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Sample records for income elderly women

  1. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  2. Women with Low Incomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Females who were poor outnumbered males by more than four million in 1975. The 15 million females living in poverty accounted for three out of five persons (fifty-eight percent) who were poor in the United States. Advance data for 1976 indicate that more than ten million women aged sixteen and over had low incomes, and that these women accounted…

  3. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  4. Price and income changes for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bridges, B; Packard, M D

    1981-01-01

    It is widely believed that inflation is harmful to the elderly. Two frequent arguments in support of this belief are that some important income sources for the elderly are less than fully indexed to inflation and that the elderly spend heavily on goods and services whose prices rise faster than the average inflation rate. This article focuses on both the income issue and the expenditure issue. The first part of the article evaluates the question of whether an economy-wide consumer price index is an adequate measure of the cost of living for the elderly population. The evaluation is made by constructing a consumer price index using expenditure weights that are more appropriate for the elderly population. It is found that over the 1967-79 period the movement of this constructed index was very similar to that of the economy-wide index. The constructed index did grow slightly faster than the economy-wide index, however. The second part of the article focuses on changes in average real incomes of the elderly over the 1970-77 period. Two dimensions of income changes are examined. First, the incomes of families headed by persons aged 65 or over are compared at different points in time. It is found that average real income of this age class was 10 percent higher in 1977 than in 1970. Second, the 1970 and 1977 incomes of the cohort of families headed by persons aged 65 or over in 1970 are compared. It is found that average real income of this cohort fell by 4 percent between 1970 and 1977.

  5. Elderly poverty and Supplemental Security Income.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, poverty is generally assessed on the basis of income, as reported in the Current Population Survey's (CPS's) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), using an official poverty standard established in the 1960s. The prevalence of receipt of means-tested transfers is underreported in the CPS, with uncertain consequences for the measurement of poverty rates by both the official standard and by using alternative "relative" measures linked to the contemporaneous income distribution. The article reports results estimating the prevalence of poverty in 2002. We complete this effort by using a version of the 2003 CPS/ASEC for which a substantial majority (76 percent) of respondents have individual records matching administrative data from the Social Security Administration on earnings and receipt of income from the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Adjustment of the CPS income data with administrative data substantially improves coverage of SSI receipt. The consequence for general poverty is sensitive to the merge procedures employed, but under both sets of merge procedures considered, the estimated poverty rate among all elderly persons and among elderly SSI recipients is substantially less than rates estimated using the unadjusted CPS. The effect of the administrative adjustment is less significant for perception of relative poverty than for absolute poverty. We emphasize the effect of these adjustments on perception of poverty among the elderly in general and elderly SSI recipients in particular.

  6. Reverse mortgages and the economic status of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Morgan, B A; Megbolugbe, I F; Rasmussen, D W

    1996-06-01

    Data from the 1990 Census of Population and Housing are used to estimate the potential demand for reverse mortgages among elderly women householders. A reverse mortgage product is simulated using parameters based on the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage insurance demonstration, and its effect on poverty and income distribution among this group is calculated. Approximately 1.8 million women with low incomes and home equity of $40,000 and above could see a significant increase in income under such a program.

  7. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health. PMID:23063218

  8. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2012-12-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health.

  9. Elderly Immigrants' Labor Supply Response to Supplemental Security Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushal, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined how the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which banned Supplemental Security Income (SSI) for the majority of elderly immigrants, affected their employment, retirement, and family incomes. The policy was found to be associated with a 3.5 percentage point (9.5 percent) increase in the…

  10. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095

  11. [Taxing the income of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Sander, H

    1990-01-01

    If we agree that retirement income means those receipts past the age limit of 64 years, there will be a comparable situation for taxation. Such comparison shows that membership in the public annuity insurance gives strong advantages because of lower taxation. This uneven situation should be ended in the future by the opinion of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Supreme court of constitutional affairs). There are two ways to solve this problem. Either the whole taxation of seniority income follows the rules of social security taxation, or the taxation of social security must loose its priority. The author prefers the second, because he argues that the social security taxation is wrong and irreparable: The author offers a general application of the "intertemporal correspondence principle" of taxation. This means that income can be taxed only once. Under this rule he prefers the "ex post taxation" of retirement income for reasons of justice, practicality, and economic principles.

  12. Interleukin-6 plasma levels and socioeconomic status in Brazilian elderly community-dwelling women.

    PubMed

    de Britto Rosa, Nayza Maciel; de Queiroz, Bárbara Zille; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; di Sabatino Santos, Mary Luci Avelar; Oliveira, Daniela Matos Garcia; Narciso, Fabrícia Mendes E Silva; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2011-01-01

    Aging is related to a chronic increase in inflammatory cytokines. Adverse socioeconomic conditions are associated with increased plasma levels of these molecules, especially interleukin (IL)-6. Considering the differential profile of elderly Brazilians regarding their socioeconomic and cultural aspects, the objectives of this study were: to assess the correlation and differences between levels of IL-6 and socioeconomic status (education and income) in elderly women. IL-6 levels were measured using ELISA. The Spearman test was used to determine the correlation between IL-6 and socioeconomic status, and the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests for cytokine level differences across education and income. IL-6 showed a significant inverse correlation with education (r = -0.205, p = 0.014) and income (r = -0.185, p = 0.028). Differences in IL-6 levels were registered across the education variables. The results corroborate evidence that low socioeconomic status is related to higher IL-6 plasma levels in elderly women.

  13. Women need skills, income and family planning.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, K

    1990-01-01

    The myth in Pakistan is that women do not work outside the home but they do even though they tend not to be paid for it. They handle wheat and plant vegetables. They tend to and milk cattle. They handle manure used for fuel and fertilizer. They receive some money albeit small amounts for picking pesticide-laden cotton which puts them at risk. These work activities link them more closely with nature and natural resources than men. Yet modern harvest methods prevent women from gleaning fields for grain to sell to raise money for their family or for wheat stalks to use as fuel. This forces them to take wood from forests or shrubbery, thereby straining these limited resources. Other problems include population growth, male migration, landlessness, and insufficient health services. Society prefers sons. It considers women as childbearers and transitory persons. Females tend not to be educated, thus society does not value women. Social norms and infant mortality are associated with family size--the poorest women tend to have the highest fertility. More children serve as an economic safety valve. Many studies shatter the myth that women do not work. Policymakers and planners need to learn the results of these studies. The number of female-headed households rises. An increasing number of women must work to supplement their husband's income. To empower women, they need education and to acquire skills. Since they tend to be anemic, have an average of 9 births, and a life expectancy at birth for women of 55 years, they must also have access to health and family planning services. Nongovernmental organizations should help women to be more economically productive which allows them some economic independence. For example, in Gilgit, such an organization has trained women in tree planting, nursery rearing, vegetable growing, and caring for chickens. PMID:12285666

  14. Whole blood filterability in elderly obese women.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, G; Butturini, L; Cucinotta, D; Delsignore, R; Coiro, V

    1987-01-01

    In order to establish whether obesity alters whole blood filterability, the corrected whole blood filtration (VRBC) was measured in 54 elderly obese women (mean age +/- SE = 67 +/- 2 years) without (n = 15) or with associated cardiovascular risk factors such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 11), non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (n = 14) or hypertension (n = 14). Twenty-two age matched women with normal body weight participated as controls. VRBC values were similar in normal controls and obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whereas they were significantly lower in obese subjects with hypertension, NIDDM or IGT. When subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance were combined, a significant negative correlation was found between glucose incretory areas during OGTT and VRBC values. These data demonstrate that obesity per se does not alter whole blood filterability; furthermore, our results indicate that this modification is a precocious and sensitive index of altered glucose metabolism.

  15. Income and "Outcomes" for Elderly: Do the Poor Have a Poorer Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Jacob Neilsen

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between income and living conditions and well-being of elderly. The best from two worlds is used for this purpose: a Danish survey covering 1440 elderly aged 72 and 77 from 1997, connected to reliable register information on income, 1988-1996. Indicators of physical activity, social and…

  16. Income generation for women with renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1996-10-01

    70% of the world`s poor are women. The poverty that is especially hard hitting for rural women throughout the world has many causes. The lack of access to education, credit and new technologies make it almost impossible for women to earn an income. Yet, when women earn an income, it not only improves their lives, but also improves the lives of their children and their communities. Solar energy technologies, along with access to credit, can help rural women improve the quality of their lives through income generating enterprises. The technologies discussed are solar cooking, solar food drying, solar blenders, and photovoltaics.

  17. Overview of the diets of lower- and higher-income elderly and their food assistance options.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    With the elderly becoming an ever-larger proportion of the American population, their dietary well-being is of increasing concern. In particular, lower-income elderly may face special challenges in maintaining a healthful diet. This group makes up a sizeable proportion of the elderly population; we estimate that almost 1 in 5 (19%) of the elderly have household incomes at or below 130% of the federal poverty level, the income level that generally qualifies a household to participate in the federal Food Stamp Program. Here we examine the dietary intakes and related behaviors, as well as the food security status, of lower- and higher-income elderly and review major US government food and nutrition assistance programs that can be of benefit to the elderly, particularly those of low income. Our subjects are individuals 60 years of age and over, living in community (noninstitutionalized) settings. Data on dietary intakes and behaviors were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-96. Food security data were obtained from the 1999 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the US Census Bureau. For both the CSFII and the CPS, sampling weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates. We found that lower-income elderly consume significantly fewer calories than higher-income elderly, fewer servings of major Food Guide Pyramid food groups, and most nutrients. Approximately 6% of elderly households report some degree of food insecurity. Although food and nutrition assistance programs can benefit elderly individuals, many do not participate. Many lower-income elderly also face physiological and social obstacles to obtaining a healthful diet. How best to meet these varied needs is a challenge for nutrition educators, researchers, and policy makers. PMID:12047827

  18. Overview of the diets of lower- and higher-income elderly and their food assistance options.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    With the elderly becoming an ever-larger proportion of the American population, their dietary well-being is of increasing concern. In particular, lower-income elderly may face special challenges in maintaining a healthful diet. This group makes up a sizeable proportion of the elderly population; we estimate that almost 1 in 5 (19%) of the elderly have household incomes at or below 130% of the federal poverty level, the income level that generally qualifies a household to participate in the federal Food Stamp Program. Here we examine the dietary intakes and related behaviors, as well as the food security status, of lower- and higher-income elderly and review major US government food and nutrition assistance programs that can be of benefit to the elderly, particularly those of low income. Our subjects are individuals 60 years of age and over, living in community (noninstitutionalized) settings. Data on dietary intakes and behaviors were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-96. Food security data were obtained from the 1999 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the US Census Bureau. For both the CSFII and the CPS, sampling weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates. We found that lower-income elderly consume significantly fewer calories than higher-income elderly, fewer servings of major Food Guide Pyramid food groups, and most nutrients. Approximately 6% of elderly households report some degree of food insecurity. Although food and nutrition assistance programs can benefit elderly individuals, many do not participate. Many lower-income elderly also face physiological and social obstacles to obtaining a healthful diet. How best to meet these varied needs is a challenge for nutrition educators, researchers, and policy makers.

  19. Low Income Women and Physician Breastfeeding Advice: A Regional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzer, J; Zeece, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the pilot study presented here were to determine whether low income women were receiving compendious breastfeeding advice from their attending physicians. Design: This study assessed low income women's reports of physician breastfeeding advice using a newly designed Likert scaled survey based on the American Surgeon…

  20. [Physical exercise, muscle strength and the day-to-day activities of elderly women].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luciana Helena Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate relationships between muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs, physical exercise, and functionality to perform complex activities of day-to-day life in elderly women recruited from the community. 1538 elderly women with mean age = 72.07 ± 5.46 and average household income = 3.59 ± 3.96 MW, without cognitive deficit suggestive of dementia, were submitted to tests of grip strength and walking speed. They were asked to self-report on regular practice of physical exercise and performance of 13 social AADLs (e.g. working, travelling and church attendance) and 3 IADLs (handling money, doing the shopping and using public transport). The worst performance key factors were low grip strength and low gait speed in ADL (OR = 2.48 if both; OR = 1.66 if either were present), as well as low income (OR = 2.46 low income < 1 MW and = 2.45 to 1.1 and 3.0 MW) and sedentary life style (OR = 2.08). The functionality of elderly women is influenced by physiological aging, but also by contextual conditions and life style. PMID:22899157

  1. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  2. Excluding Institutionalized Elderly from Surveys: Consequences for Income and Poverty Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Hans; Debels, Annelies; Verpoorten, Rika

    2013-01-01

    Growing life expectancy and changes in financial, marriage and labour markets have placed the income position of the elderly at the center of scientific and political discourse. As a consequence, the last decades witnessed the publication of various influential reports that contained comparative statistics on old age income inequalities on the…

  3. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  4. Health promotion behavior in low income black and Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Phillips, K

    1994-01-01

    Health promotion behaviors were examined in a sample of low-income, Black and Latino women. Latino women were more likely than Black women to eat a daily breakfast; sleep 7-8 hours per night and abstain from alcohol and tobacco use. Black women were more likely to be eating vegetables on a regular basis and exercising at least once per week. The results suggest that low-income Latino women may need to increase their consumption of vegetables and frequency of exercise. Among Black women, a wider range of healthy lifestyle behaviors such as sleeping eight hours per night, eating a daily breakfast and decreasing alcohol and tobacco consumption may need to be emphasized.

  5. Sudden death due to swimming in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Škavić, Petar; Duraković, Din

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to analyze the rate of sudden death in elderly Croatian women in comparison to elderly Croatian men, who died suddenly due to swimming. In the period from 2002 to 2011 one elderly Croatian woman and five elderly men died suddenly during swimming. In the same time, the same number of elderly foreigners died due to swimming at the Croatian Adriatic coast. One Croatian woman aged 66, who suffered of arterial hypertension with left ventricular hyper- trophy of 15 mm, diabetes mellitus and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, drowned in the sea during swimming. She was intoxi- cated with alcohol and had alcohol level in urine of 3.03 per thousand. One foreign woman, aged 82, who suffered coronary heart disease with left ventricular scar after myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension with excessive left ventricular hypertrophy of 22 mm and nephroangiosclerosis, suddenly lost conscionsness during swimming. The death rate in elderly Croatian women due to swimming reached 0.25, and the death rate in men is eight times higher: 1.97 (p = 0.0701), but the difference is not significant probably because of a small observational number. PMID:26040091

  6. Specific Aspects of Breast Cancer Therapy of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women, and its incidence increases with age. The average age at diagnosis is 61 years, and the majority of deaths occurs after the age of 65 years. Optimal approach to elderly women with breast cancer is still a major challenge. Elderly patients with cancer should have at least a brief geriatric assessment to detect potentially treatable problems not always adequately evaluated by the oncologists. Therapeutic nihilism should be avoided and effective treatment provided, unless there are compelling reasons against it. Sharing the care for the patient with geriatricians or primary care physicians trained in geriatrics should be considered for all vulnerable and frail elderly patients. PMID:27807536

  7. Effects of income supplementation on health of the poor elderly: the case of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P

    2015-01-01

    We use an income supplementation experiment we designed in the state of Yucatan in Mexico for residents 70 y and older to evaluate health impacts of additional income. Two cities in the State of Yucatan, Valladolid (treatment) and Motul (control), were selected for the income supplementation experiment. Elderly residents of Valladolid were provided the equivalent of an additional $67 per month, a 44% increase in average household income. We designed a survey given to residents of both cities before and 6 mo after the income supplement about their health and other aspects of overall well-being. Both baseline and follow-up surveys collect self-reported data on health, physical functioning, and biomarkers. Anthropometric measurements for every age-eligible respondent, including height, weight, and waist circumference, were collected. We also collected lung capacity, grip strength, a series of balance tests, and a timed walk. Our results show significant health benefits associated with the additional income. Relative to the control site, there was a statistically significant improvement in lung function and an improvement in memory. These improvements are equivalent to a reduction in age of 5-10 y. Residents used their extra income to go to the doctor, buy their medications, and alleviate their hunger. The fear that this extra income could be undone by reduced transfers from other family members or unwise expenditures by the poor elderly appears to be unfounded.

  8. Effects of income supplementation on health of the poor elderly: The case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P.

    2015-01-01

    We use an income supplementation experiment we designed in the state of Yucatan in Mexico for residents 70 y and older to evaluate health impacts of additional income. Two cities in the State of Yucatan, Valladolid (treatment) and Motul (control), were selected for the income supplementation experiment. Elderly residents of Valladolid were provided the equivalent of an additional $67 per month, a 44% increase in average household income. We designed a survey given to residents of both cities before and 6 mo after the income supplement about their health and other aspects of overall well-being. Both baseline and follow-up surveys collect self-reported data on health, physical functioning, and biomarkers. Anthropometric measurements for every age-eligible respondent, including height, weight, and waist circumference, were collected. We also collected lung capacity, grip strength, a series of balance tests, and a timed walk. Our results show significant health benefits associated with the additional income. Relative to the control site, there was a statistically significant improvement in lung function and an improvement in memory. These improvements are equivalent to a reduction in age of 5–10 y. Residents used their extra income to go to the doctor, buy their medications, and alleviate their hunger. The fear that this extra income could be undone by reduced transfers from other family members or unwise expenditures by the poor elderly appears to be unfounded. PMID:25535388

  9. Effects of income supplementation on health of the poor elderly: the case of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P

    2015-01-01

    We use an income supplementation experiment we designed in the state of Yucatan in Mexico for residents 70 y and older to evaluate health impacts of additional income. Two cities in the State of Yucatan, Valladolid (treatment) and Motul (control), were selected for the income supplementation experiment. Elderly residents of Valladolid were provided the equivalent of an additional $67 per month, a 44% increase in average household income. We designed a survey given to residents of both cities before and 6 mo after the income supplement about their health and other aspects of overall well-being. Both baseline and follow-up surveys collect self-reported data on health, physical functioning, and biomarkers. Anthropometric measurements for every age-eligible respondent, including height, weight, and waist circumference, were collected. We also collected lung capacity, grip strength, a series of balance tests, and a timed walk. Our results show significant health benefits associated with the additional income. Relative to the control site, there was a statistically significant improvement in lung function and an improvement in memory. These improvements are equivalent to a reduction in age of 5-10 y. Residents used their extra income to go to the doctor, buy their medications, and alleviate their hunger. The fear that this extra income could be undone by reduced transfers from other family members or unwise expenditures by the poor elderly appears to be unfounded. PMID:25535388

  10. Through Wise Eyes: Thriving Elder Women's Perspectives on Thriving in Elder Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by increasing U.S. longevity and aging demographics, this phenomenological study explored what it is like for 13 women, 75-91, to thrive in elder adulthood. Through multiple interviews, projective inventories, and focus groups, 6 group patterns emerged: (a) vital involvement and service, (b) desire to learn, (c) appreciation of basic life…

  11. Factors Influencing the General Well-Being of Low-Income Korean Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2011-01-01

    This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…

  12. Voting Behavior among Low-Income Black Elderly: A Multielection Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined voting behavior among 370 low-income older African Americans by assessing impact of various predictors on electoral participation in 7 elections. Elders who were active in community, with strong sense of citizen duty, who identified as strong Democrats, and with higher levels of education were more likely to vote. (Author/NB)

  13. Altered Pain Sensitivity in Elderly Women with Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Prasert, Romchat; Paungmali, Aatit; Boontha, Kritsana

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses. The pain measures were assessed over the cervical spine and at a remote site, the tibialis anterior muscle. Results Elders with chronic neck pain had lower pressure pain threshold over the articular pillar of C5-C6 and decreased cold pain thresholds over the cervical spine and tibialis anterior muscle when compared with controls (p < 0.05). There were no between group differences in heat pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses (p > 0.05). Conclusion The presence of pain hypersensitivity in elderly women with chronic neck pain appears to be dependent on types of painful stimuli. This may reflect changes in the peripheral and central nervous system with age. PMID:26039149

  14. The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zahra; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Akbari, Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly. Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women’s happiness. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test. Results: From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times. Conclusions: The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions. PMID:26734470

  15. [Therapeutic Strategies. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia in elderly and women].

    PubMed

    Morales, Clotilde; Royuela, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    The management of cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia are justified in guidelines. In the elderly, when they are in primary prevention, recommendations are controversial, even if there is evidence in reducing morbidity. In secondary prevention, between 65 and 85 years, there is enough evidence to recommend statins. The decision to start or to continue further treatment must be complemented by comprehensive assessment of the risk-benefit factor. In elderly patients we have to support in decision-making, we take clinical judgment and not just the age criteria. In women the risk is underestimated and may be untreated. The recomendations are the same as in men. During pregnancy there are particular recommendations.

  16. Breast cancer in elderly women: presentation, survival, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Law, T M; Hesketh, P J; Porter, K A; Lawn-Tsao, L; McAnaw, R; Lopez, M J

    1996-04-01

    Recent data suggest that breast cancer in elderly women does not present as more advanced disease, nor is survival significantly inferior to that in younger women. Unfortunately, until recently, older women have been excluded from clinical trials that have determined survival benefit in both screening and treatment modalities. Unless co-morbid conditions adversely affect one's life expectancy or tolerance to therapy, older women should be treated with standard surgical procedures (including breast conservation, if so desired) for early-stage disease, as outcome is comparable to that in younger patients. Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy has proven survival benefit in women over 70 years of age with estrogen receptor-positive tumors and should be considered in all women with tumors greater than 1 cm in size. Older women may experience more chemotherapy-related toxicities. However, for those with a significant risk of recurrence due to tumor size or lymph node status, chemotherapy can be safely administered when factors such as age-related decline in creatinine clearance and co-morbid conditions are considered. Hormonal therapy (tamoxifen) is usually the first-line treatment option over chemotherapy for metastatic disease in the elderly unless the patient has an estrogen receptor-negative tumor, visceral-dominant disease, or significant disease-related symptoms. In the latter settings, chemotherapy can provide improved or more rapid response proportions but does not affect long-term survival.

  17. Nursing care of low-income battered Hispanic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Torres, S

    1993-01-01

    Nurses working with pregnant Hispanic women can create barriers in the health care system by not understanding or accepting the variety of ways in which the Hispanic culture perceives and treats pregnancy. This article describes nursing care of low-income, battered Hispanic pregnant women within the context of the Hispanic culture and discusses clinical and nursing implications for interventions. To deliver effective culturally competent care to battered Hispanic pregnant women, nurses need to have a thorough understanding of the variables that influence the health care of Hispanics in the United States, such as the scope of wife abuse in the Hispanic population, sociodemographic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States, Hispanic women's access to health care, pregnancy in the Hispanic population, and health care practices of Hispanics in the United States. This will facilitate screening, education, and guidance without upsetting the often precarious security of this period.

  18. Grandparental caregiving, income inequality and respiratory infections in elderly US individuals

    PubMed Central

    Agree, Emily M; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Naumova, Elena N

    2009-01-01

    Background Pneumonia and influenza (P&I) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, particularly in elderly people. Recent research indicates that P&I may be linked to socioeconomic conditions associated with interactions of children with vulnerable elderly people that may proliferate the spread of disease. This study assessed the associations between four sociodemographic characteristics—median county income, Gini index, youth dependency ratio and proportion of co-residential caregiver grandparents—and P&I on the county level overall and by age group. Methods All hospitalisations due to P&I from 1991 to 2004 were abstracted from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database and categorised by influenza year (July–June) and age category. Using generalised estimating equations, associations between P&I rates and four sociodemographic variables were assessed and models were stratified by income to assess income as a potential effect modifier. Results P&I rates were higher in counties with lower median income. In low-income counties, high levels of live-in grandparental caregivers were associated with consistently higher levels of pneumonia and influenza rates. The Gini index was positively associated with disease rates, particularly in younger age groups. Discussion These results suggest complex relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and P&I outcomes for elderly people, particularly those related to children. The strength of the relationship between the proportion of grandparental caregivers and disease rates decreases with age, which may caregiving patterns, or may serve as a proxy for related sociodemographic characteristics. These findings merit further research to understand better how area-level factors affect P&I patterns in elderly people. PMID:19996357

  19. Various approaches for vascular health in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; Dogi, Manami; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly women. Several previous studies evaluated various cardiovascular risk factors, such as brachial blood pressure (BP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), central aortic pressure (CAP), and so on. More recently, measurement of ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) was shown to be superior to clinic measurements in predicting cardiovascular mortality. However, the data are limited concerning the relationship among these variables in elderly women. In the present study, the data for clinic BP including PP, PWV, CAP, and AMSBP and AMCAP obtained using BPro were evaluated in 24 elderly hypertensive women. Although there was a significant correlation between AMSBP and AMCAP, no correlations were found between repeated measured values and values measured in the clinic on one occasion. In conclusion, measuring PWV and CAP in the clinic in patients with white coat hypertension or masked hypertension may not be an accurate way to measure these parameters. PMID:23541183

  20. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574

  1. [HIV in elderly women after travelling abroad].

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Sanne; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; David, Kim Peter; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Storgaard, Merete

    2016-05-01

    We report two cases of HIV infection among female travellers of older age. A Danish woman in her eighties was diagnosed with acute HIV infection after travelling to West Africa. A sexual history was not recorded before her third hospital visit. A West African woman in her seventies who had been living in Denmark for 40 years was diagnosed with advanced HIV after having been to West Africa for family visits. We want to emphasize that women of older age also have sex that may put them at risk of HIV, that febrile returning travellers should be tested for HIV, and that presence of HIV indicator diseases should lead to HIV testing. PMID:27137117

  2. Health care and family support systems of functionally impaired rural elderly men and women in Terengganu, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, M B; Tracy, P D

    1993-01-01

    This article examines the health and social support systems of a small survey sample of rural, low-income, functionally impaired elderly persons in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia. Increases in the number and proportion of the elderly are a growing concern, especially in rural areas where there are indications that traditional care givers (daughters) for the elderly are migrating to urban areas. The out-migration patterns in this survey, however, were less than expected. In general, the needs of the respondents are being met by multiple in-kind assistance from adult children, spouses, relatives, friends and neighbors bolstered by free government health care and cash assistance programs. The survey does raise serious concerns regarding the utilization of health care facilities by women, the negative impact of detrimental myths about aging, and the need for more visiting nurses and mobile clinics. PMID:24389755

  3. [Therapeutic Strategies. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia in elderly and women].

    PubMed

    Morales, Clotilde; Royuela, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    The management of cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia are justified in guidelines. In the elderly, when they are in primary prevention, recommendations are controversial, even if there is evidence in reducing morbidity. In secondary prevention, between 65 and 85 years, there is enough evidence to recommend statins. The decision to start or to continue further treatment must be complemented by comprehensive assessment of the risk-benefit factor. In elderly patients we have to support in decision-making, we take clinical judgment and not just the age criteria. In women the risk is underestimated and may be untreated. The recomendations are the same as in men. During pregnancy there are particular recommendations. PMID:23786854

  4. Prevalence and correlates of elder abuse among older women in rural and urban communities in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cadmus, Eniola O; Owoaje, Eme T

    2012-01-01

    Elderly women face the same health, economic, and social issues that all elderly people face, but often encounter more challenges compared with men and are more prone to abuse. Elder abuse has hitherto been uncharacterized among women in South Western Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to describe the prevalence, patterns, and factors associated with elder abuse among elderly women in Nigeria. The abuse of elderly women is quite prevalent in the two communities studied, especially physical abuse. Positive predictors of elder abuse were urban dwelling, financial dependency, and a high level of educational attainment. Appropriate interventions should be targeted toward reducing the occurrence. PMID:22946597

  5. Education & Income Generation for Women: Non-Formal Approaches. Women's Development Series--3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellis-Nayak, Jessie B.

    The third of five publications of the Indian Social Institute (ISI)-Women's Development Series, this book outlines a non-formal education program for girls of India with emphasis on training for income generation. The program stresses the practical skills of home-making, motherhood, social skills, and character formation. The book describes some…

  6. Work and Elder Care: Facts for Caregivers and Their Employers. Facts on Working Women No. 98-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    As the elderly population continues to grow, more elderly persons are requiring assistance with activities of daily living. Women are the traditional caregivers to the elderly, and the many women who also participate in the paid labor force must face the challenges of meeting both work and family obligations. Types of elder care assistance not…

  7. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they

  8. "Dr. Right": Elderly Women in Pursuit of Negotiated Health Care and Mutual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kevin; Robertson, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a group of elderly women who were searching for physicians that were interested in providing negotiated health care options with particular interest in mutual decision making. The grounded theory approach was used to explore the health care interactions between the physicians and the elderly women (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).…

  9. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  10. Women, Poverty, and Educational Success: A Critical Exploration of Low-Income Women's Experience in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Kate R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…

  11. Heading for Hardship: Retirement Income for American Women in the Next Century. Mother's Day Report 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Millions of women face bleak retirement futures. In 40 years, when today's 25-year-olds retire, fewer women will be retiring married, and therefore fewer will have access to a husband's retirement income. Young women continue to face a future of significantly lower wages. Caregiving responsibilities continue to fall predominantly on women's…

  12. Apparel shopping behavior of elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, U

    1989-06-01

    70 interested elderly (65 yr. and over) men and women participated in an investigation of older consumers' apparel-shopping behavior and satisfactions and dissatisfactions with available clothing and facilities. Analysis showed that the participants considered shopping ease, wide variety, and label/brand as some of the important factors while shopping for clothes. The respondents were satisfied with good selection, closeness of the mall, and reasonable sales. However, their dissatisfactions ranged from service to fit and size, youthful styles, and abundance of imported clothing. In-store displays, mail order catalogs, and window shopping were the most commonly used sources of apparel information. Several implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for further research were made. PMID:2762083

  13. Seeking and processing information for health decisions among elderly Chinese Singaporean women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha; Teo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Information behavior includes activities of active information seeking, passive acquisition of information, and information use. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, this study explored elderly Singaporean women's health information behavior to understand how they sought, evaluated, and used health information in everyday lives. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with elderly Chinese women aged 61 to 79. Qualitative analysis of the interview data yielded three meta-themes: information-seeking patterns, trustworthiness of health information, and peripheral route of decision making. Results revealed that elderly women took both systematic and heuristic approaches to processing information but relied on interpersonal networks to negotiate health choices.

  14. Do age-friendly characteristics influence the expectation to age in place? A comparison of low-income and higher income Detroit elders.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J; Smith, Richard J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2015-03-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place.

  15. Do Age-Friendly Characteristics Influence the Expectation to Age in Place? A Comparison of Low-Income and Higher Income Detroit Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lehning, Amanda J.; Smith, Richard J.; Dunkle, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place. PMID:24652879

  16. Comparative study of the intestinal absorption of three salts of calcium in young and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Praet, J P; Peretz, A; Mets, T; Rozenberg, S

    1998-04-01

    A daily ingestion of 1000 to 1500 mg elemental calcium associated with vitamin D supplement is presently considered to be the adequate and least expensive therapy for senile osteoporosis. There exists only scarce data about calcium absorption with available calcium salts in elderly patients. We have compared the digestive absorption of calcium (Ca) citrate in soluble and solid form and calcium gluconolactate-carbonate in 15 young and 20 elderly, healthy women using the oral calcium loading test. The subjects were divided into two groups. In the first group, the absorption of solid Ca citrate (1000 mg Ca element) was compared to the absorption of Ca gluconolactate-carbonate (1000 mg Ca element) both in young (n = 7) and elderly women (n = 10). In the second group, the absorption of soluble Ca citrate (1000 mg Ca element) was compared to the absorption of Ca gluconolactate-carbonate (1000 mg Ca element) in young (n = 8) and elderly (n = 10) women. In the preload phase, basal calciuria was increased in elderly women (p < 0.01) although basal calcemia was similar in young and elderly women. After oral administration of the calcium salts, an increase in plasma Ca was observed in both groups which was greater for soluble Ca citrate and Ca gluconolactate than for solid Ca citrate. In young women, the increase in plasma calcium was significantly higher with soluble Ca citrate compared to Ca gluconolactate (p < 0.05). In elderly women, the postload calciuria was significantly higher for soluble Ca citrate (p < 0.05) and Ca gluconolactate (p < 0.05) compared to solid Ca citrate. A similar pattern was observed in young women, although it was not significant. In conclusion, an oral load of 1000 mg soluble Ca citrate and Ca gluconolactate-carbonate induces significant biochemical changes suggesting a better digestive absorption compared to Ca citrate in solid form, both in young and elderly women. We did not observe different response, between young and old patients. PMID

  17. Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna

    The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

  18. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  19. The status of elderly women in families viewed from the rate of their heading the household.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Y

    1993-01-01

    The author assesses the socioeconomic status of elderly women in China, with a focus on marital status, educational level, and employment. "In family and population studies, the methodology for research on household head rate is held as superior to household size and generation distribution indexes in understanding the change of family structures. This paper attempts to apply this methodology to the study of elderly women's familial status."

  20. Method of Detection of Breast Cancer in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Allison; Hoq, Lalima; Maly, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, and its timely diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance, especially for vulnerable groups, such as low-income and uninsured women. Recent literature confirms that the method of breast cancer detection may be an important prognostic factor, but there are no studies that examine the method of breast cancer detection in low-income populations. We sought to analyze the determinants of method of detection (medical vs. self) in a cohort of low-income women with breast cancer receiving care through California's Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Program. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey analysis of 921 low-income women interviewed within 6 months of definitive surgical treatment. The outcome analyzed was self vs. medical detection of breast cancer. Results: The mean age of the women was 53 years, with nearly 88% reporting an income of <$30,000 per year; 64% of women self-detected their breast cancer. Logistic regression analyses revealed that older women, Latinas, and women having any health insurance before diagnosis had lower odds of self-detecting their lesions. Conclusions: Patient age, ethnicity, and regular source of care were associated with method of breast cancer detection in a low-income underserved population. The rate of self-detection in our population correlates with the literature, but we need to improve efforts to increase mammography screening to ensure early detection of disease in this vulnerable group. PMID:19951215

  1. Impairment of gamma carboxylation of circulating osteocalcin (bone gla protein) in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Plantalech, L; Guillaumont, M; Vergnaud, P; Leclercq, M; Delmas, P D

    1991-11-01

    Osteocalcin, also called bone gla protein, is a unique noncollagenous protein of the extracellular matrix of bone that circulates in blood. Oseteocalcin contains three residues of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) responsible for the affinity of osteocalcin for bone mineral. In animals treated with the vitamin K antagonist warfarin, the osteocalcin content of bone is markedly reduced and the fraction of osteocalcin released into the circulation is increased. Most studies have shown that osteocalcin increases with aging in women, reflecting an increase in bone turnover, especially after the menopause. To determine if this increase in osteocalcin could be associated with impaired carboxylation, we measured total and noncarboxylated osteocalcin in the serum of 72 women of various ages: 22 premenopausal (31 +/- 7 years old), 20 early postmenopausal (54 +/- 3 years), and 30 elderly women (85 +/- 8 years). As previously reported, total serum osteocalcin was significantly increased in early postmenopausal and elderly women. Noncarboxylated serum osteocalcin was slightly increased in early postmenopausal women (0.95 +/- 0.4 versus 0.65 +/- 0.5 ng/ml in premenopausal women), markedly elevated in elderly women (1.59 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, p less than 0.001), and correlated with age (r = 0.47, p less than 0.001). Elderly women had values of the same magnitude as in 10 patients on chronic warfarin therapy (1.94 +/- 1.1 ng/ml). As a consequence, the increase in carboxylated serum osteocalcin was significant in early postmenopausal women but not in elderly women. Serum levels of vitamin K1 and of menaquinones 6, 7, and 8 were measured in some of the young and elderly women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Effectiveness of Telemedicine: Videoconferencing for Low-Income Elderly with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongeun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Develop educational materials and a classification system for remote consultations and home-based healthcare through videoconferencing, manage the blood pressure of patients through a ubiquitous-health (u-health) service, and identify its effects on the blood pressure and level of depression of the service recipients (i.e., low-income elderly patients with hypertension). Materials and Methods: This study is a nonequivalent control group pre-test–post-test, quasi-experimental study. Low-income essential hypertensive patients above 65 years of age living in public rental housing were our target group. They were divided into two groups: an experimental group of 25 who had received blood pressure monitoring as well as inbound–outbound remote video consultation and a control group of 24 who received blood pressure monitoring through u-health equipment but no other management. In total, 16 sessions were conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Results: (1) The hypothesis that there would be a difference in the level of depression between the control group and the experimental group who received the u-health service was rejected because of the lack of a significant statistical difference (t=−0.142, p=0.889). However, there was a significant difference before and after the service in the experimental group (t=2.49, p=0.021). (2) Concerning the second hypothesis—that there would be a difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the control group and the experimental group—there was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (F=10.26, p=0.003), but diastolic blood pressure showed no significant difference (F=2.802, p=0.101). Thus, the hypothesis was partially adopted. (3) The third hypothesis stated that the rates of sleep (p=0.012) and hobbies (p=0.036) as aspects of a healthy lifestyle in the experimental group would be significantly higher than those of the control group. Conclusions: These findings confirm

  3. Achievement Values and Anomie Among Women in a Low-Income Housing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the results of an administration of Rosen's Achievement Values Scale and Srole's Anomie Scale to adult women residents of a low-income housing project indicated no intrinsic relationship between anomie and achievement values. (JM)

  4. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  5. Religious Involvement and Attitudes toward Parenting among Low-Income Urban Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Terrence D.; Burdette, Amy M.; Regnerus, Mark; Angel, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors employ data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project, a probability sample of 2,402 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, to test whether religious attendance is associated with parental satisfaction, perceived parental demands, and parental distress over 2 years.…

  6. Income Attainment of College Graduates: A Comparison of Employed Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrucci, Carolyn Cummings

    1978-01-01

    In the prediction of 1964 income for a national sample of 1961 college graduates, there were significant gender effects, and marital status interactions for women but not for men. Income for both was positively influenced by graduate educational attainment, occupational status, years of work experience, age, hours worked weekly, college…

  7. Issues in the curative therapy of breast cancer in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Khan, Atif J; Haffty, Bruce G

    2012-10-01

    Approximately 20% of new breast cancer cases occur in elderly women. Treatment of these patients requires attention to several important details. Importantly, these patients often have multiple comorbidities, a different risk-benefit profile, unique social barriers to care, higher chances for treatment toxicity, and higher risks of receiving less than standard-of-care treatment. Several tools now exist to stratify risk of morbidity in elderly patients receiving cancer therapies. Modern surgical therapy carries low risks for elderly women, and breast-conserving therapy should be offered to appropriate women. Standard regimens and schedules of systemic therapy should not be withheld in elderly patients on the basis of age alone. Several developments in radiation therapy, including the acceptance of hypofractionation and accelerated partial breast irradiation in selected women with low-risk disease, offer improved convenience and access to care. Radiation therapy may be omitted in elderly women with small hormone-sensitive tumors; however, omission may be most appropriate in women aged >80 years, those with comorbidities, and those likely to be compliant with hormonal therapy. PMID:22985812

  8. Correlates of the Economic Status of Widowed and Divorced Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.

    1992-01-01

    Performed ordinary least squares regression analysis on data from National Beneficiary Survey concerning elderly divorced and widowed women. Found that women's economic status was commonly associated with such factors as level of education, work history, and Social Security primary insurance amount. Also analyzed differences between widows and…

  9. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  10. Long-term care for elder women in Spain: advances and limitations.

    PubMed

    Vara, María-Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In Spain, elder women are the largest group in need of long-term care. Significant improvements in this issue took place between 2007 and 2011, thanks to the Dependency Law (2006). But severe limitations showed the difficulty of overcoming the historical backwardness of Spanish social policy. This article describes the situation of Spanish people with dependency in activities of daily living. It analyzes changes driven by this law, especially in their impacts on elder women. It assesses the extent to which those changes can alter the traditional model of care. There are three major findings: First, measures promoted by the law have improved the previous situation but are incapable of developing a new model. Care for elders still relies on family, with lack of professionalism, little socialization, and expanding commodification. Second, the current care model is fundamentally detrimental to older women and women caregivers. Third, this kind of model hinders the overcoming of gender inequalities in intrafamily, generational, and social relations.

  11. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  12. Knowledge, facilitators and perceived barriers for early detection of breast cancer among elderly Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Kissal, Aygul; Beşer, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with elderly Turkish women's experiences with breast self examination, clinical breast examination and mammography screening, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators in the theoretical framework of the Health Belief Model and the Health Promotion Model. This is a qualitative study performed on 46 elderly women aged 60-75 years. Data were collected with focus group interviews and analyzed systematically with qualitative analysis techniques to determine themes concerning knowledge and facilitators of and perceived barriers to early detection of breast cancer among elderly women. Barriers to screening were insufficient knowledge, fear, neglect/postponement, embarrassment/religious beliefs, inability to make an appointment, lack of a physician's recommendation and health professionals' attitudes. Facilitating factors were being informed about screening, fear, awareness of cancer screening, familial history of breast cancer and social support, making an appointment, health professionals' communication and physicians' recommendations. Public health nurses and health professionals from other health disciplines should be aware of elderly women's need for knowledge about screening, understand elderly women's fear and worries about their health and know barriers to and facilitators of screening.

  13. Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence: How do Rural, Low-Income Women Cope?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721

  14. Determinants of child-bearing intentions of low-income women: attitudes versus life circumstances.

    PubMed

    Radecki, S E; Beckman, L J

    1992-04-01

    Surveys of low-income women in Los Angeles County in 1985 and 1986 were used to examine the relative impact of child-bearing motivations versus life circumstances on the intention to have a(nother) child. Future child-bearing intentions are strongly related to current parity level regardless of marital status, race/ethnicity or economic status. Psychological motivating factors predict child-bearing intentions of nulliparous women, but not those of parous women. Multivariate analyses showed that motivation for parenthood and life circumstances combined predicted women's child-bearing intentions 88.6% of the time for nulliparous women, but 73.7% for parous women. These findings suggest that, in a low-income population, the onset of parenthood reduces the relationship between specific motivations for child-bearing and actual child-bearing intentions, and diminishes the ability to predict child-bearing intentions based on both attitudinal and social/structural factors. PMID:1583030

  15. Income Generation and Money Management: Training Women as Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Sheila

    Based on a workshop in Gambia in 1989, this manual was developed to help Peace Corps workers to develop training techniques for teaching women to run businesses producing and selling local products and to manage money. Topics covered include the following: (1) the role of the facilitator in adult learning; (2) problems women face in controlling…

  16. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Results: Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p < 0.01). The YFAS symptom count score significantly differed by race/ethnicity (p < 0.01) with black women having higher scores than Hispanic women. Racial differences were also observed among some of the YFAS symptoms. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated a low prevalence of food addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction. PMID:26284304

  17. Effect of different types of exercise on postural balance in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C

    2014-01-01

    Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women.

  18. Women's empowerment and its differential impact on health in low-income communities in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Moonzwe Davis, Lwendo; Schensul, Stephen L; Schensul, Jean J; Verma, Ravi K; Nastasi, Bonnie K; Singh, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalised area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy-related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined.

  19. Women's empowerment and its differential impact on health in low income communities in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lwendo Moonzwe; Schensul, Stephen L.; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalized area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined. PMID:24766149

  20. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.

  1. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.

  2. [VARICOSE VEINS OF PELVIS IN ELDERLY WOMEN AS ACTUAL PROBLEM IN GERIATRICS].

    PubMed

    Litynskiĭ, A V; Kataeva, E D; Kheĭfetz, V Kh; Kagan, O F; Shaginian, G G

    2015-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the problem of varicose veins of pelvic (VVP) in elderly women. VVP is severe suffering to women, especially in the elderly, it promotes social exclusion, leads to psychoemotional disorders and occurrence of chronic pelvic pain due to pelvic varicose veins transformation. Despite the 150-year history of the disease, there is still no clear understanding of the clinical picture of the disease and, most importantly, how to treat this condition. In this regard, it is highly relevant research on timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment of VVP.

  3. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  4. Determining Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse Using Promotores: Low Income Immigrant Latinos Report High Rates of Abuse and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Homeier, Diana C.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2012-01-01

    Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, we recruited and trained promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, to interview a sample of Latino adults age 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of Latino elders experienced some form of abuse and/or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% indicated physical assault, 9% reported sexual abuse, 16.7% indicated financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with increased risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the U.S. was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elders, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment, or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community. PMID:22697790

  5. Heterogeneity of income and lifestyle determinants of body weight among adult women in Mexico, 2006.

    PubMed

    Colchero, M A; Sosa-Rubí, S G

    2012-07-01

    In Mexico, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican women increased from 64% in 2000 to 72% in 2006. In this paper, we report our findings on the relation of women's body mass index (BMI) with income and lifestyles choices using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006. The two following approaches were executed. First, we estimated a two-stage least-squares regression to control for the potential endogeneity of income stratified by urban or rural residency. The second approach was aimed at exploring whether the determinants of weight varied among different weight levels using latent class models. Our findings from the two-stage least-squares regression show a positive non-significant association between income and BMI in the overall and urban samples but a significant positive relationship among rural women. Our results suggest that one unit increase in income is associated with 4.1% increase in body weight in rural areas. Estimates from the latent class model (LCM) show a positive but marginally significant association between income and BMI in the overall sample only in the class where there is a greater likelihood that women have normal weight or overweight compared to the class with a higher probability of being obese, but we also found a large association in rural areas for both classes. Lifestyle choices were associated with BMI. Results from the two-stage least-squares regressions reveal that more hours sitting per day and a higher percentage of expenditures in sugary beverages were associated with higher BMI levels. In the LCM, for women who eventually belong to the higher body weight class, lifestyles seem to matter more. Findings from this research suggest that policies to tackle the obesity epidemic among adult women should be different for women living in urban and rural areas and women with different weight levels.

