Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.
The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)
Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather
Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…
Brun, Judy K.; Clancy, Katherine L.
Recommendations are given in this task force report which focus on nutrition education programs for the low income and elderly. Issues include: accessibility to food, national policy, nutritionally vulnerable individuals, program development, health care, preparation of nutrition educators, and evaluation of existing nutrition programs. (SA)
Loertzer, H; Schneider, P
Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women.
This paper examined how the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which banned Supplemental Security Income (SSI) for the majority of elderly immigrants, affected their employment, retirement, and family incomes. The policy was found to be associated with a 3.5 percentage point (9.5 percent) increase in the…
Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila
OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095
Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael
The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program is the nation's safety net for the aged, blind, and disabled. SSI receipt is often not reported by individuals interviewed in the Current Population Survey (CPS), the statistical base for the Census Bureau's annual estimates of poverty rates. In an earlier article, we explored the effect on estimated poverty rates in 2002 of adjusting CPS income reports using administrative data on earnings and benefits from the SSI and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance programs. We assessed poverty using both the official standard and a "relative" standard based on half of median pretax, posttransfer income. This article extends that work through 2005. We find that including administrative data presents challenges, but under the methodology we adopt, such adjustments lower estimated official poverty overall and increase estimated poverty rates for elderly SSI recipients. Relative poverty rates are much higher than official poverty rates. By any of the applied standards and procedures for income adjustment, poverty changed little over the 2002-2005 interval.
70% of the world`s poor are women. The poverty that is especially hard hitting for rural women throughout the world has many causes. The lack of access to education, credit and new technologies make it almost impossible for women to earn an income. Yet, when women earn an income, it not only improves their lives, but also improves the lives of their children and their communities. Solar energy technologies, along with access to credit, can help rural women improve the quality of their lives through income generating enterprises. The technologies discussed are solar cooking, solar food drying, solar blenders, and photovoltaics.
Arendt, Jacob Neilsen
The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between income and living conditions and well-being of elderly. The best from two worlds is used for this purpose: a Danish survey covering 1440 elderly aged 72 and 77 from 1997, connected to reliable register information on income, 1988-1996. Indicators of physical activity, social and…
Stolzer, J; Zeece, Pauline
Objectives: The aims of the pilot study presented here were to determine whether low income women were receiving compendious breastfeeding advice from their attending physicians. Design: This study assessed low income women's reports of physician breastfeeding advice using a newly designed Likert scaled survey based on the American Surgeon…
Guthrie, Joanne F; Lin, Biing-Hwan
With the elderly becoming an ever-larger proportion of the American population, their dietary well-being is of increasing concern. In particular, lower-income elderly may face special challenges in maintaining a healthful diet. This group makes up a sizeable proportion of the elderly population; we estimate that almost 1 in 5 (19%) of the elderly have household incomes at or below 130% of the federal poverty level, the income level that generally qualifies a household to participate in the federal Food Stamp Program. Here we examine the dietary intakes and related behaviors, as well as the food security status, of lower- and higher-income elderly and review major US government food and nutrition assistance programs that can be of benefit to the elderly, particularly those of low income. Our subjects are individuals 60 years of age and over, living in community (noninstitutionalized) settings. Data on dietary intakes and behaviors were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-96. Food security data were obtained from the 1999 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the US Census Bureau. For both the CSFII and the CPS, sampling weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates. We found that lower-income elderly consume significantly fewer calories than higher-income elderly, fewer servings of major Food Guide Pyramid food groups, and most nutrients. Approximately 6% of elderly households report some degree of food insecurity. Although food and nutrition assistance programs can benefit elderly individuals, many do not participate. Many lower-income elderly also face physiological and social obstacles to obtaining a healthful diet. How best to meet these varied needs is a challenge for nutrition educators, researchers, and policy makers.
Proponents of income generation as a development strategy for women assume it will foster independence and economic power. However, household relationships affect women's ability to control their income. Prevailing codes of gender relationships may place the husband in control of all income. Women's participation in income generating projects may be inhibited if they do not expect to control the proceeds of their effort. Case histories from eastern Kenya of the Giriama and Mijikenda demonstrate how husbands control not only income but even group membership and participation. While household heads control the labor and income of other household members, how they choose to exercise these rights may vary. The wife's participation is viewed as withdrawing labor and cash from the household, so the husband has a claim on her income. The arrangement usually functions to benefit the household and ensure its success. Conflicts arise when the wife perceives that the arrangement is not beneficial to the household. Cultural differences between different ethnic groups may result in very different patterns of expenditures of women's income. Women are invariably in a subordinate position, dependent on their husbands to fulfill their share of the household responsibilities. Income generation enthusiasts are often ill informed about the context in which their programs operate.
Hutchison, Ira W.
Survey data obtained from 893 very low-income elderly is presented utilizing a poverty, low-income dichotomy. The relationships between income level, sex and marital status are explored for a variety of items related to morale and life satisfaction. (Author)
Elderly black farm women are neglected segment of elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. Ten such women recalled their productive lifestyles in oral-history interviews and described problems faced because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities,…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Elderly black farm women are a neglected segment of the elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. This article describes the productive life-styles that 10 such women in southeastern North Carolina recalled in oral-history interviews and the problems these women face because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities, and isolation and the deterioration of traditional resources.
Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer
This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…
Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; de Oliveira, Deíse Moura; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Souto, Rafaella Queiroga; Thamada, Andressa Akina
This qualitative study used a social phenomenology approach to elucidate the experiences, care needs and expectations of the elderly women. Nine elderly women were interviewed between February and May 2011 using a semi-structured questionnaire. The elderly women referred to their physical, mental, and social limitations. They valued the preservation of their autonomy in daily activities and in self-care and considered their families to be a fundamental support. They had expectations of remaining healthy, pursuing leisure activities, and having improved access to healthcare information and treatment. The absence of prospects at this stage of life was related to the loss of significant people and the loss of health. The results of this study reveal important aspects of the experiences of elderly women and encourage further research and improvement in teaching, clinical practice and management policies in relation to the needs of these women.
Peeters, Hans; Debels, Annelies; Verpoorten, Rika
Growing life expectancy and changes in financial, marriage and labour markets have placed the income position of the elderly at the center of scientific and political discourse. As a consequence, the last decades witnessed the publication of various influential reports that contained comparative statistics on old age income inequalities on the…
The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of participation in productive activities on life satisfaction and its implications for social evaluation of productive aging. This study uses data collected from 1,250 elderly women living in urban areas. The regression model was used to examine the influence of elderly women's participation in productive activities on their life satisfaction. Elderly women who participate in volunteer work, learning, and social group activities commonly recognized their activities as meaningful, feeling like worthwhile members of society, and evaluated such activities as very positive. In contrast, elderly women who participated in household chores and family care activities expressed a negative life satisfaction. The difference in life satisfaction regarding productive activities stems not only from the physical and environmental differences but also from the gap between the official social value underpinned by the recognition of surrounding people, their support, and the value of productive activities.
Kaida, Lisa; Boyd, Monica
Despite a rapid overall decline in poverty among older people since the 1970s, poverty among elderly immigrants is persistently high in Canada. Using data from the 2006 Canadian Census of Population, this article presents results of a study on the poverty of elderly immigrants in comparison to the Canadian-born elderly population. Results from logistic regression analysis suggest that a large portion of the higher poverty rates among elderly immigrants can be explained by the lack or inadequacy of state income support. Nevertheless, the high poverty levels among elderly immigrants are mitigated by financial assistance from their kin. This article concludes by highlighting the role of family support as a coping strategy for escaping poverty and by assessing two mechanisms of state intervention that could improve the economic well-being of elderly immigrants.
CIANELLI, ROSINA; FERRER, LILIAN; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.
Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428
Aguila, Emma; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P
We use an income supplementation experiment we designed in the state of Yucatan in Mexico for residents 70 y and older to evaluate health impacts of additional income. Two cities in the State of Yucatan, Valladolid (treatment) and Motul (control), were selected for the income supplementation experiment. Elderly residents of Valladolid were provided the equivalent of an additional $67 per month, a 44% increase in average household income. We designed a survey given to residents of both cities before and 6 mo after the income supplement about their health and other aspects of overall well-being. Both baseline and follow-up surveys collect self-reported data on health, physical functioning, and biomarkers. Anthropometric measurements for every age-eligible respondent, including height, weight, and waist circumference, were collected. We also collected lung capacity, grip strength, a series of balance tests, and a timed walk. Our results show significant health benefits associated with the additional income. Relative to the control site, there was a statistically significant improvement in lung function and an improvement in memory. These improvements are equivalent to a reduction in age of 5-10 y. Residents used their extra income to go to the doctor, buy their medications, and alleviate their hunger. The fear that this extra income could be undone by reduced transfers from other family members or unwise expenditures by the poor elderly appears to be unfounded.
Court Decision: 95 South Western Reporter, 3d Series 253; 2002 Dec 31 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of Texas reversed a lower court and held that the Texas Medical Assistance Program's restrictions on abortion funding for indigent women were constitutional because they did not violate the U.S. Equal Rights Amendment, the constitutional right to privacy, or the Texas Equal Protection Clause. The plaintiffs challenged the constitutionality of Texas's Medicaid program's funding restrictions which only provided funding for medically necessary abortions if the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest, or if the woman was in danger of death. The court held that the restrictions did not violate the Equal Rights Amendment because there was no evidence of discriminatory intent and the restrictions were rationally related to legitimate governmental purposes of only funding services for which federal reimbursement is available and of encouraging childbirth and protecting potential life. The court noted that the state may make a value judgment favoring childbirth and may implement that judgment through the allocation of public funds. The court also held that the restrictions did not violate the right to privacy because there is a fundamental difference between prohibiting abortion and encouraging childbirth as a matter of policy in the public interest. Moreover, the indigent woman retained the same range of choice she would have had if the state did not subsidize any health care costs. Finally, the court held that the restrictions did not violate the Equal Protection Clause because the underlying purpose of Texas's Medicaid Program was to provide indigent health care only to the extent that matching federal funds were available and the restrictions were rationally related to this underlying purpose.
Sanders, Cynthia K.
This study builds on research that examines the effects of microenterprise on poor women in the United States. Household income, income from the business, and poverty status were examined over time and comparisons were drawn among three groups of women: low-income women who participated in one of seven U.S. microenterprise assistance programs;…
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil
This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…
Roberts, K L; Brittin, M; deClifford, J
An exploratory study was done to determine whether frail elderly women placed on boomerang pillows would have an altered minute volume after 10 minutes. A convenience sample of 18 subjects took part in the study. A repeated measures design was used in which subjects served as their own controls. After 10 minutes on the boomerang pillows, there was a significant reduction in the minute volume of subjects. Boomerang pillows may be contraindicated in people with reduced lung capacity due to age; however, further research on a larger sample of frail elderly women is indicated.
Maziak, Wasim; Asfar, Taghrid
Violence against women is a vicious practice present in all societies. Yet data about its occurrence and associated factors are scarce in the Arab world. In this study, we attempt to determine the spread of physical abuse and its sociodemographic correlates among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria. A sample of 411 women was recruited from 8 randomly selected primary care centers in Aleppo. Response rate was 97%, mean age of participants 28 +/- 8 years, and most women (88%) were married. A special questionnaire was used including questions about physical abuse, the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), and questions about relevant sociodemographic information. Current physical abuse (battering at least 3 times during the previous year) was found in 23% of the investigated and among 26% of married women, while regular abuse (battering at least once weekly) was found in 3.3% of married women. Correlates of physical abuse were women's education, religion, age, marital status, economic status, mental distress, smoking, and residence. Our data show that physical abuse is prevalent in this population and that women's education is the most important modifiable factor.
Škavić, Petar; Duraković, Din
The aim was to analyze the rate of sudden death in elderly Croatian women in comparison to elderly Croatian men, who died suddenly due to swimming. In the period from 2002 to 2011 one elderly Croatian woman and five elderly men died suddenly during swimming. In the same time, the same number of elderly foreigners died due to swimming at the Croatian Adriatic coast. One Croatian woman aged 66, who suffered of arterial hypertension with left ventricular hyper- trophy of 15 mm, diabetes mellitus and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, drowned in the sea during swimming. She was intoxi- cated with alcohol and had alcohol level in urine of 3.03 per thousand. One foreign woman, aged 82, who suffered coronary heart disease with left ventricular scar after myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension with excessive left ventricular hypertrophy of 22 mm and nephroangiosclerosis, suddenly lost conscionsness during swimming. The death rate in elderly Croatian women due to swimming reached 0.25, and the death rate in men is eight times higher: 1.97 (p = 0.0701), but the difference is not significant probably because of a small observational number.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women, and its incidence increases with age. The average age at diagnosis is 61 years, and the majority of deaths occurs after the age of 65 years. Optimal approach to elderly women with breast cancer is still a major challenge. Elderly patients with cancer should have at least a brief geriatric assessment to detect potentially treatable problems not always adequately evaluated by the oncologists. Therapeutic nihilism should be avoided and effective treatment provided, unless there are compelling reasons against it. Sharing the care for the patient with geriatricians or primary care physicians trained in geriatrics should be considered for all vulnerable and frail elderly patients. PMID:27807536
Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S
Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574
Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.
Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…
Friedman, H; Greenblatt, D J; Scavone, J M; Burstein, E S; Ochs, H R; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I
A single oral dose of doxylamine succinate 25 mg was administered to 21 young (20 to 43 years) and 22 elderly (60 to 87 years) volunteers. Multiple plasma doxylamine concentrations were determined during a 30-hour period after each dose. Elderly and young women did not differ significantly in peak plasma doxylamine concentration (Cmax) [116 vs 103 micrograms/L], time to Cmax (tmax) [2.4 vs 2.4 h], elimination half-life (12.2 vs 10.1 h), volume of distribution (179 vs 176 L) or clearance (191 vs 218 ml/min). Cmax (107 vs 108 micrograms/L) and tmax (2.1 vs 1.6 h) also did not differ between elderly and young men. However, elderly men had reduced doxylamine clearance (174 vs 240 ml/min, p less than 0.02; 2.5 vs 3.2 ml/min/kg, p less than 0.07) and prolonged half-life (15.5 vs 10.2 h, p less than 0.05). The reduced doxylamine clearance and prolonged half-life in elderly men, but not in elderly women, is similar to results for many other drugs which are transformed by oxidation.
Flick, Louise H.; Homan, Sharon M.; Campbell, Claudia; McSweeney, Maryellen; Gallagher, Mary Elizabeth
Abstract Aims This study estimated the prevalence of twenty-two 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 744 low-income pregnant women and the frequency that women with psychiatric disorders received treatment. Method To identify psychiatric disorders, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was administered to Medicaid or Medicaid-eligible pregnant women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). The sample was stratified by the rural or urban location of the WIC sites in southeastern Missouri and the city of St. Louis. Eligible women were enrolled at each site until their numbers were proportional to the racial distribution of African American and Caucasian pregnant women served there. Results The 12-month prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders was 30.9%. Most common were affective disorders (13.6%), particularly major depressive disorder (8.2%) and bipolar I disorder (5.2%). Only 24.3% of those with a psychiatric disorder reported that they received treatment in the past year. Lifetime prevalence of at least one disorder was 45.6%, with affective disorders being the most frequent (23.5%). Caucasian women were more likely than African Americans to have at least one 12-month disorder, with the difference largely accounted for by nicotine dependence. Higher prevalence of lifetime disorders was also found in Caucasian women, particularly affective disorders and substance use disorders. There were no differences in the prevalence of 12-month or lifetime psychiatric disorders by the urban or rural residence of subjects. Conclusions With nearly one third of pregnant women meeting criteria for a 12-month psychiatric disorder and only one fourth receiving any type of mental health treatment, comprehensive psychiatric screening during pregnancy is needed along with appropriate treatment. PMID:20524895
Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle
Prompted by increasing U.S. longevity and aging demographics, this phenomenological study explored what it is like for 13 women, 75-91, to thrive in elder adulthood. Through multiple interviews, projective inventories, and focus groups, 6 group patterns emerged: (a) vital involvement and service, (b) desire to learn, (c) appreciation of basic life…
Yousefi, Zahra; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Akbari, Hossien
Background: Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly. Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women’s happiness. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test. Results: From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times. Conclusions: The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions. PMID:26734470
Lee, Aenon; Park, Junhyuck; Lee, Seungwon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate ability and muscle activities of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare them with those of healthy ones. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen female patients with TKA due to advanced degenerative arthritis of the measured on knee joint and 19 healthy elderly females participated. Tibiofemoral angles of TKA patients were using a gait analysis system anterioposterior X-rays of the weight-bearing knee. The knee flexion angle and gait parameters were measured. Muscle activities and prolongation time were EMG system. The gait of the treated limb of each participant was evaluated in three consecutive trials at fast speed and comfortable speed. [Results] The knee flexion angle %stance phase, stride length, step length, speed, cadence, and gait cycle significantly decreased at both the fast speed and comfortable speeds, and the onset and duration time of rectus femoris activity was significantly increased at the comfortable speed in the TKA group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, elderly women who received TKA showed decreased gait ability and muscle activity compared to the healthy elderly women.
Lee, Aenon; Park, Junhyuck; Lee, Seungwon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate ability and muscle activities of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare them with those of healthy ones. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen female patients with TKA due to advanced degenerative arthritis of the measured on knee joint and 19 healthy elderly females participated. Tibiofemoral angles of TKA patients were using a gait analysis system anterioposterior X-rays of the weight-bearing knee. The knee flexion angle and gait parameters were measured. Muscle activities and prolongation time were EMG system. The gait of the treated limb of each participant was evaluated in three consecutive trials at fast speed and comfortable speed. [Results] The knee flexion angle %stance phase, stride length, step length, speed, cadence, and gait cycle significantly decreased at both the fast speed and comfortable speeds, and the onset and duration time of rectus femoris activity was significantly increased at the comfortable speed in the TKA group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, elderly women who received TKA showed decreased gait ability and muscle activity compared to the healthy elderly women. PMID:25931687
Changes of wealth, income, and expenditure under the aspect of the economic potential of the elderly are considered in this article. Overall, it is shown that it is necessary to take a skeptical view regarding the conclusions about an on-going positive development of the economic potential. On the one hand, the reduction of the statutory pension level will lead to a reduction of the household income because pensions from the statutory old age pension systems will continue be the main component of household income after retirement. On the other hand, the inequality of the old age income distribution will rise because of the different adjustments of old age income. The expenditures will change both the amount and the structure compared to today. Due to the reduction of the pension level and therewith the purchasing power, the amount of expenditures will decrease overall and the demand for luxuries will be lower. However, statements about the structural changes of consumption are hampered by the fact that not only material resources and the price of goods and services but other factors also influence demand. For example, the human capital of the elderly of the future will be different and cohort effects will potentially account for different demand behavior.
Morales, Clotilde; Royuela, Meritxell
The management of cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia are justified in guidelines. In the elderly, when they are in primary prevention, recommendations are controversial, even if there is evidence in reducing morbidity. In secondary prevention, between 65 and 85 years, there is enough evidence to recommend statins. The decision to start or to continue further treatment must be complemented by comprehensive assessment of the risk-benefit factor. In elderly patients we have to support in decision-making, we take clinical judgment and not just the age criteria. In women the risk is underestimated and may be untreated. The recomendations are the same as in men. During pregnancy there are particular recommendations.
The Impact of Reagan Economics on Aging Women: Oregon. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, Portland, Oregon.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.
In this report transcripts of panel discussions dealing with the status of elderly women in Oregon are presented in relation to current political legislation and policy. Following opening statements by Representatives Ron Wyden and Don Bonker, issues of social security and income maintenance are addressed by representatives of the Older Women's…
... Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... income eligibility of persons applying to participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program...
... Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... determining the income eligibility of persons applying to participate in the Special Supplemental...
Parker, William P; Griebling, Tomas Lindor
Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in elderly women with significant associated morbidity. Incontinence can by grouped into several types: stress incontinence, urgency incontinence, overflow incontinence, functional incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. Careful evaluation, including history and physical examination, is critical to making the correct diagnosis and guiding therapy. A variety of nonsurgical treatments, including behavioral therapies, pelvic floor muscle exercise, medications, and other treatments, are available; can be successful for many older women; and may preclude the need for surgery. Working closely with the patient, understanding her goals of care, and targeting treatments accordingly are essential for success.
Gonzalez, B C; Jirovec, M M
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore elderly Mexican women's readiness to exercise, and their multiple roles. Fifty older women were sampled from two separate neighborhoods of low socio-economic status. Readiness to exercise was examined using the Stages of Change - Exercise instrument with six categories: precontemplation nonbelievers, precontemplation believers, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Time devoted to the following functional roles was explored: wife, household, grandmother, personal care, and recreational. Women fell mainly under the first three stages of change both, precontemplation nonbelievers and believers, and the contemplation stage. The stages of change scale and role commitments were not significantly related. Nevertheless, precontemplators devoted less time in all the roles than the women in the other categories of stage of change.
Martins, I R; Costa, S H; Freitas, S R; Pinto, C S
This paper examines the practice of abortion, especially induced abortion among low income women. The discussion is based on survey data collected between 1984 and 1985 in seven slum communities (favelas) situated in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Despite restrictive law, induced abortion is extremely frequent. Among married women 21.4 per cent reported experience of induced abortion. Most abortions were performed by physicians, however the quality of care of these procedures can be questioned since almost all induced abortions are illegal there is no possible supervision by health authorities. The incidence of post-abortion complication is very high, especially for those performed by traditional midwifes or by the woman herself. More than 60 per cent of the women were not using contraception at the time of pregnancy. About, 21 per cent reported that they were using the pill. Such a high pill failure rate is inacceptable, and probably was related to incorrect use. This points to the need for a better access to family planning care within the health services. The consequences of the restrictive abortion laws in Brazil are also discussed. Restrictions that in practice prove to have little impact on the practice of induced abortion, appear to be very effective in brooding even more the social-economic inequalities.
Barry, Kate R.
The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…
Lee, Eun Sil
Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310
Herd, Pamela; Schoeni, Robert F; House, James S
Context The robust relationship between socioeconomic factors and health suggests that social and economic policies might substantially affect health, while other evidence suggests that medical care, the main focus of current health policy, may not be the primary determinant of population health. Income support policies are one promising avenue to improve population health. This study examines whether the federal cash transfer program to poor elderly, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, affects old-age disability. Methods This study uses the 1990 and 2000 censuses, employing state and year fixed-effect models, to test whether within-state changes in maximum SSI benefits over time lead to changes in disability among people aged sixty-five and older. Findings Higher benefits are linked to lower disability rates. Among all single elderly individuals, 30 percent have mobility limitations, and an increase of $100 per month in the maximum SSI benefit caused the rate of mobility limitations to fall by 0.46 percentage points. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses. First, analyses limited to those most likely to receive SSI produced larger effects, but analyses limited to those least likely to receive SSI produced no measurable effect. Second, varying the disability measure did not meaningfully alter the findings. Third, excluding the institutionalized, immigrants, individuals living in states with exceptionally large benefit changes, and individuals living in states with no SSI supplements did not change the substantive conclusions. Fourth, Medicaid did not confound the effects. Finally, these results were robust for married individuals. Conclusions Income support policy may be a significant new lever for improving population health, especially that of lower-income persons. Even though the findings are robust, further analyses are needed to confirm their reliability. Future research should examine a variety of different income support policies, as
... Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S... Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC). These income...
Hoyer, F W; Hoyer, W J; Treat, N J; Baltes, P B
Effectiveness of response speed training on the performance of thirty adult women was assessed. Five young and five elderly female volunteers were tested in each of three experimental conditions: (1) one training session with cognitive feedback in which participants were given response rate information (control); (2) five training sessions with cognitive feedback (practice); or (3) five training sessions with cognitive feedback in which the number of S&H green stamp units earned was directly proportional to response rate (conjugate reinforcement). Dependent variables were (a) response speed on three paper-pencil tasks, and (b) postraining performance on twelve intelligence subtests chosen as far transfer tasks. Response speed increased significantly with training in both age groups, but contrary to expectation, young adults showed greater training effects than elderly adults. No significant far transfer effects were obtained.
de Noronha Ribeiro Daniel, Fernanda; de Souza Vale, Rodrigo Gomes; Giani, Tania Santos; Bacellar, Silvia; Escobar, Tatiane; Stoutenberg, Mark; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin
The purpose of the present study was to verify the correlation between static balance and functional autonomy in elderly women. The sample was a random selection of 32 sedentary elderly women (mean age=67.47 ± 7.37 years, body mass index=BMI=27.30 ± 5.07 kg/m(2)), who live in the city of Teresina in the state of Piauí, Brazil. Static balance was analyzed by stabilometric assessment using an electronic baropodometer which measured the average of the amplitude of postural oscillations in the right (RLD) and left (LLD) lateral displacements, anterior (AD) and posterior (PD) displacements, and in the elliptical area (EA) formed by the body's center of gravity. Functional autonomy was evaluated by a battery of tests from the LADEG protocol which is composed of: a 10 m walk (10 mW), getting up from a seated position (GSP), getting up from the prone position (GPP), getting up from a chair and movement around the house (GCMH), and putting on and taking off a shirt (PTS). The Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) indicated a positive and significant correlation between GPP and LLD (r=0.382; p=0.031), GPP and PD (r=0.398; p=0.024) and GPP and EA (r=0.368; p=0.038). These results show that sedentary elderly women who spent the greatest amount of time performing the GPP test achieved the largest mean amplitude of displacement leading to greater levels of instability.
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
As the elderly population continues to grow, more elderly persons are requiring assistance with activities of daily living. Women are the traditional caregivers to the elderly, and the many women who also participate in the paid labor force must face the challenges of meeting both work and family obligations. Types of elder care assistance not…
Severy, L J; McKillop, K
A sample of 665 low-income women from a predominantly rural area of north central Florida rated the value of 25 features of family planning providers and reported their perceptions of how characteristic each feature was of different types of providers. A well-trained, trustworthy and friendly staff, the presence of a doctor if you need one and a staff that is gentle with the examination were the most desirable features of family planning services. The respondents' perceptions of public health clinics suggest that the strongest qualities of such facilities are that they treat people from different backgrounds, accept Medicaid, are easy to find and teach you how to avoid pregnancy and how to take care of yourself and stay healthy. Features thought most characteristic of private physician services were a well-trained staff, privacy and the presence of a doctor if you need one. Voluntary organizations were seen as providing services for people of different backgrounds, having a friendly staff, serving as a referral agency and teaching about staying healthy and avoiding pregnancy. However, voluntary organizations were rated lower than public health clinics or private physicians on nearly all features. The total scores for public health clinics and private physicians were not significantly different from each other, but both were noticeably higher than the score for voluntary organizations. Ethnicity affected ratings dramatically, with black respondents clearly more favorable toward public health clinics and private physicians than white respondents; conversely, whites were more positive toward voluntary organizations than were blacks. For many of these low-income respondents, the high ratings of private physicians may have represented their expectations rather than their actual experience.
Odebode, Stella O.
This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…
Evans, Kevin; Robertson, Suzanne
This study explores a group of elderly women who were searching for physicians that were interested in providing negotiated health care options with particular interest in mutual decision making. The grounded theory approach was used to explore the health care interactions between the physicians and the elderly women (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).…
Black, Helen K.; White, Tracela; Hannum, Susan M.
Objectives This article focuses on the lived experience of depression in 20 elderly African American women. Methods Data on depression emerged from research that qualitatively explored experiences of depression, sadness, and suffering in 120 community-dwelling persons aged 80 and older, stratified by gender, ethnicity, and self-reported health. Results We placed women’s narratives under three general themes: Depression was (a) linked with diminishment of personal strength, (b) related to sadness and suffering, and (c) preventable or resolvable through personal responsibility. Brief accounts illustrate how themes emerged in women’s discussion of depression. Discussion African American women created a language for depression that was rooted in their personal and cultural history and presented in vivid vignettes through their life stories. Their belief systems and the language they used to describe depression are integral aspects of the lived experience of depression. PMID:18079427
Föger-Samwald, Ursula; Vekszler, György; Hörz-Schuch, Edith; Salem, Sylvia; Wipperich, Markus; Ritschl, Peter; Mousavi, Mehdi; Pietschmann, Peter
A common manifestation of age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis are fractures of the hip. Age-related osteoporosis is thought to be determined by a number of intrinsic factors including genetics, hormonal changes, changes in levels of oxidative stress, or an inflammatory status associated with the aging process. The aim of this study was to investigate gene expression and bone architecture in bone samples derived from elderly osteoporotic women with hip fractures (OP) in comparison to bone samples from age matched women with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA). Femoral heads and adjacent neck tissue were collected from 10 women with low-trauma hip fractures (mean age 83±6) and consecutive surgical hip replacement. Ten bone samples from patients undergoing hip replacement due to osteoarthritis (mean age 80±5) served as controls. One half of each bone sample was subjected to gene expression analysis. The second half of each bone sample was analyzed by microcomputed tomography. From each half, samples from four different regions, the central and subcortical region of the femoral head and neck, were analyzed. We could show a significantly decreased expression of the osteoblast related genes RUNX2, Osterix, Sclerostin, WNT10B, and Osteocalcin, a significantly increased ratio of RANKL to Osteoprotegerin, and a significantly increased expression of the enzymes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase GPX3, and of the inflammatory cytokine IL6 in bone samples from hip fracture patients compared to controls. Major microstructural changes in OP bone were seen in the neck and were characterized by a significant decrease of bone volume, trabecular number, and connectivity density and a significant increase of trabecular separation. In conclusion, our data give evidence for a decreased expression of osteoblast related genes and increased expression of osteoclast related genes. Furthermore, increased expression of SOD2 and GPX3 suggest increased
Lehning, Amanda J; Smith, Richard J; Dunkle, Ruth E
Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place.
Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.
African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…
Chang, U-Im; Kim, Hyung Wook; Noh, Yong-sun
Background/Aims Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is the most common cause of community-onset bacteremia in hospitalized elderly patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in the clinical and microbiological data of hospitalized elderly and non-elderly women with community-onset APN. Methods Women with community-onset APN as a discharge diagnosis were identified from January 2004 to December 2013 using an electronic medical records system. We compared the clinical and microbiologic data in elderly and non-elderly women with community-onset APN due to Enterobacteriaceae. Results Of the 1,134 women with community-onset APN caused by Enterobacteriaceae, 443 were elderly and 691 were non-elderly women. The elderly group had a lower frequency of upper and lower urinary tract symptoms/signs than the non-elderly. The incidence of bacteremia, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, patients with a C-reactive protein (CRP) level ≥ 15 mg/dL, and patients with a leukocyte count ≥ 15,000/mm3 in the blood, were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the non-elderly group. The proportion of patients requiring hospitalization for 10 days or more was significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the non-elderly group (51.5% vs. 26.2%, p < 0.001). The clinical cure rates at 4 to 14 days after the end of therapy were 98.3% (338/344) and 97.4% (519/533) in the elderly and non-elderly groups, respectively (p = 0.393). Conclusions Elderly women with APN exhibit higher serum CRP levels, a higher frequency of bacteremia, a higher proportion of ESBL-producing uropathogens, and require a longer hospitalization than non-elderly women, although these patients may not complain of typical urinary symptoms. PMID:25995668
Serra, Marcos Maurício; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Peterson, Mark; Mochizuki, Luis; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio
Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group—elderly participants of the carnival parades in the “Wing of Baianas”, and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.04); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.007); larger amplitudes of medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.001); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.001); increased mean velocity (p < 0.01); and elliptical area (p < 0.01) There were no differences in the isokinetic peak torque corrected by body weight, total work and flexor/extensor ratio. Participation in the Wing of Baianas is associated with better balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength. PMID:27906984
Barnett, Larry D.
An analysis of the results of an administration of Rosen's Achievement Values Scale and Srole's Anomie Scale to adult women residents of a low-income housing project indicated no intrinsic relationship between anomie and achievement values. (JM)
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.
Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…
Ingram, Kathleen M.; And Others
The effects of stressful experiences on the psychological well-being of 113 homeless women and 116 low-income housed women were investigated. Measures of victimization assessed multiple dimensions of this construct, including criminal victimization, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse. Measures of daily environmental hassles and quality of family…
70 interested elderly (65 yr. and over) men and women participated in an investigation of older consumers' apparel-shopping behavior and satisfactions and dissatisfactions with available clothing and facilities. Analysis showed that the participants considered shopping ease, wide variety, and label/brand as some of the important factors while shopping for clothes. The respondents were satisfied with good selection, closeness of the mall, and reasonable sales. However, their dissatisfactions ranged from service to fit and size, youthful styles, and abundance of imported clothing. In-store displays, mail order catalogs, and window shopping were the most commonly used sources of apparel information. Several implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for further research were made.
Yeo, Seonae; Logan, Jeongok G
Low-income women are at risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular moderate exercise may contribute to the risk of weight gain. This study was conducted to (1) determine the rate and characteristics of low-income pregnant women who exercised regularly and met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation and (2) describe how these women spent time for other physical activities compared with those who did not exercise regularly. Medicaid-recipient or uninsured pregnant women (n = 816) were asked to complete a physical activity questionnaire at rural and urban county health departments located in North Carolina. Twenty percent of low-income women met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation for moderate exercise (≥10 METs-h/wk [metabolic equivalent task-hours per week]). The women who met the recommendation spent 3 hours 45 minutes per week walking as exercise, whereas those who did not meet the recommendation spent 1 hour per week (P < .0001). Women who exercised regularly spent longer hours at work (4.25 vs. 1.75 hours per day; P = .019) and on household tasks (5.25 vs. 4.0 hours per day; P = .002) than women who did not exercise regularly. Time spent on domestic and occupation activities does not seem to prohibit low-income women from engaging in moderate exercise on a regular basis.
Jasti, Sunitha; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Cogswell, Mary E; Hartzema, Abraham G; Bentley, Margaret E
In the United States, the prevalence of third trimester anemia among low-income pregnant women is 29% and has not improved since the 1980s. Although low adherence has been linked to the ineffectiveness of iron supplementation programs, data regarding adherence to supplementation in low-income women are currently lacking. Hence this study was conducted to better understand the factors associated with adherence to the use of iron-containing prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements among low-income pregnant women. Adherence to supplement use was assessed by pill counts among 244 pregnant women of 867 women who were initially randomized to receive 1 of 3 prenatal supplements. All women received care at a public prenatal clinic. Maternal characteristics associated with adherence were identified using predictive modeling. Women took 74% of supplements as prescribed. Adherence was higher among non-Hispanic white women than among non-Hispanic black women (79% vs. 72%, P = 0.01). Interactions of ethnicity with age group, smoking status, and prior supplement use were significant. Multivariate regression analysis stratified by ethnicity revealed that among the white women education beyond high school, unmarried status, nulligravidity, and smoking were positively associated with adherence. In contrast, among the black women, supplement use 3 mo prior to current pregnancy and no loss of appetite were positively associated with adherence. Further research investigating the influence of cultural factors is necessary to better understand adherence to supplement use and the differences in adherence among ethnic groups.
