) and LA County (67%, combined). In both communities, race and ethnicity appeared to predict the two conditions; however, the associations were not robust. In LA County, for example, African American and Hispanic women were 1.4 times (95% CI=1.12, 1.81) more likely than white women to be overweight and obese. Collectively, these subpopulation health data served as an important guide for further planning of obesity prevention efforts in both communities. These efforts became a part of the subsequent Community Transformation Grants portfolio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Money isn't everything: rural physicians identify other factors that facilitate providing prenatal care for low-income women.

    PubMed Central

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1994-01-01

    The problem of physicians dropping the practice of obstetrics is becoming more serious each year in the United States. Those who remain in practice are increasingly reluctant to serve women who receive Medicaid assistance. Previous research has tended to focus on low reimbursement and liability as barriers that physicians perceive to providing prenatal care to low-income clients. In a 1992 survey in rural Idaho, however, physicians who have been serving these clients for at least 4 years rated other factors equally or more important in treating low-income women. These other factors, discussed in this paper, have to do with the administrative and psychosocial support coordinated by public health nurses for their internal clients, the physicians, as well as for their external clients, pregnant women. PMID:8190869

  20. Estimating dietary costs of low-income women in California: a comparison of 2 approaches.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Grant J; Keim, Nancy L; Drewnowski, Adam; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2013-04-01

    Currently, no simplified approach to estimating food costs exists for a large, nationally representative sample. The objective was to compare 2 approaches for estimating individual daily diet costs in a population of low-income women in California. Cost estimates based on time-intensive method 1 (three 24-h recalls and associated food prices on receipts) were compared with estimates made by using less intensive method 2 [a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and store prices]. Low-income participants (n = 121) of USDA nutrition programs were recruited. Mean daily diet costs, both unadjusted and adjusted for energy, were compared by using Pearson correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between methods. Energy and nutrient intakes derived by the 2 methods were comparable; where differences occurred, the FFQ (method 2) provided higher nutrient values than did the 24-h recall (method 1). The crude daily diet cost was $6.32 by the 24-h recall method and $5.93 by the FFQ method (P = 0.221). The energy-adjusted diet cost was $6.65 by the 24-h recall method and $5.98 by the FFQ method (P < 0.001). Although the agreement between methods was weaker than expected, both approaches may be useful. Additional research is needed to further refine a large national survey approach (method 2) to estimate daily dietary costs with the use of this minimal time-intensive method for the participant and moderate time-intensive method for the researcher.

  1. Estimating dietary costs of low-income women in California: a comparison of 2 approaches123

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J; Keim, Nancy L; Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Currently, no simplified approach to estimating food costs exists for a large, nationally representative sample. Objective: The objective was to compare 2 approaches for estimating individual daily diet costs in a population of low-income women in California. Design: Cost estimates based on time-intensive method 1 (three 24-h recalls and associated food prices on receipts) were compared with estimates made by using less intensive method 2 [a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and store prices]. Low-income participants (n = 121) of USDA nutrition programs were recruited. Mean daily diet costs, both unadjusted and adjusted for energy, were compared by using Pearson correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between methods. Results: Energy and nutrient intakes derived by the 2 methods were comparable; where differences occurred, the FFQ (method 2) provided higher nutrient values than did the 24-h recall (method 1). The crude daily diet cost was $6.32 by the 24-h recall method and $5.93 by the FFQ method (P = 0.221). The energy-adjusted diet cost was $6.65 by the 24-h recall method and $5.98 by the FFQ method (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although the agreement between methods was weaker than expected, both approaches may be useful. Additional research is needed to further refine a large national survey approach (method 2) to estimate daily dietary costs with the use of this minimal time-intensive method for the participant and moderate time-intensive method for the researcher. PMID:23388658

  2. Individual net-benefit maximization: a model for understanding breastfeeding cessation among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Frick, Kevin; Guthrie, Joanne F; Strobino, Donna

    2009-03-01

    We use economic theory of individual net benefit maximization to motivate a comprehensive look at 32 social, economic, and psychological disincentives that potentially influence breastfeeding cessation. The sample consists of 1,595 low-income families participating in the Healthy Steps for Young Children National Evaluation. Participants were recruited from 24 pediatric sites across the United States. Infants were enrolled at birth and followed through age 30-33 months. Survival analysis was used to assess the relation of social, economic and psychosocial factors with duration of breastfeeding. Disincentives significantly associated with cessation in multivariate hazard analysis were: WIC participation at 2-4 months (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.74), mother's returning to work for 20-40 h per week (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.71), mother's not attending a postpartum doctor's visit (HR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.63), father's not being in the home (HR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.57), a smoker in the household (HR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.52), no receipt of breastfeeding instruction at the pediatric office (HR = 1.20; 95% CI:1.06, 1.37), the doctor's not encouraging breastfeeding (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39) and the mother experiencing depressive symptoms (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.33). The decision to stop breastfeeding is often complex. Research on breastfeeding cessation has been limited with regard to the social and economic issues that may influence the behavior of low-income women. The results support the need to develop interventions and policies to minimize disincentives associated with breastfeeding cessation.