  6. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit–stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by “The Montreal Cognitive Assessment” questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality. PMID:27330282

  7. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit-stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment" questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality. PMID:27330282

  8. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in USA.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M A; Tortolero-Luna, G; Gold, R S

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD=11.5), 84% reported annual household incomes ($15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years). Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  9. Health Blief Model-based intervention to improve nutritional behavior among elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Motalebi, Seyedeh Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Nutrition is a determinant factor of health in elderly people. Independent living in elderly people can be maintained or enhanced by improvement of nutritional behavior. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the impact of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based intervention on the nutritional behavior of elderly women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Cluster-random sampling was used to assess the sample of this clinical trial study. The participants of this study attended a 12-week nutrition education program consisting of two (2) sessions per week. There was also a follow-up for another three (3) months. Smart PLS 3.5 and SPSS 19 were used for structural equation modeling, determination of model fitness, and hypotheses testing. RESULTS The findings indicate that intervention had a significant effect on knowledge improvement as well as the behavior of elderly women. The model explained 5 to 70% of the variance in nutritional behavior. In addition, nutritional behavior was positively affected by the HBM constructs comprised of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and barriers after the intervention program. CONCLUSION The results of this study show that HBM-based educational intervention has a significant effect in improving nutritional knowledge and behavior among elderly women. PMID:27247733

  10. Evaluation and Management of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Javier; Clifton, Marisa M; Goldman, Howard B

    2015-11-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common disease in elderly patients. The most important symptom is vaginal bulge (bulge sensation or the sensation of something coming down through the vaginal introitus). This symptom is not different than in the general population. Diagnosis can be confirmed using just vaginal examinations to identify the presence of protrusion beyond the hymen, and is not different than in the general population. Different treatment options are available, including observation, nonsurgical, and surgical techniques. Pessaries and colpocleisis are the treatment options used more often in elderly patients than in the general population.

  11. Recruiting Low-Income Healthy Women to Research: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Galen; Kaplan, Celia P.; Pasick, Rena J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study goals were (1) to assess the feasibility of using an existing telephone health information and referral service for low-income, ethnically diverse women to recruit women for research participation; (2) to assess the feasibility of recruiting low-income, African American and Latino men into health research through the women callers to the telephone service; and (3) to describe the challenges women face and the strategies they use when talking to men about the men’s health and research participation. Design We recruited women for individual semi-structured qualitative interviews via the Every Woman Counts (EWC) telephone information and referral service, a California Department of Health Services Cancer Detection Program. This paper describes our eligibility and recruitment assessment, and our qualitative data from 23 interviews with low-income African American and Latino women who called EWC. Results We found that it was feasible to recruit women, but not to recruit men through women who call this telephone service. Almost 50% (113) of women demographically eligible for recruitment, completed our screening questionnaire, despite calling EWC for a different purpose. Some 48% (54) of those women were eligible for an interview. Of interview-eligible women, 58% (10) of African Americans and 35% (13) of Latinos completed an interview. Only 17% (4) of women referred a man for participation in an interview for our study. Several themes emerged from our analysis of interview data: (1) women’s role in men’s health can be significant but is often uneasy; (2) challenges when talking to men about their health include health access, gender dynamics, and men’s fear of health care; (3) women’s understanding of research may be limited; (4) women use a range of strategies to address and overcome men’s resistance to taking care of their health and participating in research. Conclusions The challenges women face when talking with men about their health

  12. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  13. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  14. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  15. Ultrasound measurement of the vertebral level of Tuffier's line in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background It would be imprecise to generalize the vertebral level determined by palpation to patients of all ages. The purpose of this study was to compare the vertebral level passed by Tuffier's line in elderly women with that passed in adult women using ultrasound in the left lateral decubitus flexed position. Methods We enrolled 50 female patients over the age of 65 (elderly group) and 50 female patients between ages 20 and 50 (control group) who had been scheduled to undergo spinal anesthesia. Using ultrasound, we marked the L2–5 lumbar spinous processes and intervertebral spaces. The most cephalad part was labeled 1 and the most caudal part was labeled 11. We then identified which line of these vertebral levels Tuffier's line crossed. Results The median value of the numbers signifying the vertebral level of Tuffier's line was 3 (the L2–3 intervertebral space) in the elderly group, while it was 8 (the lower part of the L4 vertebra) in the control group. The vertebral level of Tuffier's line had statistically significant correlations with age, body mass index, and weight in the elderly group (P < 0.001). Conclusions The vertebral level of Tuffier's line determined with ultrasound measurement in the left lateral decubitus flexed position was more cephalad in the elderly women than in those of the control group. Therefore, we should consider that the needle could be inserted at a higher level than expected, and use care in determining the level of needle insertion during spinal anesthesia in elderly women. PMID:27703628

  16. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and recurrent falls in community-dwelling elderly women: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Bruno S.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Kirkwood, Renata N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Falling is a common but devastating and costly problem of aging. There is no consensus in the literature on whether the spatial and temporal gait parameters could identify elderly people at risk of recurrent falls. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict recurrent falls in elderly women. METHOD: One hundred and forty-eight elderly women (65-85 years) participated in this study. Seven spatiotemporal gait parameters were collected with the GAITRite(r) system. Falls were recorded prospectively during 12 months through biweekly phone contacts. Elderly women who reported two or more falls throughout the follow-up period were considered as recurrent fallers. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis followed by biplot graph interpretation were applied to the gait parameters. RESULTS: After 12 months, 23 elderly women fell twice or more and comprised the recurrent fallers group and 110 with one or no falls comprised the non-recurrent fallers group. PCA resulted in three components that explained 88.3% of data variance. Discriminant analysis showed that none of the components could significantly discriminate the groups. However, visual inspection of the biplot showed a trend towards group separation in relation to gait velocity and stance time. PC1 represented gait rhythm and showed that recurrent fallers tend to walk with lower velocity and cadence and increased stance time in relation to non-recurrent fallers. CONCLUSIONS: The analyzed spatiotemporal gait parameters failed to predict recurrent falls in this sample. The PCA-biplot technique highlighted important trends or red flags that should be considered when evaluating recurrent falls in elderly females. PMID:25714603

  17. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  18. Oxytocin, Social Support and Sleep Quality In Low Income Minority Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Erin M.; Seay, Julia; Antoni, Michael H.; Mendez, Armando J.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Szeto, Angela; Schneiderman, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in women with HIV and few studies examine potential protective factors that may reduce risk for sleep disturbances in this high-risk population. We predicted that HIV-specific social support from various sources (i.e., friends, family, spouses), as well as oxytocin (OT), would explain sleep quality in 71 low income minority women living with HIV. Social support from family members was associated with better sleep quality in women. For women with high OT, support from friends was associated with better sleep quality, while for women with low OT, support from friends was associated with poorer sleep quality. Women with low OT may not effectively interpret and utilize available support resources, which may be associated with sleep disturbances. PMID:23799864

  19. Oxytocin, social support, and sleep quality in low-income minority women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Erin M; Seay, Julia; Antoni, Michael H; Mendez, Armando J; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Szeto, Angela; Schneiderman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in women with HIV, and few studies examine potential protective factors that may reduce risk for sleep disturbances in this high-risk population. This study predicted that HIV-specific social support from various sources (i.e., friends, family members, and spouses), as well as oxytocin (OT), would explain sleep quality in 71 low-income minority women living with HIV. Social support from family members was associated with better sleep quality in women. For women with high OT, support from friends was associated with better sleep quality, whereas for women with low OT, support from friends was associated with poorer sleep quality. Women with low OT may not effectively interpret and utilize available support resources, which may be associated with sleep disturbances.

  20. Closing the Gap in Mammogram Screening: An Experimental Intervention among Low-Income Hispanic Women in Community Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavenport, Alexis; Modeste, Naomi; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Neish, Christine

    2011-01-01

    A low rate of mammogram screening exists among low-income Hispanic women. To address this disparity, an experimental intervention containing audiovisual and written media was conducted using the health belief model as a framework. The purpose of this study was to determine if low-income Hispanic women, more than 40 years of age, who received…

  1. Enhancing Palliative Care for Low-Income Elders with Chronic Disease: Feasibility of a Hospice Consultation Model

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Betty J.; Cleary, Jim; Mahoney, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Challenges exist in assimilating palliative care within community based services for nursing home eligible low-income elders with complex chronic illness as they approach the end of life. This study assessed the feasibility of a consultation model, with hospice clinicians working with three Care Wisconsin Partnership Program teams. Consults occurred primarily during team meetings and also informally and on joint patient visits and were primarily with the palliative care nurse addressing physical issues. 57% of consultant recommendations were implemented. Benefits of consultation were identified with focus groups of clinical staff as were opportunities and barriers to the implementation. Models of integration are proposed. PMID:25494931

  2. 78 FR 19180 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-6547 appearing on pages 17631-17632...

  3. Patient and Clinical Site Factors Associated with Rescreening Behavior Among Older Multiethnic, Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick; Arnsberger, Pamela; Owens, Desi; Nussey, Brenda; Zhang, Xiluan; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Tabnak, Farzaneh; Otero-Sabogal, Regina

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to identify factors predictive of mammography rescreening within 18 months of baseline screening in multiethnic, low-income older women. Design and Methods: We interviewed a cross-sectional survey of staff of 102 randomly selected clinics that provided screening and diagnostic services. We also surveyed a random sample of 391…

  4. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  5. Group Interventions with Low-Income African American Women Recovering from Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents finding from an investigation of two group therapy modalities involving 93 women with dependent children and limited education and income levels. An overview of intervention activities that participants found beneficial is presented. Programs were found to help participants develop a sense of community, reduce stress, improve…

  6. How Low-Income Women Find Jobs and Its Effects on Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Data from a stratified random sample of 953 low-income urban women were analyzed to determine how they find jobs and the effect it has on subsequent earnings. Results show that although most find jobs through informal contacts, this has no effect on earnings. Those who recently left welfare were more likely to find jobs through formal sources.…

  7. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  8. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  9. The Effect of Marital Breakup on the Income Distribution of Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth O.; Michaels, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up. Using this exogenous variation, recent work finds that divorce has little effect on women's mean household income. We further investigate the effect of divorce using Quantile Treatment Effect methodology and find that it increases…

  10. Leisure Orientations and Self-Esteem in Women with Low Incomes Who Are Overweight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilo, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the leisure orientations of 222 low-income women. Subjects were predominantly black, predominantly overweight, and not employed outside the home. Survey data indicated positive correlations between self-esteem and active participation in recreation activities and negative correlations between self-esteem and leisure…

  11. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  12. Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…

  13. Estimating dietary costs of low-income women in California: A comparison of two approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Compare two approaches for estimating individual daily diet costs in a population of low-income women in California. Design: Cost estimates based on time-intensive Method 1 (three 24-h recalls and associated food prices on receipts) were compared with estimates using a lesser intensive M...

  14. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Methods A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing “bean health benefits” and “food behaviors.” Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. Results The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered ‘neutral’ to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Conclusions Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition. PMID:26820889

  15. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women. PMID:26223978

  16. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women.

  17. Slipping on ice and snow--elderly women and young men are typical victims.

    PubMed

    Björnstig, U; Björnstig, J; Dahlgren, A

    1997-03-01

    Slipping on ice or snow during winter caused 3.5 injuries per 1000 inhabitants per year in the Umeå health district; the injury rate was highest among the elderly. Most injured were elderly women, but also many young men in the age group 20-29 years were injured. Half of all injuries were fractures; for women 50 years and over two-thirds were fractures, mostly of an upper extremity. The 'cost' of medical care of these slipping injuries was almost the same as the 'cost' of all traffic injuries in the area during the same time. Injury reducing measures, such as more effective snow clearing, sand and salt spreading in strategic areas, better slip preventive aids on shoes, and 'padding' of older women, would reduce the injuries and their consequences.

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention.

  19. Cardiovascular inflammation in healthy women: multilevel associations with state-level prosperity, productivity and income inequality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular inflammation is a key contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and the prediction of cardiovascular events among healthy women. An emerging literature suggests biomarkers of inflammation vary by geography of residence at the state-level, and are associated with individual-level socioeconomic status. Associations between cardiovascular inflammation and state-level socioeconomic conditions have not been evaluated. The study objective is to estimate whether there are independent associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and individual-level biomarkers of inflammation, in excess of individual-level income and clinical covariates among healthy women. Methods The authors examined cross-sectional multilevel associations among state-level socioeconomic conditions, individual-level income, and biomarkers of inflammation among women (n = 26,029) in the Women's Health Study, a nation-wide cohort of healthy women free of cardiovascular diseases at enrollment. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and fibrinogen were measured between 1993 and 1996. Biomarker levels were examined among women within quartiles of state-level socioeconomic conditions and within categories of individual-level income. Results The authors found that favorable state-level socioeconomic conditions were correlated with lower hsCRP, in excess of individual-level income (e.g. state-level real per capital gross domestic product fixed effect standardized Βeta coefficient [Std B] -0.03, 95% CI -0.05, -0.004). Individual-level income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 (Std B -0.04, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) and fibrinogen (Std B -0.05, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) than state-level conditions. Conclusions We found associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and hsCRP among healthy women. Personal household income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 and fibrinogen than state

  20. First trimester predictors of diet and birth outcomes in low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Gabrielson, Marcena

    2005-01-01

    The purpose1 of this study is to test a model describing the relations of various biopsychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors on the health outcomes of nutritional adequacy and infant birth weight in low-income pregnant women. Descriptive, cohort design assessed low-income women (N=55) in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Eighty percent of the women did not meet the recommended number of food servings outlined in the Food Guide Pyramid. Prepregnant body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy-related dietary changes explained 19% of the variance in nutritional adequacy. Maternal age, prepregnant BMI, nutritional knowledge, and infant gestation at birth explained 52% of the variance in infant birth weight. Nutritional adequacy in the 1st trimester and infant birth weight were not significantly related. Most low-income women are not meeting the nutritional requirements of pregnancy. Careful monitoring of dietary quality may help target women in need of additional nutritional education. Providing nutritional education throughout pregnancy may lead to improved dietary patterns that may reduce low birth weight. PMID:15877540

  1. Low-income women's employment experiences and their financial, personal, and family well-being.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2014-02-01

    Low-income women's rates of employment have grown dramatically in recent years, yet the stability and quality of their employment remain low. Using panel data from the Three-City Study following 1,586 low-income African American, Latina, and European American women, this study assessed associations between women's employment quality (wages; receipt of health insurance) and stability (work consistency; job transitions) and their financial, personal, and family well-being. Hierarchical linear models assessing within-person effects found that increases in wages were associated with improved financial well-being and physical health. Average wages over time similarly were associated with greater levels of income and financial stability as well as mental and physical health at the end of the study. In contrast, few significant associations emerged for receipt of health insurance or for the stability and consistency of women's employment. Results have implications for programs and policies seeking to support disadvantaged women's employment in order to improve family resources and functioning.

  2. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  3. Australian women and income security for old age: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, L S; Winocur, S

    1990-07-01

    Australian women constitute a majority of the aged population in Australia, and are more likely than men to be single in old age as well as dependent upon the means-tested Age Pension with no, or only limited, income supplementation from other sources such as occupational superannuation. Based upon research on a national sample of 1016 Australian women, aged across the adult life span, this paper reports age cohort patterns of work, family, and economic expectations for old age. While work and family patterns of Australian women are changing, the clear trend remains towards labour force withdrawal and part-time work for long periods while children are present in the home. The implications of these patterns for income security in old age are discussed. PMID:24390303

  4. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  5. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  6. Socio-demographic correlates of psychiatric morbidity among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Asfar, Taghrid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; Kilzieh, Nael

    2002-05-01

    Interest in mental morbidity as an important component of health is increasing worldwide. Women generally suffer more than men from common mental disorders, and discrimination against women adds to their mental sufferings. Studies looking into the socio-demographic correlates of women's mental morbidity are lacking in most Arab countries. In this study we wanted to determine the spread and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria. A sample of 412 women was recruited from 8 randomly selected primary care centers in Aleppo. Response rate was 97.2%, mean age of participants 28 + 8.4 years, where married women constituted 87.9%. A special questionnaire was prepared for the study purpose, utilizing the SRQ-20 non-psychotic items and questions about background information considered relevant to the mental health of women in the studied population. Interviews were conducted in an anonymous one-to-one fashion. The prevalence of psychiatric distress in our sample was 55.6%. Predictors of women's mental health in the logistic regression analysis were; physical abuse, women's education, polygamy, residence, age and age of marriage. Among these predictors, women's illiteracy, polygamy and physical abuse were the strongest determinants of mental distress leading to the worse outcomes. Our data show that mental distress is common in the studied population and that it is strongly associated with few, possibly modifiable, factors.

  7. Immune dysregulation and glucocorticoid resistance in minority and low income pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Elizabeth J.; Guo, Ying; Pajer, Kathleen; Lowe, Nancy; McCarthy, Donna; Schmiege, Sarah; Weber, Mary; Pace, Thaddeus; Stafford, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chronic prenatal stress contributes to poor birth outcomes for women and infants. Importantly, poor birth outcomes are most common among minority and low income women. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that chronic stress related to minority or low income status is associated with glucocorticoid resistance as indicated by disruption in the cytokine-glucocorticoid feedback circuit. Home visits were conducted during which 3rd trimester pregnant women completed stress and depression surveys and provided blood for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Saliva was collected 5 times the preceding day for diurnal cortisol levels. For statistical analyses, women were grouped 3 ways, by race, income, and the presence or absence of either of those risk factors; this last group was labeled high or low general risk. Immune regulation was evaluated by evidence of a functioning negative feedback relationship between cytokines and cortisol. Of 96 participants, 18 were minority, 22 of low income, and 29 either minority or low income (high general risk). Pearson partial correlation identified a significant negative relationship between cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios in the low general risk women (i.e., Caucasian, higher income) including IFNγ/IL10 (r = −0.73, p < 0.0001), IL6/IL10 (r = 0.38, p = 0.01), IL1β/IL10 (r = −0.44, p = −0.004) and TNFα/IL10 (r = −0.41; p = 0.005); no such correlations existed in the high general risk women (i.e., minority, low income) for (IFNγ/IL10: r = −0.25, p = 0.43; IL6/IL10:r = 0.12, p = 0.70; IL1 β/IL10: r = 0.05, p = 0.87; TNFα/IL10: r = 0.10; p = 0.75), suggestive of glucocorticoid resistance. Cortisol levels throughout the day also were higher in minority and high general risk groups (p < 0.05). Without cytokine glucocorticoid feedback, a pregnant woman’s ability to regulate inflammation is limited, potentially contributing to adverse maternal

  8. Immune dysregulation and glucocorticoid resistance in minority and low income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Guo, Ying; Pajer, Kathleen; Lowe, Nancy; McCarthy, Donna; Schmiege, Sarah; Weber, Mary; Pace, Thaddeus; Stafford, Brian

    2013-09-01

    Chronic prenatal stress contributes to poor birth outcomes for women and infants. Importantly, poor birth outcomes are most common among minority and low income women. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that chronic stress related to minority or low income status is associated with glucocorticoid resistance as indicated by disruption in the cytokine-glucocorticoid feedback circuit. Home visits were conducted during which 3rd trimester pregnant women completed stress and depression surveys and provided blood for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Saliva was collected 5 times the preceding day for diurnal cortisol levels. For statistical analyses, women were grouped 3 ways, by race, income, and the presence or absence of either of those risk factors; this last group was labeled high or low general risk. Immune regulation was evaluated by evidence of a functioning negative feedback relationship between cytokines and cortisol. Of 96 participants, 18 were minority, 22 of low income, and 29 either minority or low income (high general risk). Pearson partial correlation identified a significant negative relationship between cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios in the low general risk women (i.e., Caucasian, higher income) including IFNγ/IL10 (r=-0.73, p<0.0001), IL6/IL10 (r=-0.38, p=0.01), IL1β/IL10 (r=-0.44, p=0.004) and TNFα/IL10 (r=-0.41; p=0.005); no such correlations existed in the high general risk women (i.e., minority, low income) for (IFNγ/IL10: r=-0.25, p=0.43; IL6/IL10: r=0.12, p=0.70; IL1 β/IL10: r=0.05, p=0.87; TNFα/IL10: r=0.10; p=0.75), suggestive of glucocorticoid resistance. Cortisol levels throughout the day also were higher in minority and high general risk groups (p<0.05). Without cytokine glucocorticoid feedback, a pregnant woman's ability to regulate inflammation is limited, potentially contributing to adverse maternal and infant outcomes.

  9. A Systematic Review of Mammography Educational Interventions for Low-income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Tatiana M.; Delva, Jorge; Gretebeck, Kimberlee; Siefert, Kristine; Ismail, Amid

    2006-01-01

    Objective We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing mammography screening among low-income women. Data Sources Bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the ISI Web of Science, were searched for relevant articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Randomized, community-based trials targeting low-income women and published between January 1980 and March 2003 were included. Data Extraction The search yielded 242 studies; 24 met all inclusion criteria. Data Synthesis Three studies used mammography vans, three used low-cost vouchers or provided free mammograms, three used home visits, one used community education alone, one provided referrals, five incorporated multiple intervention strategies, two used phone calls, one used videos and print material, and five used primarily print material. Results Of nine studies that reduced barriers to care via mammography vans, cost vouchers, or home visits, eight showed statistically significant increases in mammography screening. Seven of the eight studies that used peer educators had significant increases in screening, as did four of the five studies that used multiple (intervention) components. Conclusions Interventions that used peer educators, incorporated multiple intervention strategies, or provided easy access via vans, cost vouchers, or home visits were effective in increasing screenings. Mailed letter or telephone reminders were not effective in trials involving low-income women, which is contrary to findings from middle/upper-income studies. PMID:16295701

  10. Handgrip explosive force is correlated with mobility in the elderly women.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lucio Santos; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Schettino, Ludmila; DA Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Pereira, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of explosive force, through rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI), from handgrip strength data seems to be useful and promising information to study the aging of musculoskeletal system and health status. We aimed to test the hypothesis that, in elderly women, the handgrip explosive force could be better associated to the functional mobility than maximum handgrip strength. Handgrip strength and the performance of Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) were measured from sixty-five community-dwelling healthy elderly women. The average slope of the moment-time curve (Δ moment/Δ time) over the time interval of 0-200 ms relative to the onset of contraction was calculated to provide the RFD and CI. The highest strength achieved during the isometric contraction was used as maximum handgrip strength. Pearson correlations were used to assess the strength of the relationship between the handgrip strength parameters (Maximum strength and explosive force from 0-200 ms) and TUG test performance from older women. The correlation analysis showed that the TUG test performance was inversely correlated to the handgrip strength parameters, with better relationship with explosive force parameters. The handgrip explosive force seems to be a promising predictor of functional mobility of elderly women, since it showed a better relationship with functional mobility than maximum handgrip strength.

  11. Long-term care for elder women in Spain: advances and limitations.

    PubMed

    Vara, María-Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In Spain, elder women are the largest group in need of long-term care. Significant improvements in this issue took place between 2007 and 2011, thanks to the Dependency Law (2006). But severe limitations showed the difficulty of overcoming the historical backwardness of Spanish social policy. This article describes the situation of Spanish people with dependency in activities of daily living. It analyzes changes driven by this law, especially in their impacts on elder women. It assesses the extent to which those changes can alter the traditional model of care. There are three major findings: First, measures promoted by the law have improved the previous situation but are incapable of developing a new model. Care for elders still relies on family, with lack of professionalism, little socialization, and expanding commodification. Second, the current care model is fundamentally detrimental to older women and women caregivers. Third, this kind of model hinders the overcoming of gender inequalities in intrafamily, generational, and social relations. PMID:25010903

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of lumbar spondylolisthesis in elderly Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    He, Lai-Chang; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Gong, Jing-Shan; Griffith, James F; Zeng, Xian-Jun; Kwok, Anthony WL; Leung, Jason CS; Kwok, Timothy; Ahuja, Anil T; Leung, Ping Chung

    2014-01-01

    Objective A screening survey for osteoporotic fractures in men and women in Hong Kong represents the first large-scale prospective population-based study on bone health in elderly (≥65 years) Chinese men and women. This study aims to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of lumbar spondylolisthesis in these subjects. Methods The lateral lumbar radiographs of 1,994 male and 1,996 female patients were analysed using the Meyerding classification. Results Amongst the men, 380 (19.1 %) had at least one spondylolisthesis and 43 (11.3 %) had slips at two or more levels; 283 had anterolisthesis, 85 had retrolisthesis, whereas 12 subjects had both anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis. Amongst the women, 499 (25.0 %) had at least one spondylolisthesis and 69 (13.8 %) had slips at two or more levels; 459 had anterolisthesis, 34 had retrolisthesis, whereas 6 subjects had both anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis. Advanced age, short height, higher body mass index (BMI), higher bone mineral density (BMD) and degenerative arthritis are associated with spondylolisthesis. Lower Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score was associated with spondylolisthesis in men; higher body weight, angina and lower grip strength were associated with spondylolisthesis in women. Conclusion The male/female ratio of lumbar spondylolisthesis prevalence was 1:1.3 in elderly Chinese. Men are more likely to have retrolisthesis. PMID:24126641

  13. Effects of lower body positive pressure on cardiovascular responses during walking in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Sota, T; Matsuo, S; Uchida, Y; Hagino, H; Kawai, Y

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of lower body positive pressure (LBPP) on cardiovascular responses during a 15-min walking trial in young (22.1+/-0.4 years) and elderly women (67.8+/-1.1 years). The application of 20 mm Hg LBPP reduced ground reaction forces by 31.2+/-0.5 kgw in both groups. We hypothesized that cardiovascular responses to LBPP during walking were different between the young and elderly subjects. Applying 20 mm Hg of LBPP increased diastolic and mean blood pressure but not systolic blood pressure in both groups. LBPP-induced reduction in heart rate (HR) occurred more quickly in the young group compared to the elderly group (p<0.05). Applying LBPP also decreased double product (systolic blood pressure x HR) in both groups, suggesting that LBPP reduces myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise. These results suggest that heart rate responses to LBPP during exercise vary with increasing age.

  14. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

  15. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped.

  16. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped. PMID:27134373

  17. Elderly Homosexual Women and Men: Report on a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.; Adelman, Marcy R.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study is described in which four- to five-hour tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 11 homosexual women and men, 60-77 years of age. Areas examined included: physical change and physical health; work, retirement and leisure time; social behavior; psychological functioning; sexual behavior; and personal perspectives on the life…

  18. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  19. Effect of low-impact aerobic dance on the functional fitness of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D R; Murrah, B; Hoeger, W W; Rhodes, R C

    1990-04-01

    To determine the effect of low-impact aerobic dance on sedentary elderly women (N = 53), functional fitness was measured by items from the proposed American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD) fitness test for older adults. After 12-weeks of low-impact aerobic dance, the group improved significantly on all functional fitness components except motor control/coordination, including cardiorespiratory endurance, strength/endurance, body agility, flexibility, body fat, and balance.

  20. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8–12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. Results The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8%) and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%). Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%). After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%–80%) in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusion Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health. PMID:25342896

  1. Association between Adult Stature and Energy Expenditure in Low-Income Women from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Fabiana Cristina Alves; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Florêncio, Telma Maria Menezes Toledo; Hoffman, Daniel; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Background Perinatal undernutrition may lead to important metabolic adaptations in adult life, short stature being the most visible. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between stature and total energy expenditure of low-income women. Method Women aged 19–45 years from low-income communities in Maceió-AL were recruited. A sample of 67 volunteers was selected and divided into either short stature (≤152.4 cm; n = 34) or non-short stature (≥158.7 cm; n = 33) group. Data on socioeconomic status, anthropometric variables, and hormonal profiles was collected. Total energy expenditure and body composition were assessed by the doubly labeled water technique with multiple points over 14 days. In addition, physical activity levels were measured with triaxial accelerometers and dietary intake data were collected using three 24-hour food records. Results The mean subject age was 30.94 years. Women of short stature had lower body weight and lean body mass compared to non-short women, but there were no differences in thyroid hormone concentrations or daily energy intake between the two groups. Short-stature women showed lower total energy expenditure (P = 0.01) and a significantly higher physical activity level (P = 0.01) compared to non-short women. However, the difference in total energy expenditure was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age, lean body mass, and triiodothyronine concentrations. Conclusion Women with short stature present the same energy intake, but lower total energy expenditure than non-short women, even with a higher physical activity level, which suggests that they are more prone to weight gain. PMID:26147672

  2. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.

  3. Satisfaction with Care among Low-Income Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoq, Lalima; Diamant, Allison; Maly, Rose C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: Patient satisfaction is an important outcome measure in determining quality of care. There are few data evaluating patient satisfaction in nonwhite, low-income populations. The objective of this study was to identify the structure, process, and outcome factors that impact patient satisfaction with care in a low-income population of women with breast cancer. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey of low-income women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, eligible women enrolled in the California Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Program (BCCTP) from February 2003 through September 2005 were interviewed by phone 6 months after their enrollment. This was a population-based sample of women aged ≥18 years (n = 924) with a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer and enrolled in the BCCTP. The main outcome measure was satisfaction with care received. Results: Random effects logistic regression revealed that less acculturated Latinas were more likely (odds ratio, [OR] = 5.36, p < 0.000) to be extremely satisfied with their care compared with non-Hispanic white women. Women who believed they could have been diagnosed sooner were less likely to be extremely satisfied (OR = 0.61, p < 0.000). Women who had received or were receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy had nearly twice the odds of being extremely satisfied (OR = 2.02, p < 0.000, and OR = 2.13, p < 0.000, respectively). Greater information giving was associated with greater satisfaction (OR = 1.17, p < 0.000). Women reporting greater physician emotional support were more likely to report being extremely satisfied (OR = 1.26, p < 0.000). A higher participatory treatment decision-making score was associated with greater satisfaction (OR = 1.78, p < 0.000). Conclusions: In a low-income population, satisfaction is also reported at high levels. In addition to age, ethnicity/acculturation, receipt of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, physician

  4. The effects of transcranial LED therapy (TCLT) on cerebral blood flow in the elderly women.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Afonso S I; Zângaro, Renato A; Parreira, Rodolfo B; Kerppers, Ivo I

    2015-01-01

    During aging processes, there is a range of functional changes, where we can highlight the disease related to the central nervous system, such as Alzheimer disease and others forms of dementia. This study investigated the effects of transcranial light emitting diode (LED) on cerebral blood flow in healthy elderly women analyzed by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) of the right and left middle cerebral artery and basilar artery. Twenty-five noninstitutionalized elderly women (mean age 72 years old), with a cognitive status >24, were assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasound on two separate occasions: pre-irradiation and post-transcranial LED therapy (TCLT). Prior to this, they answered two questionnaires: the perceived stress scale and the general health questionnaire. TCLT (627 nm, 70 mW/cm(2), 10 J/cm(2)) was performed at four points of the frontal and parietal region for 30 s each, totaling 120 s two times per week for 4 weeks. Paired t-test results showed that there was a significant improvement after TCLT with increase in the systolic and diastolic velocity of the left middle cerebral artery (25 and 30%, respectively) and basilar artery (up to 17 and 25%), as well as a decrease in the pulsatility index and resistance index values of the three cerebral arteries analyzed (p < 0.05). TCD parameters showed improvement in the blood flow on the arteries analyzed. TCLT promoted a blood and vasomotor behavior of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries in healthy elderly women. PMID:25277249

  5. Pica during pregnancy in low-income women born in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Ellen; Mull, J Dennis; Longley, Erin; East, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Objective To describe pica behavior (ingestion of nonfood items) in pregnant low-income Mexicon-born women in Mexico and the United States.Design A convenience sample of informants was interviewed with a questionnaire containing open-ended and closed-ended questions. SettingA low-income community on the outskirts of Ensenada, Mexico, and clinics serving low-income people in southern California (Santa Ana, Bakersfield, andLos Angeles). Participants Of a total of 225 Mexican-born women, 75(33%) were interviewed in Ensenada, and 150 (67%) were interviewed in southernCalifornia. Results The prevalence of pica during pregnancy was 44% (n= 33) in the Ensenada group and 31% (n = 46) in the southern California group.Those who reported pica behavior more commonly had a relative who also practiced pica. Conclusion The high reported rate of pica in this sample indicates that pregnant Mexican-born women should be screened for pica and educated about the potentially serious effects on the fetus and mother. PMID:10903283

  6. [Healthy eating, schooling and being overweight among low-income women].

    PubMed

    Lins, Ana Paula Machado; Sichieri, Rosely; Coutinho, Walmir Ferreira; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques; Fonseca, Vânia Matos

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the factors associated with the prevalence of being overweight and obesity in a population of low-income adult women living in a metropolitan region and its association with socioeconomic, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, highlighting the importance of healthy eating. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 758 women aged 20 or older living in Campos Elíseos - Duque de Caxias - State of Rio de Janeiro. Bivariate and multivariate hierarchical regression was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity. A prevalence of 23% of obesity was found, and a prevalence of 56% of being overweight and obesity combined. An inverse association was found between years of study, being overweight and obesity. Most of the women reported having a healthy diet (73.6%) that increased positively with income, education and age. Failure to consume vegetables weekly was associated with being overweight and not having a healthy diet was associated with obesity. The results of this study demonstrate that even in low-income populations, a higher level of education has an impact on prevention of this problem and in food choices.

  7. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention: reducing excessive ovarian androgen production in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Secreto, Giorgio; Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Muti, Paola; Zumoff, Barnett; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing endogenous estrogen production and activity in women at high risk for breast cancer is a prominent approach to prevention of the disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that the administration of selective-estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors significantly reduces the incidence of breast cancer in healthy women. Unfortunately, these drugs often produce adverse effects on the quality of life and are, therefore, poorly accepted by many women, even those who are at high risk for breast cancer. We propose a novel alternative approach to decreasing estrogen production: suppression of ovarian synthesis of the androgen precursors of estrogens by administration of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. The specific target population would be elderly postmenopausal women, at increased risk of breast cancer, and with high blood levels of testosterone, marker of ovarian hyperandrogenemia, and recognized factor of risk for breast cancer. Testosterone levels are measured at baseline to identify women at risk and during the follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The postmenopausal ovary is an important source of excessive androgen production which originates from the ovarian interstitial cell hyperplasia frequently present in breast cancer patients. We propose to counter the source of androgen excess in women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia, thus reducing the substrate for estrogen formation without completely inhibiting estrogen synthesis. Available evidence indicates that gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be safely used for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women.

  8. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention: reducing excessive ovarian androgen production in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Secreto, Giorgio; Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Muti, Paola; Zumoff, Barnett; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing endogenous estrogen production and activity in women at high risk for breast cancer is a prominent approach to prevention of the disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that the administration of selective-estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors significantly reduces the incidence of breast cancer in healthy women. Unfortunately, these drugs often produce adverse effects on the quality of life and are, therefore, poorly accepted by many women, even those who are at high risk for breast cancer. We propose a novel alternative approach to decreasing estrogen production: suppression of ovarian synthesis of the androgen precursors of estrogens by administration of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. The specific target population would be elderly postmenopausal women, at increased risk of breast cancer, and with high blood levels of testosterone, marker of ovarian hyperandrogenemia, and recognized factor of risk for breast cancer. Testosterone levels are measured at baseline to identify women at risk and during the follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The postmenopausal ovary is an important source of excessive androgen production which originates from the ovarian interstitial cell hyperplasia frequently present in breast cancer patients. We propose to counter the source of androgen excess in women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia, thus reducing the substrate for estrogen formation without completely inhibiting estrogen synthesis. Available evidence indicates that gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be safely used for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. PMID:27393623

  9. Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: power, beliefs and decision making.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L

    2003-01-01

    Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women. PMID:12514315

  10. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    León-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmerón, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L.; Thrasher, James F.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico’s early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women’s perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women’s understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender. Results Women’s confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men’s sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes’ desire for sex as natural but understood men’s negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women’s HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission. Conclusions These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women’s negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could

  11. Metabolic syndrome and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Dragsbæk, Katrine; Neergaard, Jesper S.; Laursen, Janne M.; Hansen, Henrik B.; Christiansen, Claus; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Karsdal, Morten A.; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is believed to vary with age. With an elderly population expecting to triple by 2060, it is important to evaluate the validity of MetS in this age group. We examined the association of MetS risk factors with later risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly Caucasian women. We further investigated if stratification of individuals not defined with MetS would add predictive power in defining future disease prevalence of individuals with MetS. The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor Study, a community-based cohort study, followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1 ± 6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information. Elderly women with defined MetS presented a 6.3-fold increased risk of T2DM (95% confidence interval: [3.74–10.50]) and 1.7-fold increased risk of CVD (1.44–2.05) compared to women with no MetS risk factors. Subdividing the control group without defined MetS revealed that both centrally obese controls and controls holding other MetS risk factors also had increased risk of T2DM (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.21 [1.25–3.93] and HR = 1.75 [1.04–2.96]) and CVD (HR = 1.51 [1.25–1.83] and HR = 1.36 [1.15–1.60]) when compared to controls with no MetS risk factors. MetS in elderly Caucasian women increased risk of future T2DM and CVD. While not defined with MetS, women holding only some risk factors for MetS were also at increased risk of T2DM or CVD compared to women with no MetS risk factors. PMID:27603394

  12. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  13. The Role of Mental Health on Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J.; Rose, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine and describe the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) in predominantly low-income women. Design Mixed method. Setting Three urban obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) clinics serving predominantly low-income women. Participants A convenience sample of 166 women participated in the quantitative component and a purposeful sub-sample of 12 women participated in the qualitative component; all women were between 24–28 weeks gestation at the time of data collection. Methods Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of depressive symptoms and social support on MFA. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted among a sub-sample of women to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on MFA. Results Fifty-nine percent (n=98) of participants had scores that were clinically significant for depressive symptoms. In the final model of social support and depressive symptoms regressed on MFA, social support (b = 0.23, 95% CI [0.09, .37], p = .002) and depressive symptoms (b = −1.02, 95% CI [−1.32, −.73], p < 0.001) were significant predictors. This multivariate linear regression model with two variables accounted for 65.2% of the total variance in overall MFA. Qualitative participants discussed the importance of social support in contributing to their mood state and MFA. Conclusions Findings from this study highlight the importance of assessing for depressive symptoms during pregnancy given its influence on MFA. By understanding how important it was for these women to have a supportive person to experience their pregnancies with, nurses can improve the pregnancy experience for vulnerable populations. PMID:22788921

  14. Challenges to Providing End-of-Life Care to Low-Income Elders with Advanced Chronic Disease: Lessons Learned from a Model Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Betty J.; Auer, Casey

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the challenges in providing end-of-life care to low-income elders with multiple comorbid chronic conditions in a fully "integrated" managed care program, and it highlighted essential recommendations. Design and Methods: A case-study design was used that involved an extensive analysis of qualitative data from five focus…

  15. Effects of Social Injustice on Breast Health–Seeking Behaviors of Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann; Williams, Edith M.; Stoneberg-Cooper, Chayah M.; Glover, Saundra H.; Williams, Michelle S.; Byrd, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study uses qualitative research to gain a better understanding of what occurs after low-income women receive an abnormal breast screening and the factors that influence their decisions and behavior. A heuristic model is presented for understanding this complexity. Design Qualitative research methods used to elicited social and cultural themes related to breast cancer screening follow-up. Setting Individual telephone interviews were conducted with 16 women with confirmed breast anomaly. Participants Low-income women screened through a national breast cancer early detection program. Method Grounded theory using selective coding was employed to elicit factors that influenced the understanding and follow-up of an abnormal breast screening result. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into NVivo 8, a qualitative management and analysis software package. Results For women (16, or 72% of case management referrals) below 250% of the poverty level, the impact of social and economic inequities creates a psychosocial context underlined by structural and cultural barriers to treatment that forecasts the mechanism that generates differences in health outcomes. The absence of insurance due to underemployment and unemployment and inadequate public infrastructure intensified emotional stress impacting participants’ health decisions. Conclusion The findings that emerged offer explanations of how consistent patterns of social injustice impact treatment decisions in a high-risk vulnerable population that have implications for health promotion research and systems-level program improvement and development. PMID:23448411

  16. What determines satisfaction with surgeon treatment in low income women with breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Amardeep; Diamant, Allison; Liu, Yihang; Maly, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of overall patient satisfaction with the treatment provided by the surgeon and the consultation process and skills, in low income women undergoing surgical treatment for breast cancer. Design Cross sectional survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between satisfaction with surgeon treatment and four consultation skills and processes (time spent, listens carefully, explains things in a way you could understand, and shows respect for what you had to say), controlling for a range of patient, surgeon, and treatment characteristics. Setting & Patients A statewide sample of 789 low income women in California receiving treatment for breast cancer under the state’s Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Program (BCCTP). Main outcome measures Satisfaction with surgeon treatment. Results Three out of every four women reported being extremely satisfied with the treatment they received from their surgeon. African-American women and those with arm swelling were less likely to be satisfied, while those reporting that the surgeon always spent enough time and explained things in a way they could understand were more likely to report greater satisfaction. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of two relatively simple behaviors that surgeons can easily implement to increase patient satisfaction, which can be of potential benefit in today’s litigious world. PMID:19917945

  17. Women as agents of change: Female income and mobility in India

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

    2013-01-01

    Economic globalization will give many women in developing countries access to steady and relatively remunerative employment for the first time, potentially shifting bargaining power within their households and changing the choices that are made for their children. This paper exploits a unique setting — a group of tea plantations in South India where women are employed in permanent wage labor and where incomes do not vary by caste — to anticipate the impact of globalization on mobility across social groups in the future. The main result of the paper is that a relative increase in female income weakens the family's ties to the ancestral community and the traditional economy, but these mobility enhancing effects are obtained for certain historically disadvantaged castes alone. Although the paper provides a context-specific explanation for why the women from these castes emerge as agents of change, the first general implication of the analysis is that the incentive and the ability of women to use their earnings to influence household decisions depends importantly on their social background. The second implication is that historically disadvantaged groups may, in fact, be especially responsive to new opportunities precisely because they have fewer ties to the traditional economy to hold them back. PMID:24319310

  18. Factors related to curved femur in elderly Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchie, Hiroyuki; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Senma, Seietsu; Narita, Yuichiro; Miyamoto, Seiya; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sasaki, Kana; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple factors are involved in the development of atypical femoral fractures, and excessive curvature of the femur is thought to be one of them. However, the pathogenesis of femoral curvature is unknown. We evaluated the influence of factors related to bone metabolism and posture on the development of femoral curvature. Methods A total of 139 women participated in the present study. Curvatures were measured using antero-posterior and lateral radiography of the femur. We evaluated some bone and vitamin D metabolism markers in serum, the bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar spine alignment, and pelvic tilt. Results We divided the women into two groups, curved and non-curved groups, based on the average plus standard deviation as the cut-off between the groups. When univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to detect factors affecting femoral curvature, the following were identified as indices significantly affecting the curvature: age of the patients, serum concentrations of calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, pentosidine, homocysteine and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and BMD of the proximal femur (P < 0.05) both in the lateral and anterior curvatures. When we used multivariate analyses to assess these factors, only 25(OH)D and age (lateral and anterior standardized odds ratio: 0.776 and 0.385, and 2.312 and 4.472, respectively) affected the femoral curvature (P < 0.05). Conclusion Femoral curvature is strongly influenced by age and serum vitamin D. PMID:27228191

  19. Seasonal variation in food insecurity is associated with heating and cooling costs among low-income elderly Americans.

    PubMed

    Nord, Mark; Kantor, Linda S

    2006-11-01

    In this study we examine the association between household food insecurity and seasonally high heating and cooling costs. Logistic regression models, controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, were estimated using data on household food security and economic and demographic data from the 1995-2001 Current Population Survey Food Security Supplements and state-level data on heating and cooling degree days from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Low-income households, especially those consisting entirely of elderly persons, experienced substantial seasonal differences in the incidence of very low food security (the more severe range of food insecurity) in areas with high winter heating costs and high summer cooling costs. In high-cooling states, the odds of very low food security for poor, elderly only households were 27% higher in the summer than in the winter. In high-heating states, the pattern was reversed for such households; the odds of very low food security were 43% lower in the summer. In light of recent sharp increases in home heating and cooling costs in many parts of the U.S., it is important to understand the extent to which households make tradeoffs between heating and cooling costs and other basic needs that affect their food security.

  20. Structural and functional markers of health depending on lifestyle in elderly women from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Skrzek, Anna; Ignasiak, Zofia; Sławińska, Teresa; Domaradzki, Jarosław; Fugiel, Jarosław; Sebastjan, Anna; Rożek, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To comparatively analyze the rate and magnitude of age-related changes between two groups of elderly women with different lifestyles living in Poland: women attending a University of the Third Age (active lifestyle) and less-active peers not involved in any seniors association. Methods The study was conducted in 2010–2012. The study design was approved by the Senate Ethics Committee for Scientific Research of the University School of Physical Education. In total, 417 women were recruited. Basic somatic characteristics, body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, respiratory function, postural stability, and body posture were measured. Regression analysis and Student’s t-tests for independent samples were calculated. Results and conclusion The best results among the tests assessing functional biological markers of health were found in the group of elderly women attending a University of the Third Age. The rate of change was larger in the group of seniors leading a less-active lifestyle, indicating the important role of a preventive gerontological approach and the participation of seniors in programs that accentuate the need for physical activity. PMID:25960643

  1. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  2. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  3. Maternal stress exposures, reactions, and priorities for stress reduction among low-income urban women

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Tina; Glass, Nancy; Ann Curry, Mary; Hernandez, Rebecca; Houck, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Maternal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse maternal-child outcomes. Vulnerable women’s experiences with stressors during pregnancy and their desires and priorities for appropriate and useful stress reduction interventions for pregnant women are not well-understood. METHODS Qualitative interviews with low-income, urban women explored their stress exposures and reactions during pregnancy, ways that stressors overlapped and interacted, and their priorities for stress reduction. Quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, My Exposure to Violence Instrument Danger Assessment, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale, Revised, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian) supplemented qualitative descriptions of women’s stress exposures and reactions. Analyses explored relationships between stressors and women’s priorities for stress intervention. Lay advisors from the sample population reviewed qualitative interview guides for appropriateness, completeness, and language prior to interviews, and reviewed study findings for validity. Study findings were returned to the community in newsletter form. RESULTS Twenty-four low-income urban women participated in interviews. Women in the sample reported high stress, lifetime violence exposure, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The most common stressors reported were financial strain, violence exposure, and feelings of intense isolation and loneliness. Few participants reported having discussed psychosocial stressors with prenatal care providers. Participants in this study described connections with other women as desirable to relieve their stress and provided input on ways healthcare providers could facilitate such connections. DISCUSSION Clinical and research implications of findings are discussed, including approaches that health care providers may find useful to facilitate connections among vulnerable pregnant women. PMID:23278984

  4. Rehabilitation programs for elderly women inpatients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carlos M; Palha, António P; Gonçalves, Daniela C; Pachana, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to describe rehabilitation and resocialization methods we believe to be appropriate for application to female patients with schizophrenia, in a psychiatric unit with a predominantly older population. We briefly describe the unit and the interventions used as an example of the proposed rehabilitation and resocialization methods applied. The article provides an overview to guide accurate intervention, particularly in inpatient women, in different types of cognitive impairment under the broad category of schizophrenia. Our clinical approach includes a token economy approach, cognitive remediation therapy, and social skills training. The token economy intervention is particularly directed to patients that present with a high mental deterioration and/or debility. Cognitive remediation training is applicable to subjects with both cognitive and social dysfunction, but that do not possess signs of an organic cerebral illness or of substance abuse. Social skills training can be the third step to resocialization, training verbal and nonverbal communication competencies.