Hur, Inyoung; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Oh, Kyungwon
Objectives The present study investigated associations between income and intake of nutrients and food in adults (n = 11,063) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Methods To examine relationships between individual dietary intake and anthropometric measures and family income, multiple linear regression models were constructed for each outcome variable. All models were adjusted for age, education, energy intake, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. Results For men, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin C were lower in low-income compared to high-income groups. For women, intakes of protein and niacin were lower in low-income groups. Lowest income group ate less dairy products in men and less fruits and fishes or shellfishes in women. Conclusion Low-income groups had severe food insecurity and low diet quality compared to high-income groups. The study results will provide direction for public health efforts regarding dietary intakes according to economic status among Korean men and women. PMID:24159472
Lion, Alexis; Spada, Rosario S; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Anello, Guido; Bosco, Paolo; Calabrese, Santa; Iero, Antonella; Stella, Giuseppe; Elia, Maurizio; Perrin, Philippe P
Postural control impairments and dizziness, which are major health problems with high secondary morbidity and mortality, increase with aging. Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is an age-related metabolic disorder, known to be involved in cardiovascular, neurological, and multisensory dysfunctions. Elevated Hcy level might be involved in sensory balance control systems impairment and dizziness occurrence. Dizziness, fitness Instrumental Activity of Daily Living scale (fitness IADL), systolic arterial pressure with ankle-brachial blood pressure index and homocysteinemia were studied in 61 noninstitutionized elderly women. Clinical balance tests (timed "Up and Go", 10-m walking and one-leg balance) and posturography (including sensory conflicting situations [SCS] and cognitive conflicting situations [CCS]) were performed. Clinical balance control was lower in dizzy women who presented particularly poor stability in SCS. Dizziness was related to low fitness IADL scores (odds ratio [OR] 0.452, 95% CI 0.216-0.946) and to elevated Hcy (OR 8.084, 95% CI 1.992-32.810). Elevated Hcy was correlated with balance disorders both in SCS and CCS. Dizziness is associated with a reduced ability in balance control management. Hcy is related both to dizziness and low postural performance. This relation between elevated Hcy levels and balance impairments, resulting in dizziness, may be explained by its angiotoxicity and neurotoxicity.
Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose
Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…
Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.
The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721
Asiedu, Gladys B.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Breitkopf, Daniel M.
Background Risk perception is an important predictor of cancer prevention behaviors. We examined perceived risk of cervical cancer among an ethnically diverse population of women of lower socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods Females attending a women's health clinic were recruited for a study addressing cervical cancer prevention. Survey questions evaluated lifetime perceived risk of cervical cancer (0% to 100%), beliefs about the accuracy of the Pap test, and estimated incidence of abnormal Pap test results. Risk estimates for oneself were followed with an item seeking a brief, qualitative explanation of the risk estimate. Results Surveys were completed by 338 women. The mean (M ±SD) age of respondents was 29.9 ±8.6 years. Women self-identified as Hispanic/Latina (32%, n=107), White (34%, n=116), and African American (34%, n=115). Estimated perceived lifetime risk of getting cervical cancer ranged from 0% to 100% (M=59.2 ±29.5). Risk estimates were associated with perceived prevalence of abnormal results, r=0.24, p<0.001, and perceptions regarding the accuracy of the Pap test, r=0.13, p<0.05. On average, women estimated that nearly half of all women have ever had an abnormal result (49.2 ± 26.9; n=335; range 0%-100%), with African-American women estimating a higher percentage compared to Hispanic/Latina and White women. Women who themselves experienced an abnormal Pap test result reported higher proportions of other women experiencing an abnormal result, t(333) = −3.67, p<0.01. Conclusions This study advances our understanding of misperception of risk and how women qualitatively view their risk of cervical cancer. The findings underscore areas for practitioners to enhance patient education efforts. PMID:24633172
Based on a workshop in Gambia in 1989, this manual was developed to help Peace Corps workers to develop training techniques for teaching women to run businesses producing and selling local products and to manage money. Topics covered include the following: (1) the role of the facilitator in adult learning; (2) problems women face in controlling…
Davis, Lwendo Moonzwe; Schensul, Stephen L.; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Singh, Rajendra
This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalized area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined. PMID:24766149
Onishi, Chiemi; Yuasa, Kyoko; Sei, Masako; Ewis, Ashraf A; Nakano, Takuro; Munakata, Hokuma; Nakahori, Yutaka
Prolonged life expectancy must be recognized as an excellent achievement of modern medicine, but not all the elderly people are satisfied with their lives. Life satisfaction is a multi-dimensional issue that depends on many objective and subjective characteristics. In this study, we aimed at investigating the factors affecting life satisfaction of 314 elderly Japanese women attending in 28 elderly-care and welfare facilities at Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Our results indicated that elderly subjects with depression tendencies always show significantly lower degrees of life satisfaction than others who are not depressed (p<0.001) regardless of their cognitive status. Furthermore, elderly women who shared decision for their living place and whose opinions were considered for daily life decisions reported significantly more life satisfaction levels than others. We conclude that elderly life satisfaction is affected by various determinants however, with different influencing weight. Life satisfaction of elderly people, with or without dementia, is greatly affected by their mood status and share in decision making. Avoiding elderly people depressive mood, sharing them in various daily decisions, considering their opinions, and allowing them to decide their elderly-care facility placement are crucial determinants for their life satisfaction and essential for their coping, adaptation, well-being and successful aging.
Doering Runquist, Jennifer J; Morin, Karen; Stetzer, Frank C
The purpose of this study was to identify whether severe postpartum fatigue at 1 and 3 months postpartum was associated with depressive symptomatology at 6 months in lower-income urban women. A convenience sample of 43 lower-income postpartum women completed the Modified Fatigue Symptoms Checklist and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum. Participants who were severely fatigued at both 1 and 3 months postpartum were significantly more likely to exhibit depressive symptomatology at 6 months. Fatigue and depressive symptoms were moderately to strongly correlated at 1 (r = .68), 3 (r = .74), and 6 (r = .70) months postpartum (p = .001). Severe fatigue and depressive symptomatology often co-exist for months after childbirth. Future research should examine whether interventions to targeting severe postpartum fatigue in lower-income urban women may also effectively reduce depressive symptoms.
Ford, Paula B; Dzewaltowski, David A
High levels of neighborhood deprivation and lack of access to supermarkets have been associated with increased risk of obesity in women. This multilevel study used a statewide dataset (n = 21,166) of low-income women in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children to determine whether the association between neighborhood deprivation and BMI is mediated by the availability of retail food stores, and whether this relationship varied across the urban rural continuum. Residence in a high deprivation neighborhood was associated with a 0.94 unit increase in BMI among women in metropolitan areas. The relationship between tract deprivation and BMI was not linear among women in micropolitan areas, and no association was observed in rural areas. The presence of supermarkets or other retail food stores did not mediate the association between deprivation and BMI among women residing in any of the study areas. These results suggest that level of urbanity influences the effect of neighborhood condition on BMI among low-income women, and that the availability of supermarkets and other food stores does not directly influence BMI among low-income populations.
Krupar, Karen R.; Smith, N. Richmond
Designed as the first phase of a larger project to explore the relationships between the possible impact of reminiscence on memory deterioration in elderly women confined to nursing home environments, a study demonstrated that reminiscence activity is positively correlated with increases in communication interactions. Women were chosen as the…
Hill, Terrence D; Mossakowski, Krysia N; Angel, Ronald J
In this paper, we examined the association between relationship violence and psychological distress among low-income urban women. Extending prior research, we considered the effects of relationship violence within the context of other chronic stressors that are common in the lives of these women. Using data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project (1999), a probability sample of 2,402 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we predicted psychological distress with multiple measures of relationship violence, a wide range of sociodemographic variables, and several chronic stressors. Our results show that relationship violence is associated with higher levels of economic hardship, neighborhood disorder, and household disrepair. We also find that relationship violence is associated with higher levels of psychological distress, net of these other chronic stressors. Finally, we observe that the effects of relationship violence do not vary according to the chronic stressors under study. Because the adverse effects of relationship violence are similar for women despite other adverse circumstances, interventions and treatment efforts focused exclusively on relationship violence may make a unique contribution to the psychological well-being of low-income urban women.
In Spain, elder women are the largest group in need of long-term care. Significant improvements in this issue took place between 2007 and 2011, thanks to the Dependency Law (2006). But severe limitations showed the difficulty of overcoming the historical backwardness of Spanish social policy. This article describes the situation of Spanish people with dependency in activities of daily living. It analyzes changes driven by this law, especially in their impacts on elder women. It assesses the extent to which those changes can alter the traditional model of care. There are three major findings: First, measures promoted by the law have improved the previous situation but are incapable of developing a new model. Care for elders still relies on family, with lack of professionalism, little socialization, and expanding commodification. Second, the current care model is fundamentally detrimental to older women and women caregivers. Third, this kind of model hinders the overcoming of gender inequalities in intrafamily, generational, and social relations.
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J
Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.
DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Homeier, Diana C.; Wilber, Kathleen H.
Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, we recruited and trained promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, to interview a sample of Latino adults age 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of Latino elders experienced some form of abuse and/or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% indicated physical assault, 9% reported sexual abuse, 16.7% indicated financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with increased risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the U.S. was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elders, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment, or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community. PMID:22697790
de Souza Genaro, Patrícia; de Medeiros Pinheiro, Marcelo; Szejnfeld, Vera Lúcia; Martini, Lígia Araújo
Low dietary intake of calcium and poor vitamin D status during aging can result in mild secondary hyperparathyroidism, which may be associated with low muscle mass and reduced strength in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low vitamin D, high parathormone (PTH), or both, are associated with sarcopenia. A total of 105 women, 35 with sarcopenia and 70 without sarcopenia, were enrolled in the present study. Body composition measurements were performed by DXA and sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle mass index<5.45 kg/m2 and grip strength lower than 20 kg. Three-day dietary records were taken and adjustments for energy intake made. The estimated average requirement (EAR) method was adopted as a cut-off point for estimating the prevalence of inadequate intake. Serum total calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, intact PTH, and 25(OH)D were measured. Only 1% of the patients met the daily adequate intake for vitamin D and 11% met the daily adequate intake for calcium. Notably, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in hyperparathyroidism (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL and PTH>65 pg/dL) than in the absence of hyperparathyroidism (41.2 vs 16.2%, respectively; p=0.046). The odds ratio for sarcopenia in hyperparathyroidism cases was 6.81 (95%CI 1.29-35.9) compared with participants who had low PTH and a high 25(OH)D concentration. The present study showed that vitamin D insufficiency associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism increased the risk of sarcopenia, suggesting that the suppression of hyperparathyroidism by ensuring adequate calcium and vitamin D intake should be considered in interventional studies to confirm potential benefits.
Fekete, Erin M; Seay, Julia; Antoni, Michael H; Mendez, Armando J; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Szeto, Angela; Schneiderman, Neil
Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in women with HIV, and few studies examine potential protective factors that may reduce risk for sleep disturbances in this high-risk population. This study predicted that HIV-specific social support from various sources (i.e., friends, family members, and spouses), as well as oxytocin (OT), would explain sleep quality in 71 low-income minority women living with HIV. Social support from family members was associated with better sleep quality in women. For women with high OT, support from friends was associated with better sleep quality, whereas for women with low OT, support from friends was associated with poorer sleep quality. Women with low OT may not effectively interpret and utilize available support resources, which may be associated with sleep disturbances.
Deavenport, Alexis; Modeste, Naomi; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Neish, Christine
A low rate of mammogram screening exists among low-income Hispanic women. To address this disparity, an experimental intervention containing audiovisual and written media was conducted using the health belief model as a framework. The purpose of this study was to determine if low-income Hispanic women, more than 40 years of age, who received…
Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.
The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…
Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.
The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…
Rowland, David L.; Zabin, Laurie S.; Emerson, Mark
Explored the impact of household environment and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on psychosocial development. Data on low-income, urban CSA victims, and non-CSA women indicated that household conditions indicative of parental dysfunction, antisocial behavior, and instability set the stage for CSA by interfering with parental protection. Victims'…
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…
Radecki, S E
Low-income women's histories of pregnancies, their use or nonuse of contraception, and their marital status showed racial and ethnic differences in family formation patterns and fertility control practices. Data were analyzed from a survey of 918 low-income women in Los Angeles County. The sample contained about equal numbers of non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Hispanics. The use of stratified samples equalized the poverty-level composition of the three racial and ethnic groups. First pregnancies for white and black women resulted primarily from nonuse of contraception while unmarried, but almost half of first pregnancies among Hispanics were intentional. Marital dissolution following pregnancy or childbearing was common among low-income whites and blacks, but Hispanics were more likely to have an intact marriage along with a higher average parity. Analyses of histories of pregnancies while controlling for demographic characteristics showed that racial and ethnic differences in rates of different types of pregnancies (classified as intended, accidental, or unprotected) and rates of abortion did not remain significant after adjustment for respondent characteristics and years of exposure to possible pregnancy. Actual parity, however, remained significant when these factors were controlled. Thus, results document distinctive patterns of family formation for low-income women in racial and ethnic subgroups of this population. Implications of these patterns of family formation for economic well-being are discussed. PMID:1910183
Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…
Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.
A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…
Ananat, Elizabeth O.; Michaels, Guy
Having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up. Using this exogenous variation, recent work finds that divorce has little effect on women's mean household income. We further investigate the effect of divorce using Quantile Treatment Effect methodology and find that it increases…
Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela
This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…
Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.
Presents finding from an investigation of two group therapy modalities involving 93 women with dependent children and limited education and income levels. An overview of intervention activities that participants found beneficial is presented. Programs were found to help participants develop a sense of community, reduce stress, improve…
Fox, Patrick; Arnsberger, Pamela; Owens, Desi; Nussey, Brenda; Zhang, Xiluan; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Tabnak, Farzaneh; Otero-Sabogal, Regina
Purpose: Our goal was to identify factors predictive of mammography rescreening within 18 months of baseline screening in multiethnic, low-income older women. Design and Methods: We interviewed a cross-sectional survey of staff of 102 randomly selected clinics that provided screening and diagnostic services. We also surveyed a random sample of 391…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-6547 appearing on pages 17631-17632...
Okada, Yoshiyuki; Galbreath, M Melyn; Shibata, Shigeki; Jarvis, Sara S; VanGundy, Tiffany B; Meier, Rhonda L; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi
Previous human studies have shown that large-artery stiffness contributes to an age-related decrease in cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity. Whether this is also true with sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity is associated with the stiffness of baroreceptor segments (the carotid artery and the aorta) in elderly individuals and that sex affects this relationship. Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity was assessed from the spontaneous changes in beat-by-beat diastolic pressure and corresponding muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) during supine rest in 30 men (mean±SEM: 69±1 years) and 31 women (68±1 years). Carotid artery stiffness (B-mode ultrasonography) and aortic stiffness (MRI) were also determined. We found that elderly women had lower sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity than elderly men (-2.33±0.25 versus -3.32±0.25 bursts · 100 beats(-1) · mm Hg(-1); P=0.007). β-Stiffness indices of the carotid artery and the aorta were greater in elderly women than in men (6.68±0.48 versus 5.10±0.50 and 4.03±0.47 versus 2.68±0.42; both P<0.050). Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity was inversely correlated with carotid artery stiffness in both men and women (r=0.49 and 0.50; both P<0.05), whereas this relation was shifted in parallel upward (toward a reduced sensitivity) in women with no changes in the slope (0.26 versus 0.24 arbitrary units). Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and aortic stiffness showed similar trends. Thus, barosensory artery stiffness seems to be one independent determinant of sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity in elderly men and women. The lower sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity in elderly women may predispose them to an increased prevalence of hypertension.
Winham, Donna M.
Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Methods A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing “bean health benefits” and “food behaviors.” Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. Results The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered ‘neutral’ to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Conclusions Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition. PMID:26820889
Abramenko, Iu V; Iakovlev, N A; Sliusar', T A
52 elderly women and 36 matched by age and education men with initiatory stages of chronic brain ischemia (CBI) have been studied using comparative analysis of personality characteristics. Women with CBI had higher level of psychosocial stress than men. The results demonstrate the predomination of extrapunitive frustration reactions among women. Intropunitive ones prevailed in men. Women-patients had higher levels of excitement, stress and anxiety than men that surpassed women by the indicators of emotional security. The received data may be important for individualization of therapeutic intervention.
Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Ramírez-Amador, Velia; Jarillo-Soto, Edgar Carlos; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel
The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-perceived oral health (SPOH) among the elderly. A cross-sectional, exploratory examination of 150 elderly subjects whose ages ranged from 60-86 was conducted. These subjects used the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) to assess their SPOH. In addition, sociodemographic data were collected from study participants. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, the examination of odds ratio (OR) of logistic regression analysis, the chi-square test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index for the study participants was 20.1 ± 5.8; 21.3% of subjects were edentulous, and 69.3% of subjects wore removable dentures. 62.7% of study participants had poor SPOH (defined as GOHAI score <44). Poor SPOH was significantly more frequent among males (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.03-7.13, p < 0.05), low-income individuals (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3 -5.8, p < 0.01), and subjects with less education (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.1-4.6, p < 0.05) than among the overall subject population. The findings suggest that gender (male), low income and low educational levels have a significant influence on the self-perceived oral health status of elderly individuals, irrespective of tooth loss.
Guy, Sarah; Sterling, Bobbie Sue; Walker, Lorraine O; Harrison, Tracie C
The purpose of this study is to understand mental health literacy (MHL) (Jorm, 2000) in lower income women postpartum and share participant experiences of recognizing and seeking help for depressive symptoms. Focus group textual data were received from 25 participants who completed a weight and psychosocial health longitudinal study. Iterative content data analysis using Jorm's framework provided thematic understandings descriptive of MHL. Women recognized behavioral changes indicating mental distress, but fears prevented them from seeking help, and some resorted to risky behaviors. This framework could guide providers to identify women who may benefit from early intervention for postpartum depressive symptoms.
Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie
We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention.
Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L
The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population.
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran
Low-income women's rates of employment have grown dramatically in recent years, yet the stability and quality of their employment remain low. Using panel data from the Three-City Study following 1,586 low-income African American, Latina, and European American women, this study assessed associations between women's employment quality (wages; receipt of health insurance) and stability (work consistency; job transitions) and their financial, personal, and family well-being. Hierarchical linear models assessing within-person effects found that increases in wages were associated with improved financial well-being and physical health. Average wages over time similarly were associated with greater levels of income and financial stability as well as mental and physical health at the end of the study. In contrast, few significant associations emerged for receipt of health insurance or for the stability and consistency of women's employment. Results have implications for programs and policies seeking to support disadvantaged women's employment in order to improve family resources and functioning.
Dye, Cheryl J; Cason, Katherine L
Focus groups were conducted with 28 older, low-income women in order to identify factors that affected their fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. Themes emerging from data analysis include barriers to making dietary changes, specifically to increasing F&V consumption; beliefs about benefits of consuming F&V as compared with other dietary changes; and use of supplements as a substitution for eating F&V. A prominent subtheme concerned the conflict women felt between their desire to consume more F&V and their desire not to waste food. Focus group participants gave concrete suggestions on how to help older, low-income women increase F&V consumption, which included environmental supports.
DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B
The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns.
Khoury, Amal J; Moazzem, S Wakerul; Jarjoura, Chad M; Carothers, Cathy; Hinton, Agnes
Despite the documented health and emotional benefits of breast-feeding to women and children, breast-feeding rates are low among subgroups of women. In this study, we examine factors associated with breast-feeding initiation in low-income women, including Theory of Planned Behavior measures of attitude, support, and perceived control, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. A mail survey, with telephone follow-up, of 733 postpartum Medicaid beneficiaries in Mississippi was conducted in 2000. The breast-feeding initiation rate in this population was 38%. Women who were older, white, non-Hispanic, college-educated, married, not certified for the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and not working full-time were more likely to breast-feed than formula-feed at hospital discharge. Attitudes regarding benefits and barriers to breast-feeding, as well as health care system and social support, were associated with breast-feeding initiation at the multivariate level. Adding the health care system support variables to the regression model, and specifically support from lactation specialists and hospital nurses, explained the association between breast-feeding initiation and women's perceived control over the time and social constraints barriers to breast-feeding. The findings support the need for health care system interventions, family interventions, and public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding in low-income women.
de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C
Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women.
Corwin, Elizabeth J; Guo, Ying; Pajer, Kathleen; Lowe, Nancy; McCarthy, Donna; Schmiege, Sarah; Weber, Mary; Pace, Thaddeus; Stafford, Brian
Chronic prenatal stress contributes to poor birth outcomes for women and infants. Importantly, poor birth outcomes are most common among minority and low income women. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that chronic stress related to minority or low income status is associated with glucocorticoid resistance as indicated by disruption in the cytokine-glucocorticoid feedback circuit. Home visits were conducted during which 3rd trimester pregnant women completed stress and depression surveys and provided blood for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Saliva was collected 5 times the preceding day for diurnal cortisol levels. For statistical analyses, women were grouped 3 ways, by race, income, and the presence or absence of either of those risk factors; this last group was labeled high or low general risk. Immune regulation was evaluated by evidence of a functioning negative feedback relationship between cytokines and cortisol. Of 96 participants, 18 were minority, 22 of low income, and 29 either minority or low income (high general risk). Pearson partial correlation identified a significant negative relationship between cortisol area under the curve (AUC) and pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios in the low general risk women (i.e., Caucasian, higher income) including IFNγ/IL10 (r=-0.73, p<0.0001), IL6/IL10 (r=-0.38, p=0.01), IL1β/IL10 (r=-0.44, p=0.004) and TNFα/IL10 (r=-0.41; p=0.005); no such correlations existed in the high general risk women (i.e., minority, low income) for (IFNγ/IL10: r=-0.25, p=0.43; IL6/IL10: r=0.12, p=0.70; IL1 β/IL10: r=0.05, p=0.87; TNFα/IL10: r=0.10; p=0.75), suggestive of glucocorticoid resistance. Cortisol levels throughout the day also were higher in minority and high general risk groups (p<0.05). Without cytokine glucocorticoid feedback, a pregnant woman's ability to regulate inflammation is limited, potentially contributing to adverse maternal and infant outcomes.
Maziak, Wasim; Asfar, Taghrid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; Kilzieh, Nael
Interest in mental morbidity as an important component of health is increasing worldwide. Women generally suffer more than men from common mental disorders, and discrimination against women adds to their mental sufferings. Studies looking into the socio-demographic correlates of women's mental morbidity are lacking in most Arab countries. In this study we wanted to determine the spread and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria. A sample of 412 women was recruited from 8 randomly selected primary care centers in Aleppo. Response rate was 97.2%, mean age of participants 28 + 8.4 years, where married women constituted 87.9%. A special questionnaire was prepared for the study purpose, utilizing the SRQ-20 non-psychotic items and questions about background information considered relevant to the mental health of women in the studied population. Interviews were conducted in an anonymous one-to-one fashion. The prevalence of psychiatric distress in our sample was 55.6%. Predictors of women's mental health in the logistic regression analysis were; physical abuse, women's education, polygamy, residence, age and age of marriage. Among these predictors, women's illiteracy, polygamy and physical abuse were the strongest determinants of mental distress leading to the worse outcomes. Our data show that mental distress is common in the studied population and that it is strongly associated with few, possibly modifiable, factors.
Xavier, Rozania Bicego; Jannotti, Claudia Bonan; da Silva, Katia Silveira; Martins, Aline de Carvalho
Faced with the challenge of tackling maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, the discussion of reproductive risk and its association with health vulnerability situations is relevant to public health. The research carried out at Instituto Fernandes Figueira/Fiocruz sought to describe the reproductive risk profile of women admitted to prenatal care between 2006 and 2008 and investigating its relation to family income and health vulnerability situations. This is a cross-sectional study which used the prenatal care database as its source. The economic profile of the group under scrutiny is a low income group. An association between low income and fetal malformations, pregnancy before 15 years of age, and HIV was detected. A higher family income was associated with the mother's age over 35 years, abnormal nuchal translucency, gynecopathies, and habitual abortion. The findings may reflect vulnerability situations of low income women, such as unfavorable health conditions and limited access to and use of health services. It is necessary to acquire in-depth knowledge of the reproductive risk profile in Brazil and its distribution according to socio-demographic characteristics, seeking to enhance health care practices provided.
Hill, Terrence D; Nielsen, Amie L; Angel, Ronald J
Using data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project (1999), a probability sample of 2,280 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we examine the effects of relationship violence before age 18 and in the past year on frequency of adult intoxication. Results obtained from a series of ordered logistic regression models suggest that sexual coercion before age 18 and minor and severe physical assault in the past year are independently associated with greater frequency of intoxication, net of a range of sociodemographic controls. The study's limitations are noted.
Schmeiser, Maximilian D
The rising rate of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now one of the most serious public health challenges facing the US. However, the underlying causes for this increase are unclear. This paper examines the effect of family income changes on body mass index (BMI) and obesity using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. It does so by using exogenous variation in family income in a sample of low-income women and men. This exogenous variation is obtained from the correlation of their family income with the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program benefits. Income is found to significantly raise the BMI and probability of being obese for women with EITC-eligible earnings, and have no appreciable effect for men with EITC-eligible earnings. The results imply that the increase in real family income from 1990 to 2002 explains between 10 and 21% of the increase in sample women's BMI and between 23 and 29% of their increased obesity prevalence.
Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P
Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit–stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by “The Montreal Cognitive Assessment” questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality. PMID:27330282
Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Javier; Clifton, Marisa M; Goldman, Howard B
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common disease in elderly patients. The most important symptom is vaginal bulge (bulge sensation or the sensation of something coming down through the vaginal introitus). This symptom is not different than in the general population. Diagnosis can be confirmed using just vaginal examinations to identify the presence of protrusion beyond the hymen, and is not different than in the general population. Different treatment options are available, including observation, nonsurgical, and surgical techniques. Pessaries and colpocleisis are the treatment options used more often in elderly patients than in the general population.
Anderson, Page L.; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Price, Ann Webb; Bender, Marnette A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Examines the association between the experience of multiple forms of childhood abuse and suicidal behavior among low-income, African American women. Women who reported abuse did not complete high school, or who were unemployed were more likely to attempt suicide. Suggests clinicians working with African American women who are victims of abuse need…
Dunivan, Gena C; Komesu, Yuko M; Cichowski, Sara B; Lowery, Christine; Anger, Jennifer T; Rogers, Rebecca G
Objectives To evaluate urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge among elder Southwestern American Indian women and to assess barriers to care for pelvic floor disorders through Community Engaged Research. Methods Our group was invited to provide an educational talk on urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse at an annual meeting of American Indian Elders. Female attendees ≥55 years anonymously completed demographic information and two validated questionnaires; the Prolapse and Incontinence Knowledge Questionnaire (PIKQ) and Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire (BICS-Q). Questionnaire results were compared to historical controls from the original PIKQ and BICS-Q validation study. Results 144 women completed questionnaires. The mean age was 77.7 ± 9.1 years. The mean PIKQ UI score was 6.6 ± 3.0 (similar to historic gynecology controls 6.8 ± 3.3, p=0.49) and the mean PIKQ POP score was 5.4 ± 2.9 (better than historic gynecology controls 3.6 ± 3.2, p<0.01). Barriers to care seeking reported by the elder women were highest on the BICS-Q subscales of “Cost” and “Inconvenience”. Conclusions Urinary incontinence knowledge is similar to historic gynecology controls and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge is higher than historic gynecology controls among elder Southwestern American Indian women. American Indian elder women report high levels of barriers to care. The greatest barriers to care seeking for this population were related to cost and inconvenience, reflecting the importance of assessing socioeconomic status when investigating barriers to care. Addressing these barriers may enhance care seeking Southwestern American Indian women. PMID:25185612
Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen
Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust.
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust. PMID:21479146
Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn
Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…
Gee, Margaret I.; And Others
This study investigated relationships between dietary intake and taste perception for elderly women living independently in the community. It is unclear whether they have diminished taste perception, but it has been established that they are at high risk for nutrient deficiencies that may indirectly affect the taste process. (JOW)
Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud
Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412
Bailey, L B; Wagner, P A; Christakis, G J; Araujo, P E; Appledorf, H; Davis, C G; Dorsey, E; Dinning, J S
Vitamin B12 status was evaluated in 111 noninstitutional elderly persons (age range, 60-87 years) living in an urban poverty area. The sample was predominantly black (90 subjects); the rest were Spanish Americans. Serum vitamin B12 levels were all normal (greater than 200 pg/ml) and ranged from 226 to 1200 pg/ml (mean +/- SD = 700 +/- 191 pg/ml). The findings indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency was not a problem in this elderly population.
Moreira, Bruno S.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Kirkwood, Renata N.
BACKGROUND: Falling is a common but devastating and costly problem of aging. There is no consensus in the literature on whether the spatial and temporal gait parameters could identify elderly people at risk of recurrent falls. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict recurrent falls in elderly women. METHOD: One hundred and forty-eight elderly women (65-85 years) participated in this study. Seven spatiotemporal gait parameters were collected with the GAITRite(r) system. Falls were recorded prospectively during 12 months through biweekly phone contacts. Elderly women who reported two or more falls throughout the follow-up period were considered as recurrent fallers. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis followed by biplot graph interpretation were applied to the gait parameters. RESULTS: After 12 months, 23 elderly women fell twice or more and comprised the recurrent fallers group and 110 with one or no falls comprised the non-recurrent fallers group. PCA resulted in three components that explained 88.3% of data variance. Discriminant analysis showed that none of the components could significantly discriminate the groups. However, visual inspection of the biplot showed a trend towards group separation in relation to gait velocity and stance time. PC1 represented gait rhythm and showed that recurrent fallers tend to walk with lower velocity and cadence and increased stance time in relation to non-recurrent fallers. CONCLUSIONS: The analyzed spatiotemporal gait parameters failed to predict recurrent falls in this sample. The PCA-biplot technique highlighted important trends or red flags that should be considered when evaluating recurrent falls in elderly females. PMID:25714603
Oncken, Cheryl A.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Belizán, José M.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Berghella, Vincenzo; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Lando, Harry A.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Bloch, Michele H.
Although the prevalence of tobacco use is decreasing in many high-income countries, it is increasing in many low-and middle-income countries. The health and economic burden of increasing tobacco use and dependence is predictable and will have devastating effects in countries with limited resources, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women. We sought to review effective tobacco prevention and intervention strategies for decreasing tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure before and during pregnancy in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. We reviewed several types of interventions, including population-level efforts (increasing tobacco prices, implementing tobacco control policies), community interventions, clinical interventions, and pharmacological treatments. A second purpose of this report is to present findings of an international expert working group that was convened to review the evidence and to establish research priorities in the following areas: 1) preventing the uptake and reducing tobacco use among girls and women of reproductive age and 2) reducing tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women. The working group considered the evidence on existing interventions in terms of burden of disease, intervention impact, intervention costs, feasibility of integration into existing services, uniqueness of the contribution, and overall feasibility. Finally, we present the working group’s recommendations for intervention research priorities. PMID:20235895
Moran, John R.; Simon, Kosali Ilayperuma
We use exogenous variation in Social Security payments created by the Social Security benefits notch to estimate how retirees' use of prescription medications responds to changes in their incomes. Using data from the 1993 Wave of the AHEAD, we obtain instrumental variables estimates of the income elasticity of prescription drug use that are…
León-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmerón, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L.; Thrasher, James F.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo
Background HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico’s early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women’s perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women’s understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender. Results Women’s confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men’s sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes’ desire for sex as natural but understood men’s negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women’s HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission. Conclusions These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women’s negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could
Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L
Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women.
Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J.; Rose, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis W.
Objective To examine and describe the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) in predominantly low-income women. Design Mixed method. Setting Three urban obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) clinics serving predominantly low-income women. Participants A convenience sample of 166 women participated in the quantitative component and a purposeful sub-sample of 12 women participated in the qualitative component; all women were between 24–28 weeks gestation at the time of data collection. Methods Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of depressive symptoms and social support on MFA. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted among a sub-sample of women to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on MFA. Results Fifty-nine percent (n=98) of participants had scores that were clinically significant for depressive symptoms. In the final model of social support and depressive symptoms regressed on MFA, social support (b = 0.23, 95% CI [0.09, .37], p = .002) and depressive symptoms (b = −1.02, 95% CI [−1.32, −.73], p < 0.001) were significant predictors. This multivariate linear regression model with two variables accounted for 65.2% of the total variance in overall MFA. Qualitative participants discussed the importance of social support in contributing to their mood state and MFA. Conclusions Findings from this study highlight the importance of assessing for depressive symptoms during pregnancy given its influence on MFA. By understanding how important it was for these women to have a supportive person to experience their pregnancies with, nurses can improve the pregnancy experience for vulnerable populations. PMID:22788921
Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Hau; Fisher, Jane
Background Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner (IPV) is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). The aim was to describe the attitudes of women and men towards perpetration of physical violence to women by an intimate partner, in a large group of low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We used data from Round Four of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Attitudes towards IPV against women were assessed by a study-specific scale asking if ‘wife beating’ is justified in any of five circumstances. Overall, data from 39 countries (all had data from women and 13 countries also had data from men) were included in the analyses. The proportions of women who held attitudes that ‘wife-beating’ was justified in any of the five circumstances varied widely among countries from 2.0% (95% CI 1.7;2.3) in Argentina to 90.2% (95% CI 88.9;91.5) in Afghanistan. Similarly, among men it varied from 5.0% (95% CI 4.0;6.0) in Belarus to 74.5% (95% CI 72.5;76.4) in the Central African Republic. The belief that ‘wife-beating’ is acceptable was most common in Africa and South Asia, and least common in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. In general this belief was more common among people in disadvantaged circumstances, including being a member of a family in the lowest household wealth quintile, living in a rural area and having limited formal education. Young adults were more likely to accept physical abuse by a man of his intimate partner than those who were older, but people who had never partnered were less likely to have these attitudes. Conclusions Violence against women is an international priority and requires a multicomponent response. These data provide evidence that strategies should include major public education programs to change attitudes about the acceptability of IPV against women, and that these should be addressed to women and girls as well as to boys and men. PMID:27893861
Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian
This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women.
Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan
Economic globalization will give many women in developing countries access to steady and relatively remunerative employment for the first time, potentially shifting bargaining power within their households and changing the choices that are made for their children. This paper exploits a unique setting — a group of tea plantations in South India where women are employed in permanent wage labor and where incomes do not vary by caste — to anticipate the impact of globalization on mobility across social groups in the future. The main result of the paper is that a relative increase in female income weakens the family's ties to the ancestral community and the traditional economy, but these mobility enhancing effects are obtained for certain historically disadvantaged castes alone. Although the paper provides a context-specific explanation for why the women from these castes emerge as agents of change, the first general implication of the analysis is that the incentive and the ability of women to use their earnings to influence household decisions depends importantly on their social background. The second implication is that historically disadvantaged groups may, in fact, be especially responsive to new opportunities precisely because they have fewer ties to the traditional economy to hold them back. PMID:24319310
Lara, Diana; Holt, Kelsey; Peña, Melanie; Grossman, Daniel
Low-income women and women of color are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy. Lack of knowledge of abortion laws and services is one of several factors likely to hinder access to services, though little research has documented knowledge in this population. Survey with convenience sample of 1,262 women attending primary care or full-scope Ob/Gyn clinics serving low-income populations in three large cities and multivariable analyses with four knowledge outcomes. Among all participants, 53% were first-generation immigrants, 25% identified the correct gestational age limit, 41% identified state parental consent laws, 67% knew partner consent is not required, and 55% knew where to obtain abortion services. In multivariable analysis, first-generation immigrants and primarily Spanish speakers were significantly less likely than higher-generation or primarily English speakers to display correct knowledge. Design and evaluation of strategies to improve knowledge about abortion, particularly among migrant women and non-primary English speakers, is needed.
Ikezoe, Tome; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Shima, Hiroto; Kishibuchi, Kaoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki
This study investigated the relationship between daytime physical activity patterns and physical fitness in elderly women. The subjects comprised 19 elderly women who resided in a nursing home. Time spent lying, sitting, standing and walking and the number of steps taken during the daytime from 10:00 to 16:00 were measured to determine physical activity patterns. Physical fitness measures included muscle strength, balance, flexibility and physical performance. The elderly women spent 18.3% of their daytime walking, 7.31% in a standing position, 56.9% sitting and 17.4% lying down. Our results showed that the time spent in walking or standing positions was significantly associated with balance and physical performance such as walking speed, while the time spent in a sitting position was inversely associated with muscle strength, balance and physical performance. The results of this study suggest that the time the elderly spend on weight-bearing activities and in sedentary behavior are associated with physical fitness.
Roh, Su Yeon
This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=-6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women.
Roh, Su Yeon
This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531
Bloom, Tina; Glass, Nancy; Ann Curry, Mary; Hernandez, Rebecca; Houck, Gayle
INTRODUCTION Maternal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse maternal-child outcomes. Vulnerable women’s experiences with stressors during pregnancy and their desires and priorities for appropriate and useful stress reduction interventions for pregnant women are not well-understood. METHODS Qualitative interviews with low-income, urban women explored their stress exposures and reactions during pregnancy, ways that stressors overlapped and interacted, and their priorities for stress reduction. Quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, My Exposure to Violence Instrument Danger Assessment, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale, Revised, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian) supplemented qualitative descriptions of women’s stress exposures and reactions. Analyses explored relationships between stressors and women’s priorities for stress intervention. Lay advisors from the sample population reviewed qualitative interview guides for appropriateness, completeness, and language prior to interviews, and reviewed study findings for validity. Study findings were returned to the community in newsletter form. RESULTS Twenty-four low-income urban women participated in interviews. Women in the sample reported high stress, lifetime violence exposure, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The most common stressors reported were financial strain, violence exposure, and feelings of intense isolation and loneliness. Few participants reported having discussed psychosocial stressors with prenatal care providers. Participants in this study described connections with other women as desirable to relieve their stress and provided input on ways healthcare providers could facilitate such connections. DISCUSSION Clinical and research implications of findings are discussed, including approaches that health care providers may find useful to facilitate connections among vulnerable pregnant women. PMID:23278984
Entwistle, Francesca; Kendall, Sally; Mead, Marianne
Breastfeeding is a key determinant in promoting public health and reducing health inequality. Low-income women have a significantly lower level of breastfeeding. Midwives in the UK have been encouraged to implement the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, but to date, there has been no evaluation of the impact of the training initiative on the breastfeeding behaviours of low-income women. As part of a wider study, this qualitative component was designed to answer the question - what are the views and experiences of low-income women (defined by Jarman scores) in relation to their breastfeeding support received in the post-natal period? A sample of seven women was interviewed. The in-depth interviews were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach based on the self-efficacy theory. The four themes that emerged from the data were the following: breastfeeding related to the woman's self-confidence, the social environment in which the woman lived, knowledge of breastfeeding and the influence of maternity services on breastfeeding outcomes. These themes were interpreted in relation to the self-efficacy theory. The findings suggest that the components that inform self-efficacy are consistent with the themes from the data, suggesting that midwives and other health professionals should take the psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding support into account. As this important feature of breastfeeding support is not explicitly part of the current Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, we suggest that further research and debate could inform expansion of these minimum standards to include the psychosocial aspects.
Dennis, Amanda; Manski, Ruth; Blanchard, Kelly
Medicaid is designed to ensure low-income populations can afford health care. However, not all health services are covered by the program. Most state Medicaid programs restrict abortion coverage, though a small number of state programs offer such coverage. Little is known about how low-income women are affected by differing Medicaid coverage policies regarding abortion. We conducted in depth interviews with 98 low-income women who had abortions. We found that women's impressions about abortion costs and the availability of Medicaid coverage are generally accurate and that women rely predominantly on abortion facilities for confirmatory cost and coverage information. Additionally, when abortion is out of financial reach, women and the people in their lives experience numerous emotional and financial harms. Policies that aim to ensure abortion is affordable largely prevent these harms, though the availability of Medicaid coverage does not always guarantee access to affordable care. Findings can help advance evidence-based policies
Green-LaPierre, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Glanville, N. Theresa; Norris, Deborah; Hunter, Heather C.; Watt, Cynthia G.
Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an urban area of NS. Using a phenomenological inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore lone senior women's experiences accessing food with limited financial resources. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, we explored their perceived ability to access a nutritionally adequate and personally acceptable diet, and the barriers and enablers to do so; as well in light of our previous quantitative research, we explored their perceptions related to adequacy of income, essential expenses, and their strategies to manage personal finances. Seven key themes emerged: world view, income adequacy, transportation, health/health problems, community program use, availability of family and friends, and personal food management strategies. World view exerted the largest influence on seniors' personal perception of food security status. The implications of the findings and policy recommendations to reduce the nutritional health inequities among this vulnerable subset of the senior population are considered. PMID:22997580
Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou
Background Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Methods Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. Results The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6–79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6–8 hours per day, 11.5% slept five hours or less, and 8.7% slept nine hours or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around seven hours/day (6.5–7.4 hours/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. Conclusions In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of
Borges, Lucio Santos; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Schettino, Ludmila; DA Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Pereira, Rafael
The analysis of explosive force, through rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI), from handgrip strength data seems to be useful and promising information to study the aging of musculoskeletal system and health status. We aimed to test the hypothesis that, in elderly women, the handgrip explosive force could be better associated to the functional mobility than maximum handgrip strength. Handgrip strength and the performance of Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) were measured from sixty-five community-dwelling healthy elderly women. The average slope of the moment-time curve (Δ moment/Δ time) over the time interval of 0-200 ms relative to the onset of contraction was calculated to provide the RFD and CI. The highest strength achieved during the isometric contraction was used as maximum handgrip strength. Pearson correlations were used to assess the strength of the relationship between the handgrip strength parameters (Maximum strength and explosive force from 0-200 ms) and TUG test performance from older women. The correlation analysis showed that the TUG test performance was inversely correlated to the handgrip strength parameters, with better relationship with explosive force parameters. The handgrip explosive force seems to be a promising predictor of functional mobility of elderly women, since it showed a better relationship with functional mobility than maximum handgrip strength.
He, Lai-Chang; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Gong, Jing-Shan; Griffith, James F; Zeng, Xian-Jun; Kwok, Anthony WL; Leung, Jason CS; Kwok, Timothy; Ahuja, Anil T; Leung, Ping Chung
Objective A screening survey for osteoporotic fractures in men and women in Hong Kong represents the first large-scale prospective population-based study on bone health in elderly (≥65 years) Chinese men and women. This study aims to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of lumbar spondylolisthesis in these subjects. Methods The lateral lumbar radiographs of 1,994 male and 1,996 female patients were analysed using the Meyerding classification. Results Amongst the men, 380 (19.1 %) had at least one spondylolisthesis and 43 (11.3 %) had slips at two or more levels; 283 had anterolisthesis, 85 had retrolisthesis, whereas 12 subjects had both anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis. Amongst the women, 499 (25.0 %) had at least one spondylolisthesis and 69 (13.8 %) had slips at two or more levels; 459 had anterolisthesis, 34 had retrolisthesis, whereas 6 subjects had both anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis. Advanced age, short height, higher body mass index (BMI), higher bone mineral density (BMD) and degenerative arthritis are associated with spondylolisthesis. Lower Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score was associated with spondylolisthesis in men; higher body weight, angina and lower grip strength were associated with spondylolisthesis in women. Conclusion The male/female ratio of lumbar spondylolisthesis prevalence was 1:1.3 in elderly Chinese. Men are more likely to have retrolisthesis. PMID:24126641
Lee, Bomjin; Park, Soyun; Han, Dongwook
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 83 healthy elderly women. The study's methods and purpose were explained and these women agreed to participate. The maximal-effort expiratory capacity was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). We measured forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%. [Results] Regarding forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, it was found that height and age were influential factors. Regarding forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity %, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%, it was found that only age was an influential factor. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the most influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women were age, and the second influential factor was height. We noticed that weight was the least influential factor among them.
Lee, Bomjin; Park, Soyun; Han, Dongwook
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 83 healthy elderly women. The study’s methods and purpose were explained and these women agreed to participate. The maximal-effort expiratory capacity was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). We measured forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%. [Results] Regarding forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, it was found that height and age were influential factors. Regarding forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity %, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%, it was found that only age was an influential factor. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the most influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women were age, and the second influential factor was height. We noticed that weight was the least influential factor among them. PMID:27821963
Kramer, Betty J.; Auer, Casey
Purpose: This study explored the challenges in providing end-of-life care to low-income elders with multiple comorbid chronic conditions in a fully "integrated" managed care program, and it highlighted essential recommendations. Design and Methods: A case-study design was used that involved an extensive analysis of qualitative data from five focus…
Bailey, L B; Wagner, P A; Christakis, G J; Araujo, P E; Appledorf, H; Davis, C G; Masteryanni, J; Dinning, J S
The folacin and iron status and hemotological parameters of 193 persons 60 years of age and older from urban low-income households were evaluated. Of the serum folacin values 30% were between 3 and 6 ng/ml and 8% were below 3 ng/ml. Of these subjects 60% could be classified as "high risk" (less than 140 ng/ml) and 11% as "medium risk" (140 to 160 ng/ml) based on red blood cell folacin concentrations. Serum iron was normal (greater than 50 micrograms/dl) for all subjects as was transferrin saturation (greater than 15%). Hematological indices showed a 14% incidence of anemia (hemaglobin less than 12 g/dl), and 32% incidence of leukopenia (leukocytes less than 4.8 X 10(3)). These findings demonstrate widespread folacin deficiency and no evidence of iron deficiency in these elderly people.
Wu, Fuchen; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenting; Yang, Xue
Background Paying attention to and improving the mental health of the informal caregivers of disabled elders has become a global public health priority. This study focused on low-income female Uyghur and Kazakh informal caregivers of disabled elders residing in China’s far west. It investigated the prevalence of and the major related factors of depressive emotion. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from September 2013 to January 2014 in Shawan Prefectures, Tuokexun Prefectures, Bole Prefecture and Urumchi city. Shawan Prefecture has the highest proportion of Kazakhs, whereas Tuokexun Prefectures, Bole Prefecture and Urumchi city have the highest proportion of Uyghurs in Muslim ethnic Uygur and Kazakh communities. Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is located in remote western China; this area is approximately 3,105 km (1,929 miles) away from Beijing. A total of 444 female Uyghur and Kazakh informal caregivers of disabled elders participated in this study. The self-rating depression scale, the Zarit burden interview, and the SF-36 questionnaire were used to evaluate the state of caregiver depression, caregiver burden, and quality of life (QOL), respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression analyses, correlation with Spearman’s rho and independent-sample t-tests; a P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Up to 38.5% (n = 217) of informal caregivers reported having depression, whereas 61.5% (n = 273) of them reported a lack of depression. Age of disabled elders more than 60 years old, total hours spent on caring daily≥8h, duration of caring≥5 years, negative self-evaluation of health condition, having caregiver burden, elders’ medium degree of disability and elders’ heavy degree of disability had a higher risk of caregiver depression. By contrast, daughter/daughter-in-law of disabled elders; unemployed carers, family’s per capita income >US$235.48(1500 yuan), high social
Desai, Sheila; Crowell, Marjorie; Sedgh, Gilda; Singh, Susheela
Background In 2010–2014, approximately 86% of abortions took place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although abortion incidence varies minimally across geographical regions, it varies widely by subregion and within countries by subgroups of women. Differential abortion levels stem from variation in the level of unintended pregnancies and in the likelihood that women with unintended pregnancies obtain abortions. Objectives To examine the characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in LMICs. Methods We use data from official statistics, population-based surveys, and abortion patient surveys to examine variation in the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age at abortion, marital status, parity, wealth, education, and residence. We analyze data from five countries in Africa, 13 in Asia, eight in Europe, and two in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Results Women across all sociodemographic subgroups obtain abortions. In most countries, women aged 20–29 obtained the highest proportion of abortions, and while adolescents obtained a substantial fraction of abortions, they do not make up a disproportionate share. Region-specific patterns were observed in the distribution of abortions by parity. In many countries, a higher fraction of abortions occurred among women of high socioeconomic status, as measured by wealth status, educational attainment, and urban residence. Due to limited data on marital status, it is unknown whether married or unmarried women make up a larger share of abortions. Conclusions These findings help to identify subgroups of women with disproportionate levels of abortion, and can inform policies and programs to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies; and in LMICs that have restrictive abortion laws, these findings can also inform policies to minimize the consequences of unsafe abortion and motivate liberalization of abortion laws. Program planners, policymakers, and advocates can use this
Naravage, Wanapa; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch C; Van der Putten, Marc
Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for young women. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's decision making when choosing the options available to them. The study was conducted in five shelters and low-income communities in the Bangkok area. Data were collected for five months, November 2003 to March 2004. Young women, age 13-24, who experienced an unplanned pregnancy at least once, or currently experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, were recruited into the study. One hundred and twenty volunteer cases were recruited. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the factors that affecting the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies. There were 6 potential influencing variables, in three broad categories of factors that influenced their choices. In this study, the influencing factors from the personal history variables were, age of the most recent unplanned pregnancy. The individual psychosocial variables were: attitude towards unplanned pregnancy, attitude towards contraception, and making a decision without consultation. The relationship variables were: relationship with partner, and consulting partner when having a problem. The results from discriminant analysis yielded 68.3% predictive accuracy. This result was satisfactory compared with a 33% chance of accuracy (classified as chance alone would yield a 33% accuracy). Knowing the influencing factors for the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies allows us to understand the women's decisions and their utilization of services with some degree of confidence. The program managers or implementers should do as much as possible to support the decision making process in these young women in order to provide
Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan; Smith, Barbara; Eghtedary, Kobra
This study investigated the mediating roles of sleep and depression on the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women by trimesters. Participants (N = 213) completed a self-administered survey including stress (exogenous variable), depression, sleep (mediators), fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake (endogenous variables). Path analysis was performed to compare mediation effects among pregnant women in each trimester. Consistently across three trimesters, stress was related to depression but not sleep duration, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency or fat intake. Sleep duration was not associated with depression. Depending on trimester, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, and sleep latency were related to depression; night time sleep disturbance and depression affected fat intake; stress influenced fruit and vegetable intake. Sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency and depression did not mediate the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake in the second and third trimesters. However, depression mediated the relationship between stress and fat intake in the first trimester. Stress management interventions may help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women decrease depressive symptoms and therefore contribute to overall nutritional health.
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Yen, Wong Chee; Yaw, Yong Heng; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between household food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among reproductive-aged women (n=625) in low income communities. The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument was utilized to assess food insecurity. Anthropometry, diet diversity, blood pressure and fasting venous blood for lipid and glucose profile were also obtained. MetS was defined as having at least 3 risk factors and is in accordance with the Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of food insecurity and MetS was 78.4% (household food insecure, 26.7%; individual food insecure, 25.3%; child hunger, 26.4%) and 25.6%, respectively. While more food secure than food insecure women had elevated glucose (food secure, 54.8% vs food insecure, 37.3-46.1%), total cholesterol (food secure, 54.1% vs food insecure, 32.1-40.7%) and LDL-cholesterol (food secure, 63.7% vs food insecure, 40.6-48.7%), the percentage of women with overweight/ obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low HDL-cholesterol and MetS did not vary significantly by food insecurity status. However, after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, women in food insecure households were less likely to have MetS (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05), abdominal obesity (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.01), elevated glucose (household food insecure), total cholesterol (child hunger) (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (household food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05) compared to food secure women. Efforts to improve food insecurity of low income households undergoing nutrition transition should address availability and accessibility to healthy food choices and nutrition education that could reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases.
Vilaça, Karla Helena Coelho; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida Kilza da Costa; de Paula, Francisco José Albuquerque; Moriguti, Julio Cesar
Fat gain is one of the major factors aggravating physical disability in the elderly population, which presents an increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean mass compared to the young population. For this reason it is important to assess body composition and the effects of these alterations in obese elderly women. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition, physical performance and muscle quality in active elderly women. Cross-sectional study included 75 elderly women (29 eutrophic and 46 obese) 65-80 years old. Body composition was evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the physical performance was determined by 6-minute walk test (6MWT), handgrip strength (HS) and knee extension strength (KES). Muscle quality was calculated as the ratio between muscle strength and lean mass. Fat free mass, lean mass, fat mass and percent body fat were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the obese group showed a poorer performance than the eutrophic group in the 6MWT (432.31±66.13 m and 472.07±74.03 m, respectively, p=0.01). HS and KES did not differ between groups, however, regarding muscle quality, the obese group exhibited a impaired in comparison to the eutrophic group in the upper (11.45±2.57 kg and 13.31±2.03 kg, respectively, p<0.01) and lower limb (2.91±1.16 kg and 3.44±0.97 kg, respectively, p=0.05). The increase in muscle mass detected in the obese elderly was not sufficient to maintain adequate muscle quality and physical function, showing a negative influence of the excess of body fat.
Huber, Evelyn; Spirig, Rebecca
Chronic musculoskeletal pain in the elderly is very common. The aim of this qualitative study was to gain insight in elderly people's pain medication beliefs. Problem-focused interviews with eight women were conducted. The results show them to be experts in managing pain, which task turns out to be too complex to be described in terms of pain medication beliefs. Using the method of qualitative content analyses five main categories including subcategories were inductively generated and presented in a structured way. The category "to be carried by one's life and illness trajectory" evolved as a basic category in the pain management. It includes the subcategories "to gain experiences from one's life and illness", "to have knowledge of the causes of pain and of their treatment", "to learn how to manage pain in everyday life" as well as "to rely on spiritual well-being". Most important for the women is their every day reality "to live with pain and its physical, psychological, practical and social effects". This leads to "weigh, to combine and to evaluate treatments for pain relief" which includes the subcategories "to be disciplined in carrying out non-pharmacological measures for pain relief", "to use pain medication sparingly but purposefully" and "to cooperate as a partner with health professionals". Some of the participants are challenged by "reaching their limits", which means "to reach the limits of endurable pain", "to experience the limits of failed treatment effects" as well as "to reach the limits of endurable treatment side effects". "To sustain one's quality of life in spite of pain" seems to be the aim of the elderly women's endeavour. The results of this study demand collaborative care in a partnership with elderly people with pain acknowledging their expertise. The results also ask for transdisciplinary efforts to support elderly persons with pain and for the development as well as the evaluation of self-management education programs.
Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet
Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…
Low-income Hispanic women are at a greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26–44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected us...
Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue
Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…
West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole
Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…
Barusch, Amanda Smith
Examines ways in which low-income older women define themselves in stigmatizing terms and explores strategies they use to preserve a positive sense of self. Results, based on 62 women interviewed, indicate that they defined themselves as "fortunate" and/or "blessed." Such an outlook may be a significant component of successful…
Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine
The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention.
Riley, Tracy A; Lewis, Brenda M; Lewis, Mary Pat; Fava, Joseph L
This cross-sectional multimethod study sought to examine the process of engaging in healthy behaviors, particularly related to stress management, in HIV-infected women with low incomes. Recruited from northeast Ohio, 42 women completed standardized research measures to assess healthy behaviors (via the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II) and the processes of change espoused by the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change; 8 of those women participated in individual semistructured interviews conducted at a later point in time to gain additional insight into the phenomenon. Participants were 25 to 60 years of age (mean 38.44 +/- 8.08) and most of the frequently reported healthy behaviors related to spiritual growth and interpersonal relations. Self-reevaluation was the process of change most frequently reported. Qualitative analysis revealed several processes women use to enhance the adoption and maintenance of healthy behaviors; some themes were adequately reflected by the Transtheoretical Model's Processes of Change, whereas a few emerged as processes not usually associated with the Transtheoretical Model. This study yielded useful preliminary information to further explore the adoption and maintenance of health-promoting behavior for HIV-infected women.
Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65 years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women. PMID:26157257
Madhok, Bindu; Raj, Selva J
After a brief discussion of Hindu views on abortion as reflected in classical Hindu philosophical and religious texts, this article examines, from an interdisciplinary perspective, current social attitudes towards abortion among lower-income Hindu women in Calcutta and attempts to identify the reasons for the striking disparity between traditional and modern Hindu views. Does Hindu dharma have the regulatory power it wielded in the past? What accounts for the changing face of mores in urban centers like Calcutta? These and related issues are the focus of this essay.
Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A
Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.
Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.
Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931
Hopkins, D R; Murrah, B; Hoeger, W W; Rhodes, R C
To determine the effect of low-impact aerobic dance on sedentary elderly women (N = 53), functional fitness was measured by items from the proposed American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD) fitness test for older adults. After 12-weeks of low-impact aerobic dance, the group improved significantly on all functional fitness components except motor control/coordination, including cardiorespiratory endurance, strength/endurance, body agility, flexibility, body fat, and balance.
Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C
Introduction Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8–12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. Results The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8%) and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%). Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%). After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%–80%) in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusion Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health. PMID:25342896
Min, Seok-Ki; Lim, Seung-Taek; Kim, Chang-Sun
[Purpose] Association of ACTN3 polymorphism with bone mineral density and the physical fitness of elderly women is still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the association between ACTN3 genotype and bone mineral density, and the physical fitness of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight elderly women (67.38 ± 3.68 years) were recruited at a Seongbuk-Gu (Seoul, Korea) Medical Service Public Health Center. Measurements of physical fitness included muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, balance and VO2max. Bone mineral density (BMD), upper limb muscle mass, lower limb muscle mass, percent body fat and body fat mass for the entire body were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and an analyzer. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. [Results] ACTN3 gene distribution of subjects were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p=0.694). The relative bone mineral density trunk, pelvis and spine differed significantly among the ACTN3 genotypes. There were no significant differences among bone mineral densities of the head, arms, legs, ribs and total, but the RR genotype tended to be higher than other genotypes. Physical fitness was not significantly different among the ACTN3 genotypes. [Conclusion] These results suggest that ACTN3 gene polymorphisms could be used as one of the genetic determinants of bone mass in elderly women, and in particular, they indicate that individuals with the RR genotype have higher BMD and bone mineral composition. PMID:27821924
Gomes, W F; Lacerda, A C R; Brito-Melo, G E A; Fonseca, S F; Rocha-Vieira, E; Leopoldino, A A O; Amorim, M R; Mendonça, V A
Osteoarthritis of the knee (kOA) is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and can lead to major physical and functional limitations. However, the specific effects of walking, particularly on the immune system, are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of walking (3×/week) on the leukocyte profile and quality of life (QL) of elderly women with kOA. Sixteen women (age: 67±4 years, body mass index: 28.07±4.16 kg/m2) participated in a walking program. The variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training with a progressively longer duration (30-55 min) and higher intensity (72-82% of HRmax determined using a graded incremental treadmill test). The QL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and blood samples were collected for analysis with a cell counter and the San Fac flow cytometer. Walking training resulted in a 47% enhancement of the self-reported QL (P<0.05) and a 21% increase in the VO2max (P<0.0001) in elderly women with kOA. Furthermore, there was a reduction in CD4+ cells (pre=46.59±7%, post=44.58±9%, P=0.0189) and a higher fluorescence intensity for CD18+CD4+ (pre=45.30±10, post=64.27±33, P=0.0256) and CD18+CD8+ (pre=64.2±27, post=85.02±35, P=0.0130). In conclusion, the walking program stimulated leukocyte production, which may be related to the immunomodulatory effect of exercise. Walking also led to improvements in the QL and physical performance in elderly women with kOA.
Gomes, W.F.; Lacerda, A.C.R.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.; Fonseca, S.F.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Leopoldino, A.A.O.; Amorim, M.R.; Mendonça, V.A.
Osteoarthritis of the knee (kOA) is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and can lead to major physical and functional limitations. However, the specific effects of walking, particularly on the immune system, are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of walking (3×/week) on the leukocyte profile and quality of life (QL) of elderly women with kOA. Sixteen women (age: 67±4 years, body mass index: 28.07±4.16 kg/m2) participated in a walking program. The variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training with a progressively longer duration (30–55 min) and higher intensity (72–82% of HRmax determined using a graded incremental treadmill test). The QL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and blood samples were collected for analysis with a cell counter and the San Fac flow cytometer. Walking training resulted in a 47% enhancement of the self-reported QL (P<0.05) and a 21% increase in the VO2max (P<0.0001) in elderly women with kOA. Furthermore, there was a reduction in CD4+ cells (pre=46.59±7%, post=44.58±9%, P=0.0189) and a higher fluorescence intensity for CD18+CD4+ (pre=45.30±10, post=64.27±33, P=0.0256) and CD18+CD8+ (pre=64.2±27, post=85.02±35, P=0.0130). In conclusion, the walking program stimulated leukocyte production, which may be related to the immunomodulatory effect of exercise. Walking also led to improvements in the QL and physical performance in elderly women with kOA. PMID:27828665
Krupnick, Janice L; Green, Bonnie L; Stockton, Patricia; Miranda, Jeanne; Krause, Elizabeth; Mete, Mihriye
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for low-income women with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to interpersonal trauma. Non-treatment-seeking predominantly minority women were recruited in family planning and gynecology clinics. Individuals with interpersonal trauma histories (e.g., assault, abuse, and molestation) who met criteria for current PTSD (N=48) were randomly assigned to treatment or a wait list. Assessments were conducted at baseline, treatment termination, and 4-month follow-up; data analysis used a mixed-effects regression approach with an intent-to-treat sample. The results showed that IPT was significantly more effective than the wait list in reducing PTSD and depression symptom severity. IPT participants also had significantly lower scores than waitlist individuals on four interpersonal functioning subscales: Interpersonal Sensitivity, Need for Social Approval, Lack of Sociability, and Interpersonal Ambivalence.
Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B; Kim, Seok Hun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects' level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.
Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B.; Kim, Seok Hun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects’ level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:25931757
had an adeguate oxygen supply to the tissues. The deficiency in red blood cell volume in our elderly subjects was consistent with an adaptive and... ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 BY C.R. VALERI, L.E. PIVACEK, H. SIEBENS, and M.D. ALTSCHULE NAVAL BLOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY BOSTON...TITLE (and Submit) RED BLOOD CELL VOLUME, PLASMA VOLUME AND TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IN HEALTHY ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 7. AUTHORf»J C
Berenson, Kathy R.; Paprocki, Christine; Fishman, Marget Thomas; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine
The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and therefore may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women’s sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001–2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention. PMID:26086275
Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Sharps, Phyllis W; Bullock, Linda C
Women experiencing perinatal intimate partner violence (IPV) may be at increased risk for depression. Baseline data was analyzed from 239 low-income pregnant women participating in an intervention study designed to reduce exposure to IPV. Depression risk was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and IPV factors were measured with the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised (CTS-2). Stepwise regression was conducted to identify predictors of risk for depression. Race (p = 0.028), psychological IPV (p = 0.035) and sexual IPV (p = 0.031) were strongly associated with risk for depression. Regression results indicated that women experiencing severe psychological IPV were more likely to develop depression (OR 3.16, 95 % CI 1.246, 8.013) than those experiencing severe physical or sexual IPV. Experiencing severe psychological IPV during pregnancy is strongly linked to risk for depression. Routine screening for psychological IPV may increase identification and treatment of women at high risk for depression during pregnancy.
DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Homeier, Diana C; Wilber, Kathleen H
Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, were recruited and trained to interview a sample of Latino adults aged 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse; financial exploitation; and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of elderly Latino adults had experienced some form of abuse or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% physical assault, 9% sexual abuse, and 16.7% financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with greater risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the United States was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elderly adults, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community.
Kavlak, Oya; Atan, Senay Unsal; Sirin, Ahsen; Sen, Emine; Guneri, Sezer Er; Dag, Hande Yagcan
This paper presents anxiety levels, health-promoting lifestyles and related factors among pregnant Turkish women with low income. A descriptive correlation and cross-sectional study was conducted at a state maternity hospital in Western Turkey. The paper reports on the data (n = 195) from the Spielberg State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The average HPLP score was low (mean 2.57, SD 0.42). The average STAI score was high (40.67 ± 9.48; 46.40 ± 8.09, respectively). A significant relation was detected between the trait anxiety, state anxiety, antenatal visit, perception of social support, living environment, family type and HPLP (P < 0.05). A moderately negative relation was detected between the mean STAI and HPLP scores. The findings indicate information and data should be provided for service planning and community care to support pregnant Turkish women with low income in communities.
Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.
Background The few studies on post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) adherence rates show inconsistent results. This study examined associations between sociodemographic variables not examined in prior studies and HSG adherence among low income women. Study Design Medical records of 286 women who underwent sterilization between August 31, 2005 and September 30, 2011 were reviewed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine variable associations with HSG adherence. Results The adherence rate for the first HSG was 85.0% (243/286). Variables associated with adherence were: lower education level (p=.01), not working outside the home (p=.04), being married (p<.0001), lower gravidity (p=.03), fewer lifetime number of sexual partners (p<.0001), no sexually transmitted infection history (p<.01), Hispanic ethnicity (p<.0001), Spanish as a primary language (p<.0001) and living further from the clinic (p<.01). Conclusions This study demonstrates that achieving high rates of adherence with the recommended HSG following Essure placement is feasible among low income populations. Furthermore, not speaking English or having to commute a far distance to the clinic do not appear to be barriers. This is encouraging considering the importance of this test to confirm tubal occlusion. PMID:24012097
Dragsbæk, Katrine; Neergaard, Jesper S.; Laursen, Janne M.; Hansen, Henrik B.; Christiansen, Claus; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Karsdal, Morten A.; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim
Abstract The prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is believed to vary with age. With an elderly population expecting to triple by 2060, it is important to evaluate the validity of MetS in this age group. We examined the association of MetS risk factors with later risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly Caucasian women. We further investigated if stratification of individuals not defined with MetS would add predictive power in defining future disease prevalence of individuals with MetS. The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor Study, a community-based cohort study, followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1 ± 6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information. Elderly women with defined MetS presented a 6.3-fold increased risk of T2DM (95% confidence interval: [3.74–10.50]) and 1.7-fold increased risk of CVD (1.44–2.05) compared to women with no MetS risk factors. Subdividing the control group without defined MetS revealed that both centrally obese controls and controls holding other MetS risk factors also had increased risk of T2DM (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.21 [1.25–3.93] and HR = 1.75 [1.04–2.96]) and CVD (HR = 1.51 [1.25–1.83] and HR = 1.36 [1.15–1.60]) when compared to controls with no MetS risk factors. MetS in elderly Caucasian women increased risk of future T2DM and CVD. While not defined with MetS, women holding only some risk factors for MetS were also at increased risk of T2DM or CVD compared to women with no MetS risk factors. PMID:27603394
Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.
BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132
Gurman, Tilly A; Ballard, Anne; Kerr, Samantha; Walsh, Janée; Petrocy, Amy
We explored the process through which two income-generation programs that include health education empower indigenous Guatemalan women artisans. Both artisans (n = 44) and program staff (n = 11) participated in semistructured interviews. Respondents expressed that women gained support about personal issues and experienced an awakening of the mind (despertar la mente). Through active participation, women's fear of strangers and speaking in public decreased. Women also gained mobility, awareness of their rights as women, and self-confidence from earning and managing their own income. Given our findings, we suggest that programs combining income generation and health education have the potential to empower women.
Illangasekare, Samantha L; Burke, Jessica G; McDonnell, Karen A; Gielen, Andrea C
Intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use, and HIV are often co-occuring health problems affecting low-income urban women, and have been described as connected epidemics making up a "syndemic." Research suggests that each issue separately is associated with depressive symptoms, but no studies have examined the combined effect of IPV, substance use and HIV on women's depression. Interviews were conducted with 96 women recruited from community health clinics serving low-income women in an urban U.S. city. All women were over 17, not pregnant, English-speaking, without private insurance and had experienced physical IPV in the past year. Women were primarily African American (82%) and 82% were receiving income assistance. Twenty seven percent were HIV-positive, and 27% had used heroin or cocaine in the past 6 months. Based on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D ), 73% were depressed. Women who experienced severe IPV in the past 6 months were compared to women who experienced no IPV or psychological IPV only in the past 6 months; those who experienced severe IPV were 5.3 times more likely to be depressed, controlling for HIV status, drug use, age, and relationship status. Women who experienced severe IPV, were HIV-positive, and used drugs (7.3% of sample) were 7.98 times as likely to be depressed as women without these characteristics. These findings confirm that severe IPV is significantly associated with depression among urban abused women. Furthermore, this research suggests that the syndemic effect of IPV, substance use, and HIV could be even more detrimental to women's mental health. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware of the combined impact of the IPV, substance use, and HIV syndemic and consider how they can address the mental health needs of urban women.