  3. Ectopic pregnancy morbidity and mortality in low-income women, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, D B; Cain, L; Dahlquist, I H; Lauderdale, D S

    2016-03-01

    Does the risk of adverse outcomes at the time of ectopic pregnancy vary by race/ethnicity among women receiving Medicaid, the public health insurance program for low-income people in the USA? Among Medicaid beneficiaries with ectopic pregnancy, 11% experienced at least one complication, and women from all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to experience complications. In this population of Medicaid recipients, African American women are significantly more likely than whites to experience ectopic pregnancy, but the risk of adverse outcomes has not previously been assessed. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of all women (n = 19 135 106) ages 15-44 enrolled in Medicaid for any amount of time during 2004-2008 who lived in one of the following 14 US states: Arizona; California; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; New York; and Texas. We analyzed Medicaid claims records for inpatient and outpatient encounters and identified ectopic pregnancies with a principal diagnosis code for ectopic pregnancy from 2004-2008. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy complication rate as the number of ectopic pregnancies with at least one complication (blood transfusion, hysterectomy, any sterilization, or length-of-stay (LOS) > 2 days) divided by the total number of ectopic pregnancies. We used Poisson regression to assess the risk of ectopic pregnancy complication by race/ethnicity. Secondary outcomes were each individual complication, and ectopic pregnancy-related death. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy mortality ratio as the number of deaths divided by live births. Ectopic pregnancy-associated complications occurred in 11% of cases. Controlling for age and state, the risk of any complication was significantly higher among women who were black (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.43-1.53, P < 0.0001), Hispanic (IRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.12-1.21, P < 0.0001), Asian

  4. Ectopic pregnancy morbidity and mortality in low-income women, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, D.B.; Cain, L.; Dahlquist, I.H.; Lauderdale, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the risk of adverse outcomes at the time of ectopic pregnancy vary by race/ethnicity among women receiving Medicaid, the public health insurance program for low-income people in the USA? SUMMARY ANSWER Among Medicaid beneficiaries with ectopic pregnancy, 11% experienced at least one complication, and women from all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to experience complications. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In this population of Medicaid recipients, African American women are significantly more likely than whites to experience ectopic pregnancy, but the risk of adverse outcomes has not previously been assessed. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of all women (n = 19 135 106) ages 15–44 enrolled in Medicaid for any amount of time during 2004–2008 who lived in one of the following 14 US states: Arizona; California; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; New York; and Texas. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS We analyzed Medicaid claims records for inpatient and outpatient encounters and identified ectopic pregnancies with a principal diagnosis code for ectopic pregnancy from 2004–2008. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy complication rate as the number of ectopic pregnancies with at least one complication (blood transfusion, hysterectomy, any sterilization, or length-of-stay (LOS) > 2 days) divided by the total number of ectopic pregnancies. We used Poisson regression to assess the risk of ectopic pregnancy complication by race/ethnicity. Secondary outcomes were each individual complication, and ectopic pregnancy-related death. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy mortality ratio as the number of deaths divided by live births. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Ectopic pregnancy-associated complications occurred in 11% of cases. Controlling for age and state, the risk of any complication was

  5. Contribution of Neighborhood Income and Access to Quality Physical Activity Resources to Physical Activity in Ethnic Minority Women Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382

  6. Beyond the 50-minute hour: increasing control, choice, and connections in the lives of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Smyth, Katya Fels; Banyard, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Although poverty is associated with a range of mental health difficulties among women in this country, mainstream mental health interventions are not sufficient to meet the complex needs of poor women. This article argues that stress, powerlessness, and social isolation should become primary targets of our interventions, as they are key mediators of the relationship between poverty and emotional distress, particularly for women. Indeed, if ways are not found to address these conditions directly, by increasing women's control, choice, and connections, the capacity to improve the emotional well-being of impoverished women will remain limited at best. This is the first of 5 articles that comprise a special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, called "Beyond the 50-Minute Hour: Increasing Control, Choice, and Connections in the Lives of Low-Income Women." Together, these articles explore the nature and impact of a range of innovative mental health interventions that are grounded in a deep understanding of the experience of poverty. This introduction: (a) describes briefly how mainstream approaches fail to address the poverty-related mental health needs of low-income women; (b) illuminates the role of stress, powerlessness, and social isolation in women's lives; (c) highlights the ways in which the articles included in this special section address each of these by either adapting traditional mental health practices to attend to poverty's role in participants' lives or adapting community-based, social-justice-oriented interventions to attend to participants' mental health; and (d) discusses the research and evaluation implications of expanding mental health practices to meet the needs of low-income communities.