  5. Patterns of Care and Outcome of Elderly Women Diagnosed With Cervical Cancer in the Developing World.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Melo, Andreia Cristina; Garces, Alvaro Henrique Ingles; Paulino, Eduardo; Alves, Flavia Vieira Guerra; Vilaça, Mariana do Nascimento; Silva, Laisa Gabrielle; Gonçalves, Cristiane Alves; Fabrini, Juliana Chaves; Carneiro, Anderson Thiago Vieira; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2016-09-01

    Scarce data exist about the impact of age in cervical cancer (CC) patients in the developing world. The objective of the current study was to examine the patterns of care and outcome of elderly patients treated in a developing country. Medical records of patients treated from 2006-2009 at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute were reviewed. Patients were divided between women 70 years or older and women younger than 70 years. The χ tests were used and odds ratios were calculated. Survival was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Single and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling were used. A total of 1482 patients were analyzed: 1339 patients younger than 70 years and 143 patients 70 years or older. A marked difference in treatment was noted, even after stratifying by disease stage. Only 21% of the older patients underwent surgical treatment compared with 27.6% of the younger. After adjusting for confounding variables, the hazard ratio for death from CC in the elderly was 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.36; P = 0.11). These results corroborate previous data from developed countries: elderly patients have more advanced disease at diagnosis, and age is an important factor in the allocation of treatment for patients with CC. Worse outcome seemed to be mainly the result of more advanced stage and treatment allocation rather than age itself.

  6. Levels and Predictors of HIV Risk Behavior Among Women in Low-Income Public Housing Developments

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Koob, Jeffrey J.; Cargill, Victoria C.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Desiderato, Laurie L.; Roffman, Roger A.; Norman, Ann D.; Shabazz, Michelle; Copeland, Crystal; Winett, Richard A.; Steiner, Susan; Lemke, Audie L.

    1995-01-01

    THE PREVALENCE OF increases in human immunodeficiency virus infection and illness rates among urban disadvantaged women underscore the urgent need for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention interventions for high-risk women. Few studies, however, have examined the factors contributing to risk in this population or predictors of risk taking and risk reduction. A total of 148 women, most of them of racial minorities, living in low-income public housing developments completed measures designed to assess risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection and to analyze factors related to risk taking, including knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, behavior change self-efficacy, intention to use condoms, and social norm perception about safer sex practices. History of sexually transmitted diseases, low rates of condom use, and relationships with men who were injection drug users or who were not sexually exclusive were commonly reported. Women were divided into high- or low-risk categories based on behavior during the two preceding months. Women at low risk believed more strongly in personal efficacy of behavior change, were more committed to using condoms, and perceived risk reduction steps as more socially normative than high-risk women. Culturally tailored human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions that address these dimensions are needed. PMID:8570824

  7. "You really do something useful with kids": mothering and experienced health and illness in a group of elderly Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Forssén, Annika S K; Carlstedt, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on in-dept interviews with 20 elderly Swedish women, and deals with mother's child-caring work and related health and illness. Mothering included invisible work as well as physically heavy tasks, both aspects often neglected in research. The attitude of the children's father had a great impact on the work. Feelings of success or failure at bringing up their children affected the women's experience of health/ill health throughout their lives. Their health as elderly women depended on the health and happiness of their, now adult, children. PMID:18821212

  8. What Influences Diagnostic Delay in Low-Income Women with Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Leake, Barbara; Mojica, Cynthia M.; Liu, Yihang; Diamant, Allison L.; Thind, Amardeep

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Delayed diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) may contribute to adverse outcomes, such as reduced survival. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of elapsed time between recognition of breast abnormalities and receipt of definitive diagnosis of BC among low-income women. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among a statewide sample of 921 low-income women with a new diagnosis of BC. Patients were grouped by whether their breast abnormalities were self-detected or healthcare system detected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between diagnostic delay and patient characteristics, patient communication, and system characteristics. Results The self-detected group experienced much greater delay than the system-detected group (median intervals 80.5 vs. 31.5 days). African Americans had the longest intervals between symptom detection and diagnostic resolution; median delays in the self-detected and system-detected subgroups were 115 and 70 days, respectively, compared to 64 and 22 days for Caucasians. In multivariate analyses, African Americans had considerably greater odds of >60-day delay than Caucasians in both the self-detected (odds ratio [OR] 3.51) and system-detected (OR 5.36) groups. Greater perceived self-efficacy in interacting with healthcare providers was significantly associated with shorter delay among the self-detected group (OR 0.86). Conclusions Disparities in timely BC diagnosis between African Americans and Caucasians were pronounced in this uniformly low-income population of women. Women with self-detected abnormalities had markedly greater delays than those with healthcare system-detected abnormalities. Among this vulnerable group, increasing self-efficacy in interacting with healthcare providers may reduce diagnostic delays. PMID:21486163

  9. Does medicaid coverage matter?: A qualitative multi-state study of abortion affordability for low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Amanda; Manski, Ruth; Blanchard, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    Medicaid is designed to ensure low-income populations can afford health care. However, not all health services are covered by the program. Most state Medicaid programs restrict abortion coverage, though a small number of state programs offer such coverage. Little is known about how low-income women are affected by differing Medicaid coverage policies regarding abortion. We conducted in depth interviews with 98 low-income women who had abortions. We found that women's impressions about abortion costs and the availability of Medicaid coverage are generally accurate and that women rely predominantly on abortion facilities for confirmatory cost and coverage information. Additionally, when abortion is out of financial reach, women and the people in their lives experience numerous emotional and financial harms. Policies that aim to ensure abortion is affordable largely prevent these harms, though the availability of Medicaid coverage does not always guarantee access to affordable care. Findings can help advance evidence-based policies PMID:25418228

  10. Stress, emotions, and coping: a study of elderly women with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Downe-Wamboldt, B

    1991-01-01

    My purpose in conducting this study was to identify and describe the illness-related stressors and emotions experienced by elderly women with osteoarthritis and the coping strategies they used to manage these situations. The theoretical framework for the investigation was based on a process theory of stress and coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). In a home interview, 90 women completed a demographic profile and identified concerns, feelings, and coping strategies used to manage problems associated with osteoarthritis. Descriptive statistics and content analysis of data indicated that the stress of osteoarthritis involved physical, social, and psychological aspects of life and evoked both positive and negative feelings. The women used a broad repertoire of coping behaviors, including problem- and emotion-focused strategies to manage the problems associated with osteoarthritis in their day-to-day life. This information has implications in both treatment and prevention areas for health professionals who provide services for this group of people.

  11. Learning from "Knocks in Life": Food Insecurity among Low-Income Lone Senior Women.

    PubMed

    Green-Lapierre, Rebecca J; Williams, Patricia L; Glanville, N Theresa; Norris, Deborah; Hunter, Heather C; Watt, Cynthia G

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an urban area of NS. Using a phenomenological inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore lone senior women's experiences accessing food with limited financial resources. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, we explored their perceived ability to access a nutritionally adequate and personally acceptable diet, and the barriers and enablers to do so; as well in light of our previous quantitative research, we explored their perceptions related to adequacy of income, essential expenses, and their strategies to manage personal finances. Seven key themes emerged: world view, income adequacy, transportation, health/health problems, community program use, availability of family and friends, and personal food management strategies. World view exerted the largest influence on seniors' personal perception of food security status. The implications of the findings and policy recommendations to reduce the nutritional health inequities among this vulnerable subset of the senior population are considered.

  12. Learning from “Knocks in Life”: Food Insecurity among Low-Income Lone Senior Women

    PubMed Central

    Green-LaPierre, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Glanville, N. Theresa; Norris, Deborah; Hunter, Heather C.; Watt, Cynthia G.

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an urban area of NS. Using a phenomenological inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore lone senior women's experiences accessing food with limited financial resources. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, we explored their perceived ability to access a nutritionally adequate and personally acceptable diet, and the barriers and enablers to do so; as well in light of our previous quantitative research, we explored their perceptions related to adequacy of income, essential expenses, and their strategies to manage personal finances. Seven key themes emerged: world view, income adequacy, transportation, health/health problems, community program use, availability of family and friends, and personal food management strategies. World view exerted the largest influence on seniors' personal perception of food security status. The implications of the findings and policy recommendations to reduce the nutritional health inequities among this vulnerable subset of the senior population are considered. PMID:22997580

  13. What do Women Want? Experiences of Low-Income Women with Postpartum Contraception and Contraceptive Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lynn M; Farner, Katherine C; King, Erin; Simon, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Background Contraceptive counseling can increase postpartum contraception use, yet the optimal method and timing for counseling are unknown. The objective was to investigate preferences of underserved pregnant and postpartum women regarding contraception use and counseling. Method Surveys regarding contraception experiences and perceptions of contraceptive counseling were conducted with 57 women age 18 and older who were postpartum or antepartum with a previous delivery within 5 years and receiving Medicaid-funded care at an academic medical center. Health literacy was assessed using REALM-7. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A majority of women reported unplanned pregnancies (78%). Women using contraception at the time of conception reported “not sure” (30%) and “taken wrong” (30%) as primary reasons for failure. Most subjects had at least a high school level of health literacy (88%), desired to use a postpartum contraceptive method (92%) and had a high self-reported understanding of that method (94%). Most women reported receiving counseling (91%) and stated that the best time for counseling was both before and after childbirth (84%). However, only 60% of subjects intended to use the method they were prescribed at discharge; reasons for changing included side effects (37%), desire for different contraception (23%) and too complicated of a method prescribed (17%). Conclusion Women perceived the best timing of contraceptive education to be both antepartum and postpartum. Despite a high frequency of prior contraceptive failure, self-reported understanding of the chosen postpartum contraceptive method was high. Contraception counseling should be tailored to a woman’s perceived needs, with such education occurring frequently and within the context of her health literacy. PMID:27294202

  14. Do 12-week yoga program influence respiratory function of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-09-29

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  15. Effect of obesity and type 2 diabetes on protein anabolic response to insulin in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jessica; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Goulet, Éric D B; Morais, José A

    2015-09-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have been shown to alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose and protein metabolism in middle-aged women. We aimed to determine whether these findings translate to the elderly who are at increased risk of muscle loss. We assessed whole-body protein (1-(13)C-leucine) and glucose (3-(3)H-glucose) kinetics in 10 healthy (age: 71.6±1.8years; BMI: 23.2±0.8kg/m(2)), 8 obese (age: 72.9±1.3; BMI: 33.1±1.0) and 8 obese well-controlled type 2 diabetic (age: 69.8±1.6; BMI: 34.4±1.5) elderly women in the postabsorptive state and during a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic, isoaminoacidemic clamp. All subjects followed an isoenergetic, protein-controlled diet for 6days preceding the clamp. The net protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinemia was similarly blunted in obese (0.08±0.06) and obese type 2 diabetic women (0.06±0.04) compared to healthy women (0.24±0.05μmol·kg fat free mass(-1)·min(-1); ANOVA p=0.018). In contrast, the insulin-mediated glucose disposal (healthy: 9.72±0.67) was decreased with obesity (6.96±0.86) and further with diabetes (5.23±0.27mg·kg fat free mass(-1)·min(-1); ANOVA p<0.001). Endogenous glucose production was not completely suppressed during the clamp only in diabetic women. Thus, the glucose infusion rate was the lowest in this group. Obese elderly women with and without type 2 diabetes have a similar degree of insulin resistance of protein anabolism, despite worse glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Similar to previous findings in middle-aged women, obesity exerted a blunting effect on protein anabolism, which may contribute to the development of sarcopenic obesity. Our results suggest that the presence of type 2 diabetes at an advancing age does not further aggravate this effect. PMID:26068615

  16. Prepregnancy obesity trends among low-income women, United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, Stefanie N; Sharma, Andrea J; Kim, Shin Y; Park, Sohyun; Dalenius, Karen; Brindley, Patricia L; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2012-10-01

    There is limited data on prepregnancy obesity trends specifically among low-income women, a population at high risk for obstetric complications. Using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, we assessed prepregnancy obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)] trends among women who participated in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in 1999, 2004, and 2008. Prepregnancy BMI was calculated using measured height and self-reported prepregnancy weight. We report unadjusted contributor (state, territory or Indian tribal organization) specific trends, and both unadjusted and adjusted overall trends, to account for changes in maternal age and race-ethnic distributions, using 1999 as the referent. Of the 27 contributors in 1999, 2 had a prepregnancy obesity prevalence <20%, and 1 had a prevalence ≥ 30%. Of the 35 contributors in 2008, none had a prepregnancy obesity prevalence <20%, and 14 had a prevalence ≥ 30%. From 1999 to 2008, the overall prevalence of prepregnancy obesity increased among all racial-ethnic groups, except among American Indian/Alaskan Natives, where it remained high, but stable. Overall prepregnancy obesity increased most rapidly among Hispanics, and remained stable from 2004 to 2008 among non-Hispanic blacks. In 2008, prevalence was highest among American Indian/Alaskan Natives (36.1%) and lowest among Asians/Pacific Islanders (10.8%). The adjusted prepregnancy obesity prevalence increased from 24.8% in 1999 to 28.3% in 2008, a relative increase of 14.1%. Prepregnancy obesity among low-income women increased from 1999 to 2008 and varied by race-ethnicity. These data can be used by obesity prevention programs to better target high-risk women.

  17. Food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome among women from low income communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Yen, Wong Chee; Yaw, Yong Heng; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between household food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among reproductive-aged women (n=625) in low income communities. The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument was utilized to assess food insecurity. Anthropometry, diet diversity, blood pressure and fasting venous blood for lipid and glucose profile were also obtained. MetS was defined as having at least 3 risk factors and is in accordance with the Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of food insecurity and MetS was 78.4% (household food insecure, 26.7%; individual food insecure, 25.3%; child hunger, 26.4%) and 25.6%, respectively. While more food secure than food insecure women had elevated glucose (food secure, 54.8% vs food insecure, 37.3-46.1%), total cholesterol (food secure, 54.1% vs food insecure, 32.1-40.7%) and LDL-cholesterol (food secure, 63.7% vs food insecure, 40.6-48.7%), the percentage of women with overweight/ obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low HDL-cholesterol and MetS did not vary significantly by food insecurity status. However, after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, women in food insecure households were less likely to have MetS (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05), abdominal obesity (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.01), elevated glucose (household food insecure), total cholesterol (child hunger) (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (household food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05) compared to food secure women. Efforts to improve food insecurity of low income households undergoing nutrition transition should address availability and accessibility to healthy food choices and nutrition education that could reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases.

  18. Food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome among women from low income communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Yen, Wong Chee; Yaw, Yong Heng; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between household food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among reproductive-aged women (n=625) in low income communities. The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument was utilized to assess food insecurity. Anthropometry, diet diversity, blood pressure and fasting venous blood for lipid and glucose profile were also obtained. MetS was defined as having at least 3 risk factors and is in accordance with the Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of food insecurity and MetS was 78.4% (household food insecure, 26.7%; individual food insecure, 25.3%; child hunger, 26.4%) and 25.6%, respectively. While more food secure than food insecure women had elevated glucose (food secure, 54.8% vs food insecure, 37.3-46.1%), total cholesterol (food secure, 54.1% vs food insecure, 32.1-40.7%) and LDL-cholesterol (food secure, 63.7% vs food insecure, 40.6-48.7%), the percentage of women with overweight/ obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low HDL-cholesterol and MetS did not vary significantly by food insecurity status. However, after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, women in food insecure households were less likely to have MetS (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05), abdominal obesity (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.01), elevated glucose (household food insecure), total cholesterol (child hunger) (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (household food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05) compared to food secure women. Efforts to improve food insecurity of low income households undergoing nutrition transition should address availability and accessibility to healthy food choices and nutrition education that could reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. PMID:24561982

  19. Doula care supports near-universal breastfeeding initiation among diverse, low-income women

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Attanasio, Laura B.; Hardeman, Rachel R.; O’Brien, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the United States breastfeeding initiation rates have risen in recent years. However, there are notable disparities by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Previous research has suggested that care from a doula (a trained professional who provides non-medical support during the perinatal period) may increase breastfeeding initiation. The goal of this study was to study whether doula support may be associated with breastfeeding initiation among low-income, diverse women. Methods We compared breastfeeding initiation rates (mean values and 95% confidence intervals) for 1,069 women who received doula care from Everyday Miracles, a Minnesota-based organization that employs a diverse group of certified doulas, to a state-based sample of Medicaid-covered women who gave birth in 2009 or 2010 and participated in the Minnesota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey (weighted n=51,721). Results Women who had doula-supported births had near-universal breastfeeding initiation (97.9%), compared with 80.8% of the general Medicaid population. Among African-American women, 92.7% of those with doula support initiated breastfeeding, compared with 70.3% of the general Medicaid population. Discussion These results suggest that access to culturally-appropriate doula care may facilitate higher rates of breastfeeding initiation. When supported in their non-medical needs by birth doulas, the diverse, low-income patients of midwives and other maternity care providers may have a greater likelihood of initiating breastfeeding and experiencing the maternal and infant health benefits associated with breastfeeding. PMID:23837663

  20. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  1. Effects of gait velocity and center of mass acceleration during turning gait in old-old elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated gait velocity and center of mass acceleration in three directions during square and semicircular turning gait tasks in old-old elderly women. [Subjects] Fifteen community-dwelling, old-old elderly women (≥75 years old) who could walk independently were recruited. [Methods] We measured gait velocity and center of mass acceleration in three directions using an accelerometer during two different turning gait tasks. [Results] The velocity during square turning was significantly slower than that during semicircular turning gait. There were no significant differences between gait tasks with respect to normalized antero-posterior, medo-lateral, or vertical center of mass acceleration. [Conclusion] Changing the direction of travel while walking regardless of turning angle is one of the greatest challenges for balance in old-old elderly people. Furthermore, gait velocity is a useful clinical marker for predicting falls in old-old elderly populations. PMID:26180319

  2. The important things in the life of older people: elderly women in social houses and home care.

    PubMed

    Kasepalu, Ulle; Laidmäe, Virve-Ines; Tulva, Taimi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze the aging experiences of elderly women in Estonia and the factors influencing them. The assessments of two groups using social services are compared-the elderly living in Tallinn's social houses and the elderly receiving care at home. From February to August 2011, a total of 80 elderly women were interviewed. Inhabitants of social houses find that their old age is satisfying more often (65% of the inhabitants of social houses and 40% of the people in home care). Many home care clients were convinced that it is best to spend old age among loved ones and in a familiar environment. Those living at home have many difficulties, which is why 20% of them are on a waiting list to go to a social house. Home services should include services with which the inhabitants of social houses are very satisfied.

  3. Self-Efficacy Scale for Weight Loss among Multi-Ethnic Women of Lower Income: A Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…

  4. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  5. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  6. Localization of urinary tract infection in elderly, institutionalized women with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, L E; Muir, P; Harding, G K; Norris, M

    1988-01-01

    We determined the site of urinary tract infection in 51 elderly, institutionalized women (mean age, 80.5 years) with asymptomatic bacteriuria by using the Fairley bladder washout technique. Thirty-four (67%) infections were localized in the kidney and 17 (33%) in the bladder. Women with renal infection were older than those with bladder infection (81.9 vs. 77.6 years of age; P = .04). The antibody-coated bacteria test had a sensitivity of 58%, specificity of 71%, positive predictive value of 82%, and negative predictive value of 43% for upper-urinary-tract infection. A quantitative urinary leukocyte count of greater than or equal to 20 leukocytes/mm3 had a positive predictive value of 80% and a negative predictive value of 88% for upper-urinary-tract infection. This study suggests that the majority of elderly, institutionalized women with asymptomatic bacteriuria have upper-urinary-tract infection. Both the antibody-coated bacteria test and the quantitative urinary leukocyte count may be useful as noninvasive tests for localization of urinary tract infection in this population.

  7. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention.

  8. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention. PMID:26086275

  9. Elderly Adi Women of Arunachal Pradesh: "Living Encyclopedias" and Cultural Refugia in Biodiversity Conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  10. Elderly Adi women of Arunachal Pradesh: "living encyclopedias" and cultural refugia in biodiversity conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjay K; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  11. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. PMID:27531448

  12. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. PMID:26744506

  13. Quality of life and functional capacity of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Janice Chaim; Bassitt, Debora Pastore

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To correlate functional ability and quality of life of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Cross-sectional study composed of 40 elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. We used the following instruments: identification questionnaire, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-OLD (WHOQOL-OLD). The significance level was 0.05 (5%), and confidence intervals were 95%. For statistical analysis we used parametric statistical tests, descriptive analysis, test for equality of two proportions, Pearson's correlation, correlation test, and analysis of variance. Results: The mean age (± standard deviation) was 74.1 (±6.7) years, and 47.5% of patients had osteoarthritis in both knees. Moderate pain was reported by 45% of patients when they walked on a flat plane and 40% when they were seated or lying down; 55% had severe or very severe pain when climbing or descending stairs; 50% reported moderate joint stiffness after sitting, lying, or resting; and 65% reported moderate or little stiffness after waking. In physical function, 60% of patients had moderate or severe difficulty in descending stairs and 67.5%, when climbing stairs; 60% reported severe or very severe difficulty in getting in and out of the car, and 70%, when performing strenuous housework. The correlation with WHOQOL-OLD and WOMAC was negative and not significant except for autonomy, which was significant. Sedentary and elderly women who used walking aid devices had worse WOMAC functional capacity, but this finding was not statistically significant. In WHOQOL-OLD, volunteers scored higher on social participation and engagement in physical activity on autonomy, which was statistically significant compared with the nonvoluntary and sedentary domains, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to have a good quality of life even with functional impairment from knee osteoarthritis. PMID:23843063

  14. Dietary status of Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly women.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Underwood, B C; Sherman, K M; Arabatzis, K; Barbosa, J C; Johnson, M; Shultz, T D

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nutrient intakes of Seventh-Day Adventist elderly women who were similar in many demographic and life-style factors except for choice of diet. Twenty-three vegetarian and 14 non-vegetarian elderly women (mean +/- standard error ages 72.2 +/- 1.3 and 71.1 +/- 1.4 years, respectively) were recruited on the basis of several selection criteria, including race, religion, education, geographic area, Quetelet index, self-reported absence of major chronic disease and use of medications, and physical activity. Average years +/- SE of adherence to dietary regimens were 47.0 +/- 2.9 and 71.2 +/- 1.4 in the vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups, respectively. Results from analysis of 7-day food records showed that vegetarians consumed significantly less cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and caffeine but more carbohydrate, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamins E and A, thiamin, pantothenic acid, copper, and manganese than non-vegetarians (p less than .05). On the basis of group means, 67% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance was met for all nutrients except zinc and vitamin D in both groups, and vitamins B-6, folacin, and vitamin E in the non-vegetarians. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians had significantly lower serum glucose (5.18 +/- 0.11 vs. 4.65 +/- 0.09 mmol/L), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (4.08 +/- 0.25 vs. 3.34 +/- 0.19 mmol/L), and total cholesterol levels (6.46 +/- 0.27 vs. 5.62 +/- 0.21 mmol/L) (p less than .05). In summary, when healthy elderly vegetarian women were compared with closely matched non-vegetarian peers, the vegetarian diet was associated with improved nutrient intake and associated reductions in blood glucose and lipid levels.

  15. Dietary protein intake is associated with better physical function and muscle strength among elderly women.

    PubMed

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2016-04-14

    Dietary protein intake might be beneficial to physical function (PF) in the elderly. We examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of protein intake of g/kg body weight (BW), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with PF in 554 women aged 65·3-71·6 years belonging to the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Fracture Prevention Study. Participants filled a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-d food record in 2002. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and PF measures were performed at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Sarcopaenia was defined using European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. At the baseline, women with higher protein intake (≥ 1·2 g/kg BW) had better performance in hand-grip strength/body mass (GS/BM) (P=0·001), knee extension/BM (P=0·003), one-leg stance (P=0·047), chair rise (P=0·043), squat (P=0·019), squat to the ground (P=0·001), faster walking speed for 10 m (P=0·005) and higher short physical performance battery score (P=0·004) compared with those with moderate and lower intakes (0·81-1·19 and ≤ 0·8 g/kg BW, respectively). In follow-up results, higher protein intake was associated with less decline in GS/BM, one-leg stance and tandem walk for 6 m over 3 years. Overall, results were no longer significant after controlling for FM. Associations were detected between protein intake and PF in non-sarcopaenic women but not in sarcopaenic women, except for change of GS (P=0·037). Further, FM but not LM was negatively associated with PF measures (P<0·050). This study suggests that higher protein intake and lower FM might be positively associated with PF in elderly women.

  16. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  17. Perceived welfare caseworker support and psychological distress among low-income urban women with children.

    PubMed

    Hill, Terrence D; Cain, Daphne S

    2012-10-01

    Although some research suggests that the relationship between Child Protective Services workers and their clients may influence client outcomes, little is known about the function of the relationship between welfare or Temporary Assistance for Needy Families caseworkers and their clients. Building on previous research, the authors use 1999 survey data from the Welfare, Children, and Families Project--a probability sample of 853 low-income women with children living in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, Texas--to examine the association between perceived welfare caseworker support and psychological distress. Results revealed that women who perceive their welfare caseworker to be interested, caring, and helpful also tend to exhibit lower levels of psychological distress.

  18. Barriers to prenatal care among low-income women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kalmuss, D; Fennelly, K

    1990-01-01

    Postpartum in-hospital interviews with 496 low-income women in New York City revealed that attitudinal and motivational barriers as well as financial obstacles are significant impediments to timely initiation of prenatal care. The two most common reasons cited by these women in explaining why they had obtained prenatal care late or not at all were motivational items: "feeling depressed and not up to going for care" and "needing time and energy to deal with other problems." In logistic regression analyses, receipt of late or no prenatal care was significantly associated with the latter motivational barrier, along with the cost of care, having no health insurance, being Hispanic, being a substance abuser and holding negative attitudes toward the use of prenatal care. PMID:2272380

  19. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; LEE, Hyo-Hyun; KIM, Siyeon; JANG, Young-Joon; BAEK, Yoon-Jeong; KANG, Kwon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155–341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions. PMID:26632118

  20. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin measured with a specific immunoassay predicts hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Study.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, P; Garnero, P; Meunier, P J; Bréart, G; Kamihagi, K; Delmas, P D

    1997-03-01

    Increased levels of circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), measured indirectly with the hydroxyapatite (HAP) binding assay, have been shown to predict hip fracture risk in a small group of elderly institutionalized women. The aim of this study was to confirm these findings in a prospective cohort study (EPIDOS prospective study) of 7598 healthy, independently living women over 75 yr of age. One hundred and four women who sustained a hip fracture during a 22-month follow-up period were age matched with 255 controls who did not fracture. Baseline samples were collected before hip fracture for measurement of total OC and ucOC, assessed either with the HAP binding assay or directly with a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This direct ELISA uses human recombinant noncarboxylated OC as a standard and two monoclonal antibodies, one of which was raised against the 14-30 Glu synthetic peptide. We found that the intra- and interassay variations are less than 11%, and this assay exhibits a 5% cross-reactivity with purified human bone OC, used as a source of carboxylated OC. ucOC levels measured with this ELISA correlated well with the HAP binding assay in the population of 359 elderly women (r = 0.82; P < 0.0001). We estimated the risk of hip fracture for women with levels of ucOC in the highest quartile of values for the 255 controls. We found that increased levels of ucOC measured by ELISA were associated with increased hip fracture risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0), and the ELISA had a greater sensitivity than the HAP assay. In contrast, total OC was not associated with hip fracture risk. After adjustment for femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and mobility status assessed by gait speed, ucOC still predicted hip fracture with an OR of 1.8 (1.0-3.0). Women with both femoral neck BMD in the lowest quartile and ucOC in the highest quartile were at higher risk of hip fracture, with an OR of 5.5 (2.7-11.2), than

  1. Hereditary angioedema: special consideration in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, James L; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    This review on hereditary angioedema (HAE) focused on special topics regarding HAE in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly. HAE is a rare autosomal dominant bradykinin-mediated disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal swelling that usually affects the face, upper airway, extremities, gastrointestinal tract, or genitalia. These recurrent attacks cause significant morbidity and can be life threatening, especially when the swelling affects the airway. Our objective was to summarize the published data available on the disease epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, on demand and prophylactic therapy, and focus on management considerations for these special patient populations. Unique aspects of HAE in women with regard to contraception, hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause were also reviewed.

  2. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Kathy R.; Paprocki, Christine; Fishman, Marget Thomas; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and therefore may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women’s sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001–2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention. PMID:26086275

  3. Knowledge and willingness to use emergency contraception among low-income post-partum women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R; Schwarz, E B; Freedman, L; Darney, P

    2000-06-01

    We performed a multivariate analysis to determine factors associated with knowledge and willingness to use emergency contraception in a consecutive sample of 371 post-partum women from an inner-city public hospital. Women were queried about previous contraceptive use, pregnancy history including abortions and unplanned pregnancies, and demographic characteristics. Outcomes included knowledge of emergency contraception and willingness to use it. Questionnaires were conducted in person, in English or Spanish.Of 371 women, 3% had used emergency contraception, 36% had heard of it, and 7% knew the correct timing for use. Two-thirds of the population indicated a willingness to use emergency contraception in the future. Factors positively associated with knowledge included being a teenager or more than 30 years old, prior use of condoms, and history of an elective abortion. Being multiparous, monolingual Spanish-speaking, or Asian were negatively associated with knowledge. Willingness to use emergency contraception was positively associated with being multiparous and negatively associated with a higher income, moral or religious objections to the use of emergency contraception, a belief that it is unsafe or a perception that it is an abortificient. Knowledge about emergency contraception, especially correct timing, remains low. Multiparous women should receive increased education given their lack of knowledge but willingness to use emergency contraception. In order to increase the acceptability of emergency contraception, educational efforts must include accurate information about its mechanism of use and safety. PMID:10958877

  4. Waking Up the Mind: Qualitative Study Findings About the Process Through Which Programs Combining Income Generation and Health Education Can Empower Indigenous Guatemalan Women.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ballard, Anne; Kerr, Samantha; Walsh, Janée; Petrocy, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We explored the process through which two income-generation programs that include health education empower indigenous Guatemalan women artisans. Both artisans (n = 44) and program staff (n = 11) participated in semistructured interviews. Respondents expressed that women gained support about personal issues and experienced an awakening of the mind (despertar la mente). Through active participation, women's fear of strangers and speaking in public decreased. Women also gained mobility, awareness of their rights as women, and self-confidence from earning and managing their own income. Given our findings, we suggest that programs combining income generation and health education have the potential to empower women.

  5. Waking Up the Mind: Qualitative Study Findings About the Process Through Which Programs Combining Income Generation and Health Education Can Empower Indigenous Guatemalan Women.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ballard, Anne; Kerr, Samantha; Walsh, Janée; Petrocy, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We explored the process through which two income-generation programs that include health education empower indigenous Guatemalan women artisans. Both artisans (n = 44) and program staff (n = 11) participated in semistructured interviews. Respondents expressed that women gained support about personal issues and experienced an awakening of the mind (despertar la mente). Through active participation, women's fear of strangers and speaking in public decreased. Women also gained mobility, awareness of their rights as women, and self-confidence from earning and managing their own income. Given our findings, we suggest that programs combining income generation and health education have the potential to empower women. PMID:25635700

  6. Serum Uric Acid Is Positively Associated with Handgrip Strength among Japanese Community-Dwelling Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) has strong anti-oxidant properties. Muscle strength and mass decrease with age, and recently, this decrease has been defined as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia may be triggered by oxidative stress. We investigated whether serum UA is associated with handgrip strength (HGS), which is a useful indicator of sarcopenia, among Japanese community-dwelling elderly persons. The present study included 602 men aged 72 ± 7 years and 847 women aged 71 ± 6 years from a rural village. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between serum UA and HGS. In both genders, HGS increased significantly with increased serum UA levels. A multiple linear regression analysis using HGS as an objective variable and various confounding factors as explanatory variables showed that in men age, drinking status, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFRCKDEPI) were independently and significantly associated with HGS, and in women, serum UA as well as age, body mass index, drinking status, diastolic blood pressure, and eGFRCKDEPI were independently and significantly associated with HGS. In women, age and multivariate-adjusted HGS were significantly higher in the Quartile-3 (4.8-5.4 mg/dL) and Quartile-4 groups (5.5-9.3 mg/dL) of serum UA than in the lower groups (0.7-4.7 mg/dL). These results suggest that serum UA may have a protective role in aging-associated decline in muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:27078883

  7. Serum Uric Acid Is Positively Associated with Handgrip Strength among Japanese Community-Dwelling Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) has strong anti-oxidant properties. Muscle strength and mass decrease with age, and recently, this decrease has been defined as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia may be triggered by oxidative stress. We investigated whether serum UA is associated with handgrip strength (HGS), which is a useful indicator of sarcopenia, among Japanese community-dwelling elderly persons. The present study included 602 men aged 72 ± 7 years and 847 women aged 71 ± 6 years from a rural village. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between serum UA and HGS. In both genders, HGS increased significantly with increased serum UA levels. A multiple linear regression analysis using HGS as an objective variable and various confounding factors as explanatory variables showed that in men age, drinking status, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFRCKDEPI) were independently and significantly associated with HGS, and in women, serum UA as well as age, body mass index, drinking status, diastolic blood pressure, and eGFRCKDEPI were independently and significantly associated with HGS. In women, age and multivariate-adjusted HGS were significantly higher in the Quartile-3 (4.8–5.4 mg/dL) and Quartile-4 groups (5.5–9.3 mg/dL) of serum UA than in the lower groups (0.7–4.7 mg/dL). These results suggest that serum UA may have a protective role in aging-associated decline in muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:27078883

  8. Adherence to hysterosalpingogram appointments following hysteroscopic sterilization among low income women

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The few studies on post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) adherence rates show inconsistent results. This study examined associations between sociodemographic variables not examined in prior studies and HSG adherence among low income women. Study Design Medical records of 286 women who underwent sterilization between August 31, 2005 and September 30, 2011 were reviewed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine variable associations with HSG adherence. Results The adherence rate for the first HSG was 85.0% (243/286). Variables associated with adherence were: lower education level (p=.01), not working outside the home (p=.04), being married (p<.0001), lower gravidity (p=.03), fewer lifetime number of sexual partners (p<.0001), no sexually transmitted infection history (p<.01), Hispanic ethnicity (p<.0001), Spanish as a primary language (p<.0001) and living further from the clinic (p<.01). Conclusions This study demonstrates that achieving high rates of adherence with the recommended HSG following Essure placement is feasible among low income populations. Furthermore, not speaking English or having to commute a far distance to the clinic do not appear to be barriers. This is encouraging considering the importance of this test to confirm tubal occlusion. PMID:24012097

  9. Meaning of the Terms "Overweight" and "Obese" Among Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Samantha; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine how low-income United States women understand the meanings of the terms “overweight” and “obese”. Methods Low-income women [n = 145; 72% white, 12% black, 8% Hispanic; 59% obese, 21% overweight] each participated in an individual semi-structured interview during which they were asked to explain what the terms overweight and obese mean to them. Responses were transcribed and the constant comparative method was used to identify themes. Results Three themes emerged: (1) The terms are offensive and describe people who are unmotivated, depressed and do not care about themselves; (2) Obese is an extreme weight (e.g. 500 pounds and being immobile); (3) Being overweight is a matter of opinion; if a woman is “comfortable in her own skin” and “feels healthy” she is not overweight. Conclusions and Implications Health education focused on obesity should consider that vulnerable populations might consider the terms "overweight" and "obese" offensive and stigmatizing. PMID:24135314

  10. The impact of intimate partner violence, substance use, and HIV on depressive symptoms among abused low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Illangasekare, Samantha L; Burke, Jessica G; McDonnell, Karen A; Gielen, Andrea C

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use, and HIV are often co-occuring health problems affecting low-income urban women, and have been described as connected epidemics making up a "syndemic." Research suggests that each issue separately is associated with depressive symptoms, but no studies have examined the combined effect of IPV, substance use and HIV on women's depression. Interviews were conducted with 96 women recruited from community health clinics serving low-income women in an urban U.S. city. All women were over 17, not pregnant, English-speaking, without private insurance and had experienced physical IPV in the past year. Women were primarily African American (82%) and 82% were receiving income assistance. Twenty seven percent were HIV-positive, and 27% had used heroin or cocaine in the past 6 months. Based on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D ), 73% were depressed. Women who experienced severe IPV in the past 6 months were compared to women who experienced no IPV or psychological IPV only in the past 6 months; those who experienced severe IPV were 5.3 times more likely to be depressed, controlling for HIV status, drug use, age, and relationship status. Women who experienced severe IPV, were HIV-positive, and used drugs (7.3% of sample) were 7.98 times as likely to be depressed as women without these characteristics. These findings confirm that severe IPV is significantly associated with depression among urban abused women. Furthermore, this research suggests that the syndemic effect of IPV, substance use, and HIV could be even more detrimental to women's mental health. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware of the combined impact of the IPV, substance use, and HIV syndemic and consider how they can address the mental health needs of urban women.

  11. Fish Consumption Moderates Depressive Symptomatology in Elderly Men and Women from the IKARIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsitsinakis, George; Siassos, Gerassimos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Galiatsatos, Nikos; Metaxa, Vasiliki; Lazaros, George; Miliou, Antigoni; Giakoumi, Evaggelia; Mylonakis, Charalambos; Zaromytidou, Marina; Economou, Evaggelos; Triantafyllou, Georgia; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0–15), while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8 ± 3.5 versus 3.3 ± 3.1, P = .001). Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all P < .05). Regarding fish consumption, 50% of the individuals reported consuming 1-2 times weekly, 32% 3 to 5 times weekly, 11% 2-3 times monthly, while the rest reported rare (4.5%) and everyday (1.2%) consumption. Logistic regression showed that increased fish consumption (>3 times/week versus never/rare) was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4) (odds  ratio = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61), after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood. PMID:21197433

  12. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  13. The relationship between self-report and biomarkers of stress in low-income, reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Ann E.B; Grobman, William A.; Amsden, Laura B.; McDade, Thomas W.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an association between self-reported and biologic measures of stress in low-income, reproductive age women. STUDY DESIGN Between 1999 and 2005, randomly selected reproductive age women from the 1998 welfare rolls in Chicago were interviewed yearly to assess psychosocial, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. The association of two stress sensitive biomarkers (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (EBV) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level) with self-reported stress was assessed. RESULTS Of the 206 women interviewed, 205 (99%) agreed to provide a blood sample. There was no difference in mean EBV or CRP levels based on age, race, parity, employment, marital status, or education. Women who reported a higher degree of perceived stress or reported experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of EBV (p < .05). CONCLUSION Measures of self-reported psychosocial stress are associated with elevated levels EBV antibody in a low-income population of reproductive age women. PMID:20870203

  14. Lessons learned: providing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for low-income multiethnic women with abnormal pap smears.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Priscilla D; Zamora, Anita; Korn, Abner P

    2007-01-01

    Although the incidence rate of cervical cancer has decreased over the last several years, low-income ethnic minority women remain at increased risk for morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. We conducted a pilot study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program among multiethnic low-income women with abnormal Pap smears. Spanish- and English-speaking women recruited through convenience sampling participated in MBSR classes 2 hours each week over 6 consecutive weeks. State anxiety and self-compassion were measured before and after the MBSR program. Focus groups and surveys were used to evaluate the program. Although 51 women were initially recruited, pre- and post-MBSR data were available only for 8 women. There was a significant reduction in anxiety and a trend toward increased self-compassion in this group of women. The participants evaluated the MBSR program very positively. The high attrition rate highlights the challenges of conducting MBSR research with this demographic of women. Potential strategies for improving recruitment and retention of low-income multiethnic women are discussed.

  15. Determinants of excessive gestational weight gain in urban, low-income women

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Davey, Adam; Klotz, Alicia A.; Dibble, La Vette; Oken, Emily; Foster, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Factors influencing excessive weight gain in pregnancy have not been well studied among urban, low-income women. Methods Prospective cohort study of 94 prenatal care patients at a large university hospital in Philadelphia, examining associations of modifiable mid-pregnancy behaviors and non-modifiable or early pregnancy factors with excessive gestational weight gain. Data were collected through questionnaires and medical record abstraction in 2009-2011. Findings The majority of women were African-American (83%) and all (100%) received Medicaid. Nearly two-thirds (60%) were overweight or obese in early pregnancy and 41% experienced excessive gain. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant predictors of excessive gestational weight gain included high early pregnancy body mass index (odds ratio [OR]: 4.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43, 12.34 for overweight/obese vs. normal weight), nulliparity (OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.17, 9.62 for nulliparity vs. multiparity), and clinician advice discordant with Institute of Medicine guidelines (OR: 5.88, 95% CI: 1.04, 33.32 for discordant vs. concordant advice). Watching under two hours of television daily (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.03) and engaging in regular physical activity during pregnancy (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.11, 1.09) were suggestive of a reduced risk of excessive gain. Conclusions In this sample of urban, low-income women, high early pregnancy body mass index, nulliparity, and discordant clinician advice were directly associated with excessive gestational weight gain, with a trend toward decreased risk for viewing fewer hours of television and engaging in regular physical activity. Intervening on these targets may optimize gestational weight gain and promote long-term maternal health. PMID:22818249

  16. Transportation and housing energy policies: the energy crisis, minorities, low income and elderly persons in rural and urban perspectives in the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.A.; Boone, W.; Grandison, C.; Wilson, Z.

    1981-09-01

    The low income, minorities, elderly and handicapped have derived great benefits from the creation of rural transportation systems and the maintenance of relatively low fares in urban mass transit systems made possible by the Section 147 and Section 5 programs. It is essential that the Section 18 program, which also provides operating subsidy monies to keep the fares affordable, be expanded and its funding increased substantially. The Section 5 program has been of major benefit to the transportation disadvantaged in urban centers. The proposed cutbacks and elimination of the programs in FY 1985 will create severe hardships for residents of the inner cities. Rather, the federal government should continue to assume the major financial responsibility for subsidizing mass transit and keeping fares low. Although there are some problems with the administration of several of the housing energy programs, they have been helpful to those persons who have suffered most from rising heating fuel costs. The FMHA programs have made possible the purchase or repair of homes by low income, minority and elderly persons. The participants have reduced their heating costs as well as improved their quality of life. Although their funding is insufficient, the weatherization and energy assistance programs have both aided low income, minority and elderly persons and should be expanded in scope through increased funding. Finally, the woodstove project offers some hope for reducing reliance on high cost gas and coal as heating fuels and increasing the utilization of wood. The project has been an unqualified success.

  17. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. PMID:25524331

  18. [Elder].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented. PMID:27603886

  19. The Application and Outcome of Standard of Care Treatment in Elderly Women with Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review over the Last 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Steven J.; Fleming, Gini F.; Temkin, Sarah M.; Chase, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    The rising number and increasing longevity of the elderly population calls for improvements and potentially a more personalized approach to the treatment of cancer in this group. Elderly patients frequently present with a number of comorbidities, complicating surgery and chemotherapy tolerability. In the case of ovarian cancer, elderly women present with more advanced disease, making the issue of providing adequate treatment without significant morbidity critical. Most studies support the application of standard of care treatment to elderly women with ovarian cancer, yet it seems to be offered less frequently in the elderly. The objective of this review is to examine the application and outcome of standard of care treatment in elderly women with ovarian cancer. The aim is to ultimately improve the approach to treatment in this group. PMID:27047797

  20. Low-Income Women's Conceptualizations of Food Craving and Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Malika, Nipher M.; Hayman, Lenwood W.; Miller, Alison L.; Lee, Hannah J.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5 years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very “matter of fact” manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800

  1. Low-income women's conceptualizations of food craving and food addiction.

    PubMed

    Malika, Nipher M; Hayman, Lenwood W; Miller, Alison L; Lee, Hannah J; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-08-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very "matter of fact" manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs.