Foster, V L; Hume, G J; Byrnes, W C; Dickinson, A L; Chatfield, S J
This investigation evaluated the efficacy of training at moderate-60% Maximal Heart Rate Reserve, HRRmax, (MOD) and low-40% HRRmax (LOW) intensities in a population of older American women (N = 16, mean age = 78.4 years). Prior to and immediately following a 10-week training program consisting of exercising at the prescribed heart-rate intensity with a caloric expenditure of 100 calories, the following measurements were performed: Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), Maximal Lactate Production (HLAmax), Maximal Heart Rate (HRmax), Maximal Workstage (WSmax), Total Cholesterol (TOTC), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDLC), and Rate Pressure Product Max (RPPmax). Significant differences, p less than .05, were noted pre- to post-training for measures of VO2max, whether expressed in 1.min-1 or ml.kg-1.min-1, and WSmax. No statistical differences existed between the groups pre- or post-training for these measures. The results suggest that the low-intensity exercise prescription provides an adequate training stimulus for older women who have been sedentary and who might be at higher risk for cardiac or musculoskeletal injury, particularly at the initiation of an exercise program.
Skrzek, Anna; Ignasiak, Zofia; Sławińska, Teresa; Domaradzki, Jarosław; Fugiel, Jarosław; Sebastjan, Anna; Rożek, Krystyna
Objective To comparatively analyze the rate and magnitude of age-related changes between two groups of elderly women with different lifestyles living in Poland: women attending a University of the Third Age (active lifestyle) and less-active peers not involved in any seniors association. Methods The study was conducted in 2010–2012. The study design was approved by the Senate Ethics Committee for Scientific Research of the University School of Physical Education. In total, 417 women were recruited. Basic somatic characteristics, body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, respiratory function, postural stability, and body posture were measured. Regression analysis and Student’s t-tests for independent samples were calculated. Results and conclusion The best results among the tests assessing functional biological markers of health were found in the group of elderly women attending a University of the Third Age. The rate of change was larger in the group of seniors leading a less-active lifestyle, indicating the important role of a preventive gerontological approach and the participation of seniors in programs that accentuate the need for physical activity. PMID:25960643
Foster, V L; Hume, G J; Dickinson, A L; Chatfield, S J; Byrnes, W C
The reproducibility of VO2max, ventilatory, and lactate thresholds in elderly women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 425-430, 1986. This investigation examined the reproducibility of maximal (VO2max) and submaximal measures of fitness for elderly women. Eight subjects [age (yr): mean = 80.6 +/- 3.7; range = 73-86] volunteered to repeat three continuous, incremental maximal effort treadmill tests. Blood lactate determinations were made for each increment from blood samples taken from an indwelling venous catheter located in the back of the hand. Average VO2max values (ml X min-1 X kg X l-1) were 13.21 + 1.95 for test 1, 13.44 +/- 1.83 for test 2, and 13.62 + 2.95 for test 3. In all but one subject, a threshold was not definable by either ventilatory or lactate measurements. Maximal lactate values were low, with the average values for tests 1, 2, and 3 being 1.89, 1.46, and 1.86 mmol X l-1, respectively. The data demonstrates that VO2max is reproducible for older women and can, therefore, be used for fitness assessment and exercise prescription. The use of ventilatory or lactate thresholds as submaximal measures of fitness or as minimal intensities for exercise prescription was determined not to be applicable for women in the eighth and ninth decades of life.
Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang
The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…
Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata
The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…
Lundgren-Lindquist, B; Jette, A M
This paper draws on a unique longitudinal study, '70-year-old people in Gothenburg, Sweden', to augment available knowledge of the incidence of physical disability in an ageing cohort. Among women the incidence of mobility disability was 0.12 between age 70 and 75 years, and 0.19 from age 75 to 79 years. One in 10 males became mobility disabled from age 70 to 75 years while the risk increased to 0.18 between age 75 and 79 years. Cohort members disabled at age 70 years were at significantly increased risk of dying by age 79 years compared with their non-disabled counterparts. The data were consistent with other research revealing a substantial annual risk of disability or death for people in their eighth decade of life.
Al-Attar, Ahmad; Presnell, Steven R; Peterson, Charlotte A; Thomas, D Travis; Lutz, Charles T
Immune gender differences have been reported, but are little studied in elderly humans. We compared monocyte and lymphocyte subsets, along with soluble immune mediators in healthy men and women over the age of 70. We also measured natural killer (NK) lymphocyte cytotoxic granule exocytosis, chemokine synthesis, and cytokine synthesis in response to a variety of stimuli. Elderly women had significantly more circulating B cells than men, whereas men had more CD4 central memory T cells and higher monocyte levels. Plasma adiponectin levels were higher in women, plasma retinol-binding protein 4 levels were higher in men, but there were no significant gender differences in C-reactive protein, IL-15, or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Women had a higher ratio of immature CD56(bright) NK cells to mature CD56(dim) NK cells, indicating a gender difference in NK cell maturation in the elderly. Comparing sexes, female mature NK cells had more vigorous cytotoxic granule responses to K562 leukemia cells and IFN-γ responses to NKp46 crosslinking. Moreover, female NK cells were more likely to produce MIP-1β in response to a variety of stimuli. These data show that gender influences NK cell activity in elderly humans.
Lee, Tae Wha; Kim, Sue; Joe, Seun Young
In this descriptive review, the current healthcare issues and context for elderly women in Asia are discussed and a nursing research agenda to promote better health security is proposed. Chesney and Ozer's multilevel circular framework of key content areas of women's health was applied to organize and critique the literature. The results indicate that elderly Asian women display morbidity and mortality differentials and are influenced by gender and social factors, as well as health policy issues. The research agenda for nursing that is proposed in this article includes activating health promotion research, employing family and community-based participatory approaches, supporting gender-sensitive social and health policies, and promoting comprehensive and culturally competent international research on health transitions for elderly women.
Anderson, Cynthie K.; Walch, Tanis J.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Smith, Aubrey M.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Whigham, Leah D.
Objective Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. Design Qualitative study. Setting Community-based perinatal center. Participants 8 focus groups with women (Black=48%, White non-Hispanic=41%, Hispanic=10%) in the first half of (n=12) and last half of pregnancy (n=10), or post-partum (n=7); 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) (n=9). Phenomenon of Interest Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG within different levels of the Social Ecological Model (SEM), e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, etc. Analysis Coding guide was based on the SEM. Transcripts were coded by 3 researchers for common themes. Thematic saturation was reached. Results At an intrapersonal level, knowledge/skills and cravings were the most common barriers. At an interpersonal level, family and friends were most influential. At an organizational level, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program and clinics were influential. At the community level, lack of transportation was most frequently discussed. At a policy level, complex policies and social stigma surrounding WIC were barriers. There was consensus that ideal intervention approaches would include peer-facilitated support groups with information from experts. OB-GYNs felt uncomfortable counseling patients about GWG due to time constraints, other priorities, and lack of training. Conclusions and Implications There are multi-level public health opportunities to promote healthy GWG. Better communication between nutrition specialists and OB-GYNs is needed. PMID:26187348
Malika, Nipher M.; Hayman, Lenwood W.; Miller, Alison L.; Lee, Hannah J.; Lumeng, Julie C.
Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5 years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very “matter of fact” manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800
Malika, Nipher M; Hayman, Lenwood W; Miller, Alison L; Lee, Hannah J; Lumeng, Julie C
Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very "matter of fact" manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs.
Salm Ward, Trina C; Mazul, Mary; Ngui, Emmanuel M; Bridgewater, Farrin D; Harley, Amy E
African American infants die at higher rates and are at greater risk of adverse birth outcomes than White infants in Milwaukee. Though self-reported experiences of racism have been linked to adverse health outcomes, limited research exists on the impact of racism on women's prenatal care experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of racial discrimination during prenatal care from the perspectives of African American women in a low income Milwaukee neighborhood. Transcripts from six focus groups with twenty-nine women and two individual interviews were analyzed to identify important emergent themes. Validity was maintained using an audit trail, peer debriefing, and two individual member validation sessions. Participants identified three areas of perceived discrimination based on: (1) insurance or income status, (2) race, and (3) lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Women described being treated differently by support staff and providers based on type of insurance (public versus private), including perceiving a lower quality of care at clinics that accepted public insurance. While some described personally-mediated racism, the majority of women described experiences that fit within a definition of institutionalized racism-in which the system was designed in a way that worked against their attempts to get quality prenatal care. Women also described lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that African American women with limited incomes perceive many provider practices and personal interactions during prenatal care as discriminatory. Future studies could explore the relationship between perceptions of discrimination and utilization of prenatal care.
Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery
The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research.
Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó
Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women.
Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó
Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658
PRINCE, MARTIN; LIVINGSTON, GILL; KATONA, CORNELIUS
Future development of services for older people needs to be tailored to suit the health systems context. Low-income countries lack the economic and human capital to contemplate widespread introduction of specialist services. The most cost-effective way to manage people with dementia will be through supporting, educating and advising family caregivers. The next level of care to be prioritized would be respite care, both in day centres and in residential or nursing homes. An important prerequisite to improving care for older persons is to create a climate that fosters such advances. Better awareness is a necessary precondition for appropriate help-seeking, and lack of awareness is a public health problem for which population level interventions are needed. PMID:17342213
Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam
Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.
Forssén, Annika S K; Carlstedt, Gunilla
This article is one aspect of a larger, qualitative interview study and deals with health-promoting aspects of gainful employment, as experienced by a group of elderly Swedish women. Through these interviews we demonstrate the central importance of outside employment for many of the women, although they belonged to a generation where outside work conflicted with societal norms. We will illustrate a wide variety of ways in which gainful employment can contribute to women's well-being and, ultimately, their health.
Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth
Recent research has connected childhood abuse to decreased physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Further, mental health has established a link to employment problems. This study conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from individuals accessing public assistance to investigate the relationships among retrospective self-reports of childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and prospective indicators of mental health and mental health barriers to work. Logistic regression models found strong relationships between childhood abuse and increased odds of depression and mental health barriers to work. Path models highlight the relative importance of depression for those reporting mental health as the biggest barrier to work. Recommendations for social workers, public health professionals, and program administrators are provided.
Premji, Shahirose S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Dosani (Mawji), Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W.; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group
Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524
Kasepalu, Ulle; Laidmäe, Virve-Ines; Tulva, Taimi
The purpose of the article is to analyze the aging experiences of elderly women in Estonia and the factors influencing them. The assessments of two groups using social services are compared-the elderly living in Tallinn's social houses and the elderly receiving care at home. From February to August 2011, a total of 80 elderly women were interviewed. Inhabitants of social houses find that their old age is satisfying more often (65% of the inhabitants of social houses and 40% of the people in home care). Many home care clients were convinced that it is best to spend old age among loved ones and in a familiar environment. Those living at home have many difficulties, which is why 20% of them are on a waiting list to go to a social house. Home services should include services with which the inhabitants of social houses are very satisfied.
The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and others.
Singh, Ranjay K.; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul
Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute
Singh, Ranjay K; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul
Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute
Heneman, Karrie; Block-Joy, Amy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Donohue, Susan; Garcia, Linda; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Smith, Dorothy; West, Estella; Steinberg, Francene M
This study determined whether a "Contract for Change" goal-setting exercise enhanced the effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education programs to increase produce consumption in low-income (<130% of poverty) women after 4 weeks. Thirty-eight participants were randomized in this three-group parallel arm study: (a) control group participants received life-skills lessons, (b) the education group received the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education "Food Guide Pyramid" lessons, and (c) the contract group also received the "Food Guide Pyramid" series and completed a "Contract for Change." It was hypothesized that the contract group would have the greatest increases in advancement toward dietary change and produce consumption. Compared with controls, the contract group significantly moved toward acceptance of vegetable consumption (P < or = .05). Compared with the education group, the contract group significantly increased fruit consumption. Results suggest that nutrition professionals can effectively use goal-setting to assist low-income populations with dietary change.
Barusch, A S
This article examines the extent to which low-income older women define themselves in stigmatizing terms, then explores the strategies they use to preserve a positive sense of self. Instead of considering themselves "old" or "poor," the sixty-two women interviewed defined themselves as "fortunate" and/or "blessed." The ability to see oneself as fortunate may be a significant component of successful aging.
Alves, Janice Chaim; Bassitt, Debora Pastore
ABSTRACT Objective: To correlate functional ability and quality of life of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Cross-sectional study composed of 40 elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. We used the following instruments: identification questionnaire, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-OLD (WHOQOL-OLD). The significance level was 0.05 (5%), and confidence intervals were 95%. For statistical analysis we used parametric statistical tests, descriptive analysis, test for equality of two proportions, Pearson's correlation, correlation test, and analysis of variance. Results: The mean age (± standard deviation) was 74.1 (±6.7) years, and 47.5% of patients had osteoarthritis in both knees. Moderate pain was reported by 45% of patients when they walked on a flat plane and 40% when they were seated or lying down; 55% had severe or very severe pain when climbing or descending stairs; 50% reported moderate joint stiffness after sitting, lying, or resting; and 65% reported moderate or little stiffness after waking. In physical function, 60% of patients had moderate or severe difficulty in descending stairs and 67.5%, when climbing stairs; 60% reported severe or very severe difficulty in getting in and out of the car, and 70%, when performing strenuous housework. The correlation with WHOQOL-OLD and WOMAC was negative and not significant except for autonomy, which was significant. Sedentary and elderly women who used walking aid devices had worse WOMAC functional capacity, but this finding was not statistically significant. In WHOQOL-OLD, volunteers scored higher on social participation and engagement in physical activity on autonomy, which was statistically significant compared with the nonvoluntary and sedentary domains, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to have a good quality of life even with functional impairment from knee osteoarthritis. PMID:23843063
Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo
An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training.
This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals.
Lee, Inhwan; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik
[Purpose] This study examined the association of femur bone mineral density (BMD) with body composition and physical activity in elderly women. [Methods] This was a cross sectional study involving 119 women with mean age of 73.1±5.5 years. Body composition parameters including body mass index (BMI), percent of body fat (%BF), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index and femur BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Physical activity was assessed by the uniaxial accelerometer for 7 consecutive days including weekends. Based on femur BMD T-scores, subjects were classified as optimal group, osteopenia group, and osteoporosis group. Based on ASM index, subjects were classified as normal group and sarcopenia group. According to WHO recommendations of physical activity for elderly, the subjects were classified as active group or inactive group. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the odds ratio (OR) for osteopenia and osteoporosis. [Results] There were linear decreases for body composition parameters including weight (P=.023), BMI (P=.039), lean mass (P=.032), ASM index (P=.007) and physical activity parameters including daily of step (P<.001), low intensity physical activity (P<.001), moderate intensity physical activity (P=.001) across femur BMD levels. Compared to the normal group (OR=1), the sarcopenia group had a significantly higher OR (OR=4.823; P=.042), and the inactive group had a significantly higher OR (OR=5.478; P=.005) having osteopenia and osteoporosis when compared to the active group (OR=1). [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggested that physical activity along with a healthy nutrition should be promoted as a preventive strategy against osteopenia and osteoporosis in elderly women. PMID:27298809
abnormalities in low-income Korean American women. Era of Hope Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 8...Breast Abnormalities in Low-Income Korean American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Annette...burden to Department of Defense , Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis
Lohse, Barbara; Wall, Denise; Gromis, Judy
Intention as an outcome measure for fruit and vegetable nutrition education interventions in low-income women was assessed through dietary assessment 3 weeks after a fruit and vegetable intervention in a federally funded program. Amount and variety of intake were compared to intentions expressed immediately following intervention. Findings…
Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine
Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…
West, Lindsey M.; Davis, Telsie A.; Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Protective factors for fostering reasons for living were examined among low-income, suicidal, African American women. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher levels of optimism, spiritual well-being, and family social support predicted reasons for living. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that spiritual well-being showed…
Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.; Krupnick, Janice L.; Chung, Joyce; Siddique, Juned; Belin, Tom; Revicki, Dennis
This study examines 1-year depressive symptom and functional outcomes of 267 predominantly low-income, young minority women randomly assigned to antidepressant medication, group or individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or community referral. Seventy-six percent assigned to medications received 9 or more weeks of guideline-concordant doses…
Price, Sarah Kye; Proctor, Enola K.
Context/Purpose: To examine a low-income sample of women in the rural Midwest (N = 1,086) who were screened for perinatal depression through the outreach and education activities within a Healthy Start Initiative project. Specifically, we describe the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, explore social and demographic correlates of…
Hayman, Lenwood W; Lee, Hannah J; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C
Emotional- and stress-eating have been proposed as risk factors for obesity. However, the way that individuals conceptualize these behaviors is not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. We sought to understand how women conceptualize emotional- and stress-eating. Sixty-one low-income women from South-central Michigan with young children (ages 2-5 years) participated in either a focus group or individual semi-structured interview during which they were asked about their conceptualizations of eating behaviors among adults and children. Responses were transcribed and the constant comparative method was used to identify themes. Identified themes included that emotional- and stress-eating are viewed as uncommon, severe, pitiable behaviors that reflect a lack of self-control and are highly stigmatized; that when these behaviors occurred among children, the behaviors resulted from neglect or even abuse; and that bored-eating is viewed as distinct from emotional- or stress-eating and is a common and humorous behavior with which participants readily self-identified. Future research and interventions should seek to develop more detailed conceptualizations of these behaviors to improve measurement, destigmatize emotional- and stress-eating and potentially capitalize on the strong identification with bored-eating by targeting this behavior for interventions.
Massa, Kaio Henrique Correa; Pabayo, Roman; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto
Objective We aimed to analyse the individual and contextual determinants associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) morbidity among the elderly. Methods The sample consisted of 1333 individuals aged 60 or older residing in the city of São Paulo, from the Health, Welfare and Aging (SABE) study survey performed in 2010. The association between CVD with both income inequality and green spaces was analysed using Bayesian multilevel models, controlling for individual and contextual factors. Results We found a significant association between income inequality and green spaces, and risk of CVD. In comparison to elderly residents in areas with low-income inequality, there was an increased risk for CVD among those residing in the medium–low (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.59), medium–high (OR=2.71, 95% CI 2.18 to 3.36) and high (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.79) quartiles of income inequality. Those living in medium–low (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.49), medium–high (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.65) and high (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.55) green spaces levels had lower risk of CVD. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of area-level characteristics on CVD risk and the need to develop healthcare policies focused on the effect of individual and contextual characteristics. PMID:27601497
LEE, Joo-Young; LEE, Hyo-Hyun; KIM, Siyeon; JANG, Young-Joon; BAEK, Yoon-Jeong; KANG, Kwon-Yong
The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155–341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions. PMID:26632118
Lee, Joo-Young; Lee, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Siyeon; Jang, Young-Joon; Baek, Yoon-Jeong; Kang, Kwon-Yong
The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155-341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions.
Lima, C U J O; Souza, V C; Morita, M C; Chiarello, M D; Karnikowski, M G de Oliveira
There is scientific evidence to suggest that the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill (AbM) has immunomodulatory effects on cytokine synthesis, both in vitro and in vivo. This study was the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to investigate these purported actions in elderly women. The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of AbM intake on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in community-living seniors. The sample consisted of 57 elderly females who were carriers or homozygous for the majority allele of functional polymorphisms for the chosen cytokines. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive placebo (n = 29) or AbM dry extract (n = 28), 900 mg/day for 60 days. Body mass index, abdominal girth, body composition, blood pressure and cytokine (IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) levels were measured, and food intake was assessed as a possible confounder. Analysis of these parameters showed the sample was characterized by overweight and excess adiposity. After the study period, no changes from baseline were detectable for any parameter in either group. In this study, AbM extract had no modulating effect on IL-6, IFN-γ or TNF-α levels in elderly females.
Kortas, Jakub; Prusik, Katarzyna; Flis, Damian; Prusik, Krzysztof; Ziemann, Ewa; Leaver, Neil; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej
Background Despite several, well-documented pro-healthy effects of regular physical training, its influence on body iron stores in elderly people remains unknown. At the same time, body iron accumulation is associated with high risk of different morbidities. Purpose We hypothesized that Nordic Walking training would result in pro-healthy changes in an elderly group of subjects by reducing body iron stores via shifts in iron metabolism-regulating proteins. Methods Thirty-seven women aged 67.7±5.3 years participated in this study. They underwent 32 weeks of training, 1-hour sessions three times a week, between October 2012 and May 2013. Fitness level, blood morphology, CRP, vitamin D, ferritin, hepcidin, and soluble Hjv were assessed before and after the training. Results The training program caused a significant decrease in ferritin, which serves as a good marker of body iron stores. Simultaneously, the physical cardiorespiratory fitness had improved. Furthermore, blood hepcidin was positively correlated with the ferritin concentration after the training. The concentration of blood CRP dropped, but the change was nonsignificant. The applied training resulted in a blood Hjv increase, which was inversely correlated with the vitamin D concentration. Conclusion Overall the Nordic Walking training applied in elderly people significantly reduced blood ferritin concentration, which explains the observed decrease in body iron stores. PMID:26664101
Kim, Seong-Gil; Park, Jin-Hyun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dual-task gait training on foot pressure in elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly people in local communities performed dual-task gait training for 20 minutes three times per week for 8 weeks. Foot pressure was measured using an F-scan System (Tekscan, South Boston, MA, USA) before the intervention and in the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention. [Results] Foot pressure increased significantly between the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention in the CFF (central forefoot); between before the intervention and the 4th week, between the 4th and 8th weeks, and between before the intervention and the 8th week in the MF (midfoot); and between before the intervention and the 4th and 8th weeks in the HL (heel). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that dual-task gait training may improve the gait ability of elderly persons residing in the community.
Kuhlen, James L; Banerji, Aleena
This review on hereditary angioedema (HAE) focused on special topics regarding HAE in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly. HAE is a rare autosomal dominant bradykinin-mediated disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal swelling that usually affects the face, upper airway, extremities, gastrointestinal tract, or genitalia. These recurrent attacks cause significant morbidity and can be life threatening, especially when the swelling affects the airway. Our objective was to summarize the published data available on the disease epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, on demand and prophylactic therapy, and focus on management considerations for these special patient populations. Unique aspects of HAE in women with regard to contraception, hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause were also reviewed.
Background This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner violence and mistreatment on depression. Methods A total of 220 Latina male-to-female transgender women who resided in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through community based organizations and referrals. Participants completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Perceived discrimination was assessed using a fifteen-item measure that was designed to assess the experiences of maltreatment of transgender individuals. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depression after controlling for the presence of other variables. Results Of the sample, 35% reported significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15). Additionally, one-third of the participants indicated that in the two weeks prior to the interviews they had thought either of hurting themselves or that they would be better off dead. The extent of perceived discrimination in this population was extensive. Many of the participants experienced discrimination on a daily basis (14%) or at least once or twice a week (25%) as demonstrated by a positive response to at least 7 of 15 items in the measure of perceived discrimination. Almost six out of ten participants admitted that they had been victims of sexual partner violence. Those who reported more frequent discrimination were more likely to be identified with severe depression. There was also a notable association between self-reported history of sexual partner violence and depression severity. Conclusions A significant association between depression severity and perceived discrimination was identified. How exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of mental health problems
Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg
Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.
Machala, M; Miner, M W
The problem of physicians dropping the practice of obstetrics is becoming more serious each year in the United States. Those who remain in practice are increasingly reluctant to serve women who receive Medicaid assistance. Previous research has tended to focus on low reimbursement and liability as barriers that physicians perceive to providing prenatal care to low-income clients. In a 1992 survey in rural Idaho, however, physicians who have been serving these clients for at least 4 years rated other factors equally or more important in treating low-income women. These other factors, discussed in this paper, have to do with the administrative and psychosocial support coordinated by public health nurses for their internal clients, the physicians, as well as for their external clients, pregnant women. PMID:8190869
Background Involutional changes to the body in elderly patients affect the shape of the spine and the activity of postural muscles. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age-related changes in spinal curvature on postural balance in elderly women. Methods The study population consisted of 90 women, with a mean age of 70 ± 8.01 years. Static balance assessments were conducted on a tensometric platform, and posturographic assessments of body posture were performed using a photogrammetric method based on the Projection Moiré method. Results The results obtained were analysed using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test. We found a statistically significant correlation between body posture and the quality of the balance system response based on the corrective function of the visual system. The shape of the spinal curvature influenced postural stability, as measured by static posturography. Improvement in the quality of the balance system response depended on corrective information from the visual system and proprioceptive information from the paraspinal muscles. Conclusions The sensitivity of the balance system to the change of centre of pressure location was influenced by the direction of the change in rotation of the shoulder girdle and spine. Development of spinal curvature in the sagittal plane and maintenance of symmetry in the coronal and transverse planes are essential for correct balance control, which in turn is essential for the development of a properly proportioned locomotor system. PMID:24885433
Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsitsinakis, George; Siassos, Gerassimos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Galiatsatos, Nikos; Metaxa, Vasiliki; Lazaros, George; Miliou, Antigoni; Giakoumi, Evaggelia; Mylonakis, Charalambos; Zaromytidou, Marina; Economou, Evaggelos; Triantafyllou, Georgia; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos
Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0–15), while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8 ± 3.5 versus 3.3 ± 3.1, P = .001). Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all P < .05). Regarding fish consumption, 50% of the individuals reported consuming 1-2 times weekly, 32% 3 to 5 times weekly, 11% 2-3 times monthly, while the rest reported rare (4.5%) and everyday (1.2%) consumption. Logistic regression showed that increased fish consumption (>3 times/week versus never/rare) was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4) (odds ratio = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61), after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood. PMID:21197433
Dexue, Liu; Yueyue, Zheng
To explore the reasonable treatment scheme of salmon calciteonin in the treatment of elderly women with type 2 diabetes complicated with osteoporosis, patients were randomly divided into Group A, B and C, and they were given the salmon calcitonin every time 50 IU, subcutaneous injection. The Group A were 1 time a day, for 15 days; Group B were 1 time every 2 days, for 30 days; Group C, one time three days for 90 days. Then to observe the symptoms have efficiency, bone density T value change, incidence rate, incidence of side effects and treatment of loss rate of fracture. Efficiency of symptoms: Group A is lower and there is no difference in Group B and C. T Degree: Group C was significantly increased and Group A was the lowest. Fracture incidence of Group B and C were significantly lower than Group A, and there is no difference in Group B and C. Turnover rate: Group A was significantly lower than B and C, and there is no difference in Group B and C. There is low incidence of side effects in the three groups and they three have no significant difference. It is effective and safe to use salmon calcitonin in the treatment of elderly women with type 2 diabetes complicated with osteoporosis. 50 IU each time, subcutaneous injection, 1 time every 3 days, for 3 months is a reasonable solution.
Cunha, Raphael Martins; Vilaça-Alves, José; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Silva, Juliana Sá; Costa, Andressa Moura; Silva, Christoffer Novais Farias; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado
Water aerobics exercise is widely recommended for elderly people. However, little is known about the acute effects on hemodynamic variables. Thus, we assessed the effects of a water aerobic session on blood pressure in hypertensive elderly women. Fifty hypertensive elderly women aged 67.8 ± 4.1 years, 1.5 ± 0.6 m high and BMI 28.6 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), participated in a crossover clinical trial. The experiment consisted of a 45-minute water aerobics session (70%-75% HRmax adjusted for the aquatic environment) (ES) and a control session (no exercise for 45 minutes) (CS). Heart rate was monitored using a heart rate monitor and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measurements were taken using a semi-automatic monitor before and immediately after the sessions, and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. It was using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) with Bonferroni's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). At the end of the experimental session, ES showed a rise in SBP of 17.4 mmHg (14.3%, p < 0.001) and DBP of 5.4 mmHg (7.8%, p < 0.001) compared to CS. At 10 minutes after exercise, BP declined in ES by a greater magnitude than in CS (SBP 7.5 mmHg, 6.2%, p = 0.005 and DBP 3.8 mmHg, 5.5%, p = 0.013). At 20 minutes after exercise and thereafter, SBP and DBP were similar in both ES and CS. In conclusion, BP returned to control levels within 10-20 minutes remaining unchanged until 30 minutes after exercise, and post-exercise hypotension was not observed. Besides, BP changed after exercise was a safe rise of small magnitude for hypertensive people.
Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok
Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.
Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Summary Background Considering the high prevalence of dementia, it would be of great value to develop effective tools to improve cognitive function. We examined the effects of a human-type communication robot on cognitive function in elderly women living alone. Material/Methods In this study, 34 healthy elderly female volunteers living alone were randomized to living with either a communication robot or a control robot at home for 8 weeks. The shape, voice, and motion features of the communication robot resemble those of a 3-year-old boy, while the control robot was not designed to talk or nod. Before living with the robot and 4 and 8 weeks after living with the robot, experiments were conducted to evaluate a variety of cognitive functions as well as saliva cortisol, sleep, and subjective fatigue, motivation, and healing. Results The Mini-Mental State Examination score, judgement, and verbal memory function were improved after living with the communication robot; those functions were not altered with the control robot. In addition, the saliva cortisol level was decreased, nocturnal sleeping hours tended to increase, and difficulty in maintaining sleep tended to decrease with the communication robot, although alterations were not shown with the control. The proportions of the participants in whom effects on attenuation of fatigue, enhancement of motivation, and healing could be recognized were higher in the communication robot group relative to the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that living with a human-type communication robot may be effective for improving cognitive functions in elderly women living alone. PMID:22936190
Stulberg, D.B.; Cain, L.; Dahlquist, I.H.; Lauderdale, D.S.
STUDY QUESTION Does the risk of adverse outcomes at the time of ectopic pregnancy vary by race/ethnicity among women receiving Medicaid, the public health insurance program for low-income people in the USA? SUMMARY ANSWER Among Medicaid beneficiaries with ectopic pregnancy, 11% experienced at least one complication, and women from all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to experience complications. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In this population of Medicaid recipients, African American women are significantly more likely than whites to experience ectopic pregnancy, but the risk of adverse outcomes has not previously been assessed. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of all women (n = 19 135 106) ages 15–44 enrolled in Medicaid for any amount of time during 2004–2008 who lived in one of the following 14 US states: Arizona; California; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; New York; and Texas. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS We analyzed Medicaid claims records for inpatient and outpatient encounters and identified ectopic pregnancies with a principal diagnosis code for ectopic pregnancy from 2004–2008. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy complication rate as the number of ectopic pregnancies with at least one complication (blood transfusion, hysterectomy, any sterilization, or length-of-stay (LOS) > 2 days) divided by the total number of ectopic pregnancies. We used Poisson regression to assess the risk of ectopic pregnancy complication by race/ethnicity. Secondary outcomes were each individual complication, and ectopic pregnancy-related death. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy mortality ratio as the number of deaths divided by live births. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Ectopic pregnancy-associated complications occurred in 11% of cases. Controlling for age and state, the risk of any complication was
Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.
Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382
Goodman, Lisa A; Smyth, Katya Fels; Banyard, Victoria
Although poverty is associated with a range of mental health difficulties among women in this country, mainstream mental health interventions are not sufficient to meet the complex needs of poor women. This article argues that stress, powerlessness, and social isolation should become primary targets of our interventions, as they are key mediators of the relationship between poverty and emotional distress, particularly for women. Indeed, if ways are not found to address these conditions directly, by increasing women's control, choice, and connections, the capacity to improve the emotional well-being of impoverished women will remain limited at best. This is the first of 5 articles that comprise a special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, called "Beyond the 50-Minute Hour: Increasing Control, Choice, and Connections in the Lives of Low-Income Women." Together, these articles explore the nature and impact of a range of innovative mental health interventions that are grounded in a deep understanding of the experience of poverty. This introduction: (a) describes briefly how mainstream approaches fail to address the poverty-related mental health needs of low-income women; (b) illuminates the role of stress, powerlessness, and social isolation in women's lives; (c) highlights the ways in which the articles included in this special section address each of these by either adapting traditional mental health practices to attend to poverty's role in participants' lives or adapting community-based, social-justice-oriented interventions to attend to participants' mental health; and (d) discusses the research and evaluation implications of expanding mental health practices to meet the needs of low-income communities.
Muhanguzi, Florence Kyoheirwe
In many patriarchal societies in Africa, heterosexuality is privileged as the single legitimate form of sexual interaction; other sexualities are marginalised because they are perceived as un-African, abnormal, sinful and are repressed. Female sexuality too is subordinated and controlled with it being reduced to women's conventional mothering roles that are conflated with their reproductive capacities. However, there is evidence that women in heterosexual relations have the opportunity to assert themselves and to define pleasurable sex. Drawing on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with married women in heterosexual unions the article examines the extent to which women from low-income contexts in Uganda express their sexual agency. The findings show that within heterosexual relations, these women are able to express their sexual desires freely and negotiate diverse options for pleasurable sexual experiences. The evidence indicates the need for acknowledging variations within heterosexual experiences and the possibility of positive heterosexual relationships that resist hegemonic masculinity and subordinated femininity.
Adams, Adrienne E; Bybee, Deborah; Tolman, Richard M; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has detrimental consequences for women's mental health. To effectively intervene, it is essential to understand the process through which IPV influences women's mental health. The current study used data from 5 waves of the Women's Employment Study, a prospective study of single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to empirically investigate the extent to which job stability mediates the relationship between IPV and adverse mental health outcomes. The findings indicate that IPV significantly negatively affects women's job stability and mental health. Further, job stability is at least partly responsible for the damaging mental health consequences of abuse, and the effects can last up to 3 years after the IPV ends. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low-income women with abusive partners.
Parks, Sharyn E; Kim, Kevin H; Day, Nancy L; Garza, Mary A; Larkby, Cynthia A
Study aims were to examine the relations between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment (CM) and adult violent victimization (AVV) and to explore other significant covariates of the relations between CM and AVV. Data were collected from women (n = 477) who participated in two longitudinal studies in the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Women with a history of CM were more than twice as likely to experience AVV as women with no history of CM. Those who experienced one or two forms of CM were significantly more likely to report any AVV compared to women with no CM. The relationship between CM and AVV remained significant after controlling for illicit drug use at baseline. Among low-income women, a history of CM exposure increased the risk of AVV. Having had any CM exposure was more important that the specific form or combination of forms, of CM exposure (e.g., sexual abuse or physical abuse).
Inglis, Victoria; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David
Food cost has a strong influence on food purchases and given that persons of low income often have more limited budgets, healthier foods may be overlooked in favour of more energy-dense lower-cost options. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modifications to the available household food budget led to changes in the healthfulness of food purchasing choices among women of low and high income. A quasi-experimental design was used which included a sample of 74 women (37 low-income women and 37 high-income women) who were selected on the basis of their household income and sent an itemised shopping list in order to calculate their typical weekly household shopping expenditure. The women were also asked to indicate those foods they would add to their list if they were given an additional 25% of their budget to spend on food and those foods they would remove if they were restricted by 25% of their budget. When asked what foods they would add with a larger household food budget, low-income women chose more foods from the 'healthier' categories whereas high-income women chose more foods from the less 'healthier' categories. However, making the budgets of low- and high-income women more 'equivalent' did not eradicate income differences in overall healthfulness of food purchasing choices. This study highlights the importance of cost when making food purchasing choices among low- and high-income groups. Public health strategies aimed at reducing income inequalities in diet might focus on promoting healthy diets that are low cost.