  7. Differences in acoustic and perceptual parameters of the voice between elderly and young women at habitual and high intensity.

    PubMed

    Mazzetto de Menezes, Keyla S; Master, Suely; Guzman, Marco; Bortnem, Cori; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare elderly and young female voices in habitual and high intensity. The effect of increased intensity on the acoustic and perceptual parameters was assessed. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic to noise ratio were obtained at habitual and high intensity voice in a group of 30 elderly women and 30 young women. Perceptual assessment was also performed. Both groups demonstrated an increase in sound pressure level and fundamental frequency from habitual voice to high intensity voice. No differences were found between groups in any acoustic variables on samples recorded with habitual intensity level. No significant differences between groups were found in habitual intensity level for pitch, hoarseness, roughness, and breathiness. Asthenia and instability obtained significant higher values in elderly than young participants, whereas, the elderly demonstrated lower values for perceived tension and loudness than young subjects. Acoustic and perceptual measures do not demonstrate evident differences between elderly and young speakers in habitual intensity level. The parameters analyzed may lack the sensitivity necessary to detect differences in subjects with normal voices. Phonation with high intensity highlights differences between groups, especially in perceptual parameters. Therefore, high intensity should be included to compare elderly and young voice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Representation of elderly persons and women in published randomized trials of acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lee, P Y; Alexander, K P; Hammill, B G; Pasquali, S K; Peterson, E D

    2001-08-08

    Elderly persons and women were underrepresented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) prior to 1990. Since then, efforts have been made to correct these biases, but their effect is unclear. To determine whether the percentage of elderly persons and women in published clinical trials of acute coronary syndromes has increased and how this enrollment compared with disease prevalence. The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched for English-language articles from January 1966 to March 2000 regarding myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or acute coronary syndromes. Additional data sources included meta-analyses, review articles, and cardiology textbooks. Estimates of community-based myocardial infarction rates came from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction and the Worcester Heart Study. Published RCTs of acute coronary syndrome patients were included and trials enrolling 50 patients or fewer, those without clinical end points, papers published in a language other than English, and unpublished manuscripts were excluded. Of 7645 studies identified, 593 RCTs were selected for review. The RCTs were abstracted by 2 of the authors for year of publication, source of support (ie, funding), pharmacotherapy, study phase, number of study sites, trial location, number of patients, mean age of the study population, and any age exclusion criteria for enrollment. The number of published RCTs with explicit age exclusions has declined from 58% during 1966-1990 to 40% during 1991-2000. Trial enrollment of patients aged 75 years or older increased from 2% for studies published during 1966-1990 to 9% during 1991-2000, but remains well below their representation among all patients with myocardial infarction (37%) in the United States. Enrollment of women has risen from 20% for studies published between 1966-1990 to 25% during 1991-2000, but remains well below their proportion of all patients with myocardial infarction (43%) in the United States. Attempts at making

  9. Does modifying the household food budget predict changes in the healthfulness of purchasing choices among low- and high-income women?

    PubMed

    Inglis, Victoria; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2009-04-01

    Food cost has a strong influence on food purchases and given that persons of low income often have more limited budgets, healthier foods may be overlooked in favour of more energy-dense lower-cost options. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modifications to the available household food budget led to changes in the healthfulness of food purchasing choices among women of low and high income. A quasi-experimental design was used which included a sample of 74 women (37 low-income women and 37 high-income women) who were selected on the basis of their household income and sent an itemised shopping list in order to calculate their typical weekly household shopping expenditure. The women were also asked to indicate those foods they would add to their list if they were given an additional 25% of their budget to spend on food and those foods they would remove if they were restricted by 25% of their budget. When asked what foods they would add with a larger household food budget, low-income women chose more foods from the 'healthier' categories whereas high-income women chose more foods from the less 'healthier' categories. However, making the budgets of low- and high-income women more 'equivalent' did not eradicate income differences in overall healthfulness of food purchasing choices. This study highlights the importance of cost when making food purchasing choices among low- and high-income groups. Public health strategies aimed at reducing income inequalities in diet might focus on promoting healthy diets that are low cost.

  10. Salmonella bacteriuria: an increasing entity in elderly