  2. Excess gestational weight gain in low-income overweight and obese women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthie K.; Walch, Tanis J.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Smith, Aubrey M.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Whigham, Leah D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. Design Qualitative study. Setting Community-based perinatal center. Participants 8 focus groups with women (Black=48%, White non-Hispanic=41%, Hispanic=10%) in the first half of (n=12) and last half of pregnancy (n=10), or post-partum (n=7); 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) (n=9). Phenomenon of Interest Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG within different levels of the Social Ecological Model (SEM), e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, etc. Analysis Coding guide was based on the SEM. Transcripts were coded by 3 researchers for common themes. Thematic saturation was reached. Results At an intrapersonal level, knowledge/skills and cravings were the most common barriers. At an interpersonal level, family and friends were most influential. At an organizational level, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program and clinics were influential. At the community level, lack of transportation was most frequently discussed. At a policy level, complex policies and social stigma surrounding WIC were barriers. There was consensus that ideal intervention approaches would include peer-facilitated support groups with information from experts. OB-GYNs felt uncomfortable counseling patients about GWG due to time constraints, other priorities, and lack of training. Conclusions and Implications There are multi-level public health opportunities to promote healthy GWG. Better communication between nutrition specialists and OB-GYNs is needed. PMID:26187348

  3. Bone Mineral Density and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Women: Results from the InCHIANTI Study.

    PubMed

    Laudisio, Alice; Fontana, Davide Onofrio; Rivera, Chiara; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gemma, Antonella; Ferrucci, Luigi; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis and cognitive impairment, which are highly prevalent conditions in elderly populations, share several risk factors. This study aims at evaluating the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment after a 3-year follow-up. We studied 655 community-dwelling women aged 65+ participating in the InCHIANTI study, who had been followed for 3 years. Total, trabecular, and cortical BMD were estimated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography using standard transverse scans at 4 and 38 % of the tibial length. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B; a MMSE score <24 was adopted to define cognitive impairment. The TMT A-B score was calculated as the difference between TMT-A and TMT-B times (ΔTMT). The association of cognitive performance after 3 years with baseline indices of BMD was assessed by logistic and linear regression analyses. Cortical, but not trabecular, BMD was independently associated with incident cognitive impairment (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.88-0.98; P = 0.012), worsening cognitive performance (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.92-0.98; P = 0.039), and worsening performance in ΔTMT (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.92-0.99; P = 0.047). Increasing cortical BMD tertiles was associated with decreasing probability of incident cognitive impairment (P for linear trend =0.001), worsening cognitive performance (P = 0.013), and a worsening performance below the median value (P for linear trend <0.0001). In older women, low BMD might represent an independent and early marker of subsequent cognitive impairment. Physicians should assess and monitor cognitive performance in the routine management of elderly women with osteoporosis. PMID:26713334

  4. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  5. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  6. Combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of women of advanced years. Design: 120 elderly women lacking daily exercise were chosen as the study subjects. By using the table of random numbers, they were then divided into the control group and the experiment group, consisting of 60 each. The control group practiced Taiji boxing for 45 minutes twice a day. The experiment group did the same, and, in addition, took astragalus soup after each boxing. Indexes related to physical immunity of the two groups were observed and compared when they were first chosen, when the alternative treatment was applied three, six and twelve months later, respectively. Results: The two groups demonstrated no significant differences in general data and research indexes when chosen (P > 0.05). Three months after the two groups were chosen and treated differently, the control group demonstrated no significant improvement while most indexes of the experiment group improved considerably (P > 0.05). After six months, the related indexes of both groups improved substantially (P < 0.05) and the improvement with the experiment was even clearer (P < 0.05). Twelve months later, the improvement with the experiment group was more noticeable (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a relatively short period of three months, Taiji boxing produces no noticeable effect on the improvement of immunity in elderly women. However, when they resume the exercise for another three months and longer, Taiji boxing has a noticeable advantage and the effect is the most favorable when it is combined with astragalus soup. PMID:25126193

  7. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  8. "You learn to go last": perceptions of prenatal care experiences among African-American women with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Mazul, Mary; Ngui, Emmanuel M; Bridgewater, Farrin D; Harley, Amy E

    2013-12-01

    African American infants die at higher rates and are at greater risk of adverse birth outcomes than White infants in Milwaukee. Though self-reported experiences of racism have been linked to adverse health outcomes, limited research exists on the impact of racism on women's prenatal care experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of racial discrimination during prenatal care from the perspectives of African American women in a low income Milwaukee neighborhood. Transcripts from six focus groups with twenty-nine women and two individual interviews were analyzed to identify important emergent themes. Validity was maintained using an audit trail, peer debriefing, and two individual member validation sessions. Participants identified three areas of perceived discrimination based on: (1) insurance or income status, (2) race, and (3) lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Women described being treated differently by support staff and providers based on type of insurance (public versus private), including perceiving a lower quality of care at clinics that accepted public insurance. While some described personally-mediated racism, the majority of women described experiences that fit within a definition of institutionalized racism-in which the system was designed in a way that worked against their attempts to get quality prenatal care. Women also described lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that African American women with limited incomes perceive many provider practices and personal interactions during prenatal care as discriminatory. Future studies could explore the relationship between perceptions of discrimination and utilization of prenatal care.

  9. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research.

  10. Treating Depression in Disabled, Low-income Elderly: A Conceptual Model and Recommendations for Care

    PubMed Central

    Areán, Patricia A.; Mackin, Scott; Vargas-Dwyer, Eleanor; Raue, Patrick; Sirey, Jo Anne; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The treatment of depression in low-income older adults who live in poverty is complicated by several factors. Poor access to resources, disability, and mild cognitive impairment are the main factors that moderate treatment effects in this population. Interventions that not only address the depressive syndrome but also manage social adversity are sorely needed to help this patient population recover from depression. Methods This paper is a literature review of correlates of depression in late life. In the review we propose a treatment model that combines case management to address social adversity with problem solving treatment to address the depressive syndrome. Results We present the case of Mr. Z, an older gentleman living in poverty who is also depressed and physically disabled. In this case we illustrate how the combination of case management and problem solving treatment can work together to ameliorate depression. Conclusions The combination of age, disability and social adversity complicates the management and treatment of depression. Case management and problem solving treatment are interventions that work synergistically to overcome depression and manage social problems. PMID:20602424

  11. Hwabyung: the construction of a Korean popular illness among Korean elderly immigrant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pang, K Y

    1990-12-01

    The cultural construction of Hwabyung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome, is explored among a sample of 20 elderly Korean immigrant women in the United States. Hwabyung results when distressed emotions associated with the specifically Korean way of perceiving and reacting to intolerable and tragic life situations cause bodily symptoms by interfering with the harmony of "Ki" (vital energy). Korean elderly immigrants report a broad range of symptoms associated with Hwabyung; they less frequently report the epigastric mass, which had been considered the cardinal symptom by cosmopolitan and traditional medical writers. Hwabyung is treated holistically with psychosocial support from family, spiritual comfort, home and popular remedies, traditional Korean medicine, and biomedical treatments. Hwabyung provides a way of conceptualizing and resolving emotional distress through somatization among Korean elderly immigrant women.

  12. Correlation between manual muscle strength and interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels in elderly community-dwelling women.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Narciso, Fabrícia Mendes Silva; Oliveira, Daniela Matos Garcia; Coelho, Fernanda Matos; Souza, Danielle da Glória de; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2009-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a loss of muscle mass related to aging and leads to muscle performance decline. An increase in inflammatory mediator levels, especially of IL-6, has been associated to reduced muscle strength in the elderly. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to correlate IL-6 plasma levels with manual muscle strength (MMS) in 63 community-dwelling elderly women. (71.2+/-7.4years). IL-6 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MMS was measured using the JAMAR dynamometer. Pearson's test was used to explore the relationship between the outcomes at the significance level of alpha=0.05. IL-6 levels (2.56+/-3.44pg/ml) and MMS (22.86+/-4.62kgf) exhibited an inverse correlation (r=-0.2673 and p=0.0373). The increase in IL-6 plasma levels possibly contributed toward the reduction in manual muscle strength among the elderly women studied.

  13. Initiation of and barriers to prenatal care use among low-income women in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Sunil, T S; Spears, William D; Hook, Linda; Castillo, Josephine; Torres, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 goals set a target of 90% of mothers starting prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. While there are questions about the value of prenatal care (PNC), there is much observational evidence of the benefits of PNC including reduction in maternal, fetal, perinatal, and infant deaths. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to PNC as well as factors that impact early initiation of care among low-income women in San Antonio, Texas. A survey study was conducted among low-income women seeking care at selected public health clinics in San Antonio. Interviews were conducted with 444 women. Study results show that women with social barriers, those who were less educated, who were living alone (i.e. without an adult partner or spouse), or who had not planned their pregnancies were more likely to initiate PNC late in their pregnancies. It was also observed that women who enrolled in the WIC program were more likely to initiate PNC early in their pregnancies. Women who initiated PNC late in pregnancy had the highest odds of reporting service-related barriers to receiving care. However, financial and personal barriers created no significant obstacles to women initiating PNC. The majority of women in this study reported that they were aware of the importance of PNC, knew where to go for care during pregnancy, and were able to pay for care through financial assistance, yet some did not initiate early prenatal care. This clearly establishes that the decision making process regarding PNC is complex. It is important that programs consider the complexity of the decision-making process and the priorities women set during pregnancy in planning interventions, particularly those that target low-income women. This could increase the likelihood that these women will seek PNC early in their pregnancies.

  14. Environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases: the association of income inequality and green spaces in elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Kaio Henrique Correa; Pabayo, Roman; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to analyse the individual and contextual determinants associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) morbidity among the elderly. Methods The sample consisted of 1333 individuals aged 60 or older residing in the city of São Paulo, from the Health, Welfare and Aging (SABE) study survey performed in 2010. The association between CVD with both income inequality and green spaces was analysed using Bayesian multilevel models, controlling for individual and contextual factors. Results We found a significant association between income inequality and green spaces, and risk of CVD. In comparison to elderly residents in areas with low-income inequality, there was an increased risk for CVD among those residing in the medium–low (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.59), medium–high (OR=2.71, 95% CI 2.18 to 3.36) and high (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.79) quartiles of income inequality. Those living in medium–low (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.49), medium–high (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.65) and high (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.55) green spaces levels had lower risk of CVD. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of area-level characteristics on CVD risk and the need to develop healthcare policies focused on the effect of individual and contextual characteristics. PMID:27601497

  15. Adverse childhood experiences, depression and mental health barriers to work among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has connected childhood abuse to decreased physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Further, mental health has established a link to employment problems. This study conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from individuals accessing public assistance to investigate the relationships among retrospective self-reports of childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and prospective indicators of mental health and mental health barriers to work. Logistic regression models found strong relationships between childhood abuse and increased odds of depression and mental health barriers to work. Path models highlight the relative importance of depression for those reporting mental health as the biggest barrier to work. Recommendations for social workers, public health professionals, and program administrators are provided.

  16. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Premji, Shahirose S; Yim, Ilona S; Dosani Mawji, Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  17. Maternal identity negotiations among low-income women with symptoms of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Laura S; Curran, Laura

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we used a constructivist grounded theory approach to explore maternal identity negotiations among low-income ethnic minority mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms. Nineteen mothers were recruited from Women, Infant, and Children clinics located in two coastal cities in the United States to participate in in-depth interviews. Constant comparative analysis revealed that mothers experienced their PPD symptoms and poverty as evidence of maternal failure, but also drew on discourses of maternal self-sacrifice, engagement with their children, and pleasure in mothering to construct a positive sense of self. To negotiate these conflicting versions of self, mothers positively appraised their own mothering in relation to stigmatized "others" and framed their depression as a foreign entity, one that stood outside of a core, authentic sense of self. Through our consideration of the intersecting contexts of poverty and postpartum depressive symptoms, this article adds to the literature on PPD and mothering.

  18. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Shahirose S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Dosani (Mawji), Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W.; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  19. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and others

  20. Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ≥ 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P < 0.05), and the association was number-dependent. However, no significant association between history of spontaneous abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05).

  1. Lifestyle and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly women: Chiba bone survey.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Terano, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Suzuki, Kiminori; Kubota, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Jyunichi; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Tanaka, Tomaki; Shozu, Makio

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis causes an enormous health and economic impact in Japan. We investigated the relation between lifestyle and bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly women. This was a population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chiba City, Japan (Chiba bone survey). This survey included 64,809 Japanese women aged > 40 years. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements including bone mineral density (BMD) and completed a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administered questionnaire also including patient lifestyle. Bone fracture during the recent 5 years was observed in 5.3%, and the fracture group had significantly higher age, BMI, and prevalence of delivery, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, kidney disease, exercise, fall, and osteoporosis, and had significantly lower BMD and proportion of menstruating participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that bone fracture was closely associated with not only low bone mass but also age, fall, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, DM, kidney disease, menopause, and lifestyle factors of dieting, exercise, and alcohol. Women's health care focusing on lifestyle-related fracture risks such as dieting, exercise, and alcohol appears necessary to prevent bone fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  2. A "contract for change" increases produce consumption in low-income women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heneman, Karrie; Block-Joy, Amy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Donohue, Susan; Garcia, Linda; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Smith, Dorothy; West, Estella; Steinberg, Francene M

    2005-11-01

    This study determined whether a "Contract for Change" goal-setting exercise enhanced the effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education programs to increase produce consumption in low-income (<130% of poverty) women after 4 weeks. Thirty-eight participants were randomized in this three-group parallel arm study: (a) control group participants received life-skills lessons, (b) the education group received the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education "Food Guide Pyramid" lessons, and (c) the contract group also received the "Food Guide Pyramid" series and completed a "Contract for Change." It was hypothesized that the contract group would have the greatest increases in advancement toward dietary change and produce consumption. Compared with controls, the contract group significantly moved toward acceptance of vegetable consumption (P < or = .05). Compared with the education group, the contract group significantly increased fruit consumption. Results suggest that nutrition professionals can effectively use goal-setting to assist low-income populations with dietary change. PMID:16256766

  3. A "contract for change" increases produce consumption in low-income women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heneman, Karrie; Block-Joy, Amy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Donohue, Susan; Garcia, Linda; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Smith, Dorothy; West, Estella; Steinberg, Francene M

    2005-11-01

    This study determined whether a "Contract for Change" goal-setting exercise enhanced the effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education programs to increase produce consumption in low-income (<130% of poverty) women after 4 weeks. Thirty-eight participants were randomized in this three-group parallel arm study: (a) control group participants received life-skills lessons, (b) the education group received the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education "Food Guide Pyramid" lessons, and (c) the contract group also received the "Food Guide Pyramid" series and completed a "Contract for Change." It was hypothesized that the contract group would have the greatest increases in advancement toward dietary change and produce consumption. Compared with controls, the contract group significantly moved toward acceptance of vegetable consumption (P < or = .05). Compared with the education group, the contract group significantly increased fruit consumption. Results suggest that nutrition professionals can effectively use goal-setting to assist low-income populations with dietary change.

  4. Patient participation in free cataract surgery: a cross-sectional study of the low-income elderly in urban China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Haotian; Lin, Duoru; Long, Erping; Jiang, Haofeng; Qu, Bo; Tang, Jinzhu; Lin, Yingfen; Chen, Jingjing; Wu, Xiaohang; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Hui; Tan, Xuhua; Luo, Lixia; Liu, Yizhi; Chen, Weirong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the characteristics of the low-income elderly who underwent free cataract surgery and to determine the degree of patient satisfaction with the free cataract surgery programme in urban China. Methods A free cataract surgery management workflow was designed as a poverty relief project in Guangzhou. In this study, participants who underwent free cataract surgery between January and August 2014 received a telephone interview based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on patient demographics, resources, health conditions, reasons for undergoing the free surgery and overall evaluation of the free cataract surgery programme. Results Among the 833 participants, the mean surgical age was 76.85±7.46 years (95% CI 76.34 to 77.36), and the male to female ratio was 385:448. The majority (94.31%, 746/791) of patients resided in the main urban districts. Patients underwent surgery 61.08±60.15 months (95% CI 56.17 to 66.00) after becoming aware of the cataract, although 66.83% of them reported that their daily lives were influenced by cataracts. Only 21.5% of the respondents underwent physical examinations that included regular eye screening, and only 6.30% were highly educated patients. Financial problems were the primary reason cited by patients for participating in the free surgery programme. Those patients with a monthly family income of 1000–2999¥ (US$161–482) per capita constituted the largest patient population. The free clinics in the parks and the free cataract surgery were highly rated (9.46 and 9.11 of 10 points) by the beneficiaries. Conclusions The telephone survey revealed a high level of patient satisfaction regarding the free cataract surgery programme. Most of the patients who participated in the programme resided in major urban districts and had poor health awareness and a low level of education. The information provided by this study is crucial for improving and expanding the management of free cataract surgery

  5. Health indicators among low income women who report a history of sex work: the population based Northern California Young Women's Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, D; Kim, A; Ruiz, J; Morrow, S; Reardon, J; Lynch, M; Klausner, J; Molitor, F; Allen, B; Green, A; Ferrero, D; Bell, S; Page-Shafer, K; Delgado, V; McFarland, W; t for

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: We examined differences in demographic characteristics, HIV related risk behaviour, prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and HIV and other health concerns among women with and without a history of sex work. Methods: A secondary analysis of a population based, cross sectional survey of young, low income women in northern California. Results: Of the 2543 women interviewed, 8.9% reported a history of sex work. These women reported more lifetime male sexual partners, were more likely to use drugs before sex, and were more likely to have a history of having sex with partners at high risk for HIV (that is, men who have sex with men, inject drugs, or were known to be HIV positive). They were significantly more likely to have positive serology for syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and hepatitis C regardless of their personal injecting drug use history; however, they were no more likely to have HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis A or hepatitis B infection compared to women without a history of sex work. Women with a history of sex work were significantly more likely to have a history of sexual coercion and tobacco use. Conclusions: These data measure the population prevalence of sex work among low income women and associated STI. Women with a history of sex work have health concerns beyond STI and HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:16199746

  6. Increasing testosterone levels and effects on cognitive functions in elderly men and women: a review.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, E; Bandelow, S; Moffat, S D

    2005-10-01

    Low testosterone (T) levels may predispose to Alzheimer disease (AD), but it is unclear whether this is a co-morbid effect due to cachexia, subclinical hyperthyroidism or other co-morbidity. The biological plausibility for potential protective effects of T on brain functions is substantial. In addition, higher levels of gonadotropins found in older cases with AD suggest that low levels of T are not due to brain degeneration and that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is still intact. Men genetically at risk for AD were also already found to have lower levels of T. However, despite having lower levels of T, women do not show accelerated cognitive decline with age when compared to men. In addition, castration has not necessarily shown a decline in cognitive functions; some studies even found improvement of memory recall. Age may be an important factor when assessing optimal levels of T and several studies suggest that free or bioavailable T may be a better marker than total T levels when investigating associations of androgen activity with cognitive function. Small-scale T intervention trials in elderly men with and without dementia suggest that some cognitive deficits may be reversed, at least in part, by short term T supplementation. Age and prior hypogonadism may play an important role in therapy success and these factors should be investigated in more detail in future large scale randomized controlled studies. For elderly women, T treatment does not seem to have additional benefits over estrogen treatment for postmenopausal complaints and cognitive decline and may increase cardiovascular disease.

  7. Saccadic Eye Movement Improves Plantar Sensation and Postural Balance in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, Youngsook

    2016-01-01

    Vision, proprioception and plantar sensation contribute to the control of postural balance (PB). Reduced plantar sensation alters postural response and is at an increased risk of fall, and eye movements reduce the postural sway. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the improvement of plantar sensation and PB after saccadic eye movement (SEM) and pursuit eye movement (PEM) in community-dwelling elderly women. Participants (104 females; 75.11 ± 6.25 years) were randomly allocated into the SEM group (n = 52) and PEM groups (n = 52). The SEM group performed eye fixation and SEM for 5 minutes, and the PEM group performed eye fixation and PEM for 5 minutes. The plantar sensation was measured according to the plantar surface area of the feet in contact with the floor surface before and after the intervention. Before and after SEM and PEM with the eyes open and closed, PB was measured as the area (mm(2)), length (cm), and velocity (cm/s) of the fluctuation of the center of pressure (COP). The plantar sensation of both feet improved in both groups (p < 0.01). Significant decreases in the area, length, and velocity of the COP were observed in the eye open and close in both groups (p < 0.01). The length and velocity of the COP significantly decreased in the SEM group compared to the PEM group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SEM and PEM are effective interventions for improving plantar sensation and PB in elderly women, with greater PB improvement after SEM.

  8. Guardians of health: the dimensions of elder caregiving among women in a Mexico City neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Kennedy, David P; Wallace, Steven P

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the family care of older adults in Mexico and the role of women in this process. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, this paper describes how a small sample of low-income women in one Mexico City neighborhood conceptualized the caregiver role and identified the forms of assistance they gave to their older relatives on a daily basis. A grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the data. Forty-one semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with female caregivers. The age of participants was between 19 and 83 years, and care recipients between 56 and 92 years. The relationship of caregiver to care recipient was wife, daughter, daughter-in-law, grand-daughter, sibling, and other relative. The mean length of time providing care was 5 years. Most participants were not employed outside the home, and the median monthly household income was 2000 pesos. We found that caregiving was a life-changing event, with 27 of 41 participants viewing themselves as guardians. Caregivers' emphasis was on care recipients' emotional needs in order to provide "the most precious gift" of "time and attention." Two forms of assistance were 'keeping company' and 'watching out' as safeguards against poor health or further decline in health. These findings increase the cultural understanding of caregiving in Mexico. Further research is needed to test the caregiving concepts identified in this study.

  9. "Let Me Count the Ways:" Fostering Reasons for Living among Low-Income, Suicidal, African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Davis, Telsie A.; Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2011-01-01

    Protective factors for fostering reasons for living were examined among low-income, suicidal, African American women. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher levels of optimism, spiritual well-being, and family social support predicted reasons for living. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that spiritual well-being showed…

  10. A Rural Perspective on Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Correlates, and Implications for Help-Seeking among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye; Proctor, Enola K.

    2009-01-01

    Context/Purpose: To examine a low-income sample of women in the rural Midwest (N = 1,086) who were screened for perinatal depression through the outreach and education activities within a Healthy Start Initiative project. Specifically, we describe the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, explore social and demographic correlates of…

  11. One-Year Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial Treating Depression in Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.; Krupnick, Janice L.; Chung, Joyce; Siddique, Juned; Belin, Tom; Revicki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This study examines 1-year depressive symptom and functional outcomes of 267 predominantly low-income, young minority women randomly assigned to antidepressant medication, group or individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or community referral. Seventy-six percent assigned to medications received 9 or more weeks of guideline-concordant doses…

  12. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  13. Intention to Consume Fruits and Vegetables Is Not a Proxy for Intake in Low-Income Women from Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Wall, Denise; Gromis, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Intention as an outcome measure for fruit and vegetable nutrition education interventions in low-income women was assessed through dietary assessment 3 weeks after a fruit and vegetable intervention in a federally funded program. Amount and variety of intake were compared to intentions expressed immediately following intervention. Findings…

  14. Health-promoting aspects of a paid job: findings in a qualitative interview study with elderly women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Forssén, Annika S K; Carlstedt, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    This article is one aspect of a larger, qualitative interview study and deals with health-promoting aspects of gainful employment, as experienced by a group of elderly Swedish women. Through these interviews we demonstrate the central importance of outside employment for many of the women, although they belonged to a generation where outside work conflicted with societal norms. We will illustrate a wide variety of ways in which gainful employment can contribute to women's well-being and, ultimately, their health. PMID:17987460

  15. Association of Adiposity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Practice with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Brazilian Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Maressa P.; Hallage, Tatiane; Gama, Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro; Goss, Fredric L.; Robertson, Robert; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes incidence in people with advanced age is increasing at an alarming rate, and for this reason the screening of high-risk individuals such as elderly women is critically important. Objective: To analyze the association of adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise practice with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly Brazilian women. Methods: Participated of this cross sectional study 1,059 elderly women (mean 69.5 yr; SD 6.1), who self-reported family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking status, hypertension, and T2D diagnosed previously by a physician. The following independent variables were assessed: exercise practice, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between each independent variable with T2D using adjusted-models. Results: T2D prevalence was 16%. General and central adiposity were directly associated with T2D, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely related with T2D. The joint effect of exercise practice and central adiposity showed that inactive women had higher odds ratio for T2D when compared with active ones, within the same WC group. Inactive women with WC ≥ 94.0 cm had an odds ratio of 5.8 (95%IC 1.3-25.3). Conclusions: A direct positive association was found between general and central adiposity, as well as an inverse relation between CRF and exercise practice with T2D. Elderly women who practice exercise regularly had lower odds for T2D. Health professionals should encourage individuals of all ages to engage on regular exercise practice, which could reduce body fatness and may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of T2D in older ages. PMID:18071583

  16. Perceived discrimination and depression among low-income Latina male-to-female transgender women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner violence and mistreatment on depression. Methods A total of 220 Latina male-to-female transgender women who resided in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through community based organizations and referrals. Participants completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Perceived discrimination was assessed using a fifteen-item measure that was designed to assess the experiences of maltreatment of transgender individuals. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depression after controlling for the presence of other variables. Results Of the sample, 35% reported significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15). Additionally, one-third of the participants indicated that in the two weeks prior to the interviews they had thought either of hurting themselves or that they would be better off dead. The extent of perceived discrimination in this population was extensive. Many of the participants experienced discrimination on a daily basis (14%) or at least once or twice a week (25%) as demonstrated by a positive response to at least 7 of 15 items in the measure of perceived discrimination. Almost six out of ten participants admitted that they had been victims of sexual partner violence. Those who reported more frequent discrimination were more likely to be identified with severe depression. There was also a notable association between self-reported history of sexual partner violence and depression severity. Conclusions A significant association between depression severity and perceived discrimination was identified. How exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of mental health problems

  17. Interventions to Increase the Uptake of Mammography amongst Low Income Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Michael P.; Adams, Abbey; Jeffreys, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous reviews found that access-enhancing interventions were effective in increasing mammography uptake amongst low-income women. The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the effect of interventions used to increase uptake of mammography amongst low-income women. Methods Searches were conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE (2002–April 2012) using relevant MeSH terms and keywords. Randomised controlled trials which aimed to increase mammography use in an asymptomatic low-income population and which had as an outcome receipt of a mammogram, were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was the post-intervention difference in the proportion of women who had a mammogram in the intervention and control groups. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We calculated summary estimates using random effects meta-analyses. Possible reasons for heterogeneity were investigated using sub-group analyses and meta-regression. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. Results Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria, including 33 comparisons. Interventions increased the uptake of mammography in low income women by an additional 8.9% (95% CI 7.3 to 10.4%) compared to the control group. There was some evidence that interventions with multiple strategies were more effective than those with single strategies (p  = 0.03). There was some suggestion of publication bias. The quality of the included studies was often unclear. Omitting those with high risk of bias has little effect on the results. Conclusions Interventions can increase mammography uptake among low-income women, multiple interventions being the most effective strategy. Given the robustness of the results to sensitivity analyses, the results are likely to be reliable. The generalisability of the results beyond the US is unclear. PMID:23451028

  18. Overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia and urban Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Frost, Stephanie; Moore, Lucas; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S; Kuo, Tony

    2014-10-01

    We described the prevalence of overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia (WV) and urban Los Angeles County (LA County). Both communities participated in the national Communities Putting Prevention to Work program during 2010-2012. In each community, we completed health assessments on adult women recruited from public-sector clinics serving low-income populations. All participants answered survey questions regarding socio-demographics and diets. In both jurisdictions, we assessed obesity using objectively measured height and weight (calculated BMI). As part of each community case study, we performed multivariable regression analyses to describe the relationships between overweight and obesity and selected covariates (e.g., dietary behaviors). Overweight and obesity were prevalent among low-income women from WV (73%, combined) and LA County (67%, combined). In both communities, race and ethnicity appeared to predict the two conditions; however, the associations were not robust. In LA County, for example, African American and Hispanic women were 1.4 times (95% CI=1.12, 1.81) more likely than white women to be overweight and obese. Collectively, these subpopulation health data served as an important guide for further planning of obesity prevention efforts in both communities. These efforts became a part of the subsequent Community Transformation Grants portfolio.

  19. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    PubMed

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  20. Money isn't everything: rural physicians identify other factors that facilitate providing prenatal care for low-income women.

    PubMed Central

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1994-01-01

    The problem of physicians dropping the practice of obstetrics is becoming more serious each year in the United States. Those who remain in practice are increasingly reluctant to serve women who receive Medicaid assistance. Previous research has tended to focus on low reimbursement and liability as barriers that physicians perceive to providing prenatal care to low-income clients. In a 1992 survey in rural Idaho, however, physicians who have been serving these clients for at least 4 years rated other factors equally or more important in treating low-income women. These other factors, discussed in this paper, have to do with the administrative and psychosocial support coordinated by public health nurses for their internal clients, the physicians, as well as for their external clients, pregnant women. PMID:8190869

  1. Contribution of Neighborhood Income and Access to Quality Physical Activity Resources to Physical Activity in Ethnic Minority Women Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382

  2. Influence of muscle mass and bone mass on the mobility of elderly women: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of muscle mass and bone mineral density on markers of mobility in dwelling elderly women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 99 elderly women, who were 65 years old or above, in Campinas-SP, Brazil. To collect data, we used sociodemographic data, the body mass index (BMI), health status, comorbidities, use of medications, mobility tests (TUG and gait speed) and examinations of the body composition (densitometry with dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry “DXA”). In order to examine the relationship between muscle and bone mass with mobility (gait speed and TUG), we applied the Spearman correlation coefficient. Also was applied the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for age and comorbidities. To identify the factors associated with mobility, we used the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The level of significance for statistical tests was P < 0.05. Results The correlation between sarcopenia and bone mineral density with mobility tests showed a significant relationship only between sarcopenia and TUG (r = 0.277, P = 0.006) in Spearman correlation coefficient. The result of the correlation analysis (ANCOVA) showed that sarcopenia was associated with gait speed (r2 = 0.0636, P = 0.0018) and TUG (r2 = 0.0898, P = 0.0027). The results of the multivariate analysis showed that age (P = 0.034, OR = 1.081) was associated with worse performance on gait speed. By highlighting the TUG test, the results of the multivariate analysis showed that the age (P = 0.004, OR = 1.111) and BMI in overweight (P = 0.011, OR = 7.83) and obese (P < 0.001, OR = 7.84) women were associated with lower performance of the functionality of the lower limbs. Conclusion The findings with regard to mobility tests which were analyzed in this study indicate the association of variables related to the aging process that contribute to the

  3. Does modifying the household food budget predict changes in the healthfulness of purchasing choices among low- and high-income women?

    PubMed

    Inglis, Victoria; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2009-04-01

    Food cost has a strong influence on food purchases and given that persons of low income often have more limited budgets, healthier foods may be overlooked in favour of more energy-dense lower-cost options. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modifications to the available household food budget led to changes in the healthfulness of food purchasing choices among women of low and high income. A quasi-experimental design was used which included a sample of 74 women (37 low-income women and 37 high-income women) who were selected on the basis of their household income and sent an itemised shopping list in order to calculate their typical weekly household shopping expenditure. The women were also asked to indicate those foods they would add to their list if they were given an additional 25% of their budget to spend on food and those foods they would remove if they were restricted by 25% of their budget. When asked what foods they would add with a larger household food budget, low-income women chose more foods from the 'healthier' categories whereas high-income women chose more foods from the less 'healthier' categories. However, making the budgets of low- and high-income women more 'equivalent' did not eradicate income differences in overall healthfulness of food purchasing choices. This study highlights the importance of cost when making food purchasing choices among low- and high-income groups. Public health strategies aimed at reducing income inequalities in diet might focus on promoting healthy diets that are low cost. PMID:19013206

  4. Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week⁻¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and β-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial compliance were also significantly increased (p < 0.05), while β-stiffness was markedly decreased (p < 0.01) after the intervention. On the other hand, there was no change in the parameters tested in the control group. This study demonstrates that regular aerobic exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women.

  5. Caffeine and cognitive decline in elderly women at high vascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Berr, Claudine; Ritchie, Karen; Kang, Jae H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Persons with vascular disorders are at higher risk of cognitive decline. Objective To determine whether caffeine may be associated with cognitive decline reduction in elderly at high vascular risk. Methods We included 2475 women aged 65+ years in the Women’s Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, a randomized trial of antioxidants and B vitamins for cardiovascular disease secondary prevention. We ascertained regular caffeine intake at baseline (1995–1996) using a validated 116 item-food frequency questionnaire. From 1998–2000 to 2005–2006, we administered four telephone cognitive assessments at two-year intervals evaluating global cognition, verbal memory and category fluency. The primary outcome was the change in global cognitive score, which was the average of the z-scores of all tests. We used generalized linear models for repeated measures that were adjusted for various sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors to evaluate the difference in cognitive decline rates across quintiles of caffeine intake. Results We observed significantly slower rates of cognitive decline with increasing caffeine intake (p-trend=0.02). The rate difference between the highest and lowest quintiles of usual caffeine intake (> 371 versus < 30 mg/day) was equivalent to that observed between those who were 7 years apart in age (p=0.006). Consumption of caffeinated coffee was significantly related to slower cognitive decline (p-trend=0.05), but not other caffeinated products (e.g., decaf, tea, cola, chocolate). We conducted interaction analyses and observed stronger associations in women assigned to vitamin B supplementation (p-interaction = 0.02). Conclusions Caffeine intake was related to moderately better cognitive maintenance over 5 years in older women with vascular disorders. PMID:23422357

  6. Does whole-body vibration training have acute residual effects on postural control ability of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Flaminia; Mazzà, Claudia; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate acute residual effects of a single vibration session on balance control in a group of elderly women. Several studies, in fact, have shown that whole-body vibration (WBV) training may improve balance in the elderly, but possible side effects of acute exposure to WBV, such as temporary reduction of balance control ability because of perturbations of the vestibular system, have not been investigated. Twenty-two healthy elderly women (71.8 ± 4.7 years of age) were trained with a 9.5-minute bout of static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises executed on a vibrating platform (Well-net Vibe Revolution). The vibration frequency was set at 35 Hz. A subgroup of 14 subjects performed the same exercise protocol also without the vibrations to discriminate between vibration and exercise effects. Balance control ability was assessed through computerized posturography: a force plate (Bertec Co, Columbus, OH, USA) was used to measure the center of pressure trajectories during 4 different experimental trials: before, immediately after, 15 minutes after, and 60 minutes after the training. A set of postural parameters, typically adopted to assess elderly subjects, was then computed and 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences between values found in the 4 postural tests (level of significance p = 0.05) in the 2 groups. The results showed no significant variations in the postural parameters recorded during the 4 sessions. A significant group effect was found for 2 postural parameters, with no interaction between the 2 factors. In conclusion, the proposed single bout of WBV does not induce dangerous acute effects on elderly women balance control ability and could be safely administered as part of a long-term intervention program. PMID:21088549

  7. Barriers to breast cancer screening for low-income Mexican and Dominican women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Garbers, Samantha; Jessop, Dorothy Jones; Foti, Heather; Uribelarrea, Maria; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2003-03-01

    The proportion of Mexican and Dominican women has increased rapidly in New York City and in other urban areas, and breast cancer screening rates continue to be lower for Latina women as a whole, but particularly for some nationality subgroups. The current analysis explored the reasons why Mexican and Dominican women from medically underserved communities in New York City do not seek breast cancer screening. Data were collected through interviews with 298 Mexican and Dominican women aged 40-88 years; the interviews included an open-ended question on the barriers women face in seeking screening. The three most commonly cited barriers were not taking care of oneself (descuido) (52.3%), lack of information (49.3%), and fear (44.6%). Women who had been screened cited fear, pain, or other personal barriers more often, but women who had never had a mammogram cited cost or other logistical barriers. Responses from Dominican and Mexican women were significantly different, with Mexican women more often citing shame or embarrassment and Dominican women more often citing fear. The dependent variable, barriers to screening, was grouped into major categories. When sociodemographic factors were controlled for, the effect of ethnicity disappeared. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that women with a source of health care were less likely to cite any logistical barriers, but significantly more likely to report only personal barriers (such as fear or descuido). The analysis indicated that personal barriers were very prevalent in the communities studied. It may not be sufficient merely to increase access to breast cancer screening services for low-income Latinas: even when women have a source of health care, personal barriers may prevent many women from seeking screening. Outreach programs need to be tailored to the target communities as there are significant differences among groups of Latinas. Targeted outreach programs must work in tandem with programs to increase access to

  8. Well-being dialogue: Elderly women's subjective sense of well-being from their course of life perspective

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Ann-Marie; Mårtensson, Lena B.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with narratives of elderly women's well-being from their perspectives of the latter parts of their life, living at special housing accommodation (SHA) in the context of Swedish elderly care. In focusing on narratives about well-being, we have a two-fold focus: (1) how the elderly women create their own identity and meaning-making based on lifetime experience; and (2) how narratives of well-being are reflected through the filter of life in situ at the SHA. Based on empirical data consisting of well-being narratives, a dialogical performance analysis was undertaken. The results show how relationships with important persons during various stages of life, and being together and enjoying fellowship with other people as well as enjoying freedom and self-determination, are central aspects of well-being. The conclusions drawn are that the characteristic phenomena of well-being (the what) in the narratives are continuity, identity, and sociality for the elderly person, and this is manifested (the how) as a question of contrasting the state of self-management and self-decline. PMID:23237627

  9. Effects of Cosmetic Therapy on Cognitive Function in Elderly Women Evaluated by Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Machida, A; Shirato, M; Tanida, M; Kanemaru, C; Nagai, S; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid increase in dementia in developed countries, it is important to establish methods for maintaining or improving cognitive function in elderly people. To resolve such problems, we have been developing a cosmetic therapy (CT) program for elderly women. However, the mechanism and limitations of CT are not yet clear. In order to clarify these issues, we employed time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) to evaluate the effect of CT on prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in elderly females with various levels of cognitive impairment. Based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, the subjects were classified into mild (mean MMSE score: 24.1±3.8) and moderate (mean MMSE score: 10.3±5.8) cognitive impairment (CI) groups (p<0.0001). The mild CI group exhibited significantly larger baseline concentrations of oxy-Hb and t-Hb than the moderate CI group. CT significantly increased the baseline concentrations of oxy-Hb (p<0.002) and t-Hb (p<0.0013) in the left PFC in the mild CI group. In contrast, CT did not change the concentrations of oxy-Hb and t-Hb in the moderate CI group (p>0.05). These results suggest that CT affects cognitive function by altering PFC activity in elderly women with mild CI, but not moderate CI. PMID:26782224

  10. Low haemoglobin levels contribute to low grip strength independent of low-grade inflammation in Japanese elderly women.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Eriko; Takeuchi, Mika; Kurata, Miki; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Muscle strength declines with age. However, factors that contribute to such declines are not well documented and have not been extensively studied in elderly populations of Asian origin. Correlations of grip strength with a broad range of factors associated with declines in muscle strength were examined in 202 community-living elderly Japanese women. After adjustment for age, grip strength was positively correlated with body weight, height, serum albumin, haemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum iron and inversely with serum copper, and log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Multiple linear regression analysis with grip strength as a dependent variable showed that 47.0% of variability of grip strength could be accounted for by height, age and haemoglobin in order of increasing R2. In conclusion, low haemoglobin may contribute to low muscle strength independently of age, anthropometric, nutritional, and inflammatory markers in the elderly, and may represent an important confounder of the association between grip strength and functional decline in community- living Japanese elderly women. PMID:26420185

  11. Effects of an adapted physical activity program on psychophysical health in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Alesi, Marianna; Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown the positive effects of adapted physical activity (APA) on physical and mental health (MH) during the lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific APA intervention program in the improvement of the health-related quality of life (QOL) and functional condition of spine in elderly women. Methods Thirty women were recruited from a senior center and randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG; age: 69.69±7.94 years, height: 1.57±0.06 m, weight: 68.42±8.18 kg, body mass index [BMI]: 27.88±2.81) and trained group (TG; age: 68.35±6.04 years, height: 1.55±0.05 m, weight: 64.78±10.16 kg, BMI: 26.98±3.07). The APA program was conducted for 8 weeks, with two training sessions/week. CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Spinal angles were evaluated by SpinalMouse® (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland); health-related QOL was evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey, which assesses physical component summary (PCS-36), mental component summary (MCS-36), and eight subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perception, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, and MH. All measures were recorded before and after the experimental period. Results In TG, compared to CG, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a relevant improvement in lumbar spinal angle (°) and in SF-36 outcomes after the intervention period. We showed a significant increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and MH subscales and in PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores in TG compared to CG. In particular, from baseline to posttest, we found that in TG, the PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores increased by 13.20% and 11.64%, respectively. Conclusion We believe that an 8-week APA intervention program is able to improve psychophysical heath in elderly people. During the aging process, a dynamic lifestyle, including regular physical activity, is a crucial

  12. Relationship between level of independence in activities of daily living and estimated cardiovascular capacity in elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; Maranhao Neto, Geraldo Albuquerque; Moraes, Helena; Emerick, Raphael Fonseca e Silva; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2014-01-01

    Elderly individuals undergo a progressive decline in functional capacity related to increased risk of dependency, loss of autonomy, and frailty. A lower cardiorespiratory fitness level is associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality from all causes. The Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ) was developed to facilitate prediction of the exercise capacity in older people with cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the VSAQ and functional capacity in elderly women. This study investigated the relationship between functional capacity and the estimated cardiovascular capacity in elderly women, as assessed by the VSAQ. In this descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 37 healthy elderly women (aged 70 ± 7 years). The assessment protocols used were the following: Anamnesis, VSAQ and nomogram (age adjusted), Senior Fitness Test (30-s chair stand, to assess lower-body strength; 8-foot up-and-go test, to assess agility-dynamic balance; and 2-min step test, to assess aerobic endurance). The Spearman test showed a significant correlation (p<0.001) between the functional tests and the VSAQ (8-foot up-and-go test rs=-0.715; 2-min step test rs=0.567; 30-s chair stand rs=0.582). Adjustment of the results by age improved the correlation (8-foot up-and-go test rs=-0.760; 2-min step test rs=0.627; 30-s chair stand rs=0.601). The VSAQ seems to be a simple way to estimate functional capacity, particularly in older women. PMID:24948514

  13. Aging in the Shadow of Violence: A Phenomenological Conceptual Framework for Understanding Elderly Women Who Experienced Lifelong IPV.

    PubMed

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests a heuristic framework for understanding elderly women's "lived experience" of lifelong intimate partner violence (IPV). This framework is based on the phenomenological qualitative studies of 31 women, aged 60-83, using a semistructured interview guide. From the results, a matrix emerged built on two axes. The first axis consists of three phenomenological dimensions: suffering, a "ticking clock," and life wisdom. The second axis consists of four themes that emerged from the content analysis: loneliness, regret, being in a state of waiting, and being a living monument to perpetual victimhood. The practical implications of these phenomenological findings are then discussed.

  14. The Effects of Augmented Reality-based Otago Exercise on Balance, Gait, and Falls Efficacy of Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ha-Na; Chung, Eunjung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 elderly women, who were randomly divided into two groups: an augmented reality-based Otago exercise group of 10 subjects and an Otago exercise group of 11 subjects. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length), and falls efficacy. Within 12 weeks, Otago exercise for muscle strengthening and balance training was conducted three times, for a period of 60 minutes each, and subjects in the experimental group performed augmented reality-based Otago exercise. [Results] Following intervention, the augmented reality-based Otago exercise group showed significant increases in BBS, velocity, cadence, step length (right side), stride length (right side and left side) and falls efficacy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of this augmented reality-based Otago exercise for elderly women.

  15. Association of serum lipid components and obesity with genetic ancestry in an admixed population of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Tulio C.; Pires, Alause S.; Paula, Roberta S.; Moraes, Clayton F.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Vianna, Lucy G.; Nobrega, Otávio T.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%), Native American (25.78%) and African (16.73%). Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037) and obesity (mean difference (MD) = 5.3%; p = 0.042). African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035), VLDL (r = −0.185; p = 0.014), hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003) and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026). Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047) and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039). These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women. PMID:23055794

  16. Association of serum lipid components and obesity with genetic ancestry in an admixed population of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lins, Tulio C; Pires, Alause S; Paula, Roberta S; Moraes, Clayton F; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Vianna, Lucy G; Nobrega, Otávio T; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%), Native American (25.78%) and African (16.73%). Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037) and obesity (mean difference (MD) = 5.3%; p = 0.042). African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035), VLDL (r = -0.185; p = 0.014), hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003) and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026). Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047) and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039). These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women.

  17. The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program: 25 Years of public health service to low-income women.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Paula M; Mullen, Jewel

    2015-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), a valuable and successful national public health program in the USA that will soon celebrate its 25th anniversary. Simulation modeling and other analyses have demonstrated that the NBCCEDP has significantly reduced breast and cervical cancer mortality among low-income uninsured and underinsured women in the USA, a major goal of the original legislation. The NBCCEDP has also served to build cancer prevention and control capacity in state and local health agencies and created strong and unique public-private partnerships aimed at improving women's health. As such, the impact of NBCCEDP extends beyond the millions of women served by the program to include increased public health system capacity and effectiveness regarding cancer early detection and control for all women.

  18. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care.

  19. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918

  20. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (P< .0001), physical fitness subscores (P= .002), and nutritional subscores (P= .001) in the FDI group. Among overweight/obese women, improvement in health-related quality of life related to physical health, a significant decrease in depressive score, and a reduction in waist circumference were noted. In the control group, a decrease in waist circumference was observed. Implementation of the FDI through a community-based participatory research approach is feasible and effective among low-income African-American women in general and overweight/obese women in particular. Social reengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women.