Sivapalasingam, S; Hoekstra, R M; McQuiston, J R; Fields, P I; Tauxe, R V
Salmonellosis is a major cause of gastroenteritis in the United States and can lead to septicaemia, and other extra-intestinal illness including urinary tract infections (UTIs). To examine trends in Salmonella bacteriuria in the United States, surveillance data from the National Salmonella Surveillance System from 1980 to the end of 1999 were reviewed. Overall, 17442 urinary Salmonella isolates were reported, representing 2% of all Salmonella isolates from a known source. This proportion increased from 2% during 1980--1984 to 4% during 1995--1999. The median age of persons from whom these isolates came was 51 years; 12,176 (70 %) were women. Compared to the last national survey conducted between 1968 and 1979, the rate of Salmonella bacteriuria increased among women, from 2.0 per million persons in 1980 to 3.7 in 1999; the highest rate occurring in women > or = 70 years. National reporting of Salmonella bacteriuria increased in absolute incidence and as a proportion of all Salmonella, especially in elderly women and may represent an increase in the incidence of Salmonella UTIs. Better understanding of the uropathogenicity of Salmonella serotypes may further clarify the mechanisms of Salmonella UTIs.
Gibson, Steven J.; Fleming, Gini F.; Temkin, Sarah M.; Chase, Dana M.
The rising number and increasing longevity of the elderly population calls for improvements and potentially a more personalized approach to the treatment of cancer in this group. Elderly patients frequently present with a number of comorbidities, complicating surgery and chemotherapy tolerability. In the case of ovarian cancer, elderly women present with more advanced disease, making the issue of providing adequate treatment without significant morbidity critical. Most studies support the application of standard of care treatment to elderly women with ovarian cancer, yet it seems to be offered less frequently in the elderly. The objective of this review is to examine the application and outcome of standard of care treatment in elderly women with ovarian cancer. The aim is to ultimately improve the approach to treatment in this group. PMID:27047797
Gaszynska, Ewelina; Kopacz, Karolina; Fronczek-Wojciechowska, Magdalena; Padula, Gianluca; Szatko, Franciszek
Objectives To evaluate the effect of age and chosen factors related to aging such as dentition, muscle strength, and nutrition on masticatory muscles electromyographic activity during chewing in healthy elderly women. Background With longer lifespan there is a need for maintaining optimal quality of life and health in older age. Skeletal muscle strength deteriorates in older age. This deterioration is also observed within masticatory muscles. Methods A total of 30 women, aged 68–92 years, were included in the study: 10 individuals had natural functional dentition, 10 were missing posterior teeth in the upper and lower jaw reconstructed with removable partial dentures, and 10 were edontoulous, using complete removable dentures. Surface electromyography was performed to evaluate masticatory muscles activity. Afterwards, measurement of masseter thickness with ultrasound imaging was performed, body mass index and body cell mass index were calculated, and isometric handgrip strength was measured. Results Isometric maximal voluntary contraction decreased in active masseters with increasing age and in active and passive temporalis muscles with increasing age and increasing body mass index. In active masseter, mean electromyographic activity during the sequence (time from the start of chewing till the end when the test food became ready to swallow) decreased with increasing age and during the cycle (single bite time) decreased with increasing age and increasing body mass index. In active and passive temporalis muscles, mean electromyographic activity during the sequence and the cycle decreased with increasing age, increasing body mass index, and loss of natural dentition. Individuals with natural dentition had significantly higher mean muscle activity during sequence and cycle in active temporalis muscles than those wearing full dentures and higher maximal activity during cycle in individuals with active and passive temporalis muscles than in complete denture wearers
Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Maeda, Junichiro; Abe, Yasuyo; Arima, Kazuhiko; Tomita, Masato; Koseki, Hironobu; Kaida, Eiji; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Makoto
Little research has been done on the prevalence of Kienböck's disease, and there is no consensus on the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of Kienböck's disease in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women and to clarify the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. The authors analyzed plain radiographs of both hands in women 40 years and older residing in the community to investigate the prevalence of Kienböck's disease and the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. Kienböck's disease was seen in 7 of the 572 participants. In the group with Kienböck's disease, ulnar variance did not differ significantly between affected (0.3 mm; SD, 1.5) and unaffected (0.3 mm; SD, 1.0; P=.285) sides. No significant difference was seen in ulnar variance values between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease and the normal group (P=.118). The number or proportion of participants with negative ulnar variance did not differ significantly between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease (3 of 7) and the unaffected side in the group with Kienböck's disease (1 of 7; P=.237) and between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease and the normal group (111 of 504; P=.189) by chi-square test. The prevalence of Kienböck's disease was 1.2% in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women. Negative ulnar variance is not a contributing factor to Kienböck's disease.
Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui
Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270
Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile
The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954
Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile
The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.
Burton, Linda M; Hardaway, Cecily R
In this article, we investigated low-income mothers' involvement in multiple partner fertility (MPF) relationships and their experiences as "othermothers" to their romantic partners' children from previous and concurrent intimate unions. Othermothering, as somewhat distinct from stepmothering, involves culturally-scripted practices of sharing parenting responsibilities with children's biological parents. We framed this investigation using this concept because previous research suggests that many low-income women practice this form of coparenting in their friend and kin networks. What is not apparent in this literature, however, is whether women unilaterally othermother their romantic partners' children from different women. How often and under what circumstances do women in nonmarital MPF intimate unions with men coparent their partners' children from other relationships? We explored this question using a modified grounded theory approach and secondary longitudinal ethnographic data on 256 low-income mostly unmarried mothers from the Three-City Study. Results indicated that 78% of the mothers had been or were involved in MPF unions and while most had othermothered the children of their friends and relatives, 89% indicated that they did not coparent their partners' children from any MPF relationship. Mothers' reasons for not doing so were embedded in: (a) gendered scripts around second families, or "casa chicas"; (b) the tenuous nature of pass-through MPF relationships; and (c) mothers' own desires for their romantic partners to child-swap. Implications of this research for family science and practice are discussed.
Heilemann, MarySue V; Kury, Felix Salvador; Lee, Kathryn A
Survey methods were used to collect cross-sectional data on PTSD symptoms in the context of resources, risks, and strengths of a convenience sample of 315 low income women of Mexican descent. Women were compared by generation in the US, including Mexico-born women who immigrated as adults (> or =age 18), as teens (age 12-17), or as children (< or =age 12), and US-born women whose parents and/or grandparents were Mexico-born. Results showed that US-born women reported significantly more types of trauma than women who immigrated as adults or teens, and more PTSD symptoms than women who immigrated as adults. Also, one to three times as many women who were exposed to the United States before age 18 reported sexual trauma exposure compared with women who immigrated as adults. In a three-step multiple regression analysis, lack of intrinsic strength factors (13%) accounted for more variance in PTSD symptoms than resources (6%) or risks (10%; p < 0.001).
Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Narciso, Fabrícia Mendes Silva; Oliveira, Daniela Matos Garcia; Coelho, Fernanda Matos; Souza, Danielle da Glória de; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa
Sarcopenia is a loss of muscle mass related to aging and leads to muscle performance decline. An increase in inflammatory mediator levels, especially of IL-6, has been associated to reduced muscle strength in the elderly. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to correlate IL-6 plasma levels with manual muscle strength (MMS) in 63 community-dwelling elderly women. (71.2+/-7.4years). IL-6 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MMS was measured using the JAMAR dynamometer. Pearson's test was used to explore the relationship between the outcomes at the significance level of alpha=0.05. IL-6 levels (2.56+/-3.44pg/ml) and MMS (22.86+/-4.62kgf) exhibited an inverse correlation (r=-0.2673 and p=0.0373). The increase in IL-6 plasma levels possibly contributed toward the reduction in manual muscle strength among the elderly women studied.
dos Santos, Glenda Dias; Chubaci, Rosa Yuka Sato
Early detection at the initial stage of breast cancer through mammography is the best way of reducing morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of this study was to establish awareness about breast cancer and mammography among elderly women, if they take the exam and discover the reasons that lead them to take the exam or not. A cross-sectional and exploratory study was conducted with 98 elderly women in three Senior Citizen Daycare Centers in São Paulo. With respect to awareness of mammography as the exam used for early detection of breast cancer, 55% of the women answered that they knew. The majority of these women (77.6%) had taken the exam and 22.4% had never done so. The reasons most frequently cited for taking a mammography were concern with health (53.8%) and medical recommendation (38.5%). The reasons for not taking the exam were not having a medical recommendation (50%), conviction that they will never have the illness (23.1%), didn't feel symptoms (19.2%) and fear (7.7%). This study showed that the subject of "breast cancer" is well known by the women, however mammography needs to be explained better. The fact that there are elderly women who have never submitted to the exam reveals the ongoing need to stage educational campaigns about breast cancer and the early detection exams.
Campobasso, Carlo P; Colonna, Massimo F; Carabellese, Felice; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Candelli, Chiara; Morton, Robert J; Catanesi, Roberto
Between 1995 and 1997, in the territories of Southern Italy, there were fifteen murders of elderly women over the age of 70 years old. Initially, however, not all the murders were attributed to a single serial killer. The majority of the victims were stabbed multiple times in the neck, except for three cases in which the cause of death was manual strangulation. There was evidence of sexual assault in only one of the cases. All the victims were discovered in their own apartments, which were located on the ground level, with no signs of forced entry. In most of the cases, the offender stole money and/or jewellery. A multi-disciplinary team reviewed the cases during the investigation and created a profile of the killer. The team determined that the method of operation was completely unusual for the local criminal element. They suggested that the perpetrator could be an immigrant, who committed the murders for sexual motivation and who may have been arrested previously for sex-related incidents. On 15th September 1997, a suspect was arrested. He was identified as Ben Mohamed Ezzedine Sebai, a 35-year-old white male, originally from Tunisia. He was charged and convicted of four of the murders and was given a life sentence. In 2005, Sebai confessed to the murders of four additional elderly women, for which nine other people had already been previously tried and convicted, among them, a man who committed suicide in jail. In 2007, Sebai finally confessed to committing fifteen murders that occurred between 1995 and 1997. Sebai also admitted to experiencing sexual gratification at every homicide scene, even though there was no physical proof at most of the crime scenes. The goal of this article is to illustrate a little-known but noteworthy case concerning a serial sexual killer of elderly women that occurred in Southern Italy, highlighting the method of operation, the victim selection process, and the injuries inflicted. The article will also discuss his motivation, the
Tatsuno, Ichiro; Terano, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Suzuki, Kiminori; Kubota, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Jyunichi; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Tanaka, Tomaki; Shozu, Makio
Osteoporosis causes an enormous health and economic impact in Japan. We investigated the relation between lifestyle and bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly women. This was a population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chiba City, Japan (Chiba bone survey). This survey included 64,809 Japanese women aged > 40 years. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements including bone mineral density (BMD) and completed a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administered questionnaire also including patient lifestyle. Bone fracture during the recent 5 years was observed in 5.3%, and the fracture group had significantly higher age, BMI, and prevalence of delivery, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, kidney disease, exercise, fall, and osteoporosis, and had significantly lower BMD and proportion of menstruating participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that bone fracture was closely associated with not only low bone mass but also age, fall, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, DM, kidney disease, menopause, and lifestyle factors of dieting, exercise, and alcohol. Women's health care focusing on lifestyle-related fracture risks such as dieting, exercise, and alcohol appears necessary to prevent bone fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Lantz, Paula M; Mullen, Jewel
This article presents an overview of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), a valuable and successful national public health program in the USA that will soon celebrate its 25th anniversary. Simulation modeling and other analyses have demonstrated that the NBCCEDP has significantly reduced breast and cervical cancer mortality among low-income uninsured and underinsured women in the USA, a major goal of the original legislation. The NBCCEDP has also served to build cancer prevention and control capacity in state and local health agencies and created strong and unique public-private partnerships aimed at improving women's health. As such, the impact of NBCCEDP extends beyond the millions of women served by the program to include increased public health system capacity and effectiveness regarding cancer early detection and control for all women.
Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan
The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care.
Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Kennedy, David P; Wallace, Steven P
Little is known about the family care of older adults in Mexico and the role of women in this process. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, this paper describes how a small sample of low-income women in one Mexico City neighborhood conceptualized the caregiver role and identified the forms of assistance they gave to their older relatives on a daily basis. A grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the data. Forty-one semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with female caregivers. The age of participants was between 19 and 83 years, and care recipients between 56 and 92 years. The relationship of caregiver to care recipient was wife, daughter, daughter-in-law, grand-daughter, sibling, and other relative. The mean length of time providing care was 5 years. Most participants were not employed outside the home, and the median monthly household income was 2000 pesos. We found that caregiving was a life-changing event, with 27 of 41 participants viewing themselves as guardians. Caregivers' emphasis was on care recipients' emotional needs in order to provide "the most precious gift" of "time and attention." Two forms of assistance were 'keeping company' and 'watching out' as safeguards against poor health or further decline in health. These findings increase the cultural understanding of caregiving in Mexico. Further research is needed to test the caregiving concepts identified in this study.
Mendez-Luck, Carolyn; Kennedy, David P; Wallace, Steven P
Little is known about the family care of older adults in Mexico and the role of women in this process. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, this paper describes how a small sample of low-income women in one Mexico City neighborhood conceptualized the caregiver role and identified the forms of assistance they gave to their older relatives on a daily basis. A grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the data. Forty-one semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with female caregivers. The age of participants was between 19 and 83 years, and care recipients between 56-92 years. The relationship of caregiver to care recipient was wife, daughter, daughter-in-law, granddaughter, sibling, and other relative. The mean length of time providing care was five years. Most participants were not employed outside the home, and the median monthly household income was 2,000 pesos. We found that caregiving was a life changing event, with 27 of 41 participants viewing themselves as guardians. Caregivers' emphasis was on care recipients' emotional needs in order to provide “the most precious gift” of “time and attention.” Two forms of assistance were ‘keeping company’ and ‘watching out’ as safeguards against poor health or further decline in health. These findings increase the cultural understanding of caregiving in Mexico. Further research is needed to test the caregiving concepts identified in this study. PMID:19028415
The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women’s Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women’s health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income—contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks—religion and clubs—among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and
Ardoino, Graciela I; Queirolo, Elena I; Barg, Gabriel; Ciccariello, Daniela A; Kordas, Katarzyna
We investigated the prevalence and predictors of depression in low-income mothers (n = 99) of young children from Uruguay. We administered the Beck Depression Scale (BDI) and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and asked who is responsible for the main tasks of parenting and household care. We found a high prevalence of moderate-to-severe depression (BDI >19 points, 31.3%), with women with t scores > 90 on the PSI being seven times more likely to experience moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms than women with lower PSI scores (p <.01). This is the first investigation of the predictors of depression in urban Uruguayan mothers of low socioeconomic status.
Vision, proprioception and plantar sensation contribute to the control of postural balance (PB). Reduced plantar sensation alters postural response and is at an increased risk of fall, and eye movements reduce the postural sway. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the improvement of plantar sensation and PB after saccadic eye movement (SEM) and pursuit eye movement (PEM) in community-dwelling elderly women. Participants (104 females; 75.11 ± 6.25 years) were randomly allocated into the SEM group (n = 52) and PEM groups (n = 52). The SEM group performed eye fixation and SEM for 5 minutes, and the PEM group performed eye fixation and PEM for 5 minutes. The plantar sensation was measured according to the plantar surface area of the feet in contact with the floor surface before and after the intervention. Before and after SEM and PEM with the eyes open and closed, PB was measured as the area (mm(2)), length (cm), and velocity (cm/s) of the fluctuation of the center of pressure (COP). The plantar sensation of both feet improved in both groups (p < 0.01). Significant decreases in the area, length, and velocity of the COP were observed in the eye open and close in both groups (p < 0.01). The length and velocity of the COP significantly decreased in the SEM group compared to the PEM group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SEM and PEM are effective interventions for improving plantar sensation and PB in elderly women, with greater PB improvement after SEM.
Lee, Hyo-Cheol; Lee, Mi Lim; Kim, Seon-Rye
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an exercise intervention on the balance ability and muscle function of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly divided into a control group (n=10) and an exercise group (n=10). [Methods] The subjects participated in an elastic band exercise program lasting for 8 weeks, exercising for 40 minutes, four days a week with resting terms of 60 sec. Subjects used a band corresponding to 60% of the strength of the color band with which repetitive exercise was possible up to twelve times. The subjects performed elastic band exercises, with variations to the number of band exercises according to the improvement of their physical fitness levels. When fifteen repetitive elastic band exercises could be performed with no damage of the body, we changed the band for one which was one level up from the former one and subjects used the same band for the upper body and lower body. [Results] Leg muscular strength measured as sit-stand repetitions in 30 s significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. Leg muscular endurance measured as the number of knee ups in 2 minutes significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. Balance measured by one-leg standing time with the eyes open significantly improved in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. [Conclusion] Balance ability and muscle function significantly improved in the exercise group and showing that the intervention is effective at improving balance, muscle strength, and muscle endurance of elderly women. PMID:25995539
Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William; Castro, Nancy P.
Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1), mental health (MHI-5), blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition. PMID:27752266
Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William; Castro, Nancy P
Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1), mental health (MHI-5), blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition.
Mueller, Matthias; Breil, Fabio Andreas; Lurman, Glenn; Klossner, Stephan; Flück, Martin; Billeter, Rudolf; Däpp, Christoph; Hoppeler, Hans
Reprogramming of gene expression contributes to structural and functional adaptation of muscle tissue in response to altered use. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms for observed improvements in leg extension strength, gain in relative thigh muscle mass and loss of body and thigh fat content in response to eccentric and conventional strength training in elderly men (n = 14) and women (n = 14; average age of the men and women: 80.1 ± 3.7 years) by means of structural and molecular analyses. Biopsies were collected from m. vastus lateralis in the resting state before and after 12 weeks of training with two weekly resistance exercise sessions (RET) or eccentric ergometer sessions (EET). Gene expression was analyzed using custom-designed low-density PCR arrays. Muscle ultrastructure was evaluated using EM morphometry. Gain in thigh muscle mass was paralleled by an increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area (hypertrophy) with RET but not with EET, where muscle growth is likely occurring by the addition of sarcomeres in series or by hyperplasia. The expression of transcripts encoding factors involved in muscle growth, repair and remodeling (e.g., IGF-1, HGF, MYOG, MYH3) was increased to a larger extent after EET than RET. MicroRNA 1 expression was decreased independent of the training modality, and was paralleled by an increased expression of IGF-1 representing a potential target. IGF-1 is a potent promoter of muscle growth, and its regulation by microRNA 1 may have contributed to the gain of muscle mass observed in our subjects. EET depressed genes encoding mitochondrial and metabolic transcripts. The changes of several metabolic and mitochondrial transcripts correlated significantly with changes in mitochondrial volume density. Intramyocellular lipid content was decreased after EET concomitantly with total body fat. Changes in intramyocellular lipid content correlated with changes in body fat content with both RET and EET. In the elderly, RET and
Rahman, Atif; Sikander, Siham; Malik, Abid; Ahmed, Ikhlaque; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis
Background Poverty may moderate the effect of treatment of depression in low-income countries. Aims To assess poverty and lack of empowerment as moderators of a cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT)-based intervention for perinatal depression in rural Pakistan. Method Using secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial (trial registration: ISRCTN65316374) we identified predictors of depression at 1-year follow-up and moderators of the intervention (n = 791). Results Predictors of follow-up depression included household debt, the participant not being empowered to manage household finance and the interaction terms for these variables with the trial arm. Effect sizes for women with and without household debt were 0.80 and 0.55 respectively. The effect size for women in debt and not empowered financially was 0.94 compared with 0.50 for women with neither of these factors. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the importance of household debt and lack of financial empowerment of women as important maintaining factors of depression in low-income countries and our locally developed intervention tackled these problems successfully. PMID:23137731
Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.
Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the…
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of muscle mass and bone mineral density on markers of mobility in dwelling elderly women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 99 elderly women, who were 65 years old or above, in Campinas-SP, Brazil. To collect data, we used sociodemographic data, the body mass index (BMI), health status, comorbidities, use of medications, mobility tests (TUG and gait speed) and examinations of the body composition (densitometry with dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry “DXA”). In order to examine the relationship between muscle and bone mass with mobility (gait speed and TUG), we applied the Spearman correlation coefficient. Also was applied the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for age and comorbidities. To identify the factors associated with mobility, we used the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The level of significance for statistical tests was P < 0.05. Results The correlation between sarcopenia and bone mineral density with mobility tests showed a significant relationship only between sarcopenia and TUG (r = 0.277, P = 0.006) in Spearman correlation coefficient. The result of the correlation analysis (ANCOVA) showed that sarcopenia was associated with gait speed (r2 = 0.0636, P = 0.0018) and TUG (r2 = 0.0898, P = 0.0027). The results of the multivariate analysis showed that age (P = 0.034, OR = 1.081) was associated with worse performance on gait speed. By highlighting the TUG test, the results of the multivariate analysis showed that the age (P = 0.004, OR = 1.111) and BMI in overweight (P = 0.011, OR = 7.83) and obese (P < 0.001, OR = 7.84) women were associated with lower performance of the functionality of the lower limbs. Conclusion The findings with regard to mobility tests which were analyzed in this study indicate the association of variables related to the aging process that contribute to the
Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira
The aim of this study was to understand the meanings of acceptance attributed to pregnancy and their influence on the eating behavior of pregnant women attending a health unit located in a low-income neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a qualitative approach with social representations as the analytical category. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with adolescent and adult pregnant women (primiparous or multiparous) in different stages of pregnancy. Discourse analysis drew on in-depth hermeneutics, using thematic analysis as the main technical resource. Two representational categories emerged from the set of discourses, namely accepting versus not accepting the pregnancy, which involved different eating behaviors. In the former, women tended to either eat adequately or overeat. For the latter, not accepting the pregnancy was associated with denial of eating, temporarily or throughout the pregnancy.
Lange, Brittany C L; Dáu, Ana Luísa B T; Goldblum, Joanne; Alfano, Janet; Smith, Megan V
This study sought to operationalize poverty in the context of parenting specific to a sample of low-income mothers; to examine how mothers describe sources of stress related to poverty; and to explore how these experiences affect mothers' parenting practices. Mothers trained in research methods administered surveys to other mothers in community settings assessing parenting stressors, mental wellbeing, basic needs, and goals. Women reported difficulty obtaining basic needs. Qualitatively, women described financial hardship, housing, employment status, and transportation as sources of stress, which influenced their parenting practices. These findings connect a mother's inability to meet her basic needs with parenting quality, and suggest that programs promoting early childhood development through building the capacity of parents must focus on basic needs and strategies to alleviate poverty. Healthcare providers may be able to glean specific terminology utilized by women when they inquire about basic needs and form partnerships with basic needs providers.
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Hansen, Nathan B; Sullivan, Tami P
Posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from intimate partner violence (IPV-related PTSD), drug problems, and alcohol problems were tested as correlates of women's sexual risk behavior. Participants were 136 low-income women experiencing physical violence by a male partner during the past 6 months. Sexual risk behavior was assessed by whether women had unprotected sex with a risky primary partner (i.e., HIV-positive, injection drug user, and/or nonmonogamous), unprotected sex with a risky nonprimary partner (i.e. HIV-positive or unknown status), or traded sex during the past 6 months. Nearly one in five women engaged in these recent sexual risk behaviors. Simultaneous logistic regression results revealed IPV-related PTSD, but not drug or alcohol problems, was significantly associated with sexual risk behavior while controlling for childhood abuse and demographic covariates. Women with IPV-related PTSD had four times greater odds of recent sexual risk behavior compared to women without IPV-related PTSD. Implications for HIV prevention interventions are discussed.
Ivey, Kerry L.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Lim, Wai H.; Lim, Ee M.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.; Prince, Richard L.
Background Progression to chronic renal failure involves accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction play a role in renal failure pathophysiology. In addition to improving vascular health and function, proanthocyanidins have been shown to exert renoprotective effects in animal models. Thus we hypothesize that proanthocyanidins may contribute to the maintenance of healthy renal function. Objective Determine the association of habitual proanthocyanidin intake with renal function and the risk of clinical renal outcomes in a population of elderly women. Design 948 women aged over 75 y, free of prevalent renal disease at baseline, were randomly selected from ambulant Caucasian women. Proanthocyanidin consumption was determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the United States Department of Agriculture proanthocyanidin food content database. Fasting serum cystatin C and creatinine were assessed at baseline. Renal failure hospitalisations and deaths were assessed over 5 years of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. Results Compared to participants with low consumption, participants in the highest tertile of proanthocyanidin intake had a 9% lower cystatin C concentration (P<0.001). High proanthocyanidin consumers were at 50% lower risk of moderate chronic kidney insufficiency, and 65% lower risk of experiencing a 5-year renal disease event (P<0.05). These relationships remained significant following adjustment for renal disease risk factors and diet-related potential confounders. Conclusion Increased consumption of proanthocyanidins was associated with better renal function and substantially reduced renal associated events, which has been supported by mechanistic and animal model data. Proanthocyanidin intake should be further examined as a dietary contributor to better renal health. PMID:23940710
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Berr, Claudine; Ritchie, Karen; Kang, Jae H.
Background Persons with vascular disorders are at higher risk of cognitive decline. Objective To determine whether caffeine may be associated with cognitive decline reduction in elderly at high vascular risk. Methods We included 2475 women aged 65+ years in the Women’s Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, a randomized trial of antioxidants and B vitamins for cardiovascular disease secondary prevention. We ascertained regular caffeine intake at baseline (1995–1996) using a validated 116 item-food frequency questionnaire. From 1998–2000 to 2005–2006, we administered four telephone cognitive assessments at two-year intervals evaluating global cognition, verbal memory and category fluency. The primary outcome was the change in global cognitive score, which was the average of the z-scores of all tests. We used generalized linear models for repeated measures that were adjusted for various sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors to evaluate the difference in cognitive decline rates across quintiles of caffeine intake. Results We observed significantly slower rates of cognitive decline with increasing caffeine intake (p-trend=0.02). The rate difference between the highest and lowest quintiles of usual caffeine intake (> 371 versus < 30 mg/day) was equivalent to that observed between those who were 7 years apart in age (p=0.006). Consumption of caffeinated coffee was significantly related to slower cognitive decline (p-trend=0.05), but not other caffeinated products (e.g., decaf, tea, cola, chocolate). We conducted interaction analyses and observed stronger associations in women assigned to vitamin B supplementation (p-interaction = 0.02). Conclusions Caffeine intake was related to moderately better cognitive maintenance over 5 years in older women with vascular disorders. PMID:23422357
Vassão, P G; Toma, R L; Antunes, H K M; Tucci, H T; Renno, A C M
Aging is responsible by a series of morphological and functional modifications that lead to a decline of muscle function, particularly in females. Muscle tissue in elderly people is more susceptible to fatigue and, consequently, to an increased inability to maintain strength and motor control. In this context, therapeutic approaches able of attenuating muscle fatigue have been investigated. Among these, the photobiomodulation demonstrate positive results to interacts with biological tissues, promoting the increase in cell energy production. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of photobiomodulation (808 nm, 250 J/cm(2), 100 mW, 7 J each point) in the fatigue level and muscle performance in elderly women. Thirty subjects entered a crossover randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Photobiomodulation was delivered on the rectus femoris muscle of the dominant limb immediately before the fatigue protocol. In both sessions, peripheral muscle fatigue was analyzed by surface electromyography (EMG) and blood lactate analysis. Muscle performance was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. The results showed that photobiomodulation was able of reducing muscle fatigue by a significant increase of electromyographic fatigue index (EFI) (p = 0.047) and decreasing significantly lactate concentration 6 min after the performance of the fatigue protocol (p = 0. 0006) compared the placebo laser session. However, the photobiomodulation was not able of increasing muscle performance measured by the isokinetic dynamometer. Thus, it can be conclude that the photobiomodulation was effective in reducing fatigue levels. However, no effects of photobiomodulation on muscle performance was observed.
Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth
We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men. PMID:21486518
Li, Kaigang; Davison, Kirsten K; Jurkowski, Janine M
The authors in this cross-sectional study examined mental health and family environmental factors related to a sedentary lifestyle, including lack of leisure-time physical activity and high levels of television viewing, among low-income mothers/female guardians of preschool-aged children. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 131 mothers in 2010. Primary outcome measures included television viewing time (minutes/day) and leisure-time physical activity (<150 versus ≥150 minutes per week). Independent variables included depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and family functioning. Demographic factors (age, marriage, work status, education, number of children in the household, and race/ethnicity) were examined as potential covariates. Participating women watched television on average 186.1 minutes/day (i.e., >3 hours). Additionally, 36% of women engaged in less than the recommended 150-minute leisure-time physical activity per week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater depressive symptoms (B = 76.4, p < 0.01) and lower family functioning (B = 33.0, p < 0.05) were independently related to greater television viewing when controlling for other variables. No independent factors were identified for lack of leisure-time physical activity when controlling for other covariates. Findings suggest that health promotion efforts to promote an active lifestyle among low-income women with young children should address mental health and family functioning factors, especially depressive symptoms.
de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; Maranhao Neto, Geraldo Albuquerque; Moraes, Helena; Emerick, Raphael Fonseca e Silva; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz
Elderly individuals undergo a progressive decline in functional capacity related to increased risk of dependency, loss of autonomy, and frailty. A lower cardiorespiratory fitness level is associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality from all causes. The Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ) was developed to facilitate prediction of the exercise capacity in older people with cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the VSAQ and functional capacity in elderly women. This study investigated the relationship between functional capacity and the estimated cardiovascular capacity in elderly women, as assessed by the VSAQ. In this descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 37 healthy elderly women (aged 70 ± 7 years). The assessment protocols used were the following: Anamnesis, VSAQ and nomogram (age adjusted), Senior Fitness Test (30-s chair stand, to assess lower-body strength; 8-foot up-and-go test, to assess agility-dynamic balance; and 2-min step test, to assess aerobic endurance). The Spearman test showed a significant correlation (p<0.001) between the functional tests and the VSAQ (8-foot up-and-go test rs=-0.715; 2-min step test rs=0.567; 30-s chair stand rs=0.582). Adjustment of the results by age improved the correlation (8-foot up-and-go test rs=-0.760; 2-min step test rs=0.627; 30-s chair stand rs=0.601). The VSAQ seems to be a simple way to estimate functional capacity, particularly in older women.
Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Alesi, Marianna; Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio
Background Several studies have shown the positive effects of adapted physical activity (APA) on physical and mental health (MH) during the lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific APA intervention program in the improvement of the health-related quality of life (QOL) and functional condition of spine in elderly women. Methods Thirty women were recruited from a senior center and randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG; age: 69.69±7.94 years, height: 1.57±0.06 m, weight: 68.42±8.18 kg, body mass index [BMI]: 27.88±2.81) and trained group (TG; age: 68.35±6.04 years, height: 1.55±0.05 m, weight: 64.78±10.16 kg, BMI: 26.98±3.07). The APA program was conducted for 8 weeks, with two training sessions/week. CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Spinal angles were evaluated by SpinalMouse® (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland); health-related QOL was evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey, which assesses physical component summary (PCS-36), mental component summary (MCS-36), and eight subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perception, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, and MH. All measures were recorded before and after the experimental period. Results In TG, compared to CG, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a relevant improvement in lumbar spinal angle (°) and in SF-36 outcomes after the intervention period. We showed a significant increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and MH subscales and in PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores in TG compared to CG. In particular, from baseline to posttest, we found that in TG, the PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores increased by 13.20% and 11.64%, respectively. Conclusion We believe that an 8-week APA intervention program is able to improve psychophysical heath in elderly people. During the aging process, a dynamic lifestyle, including regular physical activity, is a crucial
Gentry, Quinn M.; Elifson, Kirk; Sterk, Claire
The purpose of this study was to examine how various living conditions impact the context within which low-income African American women engage in a diverse range of high-risk behavior that increases their risk for HIV infection. The study, based on 2 years of ethnographic fieldwork, analyzed the living conditions of 45 African American women at…
This article suggests a heuristic framework for understanding elderly women's "lived experience" of lifelong intimate partner violence (IPV). This framework is based on the phenomenological qualitative studies of 31 women, aged 60-83, using a semistructured interview guide. From the results, a matrix emerged built on two axes. The first axis consists of three phenomenological dimensions: suffering, a "ticking clock," and life wisdom. The second axis consists of four themes that emerged from the content analysis: loneliness, regret, being in a state of waiting, and being a living monument to perpetual victimhood. The practical implications of these phenomenological findings are then discussed.
Yoo, Ha-Na; Chung, Eunjung; Lee, Byoung-Hee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 elderly women, who were randomly divided into two groups: an augmented reality-based Otago exercise group of 10 subjects and an Otago exercise group of 11 subjects. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length), and falls efficacy. Within 12 weeks, Otago exercise for muscle strengthening and balance training was conducted three times, for a period of 60 minutes each, and subjects in the experimental group performed augmented reality-based Otago exercise. [Results] Following intervention, the augmented reality-based Otago exercise group showed significant increases in BBS, velocity, cadence, step length (right side), stride length (right side and left side) and falls efficacy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of this augmented reality-based Otago exercise for elderly women.
Lins, Tulio C.; Pires, Alause S.; Paula, Roberta S.; Moraes, Clayton F.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Vianna, Lucy G.; Nobrega, Otávio T.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.
The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%), Native American (25.78%) and African (16.73%). Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037) and obesity (mean difference (MD) = 5.3%; p = 0.042). African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035), VLDL (r = −0.185; p = 0.014), hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003) and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026). Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047) and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039). These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women. PMID:23055794
Shidhaye, Rahul; Mendenhall, Emily; Sumathipala, Kethakie; Sumathipala, Athula; Patel, Vikram
Background Across cultures, women are more likely than men to report somatoform disorders (SD), depression and anxiety. The aim of this article is to describe the co-morbidity of SD with depression/anxiety and to investigate the possible mechanisms of this relationship in women in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Methods We reviewed two databases: Medline and PsychINFO from 1994 to 2012 for studies which assessed the association between any SD and depression/ anxiety in women from LMIC. Our focus was on community and primary health care based studies. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Results 21 studies covering eight LMICs were included in our analysis. Our findings suggest a strong association between SD and depression/anxiety (with odds ratios ranging from 2.5-3.5), though we also observed that the majority of women with SD did not have depression/anxiety. The likely mechanisms for this association are multidimensional, and may include shared etiologies, that both conditions are in fact variants of the same primary mental disorder, and that one disorder is a risk factor for the other. Anthropological research offers a number of frameworks through which we can view these mechanisms. Conclusion The current evidence indicates that service providers at the primary care level should be sensitized to consider SD in women as variants of CMD and address both groups of disorders concurrently. Further research should explicitly seek to unpack the mechanisms of the relationship between SD and CMD. PMID:23383668
Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Johnston, Larry F; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Lindsley, Sara C; Bramble, Kathy P; Hardy, Trisha E; Ammerman, Alice S; Poindexter, Patricia A; Will, Julie C; Keyserling, Thomas C
Low-income women in the United States have the highest rates of obesity, yet they are seldom included in weight loss trials. To address this research gap, components of two evidence-based weight loss interventions were adapted to create a 16-week intervention for low-income women (Weight Wise Program), which was evaluated in a randomized trial with the primary outcome of weight loss at 5-month follow-up. Participants were low-income women (40-64 years) with a BMI of 25-45. Of 143 participants, 72 were randomized to the Weight Wise Program (WWP) and 71 to the Control Group (CG). Five-month follow-up data were obtained from 64 (89%) WWP and 62 (87%) CG participants. With baseline values carried forward for missing data, WWP participants had a weight change of -3.7 kg compared to 0.7 kg in the CG (4.4 kg difference, 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2-5.5, P<0.001). For systolic blood pressure (SBP), change in the WWP was -6.5 mm Hg compared to -0.4 mm Hg among controls (6.2 mm Hg difference, 95% CI, 1.7-10.6, P=0.007); for diastolic BP (DBP), changes were -4.1 mm Hg for WWP compared to -1.3 mm Hg for controls (2.8 mm Hg difference, 95% CI, 0.0-5.5, P=0.05). Of the 72 WWP participants, 64, 47, and 19% lost at least 3, 5, and 7% of their initial body weight, respectively. In conclusion, the WWP was associated with statistically significant and clinically important short-term weight loss.
Gutiérrez-Gómez, Tranquilina; Cortés, Ernesto; Peñarrieta-de Córdova, Isabel; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco; Ferrer-Diego, Rosa María
Of the numerous instruments available to detect nutritional risk, the most widely used is the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), but it takes 15–20 min to complete and its systematic administration in primary care units is not feasible in practice. We developed a tool to evaluate malnutrition risk that can be completed more rapidly using just clinical variables. Between 2008 and 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 418 women aged ≥60 years from Mexico. Our outcome was positive MNA and our secondary variables included were: physical activity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, educational level, dentition, psychological problems, living arrangements, history of falls, age and the number of tablets taken daily. The sample was divided randomly into two groups: construction and validation. Construction: a risk table was constructed to estimate the likelihood of the outcome, and risk groups were formed. Validation: the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated and we compared the expected and the observed outcomes. The following risk factors were identified: physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, dentition, psychological problems and living with the family. The AUC was 0.77 (95% CI [0.68–0.86], p < 0.001). No differences were found between the expected and the observed outcomes (p = 0.902). This study presents a new malnutrition screening test for use in elderly women. The test is based on six very simple, quick and easy-to-evaluate questions, enabling the MNA to be reserved for confirmation. However, it should be used with caution until validation studies have been performed in other geographical areas. PMID:26500824
Lee, Inhwan; Cho, Jinkyung; Jin, Youngyun; Ha, Changduk; Kim, Taehee; Kang, Hyunsik
This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and a binary logistic regression. Pearson correlation analyses showed that total neck/femur BMD was positively associated with weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and objectively-measured physical activities. ASM was positively associated with body fatness. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was substantially attenuated but remained marginally significant when adjusted for age and postmenopausal period (OR = 2.370 and p = 0.050). However, the OR was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for body fatness (OR = 2.218 and p = 0.117) and physical activity (OR = 1.240 and p = 0.448). The findings of the study showed that, in this sample of elderly Korean women, modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as body fatness and physical inactivity played an important role in determining the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Key points Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major health conditions responsible for an increased risk of bone fractures and reduced functional capacity, respectively, in older adults. We investigated whether lifestyle-related risk factors modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older Korean adults. The current findings of the study suggest that physical activity and
Rodacki, André L F; Souza, Ricardo M; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Cristopoliski, Fabiano; Fowler, Neil E
This study aimed to analyse the effects of a single stretching exercise session on a number of gait parameters in elderly participants in an attempt to determine whether these exercises can influence the risk of fall. Fifteen healthy women living in the community volunteered to participate in the study. A kinematic gait analysis was performed immediately before and after a session of static stretching exercises applied on hip flexor/extensor muscles. Results showed a significant influence of stretching exercises on a number of gait parameters, which have previously been proposed as fall predictors. Participants showed increased gait velocity, greater step length and reduced double support time during stance after performing stretching exercises, suggesting improved stability and mobility. Changes around the pelvis (increased anterior-posterior tilt and rotation range of motion) resulting from the stretching exercises were suggested to influence the gait parameters (velocity, step length and double support time). Therefore, stretching exercises were shown to be a promising strategy to facilitate changes in gait parameters related to the risk of fall. Some other gait variables related to the risk of fall remained unaltered (e.g., toe clearance). The stable pattern of segmental angular velocities was proposed to explain the stability of these unchanged gait variables. The results indicate that stretching exercises, performed on a regular (daily) basis, result in gait adaptations which can be considered as indicative of reduced fall risk. Other studies to determine whether regular stretching routines are an effective strategy to reduce the risk of fall are required.
Shu, Janet E; Huang, Hsiang; Menezes, Paulo R; Faisal-Cury, Alexandre
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug during the perinatal period and has potential risks to the fetus. The purpose of this study is to estimate the 1-year prevalence of cannabis use and identify associated factors for a population of low-income pregnant women in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 831 women surveyed using a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and substance use history. The 1-year prevalence of antenatal cannabis use was 4.2 %; reported lifetime use was 9.6 %. The presence of a common mental disorder and active tobacco smoking were independently associated with cannabis use, OR = 3.3 (95 % CI 1.65-6.59) and OR = 6.89 (95 % CI 3.45-13.8), respectively.
An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.
Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.
This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…
Ogunwale, Abayomi N; Coleman, Maame Aba; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Valverde, Ivan; Montealegre, Jane; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Anderson, Matthew L
Very little is currently known about factors impacting the prevalence of cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV-AIDS (WLHA). To better understand this issue, we surveyed low-income, medically underserved women receiving subsidized gynecologic care through an integrated HIV clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 209 women who self-identified as HIV positive. A total of 179 subjects (85.7%) reported having had a Pap test in the last three years. The majority of WLHA (95%) knew that the Pap test screens for cervical cancer. However, overall knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, such as multiple sexual partners or sex with a man with multiple partners, was low (43% and 35%, respectively). Unscreened women were younger and more likely to be single with multiple current sexual partners. In multivariable analyses, the only factors associated with Pap testing were a woman's perception that her partner wants her to receive regular screening (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 1.15-23.76; p = .04), number of clinic visits during the past year (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05-1.94; p = .04) and knowledge that the need for a Pap test does not depend on whether or not a woman is experiencing vaginal bleeding (aOR 6.52, 95% CI: 1.04-49.71; p = .05). We conclude that support from male partners in addition to effective contact with the health system and knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors influence Pap utilization among low-income WLHA. Future measures to improve the care for this population should increase knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and encourage social support for cervical cancer screening among WLHA.
Bruce, E N; Bruce, M C; Ramanand, P; Hayes, D
Arousals are often considered to be events which have an abrupt onset and offset, indicating abrupt changes in the state of the cortex. We hypothesized that cortical state, as reflected in electroencephalograph (EEG) signals, exhibits progressive systematic changes before and after a spontaneous, isolated arousal and that the time courses of the spectral components of the EEG before and after an arousal would differ between healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects. We analyzed the power spectrum and Sample Entropy of the C3A2 EEG before and after isolated arousals from 20 middle-aged (47.2±2.0 years) and 20 elderly (78.4±3.8 years) women using polysomnograms from the Sleep Heart Health Study database. In middle-aged women, all EEG spectral band powers <16 Hz exhibited a significant increase relative to baseline at some time in the 21 s before an arousal, but only low- (0.2-2.0 Hz) and high-frequency (2.0-4.0 Hz) delta increased in elderly and only during the last 7 s pre-arousal. Post-arousal, all frequency bands below 12 Hz transiently fell below pre-arousal baseline in both age groups. Consistent with these findings, Sample Entropy decreased steadily before an arousal, increased markedly during the arousal, and remained above pre-arousal baseline levels for ∼30 s after the arousal. In middle-aged, but not in elderly, women the presence of early pre-arousal low delta power was associated with shorter arousals. We propose that this attenuation of the effect of the arousing stimulus may be related to the slow (<1 Hz) cortical state oscillation, and that prolonged alterations of cortical state due to arousals may contribute to the poor correlation between indices of arousals and indices of sleepiness or impaired cognitive function.
Ramanathan, Meena; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Trakroo, Madanmohan
Aim and Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of yoga on the mental health status of elderly women inmates residing in a hospice in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: Forty elderly women were randomly divided into yoga and wait-listed control group. A yoga therapy program of 60 min was given twice a week for 12 weeks. This protocol was specially designed for senior citizens, keeping in mind their health status and physical limitations that included simple warm-up and breath-body movement coordination practices (jathis and kriyas), static stretching postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayamas), and relaxation. Hamilton anxiety scale for measuring anxiety, Hamilton rating scale for depression, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure self-esteem were administered to both groups before and after the 12-week study period. Data were assessed for normality, and appropriate parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were applied for intra- and inter-group comparisons. Results: Overall, intra- and inter-group comparison of prepost data showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) differences for all three parameters. There was an overall improvement in the scores indicating decreased levels of depression and anxiety coupled with an increase in the level of self-esteem after the yoga therapy program. Discussion: The influence of yoga in the reduction of depression and anxiety scores and improvement in self-esteem scores in elderly women subjects is evident from this study. As reported in earlier studies, this may be attributed to changes in central neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric-acid coupled with increased parasympathetic tone and decreased sympatho-adrenal activity. Conclusion: It is recommended that yoga should be a part of health-care facilities for elderly as it can enhance the quality of life by improving their overall mental health status. It could provide a healthy and positive alternative from depressing
Murata, Chiyoe; Yamada, Tetsuji; Chen, Chia-Ching; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori
Japan is undergoing a set of health care reforms aimed at cutting rising health care costs and increasing the efficiency of health care delivery. This empirical study used a large-scale community survey on 15,302 elderly people 65 years and older (56.0% women) conducted in seven municipalities in 2006, to reveal clear-cut evidence of barriers to necessary care. The reasons for not getting health care is attributed to health care cost for the elderly with lower income, while higher income counterparts reported being busy or having a condition not serious enough to seek care. PMID:20617033
Anderson, Emily E.; Tejeda, Silvia; Childers, Kimberly; Stolley, Melinda R.; Warnecke, Richard B.; Hoskins, Kent F.
Purpose: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends identifying candidates for breast cancer (BC) chemoprevention and referring them for genetic counseling as part of routine care. Little is known about the feasibility of implementing these recommendations or how low-income women of color might respond to individualized risk assessment (IRA) performed by primary care providers (PCPs). Methods: Women recruited from a federally qualified health center were given the option to discuss BC risk status with their PCP. Comprehensive IRA was performed using a software tool designed for the primary care environment combining three assessment instruments and providing risk-adapted recommendations for screening, prevention, and genetic referral. Logistic regression models assessed factors associated with wanting to learn and discuss BC risk with PCP. Results: Of 237 participants, only 12.7% (n = 30) did not want to discuss IRA results with their PCP. Factors associated with lower odds of wanting to learn results included having private insurance and reporting ever having had a mammogram. Factors associated with higher odds of wanting to learn results included older age (50 to 69 years) and increased BC worry. For all women wishing to learn results, IRA was successfully completed and delivered to the PCP immediately before the encounter for incorporation into the well-visit evaluation. Conclusion: Incorporation of US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations as part of routine primary care is feasible. Interest in IRA seems high among underserved women. This approach warrants further investigation as a strategy for addressing disparities in BC mortality. PMID:26036266
Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K
Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.
... peaking in the middle adulthood, ages 45-49). • Firearms were the most common means (72.1%) used for completing suicide among the elderly. Men use firearms more often than women. • Alcohol or substance abuse ...
Lino, Valéria Teresa Saraiva; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; Atie, Soraya; Lima, Maria José Barbosa; Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Andrade, Mônica Kramer de Noronha
Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and a leading cause of disability worldwide. It constitutes a serious public health problem, particularly among elderly individuals. Most depressed elderly patients are treated by primary care (PC) physicians. The “Patient Health Questionnaire” (PHQ-2) is an instrument used for the detection of depression in PC settings. Objective Evaluate the performance of the PHQ-2 in a low-income and uneducated elderly PC population. Methods A non-probabilistic population sample of 142 individuals was selected from the healthcare unit's users ≧60 years. Criterion validity was assessed by estimating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PHQ-2 in comparison with the structured interview using the DSM-IV. The estimates of sensitivity and specificity were obtained from varying cut-offs of the PHQ-2 score. A Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Results The group was predominantly female (73.9%), with low education level (mean 3 years of schooling). The mean age was 72.5 years old. The prevalence of depression was 26.1%. The best values of sensitivity (0.74), specificity (0.77), PPV (0.50) e NPV (0.90) were obtained with score equal to 1. The AUC was 0.77, indicating a modest performance of the test accuracy. Conclusion The simplicity of the PHQ-2 is an advantage for its use in PC. The high NPV indicated that 90% of those who tested negative would not need additional tests. However, the low PPV indicated that the PHQ-2 is not sufficient to screen for depression. The application of the instrument could be the first step of the screening, that would include a second step to all those with positive tests formerly. PMID:25473845
Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Lopez, Veronica; Flores, Bianca; Lawhon, Brittany
Nutrition in early childhood can significantly impact physical and mental health outcomes for children. However, research on broadly defined pre/postnatal nutrition interventions is sparse. The present study is a process and outcome evaluation of a primary care-based nutrition intervention targeting low-income Hispanic women. Pregnant women enrolled in the program were in their first trimester and received services through their 6-month well child check. The program provided vouchers for fruits and vegetables from the local farmers' market, nutrition classes, cooking classes, and lactation counseling. We conducted a prospective study of program participants (n = 32) and a comparable group of women for whom the program was not available (n = 29). Panel survey data measured maternal diet, exercise, stress, depression, social support, infant feeding practices, and demographics. Outcome measures obtained from medical records included pregnancy weight gain, infant weight at 6 and 12 months, and infant development at 9 months. Findings reveal that the program was not associated with infant weights. However, despite similar profiles at baseline, women in the intervention group were more likely than women in the comparison group to have significant improvements in diet, exercise, and depression (p ≤ .05). In addition, participants were more likely to breastfeed (p = .07) and their infants were more likely to pass the ages and stages developmental screen (p = .06) than women in the comparison group. The study was limited by a lack of random assignment and small samples. However, the breadth and size of the effects suggest pre/postnatal nutrition interventions integrated into primary care warrant additional investigation.
Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela
Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families.
Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Berenson, Abbey B.
Objective To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. Methods we conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16–40 year old women (n=1057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Results The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0–15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P<.001). Obese women (P=.002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P=.030), and some college hours/degree (P<.001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.18), switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Conclusions Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404
Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Magnuson, Katherine; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.
This paper uses data from 2 randomized evaluations of welfare-to-work programs--the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies--to estimate the effect of employment on domestic abuse among low-income single mothers. Unique to our analysis is the application of a 2-stage least squares method, in…
Jung, Dae-In; Ko, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Mi-Ae
[Purpose] This study evaluated the changes in balance ability and obstacle gait after lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo WiiTM Sports in elderly at risk for falls. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four elderly women with at risk for falls were randomly divided into the control, lumbar stabilization exercise, and Nintendo Wii Sports groups. Static balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test, dynamic balance by the timed up-and-go test, and obstacle negotiation function by crossing velocity and maximum vertical heel clearance. [Results] Both the lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo Wii Sports groups showed significant improvements in obstacle negotiation function after the exercise compared to the control group. Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test scores were greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group, while the timed up-and-go test time was significantly better in the Nintendo Wii Sports groups. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercises and Nintendo Wii Sports improve falling related balance and obstacle negotiation function in elderly women at risk for falls. PMID:26157228
Conklin, Annalijn I.; Ponce, Ninez A.; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody
Objectives To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24–49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. Results We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). Conclusion This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity. PMID:26963247
Zarate-Abbott, Perla; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Mahon, Marveen; Allwein, David; Cook, Jennifer; Mikan, Vanessa; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Sethness, Renee; Muñoz, Laura; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine
Addressing health disparities for vulnerable populations in the United States is a national goal. Immigrant Hispanic women, at increased risk for heart disease, face obstacles in receiving adequate health care. Health promotion, especially for Hispanic women, is hindered by language, access to care, lack of insurance, and cultural factors. Innovative health education approaches are needed to reach this population. This article describes the development and evaluation of a culturally sensitive cardiac health education program based on findings from a study of 21 older immigrant Hispanic women employed as housekeepers at a small university in south Texas. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures had decreased 17 months after the intervention.
Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Leal Md, Maria do Carmo
This paper compares socioeconomic characteristics, prenatal care, and life styles of three groups of post-partum women, one consisting of adolescents (< 20 years) and the other two of women 20-34 years old, classified according to their history of pregnancy during adolescence. A sample of 3,508 post-partum women was selected from public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and interviewed just after childbirth. To verify the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions, chi-square tests (chi2) were used. Comparing the three groups, the most adverse conditions were found among the 20-34-year-old mothers with a history of pregnancy during adolescence. These women have the least schooling, the highest rates of smoking and use of illegal drugs during pregnancy, and the fewest prenatal appointments. According to this study, prenatal care proved to be an effective compensatory policy for the prevention of prematurity and low birth weight, especially among adolescent mothers.
Sousa, Renata M; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Jotheeswaran, AT; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Pichardo, Guillermina Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Marina Calvo; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Zuniga, Tirso; Prince, Martin
Summary Background Disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes is little studied; according to Global Burden of Disease estimates, visual impairment is the leading contributor to years lived with disability in this population. We aimed to assess the contribution of physical, mental, and cognitive chronic diseases to disability, and the extent to which sociodemographic and health characteristics account for geographical variation in disability. Methods We undertook cross-sectional surveys of residents aged older than 65 years (n=15 022) in 11 sites in seven countries with low and middle incomes (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Disability was assessed with the 12-item WHO disability assessment schedule 2.0. Dementia, depression, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were ascertained by clinical assessment; diabetes, stroke, and heart disease by self-reported diagnosis; and sensory, gastrointestinal, skin, limb, and arthritic disorders by self-reported impairment. Independent contributions to disability scores were assessed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression and Poisson regression to generate population-attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF). Findings In regions other than rural India and Venezuela, dementia made the largest contribution to disability (median PAPF 25·1% [IQR 19·2–43·6]). Other substantial contributors were stroke (11·4% [1·8–21·4]), limb impairment (10·5% [5·7–33·8]), arthritis (9·9% [3·2–34·8]), depression (8·3% [0·5–23·0]), eyesight problems (6·8% [1·7–17·6]), and gastrointestinal impairments (6·5% [0·3–23·1]). Associations with chronic diseases accounted for around two-thirds of prevalent disability. When zero inflation was taken into account, between-site differences in disability scores were largely attributable to compositional differences in health and sociodemographic characteristics. Interpretation On the basis
Nilsson, Martin; Sundh, Daniel; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias
Physical activity is believed to have the greatest effect on the skeleton if exerted early in life, but whether or not possible benefits of physical activity on bone microstructure or geometry remain at old age has not been investigated in women. The aim of this study was to investigate if physical activity during skeletal growth and young adulthood or at old age was associated with cortical geometry and trabecular microarchitecture in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in elderly women. In this population-based cross-sectional study 1013 women, 78.2 ± 1.6 (mean ± SD) years old, were included. Using high-resolution 3D pQCT (XtremeCT), cortical cross-sectional area (Ct.CSA), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), cortical periosteal perimeter (Ct.Pm), volumetric cortical bone density (D.Ct), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured at the distal (14% level) and ultra-distal tibia and radius, respectively. aBMD was assessed using DXA (Hologic Discovery A) of the spine and hip. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about previous exercise and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) was used for current physical activity. A linear regression model (including levels of exercise during skeletal growth and young adulthood [10 to 30 years of age], PASE score, and covariates) revealed that level of current physical activity was independently associated with Ct.CSA (β = 0.18, p < 0.001) and Ct.Th (β = 0.15, p < 0.001) at the distal tibia, Tb.Th (β = 0.11, p < 0.001) and BV/TV (β = 0.10, p = 0.001) at the ultra-distal tibia, and total hip aBMD (β = 0.10, p < 0.001). Current physical activity was independently associated with cortical bone size, in terms of thicker cortex but not larger periosteal circumference, and higher bone strength at the distal
Gorham-Rowan, Mary M.; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline
Common perceptual characteristics of the elderly voice include hoarseness, breathiness, instability, and a change in the pitch of the voice. Although research is available concerning changes in the elderly voice, little research has been completed to examine the relationship between the perception of voice quality and acoustic measures. The…
Frye, Victoria; Blaney, Shannon; Cerdá, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Ompad, Danielle C
We assessed relations among neighborhood characteristics and sexual intimate partner violence against women (SIPVAW), among low-income, drug-involved, women (n = 360) and men (n = 670) in New York City between 2005 and 2009. Six percent of women (n = 22) and 5% of men (n = 33) reported experiencing and perpetrating SIPVAW in the past year with a main partner. In adjusted mixed models among women, neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly negatively associated with SIPVAW victimization. In adjusted logistic models among men, neighborhood collective efficacy was significantly positively associated with SIPVAW perpetration. Novel theoretical frameworks are needed to guide research on neighborhoods and partner violence.
Frye, Victoria; Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Ompad, Danielle C.
We assessed relations among neighborhood characteristics and sexual intimate partner violence against women (SIPVAW), among low-income, drug-involved, women (N=360) and men (N=670) in New York City between 2005 and 2009. Six percent of women (n=22) and 5% of men (n=33) reported experiencing and perpetrating SIPVAW in the past year with a main partner. In adjusted mixed models among women, neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly, negatively associated with SIPVAW victimization. In adjusted logistic models among men, neighborhood collective efficacy was significantly, positively associated with SIPVAW perpetration. Novel theoretical frameworks are needed to guide research on neighborhoods and partner violence. PMID:25062819
James-Hawkins, Laurie; Peters, Courtney; VanderEnde, Kristin; Bardin, Lauren; Yount, Kathryn M
Research shows a positive relationship between women's empowerment and reproductive health. Yet we know little about the quantitative relationship between women's agency and contraceptive use. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature assessing the link between women's decision-making and freedom of movement with their contraceptive use in lower- and middle-income countries. Of 102 articles that met the initial screening criteria, 12 met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 12 included studies, consistently positive associations with contraceptive use were found in those that measured decision-making and freedom of movement as separate constructs. Composite measures had a less clear relationship with contraceptive use. In conclusion, women's agency is associated with women's contraceptive use in lower- and middle-income countries. However, the relationship is sensitive to how agency and its components are measured. Our review suggests the need for consistent validation of scales for women's agency as well as more rigorous research using standardised and validated scales, when possible. Longitudinal and intervention studies in lower- and middle-income countries will be useful for understanding the causal impact of women's agency on contraceptive use, and will help to inform policies and programmes to increase contraceptive use in these settings.
Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria
Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm² and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm²) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm² and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm²), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women.
Harley, Amy E; Rice, Jessica; Walker, Renee; Strath, Scott J; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bennett, Gary G
Increasing physical activity among low-income African American women is an important target for addressing racial and economic disparities in chronic conditions and related risk factors. While barriers to physical activity for women have been examined empirically, successful strategies for navigating those barriers among physically active, low-income women have not been thoroughly explored. Informed by grounded theory, we conducted in-depth individual interviews between 2007-2010 with 14 low-income African American women who were physically active at nationally recommended levels for one year or more. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis techniques. Key themes emerged in three main categories: motivation for maintaining active lifestyle, strategies for maintaining physical activity, and challenges to maintaining physical activity. Important motivations included getting or staying healthy, social connections, and gratification. Two planning strategies emerged: flexibility and freedom. Critical challenges included financial constraints, physical strain and history of sedentary relapse. The motivations, strategies and challenges reported by low-income African American women who successfully maintained an active lifestyle provided important information for developing effective health promotion strategies for their inactive and underactive counterparts. A qualitative, asset-based approach to physical activity research contributes rich data to bridge the gap between epidemiological knowledge and community health improvement.
Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.
Little is known about Hispanics and their contraceptive choices in general, with some past studies detailing non-consensual sterilization. This article is based on interviews with a mostly Hispanic sample of 44 women being sterilized at a public clinic in southeast Texas with the Essure device, which entails a new outpatient sterilization procedure. These women cited relationship factors, wanting to better their and their children’s lives, and past reproductive histories as reasons for deciding on sterilization. They specifically chose Essure as a result of an apprehension of surgery and potential side effects from tubal ligation. Their choices, however, were limited by larger structural factors of work, family, the political economy, and the health care system. We conclude that this new sterilization technique provided more contraceptive choices for these women, yet more contraceptive decision making autonomy, as well as more equitable social structures, are still needed. PMID:23761929
Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bell, Ruth; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.
Background Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15–49 years collected in the period 2005–2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented Results In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt), an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction <0.001). Among women with no/primary education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative). In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin), there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (P<0.001). Conclusions The findings suggest that education may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects. PMID:24608086
Gentry, Quinn M; Elifson, Kirk; Sterk, Claire
The purpose of this study was to examine how various living conditions impact the context within which low-income African American women engage in a diverse range of high-risk behavior that increases their risk for HIV infection. The study, based on 2 years of ethnographic fieldwork, analyzed the living conditions of 45 African American women at risk for HIV infection in a high-risk neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia. A black feminist perspective guided the study's analytical framework as a way to extend knowledge about the social conditions, the social interactions, and the meaning of high-risk behavior in the lives of African American women. Using black feminist theory and the constant comparison method, two groups emerged: "street" women and "house" women. Street women were defined as the absolute homeless, the rooming housed, and the hustling homeless. House women were defined as the family housed, the heads of household, and the steady-partner housed. Results reveal that various types of living arrangements place women at risk in different ways and suggest that low-income African American women at high risk for HIV infection-a group often considered homogeneous-have unique "within group" needs that must be addressed in HIV prevention intervention research.
Cho, Hyunkeun; Son, Sang Joon; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Jungsik
Background Longitudinal data arise frequently in biomedical science and health studies where each subject is repeatedly measured over time. We compared the effectiveness of medication and cognitive behavioral therapy on depression in predominantly low-income young minority women. Material/Methods The treatment effects on patients with low-level depression may differ from the treatment effects on patients with high-level depression. We used a quantile regression model for longitudinal data analysis to determine which treatment is most beneficial for patients at different stress levels over time. Results The results confirm that both treatments are effective in reducing the depression score over time, regardless of the depression level. Conclusions Compared to cognitive behavioral therapy, treatment with medication more often effective, although the size of the effect differs. Thus, no matter how severe a patient’s depression symptoms are, antidepressant medication is effective in decreasing depression symptoms. PMID:27981956
Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel
Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…
Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth
A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…
The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups. PMID:23819044
Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William
Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact.
Weigel, M. Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William
Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact. PMID:27110253
Sussner, Katarina M; Lindsay, Ana C; Peterson, Karen E
While the 'immigrant health paradox' posits better health behaviours and outcomes for immigrants upon arrival to the US, research suggests that this advantage may deteriorate over time. This study analysed the relationship of acculturation and breast-feeding initiation and duration among a sample of predominantly Latina, low-income women in the US. The four measures of acculturation included: mother's nativity (foreign born vs US born), mother's parents' nativity (foreign born vs US born), years of US residence (<8 years vs > or =8 years) and a dichotomous measure of language acculturation adapted from three items on Marin's acculturation scale (preferred language spoken at home, reading language and writing language) as exclusive use of native language versus non-exclusive use (mixed or English only) (Marin et al., 1987; Marin & Gamba, 1996). Final multivariable models showed that mothers who exclusively used their native language were more likely to initiate breast-feeding as well as breast-feed for longer duration compared with mothers with non-exclusive use, whereas years of US residence and mother's nativity were not significantly associated with breast-feeding initiation or duration. Mother's parents' nativity also emerged as a significant predictor of breast-feeding duration, both within final models for immigrants and across study participants. Programmes providing nutrition education to low-income women may wish to consider the role of language as an important determinant of breast-feeding. The role of mother's parents' nativity on breast-feeding practices deserves exploration in future studies, as the cultural practices taught by family members born outside the US may exert strong pressure within immigrant families now living in the US.
King, Kelly M; Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A
.5; p = .002), sex exchange partners (AOR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.8 8.9; p = .001), and sexual partners who engaged in concurrency (AOR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.5, 4.8; p = .001) were significantly more likely to report separational concurrency. Conversely, participants who reported more female kin in their social networks (AOR, .808; 95% CI, .67, .97; p = .025), having known network members a longer time (AOR, .997; 95% CI, .993, .999; p = .043), and higher levels of trust for network members (AOR, .761; 95% CI, .63, .92; p = .005) were significantly less likely to report separational concurrency. Results of this study demonstrate that social network characteristics may be crucial to understanding separational concurrency among African-American urban women who have lost a partner to incarceration. Social network and other resource-based interventions, which provide instrumental, social, and economic resources to women who have experienced the loss of a partner to incarceration, may be important tools in empowering women and helping to reduce the disproportionate burden of STIs/HIV among low income, African-American women.
Abuidris, Dafalla O.; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Elhaj, Ahmed M.; Eltayeb, Elgaylani Abdallah; Elsanousi, Mohamed; Ibnoof, Rehab S.; Mohammed, Sulma I.
Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer worldwide. Little is known about the disease in Sudan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence rate, age and stage at diagnosis, and median survival time of patients presenting at the National Cancer Institute-University of Gezira (NCI-UG), Sudan. Data were collected in a prospective study of women with ovarian cancer over a period of eleven years of follow-up (between 2000 and 2011). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the distribution of the demographics of the sample. The direct method was used to compute the age-standardized rate (ASR) using data from the 1966 and 2000 World Standard Populations (WSPs). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival functions and the median survival time. Log-rank tests were used to statistically compare between the survival functions. There were steady increases in ovarian cancer incidence rates between 2000 and 2009, with a slight decline noted in 2010 and 2011. The patients' age range was 9–90. The age-specific incidence rate increased greatly in women aged 55 years or older. The majority of the patients had stage III or IV disease. The annual ASR using WSPs 1966 and 2000 as standard populations were 3.3 and 3.7 per 100,000 women, respectively. The median survival time was 31 months (95% confidence interval, 19–43). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 38%. In Sudan, ovarian cancer affects postmenopausal women, akin to what is reported in the developed world with high incidence rates. Presenting with advanced stage disease is the predominant factor that results in a short survival time for women. PMID:28105363
Kramer, Betty J; Yonker, James A
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of perceived success in addressing the end-of-life care needs of low-income older adults and their family members. Perceived success is defined as the clinician's subjective assessment of the extent to which end-of-life care needs of the patient and family have been met by the interdisciplinary team. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal multimethod case study designed to understand how end-of-life care is provided to a diverse group of frail elders in an innovative, fully "integrated," managed care program. Data were generated from 120 social work surveys detailing care experiences and outcomes particular to 120 elder deaths. Significant predictors of perceived success for addressing patient needs included patient care needs (β=0.17, P≤0.05), race (β=0.19, P≤0.05), patient preferences elicited (β=0.29, P≤0.01) and honored (β=0.20, P≤0.05), and family conflict (β=-0.24, P≤0.01). Significant predictors of perceived success for addressing family needs included family care needs (β=0.30, P≤0.001), team and administrative resources (β=0.19, P≤0.01), patient preferences honored (β=0.16, P≤0.05), quality of relationship with patient (β=0.27, P≤0.001) and family (β=0.23, P≤0.01), and family conflict (β=-0.31, P≤0.001). This study provides preliminary evidence of differential correlates and predictors of perceived success for addressing patient and family needs, highlighting the detrimental influence of family conflict. Future research is needed to better understand the kinds of assessment and intervention protocols that might prevent or ameliorate conflict and enhance structures and process-of-care variables to facilitate more successful outcomes.
Orjiakor, Charles T.; Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K.; Onyedibe, Christiana C.; Ugwu, Leonard I.
Aim With most studies on work-life balance focused on employees, this study sets out to explore the everyday living of business women who trade on petty goods and earn very little in a low-to-middle income country (LMIC). We explore their conceptions of balance, how they manage intersecting roles, and how they cope with daily hassles and stress to maintain wellbeing. Background With the proportion of self-employed to employed people in Sub-Saharan LMICs being an inverse of the situation in Euro-American countries, there is a need to explore what balance could mean for the people in LMICs. Most studies in the work-life literature have explored how employees pursue balance and the various strategies that work for a specific group of people. Perhaps because work-life balance literature has largely sprung from advanced economies, little focus has been placed on how other societies, especially people in LMICs, navigate balance, given their unique milieu. Design Adopting the reflective life-world approach, we inquire into the daily lives of women in very small businesses. Method Twenty women who trade on a range of items and earn very little (gross daily sales of $0.41 to $62.98) were interviewed using a semi-structured guideline. Analysis was conducted using interpretative phenomenology. Result Conceptions of balance for the women incorporated the notions of satisfactory progress across roles, proper time apportionment to roles, conditional balance as well as harmony and/or synchrony across roles—a slight difference from the popular understandings. Their conception of business life roles was deemed much more integral. Negative physical and psychological experiences impacting health and wellbeing, identified as culminating as a result of both roles, were commonplace but were typically considered a normal part of living. Engagements in extra-social roles appeared to have a double-edged effect. Placing the family first, time management, and prioritizing were some of the
Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela
Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team (“team 3” in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID
Shatrugna, Veena; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kumar, P Ajay; Rani, K Usha; Balakrishna, N
Indian women from low-income groups consume diets that have inadequate calcium coupled with too few calories, proteins and micronutrients. Hospital-based data suggest that these women have osteoporotic hip fractures at a much earlier age than Western women. Studies reporting bone parameters of the Indian population involving large sample sizes are not available. This study was therefore carried out with 289 women in the 30-60-year age group to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and measure the bone parameters by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Their mean (+/- SD) age was 41.0+/-8.60 years. Their mean (+/- SD) height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 149.1+/-5.49 cm, 49.2+/-9.85 kg and 22.1+/-3.99, respectively. Dietary intake of calcium was estimated to be 270+/-57 mg/day. The prevalence of osteoporosis at the femoral neck was around 29%. Bone mineral density (BMD) and T scores at all the skeletal sites were much lower than the values reported from the developed countries and were indicative of a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. BMD showed a decline after the age of 35 years in cases of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. This was largely due to a decrease of bone mineral content (BMC). The nutritional status of women appears to be an important determinant of bone parameters. BMD and BMC at all the skeletal sites and whole body increased significantly with increasing body weight and BMI of women (P<0.05). However, bone area (BA) did not change with an increase in BMI. In the multiple regression analysis, apart from body weight, age, menopause and calcium intake were the other important determinants of BMD (P<0.05). In addition to these, height was also an important determinant of WB-BMC. This study highlights the urgent need for measures to improve the nutritional status, dietary calcium intake and thus the bone health of this population.