  1. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (P< .0001), physical fitness subscores (P= .002), and nutritional subscores (P= .001) in the FDI group. Among overweight/obese women, improvement in health-related quality of life related to physical health, a significant decrease in depressive score, and a reduction in waist circumference were noted. In the control group, a decrease in waist circumference was observed. Implementation of the FDI through a community-based participatory research approach is feasible and effective among low-income African-American women in general and overweight/obese women in particular. Social reengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women. PMID:27440531

  2. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Relationship with Sites of Fragility Fractures in Elderly Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Cheng, Qun; Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhu, Hanmin; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Xuemei; Zheng, Songbai; Du, Yanping; Tang, Wenjing; Xue, Sihong; Ye, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sarcopenia might be associated with bone fragility in elderly individuals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with fragility fracture sites in elderly Chinese patients. Methods Patients (322 men and 435 women) aged 65–94 years and with a history of fragility fractures in the ankle, wrist, vertebrae or hip, and healthy men (n = 1263) and women (n = 1057) aged 65–92 years without a history of fractures were enrolled. Whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), fat mass and bone mineral density. Sarcopenia was defined as SMI less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group. Results Sarcopenia occurrence varied with fracture location. Sarcopenia was more common in females with vertebral and hip fractures and in men with hip and ankle fractures than in the non-fracture group). Sarcopenia was significantly more prevalent in men with wrist, hip and ankle fractures than in women. SMI was correlated with BMD in different fracture groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that lower SMI was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture both in men and women and ankle fracture in men. Discussion Sarcopenia may be an independent risk factor for hip and ankle fractures in men, and for hip fractures in women. PMID:26367872

  3. DEPRESSION, CORRELATES OF DEPRESSION, AND RECEIPT OF DEPRESSION CARE AMONG LOW-INCOME WOMEN WITH BREAST OR GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Ell, Kathleen; Sanchez, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Lagomasino, Isabel; Muderspach, Laila; Russell, Christy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of depression among low-income, ethnic minority women with breast or gynecological cancer, receipt of antidepressant medications or counseling services, and correlates of depression. Patients and Methods Study patients were 472 women receiving cancer care in an urban public medical center. Women had a primary diagnosis of breast (Stage 0-III) or gynecological cancer (FIGO 0-3B). A diagnostic depression screen and baseline questionnaire was administered prior to or during active treatment or during active follow-up. Self-report data was collected on receipt of depression treatment, use of supportive counseling, pain and receipt of pain medication, functional status and well-being, and perceived barriers to cancer care. Results Twenty-four percent of women reported moderate to severe levels of depressive disorder, 30% of breast cancer patients and 17% of gynecological cancer patients. Only 12% of women meeting criteria for major depression reported currently receiving medications for depression and only 5% of women reported seeing a counselor or participating in a cancer support group. Neither cancer stage or treatment status was correlated with depression. Primary diagnosis of breast cancer, younger age, greater functional impairment, poorer social/family well-being, anxiety, comorbid arthritis, and fears about treatment side effects were correlated with depression. Conclusion Findings indicate that depressive disorder among ethnic minority, low-income women with breast or gynecological cancer is prevalent and is correlated with pain, anxiety and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Because these women are unlikely to receive depression treatment or supportive counseling, there is a need for routine screening, evaluation and treatment in this population. PMID:15860863

  4. The influence of maternal-fetal attachment and health practices on neonatal outcomes in low-income, urban women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J; Woods, Anne B; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2012-04-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) has been associated with health practices during pregnancy, but less is known about this relationship in low-income women, and no identified studies have examined this relationship to neonatal outcomes. This longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationships among MFA, health practices during pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes in a sample of low-income, predominantly African-American women and their neonates. MFA was associated with health practices during pregnancy and adverse neonatal outcomes. Health practices during pregnancy mediated the relationships of MFA and adverse neonatal outcomes. The results support the importance of examining MFA in our efforts to better understand the etiology of health disparities in neonatal outcomes. PMID:22262085

  5. The Influence of Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Health Practices on Neonatal Outcomes in Low-Income, Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J.; Woods, Anne B. (Nancy); Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) has been associated with health practices during pregnancy, but less is known about this relationship in low-income women, and no identified studies have examined this relationship to neonatal outcomes. This longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationships among MFA, health practices during pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes in a sample of low-income, predominantly African-American women and their neonates. MFA was associated with health practices during pregnancy and adverse neonatal outcomes. Health practices during pregnancy mediated the relationships of MFA and adverse neonatal outcomes. The results support the importance of examining MFA in our efforts to better understand the etiology of health disparities in neonatal outcomes. PMID:22262085

  6. The relationship among depression, parenting stress, and partner support in low-income women from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ardoino, Graciela I; Queirolo, Elena I; Barg, Gabriel; Ciccariello, Daniela A; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and predictors of depression in low-income mothers (n = 99) of young children from Uruguay. We administered the Beck Depression Scale (BDI) and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and asked who is responsible for the main tasks of parenting and household care. We found a high prevalence of moderate-to-severe depression (BDI >19 points, 31.3%), with women with t scores > 90 on the PSI being seven times more likely to experience moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms than women with lower PSI scores (p <.01). This is the first investigation of the predictors of depression in urban Uruguayan mothers of low socioeconomic status.

  7. Suicidal ideation during pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Chan, Ya-Fen; Tabb, Karen; Katon, Wayne; Menezes, Paulo R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women living in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 831 women surveyed during 20 to 30 weeks of pregnancy using the Self-Report Questionnaire-20. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 6.3%. The factors associated with suicidal ideation were common mental disorders, single partner status, past psychiatric history, and smoking tobacco. All cases of suicidal ideation were associated with common mental disorders. PMID:22382280

  8. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women’s Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women’s health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income—contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks—religion and clubs—among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and

  9. Socio-economic inequality in ill-health amongst the elderly. Should one use current or permanent income?

    PubMed

    Van Ourti, Tom

    2003-03-01

    In Belgium, income-related inequality in ill-health among the 65- is present, but reduces significantly as soon as one restricts the analysis to the 65+. The main goal of this paper is to check whether these findings (based on current income) are robust to the income concept used. The analysis is repeated using estimates of permanent income. Measured inequality among the 65+ remains very limited, suggesting that the observed findings are not heavily dependent upon the income concept. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the observed difference in inequality between the 65- and the 65+. I argue that this difference is likely to be correlated with differences across income groups of (1) sample attrition; and (2) mortality.

  10. Six simple questions to detect malnutrition or malnutrition risk in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gómez, Tranquilina; Cortés, Ernesto; Peñarrieta-de Córdova, Isabel; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco; Ferrer-Diego, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    Of the numerous instruments available to detect nutritional risk, the most widely used is the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), but it takes 15–20 min to complete and its systematic administration in primary care units is not feasible in practice. We developed a tool to evaluate malnutrition risk that can be completed more rapidly using just clinical variables. Between 2008 and 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 418 women aged ≥60 years from Mexico. Our outcome was positive MNA and our secondary variables included were: physical activity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, educational level, dentition, psychological problems, living arrangements, history of falls, age and the number of tablets taken daily. The sample was divided randomly into two groups: construction and validation. Construction: a risk table was constructed to estimate the likelihood of the outcome, and risk groups were formed. Validation: the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated and we compared the expected and the observed outcomes. The following risk factors were identified: physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, dentition, psychological problems and living with the family. The AUC was 0.77 (95% CI [0.68–0.86], p < 0.001). No differences were found between the expected and the observed outcomes (p = 0.902). This study presents a new malnutrition screening test for use in elderly women. The test is based on six very simple, quick and easy-to-evaluate questions, enabling the MNA to be reserved for confirmation. However, it should be used with caution until validation studies have been performed in other geographical areas. PMID:26500824

  11. Body Fat and Physical Activity Modulate the Association Between Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis in Elderly Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhwan; Cho, Jinkyung; Jin, Youngyun; Ha, Changduk; Kim, Taehee; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and a binary logistic regression. Pearson correlation analyses showed that total neck/femur BMD was positively associated with weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and objectively-measured physical activities. ASM was positively associated with body fatness. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was substantially attenuated but remained marginally significant when adjusted for age and postmenopausal period (OR = 2.370 and p = 0.050). However, the OR was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for body fatness (OR = 2.218 and p = 0.117) and physical activity (OR = 1.240 and p = 0.448). The findings of the study showed that, in this sample of elderly Korean women, modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as body fatness and physical inactivity played an important role in determining the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Key points Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major health conditions responsible for an increased risk of bone fractures and reduced functional capacity, respectively, in older adults. We investigated whether lifestyle-related risk factors modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older Korean adults. The current findings of the study suggest that physical activity and

  12. The influence of novel compliant floors on balance control in elderly women--A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alexander D; Laing, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    Novel compliant floors aim to decrease the risk for fall-related injury by providing substantial force attenuation during the impact phase of falls. Certain models of compliant flooring have been shown to have limited influence on postural sway and successful completion of dynamic balance tasks. However, the effects of these products on balance recovery mechanisms following an externally induced perturbation have yet to be quantified. We used a floor translation paradigm to induce a balance perturbation to thirteen elderly community-dwelling women. Outcome measures included the displacement rates and margins of safety for both the underfoot centre-of-pressure and whole-body centre-of-mass across two novel compliant floors (SmartCell, SofTile), two basic foam surfaces (Firm-Foam, Soft-Foam) and a standard 'Rigid' floor as a control condition. The centre-of-mass and centre-of-pressure margins of safety, and all centre-of-mass displacement rates, were not significantly lower for the two novel compliant flooring systems compared to the control floor. The centre-of-pressure displacement rates were similar to the control floor for the SmartCell floor condition. The majority of the margin of safety and displacement rate variables for the foam floors were significantly lower than the control condition. This study illustrates that the SmartCell and SofTile novel compliant floors have minimal influences on balance and balance control responses following externally induced perturbations in older community-dwelling women, and supports pilot installations of these floors to inform decisions regarding the development of clinical trials.

  13. Health behavior of elderly Hispanic women: does cultural assimilation make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Marks, G; Solis, J; Richardson, J L; Collins, L M; Birba, L; Hisserich, J C

    1987-01-01

    The role of cultural assimilation in Hispanic health behavior has received little empirical examination. Prior studies have operationalized assimilation primarily in terms of language preference and have obtained weak or no effects. We interviewed 603 elderly Hispanic women residing in Los Angeles to evaluate the usefulness of cultural factors as predictors of preventive health behavior (e.g., physical examination, screening for breast cancer) more rigorously. Factor analysis of responses yielded four dimensions of cultural assimilation: "language preference", "country of birth", "contact with homeland", and "attitudes about children's friends." After controlling for education and age, no dimension of assimilation associated strongly or consistently with health behavior. Of the four dimensions, use of English language associated most closely with increased screening, although most of the effects for language were small in magnitude. These findings, coupled with those of other studies, strongly suggest that cultural factors may have little impact on the health behavior of Hispanics. Access to and availability of services, affective reactions toward screening, and sociodemographic factors are stronger determinants of Hispanic health practices. PMID:3631366

  14. [Alcohol consumption in women and the elderly : When does it induce heart failure?].

    PubMed

    Pankuweit, S

    2016-09-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the etiology and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases has been the focus of attention and also the subject of controversial discussions for many years. This is particularly true for heart failure, which can be induced by coronary artery disease (CAD), arterial hypertension, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies. Acute effects of high doses of alcohol can lead to impairment of the cardiac contraction strength with rhythm disturbances (holiday heart syndrome), transient ischemic attacks and in rare cases to sudden cardiac death. The chronic effects of high alcohol consumption include in particular, ventricular dysfunction, chronic rhythm disturbances, alcoholic cardiomyopathy and CAD. In contrast, light to moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of CAD and ischemic stroke; however, even moderate alcohol drinking is associated with a greater risk for atrial fibrillation. The unfavorable effects of alcohol occur at much lower levels of acute or chronic consumption in women than in men. In the elderly just as in young people, a moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of heart failure. PMID:27491766

  15. Metabolic syndrome and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in elderly women: Challenging the current definition.

    PubMed

    Dragsbæk, Katrine; Neergaard, Jesper S; Laursen, Janne M; Hansen, Henrik B; Christiansen, Claus; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Karsdal, Morten A; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim

    2016-09-01

    The prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is believed to vary with age. With an elderly population expecting to triple by 2060, it is important to evaluate the validity of MetS in this age group. We examined the association of MetS risk factors with later risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly Caucasian women. We further investigated if stratification of individuals not defined with MetS would add predictive power in defining future disease prevalence of individuals with MetS.The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor Study, a community-based cohort study, followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1 ± 6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information.Elderly women with defined MetS presented a 6.3-fold increased risk of T2DM (95% confidence interval: [3.74-10.50]) and 1.7-fold increased risk of CVD (1.44-2.05) compared to women with no MetS risk factors. Subdividing the control group without defined MetS revealed that both centrally obese controls and controls holding other MetS risk factors also had increased risk of T2DM (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.21 [1.25-3.93] and HR = 1.75 [1.04-2.96]) and CVD (HR = 1.51 [1.25-1.83] and HR = 1.36 [1.15-1.60]) when compared to controls with no MetS risk factors.MetS in elderly Caucasian women increased risk of future T2DM and CVD. While not defined with MetS, women holding only some risk factors for MetS were also at increased risk of T2DM or CVD compared to women with no MetS risk factors. PMID:27603394

  16. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    PubMed Central

    Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William; Castro, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1), mental health (MHI-5), blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition. PMID:27752266

  17. Adjuvant chemotherapy dosing in low-income women: the impact of Hispanic ethnicity and patient self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yihang; Sorbero, Melony E.; Jagielski, Christina H.; Maly, Rose C.

    2015-01-01

    Unwarranted breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy dose reductions have been documented in black women, women of lower socioeconomic status, and those who are obese. No information on the quality of chemotherapy is available in Hispanic women. The purpose of this study was to characterize factors associated with first cycle chemotherapy dose selection in a multi-ethnic sample of low-income women receiving chemotherapy through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention Treatment Program (BCCPT) and to investigate the impact of Hispanic ethnicity and patient self-efficacy on adjuvant chemotherapy dose selection. Survey and chemotherapy information were obtained from consenting participants enrolled in the California BCCPT. Analyses identified clinical and non-clinical factors associated with first cycle chemotherapy doses less than 90 % of expected doses. Of 552 patients who received chemotherapy, 397 (72 %) were eligible for inclusion. First cycle dose reductions were given to 14 % of the sample. In multivariate analyses, increasing body mass index and non-academic treatment site were associated with doses below 90 % of the expected doses. No other clinical or non-clinical factors, including ethnicity, were associated with first cycle doses selection. In this universally low-income sample, we identified no association between Hispanic ethnicity and other non-clinical patient factors, including patient self-efficacy, in chemotherapy dose selection. As seen in other studies, obesity was associated with systematic dose limits. The guidelines on chemotherapy dose selection in the obese may help address such dose reductions. A greater understanding of the association between type of treatment site and dose selection is warranted. Overall, access to adequate health care allows the vast majority of low-income women with breast cancer to receive high-quality breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:24596046

  18. Adjuvant chemotherapy dosing in low-income women: the impact of Hispanic ethnicity and patient self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Jennifer J; Liu, Yihang; Sorbero, Melony E; Jagielski, Christina H; Maly, Rose C

    2014-04-01

    Unwarranted breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy dose reductions have been documented in black women, women of lower socioeconomic status, and those who are obese. No information on the quality of chemotherapy is available in Hispanic women. The purpose of this study was to characterize factors associated with first cycle chemotherapy dose selection in a multi-ethnic sample of low-income women receiving chemotherapy through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention Treatment Program (BCCPT) and to investigate the impact of Hispanic ethnicity and patient self-efficacy on adjuvant chemotherapy dose selection. Survey and chemotherapy information were obtained from consenting participants enrolled in the California BCCPT. Analyses identified clinical and non-clinical factors associated with first cycle chemotherapy doses less than 90 % of expected doses. Of 552 patients who received chemotherapy, 397 (72 %) were eligible for inclusion. First cycle dose reductions were given to 14 % of the sample. In multivariate analyses, increasing body mass index and non-academic treatment site were associated with doses below 90 % of the expected doses. No other clinical or non-clinical factors, including ethnicity, were associated with first cycle doses selection. In this universally low-income sample, we identified no association between Hispanic ethnicity and other non-clinical patient factors, including patient self-efficacy, in chemotherapy dose selection. As seen in other studies, obesity was associated with systematic dose limits. The guidelines on chemotherapy dose selection in the obese may help address such dose reductions. A greater understanding of the association between type of treatment site and dose selection is warranted. Overall, access to adequate health care allows the vast majority of low-income women with breast cancer to receive high-quality breast cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Mental health care preferences among low-income and minority women.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Erum; Lange, Jane M; Miranda, Jeanne

    2008-06-01

    Mental health care preferences are examined among 1,893 low-income immigrant and U.S.-born women with an acknowledged emotional problem (mean age = 29.1, SD = 89.6). Ethnicity, depression, somatization, and stigma are examined as they relate to mental health care preferences (medication, individual and group counseling, faith, family/friends). Seventy-eight percent of participants counseling would be helpful; 55%; group counseling; and 32% medication. Faith was cited by 81%; family and friends were endorsed by 65%. Minorities had lower odds than Whites of endorsing medication (Black immigrants: OR = 0.27, p < 0.001, U.S.-born Blacks: OR = 0.30, p < 0.001, immigrant Latinas: OR = 0.50, p < 0.01). Most minorities also had higher odds of endorsing faith compared to Whites (Black immigrants: OR = 3.62, p < 0.001; U.S.-born Blacks, OR = 3.85, p < 0.001; immigrant Latinas: OR = 9.76, p < 0.001). Being depressed was positively associated with endorsing medication (OR = 1.93, p < 0.001), individual counseling (OR = 2.66, p < 0.001), and group counseling (OR = 1.35, p < 0.01). Somatization was positively associated with endorsing medication (OR = 1.29, p < 0.05) and faith (OR = 1.37, p < 0.05). Stigma-concerns reduced the odds of endorsing group counseling (OR = 0.58, p < 0.001). Finally, being in mental health treatment was related to increased odds of endorsing medication (OR = 3.88, p < 0.001) and individual counseling (OR = 2.29, p = 0.001).

  20. Effects of regular exercise and dual tasking on spatial and temporal parameters of obstacle negotiation in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Guadagnin, E C; da Rocha, E S; Mota, C B; Carpes, F P

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of regular exercise and dual tasking on bilateral spatial and temporal parameters of obstacle negotiation in elderly women. Sedentary (n=12) and physically active (n=12) elderly women volunteered to participate in this study. Gait kinematics were recorded during obstacle crossing when performing a dual task and when not performing a dual task. Physically active participants crossed obstacles more safely, in terms of clearance or distance to or over the obstacle, both with and without dual tasking, and usually for both lead and trail legs. Performing the dual task increased toe distance, and decreased heel distance and gait speed in the active participants, and increased toe clearance and heel distance, and decreased gait speed in the sedentary participants. Differences between preferred and non-preferred leg were accentuated for toe clearance in the lead limb. These results suggest that specialized exercises may not be needed for improvement in obstacle avoidance skills in the elderly, and participation in multi-activities, including aerobic exercises, may be sufficient.

  1. Kinematic effect of Nintendo Wii(TM) sports program exercise on obstacle gait in elderly women with falling risk.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae-In; Ko, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the changes in balance ability and obstacle gait after lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo Wii(TM) Sports in elderly at risk for falls. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four elderly women with at risk for falls were randomly divided into the control, lumbar stabilization exercise, and Nintendo Wii Sports groups. Static balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test, dynamic balance by the timed up-and-go test, and obstacle negotiation function by crossing velocity and maximum vertical heel clearance. [Results] Both the lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo Wii Sports groups showed significant improvements in obstacle negotiation function after the exercise compared to the control group. Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test scores were greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group, while the timed up-and-go test time was significantly better in the Nintendo Wii Sports groups. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercises and Nintendo Wii Sports improve falling related balance and obstacle negotiation function in elderly women at risk for falls. PMID:26157228

  2. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the…

  3. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system. PMID:20800128

  4. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system.

  5. HIV prevention among women in low- and middle-income countries: intervening upon contexts of heightened HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Kerrigan, Deanna L; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    Women's vulnerability to HIV infection is influenced by contextual factors in the risk environment that operate at multiple levels (i.e., physical, social, economic, policy). We present three case studies that illustrate combination approaches to HIV prevention among women who are at heightened risk for infection, especially sex workers, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Lessons learned from these case studies are consistent with international literature promoting interventions that combine sexual risk reduction, condom promotion, and improved access to sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment in the context of structural interventions, including policy change and empowerment of sex workers to reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STIs. We suggest avenues for future research and new intervention targets as well as a more nuanced approach to understanding the structural and social vulnerability of women to HIV infection in these settings. PMID:23297666

  6. [Pregnancy and eating behavior in pregnant women from a low-income neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the meanings of acceptance attributed to pregnancy and their influence on the eating behavior of pregnant women attending a health unit located in a low-income neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a qualitative approach with social representations as the analytical category. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with adolescent and adult pregnant women (primiparous or multiparous) in different stages of pregnancy. Discourse analysis drew on in-depth hermeneutics, using thematic analysis as the main technical resource. Two representational categories emerged from the set of discourses, namely accepting versus not accepting the pregnancy, which involved different eating behaviors. In the former, women tended to either eat adequately or overeat. For the latter, not accepting the pregnancy was associated with denial of eating, temporarily or throughout the pregnancy.

  7. Behavior change interventions to prevent HIV infection among women living in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sandra I; Kangwende, Rugare A; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a systematic review of behavioral change interventions to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among women and girls living in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and other databases and bibliographies were systematically searched for trials using randomized or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate behavioral interventions with HIV infection as an outcome. We identified 11 analyses for inclusion reporting on eight unique interventions. Interventions varied widely in intensity, duration, and delivery as well as by target population. Only two analyses showed a significant protective effect on HIV incidence among women and only three of ten analyses that measured behavioral outcomes reduced any measure of HIV-related risk behavior. Ongoing research is needed to determine whether behavior change interventions can be incorporated as independent efficacious components in HIV prevention packages for women or simply as complements to biomedical prevention strategies. PMID:19949847

  8. Exposure of Pregnant Women to Indoor Air Pollution: A Study from nine low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Kadir, Muhammad Masood; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Garces, Ana L.; Moore, Janet; Onyamboko, Marie; Kaseba, Christine; Althabe, Fernando; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Freire, Salvio; Parida, Sailajanandan; Saleem, Sarah; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We studied exposure to solid fuel smoke and second-hand tobacco smoke among pregnant women in south Asia, Africa and Latin America. Design Prospective cross-sectional survey. Setting Antenatal clinics in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Uruguay, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, India and Pakistan. Sample A total of 7961 pregnant women in ten sites in nine countries were interviewed between October 2004 and September 2005. Methods A standardized questionnaire on exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) and to secondhand smoke was administered to pregnant women during antenatal care. Main Outcome Measures Exposure to IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke. Results South Asian pregnant women commonly reported use of wood (49.1%–89.7%), crop residue and animal dung for cooking and heating fuel. African pregnant women reported higher use of charcoal (85.4%–93.5%). Latin American pregnant women had greater use of petroleum gas. Among south Asian women, solid fuel use and cooking on an open flame inside the home were common. There was a significant association between solid fuel use and allowing smoking within the home at the Asian sites and in Zambia (p<0.05). Conclusions Pregnant women from low/middle income countries were commonly exposed to IAP secondary to use of solid fuels. Among these populations, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was also common. This combination of exposures likely increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes among the most vulnerable women. Our study highlights the importance of further research on the combined impact of IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke exposures on adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:19961275

  9. HIV sexual risk behavior among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence: the role of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Hansen, Nathan B; Sullivan, Tami P

    2010-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from intimate partner violence (IPV-related PTSD), drug problems, and alcohol problems were tested as correlates of women's sexual risk behavior. Participants were 136 low-income women experiencing physical violence by a male partner during the past 6 months. Sexual risk behavior was assessed by whether women had unprotected sex with a risky primary partner (i.e., HIV-positive, injection drug user, and/or nonmonogamous), unprotected sex with a risky nonprimary partner (i.e. HIV-positive or unknown status), or traded sex during the past 6 months. Nearly one in five women engaged in these recent sexual risk behaviors. Simultaneous logistic regression results revealed IPV-related PTSD, but not drug or alcohol problems, was significantly associated with sexual risk behavior while controlling for childhood abuse and demographic covariates. Women with IPV-related PTSD had four times greater odds of recent sexual risk behavior compared to women without IPV-related PTSD. Implications for HIV prevention interventions are discussed.

  10. Prevalence and Perceived Financial Costs of Marijuana versus Tobacco use among Urban Low-Income Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Jessica R; Svikis, Dace S; Ondersma, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative prevalence of marijuana and tobacco use among low-income post-partum women, using self-report, urine, and hair testing data; and to further explore perceptions of the substances among postpartum women by evaluating perceived risk and monetary cost of prenatal marijuana versus tobacco use. Methods Data from two studies were available for a total of 100 (Study 1) and 50 (Study 2) low-income, primarily African-American post-partum women. Study 1 participants completed brief self-report measures of substance use as well as urine and hair samples; study 2 participants completed a brief opinion survey regarding the risks and monetary costs of prenatal marijuana use. Results In Study 1, the self-reported prevalence of any tobacco or marijuana use in the past three months was 17% and 11%, respectively. However, objectively-defined marijuana use was more prevalent than self-reported tobacco use: 14% tested positive for marijuana by urinalysis, and 28% by hair analysis. Study 2 participants were more likely to believe that there is a safe level of marijuana use during pregnancy, and nearly half believed that using marijuana during pregnancy was less expensive than smoking cigarettes. Conclusion Marijuana use may be as or more prevalent than tobacco use among low-income, African-American pregnant women. These findings may in part be attributable to perceptions of roughly equivalent cost and the lack of a clear public health message regarding prenatal marijuana use, combined with growing pro-marijuana advocacy. A broader public health response to address prenatal marijuana use, along with other substances of abuse, is needed. PMID:23858392

  11. Adherence to Adjuvant Hormone Therapy in Low-income Women with Breast Cancer: The Role of Provider-Patient Communication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yihang; Malin, Jennifer L.; Diamant, Allison L; Thind, Amardeep; Maly, Rose C

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of patient-provider communication on adherence to tamoxifen (TAM) and aromatase inhibitors (AI) 36 months after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis in a low-income population of women. Methods California statewide surveys were conducted among 921 low-income women with BC at 6-, 18-, and 36-months after BC diagnosis. A subset of 303 women with stage I–III BC who initiated hormone treatment after diagnosis was identified. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted adherence rates were calculated. The main outcome measure was self-reported hormone use at 36 months after BC diagnosis and the chief independent variables were patient-centered communication after diagnosis by patient report as measured by the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) and patients’ self-efficacy in patient-physician interactions (PEPPI). Results Overall adherence to TAM/AI was relatively high (88%). Adjusted rates of adherence were 59% and 94% for patients with the lowest vs. highest scores on the CAHPS communication scale (AOR=1.22, P=0.006) and 72% vs. 91% for patients with the lowest and highest rating of PEPPI (AOR=1.04, P=0.04). Having at least one comorbid condition also increased the odds of adherence to hormonal therapy (AOR=3.14, P=0.03). Having no health insurance and experiencing side-effects from hormone treatment were barriers for adherence (AOR=0.12, P=0.001; AOR=0.26, P=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Patient-centered communication and perceived self-efficacy in patient-physician interaction were significantly associated with patient adherence to ongoing TAM/AI therapy among low-income women with BC. Interventions on patient-provider communication may provide opportunities to improve patient outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:23263740

  12. Validity of self-reports of breast cancer treatment in low-income, medically underserved women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yihang; Diamant, Allison L.; Thind, Amardeep

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the agreement between subjects’ self-report and medical records among patients with breast cancer (BC), and none has addressed this issue in low-income women with BC. We assessed the level of agreement between self-report and medical records data for key BC treatment and prognostic characteristics using correct proportion and the Kappa statistic, among 726 low-income BC patients. Unconditional regression was used to investigate the association between accuracy of self-report and potential explanatory factors. Overall agreement between self-report and medical records was 95.3–99.6% for BC treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy (Kappa = 0.79–0.99). Specific agreement was 87–89.5% for surgery type (Kappa = 0.51–0.96); 86.3% for chemotherapy completion (Kappa = 0.46) and 98.7% for radiotherapy completion (Kappa = 0.43); 95.2% for medical oncologist consultation (Kappa = 0.59) and 96% for radiation oncologist consultation; 97.3% for metastasis (Kappa = 0.56); and 93.6% for recurrence (Kappa = 0.30). When accepting answers within 15 days of the medical record date, 78.2% of women correctly reported surgery date, yet only around 55% of women correctly reported the start and/or end date of radiotherapy. Older age, less education, BC recurrence and poor patient–physician communication were associated with the lesser accuracy of patients’ self-report compared to medical records (P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that self-reporting of key treatment and prognostic information is relatively accurate among low-income women with BC. Self-report seems to be a reliable source for accurate information when medical record review is unavailable or unfeasible. Interventions to enhance patient–physician communication may facilitate more accurate information reporting among vulnerable populations. PMID:19551500

  13. The Influence of Urinary Incontinence on Publicly Financed Home Care Services to Low-Income Elderly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dorothy I.; Bice, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective cohort design is used to estimate the effect of urinary incontinence (UI) on the public costs of home care services to elderly individuals. Multivariate analyses controlling for other individual, household, and supply characteristics demonstrate that those with UI generate significantly greater public costs for home care services.…

  14. An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

  15. Fish consumption and advisory awareness among low-income women in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Elana; Kaslow, Jessica; Lee, Diana; Lee, Sun; Lynn Tan, May; Weis, Erica; Ujihara, Alyce

    2007-07-01

    Fishing is a culturally important activity to the ethnically diverse population living in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Due to runoff from abandoned gold mines, certain Delta fish are contaminated with methylmercury, a neurodevelopmental toxin. A state health advisory recommends limited consumption of certain Delta fish, to be followed in conjunction with a federal advisory for commercial and sport fish. We conducted a survey of low-income women at a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic, to characterize commercial and sport fish consumption patterns and advisory awareness. Ninety-five percent of women consumed commercial fish. Thirty-two percent consumed sport fish; this proportion was much higher in Hmong (86%) and Cambodian (75%) women. Ninety-nine percent of sport fish consumers also consumed commercial fish. The overall fish consumption rate among consumers was 27.9 g/day (geometric mean, past 30 days, cooked portion); commercial and sport fish consumption rates were 26.3 and 10.5 g/day, respectively. We found ethnic differences in overall fish consumption rates, which were highest in African Americans (41.2 g/day) and Asians (35.6 g/day), particularly Vietnamese and Cambodians. Pregnant women ate less fish overall than other women (16.8 vs. 30.0 g/day, p=0.0001), as did women who demonstrated specific advisory awareness (23.3 vs. 30.3 g/day, p=0.02). Twenty-nine percent of all women exceeded federal fish consumption advisory limits. These results highlight the need for culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions that address both commercial and sport fish consumption.

  16. Elder Care, Multiple Role Involvement, and Well-Being Among Middle-Aged Men and Women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kikuzawa, Saeko

    2015-12-01

    Japan's population is aging at an unprecedented rate. Combined with the tradition of family responsibility for elder care, this rapid population aging has resulted in middle-aged Japanese people being much more likely today than in past decades to face the responsibility of caring for their elderly parents alongside their other major roles. Using nationally representative Japanese data, this study assessed the individual and combined implications of caregiving and other role involvements for the well-being of middle-aged men and women. Some evidence was found for deleterious psychological consequences of the caregiver role. However, in contrast to expectations, the interaction between the roles of caregiver and worker was positively associated with well-being among both men and women. The results suggest the importance of middle-aged adults being able to keep working when they have to care for their aging parents. Another important finding was significant gender differences in the psychological consequences of holding multiple family- and work-related roles and in combining these with the caregiver role. Further analysis showed that the spousal role was also negatively associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with satisfaction for men but not for women. Gender differences in the findings appear to reflect the significant gender asymmetry in role experiences in Japan. PMID:26467034

  17. Mental health and family functioning as correlates of a sedentary lifestyle among low-income women with young children.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaigang; Davison, Kirsten K; Jurkowski, Janine M

    2012-01-01

    The authors in this cross-sectional study examined mental health and family environmental factors related to a sedentary lifestyle, including lack of leisure-time physical activity and high levels of television viewing, among low-income mothers/female guardians of preschool-aged children. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 131 mothers in 2010. Primary outcome measures included television viewing time (minutes/day) and leisure-time physical activity (<150 versus ≥150 minutes per week). Independent variables included depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and family functioning. Demographic factors (age, marriage, work status, education, number of children in the household, and race/ethnicity) were examined as potential covariates. Participating women watched television on average 186.1 minutes/day (i.e., >3 hours). Additionally, 36% of women engaged in less than the recommended 150-minute leisure-time physical activity per week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater depressive symptoms (B = 76.4, p < 0.01) and lower family functioning (B = 33.0, p < 0.05) were independently related to greater television viewing when controlling for other variables. No independent factors were identified for lack of leisure-time physical activity when controlling for other covariates. Findings suggest that health promotion efforts to promote an active lifestyle among low-income women with young children should address mental health and family functioning factors, especially depressive symptoms.

  18. Opinions about breastfeeding amongst middle-income African and Indian women in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, S; Jansen, A A

    1984-04-01

    Attitudes troward breastfeeding were assessed among 100 African and Asian women who attended the prenatal clinic of a private hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. The women were subjects in an ongoing nutrition study, but the present study was based only on their responses to 11 questions on breastfeeding. The investigators sought to identify factors which either encouraged or discouraged breastfeeding. The results were expected to be of use in developing strategies to reverse the current trend toward bottle feeding. The women delivered at the hospital and were interviewed shortly after discharge, either in their home or during a postpartum clinic visit. The subjects ranged in age from 16-35 years, and the majority were primaparous. Both the Asian and African women had similar educational backgrounds. Most of the Asian women were housewives, and most of the Africa women were employed as clerks or secretaries. At the time of discharge from the hospital, only 44% of the infants of the African women and only 13% of the infants born to the Asian women were being exclusively breastfed. 9% of the African mothers and 18% of rthe Asian women did not breastfeed at all. The remaining infants either received bottle feeds after each breastfeed or were given bottle feeds in place of breastfeeds at least once a day. Hospital routines unintentionally promoted bottle feeding, made it difficult for the women to establish breastfeeding, and may have given the women the impression that breastfeeding should be supplemented with bottle feeding. The women were separated from their infants, breastfeeding times were rigidly scheduled, the infants were bottle fed prior to the 1st breastfeeding, supplemental feeds were provided, and bottles were presented to the women each time their infants were brought to them. The women were poorly informed about the value of breastfeeding. Only 52% of the African women and 33% of the Asian women were aware that breast milk by itself provided infants with

  19. Preventive effect of risedronate on bone loss and frailty fractures in elderly women treated with anastrozole for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; Pintore, Giulia; Falci, Cristina; Veronese, Nicola; Berton, Linda; Perissinotto, Egle; Basso, Umberto; Brunello, Antonella; Monfardini, Silvio; Manzato, Enzo; Coin, Alessandra

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adjuvant anastrozole, alone or associated with risedronate, on BMD and bone fracture risk in women more than 70 years old with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer (EBC). In a group of 51 elderly women (aged 76.4 ± 5.0 years) considered for adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for EBC, 24 patients with T-scores ≥ -2 and no prevalent fractures received anastrozole 1 mg/day (group A), and 27 patients with T-scores < -2, or with T-scores ≥ -2 and prevalent fractures (group B), received anastrozole (1 mg/day) plus risedronate (35 mg/week). Both groups received supplementation with 1 g calcium carbonate and 800 IU vitamin D per day. Differences in BMD and frailty fractures were evaluated after 1 and 2 years. In group A, significant decreases in BMD were observed in the lumbar spine (Δ BMD, -0.030 ± 0.04 g/cm², P < 0.05), femoral neck (Δ BMD, -0.029 ± 0.05 g/cm², P < 0.05), and trochanter (Δ BMD, -0.026 ± 0.03 g/cm², P < 0.01) after 2 years. The greatest percent reduction in height (Hpr) emerged in the thoracic spine (3.6 ± 2.4%, P < 0.01), although only one incident vertebral fracture was observed. In group B, BMD increased in the lumbar spine (Δ BMD, 0.038 ± 0.04, P < 0.001), although no significant changes were seen in the hip regions. The decline in Hpr was negligible (about 1%). No incident fractures were observed at follow-up. In conclusion, anastrozole treatment for EBC in elderly women seems to have only mild negative effects on the femoral bone. Risedronate makes the use of anastrozole safer, even for osteopenic or osteoporotic elderly patients.

  20. Effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Cui; Song, Qipeng; Li, Weiping; Cong, Yan; Chang, Shuwan; Mao, Dewei; Hong, Youlian

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi (TC) on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women. A total of 41 elderly women (55 years-68 years) completed the study. The TC group (n = 21) performed the 24-form TC, while the control group (C, n = 20) was instructed to read newspapers or watch television when the TC group practised. Electromyogram measurements were conducted before and after intervention. After a year-long intervention, the post-test results of between-group neuromuscular reaction time showed significant differences in the rectus femoris (t = 3.607, p = 0.001), semitendinosus (t = 2.678, p = 0.011), anterior tibialis (t = 3.455, p = 0.001), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 4.061, p = 0.000). Within-group results showed that the TC group had significantly shorter neuromuscular reaction time compared to its baseline value in the rectus femoris (t = 3.066, p = 0.006), semitendinosus (t = 2.485, p = 0.022), anterior tibialis (t = 2.311, p = 0.032), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 2.462, p = 0.023). Results suggested that year-long regular TC can improve neuromuscular reaction function in elderly women.

  1. Effects of Eight Months of Whole-Body Vibration Training on the Muscle Mass and Functional Capacity of Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria

    2015-07-01

    Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm² and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm²) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm² and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm²), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women.

  2. Aiming for More Relevant HIV Risk Reduction: A Black Feminist Perspective for Enhancing HIV Intervention for Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Quinn M.; Elifson, Kirk; Sterk, Claire

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how various living conditions impact the context within which low-income African American women engage in a diverse range of high-risk behavior that increases their risk for HIV infection. The study, based on 2 years of ethnographic fieldwork, analyzed the living conditions of 45 African American women at…

  3. Equity of Higher Educational Opportunity for Women, Black, Hispanic, and Low Income Students. ACT Student Financial Aid Research Report Series 91-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    This report presents the results of a study that was conducted concerning the progress through the educational system, since the enactment of the Higher Education Act of 1965, of four large groups of Americans: women, Blacks, Hispanics, and low family income students. The study found that women have made steady and substantial progress over the…

  4. Low-income African American women's beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Chang, Judy C

    2012-08-01

    Exercise may decrease the incidence of obesity and obesity related complications during pregnancy including gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. African American women are at higher risk for obesity and physical inactivity during pregnancy when compared to other patient groups. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe in detail the unique beliefs and perspectives regarding exercise during pregnancy of African American women. A series of 6 focus groups discussions with pregnant African American women were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed for major themes and independently coded for beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant, African American women participated in 6 focus group discussions. The majority of women were single (94%), had only a high school education (67%), received Medicaid (100%) and had a mean BMI of 33 kg/m(2). Three major themes emerged regarding our subjects' beliefs about exercise during pregnancy: (1) women had a broad definition of what types of activities constituted exercise, (2) women believed exercise was generally beneficial during pregnancy and (3) women believed certain types of activities or movements could cause problems with pregnancy. African American women overwhelmingly believe that exercise positively impacts pregnancy. A lack of knowledge concerning the benefits of exercise during pregnancy was not found to be a major contributor to inactivity in African American women. However, health care providers should be aware of cultural myths that prevent many African American women from performing certain activities during pregnancy.

  5. Childhood trauma, PTSD, and problematic alcohol and substance use in low-income, African-American men and women.

    PubMed

    Cross, Dorthie; Crow, Thomas; Powers, Abigail; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that PTSD mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and alcohol and substance use disorders and that PTSD and alcohol/substance use comorbidity is greater in men than in women. We sought to replicate and extend these findings in a predominantly low-income, African-American sample recruited from a public hospital. We administered measures of childhood trauma, PTSD symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and problematic substance use to 803 men and 2084 women. We examined rates of comorbidity in men and women. Next, two bootstrap analyses were used to test whether PTSD is a mediator between childhood trauma and problematic alcohol use and between childhood trauma and problematic substance use. Finally, two bootstrap analyses were used to test whether gender would moderate the indirect effect of PTSD in both the alcohol and substance use models. Results showed that although men and women reported similar overall PTSD symptom frequency, men were more likely than women to report PTSD comorbid with alcohol and/or substance use problems. In addition, PTSD partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and problematic alcohol use and between childhood trauma and problematic substance use. The indirect effects of PTSD on the relationship between childhood trauma and problematic alcohol use and between childhood trauma and problematic substance use were greater in men. This study demonstrates the important interplay of gender, childhood trauma, PTSD, and alcohol and substance use. Mental health providers should consider childhood trauma histories and diagnostic comorbidities when treatment planning.

  6. [Eating practices during pregnancy: a study of low-income pregnant and postpartum women in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the self-reported eating practices of pregnant and postpartum women living in a group of slum communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. The interpretative methodology used a semi-structured interview and thematic content analysis. The sample (n=26) consisted of 18 pregnant and 8 postpartum women, of whom 7 were adolescents and 19 adults, including both primiparous and multiparous subjects. According to these women, eating while watching television, eating out, and eating with relatives and friends on weekends were forms of associating leisure-time activities with food, thus increasing their pleasure in eating. Income was identified as the principal obstacle to consuming healthier foods, which were reserved for their children as a priority. Thus, milk, vegetables, greens, and fruit were rarely consumed. Their diet consisted mainly of rice, beans and chicken. There was a clear preference for "junk food". The women were limited to a monotonous diet. It is important to understand and value socio-cultural and economic issues that influence eating practices in order for food and nutritional orientation aimed at healthy eating to be negotiated and adjusted to pregnant women's objective and subjective needs.

  7. Randomized trial of a behavioral weight loss intervention for low-income women: the Weight Wise Program.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Johnston, Larry F; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Lindsley, Sara C; Bramble, Kathy P; Hardy, Trisha E; Ammerman, Alice S; Poindexter, Patricia A; Will, Julie C; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2009-10-01

    Low-income women in the United States have the highest rates of obesity, yet they are seldom included in weight loss trials. To address this research gap, components of two evidence-based weight loss interventions were adapted to create a 16-week intervention for low-income women (Weight Wise Program), which was evaluated in a randomized trial with the primary outcome of weight loss at 5-month follow-up. Participants were low-income women (40-64 years) with a BMI of 25-45. Of 143 participants, 72 were randomized to the Weight Wise Program (WWP) and 71 to the Control Group (CG). Five-month follow-up data were obtained from 64 (89%) WWP and 62 (87%) CG participants. With baseline values carried forward for missing data, WWP participants had a weight change of -3.7 kg compared to 0.7 kg in the CG (4.4 kg difference, 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2-5.5, P<0.001). For systolic blood pressure (SBP), change in the WWP was -6.5 mm Hg compared to -0.4 mm Hg among controls (6.2 mm Hg difference, 95% CI, 1.7-10.6, P=0.007); for diastolic BP (DBP), changes were -4.1 mm Hg for WWP compared to -1.3 mm Hg for controls (2.8 mm Hg difference, 95% CI, 0.0-5.5, P=0.05). Of the 72 WWP participants, 64, 47, and 19% lost at least 3, 5, and 7% of their initial body weight, respectively. In conclusion, the WWP was associated with statistically significant and clinically important short-term weight loss. PMID:19407810

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for cannabis use in low-income pregnant women in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Janet E; Huang, Hsiang; Menezes, Paulo R; Faisal-Cury, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug during the perinatal period and has potential risks to the fetus. The purpose of this study is to estimate the 1-year prevalence of cannabis use and identify associated factors for a population of low-income pregnant women in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 831 women surveyed using a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and substance use history. The 1-year prevalence of antenatal cannabis use was 4.2 %; reported lifetime use was 9.6 %. The presence of a common mental disorder and active tobacco smoking were independently associated with cannabis use, OR = 3.3 (95 % CI 1.65-6.59) and OR = 6.89 (95 % CI 3.45-13.8), respectively. PMID:25971852

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for cannabis use in low-income pregnant women in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Janet E; Huang, Hsiang; Menezes, Paulo R; Faisal-Cury, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug during the perinatal period and has potential risks to the fetus. The purpose of this study is to estimate the 1-year prevalence of cannabis use and identify associated factors for a population of low-income pregnant women in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 831 women surveyed using a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and substance use history. The 1-year prevalence of antenatal cannabis use was 4.2 %; reported lifetime use was 9.6 %. The presence of a common mental disorder and active tobacco smoking were independently associated with cannabis use, OR = 3.3 (95 % CI 1.65-6.59) and OR = 6.89 (95 % CI 3.45-13.8), respectively.

  10. Assessment of factors impacting cervical cancer screening among low-income women living with HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ogunwale, Abayomi N; Coleman, Maame Aba; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Valverde, Ivan; Montealegre, Jane; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Anderson, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Very little is currently known about factors impacting the prevalence of cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV-AIDS (WLHA). To better understand this issue, we surveyed low-income, medically underserved women receiving subsidized gynecologic care through an integrated HIV clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 209 women who self-identified as HIV positive. A total of 179 subjects (85.7%) reported having had a Pap test in the last three years. The majority of WLHA (95%) knew that the Pap test screens for cervical cancer. However, overall knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, such as multiple sexual partners or sex with a man with multiple partners, was low (43% and 35%, respectively). Unscreened women were younger and more likely to be single with multiple current sexual partners. In multivariable analyses, the only factors associated with Pap testing were a woman's perception that her partner wants her to receive regular screening (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 1.15-23.76; p = .04), number of clinic visits during the past year (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05-1.94; p = .04) and knowledge that the need for a Pap test does not depend on whether or not a woman is experiencing vaginal bleeding (aOR 6.52, 95% CI: 1.04-49.71; p = .05). We conclude that support from male partners in addition to effective contact with the health system and knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors influence Pap utilization among low-income WLHA. Future measures to improve the care for this population should increase knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and encourage social support for cervical cancer screening among WLHA.

  11. Applicability of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 Reference Values for Spirometry for Longitudinal Data of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Hüls, Anke; Krämer, Ursula; Stolz, Sabine; Hennig, Frauke; Hoffmann, Barbara; Ickstadt, Katja; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Lung function depends nonlinearly on age and height, so that the use of age and height specific reference values is required. The widely used age and height specific GLI (Global Lung Initiative) z-scores derived from cross-sectional data, however, have not been proven for validity in an elderly population or for longitudinal data. Therefore, we aimed to test their validity in a population of elderly women followed prospectively for more than 20 years. Methods We used spirometric data (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC) from the SALIA cohort of German women (baseline: 1985–1994 (aged 55 years), follow-up: 2008/2009 and 2012/2013). We calculated GLI-z-scores for baseline and follow-up examination separately (cross-sectional evaluation) and individual differences in z-scores between baseline and follow-up (longitudinal evaluation) for healthy never-smoking women. Results GLI reference values for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were cross-sectionally and longitudinally equivalent with our SALIA data. The mean change in z-scores between baseline and follow-up was 0.33 for FEV1, 0.38 for FVC and -0.10 for FEV1/FVC. Conclusions In conclusion, GLI z-scores fit cross-sectionally and longitudinally with FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC measured in women from Germany which indicates that they can be used in longitudinal association analyses. PMID:27310365

  12. Circulating PTH, Vitamin D and IGF-I levels in relation to bone mineral density in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Camozzi, Valentina; Doretto, Paolo; Tozzoli, Renato; Basso, Stefano M M

    2013-01-01

    Age and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) represent major risk factors for vertebral fracture risk, especially in pos-tmenopausal women, and measurement of BMD is currently considered of value in estimating bone mineralization. BMD correlates with demographics and anthropometric parameters, as well as with several markers of bone metabolism and calcium-regulating hormones, such as leptin, osteoprotegerin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and sex steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PTH, 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D], IGF-I and BMD in a selected group of elderly women. Thirty-one post-menopausal women over the age of 65, who were not estrogen, vitamin D or bisphosphonate users and did not have a history of fracture, bone disease or malignancy, were prospectively enrolled in the study. All the patients underwent lumbar spine dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum calcium, creatinine, PTH, 25(OH)D and IGF-I measurements. As expected, a weakly-inverse correlation between age and 25(OH)D (R=-0.50, p=0.020), and between BMD and PTH (R=-0.48, p=0.027) was found. There was a strong relationship between IGF-I and BMD (R=0.64, p=0.0016), and between age and IGF-I (R=-0.70, p<0.001), while IGF-I did not correlate with 25(OH)D (R=-0.16, p=0.48) or BMI (R=-0.089, p=0.70). In conclusion, in this selected group of elderly women, we found a strong relationship of increased bone resorption, expressed as BMD, to calcium-regulating hormones PTH and IGF-I, while 25(OH)D and BMI seem to be independent of bone mineralization status. PMID:23606700

  13. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of Greater Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K

    2010-08-01

    Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.