Ugwu, Dorothy I; Orjiakor, Charles T; Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K; Onyedibe, Christiana C; Ugwu, Leonard I
Aim With most studies on work-life balance focused on employees, this study sets out to explore the everyday living of business women who trade on petty goods and earn very little in a low-to-middle income country (LMIC). We explore their conceptions of balance, how they manage intersecting roles, and how they cope with daily hassles and stress to maintain wellbeing. Background With the proportion of self-employed to employed people in Sub-Saharan LMICs being an inverse of the situation in Euro-American countries, there is a need to explore what balance could mean for the people in LMICs. Most studies in the work-life literature have explored how employees pursue balance and the various strategies that work for a specific group of people. Perhaps because work-life balance literature has largely sprung from advanced economies, little focus has been placed on how other societies, especially people in LMICs, navigate balance, given their unique milieu. Design Adopting the reflective life-world approach, we inquire into the daily lives of women in very small businesses. Method Twenty women who trade on a range of items and earn very little (gross daily sales of $0.41 to $62.98) were interviewed using a semi-structured guideline. Analysis was conducted using interpretative phenomenology. Result Conceptions of balance for the women incorporated the notions of satisfactory progress across roles, proper time apportionment to roles, conditional balance as well as harmony and/or synchrony across roles-a slight difference from the popular understandings. Their conception of business life roles was deemed much more integral. Negative physical and psychological experiences impacting health and wellbeing, identified as culminating as a result of both roles, were commonplace but were typically considered a normal part of living. Engagements in extra-social roles appeared to have a double-edged effect. Placing the family first, time management, and prioritizing were some of the
Simard, Isabel; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon; Beaudoin, André; Turcotte, Daniel; Damant, Dominique; Ferland, Suzanne; Marcotte, Marie-Josée; Jauvin, Nathalie; Champoux, Lyne
The factors that influence the actual initiation and duration of breastfeeding were studied among low-income women followed by the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP). A group of 196 pregnant women were selected at random from a sample of 6223 pregnant women who registered with the CPNP. Two 24-hour recalls and information regarding lifestyle habits, peer support, and infant-feeding practices were obtained between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation and 21 days and 6 months after birth. Women who received a university education (completed or not completed) versus women with < or = high school education (odds ratio [OR], 8.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-69.50), women born outside Canada (OR,8.81; 95% CI, 3.34-23.19), and women of low birth weight infants (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Late introduction of solid foods (P = .004), nonsmoking (P = .005), multiparity (P = .012), and a higher level of education (P = .049) were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding among initiators. Understanding factors associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding among low-income women is critical to better target breastfeeding promotion.
Hüls, Anke; Krämer, Ursula; Stolz, Sabine; Hennig, Frauke; Hoffmann, Barbara; Ickstadt, Katja; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara
Background and Objectives Lung function depends nonlinearly on age and height, so that the use of age and height specific reference values is required. The widely used age and height specific GLI (Global Lung Initiative) z-scores derived from cross-sectional data, however, have not been proven for validity in an elderly population or for longitudinal data. Therefore, we aimed to test their validity in a population of elderly women followed prospectively for more than 20 years. Methods We used spirometric data (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC) from the SALIA cohort of German women (baseline: 1985–1994 (aged 55 years), follow-up: 2008/2009 and 2012/2013). We calculated GLI-z-scores for baseline and follow-up examination separately (cross-sectional evaluation) and individual differences in z-scores between baseline and follow-up (longitudinal evaluation) for healthy never-smoking women. Results GLI reference values for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were cross-sectionally and longitudinally equivalent with our SALIA data. The mean change in z-scores between baseline and follow-up was 0.33 for FEV1, 0.38 for FVC and -0.10 for FEV1/FVC. Conclusions In conclusion, GLI z-scores fit cross-sectionally and longitudinally with FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC measured in women from Germany which indicates that they can be used in longitudinal association analyses. PMID:27310365
Blay, Sergio L.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela
Background Few studies have examined the impact of the built environment (BE) on health behaviours and health outcomes in middle income countries. This study examines associations between self-assessed characteristics of the home and neighbourhood environment and health-related behaviours and health outcomes in an elderly population in Brazil Design and methods In a community sample of 6963 community dwellers 60 years old and older living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associations between self-reported BE conditions and health behaviours and health outcomes were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was conducted to investigate these associations while accounting for other relevant characteristics. Results We found significant positive associations between adverse BE conditions and pulmonary, urinary conditions, gastrointestinal, problems, headache and depression. There were mixed associations between adverse BE conditions and musculoskeletal and sensory conditions, inverse associations with metabolic disorders. and no associations with dermatologic problems and cancer. After accounting for health related behaviours, results suggest a modest association between adverse BE conditions and hypertension, with no significant associations with other indicators of cardiovascular conditions (heart problems, stroke, varicose veins). Conclusions The findings in this study suggest links between adverse conditions in the BE and health related behaviours in the hypothesized direction. Associations with the health conditions examined here are mixed. We find the strongest evidence for effects of adverse BE conditions for pulmonary and infectious conditions. Significant associations between the adverse BE indicators and health outcomes persist after accounting for health related behaviours, suggesting that BE conditions are linked to health pathways above and beyond the health related behaviours assessed in this study. Significance for
Keim, Nancy L; Forester, Shavawn M; Lyly, Marika; Aaron, Grant J; Townsend, Marilyn S
Primary prevention education interventions, including those sponsored by the US Department of Agriculture for low-income families, encourage and support increases in vegetable intake. Promoting vegetable variety as a focal point for behavior change may be a useful strategy to increase vegetable consumption. A simple vegetable variety evaluation tool might be useful to replace the time-intensive 24-hour dietary recall. The purpose of our study was to determine whether vegetable variety is associated with vegetable consumption and diet quality among US Department of Agriculture program participants. Variety of vegetable intake and measures of total vegetable intake, diet quality, and diet cost were evaluated. Low-income, female participants (N=112) aged 20 to 55 years with body mass index 17.7 to 68.5 who were the primary food purchasers/preparers for their households were recruited from four California counties representing rural, urban, and suburban areas. Energy density and Healthy Eating Index-2005 were used to assess diet quality. Vegetable variety was based on number of different vegetables consumed per week using a food frequency questionnaire, and three groups were identified as: low variety, ≤5 different vegetables per week; moderate variety, 6 to 9 vegetables per week; and high variety, ≥10 vegetables per week. Compared with the low-variety group, participants in the high-variety group ate a greater quantity of vegetables per day (P<0.001); their diets had a higher Healthy Eating Index score (P<0.001) and lower energy density (P<0.001); and costs of their daily diet and vegetable use were higher (P<0.001). Thus, greater vegetable variety was related to better overall diet quality, a larger quantity of vegetables consumed, and increased diet cost.
Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…
Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.
In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…
Mount Carmel International Training Centre for Community Development, Haifa (Israel).
This report describes a community development course focusing on income-generating projects for rural women. The first section outlines the schedule of activities for each day of the 16-day course. The second section defines course objectives, including purpose and methodology, planning, group dynamics, cooperation, communication, negotiation, and…
Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.
Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…
Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne
Objective: To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether they moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method: Data come from a 1-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (M = 29 years), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression…
Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine
Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…
Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B
This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women.
Kim, Miji; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Hunkyung
This cross-sectional study examined the association between objectively measured sleep patterns and body composition in very elderly community-dwelling women. Participants included 191 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 80 years (mean age: 83.4 ± 2.6 years; age range: 80-92 years). Sleep and physical activity were monitored via accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) during at least five consecutive 24-h periods. Night-to-night sleep pattern variability across all nights of recording was assessed using standard deviations (SDs). Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed. The mean number of nights with usable actigraphy data was 7.3 ± 1.3. On average, participants went to bed at 22:57 hours (SD: 1.11 h) and rose from bed at 6:27 hours (SD: 1.01 h). Night-to-night bedtime, sleep duration and sleep timing mid-point variations correlated slightly with the percentage body fat and percentage lean mass (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant associations of night-to-night bedtime variations and inconsistent sleep-wake patterns with all body composition indices after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including mean nightly sleep duration, self-reported nap duration and daily physical activity. After further adjusting for night-to-night wake time, sleep timing mid-point and sleep duration variations, greater bedtime variability remained associated significantly with all body composition indices except lean/fat mass ratio. Inconsistent sleep-wake patterns were associated independently with an increased fat mass and decreased lean mass among very elderly women. These findings suggest that in most elderly individuals, sleep patterns might be an important modifiable factor associated with obesity and sarcopenia development.
Ito, Masako; Wakao, Norimitsu; Hida, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yasumoto; Abe, Yasue; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Uetani, Masataka; Harada, Atsushi
Two case-control studies were designed to investigate the contribution of the geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur to bone strength in Japanese elderly women. We also investigated whether clinical CT is useful to assess the risk of hip fracture. Subjects in the neck fracture study included 20 Japanese women with neck fracture (age: mean+/-SD; 80.1+/-4.5 years old) and 20 age-matched control women (79.2+/-2.6 years old). Subjects in the trochanteric fracture study included 16 Japanese women with trochanteric fracture (82.6+/-5.0 years old) and 16 age-matched control women (80.8+/-3.8 years old). CT examination of the proximal femur was performed between the date of admission and the date of surgery. The CT scanners used were an Aquillion 16 (Toshiba) and Somatom 64 (Siemens); the scanning conditions including spatial resolution and scanning energy were adjusted, and the same type of reference phantom containing hydroxyapatite was used. QCT PRO software (Mindways) was used to analyze data for BMD, geometry, and biomechanical parameters. Both the neck and trochanteric fracture cases had significantly lower total and cortical BMD, a significantly smaller cortical cross-sectional area (CSA), and a larger trabecular CSA. Both had significantly thinner cortex and smaller distance to center of bone mass, and women with trochanteric fracture had a significantly smaller cortical perimeter in the cross-sectional femoral neck. Women with neck fracture had a longer hip axis length (HAL) and women with trochanteric fracture had a significantly larger neck-shaft angle (NSA). Both groups had significantly lower cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), and only women with neck fracture had a significantly higher buckling ratio (BR) compared to their respective controls. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, women with neck fracture had a significantly longer HAL, lower CSMI, and higher BR, and women with trochanteric fracture had a
Flaskerud, J H; Nyamathi, A M
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of low income black and Latina women. A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used with a 2-3 month retest of the experimental group. The sample consisted of 506 experimental and 206 control group women who were clients of the Public Health Foundation's Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Los Angeles County. The program included a slide-tape presentation, and educational and resource brochures in English and Spanish. Knowledge, attitudes, and sexual and drug use practices were measured using a structured questionnaire that was developed in English and Spanish. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were established. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA examined differences in pretest-posttest knowledge, attitudes, and practices for experimental and control groups and for both racial/ethnic groups. The experimental group made significant gains over the control group on pretest-posttest measures of knowledge and attitudes. Both experimental and control groups made significant changes in practice. Changes in knowledge were retained on retest; changes in practices came close to significance on retest. Blacks and Latinas differed on pretest knowledge and attitudes but not practices. Blacks had more knowledge and positive attitudes on pretest. However, posttest improvements for both knowledge and attitudes were greater in Latinas than in blacks. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the best predictors of knowledge, attitudes and practices were racial/ethnic group, education, and religion. It is concluded that a didactic audio visual program can positively affect the knowledge and possibly the practices of participants and that these are retained over time but that changes in attitudes will take further efforts.
Smith, Judith R
This study examines elder abuse within the broader framework of parenting in later life and focuses on the experience of mothers with "difficult" adult children. The sample is low-income and minority older women (>62). Using constructive grounded theory, the analysis reveals that the women's lens as mothers informs their explanations for not being able to take action to limit their adult children's difficult/abusive behaviors. The author suggests the utility of incorporating a feminist framework that highlights adult child-to-mother violence as a means of increasing self-reporting of elder abuse and older women's willingness to accept services.
Adams, Adrienne E; Tolman, Richard M; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C
This study sought to extend our understanding of the mechanisms by which intimate partner violence (IPV) harms women economically. We examined the mediating role of job instability on the IPV-economic well-being relationship among 503 welfare recipients. IPV had significant negative effects on women's job stability and economic well-being. Job stability was at least partly responsible for the deleterious economic consequences of IPV, and the effects lasted up to three years after the IPV ended. This study demonstrates the need for services and policies that address barriers to employment as a means of improving the economic well-being of low-income women with abusive partners.
Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S
Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.
Barakat, Suzanne; Martinez, Diana; Thomas, Melanie; Handley, Margaret
Many women develop postpartum mental health symptoms, ranging from the maternity blues to clinically diagnosed postpartum depression (PPD). Substantial literature supports an association between depression and type 2 diabetes, but there is limited literature regarding to what extent this relationship pertains to gestational diabetes (GDM) and postpartum depression. Review of the literature regarding GDM and PPD with a particular focus on describing the prevalence of PPD among women who may be at increased risk for GDM, including low-income and ethnic minority groups, was performed. Literature searches were conducted across four databases for studies reporting postpartum mental health outcomes (including postpartum depression, behavioral symptoms, mental disorders, mood, anxiety, quality of life) following a diagnosis of GDM. Studies including subgroups of women with GDM were included if postpartum mental health outcomes were reported. Of the 245 abstracts identified, ten studies were included in the final review. Findings suggest that PPD was high among low-income, ethnic minority women. Additional research is required to understand the complex relationship between GDM and PPD among low-income women, with the ultimate goal of implementing tailored interventions to address their medical and psychiatric needs.
Oishi, Y; Shimizu, K; Katoh, T; Nakao, H; Yamaura, M; Furuko, T; Narusawa, K; Nakamura, T
Our study was designed to assess the contributions of the physical and constitutional factors to osteophyte formation, disc degeneration, and bone mineral density (BMD) in lumbar vertebrae of elderly postmenopausal women. A total of 126 Japanese women with back pain, aged over 60 years, were invited to participate in the study. Then 80 subjects with a full set of data for physical examinations, radiographs, MRI, and DXA were examined. TaqI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene was examined in 60 subjects. Prevalence rates of osteophytes (on radiographs) and disc degeneration (on MRI) were 61 and 68%, respectively. Body weight and BMI correlated significantly with anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) BMD (r = 0.354 for weight, r = 0.347 for BMI) and mean osteophyte area (r = 0.557 for weight, r = 0.486 for BMI), and body weight also correlated with number of discs with osteophytes. However, these did not correlate with the disc area or the number of degenerated discs. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that body weight and LAT-BMD values independently related to the osteophyte area. Disc area (r = 0.386 for AP view) and osteophyte area (r = 0.384 for AP view) significantly correlated with BMD. However, disc area and osteophyte area did not correlate with each other (r = 0.056). The proportion of degenerated discs was higher in the lower lumbar discs, but not the proportion of discs with osteophytes. Frequencies of T and t alleles of VDR did not correlate with disc degeneration, osteophyte formation, or osteoporosis. Our data showed that increases in osteophyte formation and BMD in the lumbar vertebrae are influenced by body weight and BMI, but did not correlate with disc area, which correlated inversely with BMD. Disc degeneration and osteophyte formation seem to represent two different factors that affect lumbar spine in elderly women.
Inoue, Noriko; Kawakami, Hideshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Ito, Chikako; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sasaki, Hideo; Kihara, Yasuki
The second derivative of the digital photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The ratio of the height of the d wave to the a wave of the SDPTG (d/a) is associated with functional peripheral vascular tension and represents aortic-blood pressure (BP) augmented by reflection waves from the periphery. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the relationship between SDPTG and cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women. From 1998 to 2008, we recruited 4373 women (50-79 years old at baseline) who underwent medical check-ups and SDPTG measurement. The SDPTG index (d/a) was calculated from the wave component height, and was divided into quartiles (Q) according to the d/a value. The median follow-up period was 9.0 years. The d/a value was negatively associated with age and BP, and positively associated with heart rate and body height. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, the hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality for Q2, Q3 and Q4 were significantly higher than that of Q1. In multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio was 2.30 for Q3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-4.99, P<0.05) and 2.60 for Q4 (95% CI: 1.21-5.60, P<0.05), after adjustment for age, height, body mass index, BP levels, heart rate and other atherosclerosis-related factors. The hazard ratios of cardiovascular mortality for Q3 and Q4 were significantly higher compared with the reference (Q1). Thus, the SDPTG d/a is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women.
Porcerelli, John H; Kurtz, John E; Cogan, Rosemary; Markova, Tsveti; Mickens, Lavonda
The diagnostic efficiency of the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997) total score was evaluated using selected scales from the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999), the fourth edition of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (Hyler, 1994), and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Saunders, Aasland, Babor, DeLaFuente, & Grant, 1993) as reference standards. Complete data were collected from 110 women seeking treatment at an urban family medicine training clinic. Total PAS scores were effective in identifying patients with mood disorders, cluster B personality disorders, and alcohol use disorders, but the optimum cut scores were higher than the cut score of 19 recommended by Morey (1997). The 10 PAS element scores showed good convergent and discriminant correlations with the reference measures. These findings support the utility of the PAS to screen for major forms of psychopathology in an urban primary care setting.
Jones, Sydney A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Johnston, Larry F.; Trost, Stewart G.; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Jewell, David A.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Keyserling, Thomas C.
Objective This study explored the criterion-related validity and test-retest reliability of the modified RESIDential Enviroment (RESIDE) physical activity questionnaire and whether the instrument’s validity varied by body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, or employment status. Design Validation study using baseline data collected for randomized trial of a weight loss intervention. Method Participants recruited from health departments wore an ActiGraph accelerometer and self-reported non-occupational walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity on the modified RESIDE questionnaire. We assessed validity (n=152) using Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC), and reliability (n=57) using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results When compared to steps, moderate physical activity, and bouts of moderate/vigorous physical activity measured by accelerometer, these questionnaire measures showed fair evidence for validity: recreational walking (SCC 0.23–0.36), total walking (SCC 0.24–0.37), and total moderate physical activity (SCC 0.18–0.36). Correlations for self-reported walking and moderate physical activity were higher among unemployed participants and women with lower BMIs. Generally no other variability in the validity of the instrument was found. Evidence for reliability of RESIDE measures of recreational walking, total walking, and total moderate physical activity was substantial (ICC 0.56–0.68). Conclusions Evidence for questionnaire validity and reliability varied by activity domain and was strongest for walking measures. The questionnaire may capture physical activity less accurately among women with higher BMIs and employed participants. Capturing occupational activity, specifically walking at work, may improve questionnaire validity. PMID:24462117
Coman, Emil; Hilario, Helena; Li, Jianghong; Abbott, Maryann
Abstract Objectives The female condom (FC), an effective barrier method for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, continues to be absent from most community settings, including reproductive health and treatment clinics. Reducing or eliminating basic barriers, including lack of awareness, knowledge of proper use, and access to free samples, may significantly increase use among those who want or need them. Methods A prospective cohort of 461 women in Hartford, Connecticut (2005–2008), was interviewed at baseline, 1 month, and 10 months about FC use and other personal, partner, peer, and community factors. All participants received brief demonstration of FC use and four free FC1 at baseline. Pairwise longitudinal tests and structural equation modeling were used to test predictors of initial (1 month) and sustained (10 month) FC use. Results Although only 29% of the sample reported ever having used FC at baseline, 73% of never users (51% of the returned 1-month sample) had initiated FC use by 1 month after receiving the brief intervention. Additionally, 24% of the returned 10-month sample (30% of 10-month FC users) reported sustained use, measured as having used FC at baseline or 1 month and also in the prior 30 days. General latent variable modeling indicated that FC knowledge and attitudes predicted initiating FC use; male condom use, FC knowledge and attitudes, and network exposure to FC information predicted sustained use. Conclusions Findings indicated that many women will potentially initiate and continue using FC when basic barriers are removed. Brief FC education with free trial samples should be built into standard clinical practice and public health programs. PMID:23276188
Stevens, J; Kumanyika, S K; Keil, J E
Eating restraint and body size perceptions of 404 White and African-American women 66 to 105 years of age (mean age = 73 years) were assessed by questionnaire. Compared with overweight White women, overweight Black women were 0.6 times as likely to feel guilty after overeating, 0.4 times as likely to diet, 2.5 times as likely to be satisfied with their weight, and 2.7 times as likely to consider themselves attractive. Among those who were not overweight, Black women were half as likely as White women to consider themselves overweight. Compared with Black women, White women perceived themselves to be larger and reported a lower ideal body weight.
In 2050 society will face the challenge of the effects of demographic changes with approximately 30 % of the Swiss population aged 65 years and older. This change will also lead to a higher number of elderly persons who identify themselves as homosexual and who live together with a same sex partner. In the year 2050 approximately 90,000-300,000 homosexual persons who are 65 years and older will live in Switzerland. This article shows that the current state of research in gerontology is characterized by large gaps regarding homosexuals and research in homosexuality regarding ageing. With a focus on the third and fourth ages of life for homosexuals of both sexes and based on the latest international research data this article shows that elderly homosexual people face specific challenges and have specific needs, which should be taken into account in home care services and nursing homes. Due to their lifestyles elderly homosexuals are often single and live alone, have no biological children and are afraid of being discriminated or stigmatized particularly in the case of their need for nursing. As a further aggravating factor, studies have shown that elderly homosexuals have poorer health conditions than heterosexuals with an increased need for care at an earlier stage in life.
Maiden, R.; And Others
An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…
Kotlarczyk, M P; Perera, S; Ferchak, M A; Nace, D A; Resnick, N M; Greenspan, S L
We examined the impact of daily supplementation on vitamin D deficiency, function, and falls in female long-term care residents. Initial vitamin D deficiency was associated with greater functional decline and increased fall risk despite guideline-recommended supplementation, highlighting the importance of preventing vitamin D deficiency in frail elderly.
Gustafson, David H; McTavish, Fiona M; Stengle, William; Ballard, Denise; Jones, Ellen; Julesberg, Karen; McDowell, Helene; Landucci, Gina; Hawkins, Robert
A fundamental challenge to helping underserved women and their families cope with breast cancer is providing them with easily accessible, reliable health care information and support. This is especially true for low-income families living in rural areas where resources are few and frequently distant as well as low-income families in urban areas where access to information and support can be complex and overwhelming. The Internet is one mechanism that has tremendous potential to help these families cope with breast cancer. This article describes a feasibility test of the potential for the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service (CIS) to provide access to an Internet-based system that has been shown to improve quality of life for underserved breast cancer patients. The test was conducted in rural Wisconsin (low socioeconomic status [SES] Caucasian women) and in Detroit, Michigan (low SES African American women), and compares the effectiveness of several different dissemination strategies. Using these results we propose a model for how CIS telephone and partnership program services could efficiently disseminate such information and support systems. In doing so we believe that important steps can be taken to close the digital divide that separates low-income families from the resources they need to effectively face cancer. This is the first of two articles coming from this study. A companion article reports on an evaluation of the use and impact of this system on the women who were given access to it.
Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter
Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted.
SAKKA, Mariko; SATO, Iori; IKEDA, Mari; HASHIZUME, Hirofumi; UEMORI, Masayo; KAMIBEPPU, Kiyoko
We examined the differences in family-to-work spillover between employed women who did and did not have caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents and the relationship between family-to-work spillover and negative and positive appraisals of caregiving using moderation analysis. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with middle-aged employed women (age ≥40 years) from four large companies. Negative and positive family-to-work spillover (FWNS and FWPS, respectively) and negative and positive appraisals of caregiving were measured. Data from 386 non-caregivers and 82 caregivers were analyzed using Fisher’s exact tests, Welch’s t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regression. Results showed that FWNS was higher in caregivers than in non-caregivers, while there was no significant difference in FWPS. Caregiver “fulfillment from the caregiving role” (a subscale of positive appraisal) buffered the effects of caregiver “feelings of social restriction” (a subscale of negative appraisal) on FWNS. On the other hand, caregiver “commitment to caregiving tasks” (another positive subscale) intensified the effects of “feelings of social restriction” on FWNS. However, there was no relationship between negative and positive appraisals of caregiving and FWPS. These findings suggest that both negative and positive appraisals of caregiving are important contributors to FWNS among employed women caring for their parents. PMID:26829970
Negishi, Hirokuni; Mori, Mari; Mori, Hideki; Yamori, Yukio
The elderly are known to have an inadequate immune response to influenza vaccine. Mekabu fucoidan (MF), a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from seaweed, was previously shown to have an immunomodulatory effect. We therefore investigated antibody production after influenza vaccination in elderly Japanese men and women with and without oral MF intake. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted with 70 volunteers >60 y of age. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, consuming either MF (300 mg/d) or placebo for 4 wk, and then given a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine. Serum was sampled at 5 and 20 wk after vaccination to measure the hemagglutination inhibition titer and natural killer cell activity. The MF group had higher antibody titers against all 3 strains contained in the seasonal influenza virus vaccine than the placebo group. Titers against the B/Brisbane/60/2008 (B) strain increased substantially more in the MF group than in the placebo group over the product consumption period. The immune response against B antigen met the European Union Licensure criteria regarding the geometric mean titer ratio in the MF group (2.4), but not in the placebo group (1.7). In the MF group, natural killer cell activity tended to increase from baseline 9 wk after MF intake (P = 0.08). However, in the placebo group no substantial increase was noted at 9 wk, and the activity decreased substantially from 9 to 24 wk. In the immunocompromised elderly, MF intake increased antibody production after vaccination, possibly preventing influenza epidemics. PMID:24005608
Hayes, Catherine; Kearney, Morgan; O’Carroll, Helen; Zgaga, Lina; Geary, Michael; Kelleher, Cecily
Maternal smoking accounts for 20%–30% of low birth weight (BW). Second-Hand Smoke (SHS) also negatively affects BW. This cohort study explored the differential effect of smoking patterns during pregnancy on infant BW. Smoking status for 652 self-reported smokers attending public ante-natal clinics was assessed at baseline (V1 first ante-natal visit), 28–32 weeks (V2) and one week after birth (V3). Multivariable generalised linear regression models tested smoking patterns (continuing to smoke, sustained quitting, partial quitting) on BW adjusting for household smoking and other co-variates. Total quitting showed a median increase of 288 g in BW (95% CI (confidence intervals): 153.1–423 g, p < 0.001), compared to partial quitting (147 g, (95% CI: 50–244 g), p < 0.003). In partial quitters, increased BW was observed only in females 218 g, (95% CI: 81–355 g), p = 0.002). Household SHS showed a specific negative influence on pre-term but not term BW. This study suggests that, for low-income women, quitting or partial quitting during pregnancy both have a positive influence on infant BW. Whether others in the household smoke is also important. PMID:27801861
Wu, Zhao Helen; Stevens, Richard G.; Tennen, Howard; North, Carol S.; Grady, James J.; Holzer, Charles
suggest the possibility that providing victims of disasters with effective interventions to improve sleep quality could help to reduce their perceived stress over time. Citation: Wu ZH, Stevens RG, Tennen H, North CS, Grady JJ, Holzer C. Sleep quality among low-income young women in southeast texas predicts changes in perceived stress through hurricane Ike. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1121–1128. PMID:25669193
Punglia, Rinaa S. . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Weeks, Jane C.; Neville, Bridget A.; Earle, Craig C.
Purpose: We sought to study the effect of distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility on the use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in elderly women. Methods and Materials: Using data from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare (SEER-Medicare) database, we analyzed 19,787 women with Stage I or II breast cancer who received mastectomy as definitive surgery during 1991 to 1999. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of distance with receipt of PMRT after adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results: Overall 2,075 patients (10.5%) treated with mastectomy received PMRT. In addition to cancer and patient characteristics, in our primary analysis, increasing distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving PMRT (OR 0.996 per additional mile, p = 0.01). Secondary analyses revealed that the decline in PMRT use appeared at distances of more than 25 miles and was statistically significant for those patients living more than 75 miles from the nearest radiation facility (odds of receiving PMRT of 0.58 [95% CI 0.34-0.99] vs. living within 25 miles of such a facility). The effect of distance on PMRT appeared to be more pronounced with increasing patient age (>75 years). Variation in the effect of distance on radiation use between regions of the country and nodal status was also identified. Conclusions: Oncologists must be cognizant of the potential barrier to quality care that is posed by travel distance, especially for elderly patients; and policy makers should consider this fact in resource allocation decisions about radiation treatment centers.
Parente, Valeria; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Adami, Raffaella; Miotti, Danilo; Capodaglio, Paolo; De Vito, Giuseppe; Bottinelli, Roberto
Four elderly women (78 +/- 4.3 years) were resistance trained (RT) for one year and needle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were taken pre- and post-RT. A training intensity of 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM) was adopted for the entire duration of the study. Following RT, significant gain in isometric force of the quadriceps muscles was observed and MHC isoform distribution of vastus lateralis muscle showed a very significant shift from MHC-1 and MHC-2X towards MHC-2A, i.e. a bi-directional shift. A large population (n = 310) of individual skinned muscle fibres were dissected from biopsy samples and used for determination of cross-sectional area (CSA), specific force (Po/CSA) and unloaded shortening velocity (Vo) at 12 degrees C and maximum activation. Fibres were classified on the basis of their MHC isoform content determined by SDS-PAGE in three pure fibre types (1, 2A and 2X) and two hybrid fibre types (1-2A and 2AX). Whereas the CSA of individual muscle fibres did not change, Po/CSA was significantly higher in both type 1 and type 2A fibres post training. Vo of type 1 fibres was significantly higher post-training, whereas no change in Vo was observed in type 2A fibres. The number of pure type 2X fibres was very low especially post-training and did not enable a statistically significant comparison. The data suggest that in elderly women moderate and prolonged RT: (1) can determine similar adaptations in MHC distribution of skeletal muscle to those expected in young subjects; (2) can improve function of muscle fibres.
Martín, Vicente; Ayán, Carlos; Molina, Antonio J; Alvarez, María J; Varela, Silvia; Cancela, José M
The aim of this study is to research the degree of correlation between the Spanish version of the questionnaire YPAS and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) in women over 60. In addition, the authors analyzed the relationship between the variables age and body mass index (BMI) and the walked distance. The study was carried out with 44 elderly women (68.1 ± 5.4 years) who filled in the questionnaire and immediately afterwards performed the 6MWT. Total time and energy expenditure (EE) values obtained in the questionnaire are significantly correlated with the 6MWT (p=0.02; p=0.01, respectively), while BMI and age showed an inverse association (r=-0.433; r=-0.318, respectively) with the walked distance. The Spanish version of YPAS is beginning to be considered as a valid and useful tool for habitual physical activity (PA) measurement and can be used among elderly Spanish speaking women.
Ko, Dae-Sik; Jung, Dae-In; Jeong, Mi-Ae
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of core stability exercise (CSE) on the physical and psychological functions of elderly women while negotiating general obstacles. [Subjects and Methods] After allocating 10 elderly women each to the core stability training group and the control group, we carried out Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and measured crossing velocity (CV), maximum vertical heel clearance (MVHC), and knee flexion angle for assessing physical performances. We evaluated depression and fear of falling for assessing psychological functions. [Results] Relative to the control group, the core stability training group showed statistically significant overall changes after the training session: an increase in POMA scores, faster CV, lower MVHC, and a decrease in knee flexion angle. Furthermore, depression and fear of falling decreased significantly. [Conclusion] CSE can have a positive effect on the improvement of physical and psychological performances of older women who are vulnerable to falls as they negotiate everyday obstacles.
Ko, Dae-Sik; Jung, Dae-In; Jeong, Mi-Ae
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of core stability exercise (CSE) on the physical and psychological functions of elderly women while negotiating general obstacles. [Subjects and Methods] After allocating 10 elderly women each to the core stability training group and the control group, we carried out Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and measured crossing velocity (CV), maximum vertical heel clearance (MVHC), and knee flexion angle for assessing physical performances. We evaluated depression and fear of falling for assessing psychological functions. [Results] Relative to the control group, the core stability training group showed statistically significant overall changes after the training session: an increase in POMA scores, faster CV, lower MVHC, and a decrease in knee flexion angle. Furthermore, depression and fear of falling decreased significantly. [Conclusion] CSE can have a positive effect on the improvement of physical and psychological performances of older women who are vulnerable to falls as they negotiate everyday obstacles. PMID:25435680
Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes
Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…
Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; Oliveira, Valdomiro de; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Campos, Wagner de
The current study aimed to explore the association between sociodemographic variables and health conditions and quality of life domains among female participants in the "Elders in Movement" program. The sample consisted of 1,806 elderly women that were evaluated through interviews for potential correlates and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD). Body mass index was calculated after measuring height and weight. Quality of life domains were categorized into tertiles. Data analysis used ordinal logistic regression. After adjusting for confounders, the variables age, economic class, education, occupation, and marital status were associated with some domains of quality of life (p < 0.05). Moreover, obese elderly women and/or those with health problems had decreased odds of higher quality of life scores, while those that used one or two medicines had increased odds of higher scores in the physical domain. The study concludes that sociodemographic factors and health conditions were associated with quality of life in this sample of elderly women.
de Souza Santos, César Augusto; Dantas, Estélio Enrique Martin; Moreira, Maria Helena Rodrigues
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity from the "Menopause in Form" program on physical aptitude, functional capacity, corporal balance and QoL among elderly women. In addition, correlations among these variables were examined. The present work was a longitudinal study that was quasi-experimental and correlational. A total of 323 elderly women (age: 69.0±5.53 years) participated in this study. Subjects were non-institutionalized, post-menopausal individuals residing at the Elderly Care Center in Belém Municipality (Pará, Brazil) and practiced one activity (i.e., dancing or walking) over a 10-month period. The assessment protocols used were the following: the Fullerton functional fitness test battery (physical aptitude); the activities of daily living (ADL) indices (functional capacity); the Tinetti-scale (corporal balance); and the WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire (QoL). The adopted significance level was p<0.05. Results from the Wilcoxon test demonstrated significant differences for the post-test assessment of functional capacity (Δ%=5.63%; p=0.0001) and general QoL (Δ%=9.19%; p=0.001). These results suggest that the physical activities employed during the "Menopause in Form" program resulted in significant improvements in the functional capacity and QoL of post-menopausal elderly women.