  14. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Among Low-Income Women of Color in Primary Care: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.; Tejeda, Silvia; Childers, Kimberly; Stolley, Melinda R.; Warnecke, Richard B.; Hoskins, Kent F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends identifying candidates for breast cancer (BC) chemoprevention and referring them for genetic counseling as part of routine care. Little is known about the feasibility of implementing these recommendations or how low-income women of color might respond to individualized risk assessment (IRA) performed by primary care providers (PCPs). Methods: Women recruited from a federally qualified health center were given the option to discuss BC risk status with their PCP. Comprehensive IRA was performed using a software tool designed for the primary care environment combining three assessment instruments and providing risk-adapted recommendations for screening, prevention, and genetic referral. Logistic regression models assessed factors associated with wanting to learn and discuss BC risk with PCP. Results: Of 237 participants, only 12.7% (n = 30) did not want to discuss IRA results with their PCP. Factors associated with lower odds of wanting to learn results included having private insurance and reporting ever having had a mammogram. Factors associated with higher odds of wanting to learn results included older age (50 to 69 years) and increased BC worry. For all women wishing to learn results, IRA was successfully completed and delivered to the PCP immediately before the encounter for incorporation into the well-visit evaluation. Conclusion: Incorporation of US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations as part of routine primary care is feasible. Interest in IRA seems high among underserved women. This approach warrants further investigation as a strategy for addressing disparities in BC mortality. PMID:26036266

  15. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-06-01

    To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors.

  16. A Primary Care-Based Early Childhood Nutrition Intervention: Evaluation of a Pilot Program Serving Low-Income Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Lopez, Veronica; Flores, Bianca; Lawhon, Brittany

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition in early childhood can significantly impact physical and mental health outcomes for children. However, research on broadly defined pre/postnatal nutrition interventions is sparse. The present study is a process and outcome evaluation of a primary care-based nutrition intervention targeting low-income Hispanic women. Pregnant women enrolled in the program were in their first trimester and received services through their 6-month well child check. The program provided vouchers for fruits and vegetables from the local farmers' market, nutrition classes, cooking classes, and lactation counseling. We conducted a prospective study of program participants (n = 32) and a comparable group of women for whom the program was not available (n = 29). Panel survey data measured maternal diet, exercise, stress, depression, social support, infant feeding practices, and demographics. Outcome measures obtained from medical records included pregnancy weight gain, infant weight at 6 and 12 months, and infant development at 9 months. Findings reveal that the program was not associated with infant weights. However, despite similar profiles at baseline, women in the intervention group were more likely than women in the comparison group to have significant improvements in diet, exercise, and depression (p ≤ .05). In addition, participants were more likely to breastfeed (p = .07) and their infants were more likely to pass the ages and stages developmental screen (p = .06) than women in the comparison group. The study was limited by a lack of random assignment and small samples. However, the breadth and size of the effects suggest pre/postnatal nutrition interventions integrated into primary care warrant additional investigation. PMID:26863560

  17. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. Methods we conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16–40 year old women (n=1057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Results The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0–15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P<.001). Obese women (P=.002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P=.030), and some college hours/degree (P<.001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.18), switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Conclusions Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  18. A Primary Care-Based Early Childhood Nutrition Intervention: Evaluation of a Pilot Program Serving Low-Income Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Lopez, Veronica; Flores, Bianca; Lawhon, Brittany

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition in early childhood can significantly impact physical and mental health outcomes for children. However, research on broadly defined pre/postnatal nutrition interventions is sparse. The present study is a process and outcome evaluation of a primary care-based nutrition intervention targeting low-income Hispanic women. Pregnant women enrolled in the program were in their first trimester and received services through their 6-month well child check. The program provided vouchers for fruits and vegetables from the local farmers' market, nutrition classes, cooking classes, and lactation counseling. We conducted a prospective study of program participants (n = 32) and a comparable group of women for whom the program was not available (n = 29). Panel survey data measured maternal diet, exercise, stress, depression, social support, infant feeding practices, and demographics. Outcome measures obtained from medical records included pregnancy weight gain, infant weight at 6 and 12 months, and infant development at 9 months. Findings reveal that the program was not associated with infant weights. However, despite similar profiles at baseline, women in the intervention group were more likely than women in the comparison group to have significant improvements in diet, exercise, and depression (p ≤ .05). In addition, participants were more likely to breastfeed (p = .07) and their infants were more likely to pass the ages and stages developmental screen (p = .06) than women in the comparison group. The study was limited by a lack of random assignment and small samples. However, the breadth and size of the effects suggest pre/postnatal nutrition interventions integrated into primary care warrant additional investigation.

  19. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P < .005) to DEXA total and abdominal fat and MRI visceral fat in both genders. Log IAUPGH was inversely related to visceral fat in women (P < .005) and men (P < .0001), but was not significantly related to total fat in either gender. In women, log IAUPGH was related inversely to total and LDL cholesterol and positively to HDL cholesterol (P < .008). In men, log IAUPGH was inversely related to total cholesterol and triglycerides (P < .005). In women, HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P < .005). In men, triglycerides were positively related (P < .001) to the WHR and DEXA abdominal and MRI visceral fat. Multivariate regression revealed log IAUPGH, but not DEXA total body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P < .001 for women and P = .01 for men) and LDL (P < .007 and P = .05) cholesterol in both sexes and of HDL cholesterol (P < .005) and triglycerides (P < .03) in women. Log IAUPGH, but not DEXA abdominal fat, was related to total (P < .005 and P < .03) and LDL (P < .03 and P = .05) cholesterol in both genders and to HDL in women (P < .05). Log IAUPGH, but not

  20. Contextualizing online human milk sharing: structural factors and lactation disparity among middle income women in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    Women in the U.S. face significant structural constraints in attempting to breastfeed as recommended in the first six months of their child's life. Internet-facilitated human milk sharing is an emergent response to breastfeeding challenges. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of milk sharing donors and recipients and the ways structural factors circumscribe the biocultural context of lactation in milk sharing practices. Data regarding demographic characteristics, reproductive history, lactation history, and levels of social support and health care provider support for breastfeeding were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Statistical tests were executed to ascertain whether significant differences exist between donors and recipients. A total of 867 respondents (661 donors, 206 recipients) met the eligibility criteria for the study. Respondents were U.S. residents and primarily White, middle-class, well educated, and employed women. Both donors and recipients reported higher than the national average for household income, maternal educational attainment, breastfeeding exclusivity 0-6 months, and breastfeeding duration. Differences in lactation sufficiency and breastfeeding outcomes between donors and recipients were associated with both structural and biocultural factors. Donors reported significantly higher income, education, and support for breastfeeding from spouse/partner, other family, employers, and pediatricians. Donors also reported significantly higher rates of full term birth for child of most recent lactation. This study provides a foundation for understanding how milk sharing reflects a broader political economy of breastfeeding in the U.S.

  1. Recycling attitudes and behavior among a clinic-based sample of low-income Hispanic women in southeast Texas.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Heidi C; Dawson, Lauren N; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18-55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (P<0.05), lower acculturation (P<0.01), knowing what to recycle (P<0.01), knowing that recycling saves landfill space (P<0.05), and disagreeing that recycling takes too much time (P<0.001). A Sobel test revealed that acculturation mediated the relationship between recycling knowledge and recycling behavior (P<0.05). We offer new information on recycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population.

  2. Recycling Attitudes and Behavior among a Clinic-Based Sample of Low-Income Hispanic Women in Southeast Texas

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Heidi C.; Dawson, Lauren N.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18–55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (P<0.05), lower acculturation (P<0.01), knowing what to recycle (P<0.01), knowing that recycling saves landfill space (P<0.05), and disagreeing that recycling takes too much time (P<0.001). A Sobel test revealed that acculturation mediated the relationship between recycling knowledge and recycling behavior (P<0.05). We offer new information on recycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population. PMID:22493693

  3. Employment and the Risk of Domestic Abuse among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Magnuson, Katherine; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data from 2 randomized evaluations of welfare-to-work programs--the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies--to estimate the effect of employment on domestic abuse among low-income single mothers. Unique to our analysis is the application of a 2-stage least squares method, in…

  4. Adherence to adjuvant hormone therapy in low-income women with breast cancer: the role of provider-patient communication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihang; Malin, Jennifer L; Diamant, Allison L; Thind, Amardeep; Maly, Rose C

    2013-02-01

    To assess the impact of patient-provider communication on adherence to tamoxifen (TAM) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) 36 months after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis in a low-income population of women. California statewide surveys were conducted among 921 low-income women with BC at 6, 18, and 36 months after BC diagnosis. A subset of 303 women with stage I-III BC who initiated hormone treatment after diagnosis was identified. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted adherence rates were calculated. The main outcome measure was self-reported hormone use at 36 months after BC diagnosis and the chief independent variables were patient-centered communication after diagnosis by patient report as measured by the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) and patients' self-efficacy in patient-physician interactions (PEPPI). Overall adherence to TAM/AI was relatively high (88 %). Adjusted rates of adherence were 59 and 94 % for patients with the lowest versus highest scores on the CAHPS communication scale (AOR = 1.22, P = 0.006) and 72 versus 91 % for patients with the lowest and highest rating of PEPPI (AOR = 1.04, P = 0.04). Having at least one comorbid condition also increased the odds of adherence to hormonal therapy (AOR = 3.14, P = 0.03). Having no health insurance and experiencing side-effects from hormone treatment were barriers for adherence (AOR = 0.12, P = 0.001; AOR = 0.26, P = 0.003, respectively). Patient-centered communication and perceived self-efficacy in patient-physician interaction were significantly associated with patient adherence to ongoing TAM/AI therapy among low-income women with BC. Interventions on patient-provider communication may provide opportunities to improve patient outcomes in this vulnerable population.

  5. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings.

  6. Workplace health promotion--strategies for low-income Hispanic immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Abbott, Perla; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Mahon, Marveen; Allwein, David; Cook, Jennifer; Mikan, Vanessa; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Sethness, Renee; Muñoz, Laura; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2008-05-01

    Addressing health disparities for vulnerable populations in the United States is a national goal. Immigrant Hispanic women, at increased risk for heart disease, face obstacles in receiving adequate health care. Health promotion, especially for Hispanic women, is hindered by language, access to care, lack of insurance, and cultural factors. Innovative health education approaches are needed to reach this population. This article describes the development and evaluation of a culturally sensitive cardiac health education program based on findings from a study of 21 older immigrant Hispanic women employed as housekeepers at a small university in south Texas. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures had decreased 17 months after the intervention.

  7. Workplace health promotion--strategies for low-income Hispanic immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Abbott, Perla; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Mahon, Marveen; Allwein, David; Cook, Jennifer; Mikan, Vanessa; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Sethness, Renee; Muñoz, Laura; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2008-05-01

    Addressing health disparities for vulnerable populations in the United States is a national goal. Immigrant Hispanic women, at increased risk for heart disease, face obstacles in receiving adequate health care. Health promotion, especially for Hispanic women, is hindered by language, access to care, lack of insurance, and cultural factors. Innovative health education approaches are needed to reach this population. This article describes the development and evaluation of a culturally sensitive cardiac health education program based on findings from a study of 21 older immigrant Hispanic women employed as housekeepers at a small university in south Texas. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures had decreased 17 months after the intervention. PMID:18578188

  8. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Ponce, Ninez A.; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24–49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. Results We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). Conclusion This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity. PMID:26963247

  9. Healthy elderly French women living at home have secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover in winter. EPIDOS Study Group.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, M C; Schott, A M; Garnero, P; Hans, D; Delmas, P D; Meunier, P J

    1996-03-01

    It was recently demonstrated that calcium and vitamin D supplements were capable of decreasing the incidence of hip fractures in institutionalized elderly subjects through a reduction of senile secondary hyperparathyroidism. As there are no appropriate data to recommend such a supplement to the elderly living at home, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of senile secondary hyperparathyroidism in old French women from the general community, its relation to vitamin D status, and its contribution to bone turnover. Four hundred and forty women, aged 75-90 yr, were randomly selected from the general community by mailing from electoral listing in 5 French cities whose latitude varies from 49 degrees 9N to 43 degrees 6N. At the end of the winter, with previous hip fractures or those who were institutionalized were excluded. The results obtained in these women were compared to those obtained in 59 institutionalized old women and 54 younger healthy women. In the five cities for the women living at home, we found a mean PTH value greater than that obtained in young women (63 +/- 28 vs. 43 +/- 15 pg/ml; P = 0.001), but lower that that found in institutionalized women (76 +/- 49 pg/mL; P = 0.05). The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level was not different in subjects from the 5 cities, but in all of them it was significantly greater than that found in 59 institutionalized women (42.5 +/- 25.0 vs. 15.5 +/- 6.5 nmol/L; P = 0.0001) but lower than that in young adults (P < 0.001). The main determinants of PTH were in equal ratio, i.e. age (r = 0.19; P < 0.001), 25OHD, and, to a lesser degree, creatinine clearance (r = 0.10; P = 0.03). For 25OHD, the main determinant was the personal outdoor score and, to a lesser extent, the amount of daily sunlight in the city. The mean values of biochemical markers of bone turnover, bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Crosslaps, were significantly increased compared with the results obtained in young women, and

  10. [Profile of the elderly who naps].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Ariene Angelini; de Oliveira, Simone Camargo; Freitas, Denise Cuoghi de Carvalho Veríssimo; Ceolim, Maria Filomena; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost; da Rocha, Maria Cecília Pires

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize the elderly who naps according to sociodemographic characteristics and frailty. A descriptive, cross-sectional study part of the multicenter project Frailty in the Elderly Brazilians. We evaluated 1,866 elderly people using a sociodemographic questionnaire. The frailty was assessed using the phenotype proposed by Fried. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The results showed that the profile of the elderly who naps consists predominantly of women, married, retired, pre-frail, with an average age of 73 years, four years of study, with monthly family income of 3.9 minimum salary, with 4,4 children who were living with them only. The elderly reported napping on average 5.9 days per week, lasting 53.5 minutes per nap. Knowing the profile of the elderly who naps contributes to health professionals in the development of actions in relation to sleep problems of the frail/pre-frail elderly, preventing, minimizing or solving these problems. PMID:24626360

  11. Serum uric acid correlates in elderly men and women with special reference to body composition and dietary intake (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System).

    PubMed

    Loenen, H M; Eshuis, H; Löwik, M R; Schouten, E G; Hulshof, K F; Odink, J; Kok, F J

    1990-01-01

    In 460 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 65-79 years, serum uric acid correlates were studied by linear regression analyses, for men and women separately. Diuretic therapy, total serum cholesterol (women only) and creatinine clearance (in bivariate analysis only) were significantly associated with serum uric acid level. Positive associations of serum uric acid with body weight, body mass index, body fatness (men) and lean body mass (men) were observed, with and without adjustment for diuretic therapy, creatinine clearance and age. Serum uric acid levels, whether adjusted or not for these variables and for body mass index, were positively associated with alcohol intake (men) and consumption of meat and fish (women), and inversely with consumption of bread, margarine and milk products (women). These results indicate that limited medication with diuretics, weight control and restriction of alcohol use may help to prevent hyperuricemia in the elderly.

  12. Income, health and nutrition activities: examples from women's groups in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    The accomplishments of 4 Kenyan women's groups, sponsored by seed grants of $2000-5000 from Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) since 1982, are summarized. CEDPA provides professional management training and coordinates alumni groups, as well as grants for community projects in family planning, health and community development. Forty women from Ngamani started a project to sell floormats, raised vegetables, received a grant to raise poultry, and opened a nutrition clinic. In Kibuyuni women use profits from chickens, goats and vegetables, and milling grain to build a primary school, a health dispensary and a general store. With CEDPA funds, they stocked the store and furnished the clinic. Proceeds pay a health worker's salary. They have sponsored another women's group, which is building a bakery and managing dairy cows. The Makiwo women's group, with money from their craft business, built a multi-purpose community center for health, family planning services and reading classes. A CEDPA grant funded a charcoal business and a profitable water system built by the women, providing a salaried health educator. A women's group in Chonyi began raising cattle. A CEDPA graduate helped them to set a goal to reduce infant mortality. They started a training class for young mothers in techniques of nutrition, home economics, family planning and hygiene, such as growing vegetables an building latrines. Evaluation has shown that successful projects are based on previous work, strong links with other organizations, and entail a long-term process. Women's organizations can deliver results with some training, supervision and technical assistance, but minimal cost.

  13. Trends in overweight among women differ by occupational class: Results from 33 low and middle income countries in the period 1992–2009

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Arana, Sandra; Avendano, Mauricio; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Objective There has been an increase in overweight among women in low- and middle-income countries, but whether these trends differ for women in different occupations is unknown. We examined trends by occupational class among women from 33 low- and middle-income countries in four regions. Design Cross-national study with repeated cross-sectional demographic health surveys (DHS). Subjects Height and weight were assessed at least twice between 1992 and 2009 in 248,925 women aged 25–49 years. Interviews were conducted to assess occupational class, age, place of residence, educational level, household wealth index, parity, and age at first birth and breastfeeding. We used logistic and linear regression analyses to assess the annual percent change (APC) in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) by occupational class. Results The prevalence of overweight ranged from 2.2% in Nepal in 1992–1997 to 75% in Egypt in 2004–2009. In all four regions, women working in agriculture had consistently lower prevalence of overweight, while women from professional, technical, managerial as well as clerical occupational classes had higher prevalence. Although the prevalence of overweight increased in all occupational classes in most regions, women working in agriculture and production experienced the largest increase in overweight over the study period, while women in higher occupational classes experienced smaller increases. To illustrate, overweight increased annually by 0.5% in Latin America and the Caribbean and by 0.7% in Sub-Saharan Africa among women from professional, technical, and managerial classes, as compared to 2.8% and 3.7%, respectively, among women in agriculture. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight has increased in most low and middle income countries, but women working in agriculture and production have experienced larger increases than women in higher occupational classes. PMID:23649471

  14. The influence of urinary incontinence on the quality of life of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Grimby, A; Milsom, I; Molander, U; Wiklund, I; Ekelund, P

    1993-03-01

    The quality of life assessed by the Nottingham Health Profile Questionnaire was compared in a group of women (n = 120) suffering from urinary incontinence (age 75.4 +/- 1.9, range 65-84 years) and an age-matched representative sample of the total population (n = 313). There were no significant differences between the two groups of women in occurrence of other illnesses or social characteristics. Women suffering from urinary incontinence obtained higher scores in the domains of emotional disturbances (p < 0.05) and social isolation (p < 0.001) than women from the control group. When subdividing the incontinent women by type of incontinence it was found that women suffering from urge and mixed incontinence reported emotional disturbances (p < 0.05) more than women from the control group. There was, however, no difference within the domain of emotional disturbances between stress-incontinent women and the control group. Women suffering from urge incontinence reported more disturbance of sleep (p < 0.05) than the control group. Women suffering from all types of urinary incontinence (p < 0.05) were socially more isolated than those from the age-matched group of women from the total population. Urinary incontinence in women has a detrimental effect on their daily lives and causes them to avoid social contacts.

  15. NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND SEXUAL INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AMONG LOW-INCOME, DRUG-INVOLVED NEW YORK CITY RESIDENTS: RESULTS FROM THE IMPACT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed relations among neighborhood characteristics and sexual intimate partner violence against women (SIPVAW), among low-income, drug-involved, women (N=360) and men (N=670) in New York City between 2005 and 2009. Six percent of women (n=22) and 5% of men (n=33) reported experiencing and perpetrating SIPVAW in the past year with a main partner. In adjusted mixed models among women, neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly, negatively associated with SIPVAW victimization. In adjusted logistic models among men, neighborhood collective efficacy was significantly, positively associated with SIPVAW perpetration. Novel theoretical frameworks are needed to guide research on neighborhoods and partner violence. PMID:25062819

  16. Rural Elderly: Impact of Social, Psychological Health and Demographic Experiences on Adjustment in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, R.; And Others

    An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…

  17. The Relationship of Built Environment to Health-Related Behaviors and Health Outcomes in Elderly Community Residents in a Middle Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio L.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the impact of the built environment (BE) on health behaviours and health outcomes in middle income countries. This study examines associations between self-assessed characteristics of the home and neighbourhood environment and health-related behaviours and health outcomes in an elderly population in Brazil Design and methods In a community sample of 6963 community dwellers 60 years old and older living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associations between self-reported BE conditions and health behaviours and health outcomes were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was conducted to investigate these associations while accounting for other relevant characteristics. Results We found significant positive associations between adverse BE conditions and pulmonary, urinary conditions, gastrointestinal, problems, headache and depression. There were mixed associations between adverse BE conditions and musculoskeletal and sensory conditions, inverse associations with metabolic disorders. and no associations with dermatologic problems and cancer. After accounting for health related behaviours, results suggest a modest association between adverse BE conditions and hypertension, with no significant associations with other indicators of cardiovascular conditions (heart problems, stroke, varicose veins). Conclusions The findings in this study suggest links between adverse conditions in the BE and health related behaviours in the hypothesized direction. Associations with the health conditions examined here are mixed. We find the strongest evidence for effects of adverse BE conditions for pulmonary and infectious conditions. Significant associations between the adverse BE indicators and health outcomes persist after accounting for health related behaviours, suggesting that BE conditions are linked to health pathways above and beyond the health related behaviours assessed in this study. Significance for

  18. The importance of social context in understanding and promoting low-income immigrant women's health.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels.

  19. The importance of social context in understanding and promoting low-income immigrant women's health.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels. PMID:19202249

  20. Effects of 174 G/C polymorphism in the promoter region of the interleukin-6 gene on plasma IL-6 levels and muscle strength in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Pereira, D S; Garcia, D M; Narciso, F M S; Santos, M L A S; Dias, J M D; Queiroz, B Z; Souza, E R; Nóbrega, O T; Pereira, L S M

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the effect of -174 G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL6 gene on plasma IL-6 levels and muscle strength, and the relationship between IL-6 levels and muscle strength in elderly women. The sample consisted of 199 elderly residents (73.0 ± 7.8 years old) from rest homes and the community in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. -174 G/C polymorphism was determined by direct sequencing of the product by PCR, and plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured by ELISA. Muscle strength in the knee joint was evaluated using a Biodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer. ANCOVA was used to determine the effect of polymorphism on IL-6 levels and muscle strength, and the Pearson correlation coefficient to assess the relationship between IL-6 levels and muscle strength. -174 G/C polymorphism was associated with the plasma IL-6 levels of elderly women (P < 0.01) since homozygotes for the G allele showed high IL-6 levels (GG 3.85 pg/mL, GC + CC 2.13 pg/mL). There was no association of polymorphism on muscle strength (P > 0.05). No association was found between IL-6 levels and knee extensor muscle (r = 0.087, P = 0.306) or flexor (r = -0.011, P = 0.894) strength. An interaction between -174 G/C polymorphism and housing conditions of the sample of elderly women was identified, with the effect of genotype on IL-6 levels being higher in the institutionalized elderly. These results support the evidence that -174 G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene associates with individual variability of plasma IL-6 levels in elderly women.

  1. Control and Constraint for Low-Income Women Choosing Outpatient Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about Hispanics and their contraceptive choices in general, with some past studies detailing non-consensual sterilization. This article is based on interviews with a mostly Hispanic sample of 44 women being sterilized at a public clinic in southeast Texas with the Essure device, which entails a new outpatient sterilization procedure. These women cited relationship factors, wanting to better their and their children’s lives, and past reproductive histories as reasons for deciding on sterilization. They specifically chose Essure as a result of an apprehension of surgery and potential side effects from tubal ligation. Their choices, however, were limited by larger structural factors of work, family, the political economy, and the health care system. We conclude that this new sterilization technique provided more contraceptive choices for these women, yet more contraceptive decision making autonomy, as well as more equitable social structures, are still needed. PMID:23761929

  2. Effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Xu, Rong-Mei; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Shen, Guo-Qing; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: To study the effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly female, 105 urban elderly women, who do insufficient exercise in daily life, are selected as the subject and randomly divided into an observation group (Tai Chi Group), a control group I (Dance Group) and a control group II (Walking Group). Each group is consists of 35 women. Among them, the women in the observation group do Tai-chi exercise once a day, while the women in the control group I dance once a day and in the control group II stick to brisk walking once a day. All women in the three groups do the above said exercises for 40 minutes and the exercise intensity is controlled to be medium. At the time of selection and after 4, 8 and 12 months upon their exercises, respectively detect and compare the lower limb skeletal muscle mass, lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of the subject. Results: At the time of selection, the general information of the subjects in the three groups show no significant difference (P > 0.05); however, after 4 months’ exercise, most of the study indexes in the control group I and group II are improved significantly (P < 0.05), while most of the study indexes in the observation group show no significant difference (P > 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection and their general improvement effect is slightly lower than that in the control group; after 8 months, relevant study indexes of the subjects in the three groups are significantly improved (P < 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection, especially, the effect in the observation group is more obvious and is better than that of the control group II (P < 0.05). 12 months later, the effect of the observation group is improved significantly from day to day when comparing to theose in the control group I and group II (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conclusion: Compared with the senile dance and

  3. Physically active, low-income African American women: an exploration of activity maintenance in the context of sociodemographic factors associated with inactivity.

    PubMed

    Harley, Amy E; Rice, Jessica; Walker, Renee; Strath, Scott J; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among low-income African American women is an important target for addressing racial and economic disparities in chronic conditions and related risk factors. While barriers to physical activity for women have been examined empirically, successful strategies for navigating those barriers among physically active, low-income women have not been thoroughly explored. Informed by grounded theory, we conducted in-depth individual interviews between 2007-2010 with 14 low-income African American women who were physically active at nationally recommended levels for one year or more. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis techniques. Key themes emerged in three main categories: motivation for maintaining active lifestyle, strategies for maintaining physical activity, and challenges to maintaining physical activity. Important motivations included getting or staying healthy, social connections, and gratification. Two planning strategies emerged: flexibility and freedom. Critical challenges included financial constraints, physical strain and history of sedentary relapse. The motivations, strategies and challenges reported by low-income African American women who successfully maintained an active lifestyle provided important information for developing effective health promotion strategies for their inactive and underactive counterparts. A qualitative, asset-based approach to physical activity research contributes rich data to bridge the gap between epidemiological knowledge and community health improvement.

  4. Physically active, low-income African American women: an exploration of activity maintenance in the context of sociodemographic factors associated with inactivity.

    PubMed

    Harley, Amy E; Rice, Jessica; Walker, Renee; Strath, Scott J; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among low-income African American women is an important target for addressing racial and economic disparities in chronic conditions and related risk factors. While barriers to physical activity for women have been examined empirically, successful strategies for navigating those barriers among physically active, low-income women have not been thoroughly explored. Informed by grounded theory, we conducted in-depth individual interviews between 2007-2010 with 14 low-income African American women who were physically active at nationally recommended levels for one year or more. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis techniques. Key themes emerged in three main categories: motivation for maintaining active lifestyle, strategies for maintaining physical activity, and challenges to maintaining physical activity. Important motivations included getting or staying healthy, social connections, and gratification. Two planning strategies emerged: flexibility and freedom. Critical challenges included financial constraints, physical strain and history of sedentary relapse. The motivations, strategies and challenges reported by low-income African American women who successfully maintained an active lifestyle provided important information for developing effective health promotion strategies for their inactive and underactive counterparts. A qualitative, asset-based approach to physical activity research contributes rich data to bridge the gap between epidemiological knowledge and community health improvement. PMID:24617833

  5. Perceived reasons for depression among low income women of Mexican descent.

    PubMed

    Heilemann, MarySue V; Coffey-Love, Melody; Frutos, Lisa

    2004-10-01

    From a larger cross-sectional study of 315 women of Mexican descent, this secondary analysis focused on short answers to open-ended questions related to reasons given by 107 women at risk for depression (>16 on CES-D) for feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or depression within the last month. Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Six categories of reasons were derived from data including: (1) partner issues, (2) family issues, (3) feelings of being alone, (4) inability to provide for material needs, (5) bodily symptoms and experiences, and (6) vague nonspecific reasons. Results are useful for designing future treatment programs. PMID:15529284

  6. Prenatal Depression: Screening and Referral for Women Who Are Low Income during Antenatal Care.

    PubMed

    Mestad, Renee; Lane, Sandra D; Hall, Meghan; Smith, Carrie J; Carter, D Bruce; Rubinstein, Robert A; Keefe, Robert H; Jones-Moore, Chevelle

    2016-10-01

    This study uses prenatal clinical chart reviews of 245 women who were screened for depression while receiving antenatal care services at an urban hospital-based clinic in Syracuse, New York. The results indicate that more than one half of the mothers who screened positive are not being adequately referred and followed-up on to ensure they are receiving proper treatment. Among the mothers who are not being successfully referred are women who are non-English speaking, facing multiple life stressors, and inadequately insured. Recommendations for colocating services that may ease the ongoing burdens of new motherhood are addressed. PMID:27286463

  7. Family-to-work spillover and appraisals of caregiving by employed women caring for their elderly parents in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SAKKA, Mariko; SATO, Iori; IKEDA, Mari; HASHIZUME, Hirofumi; UEMORI, Masayo; KAMIBEPPU, Kiyoko

    2016-01-01

    We examined the differences in family-to-work spillover between employed women who did and did not have caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents and the relationship between family-to-work spillover and negative and positive appraisals of caregiving using moderation analysis. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with middle-aged employed women (age ≥40 years) from four large companies. Negative and positive family-to-work spillover (FWNS and FWPS, respectively) and negative and positive appraisals of caregiving were measured. Data from 386 non-caregivers and 82 caregivers were analyzed using Fisher’s exact tests, Welch’s t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regression. Results showed that FWNS was higher in caregivers than in non-caregivers, while there was no significant difference in FWPS. Caregiver “fulfillment from the caregiving role” (a subscale of positive appraisal) buffered the effects of caregiver “feelings of social restriction” (a subscale of negative appraisal) on FWNS. On the other hand, caregiver “commitment to caregiving tasks” (another positive subscale) intensified the effects of “feelings of social restriction” on FWNS. However, there was no relationship between negative and positive appraisals of caregiving and FWPS. These findings suggest that both negative and positive appraisals of caregiving are important contributors to FWNS among employed women caring for their parents. PMID:26829970

  8. Clinically Determined and Self-Reported Dental Caries Status During and After Pregnancy Among Low-Income Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Jane A.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Santo, William; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This analysis assessed, during and one-year after pregnancy: 1) the prevalence of and relationship between self-reported and clinically determined dental caries and oral health status, and whether self-reports are a potential proxy for professional determination; 2) factors associated with high levels of professionally determined or self-reported oral disease. Methods Data are from a randomized clinical trial of 301 pregnant, low-income Hispanic women at the California-Mexico border to compare two interventions to prevent early childhood caries. Interviews and dental examinations were conducted at enrollment (second trimester) and one-year post-partum (PP). Results During pregnancy and PP, 93% had untreated caries and most had gingival inflammation. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported measures compared to dentists’ determinations were modest (ranging from 45–80% for sensitivity and 41–77% for specificity at both time points); positive predictive values for women reporting current tooth decay or fair/poor oral health were high (>94%), but negative predictive values were low (<23%). In a bivariate GEE model, factors associated with fair/poor self-reported oral health during and after pregnancy included self-reported dental symptoms (current tooth decay, bleeding gums without brushing), dental behaviors (not flossing) and number of decayed tooth surfaces. In a logistic regression model, the only significant factor PP associated with less extensive untreated disease was if women ever had their teeth cleaned professionally (OR=0.44). Conclusions There is a great need for dental treatment in this underserved population both during pregnancy and PP. Women may not be able to accurately recognize or act on their treatment needs. At baseline and PP, few demographic or behavioral factors were associated with either self-reported or clinically-determined oral disease (e.g., being less educated or acculturated and not flossing) in the bivariate

  9. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  10. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  11. Recruiting Lower-Income Women Into Information Technology Careers: Building a Foundation for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Sharon; Henle, Toni; Cohen, Shoshana; Jenkins, Davis; Kossy, Judith

    Selected issues related to the lack of women in the information technology (IT) center were examined. Data were collected through literature and Internet research and interviews with female IT professionals and IT educators and trainers. Particular attention was paid to the following issues: qualifications necessary for a career in IT; barriers…

  12. Family Support Center Village: A Unique Approach for Low-Income Single Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Helen V.; Wolfe, Jayne L.

    2004-01-01

    The Family Support Center, recognizing the need for single women with children to maintain stability, has developed a program referred to as the Family Support Center Village, which incorporates a service enriched co-housing model. The "Village" will be the catalyst for these mothers' self-sufficiency and will provide opportunities to develop…

  13. Developing health promotion interventions: a Multisource Method applied to weight loss among low-income postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lorraine O; Kim, Sunghun; Sterling, Bobbie Sue; Latimer, Lara

    2010-01-01

    Developing focused and relevant health promotion interventions is critical for behavioral change in a low-resource or special population. Evidence-based interventions, however, may not match the specific population or health concern of interest. This article describes the Multisource Method (MSM), which, in combination with a workshop format, may be used by health professionals and researchers in health promotion program development. The MSM draws on positive deviance practices and processes, focus groups, community advisors, behavioral change theory, and evidence-based strategies. Use of the MSM is illustrated in the development of ethnic-specific weight loss interventions for low-income postpartum women. The MSM may be useful in designing future health programs designed for other special populations for whom existing interventions are unavailable or lack relevance. PMID:20433674

  14. Love on lockdown: how social network characteristics predict separational concurrency among low income African-American women.

    PubMed

    King, Kelly M; Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A

    2015-06-01

    .5; p = .002), sex exchange partners (AOR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.8 8.9; p = .001), and sexual partners who engaged in concurrency (AOR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.5, 4.8; p = .001) were significantly more likely to report separational concurrency. Conversely, participants who reported more female kin in their social networks (AOR, .808; 95% CI, .67, .97; p = .025), having known network members a longer time (AOR, .997; 95% CI, .993, .999; p = .043), and higher levels of trust for network members (AOR, .761; 95% CI, .63, .92; p = .005) were significantly less likely to report separational concurrency. Results of this study demonstrate that social network characteristics may be crucial to understanding separational concurrency among African-American urban women who have lost a partner to incarceration. Social network and other resource-based interventions, which provide instrumental, social, and economic resources to women who have experienced the loss of a partner to incarceration, may be important tools in empowering women and helping to reduce the disproportionate burden of STIs/HIV among low income, African-American women. PMID:25820220

  15. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis; Schminkey, Donna; Comstock, Emily; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects an estimated 1.5 million U.S. women annually. IPV impacts maternal and neonatal health with higher rates of depression and low birth weight (LBW). Less studied is experiencing IPV and delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) baby. SGA neonates are at increased risk of developmental and behavioral problems. The negative sequelae persist into adulthood with increased rates of diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Methods: In a sample of 239 pregnant women experiencing IPV, in urban and rural settings, we examined cross-sectional associations of severity of IPV and neonatal outcomes (i.e., birth weight and gestational age). Severity of IPV was measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 and neonatal outcomes were collected at the time of delivery. Results: Outcomes were collected on 194 neonates; 14.9% (n=29) were classified as LBW, 19.1% (n=37) classified as SGA, and 9.8% (n=19) as LBW and SGA. Women reporting higher severity of IPV during pregnancy had a greater likelihood of delivering an SGA neonate (odds ratio [OR] 4.81; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.86–12.47), and LBW neonate (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.46–12.10). Conclusions: In a sample of pregnant women experiencing perinatal IPV, women experiencing greater severities of IPV were more likely to deliver a neonate with an adverse outcome. Early recognition and intervention of IPV is essential to reduce disparities in birth outcomes and long-term health outcomes for these neonates. PMID:25290007

  16. The effects of a three-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in elderly institutionalized women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Molloy, D W; Richardson, L D; Crilly, R G

    1988-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a 3-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in a population of very elderly institutionalized women. Baseline neuropsychological testing was performed, and following 3 months of exercise or control intervention, subjects were retested 3-7 days after the completion of the study period. Apart from the Word Fluency Test, there was no significant improvement in any of the neuropsychological test scores. This study may not have shown any significant improvement in neuropsychological function because our exercise programme was too light to improve aerobic fitness, or because neuropsychological tests were repeated 3-7 days after exercise was completed and any acute effects of exercise may have disappeared by that time.

  17. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, M. Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact. PMID:27110253

  18. Are nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs associated with obesity among low-income Hispanic and African American women caretakers?

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Irene; Haldeman, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.

  19. Changes in Marital and Partner Relationships in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: An Analysis With Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scoglio, Arielle A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of natural disasters on marital and partner relationships. In this study, the authors aimed to fill this gap by investigating the changes in such relationships in a sample of 40 low-income, mostly African American women who survived Hurricane Katrina. Through in-depth interviews, participants described how the hurricane affected their intimate relationships. The authors found that, although many participants reported negative changes in their relationships, others reported that their relationships grew stronger, often despite initial strain. As a framework for understanding the processes underlying participants’ negative and positive outcomes, the authors drew on the family stress model. Consistent with the model, participants reported that the hurricane led to external stressors, including unemployment and prolonged separations, and that these stressors, in turn, undermined both individual functioning and relational processes (e.g., communication and support). Conversely, participants reporting positive changes experienced new employment opportunities, a greater sense of perspective, and high levels of effective communication and support in their relationships. Based on the findings, policies that reduce the economic strain of low-income families in the aftermath of disasters and empirically supported, culturally sensitive, clinical interventions for individuals and couples are recommended. PMID:23125478

  20. Changes in Marital and Partner Relationships in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: An Analysis With Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Scoglio, Arielle A J

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of natural disasters on marital and partner relationships. In this study, the authors aimed to fill this gap by investigating the changes in such relationships in a sample of 40 low-income, mostly African American women who survived Hurricane Katrina. Through in-depth interviews, participants described how the hurricane affected their intimate relationships. The authors found that, although many participants reported negative changes in their relationships, others reported that their relationships grew stronger, often despite initial strain. As a framework for understanding the processes underlying participants' negative and positive outcomes, the authors drew on the family stress model. Consistent with the model, participants reported that the hurricane led to external stressors, including unemployment and prolonged separations, and that these stressors, in turn, undermined both individual functioning and relational processes (e.g., communication and support). Conversely, participants reporting positive changes experienced new employment opportunities, a greater sense of perspective, and high levels of effective communication and support in their relationships. Based on the findings, policies that reduce the economic strain of low-income families in the aftermath of disasters and empirically supported, culturally sensitive, clinical interventions for individuals and couples are recommended. PMID:23125478

  1. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact.

  2. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact. PMID:27110253

  3. Report on the Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. population includes over 23 million women aged 45 to 64 and 17 million women aged 65 and over. Their life experiences are very different from those of men. The median total income of women trails that of men at all ages. Women at all ages are twice as likely as men to be poor. Poverty among the elderly is closely associated with sole…

  4. Effect of distance to radiation treatment facility on use of radiation therapy after mastectomy in elderly women

    SciTech Connect

    Punglia, Rinaa S. . E-mail: rpunglia@lroc.harvard.edu; Weeks, Jane C.; Neville, Bridget A.; Earle, Craig C.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: We sought to study the effect of distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility on the use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in elderly women. Methods and Materials: Using data from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare (SEER-Medicare) database, we analyzed 19,787 women with Stage I or II breast cancer who received mastectomy as definitive surgery during 1991 to 1999. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of distance with receipt of PMRT after adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results: Overall 2,075 patients (10.5%) treated with mastectomy received PMRT. In addition to cancer and patient characteristics, in our primary analysis, increasing distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving PMRT (OR 0.996 per additional mile, p = 0.01). Secondary analyses revealed that the decline in PMRT use appeared at distances of more than 25 miles and was statistically significant for those patients living more than 75 miles from the nearest radiation facility (odds of receiving PMRT of 0.58 [95% CI 0.34-0.99] vs. living within 25 miles of such a facility). The effect of distance on PMRT appeared to be more pronounced with increasing patient age (>75 years). Variation in the effect of distance on radiation use between regions of the country and nodal status was also identified. Conclusions: Oncologists must be cognizant of the potential barrier to quality care that is posed by travel distance, especially for elderly patients; and policy makers should consider this fact in resource allocation decisions about radiation treatment centers.

  5. Effects of a short-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on body sway and secondary hyperparathyroidism in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, M; Begerow, B; Minne, H W; Abrams, C; Nachtigall, D; Hansen, C

    2000-06-01

    Long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation is effective in reducing nonvertebral fractures in elderly people. Increased bone fragility caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) and impaired balance are known risk factors for hip fractures. The hypothesis is that short-term therapy with calcium and vitamin D may improve body sway as well as sHPT more effectively than calcium monotherapy. The effects of 8 weeks of supplementation with vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and calcium on body sway and biochemical measures of bone metabolism were measured. The sample consisted of 148 women (mean [+/-SD] age, 74 +/- 1 years) with a 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level below 50 nmol/liter. They received either 1200 mg of calcium plus 800 IU of vitamin D or 1200 mg of calcium per day. We measured intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), markers of bone turnover, and body sway before and after treatment. Falls and fractures among the participants were followed over a 1-year period. Compared with calcium mono, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in an increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 72% (p < 0.0001), a decrease in the serum PTH of 18% ( p = 0.0432), and a decrease in body sway of 9% (p = 0.0435). The mean number of falls per subject during a 1-year follow-up period was 0.45 for the calcium mono group and 0.24 for the calcium and vitamin D group (p = 0.0346). Short-term supplementation with vitamin D and calcium improves sHPT and body sway and therefore may prevent falls and subsequent nonvertebral fractures in elderly women.

  6. [Institutionalized elderly: functional capacity and physical fitness].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase; Silva, Aline Huber da; Mazo, Giovana Zarpsellon; Benedetti, Tânia R Bertoldo; dos Santos, Silvia Maria Azevedo; Marques, Sueli; Rodrigues, Rosalina A Partezani; Portella, Marilene Rodrigues; Scortegagna, Helenice de Moura; Santos, Silvana Sidney C; Pelzer, Marlene Teda; Souza, Andrea dos Santos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Creutzberg, Marion; Resende, Thais de Lima; Rezende, Tais de Lima

    2010-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between physical fitness and functional capacity in 78 residents of long-stay institutions for low-income elderly located in five regions of Brazil. The majority of the sample consisted of women, and mean age was 77.4 years (SD = 7.9). Physical fitness was assessed with the AAHPERD test, adjusted for institutionalized elderly. The Katz scale was used for functional capacity. The five components of physical fitness rated fair for flexibility, coordination, agility, and aerobic endurance and good for strength. The mean general physical fitness (GPF) index was fair. According to the findings, the greater the degree of dependency in institutionalized elderly, the lesser their strength and GPF level; meanwhile, better coordination and agility are associated with greater independence for performing activities of daily living. The results can contribute to appropriate physical exercise programs for maintenance and/or recovery of functionality.

  7. Direct measurement of T cell subset kinetics in vivo in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Diana L; Zhang, Yan; Ghattas, Hala; Worth, Andrew; Irvine, Andrew; Bennett, Andrea R; Griffin, George E; Beverley, Peter C L; Tough, David F; Macallan, Derek C

    2004-08-01

    The age-associated decline in immunocompetence is paralleled by changes in the proportions of PBL subpopulations. In turn, the size and composition of the peripheral lymphocyte pool is determined by input from the thymus and bone marrow and by the balance of proliferation and death in each lymphocyte subpopulation. We compared the kinetics of lymphocyte subtypes in young (seven of eight CMV seronegative) and healthy elderly human subjects (six of seven CMV seropositive), using deuterated glucose DNA labeling in vivo to measure rates of T cell proliferation and disappearance. For CD45RO(+) cells of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) subtypes and for CD4(+)CD45RA(+) cells the kinetics of proliferation and disappearance were remarkably similar between elderly and young subjects. In the young, the kinetics of CD8(+)CD45RA(+) cells with a naive phenotype resembled those of CD4(+)CD45RA(+) cells. However, CD8(+)CD45RA(+) T cells from the elderly exhibited a predominantly primed phenotype, and for this subset, although the proliferation rate was similar to that of other CD45RA(+) cells, the disappearance rate of labeled cells was greatly decreased compared with that of all other T cell subsets. Our data provide a direct demonstration that there are no substantial changes in in vivo kinetics for most T cell populations in healthy elderly compared with young subjects. However, primed CD8(+)CD45RA(+) cells show unusual kinetic properties, indicating the persistence of these cells in the blood and dissociation of proliferation from disappearance. PMID:15265909

  8. Business-life balance and wellbeing: Exploring the lived experiences of women in a low-to-middle income country

    PubMed Central

    Orjiakor, Charles T.; Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K.; Onyedibe, Christiana C.; Ugwu, Leonard I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim With most studies on work-life balance focused on employees, this study sets out to explore the everyday living of business women who trade on petty goods and earn very little in a low-to-middle income country (LMIC). We explore their conceptions of balance, how they manage intersecting roles, and how they cope with daily hassles and stress to maintain wellbeing. Background With the proportion of self-employed to employed people in Sub-Saharan LMICs being an inverse of the situation in Euro-American countries, there is a need to explore what balance could mean for the people in LMICs. Most studies in the work-life literature have explored how employees pursue balance and the various strategies that work for a specific group of people. Perhaps because work-life balance literature has largely sprung from advanced economies, little focus has been placed on how other societies, especially people in LMICs, navigate balance, given their unique milieu. Design Adopting the reflective life-world approach, we inquire into the daily lives of women in very small businesses. Method Twenty women who trade on a range of items and earn very little (gross daily sales of $0.41 to $62.98) were interviewed using a semi-structured guideline. Analysis was conducted using interpretative phenomenology. Result Conceptions of balance for the women incorporated the notions of satisfactory progress across roles, proper time apportionment to roles, conditional balance as well as harmony and/or synchrony across roles—a slight difference from the popular understandings. Their conception of business life roles was deemed much more integral. Negative physical and psychological experiences impacting health and wellbeing, identified as culminating as a result of both roles, were commonplace but were typically considered a normal part of living. Engagements in extra-social roles appeared to have a double-edged effect. Placing the family first, time management, and prioritizing were some of the

  9. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site)

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team (“team 3” in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID

  10. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID:27134747

  11. Assessing the Feasibility of a Web-Based Weight Loss Intervention for Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sisneros, Jessica A; Ronay, Ashley A; Robbins, Cheryl L; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ni, Ai; Morrow, John; Vu, Maihan B; Johnston, Larry F; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-income women of reproductive age are at increased risk for obesity and resulting increases in the risk of maternal/fetal complications and mortality and morbidity. Very few weight-loss interventions, however, have been targeted to this high-risk group. Based on the high prevalence of social media use among young and low-income individuals and previous successes using group formats for weight-loss interventions, the use of social media as a platform for weight-loss intervention delivery may benefit low-income women of reproductive age. Objective Examine the feasibility of delivering group-based weight-loss interventions to low-income women of reproductive age using face-to-face meetings and Web-based modalities including social media. Methods Participants attended a family planning clinic in eastern North Carolina and received a 5-month, group- and Web-based, face-to-face weight-loss intervention. Measures were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks. Results Forty participants enrolled, including 29 (73%) African American women. The mean body mass index of enrollees was 39 kg/m2. Among the 12 women who completed follow-up, mean weight change was -1.3 kg. Participation in the intervention was modest and retention at 5 months was 30%. Returnees suggested sending reminders to improve participation and adding activities to increase familiarity among participants. Conclusions Engagement with the intervention was limited and attrition was high. Additional formative work on the barriers and facilitators to participation may improve the intervention’s feasibility with low-income women of reproductive age. PMID:26920252

  12. Analysis of Core Stability Exercise Effect on the Physical and Psychological Function of Elderly Women Vulnerable to Falls during Obstacle Negotiation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dae-Sik; Jung, Dae-In; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of core stability exercise (CSE) on the physical and psychological functions of elderly women while negotiating general obstacles. [Subjects and Methods] After allocating 10 elderly women each to the core stability training group and the control group, we carried out Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and measured crossing velocity (CV), maximum vertical heel clearance (MVHC), and knee flexion angle for assessing physical performances. We evaluated depression and fear of falling for assessing psychological functions. [Results] Relative to the control group, the core stability training group showed statistically significant overall changes after the training session: an increase in POMA scores, faster CV, lower MVHC, and a decrease in knee flexion angle. Furthermore, depression and fear of falling decreased significantly. [Conclusion] CSE can have a positive effect on the improvement of physical and psychological performances of older women who are vulnerable to falls as they negotiate everyday obstacles.

  13. Analysis of Core Stability Exercise Effect on the Physical and Psychological Function of Elderly Women Vulnerable to Falls during Obstacle Negotiation

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Dae-Sik; Jung, Dae-In; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of core stability exercise (CSE) on the physical and psychological functions of elderly women while negotiating general obstacles. [Subjects and Methods] After allocating 10 elderly women each to the core stability training group and the control group, we carried out Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and measured crossing velocity (CV), maximum vertical heel clearance (MVHC), and knee flexion angle for assessing physical performances. We evaluated depression and fear of falling for assessing psychological functions. [Results] Relative to the control group, the core stability training group showed statistically significant overall changes after the training session: an increase in POMA scores, faster CV, lower MVHC, and a decrease in knee flexion angle. Furthermore, depression and fear of falling decreased significantly. [Conclusion] CSE can have a positive effect on the improvement of physical and psychological performances of older women who are vulnerable to falls as they negotiate everyday obstacles. PMID:25435680

  14. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  15. Iron interventions for women and children in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2011-04-01

    The WHO estimates that 41% of women and 27% of children suffer from anemia due to iron deficiency. The consequences of iron deficiency anemia include suboptimal mental and motor development in young children, increased risk of maternal mortality, and decreased economic productivity of adults. Recent research also provides evidence that maternal iron deficiency in pregnancy increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. This short review briefly highlights how iron interventions might be positioned within 4 global health initiatives: making pregnancy safer, saving newborn lives, infant and young child feeding, and fortification. The importance of iron nutrition is recognized in the context of child nutrition, fortification, and biofortification, and it is likely that meaningful advances will be made through these initiatives in the coming decade. However, iron nutrition is not yet well integrated into the programmatic agendas for reducing morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and neonates. Iron supplementation in pregnancy has been advocated for decades as a means of controlling anemia, but this outcome has not been sufficient to motivate strong programs and policies, and the evidence base is still sparse for high-priority clinical outcomes. To act on the current evidence for maternal and neonatal health will require stronger advocacy within circles that have not traditionally included nutritionists. Successful implementation will require greater attention to antenatal care for pregnancy women and prioritization of iron-promoting actions (including iron supplementation and deworming) within that platform. PMID:21367936

  16. Family planning program effects on the fertility of low-income U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Cutright, P; Jaffe, F S

    1976-01-01

    Under rigorous statistical controls, it has been shown that the larger the proportion of lower SES women enrolled in organized family planning programs, the lower their fertility. Program effects independent of other social, economic and cultural factors were shown for lower SES whites and blacks, and for most age groups. The potential of a fully implemented program to reduce fertility differentials between upper and lower SES groups was assessed, using 1969-1970 fertility rates and the estimates of 1969 program impact. Although we believe that the program's impact has increased in magnitude over time, even these estimates from an early point in U.S. program development provide impressive documentation that the program reduces fertility in the subpopulation served by the program, and, by implication, that there is a genuine need for organized family planning services, even in an industrialized nation like the United States. If there were no need, there could be no program effect. The family planning program was one of the major new health and social programs introduced in the mid-1960s. This study shows that, far from failing, the program was succeeding very well in attaining its objectives. The program works because it gives women of lower socioeconomic status access to modern and effective methods of contraception that they would not otherwise have. As a result, the rates of unwanted and mistimed pregnancy of patients are lower than those of comparable women who lack access to organized clinic programs.

  17. Sexual assertiveness in low-income African American women: unwanted sex, survival, and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Whyte Iv, James

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of social variables related to sexual relationships in African American women. The study used a quantitative descriptive design to gather data from a convenience sample of 524 African American women aged 18 to 49 who dwelled in the southeastern United States. The study utilized the HIV Risk Behavior Questionnaire to determine the participant's level of HIV risk. Results indicated substantial levels of sex in the women due to violence or fear of violence, relationship loss, lost shelter, and high levels of unwanted sex. There was a positive correlation between level of survival sex and high-risk behavior (R = .651, p < .01). Multiple correlations indicated associations between history of forced sex and sex due to fear of violence (R = .604, p < .01). Further correlations indicated a pattern of association between poverty, age, and sex out of fear of relationship loss or shelter loss. The study indicates a need for a broader definition of HIV-related risk in high-risk populations. PMID:17064233

  18. Postpartum depression: perceptions of a diverse sample of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Jarosinski, Judith M; Pollard, Deborah Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) continues to significantly impact women and their families during the perinatal period. Consequences of untreated PPD in the mother may lead to impaired mother-infant bonding, recurring psychiatric illness, and fewer positive parenting behaviors. North Carolina participates in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey and has the second highest self-reported rate of postpartum depressive symptoms at 19.0%. The full study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The qualitative approach, an interpretive Heideggerian perspective, elicited the postpartum clients' perceptions of risk factors, how those perceptions affected the pregnancy experience, and how self-efficacy played a role in their perceived ability to make healthy choices. The sample was comprised of 60 pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 40. Four themes were found: (1) Feeling joy and apprehension at once, (2) Depression is something you think about (3) Rearranging your thinking, and (4) Garnering support. The women in this study believed that support was an indispensable tool in dealing with feelings of sadness and depression. Critical aspects of becoming involved in their pregnancy included changing their expectations and knowing how to detect and seek help when depressive symptoms occurred. PMID:24597584

  19. TNF-α, IL6, and IL10 polymorphisms and the effect of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters and physical performance in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Mateo, Elvis Cristian Cueva; de Queiroz, Bárbara Zille; Assumpção, Alexandra Miranda; Miranda, Aline Silva; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; da Cruz dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2013-12-01

    High levels of inflammatory mediators are associated with reduced physical capabilities and muscle function in the elderly. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect the expression and synthesis of these molecules, thus influencing the intensity of the inflammatory response and susceptibility to certain diseases. Physical exercise may attenuate age-related chronic inflammation and improve physical performance. This study evaluated the interaction between the SNP rs1800629 in TNF-α, rs1800795 in IL6, and rs1800896 in IL10 and the effect of physical exercise on physical performance and inflammation in elderly women. There was a significant interaction between rs1800629 and the effect of exercise on physical performance and between the combined 3-SNP genotype and changes in physical performance in response to exercise. These SNPs did not influence the effect of exercise on inflammatory parameters. Elderly women with a combination of genotypes associated with an anti-inflammatory profile (low TNF-α and IL-6 production, high IL-10 production) showed better physical performance independent of exercise modality, evidence of an interactive influence of genetic and environmental factors on improving physical performance in elderly women.

  20. Correlation of physical aptitude; functional capacity, corporal balance and quality of life (QoL) among elderly women submitted to a post-menopausal physical activities program.

    PubMed

    de Souza Santos, César Augusto; Dantas, Estélio Enrique Martin; Moreira, Maria Helena Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity from the "Menopause in Form" program on physical aptitude, functional capacity, corporal balance and QoL among elderly women. In addition, correlations among these variables were examined. The present work was a longitudinal study that was quasi-experimental and correlational. A total of 323 elderly women (age: 69.0±5.53 years) participated in this study. Subjects were non-institutionalized, post-menopausal individuals residing at the Elderly Care Center in Belém Municipality (Pará, Brazil) and practiced one activity (i.e., dancing or walking) over a 10-month period. The assessment protocols used were the following: the Fullerton functional fitness test battery (physical aptitude); the activities of daily living (ADL) indices (functional capacity); the Tinetti-scale (corporal balance); and the WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire (QoL). The adopted significance level was p<0.05. Results from the Wilcoxon test demonstrated significant differences for the post-test assessment of functional capacity (Δ%=5.63%; p=0.0001) and general QoL (Δ%=9.19%; p=0.001). These results suggest that the physical activities employed during the "Menopause in Form" program resulted in significant improvements in the functional capacity and QoL of post-menopausal elderly women.

  1. Determination of the optimal walking speed for neural relaxation in healthy elderly women using electromyogram and electroencephalogram analyses.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Shimura, M; Shibata, S; Wakamura, T; Moritani, T

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the walking speed which has the greatest influence on neural relaxation in healthy elderly women as determined by electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) analyses. Seven elderly female volunteers [mean age 68.5 (SD 3.95) years] served as subjects for this study. The EMG signals were recorded from the gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (SL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles while walking on a treadmill, starting at 40 m.min-1 and increasing 6 m.min-1 incrementally for 10 min. The turning point of muscle activities (by integrated EMG. iEMGtp) was determined as the walking speed at the point at which the mean rate of change of iEMG (MG + SL + TA) abruptly increased. After the determination of iEMGtp. the treadmill was set at three constant speeds, one corresponding to the speed for the iEMGtp and two others 20% higher or lower than that for the iEMGtp. The subjects then walked for 20 min at each of these speeds on 3 separate days and their EEG power spectrum data were obtained for frequencies from the 8 to 13 Hz (z-wave component, AWC). The mean of iEMGtp for our subjects was at a mean walking speed of 64.7 (SD 7.9) m.min-1. Considering the subjects' age and height, iEMGtp was somewhat faster than their expected self-paced normal walking speed. There were no differences between the mean AWC values of the subjects prior to exercising at each of the three speeds. The mean AWC values after exercise were significantly (P < 0.01) greater than before. The extent of the increase in AWC at iEMGtp was greater than those at slower speeds. Our data would suggest that walking exercise at the speed which corresponds with EMG evidence of iEMGtp may induce the most significant relaxing effects in elderly women.

  2. Women Who Have Sex with Women Living in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Sexual Health and Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tat, Susana A; Marrazzo, Jeanne M; Graham, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Women who have sex with women (WSW) have long been considered at low risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, limited research has been conducted on WSW, especially those living in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). We reviewed available research on sexual health and risk behaviors of WSW in LMICs. We searched CINAHL, Embase, and PubMed for studies of WSW in LMICs published between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2013. Studies of any design and subject area that had at least two WSW participants were included. Data extraction was performed to report quantifiable WSW-specific results related to sexual health and risk behaviors, and key findings of all other studies on WSW in LMICs. Of 652 identified studies, 56 studies from 22 countries met inclusion criteria. Reported HIV prevalence among WSW ranged from 0% in East Asia and Pacific and 0%-2.9% in Latin America and the Caribbean to 7.7%-9.6% in Sub-Saharan Africa. Other regions did not report WSW HIV prevalence. Overall, many WSW reported risky sexual behaviors, including sex with men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and HIV-infected partners; transactional sex; and substance abuse. WSW are at risk for contracting HIV and STIs. While the number of research studies on WSW in LMICs continues to increase, data to address WSW sexual health needs remain limited. PMID:26790114

  3. Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

  4. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  5. Ready to Be Physically Active? The Effects of a Course Preparing Low-Income Multiethnic Women to Be More Physically Active

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rakale; Lee, Rebecca E.; Albright, Cheryl L.; King, Abby C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a preintervention physical activity preparatory course on physical activity, and social, cognitive, and transtheoretical constructs. The sample included 82 low-income, multiethnic women (75% Latina) who completed an 8-week course designed to prepare them to become more active prior to…

  6. Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Symptoms in Low-Income, Inner-City African American Women: The Role of Optimism, Depressive Symptoms, and Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; O'Connell, Cara; Gound, Mary; Heller, Laurie; Forehand, Rex

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the association of optimism and depressive symptoms with self-reported physical symptoms in 241 low-income, inner-city African American women with or without a chronic illness (HIV). Although optimism was not a unique predictor of self-reported physical symptoms over and above depressive symptoms, optimism interacted with…

  7. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Medication versus Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Income Young Minority Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether they moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method: Data come from a 1-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (M = 29 years), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression…

  9. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  10. On-the-Spot Course in Maseru, Lesotho on Income-Generating Projects for Rural Women: Framework of Community Development. July 10-30, 1983. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount Carmel International Training Centre for Community Development, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a community development course focusing on income-generating projects for rural women. The first section outlines the schedule of activities for each day of the 16-day course. The second section defines course objectives, including purpose and methodology, planning, group dynamics, cooperation, communication, negotiation, and…

  11. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  12. Resisting, reproducing, resigned? Low-income pregnant women's discursive constructions and experiences of health and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Jette, Shannon; Rail, Geneviève

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we use qualitative methodology to explore how 15 low-income women of diverse sociocultural location construct and experience health and weight gain during pregnancy, as well as how they position themselves in relation to messages pertaining to weight gain, femininity and motherhood that they encounter in their lives. Discussing the findings through a feminist poststructuralist lens, we conclude that the participants are complex, fragmented subjects, interpellated by multiple and at times conflicting subject positions. While the discourse of maternal responsibility (i.e. managing personal behaviours for the baby's health) is very much in evidence in their narratives, embodied experiences of pregnancy, lived experiences of financial constraints and religious beliefs provided some with an alternative discourse and resistant subject position. Participants also had mixed emotions about weight gain; they recognized the need to gain weight in order to have a healthy pregnancy, but weight gain was also not welcome as participants reproduced the dominant discourse of obesity and the discourse of 'feminine' bodily norms. Based on our results, we advocate for change to recent clinical guidelines and social discourses around pregnancy and weight gain, as well as for policies that provide pregnant women with a range of health-promoting resources. PMID:24330165

  13. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development.

  14. HPV Infection and Cervical Abnormalities in HIV Positive Women in Different Regions of Brazil, a Middle-Income Country.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Beatriz C; Suehiro, Tamy T; Consolaro, Marcia El; Silva, Vania Rs

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is a virus that is distributed worldwide, and persistent infection with high-risk genotypes (HR-HPV) is considered the most important factor for the development of squamous cell cervical carcinoma (SCC). However, by itself, it is not sufficient, and other factors may contribute to the onset and progression of lesions. For example, infection with other sexually transmitted diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be a factor. Previous studies have shown the relationship between HPV infection and SCC development among HIV-infected women in many regions of the world, with great emphasis on low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Brazil is considered a LMIC and has great disparities across different regions. The purpose of this review was to highlight the current knowledge about HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in HIV+ women in Brazil because this country is an ideal setting to evaluate HIV impact on SCC development and serves as model of LMICs and low-resource settings.

  15. An interpersonally based intervention for low-income pregnant women with intimate partner violence: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Capezza, Nicole M.; Parker, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of low-income pregnant women with recent intimate partner violence (IPV). Fifty-four women were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of four sessions during pregnancy and one “booster” session within 2 weeks of delivery. Based on principles of Interpersonal Psychotherapy, the intervention was designed to help participants improve their interpersonal relationships, including their social support networks, and master their role transition to motherhood. Assessments were administered at four time points (intake, 5–6 weeks post-intake, 2 weeks postpartum, 3 months postpartum) to assess for depression, PTSD, and IPV. The intervention did not significantly reduce the likelihood of a major depressive episode, PTSD, or IPV during pregnancy or up to 3-month postpartum. However, we found moderate effects for the intervention in reducing symptoms of PTSD and depression during pregnancy and a large effect for PTSD symptoms from pregnancy up to 3 months postpartum. This study suggests some initial support for our intervention. Larger randomized trials are needed to further examine the intervention both during and after pregnancy. PMID:21153559

  16. Stress, depression, social support, and eating habits reduce diet quality in the first trimester in low-income women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Stang, Jamie; Bryant, Miranda; Kim, Sunghun

    2012-10-01

    Maternal diet quality influences birth outcomes. Yet, little research exists that assesses women's diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, a crucial time of placental and fetal development. This cross-sectional study, describing diet quality and its relationship with stress, depression, social support, and eating habits in the first trimester, may identify low-income women needing intensive dietary intervention. Seventy-one low-income women completed validated instruments measuring stress, depression, social support, and eating habits; had their height and weight measured; received training on portion-size estimation; and completed three 24-hour dietary recalls (1 weekend day and 2 nonconsecutive weekdays) from July 2009 to February 2010. Comparative and correlational analyses were done. Women with diet quality scores below the median (n=35) had more depression (9.6±5.1 vs 6.7±5.1) and stress (22.1±5.4 vs 19.3±4.8) and less control over meal preparation (5.0±1.5 vs 4.2±1.5) and support from others (52.0±12.0 vs 57.4±7.2) than did women with high diet quality scores (n=36). Diet quality was negatively related to depression (r=-0.41), stress (r=-0.35), skipping meals (r=-0.41), and control over meal preparation (r=-0.33), and positively related to support from others (r=0.38). Low-income women experiencing life stressors represent an at-risk group for low diet quality and may need intensive dietary intervention before and during pregnancy. More research designed to improve diet quality in low-income pregnant women is needed.

  17. Vegetable variety is a key to improved diet quality in low-income women in California.

    PubMed

    Keim, Nancy L; Forester, Shavawn M; Lyly, Marika; Aaron, Grant J; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2014-03-01

    Primary prevention education interventions, including those sponsored by the US Department of Agriculture for low-income families, encourage and support increases in vegetable intake. Promoting vegetable variety as a focal point for behavior change may be a useful strategy to increase vegetable consumption. A simple vegetable variety evaluation tool might be useful to replace the time-intensive 24-hour dietary recall. The purpose of our study was to determine whether vegetable variety is associated with vegetable consumption and diet quality among US Department of Agriculture program participants. Variety of vegetable intake and measures of total vegetable intake, diet quality, and diet cost were evaluated. Low-income, female participants (N=112) aged 20 to 55 years with body mass index 17.7 to 68.5 who were the primary food purchasers/preparers for their households were recruited from four California counties representing rural, urban, and suburban areas. Energy density and Healthy Eating Index-2005 were used to assess diet quality. Vegetable variety was based on number of different vegetables consumed per week using a food frequency questionnaire, and three groups were identified as: low variety, ≤5 different vegetables per week; moderate variety, 6 to 9 vegetables per week; and high variety, ≥10 vegetables per week. Compared with the low-variety group, participants in the high-variety group ate a greater quantity of vegetables per day (P<0.001); their diets had a higher Healthy Eating Index score (P<0.001) and lower energy density (P<0.001); and costs of their daily diet and vegetable use were higher (P<0.001). Thus, greater vegetable variety was related to better overall diet quality, a larger quantity of vegetables consumed, and increased diet cost. PMID:24095620

  18. Elderly Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... for completing suicide among the elderly. Men use firearms more often than women. • Alcohol or substance abuse plays a diminishing role in later life suicides compared to younger suicides. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  19. Effectiveness of Cultivando La Salud: A Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Promotion Program for Low-Income Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Alicia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Williams, Janet; Saavedra-Embesi, Monica; Chan, Wenyaw; Vernon, Sally W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the effectiveness of a lay health worker intervention to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among low-income Hispanic women. Methods. Participants were women 50 years and older who were nonadherent to mammography (n = 464) or Papanicolaou (Pap) test (n = 243) screening guidelines. After the collection of baseline data, lay health workers implemented the Cultivando la Salud (CLS; Cultivating Health) intervention. Data collectors then interviewed the participants 6 months later. Results. At follow-up, screening completion was higher among women in the intervention group than in the control group for both mammography (40.8% vs 29.9%; P < .05) and Pap test (39.5% vs 23.6%; P < .05) screening. In an intent-to-treat analysis, these differences remained but were not significant. The intervention increased mammography self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived survivability, perceived benefits of mammography, subjective norms, and processes of change. The intervention also significantly increased Pap test self-efficacy, perceived benefits of having a Pap test, subjective norms, and perceived survivability of cancer. It did not change Pap test knowledge, perceived susceptibility, or perceptions about negative aspects of Pap test screening. Conclusions. Our results add to the evidence concerning the effectiveness of lay health worker interventions for increasing Pap test screening and mammography. Future research should explore the effectiveness of CLS in other Hispanic groups, the mechanisms through which interpersonal communication influences decisions about screening, and how effective interventions such as CLS can best be adopted and implemented in community-based organizations or other settings. PMID:19299678

  20. Effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of low income black and Latina women.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Nyamathi, A M

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of low income black and Latina women. A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used with a 2-3 month retest of the experimental group. The sample consisted of 506 experimental and 206 control group women who were clients of the Public Health Foundation's Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Los Angeles County. The program included a slide-tape presentation, and educational and resource brochures in English and Spanish. Knowledge, attitudes, and sexual and drug use practices were measured using a structured questionnaire that was developed in English and Spanish. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were established. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA examined differences in pretest-posttest knowledge, attitudes, and practices for experimental and control groups and for both racial/ethnic groups. The experimental group made significant gains over the control group on pretest-posttest measures of knowledge and attitudes. Both experimental and control groups made significant changes in practice. Changes in knowledge were retained on retest; changes in practices came close to significance on retest. Blacks and Latinas differed on pretest knowledge and attitudes but not practices. Blacks had more knowledge and positive attitudes on pretest. However, posttest improvements for both knowledge and attitudes were greater in Latinas than in blacks. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the best predictors of knowledge, attitudes and practices were racial/ethnic group, education, and religion. It is concluded that a didactic audio visual program can positively affect the knowledge and possibly the practices of participants and that these are retained over time but that changes in attitudes will take further efforts.

  1. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  2. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  3. Differential insulin sensitivities of glucose, amino acid, and albumin metabolism in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Boirie, Y; Gachon, P; Cordat, N; Ritz, P; Beaufrère, B

    2001-02-01

    Regulation of glucose homeostasis by insulin is modified during aging, but whether this alteration is associated with changes in protein metabolism is less defined. Insulin dose responses of whole body glucose, leucine, and albumin metabolism have been investigated using isotopic dilution of D-[6, 6-(2)H(2)]glucose and L-[1-(13)C]leucine in 14 young (Y; 24.0 +/- 0.9 yr; mean +/- SEM, 20.5 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) and 12 healthy elderly subjects (E; 69.4 +/- 0.6 yr; 24.6 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2)) using a euglycemic and euaminoacidemic hyperinsulinemic clamp at two insulin infusion rates of 0.2 and 0.5 mU/kg.min (CL1 and CL2, respectively). Despite significantly higher plasma insulin in E than in Y, the glucose disposal rate was lower in E than in Y at both insulin levels, whereas glucose production was normally suppressed. Whole body protein breakdown was less inhibited by insulin in E than in Y at CL1 (-13.5 +/- 1.4% vs. -8.8 +/- 1.3%, Y vs. E, P < 0.05), but not significantly at CL2 (-22.0 +/- 1.4% vs. -18.8 +/- 1.7%, Y vs. E, P = NS). The albumin synthesis rate was identical and stimulated to the same extent by insulin in groups Y and E. Gender affected basal leucine metabolism, but the response to insulin was similar in both groups. In conclusion, decreased insulin action on glucose disposal is associated with a reduced insulin sensitivity for protein breakdown in healthy elderly subjects at low insulin concentrations. Higher insulin levels compensate for a reduced insulin action on protein metabolism in elderly subjects. PMID:11158022

  4. Comparison of explosive force between young and elderly women: evidence of an earlier decline from explosive force.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Ludmila; Luz, Carla Patrícia Novais; de Oliveira, Leandra Eugênia Gomes; de Assunção, Paula Lisiane; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Brown, Lee E; Machado, Marco; Pereira, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    The aging process causes many changes in muscle strength, and analysis of explosive force from handgrip strength seems to be useful and promising in studying the aging musculoskeletal system. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if explosive force parameters [rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI) over the time interval of 0-200 ms from the onset of contraction] during handgrip efforts decline differently than maximum handgrip strength with increasing age. Twenty healthy young women (20-27 years) and 65 healthy elderly women, assigned into three age groups (50-64, 65-74, and 75-86 years), participated in this study. All participants performed two maximal grip attempts. Handgrip data were recorded as force-time curves, peak force, and explosive force parameters. Our results revealed that peak force decreased significantly (p < 0.05) for those who are 65 years old, while explosive force parameters decreased significantly (p < 0.05) for those aged 50 years. These data indicate that the decline in explosive grip force-generating capacity may begin earlier (i.e., for those aged 50 years old) than peak force during the aging process. Our findings suggest that the aging process reduces the explosive grip force-generating capacity before affecting peak force.

  5. Cervical cancer screening in young and elderly women of the Xingu Indigenous Park: evaluation of the recommended screening age group in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Pinheiro, Juliana da Silva; Pereira, Erica Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Douglas; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the occurrence of atypia in the cytology/histology examinations of young women under the age of 25 years and of elderly women aged over 64 years, in the Xingu Indigenous Park and to evaluate, in a subjective manner, if the age range for screening established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is appropriate for this population. Methods The Xingu/UNIFESP Project, in partnership with the Center for Gynecological Disease Prevention, develops programs to prevent cervical cancer. The exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study of cytological and histopathological examinations of young (12-24 years) and elderly (aged 64 and over) women of the Xingu Indigenous Park, between 2005 and 2011. Results There was low occurrence of cytological atypia in the elderly female population, but there were occasional high-grade lesions in the indigenous youth. Conclusion Interrupting screening at the limit age of 64 years, as established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is justified. However, screening of young women should begin at an earlier age. PMID:25993069

  6. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  7. Barriers to weight-related health behaviours: a qualitative comparison of the socioecological conditions between pregnant and post-partum low-income women.

    PubMed

    Graham, Meredith; Uesugi, Keriann; Olson, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The association between socioecological factors and poor health outcomes for low-income women and their children has been the focus of disparities research for several decades. This research compares the socioecological conditions among low-income women from pregnancy to post-partum and highlights the factors that make weight management increasingly difficult after delivery. As part of the formative research for an online health intervention, group and individual interviews were conducted with low-income pregnant and post-partum women. Five pregnancy group interviews (n = 15 women), five post-partum group interviews (n = 23 women) and seven individual interviews with a total of 45 participants were conducted in Rochester, New York. All interviews were audio-recorded. The constant comparative method was used to code interview notes and identify emergent themes. Subjects faced many challenges that affected their attitudes, beliefs and their ability to maintain or improve healthy weight behaviours. These included unemployment, relationship issues, minimal social support, lack of education, limited health care access, pre-existing medical conditions and neighbourhood disadvantage. Compared with pregnant women, post-partum women faced additional difficulties, such as child illnesses and custody issues. The most striking differences between pregnancy and post-partum related to the family's medical problems and greater environmental constraints. Many factors detracted from women's capacity to engage in healthy weight behaviours post-partum, including challenges present prior to delivery, challenges present prior to delivery that worsen after delivery, and new challenges that begin after delivery. These additional post-partum challenges need to be considered in designing programmes, policies and interventions that promote healthy weight.

  8. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Method Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Results Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005) proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884–0.965; P=0.003) and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023–0.546; P=0.007) proved to be predictors of reaching the eutrophic state. Conclusion Accurate identification of obesity, systemic inflammation, and atherogenic lipid profile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women. PMID:25609936

  9. Effect of exercise on the plasma BDNF levels in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Wellington F; Lacerda, Ana Cristina R; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Arrieiro, Arthur N; Fonseca, Sueli F; Amorim, Mateus R; Teixeira, Antônio L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Miranda, Aline S; Coimbra, Cândido C; Brito-Melo, Gustavo E A

    2014-06-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease in the elderly population worldwide. The alleviation of the symptoms associated with this disease can be achieved with physical exercise that induces a cascade of molecular and cellular processes. Of the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be the most affected by physical activity. Moreover, BDNF seems to have a negative modulatory role in inflammation, and its production by skeletal muscle cells or by cells of the immune system drives the immunoprotective role of physical activity in situations of chronic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma BDNF concentrations in elderly individuals presenting with knee osteoarthritis. To accomplish this, sixteen volunteers (mean age 67 ± 4.41 years) presenting with clinically and radiographically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis were evaluated during acute exercise (1 session of 20 min on a treadmill) and after chronic exercise (12 weeks of aerobic training, consisting of a 50-min walk 3 times per week). Additionally, both a functional assessment (during a 6-min walk) and a pain perception assessment were performed at the start and at the end of physical exercises (training). The plasma BDNF concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the population studied, acute exercise increased the levels of BDNF only before the 12-week training period (p < 0.001). Moreover, the training augmented the plasma concentrations of BDNF (p < 0.0001) and improved clinical parameters (functional p < 0.001; pain perception p < 0.01).

  10. Living arrangements of the elderly and the sociodemographic and health determinants: a longitudinal study 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. Methods: this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012), carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (p<0.05). Results: there was predominance of elderly living alone, accompanied and with change in the living arrangements, females, age range between 60├ 70 years, 1├ 4 years of study and with income between 1├┤ 3 minimum wages. During the development of this research, it was identified an increase in the incidence of elderly with 1├┤3 minimum wages. The number of morbidities increased in the three groups throughout the study, with the highest rates observed among the elderly with change in the dynamics of living arrangements. It was found that elderly men showed less chance of living alone (p=0.007) and having change in the living arrangements compared to women (p = 0.005). Incomes less than a minimum wage decreased the chances of change in the living arrangements compared to incomes above three salaries (p=0.034). Conclusion: the determining factors of the living arrangements were sex and income, and the variables functional capacity and number of morbidities were not associated with the outcome analyzed. PMID:27508909

  11. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality. PMID:26787402

  12. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and registered with a general practice in Dunedin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls and time between falls during one year of follow up; changes in muscle strength and balance measures after six months. RESULTS: After one year there were 152 falls in the control group and 88 falls in the exercise group. The mean (SD) rate of falls was lower in the exercise than the control group (0.87 (1.29) v 1.34 (1.93) falls per year respectively; difference 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.90). The relative hazard for the first four falls in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.68 (0.52 to 0.90). The relative hazard for a first fall with injury in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.61 (0.39 to 0.97). After six months, balance had improved in the exercise group (difference between groups in change in balance score 0.43 (0.21 to 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: An individual programme of strength and balance retraining exercises improved physical function and was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women 80 years and older. PMID:9366737

  13. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality.

  14. Favorable neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses to 7 days of exercise with an eccentric overload in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; DeVita, P

    2000-08-01

    The metabolic, cardiovascular, and neural cost of eccentric muscle contraction is less than that of concentric contraction, but the strength and neural adaptations in eccentric contractions are significantly greater following resistive exercise. We thus compared the short-term effects of exercise with an eccentric overload (n = 10) with those of exercise with a standard load distribution (n = 10) in ostensibly healthy sedentary elderly women (mean age 71.4). Subjects were tested for concentric and eccentric three-repetition maximum, maximal isokinetic eccentric and concentric and isometric force, and associated electromyographic activity of selected thigh muscles before and after 7 consecutive days of exercise training of the left knee extensors. The exercise program was designed so that the total weight lifted was similar between eccentric overload and standard groups, but the eccentric overload group exercised with an approximately 50% greater eccentric load. Control subjects did not exercise (n = 10). There was a 46% increase in the total weight lifted over 7 days. When all strength measures were combined, the eccentric overload group's strength gains were 1.8-fold greater than those of the standard group, and the cardiovascular stress in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, rate pressure product, and perceived exertion was significantly lower. The increases in muscle strength were achieved by increased muscle activation, but the strength gains were independent of the changes in antagonistic muscle coactivity. Because the strength gains occurred after a short period of exercise at a relatively low intensity and cardiovascular demand, the prescription of exercise with an eccentric overload appears suitable for elders, individuals deconditioned as a result of an injury, and the chronically diseased.

  15. Pre-existing diabetes and breast cancer prognosis among elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Hendryx, M; Virnig, B; Wen, S; Chlebowski, R; Chen, C; Rohan, T; Tinker, L; Wactawski-Wende, J; Lessin, L; Margolis, K L

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes on breast cancer prognosis. Methods: Women (n=2833) with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative, who were linked to Medicare claims data (CMS) were followed from the date of breast cancer diagnosis to date of death or 20 September 2013. Information on diabetes was identified through the CMS Chronic Condition Warehouse algorithm. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for overall mortality. A competing risks model (proportional subdistribution) model was used to estimate hazard ratios for breast cancer-specific mortality. Results: Women with diabetes were more likely to have factors related to delayed diagnosis (less recent mammograms, and more advanced cancer stage) and were less likely to receive radiation therapy. Compared with women without diabetes, women with diabetes had significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.23–2.01) and had nonsignificantly increased risk for breast cancer-specific mortality (HR=1.36, 95% CI: 0.86–2.15) before adjustment for factors related to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Adjustment for these factors resulted in a little change in the association of diabetes with overall mortality risk, but further attenuated the point estimate for breast cancer-specific mortality. Conclusions: Our study provides additional evidence that pre-existing diabetes increases the risk of total mortality among women with breast cancer. Very large studies with data on breast cancer risk factors, screening and diagnostic delays, treatment choices, and the biological influence of diabetes on breast cancer will be needed to determine whether diabetes also increases the risk for breast cancer-specific mortality. PMID:26158425

  16. Effects of dietary improvement on bone metabolism in elderly underweight women with osteoporosis: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Geeta; Martin, Finbarr C; Moffat, Kate; Vaja, Sashie; Sankaralingam, Suki; Cheung, Joseph; Blake, Glen M; Fogelman, Ignac

    2003-09-01

    Malnutrition in elderly people contributes to osteoporosis and fracture. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of nutritional improvement on bone metabolism in elderly community-dwelling women. A 12-month randomized controlled trial of 71 ambulant women aged > or =70 years with BMI < or =21 kg/m(2 )and osteoporosis at the hip was undertaken. They received either calcium (1 g) and vitamin D (800 units of cholecalciferol) only (group 1: n=35) or calcium/vitamin D and one or two cartons of a nutritional supplement drink which provided 300 Kcal, 12 g protein, 11.6 g fat and 36.8 g carbohydrate per carton (group 2: n=36). Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Group 2 gained significantly more weight [mean (SD) group 1: 0.15 (2.45), group 2:2.66 (2.8) kg P<0.001] and fat mass [group 1: -0.26 (1.8), group 2:1.9 (1.7) kg P<0.001]. BMD at the spine, femoral neck and total hip did not change significantly, although there was a positive trend at the total hip in group 2 [group 1: -0.5 (5.2), group 2:1.25 (3.3)%, P=0.13]. In a subgroup analysis, irrespective of their treatment group, there was a significant difference in changes in BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip in those who lost body weight (A) compared to those who had maintained or increased their weight (B), [mean (SD) % change in BMD lumbar spine; A: -1.64 (3.75), B: 0.96 (2.75) P=0.013, total hip A: -2.09 (6.0), B: 1.04 (3.3), P=0.05)] A significant reduction in serum CTX, a marker of bone resorption, was seen in group 2 [% decrease at 3 months, group 1: 1 (8.7), Group 2: 32 (5.8), P<0.01]. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) increased significantly in group 2 with a maximal increase (27%) observed at 6 ( P<0.01) and 9 months ( P<0.05). A small increase in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was seen at 12 months in group 2 [% increase group 1:5 (5), group 2: 17 (6

  17. Biomarkers and outcome after tamoxifen treatment in node-positive breast cancers from elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Daidone, M G; Luisi, A; Martelli, G; Benini, E; Veneroni, S; Tomasic, G; De Palo, G; Silvestrini, R

    2000-01-01

    The predictive role of tumour proliferative rate and expression of p53, bcl-2 and bax proteins, alone and in association with tumour size, nodal involvement and oestrogen receptors (ER), was analysed on 145 elderly patients (≥70 years of age) with histologically assessed node-positive breast cancers treated with radical or conservative surgery plus radiotherapy followed by adjuvant tamoxifen for at least 1 year. The 7-year probability of relapse was significantly higher for patients with tumours rapidly proliferating (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, P = 0.01), overexpressing p53 (HR = 4.4, P = 0.0001), weakly or not exhibiting bcl-2 (HR = 1.9, P = 0.02), without ERs (HR = 3.4, P = 0.0001) or with ≥ 4 positive lymph nodes (HR = 2.3, P = 0.003) than for patients with tumours expressing the opposite patho-biological profile. Conversely, tumour size and bax expression failed to influence relapse-free survival. Adjustment for the duration of tamoxifen treatment did not change these findings. Oestrogen receptors, cell proliferation, p53 accumulation and bcl-2 expression were also predictive for overall survival. Within ER-positive tumours, cell proliferation, p53 accumulation, bcl-2 expression and lymph node involvement provided significant and independent information for relapse and, in association, identified subgroups of patients with relapse probabilities of 20% (low-risk group, exhibiting only one unfavourable factor) to 90% (high-risk group, exhibiting three unfavourable factors). Such data could represent the initial framework for a biologically tailored therapy even for elderly patients and highlight the importance of a patho-biological characterization of their breast cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646876

  18. Spatiotemporal and variability gait data in community-dwelling elderly women from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Renata N.; Gomes, Henrique A.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Moreira, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Gait is an extremely complex motor task; therefore, gait data should encompass as many gait parameters as possible. Objective To provide reference values for gait measurements obtained from a Brazilian group of community-dwelling elderly females between the ages of 65 and 89 years and to apply the PCA-biplot to yield insight into different walking strategies that might occur during the aging process. Method 305 elderly community-dwelling females living in Brazil were stratified into four age groups: 65-69 years (N=103); 70-74 years (N=95); 75-79 years (N=77); and ≥80 years (N=30). Age, height, and BMI were assessed to describe the characteristics of the groups. Gait spatiotemporal and variability data were obtained using the GAITRite® system. Principal component analysis, followed by MANOVA and the PCA-biplot approach were used to analyze the data. Results 95% CI showed that only three components – rhythm, variability, and support - together explained 74.2% of the total variance in gait that were different among the groups. The older groups (75-79 and ≥80 years) walked with lower than average velocity, cadence, and step length and were above average for the variables stance, step, swing, and double support time and the ≥80 year old group presented the highest gait variability compared to the other groups. Conclusion Aging is associated with decreased gait velocity and cadence and increased stance, step time, and variability, but not associated with changes in base of support. In addition, the PCA-biplot indicates a decline towards decreased rhythm and increased variability with aging. PMID:27437717

  19. Effect on Survival of Longer Intervals Between Confirmed Diagnosis and Treatment Initiation Among Low-Income Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, John M.; Anderson, Roger T.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Seiber, Eric E.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of longer periods between biopsy-confirmed breast cancer diagnosis and the initiation of treatment (Dx2Tx) on survival. Patients and Methods This study was a noninterventional, retrospective analysis of adult female North Carolina Medicaid enrollees diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 2000, through December, 31, 2002, in the linked North Carolina Central Cancer Registry–Medicaid Claims database. Follow-up data were available through July 31, 2006. Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed to evaluate the impact on survival of delaying treatment ≥ 60 days after a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer. Results The study cohort consisted of 1,786 low-income, adult women with a mean age of 61.6 years. A large proportion of the patients (44.3%) were racial minorities. Median time from biopsy-confirmed diagnosis to treatment initiation was 22 days. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression showed that although Dx2Tx length did not affect survival among those diagnosed at early stage, among late-stage patients, intervals between diagnosis and first treatment ≥ 60 days were associated with significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.77; P = .05) and breast cancer–specific survival (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.27; P = .04). Conclusion One in 10 women waited ≥ 60 days to initiate treatment after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Waiting ≥ 60 days to initiate treatment was associated with a significant 66% and 85% increased risk of overall and breast cancer–related death, respectively, among late-stage patients. Interventions designed to increase the timeliness of receiving breast cancer treatments should target late-stage patients, and clinicians should strive to promptly triage and initiate treatment for patients diagnosed at late stage. PMID:23169521

  20. Intimate partner violence and current tobacco smoking in low- to middle-income countries: Individual participant meta-analysis of 231,892 women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted.

  1. Risk of malnutrition is associated with mental health symptoms in community living elderly men and women: The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little research has been done on the relationship between malnutrition and mental health in community living elderly individuals. In the present study, we aimed to assess the associations between mental health (particularly anxiety and depression) and both the risk of malnutrition and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in a large sample of elderly men and women from Tromsø, Norway. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, with 1558 men and 1553 women aged 65 to 87 years, the risk of malnutrition was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), and mental health was measured by the Symptoms Check List 10 (SCL-10). BMI was categorised into six groups (< 20.0, 20.0-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, ≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Results The risk of malnutrition (combining medium and high risk) was found in 5.6% of the men and 8.6% of the women. Significant mental health symptoms were reported by 3.9% of the men and 9.1% of the women. In a model adjusted for age, marital status, smoking and education, significant mental health symptoms (SCL-10 score ≥ 1.85) were positively associated with the risk of malnutrition (odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI 1.7-8.6] in men and 2.5 [95%CI 1.3-4.9] in women), the association was positive also for subthreshold mental health symptoms. For individuals with BMI < 20.0 the adjusted odds ratio for significant mental health symptoms was 2.0 [95% CI 1.0-4.0]. Conclusions Impaired mental health was strongly associated with the risk of malnutrition in community living elderly men and women and this association was also significant for subthreshold mental health symptoms. PMID:21762535

  2. TREATMENT WITH HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL DID NOT AFFECT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: NO INTERACTION WITH ESTROGEN AND VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENOTYPE POLYMORPHISMS

    PubMed Central

    YALAMANCHILI, VINOD; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol on depression in elderly postmenopausal women and also to determine whether the response was associated with polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor. Methods In a double-blinded placebo controlled prospective trial involving 489 postmenopausal elderly women, a secondary analysis of depression was done. Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. We used binary logistic regression to examine the effect of treatment on depression and one-way ANOVA to find relationship between gene polymorphisms and depression. Results There was no effect of hormone therapy (OR 1.65; 95% CI 0.66–4.12; p = 0.277), calcitriol (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.43–3.11; p = 0.772) or hormone therapy with calcitriol (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.36–2.80; p = 0.979) on depression. Neither polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha (XbaI-beta=0.093, CI −0.337–1.350, p = 0.239 and PvuII-beta=−0.064, CI −1.171-0.491, p = 0.421) nor vitamin D receptor (BsmI-beta=0.044, CI −2.546–3.030, p = 0.865 and TaqI-beta=−0.015, CI −2.900-2.738, p = 0.955) were associated with depression. Conclusion In elderly post-menopausal women there was no effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol either individually or in combination with depression. Estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are not associated with depression or the response to intervention in elderly postmenopausal women. Additional trials are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22205149

  3. Female Condom Use and Adoption Among Men and Women in a General Low-Income Urban U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Weihai; Li, Jianghong; Hilario, Helena; Abbott, Maryann; Medina, Zahíra

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention is increasingly focused on antiretroviral treatment of infected or uninfected persons. However, barrier methods like male condoms (MC) and female condoms (FC) remain necessary to achieve broad reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Evidence grows suggesting that removal of basic obstacles could result in greater FC use and reduced unprotected sex in the general population. We conducted four annual cross-sectional surveys (2009–2012) of urban residents (N = 1614) in low-income neighborhoods of a northeastern U.S. city where prevalence of HIV and other STIs is high. Findings indicate slow FC uptake but also heterosexual men’s willingness to use them. Factors associated with men’s and women’s FC use included positive FC attitudes, network exposure, and peer influences and norms. These results suggest that men can be supporters of FC, and reinforce the need for targeted efforts to increase FC use in both men and women for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:25840799

  4. The effect of muscle power training with elastic band on blood glucose, cytokine, and physical function in elderly women with hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Eun Hee; Park, Sok; So, Jae Moo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of muscle power training with elastic band on body composition, glucose relation factor, and physical function in elderly women with hyperglycemia. [Methods] A total of 16 elderly women volunteered to participate in this study as subjects, and they were randomly assigned into one of the following two groups: muscle power training group (MPT: n = 8) and control group (CON: n = 8). The muscle power training group took exercise program using elastic band for 12 weeks, and the other group did not receive any exercise program during the same period. Before and after the experiment, both of the two groups received measurement in body composition (BMI, %Fat, skeletal muscle mass), glucose, cytokine (interleukin 6, adiponectin), and physical function (IPPB, grip strength). With these methods, the following conclusions were achieved. [Results] The results showed significant increases in adiponectin (p = 0.006), interleukin 6 (p = 0.018), SPPB (p = 0.024), and grip strength (P=.014). Blood glucose was significantly decreased in exercise group than contruo group. [Conclusion] It shows that the muscle power training with elastic band can give positive effects in elderly women with hyperglycemia. PMID:25960951

  5. Sleep Quality Among Low-Income Young Women in Southeast Texas Predicts Changes in Perceived Stress Through Hurricane Ike

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhao Helen; Stevens, Richard G.; Tennen, Howard; North, Carol S.; Grady, James J.; Holzer, Charles

    2015-01-01

    suggest the possibility that providing victims of disasters with effective interventions to improve sleep quality could help to reduce their perceived stress over time. Citation: Wu ZH, Stevens RG, Tennen H, North CS, Grady JJ, Holzer C. Sleep quality among low-income young women in southeast texas predicts changes in perceived stress through hurricane Ike. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1121–1128. PMID:25669193

  6. The Impact of Comorbidities on Outcomes for Elderly Women Treated With Breast-Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Eleanor E.R. Hwang, W.-T.; Urtishak, Sandra L.; Plastaras, John; Kinosian, Bruce; Solin, Lawrence J.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer incidence increases with age and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly women, but is not well studied in this population. Comorbidities often impact on the management of breast cancer in elderly women. Methods and Materials: From 1979 to 2002, a total of 238 women aged 70 years and older with Stage I or II invasive carcinoma of the breast underwent breast-conservation therapy. Outcomes were compared by age groups and comorbidities. Median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 70-89 years). Age distribution was 122 women (51%) aged 70-74 years, 71 women (30%) aged 75-79 years, and 45 women (19%) aged 80 years or older. Median follow-up was 6.2 years. Results: On outcomes analysis by age groups, 10-year cause-specific survival rates for women aged 70-74, 75-79, and 80 years or older were 74%, 81%, and 82%, respectively (p = 0.87). Intercurrent deaths at 10 years were significantly higher in older patients: 20% in those aged 70-74 years, 36% in those aged 75-79 years, and 53% in those 80 years and older (p = 0.0005). Comorbidities were not significantly more common in the older age groups and did not correlate with cause-specific survival adjusted for age. Higher comorbidity scores were associated with intercurrent death. Conclusions: Older age itself is not a contraindication to standard breast-conservation therapy, including irradiation. Women of any age with low to moderate comorbidity indices should be offered standard breast-conservation treatment if otherwise clinically eligible.

  7. Pathways and trajectories linking housing instability and poor health among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV): Toward a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora I; Pedersen, Cheryl; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Minh, Anita; Zhang, Janice; O'Campo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    We used grounded theory to understand pathways and trajectories to housing instability (HI) and poor health among low-income women with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted in-depth interviews during 2010-11 with forty-one women (ages 18-45 years) living in Ontario, Canada. All women reported depressive symptoms in combination with other health problems. In addition to the direct pathway of IPV to poor health, thematic analysis revealed an indirect multi-tiered pathway with complex trajectories among IPV, HI, and poor health. These trajectories included material HI (homelessness, high mobility, evictions, problems paying rent, hiding, and landlord discrimination), psychological HI (feeling unsafe, low self-esteem, and poor control), and social trajectories (financial problems, loss of employment, income, or social networks, and leaving school). These trajectories elevated stress and decreased self-care (unhealthy behaviors, substance abuse, and reduced medical compliance) and exacerbated poor health already compromised by IPV. Depending on her specific context, each woman experienced these pathways and trajectories differently. Moreover, the women's experiences differed across three time periods: before, immediately after, and long after leaving an abusive relationship. Finally, we found that for these women, achieving stable housing was crucial for stabilizing their health. PMID:26358378

  8. Opportunity cost: the impact of contextual risk factors on the cardiovascular health of low-income rural southern African American women.

    PubMed

    Appel, Susan J; Giger, Joyce Newman; Davidhizar, Ruth Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Low-income rural southern African American women experience a high prevalence of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as other related cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Few models have taken into account the full impact of the contextual influences encountered on a daily basis by these women, and the effect of these influences on their CV health status. There are clearly demarcated examples of existing health disparities that occur in various ethnic/racial, underserved, and vulnerable populations. Yet, to date, there is no conceptual model that offers a plausible explanation as to why health disparities exist. Consequently, there is a lack of guidance as to where interventions should be focused for effective CV risk reduction. Because African American women continue to die at a disproportionately higher rate, and at earlier ages than do Caucasian women, it is imperative that new theoretical models capable of driving empirically based interventions be developed, tested, and implemented. One possible choice is the conceptual model proposed in this article. The model is based on the interrelationships between contextual risk factors, rational choice theory (RCT), and opportunity cost. Conceivably, this model may serve as a foundation to ground conceptual thought and drive theory-based interventions to reduce the health disparities in the CV health of low-income rural southern African American women. A model is presented in an attempt to provide guidance for advanced practice nurses who must struggle with addressing the critical need to reduce ethnic and race-associated CV health disparities. PMID:16141776

  9. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women With PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L

    2013-02-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention to reduce health disparities for low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article presents our rationale for using MBSR as an intervention with this population, the details of its implementation, and a discussion of the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention based on participants' feedback and our observations. We conclude that the use of MBSR programs for low-income, predominantly African American women with PTSD and a history of IPV is both feasible (of initial interest to and completed by most participants) and acceptable (congruent with and relevant to their needs). Replication with larger samples and examination of mechanisms is warranted by these findings.

  10. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women With PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L

    2013-02-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention to reduce health disparities for low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article presents our rationale for using MBSR as an intervention with this population, the details of its implementation, and a discussion of the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention based on participants' feedback and our observations. We conclude that the use of MBSR programs for low-income, predominantly African American women with PTSD and a history of IPV is both feasible (of initial interest to and completed by most participants) and acceptable (congruent with and relevant to their needs). Replication with larger samples and examination of mechanisms is warranted by these findings. PMID:24043922

  11. THE USE OF SELF-MANAGED TREATMENT STRATEGIES IN A PREDOMINANTLY LOW-INCOME, AFRICAN-AMERICAN SAMPLE OF WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV.

    PubMed

    Houston, Eric; Osborn, Amanda

    2015-06-01

    While low-income and ethnic minority women represent a growing proportion of new HIV cases in the United States, little is known about how they manage their antiretroviral medication regimens. Using a predominantly low-income, African-American sample (N = 85), this study examined medication self-management strategies among HIV seropositive women undergoing antiretroviral therapy in a major metropolitan area. Most study participants (95%; n = 81) reported employing a specific medication management strategy during the previous week. Pillboxes, use of daily activities, and receiving reminders from another person were the most common strategies. Most participants (80.2%) employed two or more strategies. Age, education, and motivation were associated with alarm, pillbox, and visual aid usage.

  12. Demanding kin relations and depressive symptoms among low-income African American women: mediating effects of self-esteem and optimism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2011-07-01

    Association of demanding kin relations, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and optimism was assessed among 130 low-income African American women. Demanding relations with kin were positively associated with depressive symptoms and negatively linked to self-esteem and optimism. Self-esteem and optimism were negatively associated with depressive symptoms and mediated the association of demanding relations with kin and women's depressive symptoms. Findings were discussed in terms of the detrimental effects of demanding social relations with kin and the possible role that other relationships may play in compensating for poor relations with extended family.

  13. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  14. Measurement of body fat in young and elderly women: comparison between a four-compartment model and widely used reference methods.

    PubMed

    Bergsma-Kadijk, J A; Baumeister, B; Deurenberg, P

    1996-05-01

    Body composition was measured in twenty young females aged 19-27 years and eighteen elderly females, aged 65-78 years by densitometry (underwater weighing), deuterium oxide dilution and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). From body weight, bone-mineral content, total body water and body density, percentage body fat (BF%) was calculated using a four-compartment model. BF% obtained by this four-compartment model was regarded as a reference method and BF% obtained by the single methods were compared with this value. Differences in BF% from the four-compartment model minus the single methods were 2.1 (SD 1.2) for densitometry, 3.1 (SD 1.8) for DXA and -0.6 (SD 0.9) BF% for deuterium oxide dilution in the young women. In the elderly women these values were -0.6 (SD 2.3), 5.3 (SD 3.8) and 0.7 (SD 2.2) BF%. When a three-compartment model (calculated from body density and total body water) was compared with the four-compartment model, the bias was 0.4 (SD 0.3) BF% in the young and 0.0 (SD 0.3) BF% in the elderly women. From the mineral and water fractions in the fat-free mass the true density of the fat-free mass was calculated as 1.1070 (SD 0.0047) kg/l in the young females and 1.0970 (SD 0.0088) kg/l in the elderly women (P < 0.001). This study shows that the single methods have considerable mean and individual biases compared with the four-compartment model, but that a three-compartment model calculated from density and total body water offers an acceptable alternative. The difference in calculated density of the fat-free mass between the young and the elderly women shows the need to adapt Siri's formula for specific groups.

  15. Quality of Life over 5 years after Breast Cancer Diagnosis among Low-Income Women: Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Patient-Physician Communication

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Rose C.; Liu, Yihang; Liang, Li-Jung; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors for lower quality of life (QOL) among low-income women with breast cancer (BC), with an emphasis on the impact of patient-physician communication. In addition, we examined ethnic/racial group differences in QOL change over time. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted among 921 low-income women with BC. Patients were interviewed at 6-, 18-, 36- and 60- months after BC diagnosis. Mixed-effect regression models were performed to investigate predictors for and time effects on QOL. The main outcomes included the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey Short Form 36 Mental Component Summary score (SF-36 MCS), SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (SF-36 PCS) and the Ladder of Life scale. Chief independent variables included physician information-giving and patient self-efficacy in interacting with physicians. Results There were no significant changes over time in QOL except for physical functioning, with survivors reporting a significant decrease over time (P<0.0001). Mean SF-36 MCS and PCS scores were lower than national general population norms at all time points. Both patient self-efficacy in interacting with physicians and physician information-giving were positively associated with SF-36 MCS (P=0.03, P=0.02, respectively) and Ladder of Life (P=0.01, P=0.03, respectively). Less acculturated Latinas reported higher SF-36 MCS and PCS scores (P<0.0001, P=0.01, respectively) and better global QOL (P<0.0001) than whites. Conclusion Low-income women with BC experienced poor physical and mental health. The results suggest that QOL among low-income women with BC would be enhanced by interventions aimed at empowering patients in communicating with physicians and increasing physician information giving. PMID:25411008

  16. Rationale, design, and sample characteristics of a practical randomized trial to assess a weight loss intervention for low-income women: the Weight-Wise II Program.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Garcia, Beverly A; Johnston, Larry F; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Gustafson, Alison A; Norwood, Arnita F; Glasgow, Russell E; Gold, Alison D; Graham, John W; Evenson, Kelly R; Stearns, Sally C; Gizlice, Ziya; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is common among low-income mid-life women, yet most published weight loss studies have not focused on this population and have been highly resourced efficacy trials. Thus, practical type 2 translational studies are needed to evaluate weight loss interventions for low-income women. In this paper, we present the rationale, study design, and baseline characteristics of a type 2 translational study that evaluates both the processes and outcomes of a weight loss intervention for low-income women given at 6 county health departments in North Carolina. Key features of this study include random selection of study sites, intervention delivery by current staff at study sites, efforts to integrate the intervention with local community resources, a focus on evaluating the processes of translation using the RE-AIM framework, use of an evidence-based weight loss intervention, a detailed description of participant recruitment and representativeness, and a practical randomized trial designed to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Of 81 health departments invited to participate, 30 (37%) were eligible and willing, and 6 were selected at random to deliver the intervention. Of 432 potential participants screened by phone, 213 (49%) were eligible and of these, 189 (89%) completed baseline measures and were randomized to receive a 5-month weight loss intervention or a delayed intervention. The mean age was 51, mean BMI 37 kg/m(2), 53% were African American, and 43% had no health insurance. The results of this study should be informative to key stakeholders interested in real world weight loss interventions for low-income mid-life women.

  17. Pragmatic Action Research With 2 Vulnerable Populations Mexican American Elders and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Crist, Janice D.; Parsons, Mickey L.; Warner-Robbins, Carmen; Mullins, María Victoria; Espinosa, Yvette M.

    2014-01-01

    Eliminating health disparities involving minority groups is a major national priority. Action research, a response to this national priority, may be derived from different theoretical models. The purposes of action research are to involve key community stakeholders in developing knowledge and taking pragmatic action to solve problems. In this article, the authors examine how the model was put into action for 2 distinct programs of research, comparing and contrasting final results, one report primarily focusing on recruitment and retention of participants and the other focusing on a community faith-based action research with formerly incarcerated women. PMID:19752634

  18. Families and elder care in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Bookman, Ann; Kimbrel, Delia

    2011-01-01

    Although most Americans know that the U.S. population is aging, they are far less informed about the reality of providing elders with personal care, health care, and social support. Families-particularly women-have always been critical in providing elder care, but the entry of so many women into the paid labor force has made elder care increasingly difficult. Ann Bookman and Delia Kimbrel show how changes in both work and family life are complicating families' efforts to care for elderly relatives. Because almost 60 percent of elder caregivers today are employed, many forms of caregiving must now be "outsourced" to nonfamily members. And because elders are widely diverse by race and socioeconomic status, their families attach differing cultural meanings to care and have widely different resources with which to accomplish their care goals. Although the poorest elders have access to some subsidized services, and the wealthiest can pay for services, many middle-class families cannot afford services that allow elders to age in their homes and avoid even more costly institutional care. Six key groups--health care providers, nongovernmental community-based service providers, employers, government, families, and elders themselves--are engaged in elder care, but their efforts are often fragmented and uncoordinated. All six groups must be able to work in concert and to receive the resources they need. Both employer and government policies must be improved. Although large businesses have taken up the elder care challenge, most small and mid-sized firms still do not offer flexible work arrangements. Social Security and Medicare have provided critical support to families caring for elders, yet both face significant financial shortfalls. The Older American Act and the National Family Caregiver Support Program have broadened access to elder services, but need updating to address the needs of today's employed caregivers and elders who want to "age in place." And just over half of

  19. Fruit Intake and Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Elderly Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bondonno, Nicola P.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Prince, Richard L.; Lim, Wai H.; Wong, Germaine; Schousboe, John T.; Woodman, Richard J.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Bondonno, Catherine P.; Ward, Natalie C.; Croft, Kevin D.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a consistent inverse relationship between fruit intake with CVD events and mortality in cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, but the relationship of fruit intake with measurements of atherosclerosis in humans is less clear. Nutritional effects on abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a marker for subclinical intimal and medial atherosclerotic vascular disease, have not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship of total and individual fruit (apple, pear, orange and other citrus, and banana) intake with AAC, scored between 0 and 24. The current study assessed baseline data for a cohort of 1052 women over 70 years of age who completed both a food frequency questionnaire assessing fruit intake, and underwent AAC measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. AAC scores were significantly negatively correlated with total fruit and apple intakes (p < 0.05), but not with pear, orange or banana intakes (p > 0.25). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, each standard deviation (SD; 50 g/day) increase in apple intake was associated with a 24% lower odds of having severe AAC (AAC score >5) (odd ratio OR): 0.76 (0.62, 0.93), p = 0.009). Total and other individual fruit intake were not associated with increased odds of having severe AAC. Apple but not total or other fruit intake is independently negatively associated with AAC in older women. PMID:26978394

  20. Fruit Intake and Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Elderly Women: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Nicola P; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L; Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Schousboe, John T; Woodman, Richard J; Kiel, Douglas P; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a consistent inverse relationship between fruit intake with CVD events and mortality in cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, but the relationship of fruit intake with measurements of atherosclerosis in humans is less clear. Nutritional effects on abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a marker for subclinical intimal and medial atherosclerotic vascular disease, have not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship of total and individual fruit (apple, pear, orange and other citrus, and banana) intake with AAC, scored between 0 and 24. The current study assessed baseline data for a cohort of 1052 women over 70 years of age who completed both a food frequency questionnaire assessing fruit intake, and underwent AAC measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. AAC scores were significantly negatively correlated with total fruit and apple intakes (p < 0.05), but not with pear, orange or banana intakes (p > 0.25). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, each standard deviation (SD; 50 g/day) increase in apple intake was associated with a 24% lower odds of having severe AAC (AAC score >5) (odd ratio OR): 0.76 (0.62, 0.93), p = 0.009). Total and other individual fruit intake were not associated with increased odds of having severe AAC. Apple but not total or other fruit intake is independently negatively associated with AAC in older women. PMID:26978394

  1. Acute Positive Effects of Exercise on Center-of-Pressure Fluctuations During Quiet Standing in Middle-Aged and Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Fukusaki, Chiho; Masani, Kei; Miyasaka, Maya; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    Acute effects of exercise on postural stability have been studied with a focus on fatigue. This study investigated the acute effects of moderate-intensity exercise on center-of-pressure (COP) fluctuation measures in middle-aged and elderly women. Thirty-five healthy women volunteered: 18 women performed a moderate aquatic exercise session for 80 minutes and 17 remained calm in a sitting position for the same duration. Center-of-pressure fluctuations during quiet standing were recorded for 60 seconds with eyes open and closed before and after the exercise and sitting tasks. The time- and frequency-domain measures of the COP time series were calculated. The frequency-domain measures were also calculated for the COP velocity time series. According to 2-way analysis of variance and paired t-tests with a Bonferroni's correction, mean velocity of COP fluctuations, mean velocity of COP fluctuations in the medial-lateral (ML) direction, and total power of the COP velocity time series in the ML direction exhibited significant reductions after 1 session of exercise. These results indicated that a moderate-intensity aquatic exercise decreased COP velocity, counteracting age-related and fatigue-inducing postural deterioration. Therefore, we concluded that a single session of moderate-intensity aquatic exercise has acute positive effects on postural stability in middle-aged and elderly women.

  2. Outcomes of a systems-level intervention offering breast cancer risk assessments to low-income underserved women.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Sharff, McKane E; DeMarco, Tiffani A; Williams, Bernice; Beck, Beth; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Peshkin, Beth N; Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk assessments (CRAs) are underutilized by low-income and racial/ethnic minority women, potentially exacerbating cancer-related disparities observed within these populations. We deployed and evaluated a systems-level intervention designed to identify patients potentially at-risk for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, refer them for CRAs, and facilitate CRA utilization at an urban community-based breast health care center. Cancer family history forms were completed by patients seen at the center during an 18-month period and reviewed by staff for CRA eligibility against published referral criteria. A patient navigator educated eligible patients about the benefits of CRA, navigating interested patients to this service. CRA-specific patient interest and utilization outcomes are reported. In total, 94.7 % of all patients (n = 2,436) completed forms and 65 patients (2.7 %) met CRA eligibility criteria. Most eligible patients (72.3 %) were interested in CRA. Interested patients had a greater risk for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (i.e., more affected relatives, greater objective risk scores) than uninterested patients: 57.4 % scheduled a CRA appointment and 51.9 % of scheduled patients utilized CRAs. Patients scheduling a CRA were contacted in less time and required fewer follow-up contacts by the patient navigator, and were more likely to be African American, than those who declined a CRA or were lost to follow-up (all p's ≤ .05). The systems-level intervention successfully identified patients eligible for CRA and linked interested and at-risk patients with CRA resources. More intensive patient navigation addressing the unique barriers encountered within this population may be required to enhance utilization. PMID:22711611

  3. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Lima, Lucas S; de Andrade, Socrates; Madureira, Angelo; Rica, Roberta L; dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Silva, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Daniel; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW) gain control in older people. Methods Seventy older women (>60 years old) voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI): appropriate weight (AW) control (AWC) and trained (AWT) groups, overweight (OW) control (OWC) and trained (OWT) groups, and obesity (O) control (OC) and trained (OT) groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work). The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m), body weight (BW, kg), body fat (BF, %), fat mass (FM, kg), lean mass (LM, kg), and BMI (kg/m2). Results The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%), BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%), LM (3.0% ± 0.3%), and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0%) to the OT group were higher (P < 0.05) than in the AWT (BW: −2.0% ± 1.1%; BF: −4.6% ± 1.8%; FM: −7.0% ± 2.8%; LM: 0.2% ± 1.1%) and OWT (BW: −4.5% ± 1.0%; BF: −11.0% ± 2.2%; FM: −16.1% ± 3.2%; LM: −0.2% ± 1.0%) groups; additionally, no differences were found for C groups. While reduction (P < 0.03) in BMI according to absolute values was observed for all trained groups (AWT: 22 ± 1 versus 21 ± 1; OWT: 27 ± 1 versus 25 ± 1, OT: 34 ± 1 versus 30 ± 1) after training, no differences were found for C groups. Conclusion In summary, circuit-based exercise is an effective method for promoting reduction in anthropometrics parameters in obese older women. PMID:23271901

  4. Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Muslim Uyghur Women in Far Western China: Correlations of Body Mass Index with Blood Lipids and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Li; Zhan, Jin Qiong; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shu Gang; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hong Yan; Ma, Zhi Ping; Hao, Xiao Ling; Simayi, Dilixia; Tao, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Amanguli, A.; Mohemaiti, Meiliguli; Jing, Ming Xia; Wang, Wei; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Zou, Xiao Guang; Gu, Yan; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China. Methods This study was performed in a Muslim ethnic Uyghur rural community in Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, about 4,407 km (2,739 miles) away from Beijing. Body mass index (BMI) and major blood bio-indicators (25 total items) were measured and demographic information was collected from 1,733 eligible healthy women aged 21 to 71 yrs, of whom 1,452 had complete data for analysis. More than 92% of the women lived on US$1.00/day or less. According to the Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity were defined as BMI at 24 to <28 kg/m2 and at ≥28 kg/m2, respectively. Results The average BMI among these low-income women was 24.0±4.0 (95% CI, 17.5–33.7) kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was high at 15.1% and 28.9%, respectively. Among 25 bio-indicators, BMI correlated positively with the levels of 11 bio-indicators including triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TCHOL), glucose (GLU), and uric acid (UA); but negatively with the levels of 5 bio-indicators including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A/B (APO A/B). Conclusions This is the first investigation reporting overweight and obesity being common in low-income Muslim Uyghur women, whose BMI correlates with several important blood bio-indicators which are risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may help make preventive public health policies in Uyghur communities. To prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in low-income settings, we therefore propose a cost-effective, two-step strategy first to screen for

  5. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution.

    PubMed

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Madlensky, Lisa; Winton, Lisa M; Heberer, Meredith A; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mutation profile for affected women. All 125 patients who were offered GCRA accepted to undergo GCRA. Of these, 72 % had a breast cancer diagnosis, 70 % were Hispanic, 52.8 % were non-English speakers, and 66 % did not have health insurance. Eighty four (67 %) were offered genetic testing and 81 (96 %) agreed. Hispanic women, those with no medical insurance, and those with a family history of breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo testing (p > 0.01). Twelve of 81 (15 %) patients were found to have deleterious mutations, seven BRCA1, and five BRCA2. Our experience shows that it is possible to offer GCRA and genetic testing even in the setting of limited resources for these services. This is important given that a large majority of the low-income women in our study agreed to undergo counseling and testing. Our experience could serve as a model for similar low-resource safety-net health settings. PMID:26690931

  6. Plasma B vitamins, homocysteine and their relation with bone loss and hip fracture in elderly men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated homocysteine is a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures among elders, yet it may be a marker for low B vitamin status. Objective: To examine the associations of plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and homocysteine with bone loss and hip fracture risk in elderly...

  7. Serum antioxidant capacity is increased by consumption of strawberries, spinach, red wine or vitamin C in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Cao, G; Russell, R M; Lischner, N; Prior, R L

    1998-12-01

    It is often assumed that antioxidant nutrients contribute to the protection afforded by fruits, vegetables, and red wine against diseases of aging. However, the effect of fruit, vegetable and red wine consumption on the overall antioxidant status in human is unclear. In this study we investigated the responses in serum total antioxidant capacity following comsumption of strawberries (240 g), spinach (294 g), red wine (300 ml) or vitamin C (1250 mg) in eight elderly women. Total antioxidant capacity was determined using different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay. The results showed that the total antioxidant capacity of serum determined as ORAC, TEAC and FRAP, using the area under the curve, increased significantly by 7-25% during the 4-h period following consumption of red wine, strawberries, vitamin C or spinach. The total antioxidant capacity of urine determined as ORAC increased (P < 0.05) by 9.6, 27.5, and 44.9% for strawberries, spinach, and vitamin C, respectively, during the 24-h period following these treatments. The plasma vitamin C level after the strawberry drink, and the serum urate level after the strawberry and spinach treatments, also increased significantly. However, the increased vitamin C and urate levels could not fully account for the increased total antioxidant capacity in serum following the consumption of strawberries, spinach or red wine. We conclude that the consumption of strawberries, spinach or red wine, which are rich in antioxidant phenolic compounds, can increase the serum antioxidant capacity in humans. J. Nutr. 2383-2390, 1998 PMID:9868185

  8. Effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hoon; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] Thirty women over 65 years of age diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis participated in the present study. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10), a progressive resistance training group (n=10), or a Russian electrical stimulation group (n=10). [Methods] Each group was treated 3 times weekly for 8 weeks, and each session lasted 45 minutes. Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the peak torque of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and at the fourth and eighth weeks of the treatment period. [Results] All groups showed significant intragroup differences in the quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque after the treatment intervention. There were significant intergroup differences between the Russian electrical stimulation group and the other groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation can be effective in strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscle in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

  9. Peak expiratory flow mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and timed up and go performance in elderly women, but not men

    PubMed Central

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; de Mello Franco, Fábio Gazelato; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Nasri, Fábio; Monteiro-Costa, Maria Luiza; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; de Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify if there is sex difference in the associations among handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and timed up and go (TUG) test results. METHODS: The sample included 288 consecutive elderly men (n=93) and women (n=195). Functional capacity was measured using the TUG test, and muscle strength was measured based on handgrip. Moreover, as a measure of current health status, PEF was evaluated. Linear regression procedures were performed to analyze the relationships between handgrip and both PEF and TUG test results, with adjustment for confounders, and to identify the possible mediating role of PEF in the association between handgrip strength and TUG test results. RESULTS: In men, handgrip strength was associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). After adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance remained significant. In women, handgrip strength was also associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). However, after adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Mobility in the elderly is sex dependent. In particular, PEF mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance in women, but not in men.

  10. Effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Hoon; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] Thirty women over 65 years of age diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis participated in the present study. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10), a progressive resistance training group (n=10), or a Russian electrical stimulation group (n=10). [Methods] Each group was treated 3 times weekly for 8 weeks, and each session lasted 45 minutes. Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the peak torque of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and at the fourth and eighth weeks of the treatment period. [Results] All groups showed significant intragroup differences in the quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque after the treatment intervention. There were significant intergroup differences between the Russian electrical stimulation group and the other groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation can be effective in strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscle in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25931718

  11. Peak expiratory flow mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and timed up and go performance in elderly women, but not men

    PubMed Central

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; de Mello Franco, Fábio Gazelato; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Nasri, Fábio; Monteiro-Costa, Maria Luiza; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; de Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify if there is sex difference in the associations among handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and timed up and go (TUG) test results. METHODS: The sample included 288 consecutive elderly men (n=93) and women (n=195). Functional capacity was measured using the TUG test, and muscle strength was measured based on handgrip. Moreover, as a measure of current health status, PEF was evaluated. Linear regression procedures were performed to analyze the relationships between handgrip and both PEF and TUG test results, with adjustment for confounders, and to identify the possible mediating role of PEF in the association between handgrip strength and TUG test results. RESULTS: In men, handgrip strength was associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). After adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance remained significant. In women, handgrip strength was also associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). However, after adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Mobility in the elderly is sex dependent. In particular, PEF mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance in women, but not in men. PMID:27652833

  12. Detection of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Referred to Colposcopy: Implications for Clinical Management in Low and MiddleIncome Countries.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Andre Lp; Gimenes, Fabricia; Malaguti, Natalia; Pereira, Monalisa W; Uchimura, Nelson S; Consolaro, Marcia El

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) referred to colposcopy and the implications for clinical management in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the present study was conducted. We included 200 women living in Maringa÷Brazil referred to colposcopy service between August 2012 and March 2013 due to an abnormal cytology from ASC-US until high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). HPV was detected and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mean age was 36.8±10.5 years, and women with and without ASC-US had similar mean ages (37.4±11.5 and 36.4±9.96 years, respectively). The highest prevalence of ASC-US occurred at 20-24 years (40%). HPV-DNA was positive in 164 (82.0%) women.Of the 57 women with ASC-US, 30 (52.6%) were HPV-DNA-positive and 21 (70%) were high-risk HPV-positive (HR-HPV); the latter was similar to women without ASC-US (76.9%) but with other abnormal cytological findings present. Our data demonstrated that performing tests for HR-HPV can be used for management of women with ASC-US to support the decision of which women should be referred for an immediate or later colposcopy. The same conclusions can be applied to other LMICs for which HPV testing for primary screening has not been adopted. PMID:27510023

  13. A Multilevel Analysis of Individual, Household, and Neighborhood Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Low-Income Pregnant Women in Jefferson County, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Russell S.; Sigler, Robert T.; Hwang, Sean-Shong; LaGory, Mark E.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual, household, and neighborhood correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy. Methods. We used multilevel modeling to investigate IPV among 2887 pregnant women in 112 census tracts who sought prenatal care in 8 public clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama, from 1997 through 2001. Data were collected from the Perinatal Emphasis Research Center project, the 2000 Census, and the local Sheriff and Police Departments Uniform Crime Reports for 1997 through 2001. Results. Participants were predominantly young, African American, on Medicaid, and residents of low-income neighborhoods. The prevalence of past-year male partner–perpetrated physical or sexual violence was 7.4%. Neighborhood residential stability, women performing most of the housework (lack of involvement among partners), being unmarried (being in an uncommitted relationship), and alcohol use were positively associated with elevated IPV risk. Significant protective factors for IPV included older age at first vaginal intercourse and a greater sense of mastery (e.g., the perception of oneself as an effective person). Conclusions. Both neighborhood contextual and individual and household compositional effects are associated with IPV among low-income pregnant women. The results imply that combined interventions to improve neighborhood conditions and strengthen families may effectively reduce IPV. PMID:19696385

  14. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Mental Health over Time among Low-Income Women at Increased Risk of HIV in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P; Kuo, Irene; Justman, Jessica; Adimora, Adaora A; Soto-Torres, Lydia; O'Leary, Ann; Hodder, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Women living in poverty suffer more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than do members of the general population; however we know little about factors associated with changes in their PTSD symptoms over time. Using data from HPTN 064, a cohort of women from low-income, high-HIV-prevalence communities across six eastern states (n=1,860), we assessed the prevalence of and changes in PTSD symptoms over 12 months and the effect of potential predictors on symptom acquisition and remission (via the Primary Care-PTSD symptoms scale). Forty-three percent screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those reporting food insecurity, ongoing abuse, depressive symptoms, or binge drinking were more likely to acquire PTSD symptoms. Those with ongoing abuse or depressive symptoms were less likely to experience PTSD symptom remission. Findings suggest a need to integrate programs to reduce abuse, depression, and economic hardship with those that address sexual health risks among women living in low-income, high-HIV-prevalence neighborhoods. PMID:27180715

  15. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Mental Health over Time among Low-Income Women at Increased Risk of HIV in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P; Kuo, Irene; Justman, Jessica; Adimora, Adaora A; Soto-Torres, Lydia; O'Leary, Ann; Hodder, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Women living in poverty suffer more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than do members of the general population; however we know little about factors associated with changes in their PTSD symptoms over time. Using data from HPTN 064, a cohort of women from low-income, high-HIV-prevalence communities across six eastern states (n=1,860), we assessed the prevalence of and changes in PTSD symptoms over 12 months and the effect of potential predictors on symptom acquisition and remission (via the Primary Care-PTSD symptoms scale). Forty-three percent screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those reporting food insecurity, ongoing abuse, depressive symptoms, or binge drinking were more likely to acquire PTSD symptoms. Those with ongoing abuse or depressive symptoms were less likely to experience PTSD symptom remission. Findings suggest a need to integrate programs to reduce abuse, depression, and economic hardship with those that address sexual health risks among women living in low-income, high-HIV-prevalence neighborhoods.

  16. Racial and ethnic differences in human papillomavirus positivity and risk factors among low-income women in Federally Qualified Health Centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Benard, Vicki B; Greek, April; Hawkins, Nikki A; Roland, Katherine B; Saraiya, Mona

    2015-12-01

    Reasons for racial/ethnic disparities in HPV infection are unclear. This study assessed racial/ethnic differences in and risk factors for HPV positivity among low-income women. Data were collected from 984 low-income women visiting Federally Qualified Health Centers across Illinois (2009-2011). Pearson chi square and Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations with HPV positivity. Our results showed Mexican-born Hispanics had the lowest HPV positivity (16%), followed by non-Hispanic whites (29%), US-born Hispanics (35%), and non-Hispanic blacks (39%). Mexican-born Hispanics reported fewer risk behaviors for HPV positivity, including first sexual intercourse before age 16 years (9% versus 27%), multiple sexual partners in lifetime (48% versus 90%), and current cigarette smoking status (10% versus 35%) when compared to non-Hispanic whites (p<0.001). In multivariate-adjusted logistic regression, being non-Hispanic black, first sexual intercourse before age 16 years, increasing numbers of recent or lifetime sexual partners and current cigarette smoking status were associated with a higher likelihood of HPV positivity. Our findings highlight racial/ethnic differences in HPV positivity and risk factors in a population of women with similar socioeconomic characteristics. When measuring HPV risk factors within the Hispanic population, foreign-born status and other mediating factors, such as social norms and cultural characteristics, may be relevant to assess the intragroup heterogeneity.

  17. Environmental, personal, and behavioral factors are related to body mass index in a group of multi-ethnic, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-12-01

    Environmental, personal, and behavioral determinants of body mass index (BMI) are not well understood in the low-income demographic. To investigate these factors, a cross-sectional survey was developed using Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), utilizing formative data from focus groups and measured environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, in addition to food-related self-identity, food security, and heights and weights. Participants were urban women (n=330) who qualified for a food and nutrition assistance program. Data collection occurred at sites within the community, including homeless shelters, food pantries, libraries, and community centers. The outcome of interest was BMI and the relationship to environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, and food-related self-identity. All three SCT construct models were significant, but the personal construct regression model predicted the greatest variance in BMI among the women (31%). Decreased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity variables indicating preventative behaviors, while increased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity emotional eating variables. Overall results suggest that personal, behavioral, and self-identity factors can help to explain some weight variation observed among women living in similar obesogenic, low-income environments. Although additional research is needed, results suggest interventions with this population should address eating healthy to prevent disease, exercising for health, and shaping health-promoting self-identities.

  18. Conceptualization and development of a theory-based healthful eating and physical activity intervention for postpartum women who are low income.

    PubMed

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Pearson, Meredith N; Sorensen, Glorian; Levine, Rachel A; Hebert, James R; Salkeld, Judith A; Peterson, Karen E

    2007-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors that confer risk for chronic disease are prominent among women from varying ethnic and racial groups who are low income. Conceptualization and development of a theory-based behavioral intervention to address their unique needs during the first year following childbirth comprised four steps: (a) translating public health guidelines and emerging epidemiologic data into specific intervention messages; (b) developing practical strategies to operationalize theoretical constructs, in the context of a social ecological framework; (c) stating achievement-based objectives and writing scripts for five home visits; and (d) conducting formative research. Focus group participants expressed a desire for a "health mentor," not somebody who "nags" or "stresses you out." Paraprofessionals from the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) were directly involved in pretesting the intervention and remain involved as health mentors. This intervention can serve as a basis for future organizational partnerships to benefit the health of populations who are low income.

  19. Utilizing Workforce Investment Act Programs and TANF To Provide Education and Training Opportunities To Reduce Poverty among Low-Income Women. Testimony [before the] House Education and the Workforce Committee, Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Barbara

    Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and the TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) programs can be coordinated in a number of ways, some of them especially focused on women. For example, research suggests the following: (1) WIA and TANF can be coordinated to improve low-income women's human capital development; (2) many states and localities…

  20. Why Do Women Not Use Antenatal Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) don't receive adequate antenatal care. Women's views can offer important insights into this problem. Qualitative studies exploring inadequate use of antenatal services have been undertaken in a range of countries, but the findings are not easily transferable. We aimed to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies. Methods and Findings Using a predetermined search strategy, we identified robust qualitative studies reporting on the views and experiences of women in LMICs who received inadequate antenatal care. We used meta-ethnographic techniques to generate themes and a line-of-argument synthesis. We derived policy-relevant hypotheses from the findings. We included 21 papers representing the views of more than 1,230 women from 15 countries. Three key themes were identified: “pregnancy as socially risky and physiologically healthy”, “resource use and survival in conditions of extreme poverty”, and “not getting it right the first time”. The line-of-argument synthesis describes a dissonance between programme design and cultural contexts that may restrict access and discourage return visits. We hypothesize that centralised, risk-focused antenatal care programmes may be at odds with the resources, beliefs, and experiences of pregnant women who underuse antenatal services. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there may be a misalignment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of some women in LMICs. Antenatal care provision that is theoretically and contextually at odds with local contextual beliefs and experiences is likely to be underused, especially when attendance generates increased personal risks of lost family resources or physical danger during travel, when the promised care is not delivered because of resource constraints, and when women experience covert or

  1. Fast Food Intake in Relation to Employment Status, Stress, Depression, and Dietary Behaviors in Low-Income Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Objective This study explored fast food intake as a potential mediator of the relationships among employment status; stress; depression; and fruit, vegetable, and fat intakes by race (African American vs. Non-Hispanic White) and body mass index (BMI category: overweight vs. obesity). Methods Low-income overweight and obese pregnant women (N = 332) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Michigan. Path analysis was performed to explore mediation effects by race and BMI category. Results Fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.02) in Non-Hispanic White women, but no mediation effect was detected in African American women. For overweight women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04) and the relationship between depression and vegetable intake (p = 0.01). Also, fast food intake partially mediated the relationship between depression and fat intake (p = 0.003). For obese women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04). Conclusion Fast food is an important topic for nutrition education for overweight and obese pregnant women. Future interventions may be more successful if they address issues associated with employment status (e.g., lack of time to plan and cook healthy meals) and depressive mood (e.g., inability to plan meals or shop for groceries when coping with negative emotions).

  2. Fast Food Intake in Relation to Employment Status, Stress, Depression, and Dietary Behaviors in Low-Income Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Objective This study explored fast food intake as a potential mediator of the relationships among employment status; stress; depression; and fruit, vegetable, and fat intakes by race (African American vs. Non-Hispanic White) and body mass index (BMI category: overweight vs. obesity). Methods Low-income overweight and obese pregnant women (N = 332) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Michigan. Path analysis was performed to explore mediation effects by race and BMI category. Results Fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.02) in Non-Hispanic White women, but no mediation effect was detected in African American women. For overweight women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04) and the relationship between depression and vegetable intake (p = 0.01). Also, fast food intake partially mediated the relationship between depression and fat intake (p = 0.003). For obese women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04). Conclusion Fast food is an important topic for nutrition education for overweight and obese pregnant women. Future interventions may be more successful if they address issues associated with employment status (e.g., lack of time to plan and cook healthy meals) and depressive mood (e.g., inability to plan meals or shop for groceries when coping with negative emotions). PMID:26973147

  3. The associations of household wealth and income with self-rated health--a study on economic advantage in middle-aged Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2010-09-01

    The economic resources available to an individual or a household have been hypothesised to affect health through the direct material effects of living conditions as well as through social comparison and experiences of deprivation. The focus so far has been mainly on current individual or household income, and there is a lack of studies on wealth, a potentially relevant part of household resources. We studied the associations of household wealth and household income with self-rated health, and addressed some theoretical issues related to economic advantage and health. The data were from questionnaire survey of Finnish men and women aged from 45 to 67 years, who were employed by the City of Helsinki from five to seven years before the collection of the data in 2007. We found household wealth to have a strong and consistent association with self-rated health, poor health decreasing with increasing wealth. The relationship was only partly attributable to the association of wealth with employment status, household income, work conditions and health-related behaviour. In contrast, the association of household income with self-rated health was greatly attenuated by taking into account employment status and wealth, and even further attenuated by work conditions. The results suggested a significant contribution of wealth differentials to differences in health status. The insufficiency of current income as the only measure of material welfare was demonstrated. Conditions associated with long-term accumulation of material welfare may be a significant aspect of the causal processes that lead to socioeconomic inequalities in ill health.

  4. Information and Communication Technology Use Among Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women by Race and Ethnicity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice Lynn; Lawson, Shari; Ehsanipoor, Robert; Costigan, Kathleen; Polk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and the postpartum period provide windows of opportunity to impact perinatal and lifelong preventive health behavior for women and their families, but these opportunities are often missed. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in information and communication technology (ICT) use could inform technology-based interventions in diverse populations. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in the use of ICT between racial and ethnic groups as well as by English language proficiency. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 246 women who were aged 18 years or older and pregnant or within 1 year of delivery. They were recruited from 4 hospital-based outpatient clinics and completed a self-administered survey. We used multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and ICT (mobile phone/short message service [SMS] text message, Internet, and social network) usage by race/ethnicity and perceived English language proficiency after adjusting for age, income, marital status, and insurance status. Results In all, 28% (69/246) of participants were Latina, 40% (98/246) were African American, 23% (56/246) were white, and 9% (23/246) from other racial/ethnic groups. Of the Latinas, 84% (58/69) reported limited English language proficiency and 59% (41/69) were uninsured. More than 90% of all participants reported mobile phone use, but more than 25% (65/246) had changed phone numbers 2 or more times in the past year. Compared to white women, African American women were less likely to SMS text message (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.63) and Latinas were less likely to use the Internet to find others with similar concerns (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.73). Women with limited English language proficiency were less likely to use the Internet overall (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.99) or use email (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.63) compared to women with adequate English language proficiency. Conclusions Mobile phones are

  5. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  6. Low level laser therapy associated with a strength training program on muscle performance in elderly women: a randomized double blind control study.

    PubMed

    Toma, Renata Luri; Vassão, Patrícia Gabrielli; Assis, Livia; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2016-08-01

    The aging process leads to a gradual loss of muscle mass and muscle performance, leading to a higher functional dependence. Within this context, many studies have demonstrated the benefits of a combination of physical exercise and low level laser therapy (LLLT) as an intervention that enhances muscle performance in young people and athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination of LLLT and strength training on muscle performance in elderly women. For this, a hundred elderly women were screened, and 48 met all inclusion criteria to participate in this double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Volunteers were divided in three groups: control (CG = 15), strength training associated with placebo LLLT (TG = 17), and strength training associated with active LLLT (808 nm, 100 mW, 7 J) (TLG = 16). The strength training consisted of knee flexion-extension performed with 80 % of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) during 8 weeks. Several outcomes related to muscle performance were analyzed through the 6-min walk test (6-MWT), isokinetic dynamometry, surface electromyography (SEMG), lactate concentration, and 1-RM. The results revealed that a higher work (p = 0.0162), peak torque (p = 0.0309), and power (p = 0.0223) were observed in TLG compared to CG. Furthermore, both trained groups increased the 1-RM load (TG vs CG: p = 0.0067 and TLG vs CG: p < 0.0001) and decreased the lactate concentration in the third minute after isokinetic protocol (CG vs TLG: p = 0.0289 and CG vs TG: p = 0.0085). No difference in 6-MWT and in fatigue levels were observed among the groups. The present findings suggested that LLLT in combination with strength training was able to improve muscle performance in elderly people. PMID:27250715

  7. The Effects of Income on Mental Health: Evidence from the Social Security Notch

    PubMed Central

    Golberstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health is a key component of overall wellbeing and mental disorders are relatively common, including among older adults. Yet the causal effect of income on mental health status among older adults is poorly understood. Aims This paper considers the effects of a major source of transfer income, Social Security retirement benefits, on the mental health of older adults. Methods The Social Security benefit “Notch” is as a large, permanent, and exogenous shock to Social Security income in retirement. The “Notch” is used to identify the causal effect of Social Security income on mental health among older ages using data from the AHEAD cohort of the Health and Retirement Study. Results We find that increases in Social Security income significantly improve mental health status and the likelihood of a psychiatric diagnosis for women, but not for men. Discussion The effects of income on mental health for older women are statistically significant and meaningful in magnitude. While this is one of the only studies to use plausibly exogenous variation in household income to identify the effect of income on mental health, a limitation of this work is that the results only directly pertain to lower-education households. Implications Public policy proposals that alter retirement benefits for the elderly may have important effects on the mental health of older adults. PMID:25862202

  8. ["Knowing about AIDS" and sexual precautions among low-income women from the southern area of Buenos Aires. Notes for defining prevention policies].

    PubMed

    Grimberg, M

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a line of research on gender and prevention in a research program on the social construction of HIV/AIDS. We present the results of an ethnographic study among low-income women 15-35 years old in the southern area of Buenos Aires. The area has the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases and high poverty levels, extensive social degradation, and urban violence. According to our results, in the interface between "knowing about" and "behaving" there are complex processes involving stigmatized and gender-biased representations of HIV/AIDS as "other people's problem" and social and sexual relations permeated by gender stereotypes and roles. We believe that planning of prevention should be based on the consideration of overall social practices and specifically the characteristics of gender relations, prioritizing relational strategies between women and men and promoting critical reflection on the main nodes organizing daily life and active participation in the production of social relations and practices of reciprocity and equity. The increasingly precarious conditions in social life intensifies poor women's vulnerability and social interaction contexts that relate to the socioeconomic and symbolic role played by women.

  9. The syndemic effects of intimate partner violence, HIV/AIDS, and substance abuse on depression among low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Illangasekare, Samantha; Burke, Jessica; Chander, Geetanjali; Gielen, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are epidemics among low-income urban women that have been described together as the "SAVA syndemic" because of their co-occurring nature. This study examines the synergistic or "syndemic" effect of these three health issues on depression among urban women and evaluates social support as a protective factor that might reduce depressive symptoms associated with the Substance Abuse, Violence, and AIDS (SAVA) syndemic. Data from 445 urban women were collected through in-person interviews. All women were over the age of 1