Measured by cash income, the rate of poverty among the age 65 and older population has fallen dramatically, especially since 1974--from 25 percent in 1968 to 14.1 percent in 1983. However, this decline is the result more of an increase in poverty rates for the nonelderly in recent years than of major progress in reducing poverty for those over 65.…
Coburn, Shayna S; Gonzales, N A; Luecken, L J; Crnic, K A
Prenatal stress can have a lasting effect on women's mental health after childbirth. The negative effects may be particularly salient in women from low income and ethnic minority backgrounds, who are at increased risk for postpartum depression. However, social support may have the potential to attenuate the negative impact of stress. The present study evaluated 269 Mexican American women (ages 18-42; 83 % Spanish-speaking; median income $10,000-$15,000) for prenatal stress (daily hassles, family stress, partner stress, and culture-specific stress) in relation to depressive symptoms 6 weeks postpartum. Prenatal social support was examined as a buffer against the impact of prenatal stress. Partner stress, family stress, and daily hassles uniquely predicted depressive symptoms. Moderate and high levels of social support attenuated risk for depression due to family stressors. Prenatal interpersonal and daily stressors negatively impact the mental health of women after birth, but social support can mitigate some of these effects. Among Mexican American pregnant women, effective interpersonal support and stress management may be associated with reduced risk for postpartum depression.
Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora I; Pedersen, Cheryl; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Minh, Anita; Zhang, Janice; O'Campo, Patricia
We used grounded theory to understand pathways and trajectories to housing instability (HI) and poor health among low-income women with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted in-depth interviews during 2010-11 with forty-one women (ages 18-45 years) living in Ontario, Canada. All women reported depressive symptoms in combination with other health problems. In addition to the direct pathway of IPV to poor health, thematic analysis revealed an indirect multi-tiered pathway with complex trajectories among IPV, HI, and poor health. These trajectories included material HI (homelessness, high mobility, evictions, problems paying rent, hiding, and landlord discrimination), psychological HI (feeling unsafe, low self-esteem, and poor control), and social trajectories (financial problems, loss of employment, income, or social networks, and leaving school). These trajectories elevated stress and decreased self-care (unhealthy behaviors, substance abuse, and reduced medical compliance) and exacerbated poor health already compromised by IPV. Depending on her specific context, each woman experienced these pathways and trajectories differently. Moreover, the women's experiences differed across three time periods: before, immediately after, and long after leaving an abusive relationship. Finally, we found that for these women, achieving stable housing was crucial for stabilizing their health.
de Kruijf, Marjolein; Stolk, Lisette; Zillikens, M Carola; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Hofman, Albert; Huygen, Frank J P M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Meurs, Joyce B J
Chronic pain is more prevalent in women than in men, with increasing differences between sexes in advanced age. This could be caused by differences in sex hormone levels. We therefore studied the relationship between sex hormones and the prevalence and incidence of chronic pain. The association between sex hormone levels and chronic pain was examined in 9717 participants aged 45 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Chronic pain was defined as pain in the lower back, hands, knees and/or hips for at least 3 months. Sex hormone levels included estrogen, testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Relationships between hormones and prevalent and new onset chronic pain were analyzed using linear and logistic regression, stratified by gender. Women with androstenedione or estradiol levels in the lowest tertile had more chronic pain (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39 and odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.48, respectively). Mean estradiol levels were lower among men with chronic pain (mean difference -3.88 pmol/L; P = 0.005). Lowest tertile 17-hydroxyprogesterone in women was associated with 38% more new onset pain. All these associations were independent from age, body mass index, health and lifestyle factors, and osteoarthritis. Lower sex hormone levels are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain, independent from lifestyle and health-related factors, in community-dwelling elderly women. These results suggest that sex hormones play a role in chronic pain and should be taken into account when a patient presents with chronic pain. Therefore, sex hormones may be a potential treatment target for these patients.
Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos
ABSTRACT Objectives: to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. Methods: this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012), carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (p<0.05). Results: there was predominance of elderly living alone, accompanied and with change in the living arrangements, females, age range between 60├ 70 years, 1├ 4 years of study and with income between 1├┤ 3 minimum wages. During the development of this research, it was identified an increase in the incidence of elderly with 1├┤3 minimum wages. The number of morbidities increased in the three groups throughout the study, with the highest rates observed among the elderly with change in the dynamics of living arrangements. It was found that elderly men showed less chance of living alone (p=0.007) and having change in the living arrangements compared to women (p = 0.005). Incomes less than a minimum wage decreased the chances of change in the living arrangements compared to incomes above three salaries (p=0.034). Conclusion: the determining factors of the living arrangements were sex and income, and the variables functional capacity and number of morbidities were not associated with the outcome analyzed. PMID:27508909
McLaughlin, D K; Jensen, L
Poverty risks among elders are shaped in critical ways by their work history, demographic characteristics, current marital status, and residential context. Using 25 years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we combined past occupation and work history of elders and their spouses with information on current marital status and residence to estimate discrete time event history models of first transitions into poverty after reaching age 55. Education, work history, and preretirement wages contributed to men's and some women's probability of becoming poor. Work history remained an important predictor of transitions into poverty, even after controlling for preretirement wages and human capital. Metropolitan residence was associated with a lower probability of making transitions into poverty. This residential difference was not appreciably attenuated in three of four elderly subgroups after measures of work history, preretirement wages, current life events, and demographic characteristics of the elders were included in the models.
Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…
Schettino, Ludmila; Luz, Carla Patrícia Novais; de Oliveira, Leandra Eugênia Gomes; de Assunção, Paula Lisiane; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Brown, Lee E; Machado, Marco; Pereira, Rafael
The aging process causes many changes in muscle strength, and analysis of explosive force from handgrip strength seems to be useful and promising in studying the aging musculoskeletal system. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if explosive force parameters [rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI) over the time interval of 0-200 ms from the onset of contraction] during handgrip efforts decline differently than maximum handgrip strength with increasing age. Twenty healthy young women (20-27 years) and 65 healthy elderly women, assigned into three age groups (50-64, 65-74, and 75-86 years), participated in this study. All participants performed two maximal grip attempts. Handgrip data were recorded as force-time curves, peak force, and explosive force parameters. Our results revealed that peak force decreased significantly (p < 0.05) for those who are 65 years old, while explosive force parameters decreased significantly (p < 0.05) for those aged 50 years. These data indicate that the decline in explosive grip force-generating capacity may begin earlier (i.e., for those aged 50 years old) than peak force during the aging process. Our findings suggest that the aging process reduces the explosive grip force-generating capacity before affecting peak force.
Bolamperti, Simona; Villa, Isabella; Spinello, Alice; Manfredini, Greta; Mezzadri, Umberto; Ometti, Marco; Fraschini, Gianfranco; Guidobono, Francesca
Wnt signaling, a major regulator of bone formation and homeostasis, might be involved in the bone loss of osteoporotic patients and the consequent impaired response to fracture. Therefore we analyzed Wnt-related, osteogenic, and adipogenic genes in bone tissue of elderly postmenopausal women undergoing hip replacement for either femoral fracture or osteoarthritis. Bone specimens derived from the intertrochanteric region of the femurs of 25 women with fracture (F) and 29 with osteoarthritis without fracture (OA) were analyzed. Specific miRNAs were analyzed in bone and in matched blood samples. RUNX2, BGP, and OPG showed lower expression in F than in OA samples, while OSX, OPN, BSP, and RANKL were not different. Inhibitory genes of Wnt pathway were lower in F versus OA. β-Catenin protein levels were higher in F versus OA, whereas its cotranscriptional regulator (Lef1) was lower in F group. miR-204, which targets RUNX2, and miR-130a, which inhibits PPARγ, were lower and higher, respectively, in F versus OA serum samples. The present study showed an inefficient Wnt signal transduction in F group despite higher β-catenin protein levels, consistent with the expected overall postfracture systemic activation towards osteogenesis. This transcriptional inefficiency could contribute to the osteoporotic bone fragility. PMID:27999816
Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Pinheiro, Juliana da Silva; Pereira, Erica Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Douglas; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas
Objective To analyze the occurrence of atypia in the cytology/histology examinations of young women under the age of 25 years and of elderly women aged over 64 years, in the Xingu Indigenous Park and to evaluate, in a subjective manner, if the age range for screening established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is appropriate for this population. Methods The Xingu/UNIFESP Project, in partnership with the Center for Gynecological Disease Prevention, develops programs to prevent cervical cancer. The exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study of cytological and histopathological examinations of young (12-24 years) and elderly (aged 64 and over) women of the Xingu Indigenous Park, between 2005 and 2011. Results There was low occurrence of cytological atypia in the elderly female population, but there were occasional high-grade lesions in the indigenous youth. Conclusion Interrupting screening at the limit age of 64 years, as established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is justified. However, screening of young women should begin at an earlier age. PMID:25993069
Amado, Tânia Campos Fell; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de; Ferreira, Rogério Anderson Rodrigues
Aging has become a worldwide problem. In order to identify food, nutritional and health aspects of elderly women, a across-sectional study was carried out in 2005 with 106 women over 60 years of age cared for at Núcleo de Atenção ao idoso-NAI at Federal University of Pernambuco. Clinical and social-demographic variables, along with the nutritional status by BMI (OMS and Lipschtz) were assessed, and the frequency of food intake according to food groups. The results disclosed that 38% of the elderly were pre-obese (WHO) and 47.2% were overweight (Lipschitz). As for blood pressure (BP) 69% was found to be hypertensive and 31% normotensive. The BMI mean of hypertensive and normal elderly women was statistically significant (p=0.027). Cereal and bread groups were reported to have been the highest consumption on a daily basis by the elderly women, 89% and 82% respectively. Legumes were present in 53% of the women's meals followed by vegetables with 61% and fruits with 66%. Concerning water intake, 51.9% stated to have ingested one to four glasses of water daily. There was a positive correlation between BMI and systolic (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) (p<0.001). SP and DP levels showed no correlation with the food intake studied. The results are indicative of an overweight and not conscientious population as regards adequate food intake and point to the necessity of more effective actions in control and/or prevention, particularly for those still young.
The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.
Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes
Objective To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Method Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Results Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005) proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884–0.965; P=0.003) and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023–0.546; P=0.007) proved to be predictors of reaching the eutrophic state. Conclusion Accurate identification of obesity, systemic inflammation, and atherogenic lipid profile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women. PMID:25609936
Ratner, Elena S.; Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Minkin, Mary Jane; Foran-Tuller, Kelly A.
Sexual function in aging women Sexuality is an integral part of human expressions. Mental health plays a major role in sexuality. Several psychological interventions are proposed to increase the sexual quality of life in older women with diverse gynecologic pathology. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing brief strategies can be easily implemented in clinics to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. The impact of female pelvic floor disorders on sexual function in older women Female pelvic floor disorders include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. These disorders increase dramatically with increasing age. Urinary incontinence has been demonstrated to have a negative impact on a woman’s sexual function. Among sexually active older women with urinary incontinence, 22% report being moderately or extremely worried that sexual activity would cause urine loss. An increased prevalence of sexual distress [9% (6/76) vs. 1.3% (2/216), p=0.005] has been reported in sexually active women over 40 years old with urinary incontinence. Treatment of urinary incontinence can improve sexual function in older women. Among sexually active women (N=53) who underwent midurethral slings procedures for the correction of urinary incontinence, increased coital frequency, decrease fear of incontinence with coitus, decreased embarrassment due to incontinence was reported six months after surgery. Pelvic organ prolapse, a hernia of the vagina resulting in a visible vaginal bulge, has also been associated with a negative impact on sexual function. Women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP-Q stage III or IV) have been demonstrated to have decreased body image reporting that they are more self-conscious about their appearance [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9, 51], feel less feminine (AOR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2, 15) and less sexually attractive (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 1.4, 17) compared with women who have normal pelvic
Gomes, Wellington F; Lacerda, Ana Cristina R; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Arrieiro, Arthur N; Fonseca, Sueli F; Amorim, Mateus R; Teixeira, Antônio L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Miranda, Aline S; Coimbra, Cândido C; Brito-Melo, Gustavo E A
Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease in the elderly population worldwide. The alleviation of the symptoms associated with this disease can be achieved with physical exercise that induces a cascade of molecular and cellular processes. Of the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be the most affected by physical activity. Moreover, BDNF seems to have a negative modulatory role in inflammation, and its production by skeletal muscle cells or by cells of the immune system drives the immunoprotective role of physical activity in situations of chronic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma BDNF concentrations in elderly individuals presenting with knee osteoarthritis. To accomplish this, sixteen volunteers (mean age 67 ± 4.41 years) presenting with clinically and radiographically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis were evaluated during acute exercise (1 session of 20 min on a treadmill) and after chronic exercise (12 weeks of aerobic training, consisting of a 50-min walk 3 times per week). Additionally, both a functional assessment (during a 6-min walk) and a pain perception assessment were performed at the start and at the end of physical exercises (training). The plasma BDNF concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the population studied, acute exercise increased the levels of BDNF only before the 12-week training period (p < 0.001). Moreover, the training augmented the plasma concentrations of BDNF (p < 0.0001) and improved clinical parameters (functional p < 0.001; pain perception p < 0.01).
Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and registered with a general practice in Dunedin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls and time between falls during one year of follow up; changes in muscle strength and balance measures after six months. RESULTS: After one year there were 152 falls in the control group and 88 falls in the exercise group. The mean (SD) rate of falls was lower in the exercise than the control group (0.87 (1.29) v 1.34 (1.93) falls per year respectively; difference 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.90). The relative hazard for the first four falls in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.68 (0.52 to 0.90). The relative hazard for a first fall with injury in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.61 (0.39 to 0.97). After six months, balance had improved in the exercise group (difference between groups in change in balance score 0.43 (0.21 to 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: An individual programme of strength and balance retraining exercises improved physical function and was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women 80 years and older. PMID:9366737
Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Madlensky, Lisa; Winton, Lisa M; Heberer, Meredith A; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Martinez, Maria Elena
Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mutation profile for affected women. All 125 patients who were offered GCRA accepted to undergo GCRA. Of these, 72 % had a breast cancer diagnosis, 70 % were Hispanic, 52.8 % were non-English speakers, and 66 % did not have health insurance. Eighty four (67 %) were offered genetic testing and 81 (96 %) agreed. Hispanic women, those with no medical insurance, and those with a family history of breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo testing (p > 0.01). Twelve of 81 (15 %) patients were found to have deleterious mutations, seven BRCA1, and five BRCA2. Our experience shows that it is possible to offer GCRA and genetic testing even in the setting of limited resources for these services. This is important given that a large majority of the low-income women in our study agreed to undergo counseling and testing. Our experience could serve as a model for similar low-resource safety-net health settings.
Walcott, Melonie; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Merlin, Jessica S; Turan, Janet M
This study describes the ways in which poverty and other structural factors create a risk environment for sub-optimal engagement in HIV care among low-income women living with HIV in the Southern USA, contributing to existing health disparities. We conducted a qualitative study in 2012, involving in-depth interviews with 14 stakeholders (service providers and representatives of community-based organisations) and 7 focus-group discussions with 46 women living with HIV (89% African American). A thematic approach in the context of the social ecological model guided data analysis. Data were coded and analysed using NVivo qualitative software. The findings suggested that structural community factors, such as poverty, poor employment opportunities, limited access to healthcare resources, stigma, transportation challenges and access to illicit substances, may work independently and in synergy to impact women's health seeking behaviour and decision-making, thereby influencing their ability to engage in HIV care. Interventions designed to improve engagement in HIV care should address structural factors to bolster low-income women's ability to engage in care.
Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio
Although a large body of epidemiologic data accumulated in Western countries show that individuals with a higher socioeconomic position consume higher quality diets, information on such socioeconomic differences in the diets of non-Western populations, including Japanese, is absolutely lacking. This cross-sectional study examined the association of socioeconomic position with dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 1002 Japanese women during pregnancy. Socioeconomic position was assessed by education, occupation, and household income. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Education was associated positively with intake of protein; total n-3 and marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; dietary fiber; cholesterol; potassium; calcium; magnesium; iron; vitamins A, D, E, and C; and folate 9 and inversely with that of carbohydrate. No associations were seen between education and intake of total fat; saturated, monounsaturated, and total and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; alcohol; or sodium. Regarding food, higher education was associated with a higher intake of vegetables, fish and shellfish, and potatoes and lower intake of rice. Education was not associated with intake of bread, noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, pulses and nuts, meat, eggs, dairy products, or fruit. For occupation, housewives had a higher intake of dietary fiber, magnesium, iron, vitamin A, folate, and pulses and nuts than working women. Household income was not associated with any nutrient or food examined. In conclusion, education, but not occupation or household income, was positively associated with favorable dietary intake patterns in a group of pregnant Japanese women.
Kirkwood, Renata N; Gomes, Henrique A; Sampaio, Rosana F; Furtado, Sheyla R C; Moreira, Bruno S
Background Gait is an extremely complex motor task; therefore, gait data should encompass as many gait parameters as possible. Objective To provide reference values for gait measurements obtained from a Brazilian group of community-dwelling elderly females between the ages of 65 and 89 years and to apply the PCA-biplot to yield insight into different walking strategies that might occur during the aging process. Method 305 elderly community-dwelling females living in Brazil were stratified into four age groups: 65-69 years (N=103); 70-74 years (N=95); 75-79 years (N=77); and ≥80 years (N=30). Age, height, and BMI were assessed to describe the characteristics of the groups. Gait spatiotemporal and variability data were obtained using the GAITRite® system. Principal component analysis, followed by MANOVA and the PCA-biplot approach were used to analyze the data. Results 95% CI showed that only three components - rhythm, variability, and support - together explained 74.2% of the total variance in gait that were different among the groups. The older groups (75-79 and ≥80 years) walked with lower than average velocity, cadence, and step length and were above average for the variables stance, step, swing, and double support time and the ≥80 year old group presented the highest gait variability compared to the other groups. Conclusion Aging is associated with decreased gait velocity and cadence and increased stance, step time, and variability, but not associated with changes in base of support. In addition, the PCA-biplot indicates a decline towards decreased rhythm and increased variability with aging.
Daidone, M G; Luisi, A; Martelli, G; Benini, E; Veneroni, S; Tomasic, G; De Palo, G; Silvestrini, R
The predictive role of tumour proliferative rate and expression of p53, bcl-2 and bax proteins, alone and in association with tumour size, nodal involvement and oestrogen receptors (ER), was analysed on 145 elderly patients (≥70 years of age) with histologically assessed node-positive breast cancers treated with radical or conservative surgery plus radiotherapy followed by adjuvant tamoxifen for at least 1 year. The 7-year probability of relapse was significantly higher for patients with tumours rapidly proliferating (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, P = 0.01), overexpressing p53 (HR = 4.4, P = 0.0001), weakly or not exhibiting bcl-2 (HR = 1.9, P = 0.02), without ERs (HR = 3.4, P = 0.0001) or with ≥ 4 positive lymph nodes (HR = 2.3, P = 0.003) than for patients with tumours expressing the opposite patho-biological profile. Conversely, tumour size and bax expression failed to influence relapse-free survival. Adjustment for the duration of tamoxifen treatment did not change these findings. Oestrogen receptors, cell proliferation, p53 accumulation and bcl-2 expression were also predictive for overall survival. Within ER-positive tumours, cell proliferation, p53 accumulation, bcl-2 expression and lymph node involvement provided significant and independent information for relapse and, in association, identified subgroups of patients with relapse probabilities of 20% (low-risk group, exhibiting only one unfavourable factor) to 90% (high-risk group, exhibiting three unfavourable factors). Such data could represent the initial framework for a biologically tailored therapy even for elderly patients and highlight the importance of a patho-biological characterization of their breast cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646876
Hopkins, David R.; And Others
Examined effect of low-impact aerobic dance on 53 sedentary older women. After 12 weeks of dance, subjects improved significantly on all functional fitness components except motor control/coordination, including cardiorespiratory endurance, strength/endurance, body agility, flexibility, body fat, and balance. (Author/NB)
Background Little research has been done on the relationship between malnutrition and mental health in community living elderly individuals. In the present study, we aimed to assess the associations between mental health (particularly anxiety and depression) and both the risk of malnutrition and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in a large sample of elderly men and women from Tromsø, Norway. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, with 1558 men and 1553 women aged 65 to 87 years, the risk of malnutrition was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), and mental health was measured by the Symptoms Check List 10 (SCL-10). BMI was categorised into six groups (< 20.0, 20.0-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, ≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Results The risk of malnutrition (combining medium and high risk) was found in 5.6% of the men and 8.6% of the women. Significant mental health symptoms were reported by 3.9% of the men and 9.1% of the women. In a model adjusted for age, marital status, smoking and education, significant mental health symptoms (SCL-10 score ≥ 1.85) were positively associated with the risk of malnutrition (odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI 1.7-8.6] in men and 2.5 [95%CI 1.3-4.9] in women), the association was positive also for subthreshold mental health symptoms. For individuals with BMI < 20.0 the adjusted odds ratio for significant mental health symptoms was 2.0 [95% CI 1.0-4.0]. Conclusions Impaired mental health was strongly associated with the risk of malnutrition in community living elderly men and women and this association was also significant for subthreshold mental health symptoms. PMID:21762535
Rizzo, Joanne H.; Pedula, Kathryn L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane; Hochberg, Marc; Hillier, Teresa A.
Abstract Background 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are lower in obese individuals. Determining whether low vitamin D status can predispose weight gain requires a longitudinal study. Methods From a community-based multicenter U.S. prospective cohort of 9704 (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures [SOF]), 4659 women aged ≥65 with baseline 25(OH)D measurement were followed for 4.5 years. They were weighed at baseline and follow-up visits, and a subset (n=1054) had 25(OH)D levels remeasured at follow-up. Results Women with 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/mL had lower baseline weight (141.6 pounds) compared to women with 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/mL (148.6 pounds) (p<0.001). Overall, 25(OH)D status was not associated with weight change over 4.5 years, although there was a significant interaction between 25(OH)D status and weight change category (loss, gain, stable) (p<0.0001). In women who gained ≥5% weight, those with baseline 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/mL gained 16.4 pounds (12.2% of baseline weight) over 4.5 years compared to 18.5 pounds (13.9% of baseline weight) in women with levels <30 ng/mL (p=0.04). In women who lost ≥5% weight or remained stable (<5% weight change), there was no association between 25(OH)D status at baseline and weight change. Among women who gained weight and had 25(OH)D measured at both visits, having sustained or developing 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/mL was associated with less weight gain between visits (14.81 vs. 16.34 pounds, p=0.04). Conclusions Higher 25(OH)D levels are associated with lower weight gains, suggesting low vitamin D status may predispose to fat accumulation. PMID:22731629
YALAMANCHILI, VINOD; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER
Objective To examine the effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol on depression in elderly postmenopausal women and also to determine whether the response was associated with polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor. Methods In a double-blinded placebo controlled prospective trial involving 489 postmenopausal elderly women, a secondary analysis of depression was done. Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. We used binary logistic regression to examine the effect of treatment on depression and one-way ANOVA to find relationship between gene polymorphisms and depression. Results There was no effect of hormone therapy (OR 1.65; 95% CI 0.66–4.12; p = 0.277), calcitriol (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.43–3.11; p = 0.772) or hormone therapy with calcitriol (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.36–2.80; p = 0.979) on depression. Neither polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha (XbaI-beta=0.093, CI −0.337–1.350, p = 0.239 and PvuII-beta=−0.064, CI −1.171-0.491, p = 0.421) nor vitamin D receptor (BsmI-beta=0.044, CI −2.546–3.030, p = 0.865 and TaqI-beta=−0.015, CI −2.900-2.738, p = 0.955) were associated with depression. Conclusion In elderly post-menopausal women there was no effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol either individually or in combination with depression. Estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are not associated with depression or the response to intervention in elderly postmenopausal women. Additional trials are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22205149
Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Kako, Peninnah; Kibicho, Jennifer; Stevens, Patricia E
Historically, African women have been viewed through a colonizing and Eurocentric lens emphasizing poverty, oppression, and suffering. A postcolonial, feminist approach to our two qualitative studies with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Malawi and Kenya led us to depart from this discourse, highlighting women's capacity. Through this article, not only is a forum created for African women's voices to be heard as subaltern knowledge leading to transformational change, but also health care providers are made aware, through women's words, of how they might capitalize on grassroots women's movements, particularly in resource-poor communities, to implement effective HIV prevention and treatment strategies.
Fraga, Maria José; Cader, Samária Ali; Ferreira, Márcia A; Giani, Tania S; Dantas, Estélio H M
The present study had as a goal to analyze the impact of a physical activity program (recreation and walking) over the aerobic resistance, the functional autonomy and the quality of life of elderly women. To this experimental study the elderly women (65±6.40 years old) were randomly separated in experimental group (EG, n=31) and a control group (CG, n=28). A 6-min-walking test (aerobic resistance); a protocol of autonomy evaluation of the Latin-American Group for Maturity Development (functional autonomy), and the WHO QoL-old tests were utilized. The intervention happened with classes of recreation and walking practice, three times a week, for 1h, during 4 months. The results found revealed significant improvement for the EG at the aerobic resistance (Δ%=29.06%, p=0.0001), functional autonomy (Δ%=-27.15%, p=0.0001) and QoL (Δ%=15.47%, p=0.0001). It was concluded that the systematic physical exercise interferes in a positive way at the autonomy, aerobic resistance and QoL of the elderly women.
Kamide, Naoto; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Hiroshi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of home-based exercise without home visits on physical function, falls, and bone mineral density in community-dwelling elderly women. Sixty community-dwelling, elderly (> or =65 years of age) women were recruited from a Japanese community. Subjects were randomly assigned to a home-based exercise group or a control group. The subjects assigned to the home-based exercise group performed home-based exercise without home visits 3 times per week for 6 months in their homes. Assessments of physical function and bone mineral density were carried out before and after intervention in both groups. Muscle strength, gait velocity, the timed up and go test (TUGT), single leg stance time, the bend reach performance test, and reaction time were measured to assess physical function. The patients' history of falls was also assessed before and after the 12-month follow-up. To determine bone mineral density, the speed of sound (SOS) at the right calcaneus was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics. 82.6% of subjects completed the prescribed exercise program in the home-based exercise group. Compared to the control group, TUGT improved significantly (p<0.05) in the home-based exercise group. Home-based exercise without home visits can be adopted for community-dwelling elderly women, particularly since no specific place or instructor is needed.
Va, Puthiery; Yang, Wan-Shui; Nechuta, Sarah; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Gao, Shan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing
Background Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality. Methods We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996–2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002–2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40–70 years and 61,500 men aged 40–74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality. Conclusions Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women. PMID:22073174
Harris, Eleanor E.R. Hwang, W.-T.; Urtishak, Sandra L.; Plastaras, John; Kinosian, Bruce; Solin, Lawrence J.
Purpose: Breast cancer incidence increases with age and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly women, but is not well studied in this population. Comorbidities often impact on the management of breast cancer in elderly women. Methods and Materials: From 1979 to 2002, a total of 238 women aged 70 years and older with Stage I or II invasive carcinoma of the breast underwent breast-conservation therapy. Outcomes were compared by age groups and comorbidities. Median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 70-89 years). Age distribution was 122 women (51%) aged 70-74 years, 71 women (30%) aged 75-79 years, and 45 women (19%) aged 80 years or older. Median follow-up was 6.2 years. Results: On outcomes analysis by age groups, 10-year cause-specific survival rates for women aged 70-74, 75-79, and 80 years or older were 74%, 81%, and 82%, respectively (p = 0.87). Intercurrent deaths at 10 years were significantly higher in older patients: 20% in those aged 70-74 years, 36% in those aged 75-79 years, and 53% in those 80 years and older (p = 0.0005). Comorbidities were not significantly more common in the older age groups and did not correlate with cause-specific survival adjusted for age. Higher comorbidity scores were associated with intercurrent death. Conclusions: Older age itself is not a contraindication to standard breast-conservation therapy, including irradiation. Women of any age with low to moderate comorbidity indices should be offered standard breast-conservation treatment if otherwise clinically eligible.
Paulmann, M; Mockenhaupt, M
Severe bullous skin reactions like Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and generalized bullous fixed drug eruption (GBFDE) are rare, but occasionally fatal diseases which are mainly induced by drugs. We report about 2 women who both developed severe bullous skin reactions after domestic falls. Despite knowing the causative drug and having an allergy identification, both patients suffered from a secondary event after unintentional re-exposure.
Ebbeling, Cara B; Pearson, Meredith N; Sorensen, Glorian; Levine, Rachel A; Hebert, James R; Salkeld, Judith A; Peterson, Karen E
Eating and physical activity behaviors that confer risk for chronic disease are prominent among women from varying ethnic and racial groups who are low income. Conceptualization and development of a theory-based behavioral intervention to address their unique needs during the first year following childbirth comprised four steps: (a) translating public health guidelines and emerging epidemiologic data into specific intervention messages; (b) developing practical strategies to operationalize theoretical constructs, in the context of a social ecological framework; (c) stating achievement-based objectives and writing scripts for five home visits; and (d) conducting formative research. Focus group participants expressed a desire for a "health mentor," not somebody who "nags" or "stresses you out." Paraprofessionals from the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) were directly involved in pretesting the intervention and remain involved as health mentors. This intervention can serve as a basis for future organizational partnerships to benefit the health of populations who are low income.
de Abreu, Andre Lp; Gimenes, Fabricia; Malaguti, Natalia; Pereira, Monalisa W; Uchimura, Nelson S; Consolaro, Marcia El
To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) referred to colposcopy and the implications for clinical management in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the present study was conducted. We included 200 women living in Maringa÷Brazil referred to colposcopy service between August 2012 and March 2013 due to an abnormal cytology from ASC-US until high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). HPV was detected and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mean age was 36.8±10.5 years, and women with and without ASC-US had similar mean ages (37.4±11.5 and 36.4±9.96 years, respectively). The highest prevalence of ASC-US occurred at 20-24 years (40%). HPV-DNA was positive in 164 (82.0%) women.Of the 57 women with ASC-US, 30 (52.6%) were HPV-DNA-positive and 21 (70%) were high-risk HPV-positive (HR-HPV); the latter was similar to women without ASC-US (76.9%) but with other abnormal cytological findings present. Our data demonstrated that performing tests for HR-HPV can be used for management of women with ASC-US to support the decision of which women should be referred for an immediate or later colposcopy. The same conclusions can be applied to other LMICs for which HPV testing for primary screening has not been adopted.
Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P.; Kuo, Irene; Justman, Jessica; Adimora, Adaora A.; Soto-Torres, Lydia; O’Leary, Ann; Hodder, Sally
Women living in poverty suffer more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than do members of the general population; however we know little about factors associated with changes in their PTSD symptoms over time. Using data from HPTN 064, a cohort of women from low-income, high-HIV-prevalence communities across six eastern states (n=1,860), we assessed the prevalence of and changes in PTSD symptoms over 12 months and the effect of potential predictors on symptom acquisition and remission (via the Primary Care-PTSD symptoms scale). Forty-three percent screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those reporting food insecurity, ongoing abuse, depressive symptoms, or binge drinking were more likely to acquire PTSD symptoms. Those with ongoing abuse or depressive symptoms were less likely to experience PTSD symptom remission. Findings suggest a need to integrate programs to reduce abuse, depression, and economic hardship with those that address sexual health risks among women living in low-income, high-HIV-prevalence neighborhoods. PMID:27180715
Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery
Environmental, personal, and behavioral determinants of body mass index (BMI) are not well understood in the low-income demographic. To investigate these factors, a cross-sectional survey was developed using Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), utilizing formative data from focus groups and measured environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, in addition to food-related self-identity, food security, and heights and weights. Participants were urban women (n=330) who qualified for a food and nutrition assistance program. Data collection occurred at sites within the community, including homeless shelters, food pantries, libraries, and community centers. The outcome of interest was BMI and the relationship to environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, and food-related self-identity. All three SCT construct models were significant, but the personal construct regression model predicted the greatest variance in BMI among the women (31%). Decreased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity variables indicating preventative behaviors, while increased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity emotional eating variables. Overall results suggest that personal, behavioral, and self-identity factors can help to explain some weight variation observed among women living in similar obesogenic, low-income environments. Although additional research is needed, results suggest interventions with this population should address eating healthy to prevent disease, exercising for health, and shaping health-promoting self-identities.
Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related beliefs, we found that the social context of these women was largely defined by multiple challenges and major life stressors that interfered with their ability to attain health. Factors commonly mentioned included competing health issues, economic hardship, demanding caretaking responsibilities and relationships, insurance-related challenges, distrust of healthcare providers, and inflexible work policies. Black women also reported discrimination and medical mistrust, while Latinas experienced difficulties associated with immigration and social isolation. These results suggest that effective health interventions not only address change among individuals, but must also change healthcare systems and social policies in order to reduce health disparities. PMID:21856885
Kirby, Russell S.; Sigler, Robert T.; Hwang, Sean-Shong; LaGory, Mark E.; Goldenberg, Robert L.
Objectives. We examined individual, household, and neighborhood correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy. Methods. We used multilevel modeling to investigate IPV among 2887 pregnant women in 112 census tracts who sought prenatal care in 8 public clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama, from 1997 through 2001. Data were collected from the Perinatal Emphasis Research Center project, the 2000 Census, and the local Sheriff and Police Departments Uniform Crime Reports for 1997 through 2001. Results. Participants were predominantly young, African American, on Medicaid, and residents of low-income neighborhoods. The prevalence of past-year male partner–perpetrated physical or sexual violence was 7.4%. Neighborhood residential stability, women performing most of the housework (lack of involvement among partners), being unmarried (being in an uncommitted relationship), and alcohol use were positively associated with elevated IPV risk. Significant protective factors for IPV included older age at first vaginal intercourse and a greater sense of mastery (e.g., the perception of oneself as an effective person). Conclusions. Both neighborhood contextual and individual and household compositional effects are associated with IPV among low-income pregnant women. The results imply that combined interventions to improve neighborhood conditions and strengthen families may effectively reduce IPV. PMID:19696385
SAI, ADARSH J.; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER; FANG, XIANG
Objective Examine the effect of conjugated equine estrogens alone (ET), conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone (EPT), calcitriol alone, calcitriol plus EPT/ET or placebo on serum lipid profile and analyze the interaction with estrogen receptor alpha gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (ESR-α SNPs) on response to therapy. Methods 489 postmenopausal women > 65 years age enrolled in 3-year double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial Results In both intent to treat and complier (>80% adherent) analysis, there was significant increase in serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL), significant decrease in serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and LDL:HDL ratio in all hormone treatment groups compared to placebo (p<0.05). However, serum triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) increased in EPT and ET+ calcitriol groups' versus placebo (p <0.05). ESR-α SNPs PvuII and XbaI appeared to have a significant effect on response to treatment. Genotypes containing p allele showed significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol and VLDL than those having P allele in the ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05) and those with x allele had significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol in HT plus calcitriol group at the end of 3 years versus X allele and a greater decrease in serum LDL in alleles x versus X in ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05). Conclusions ET with or without progesterone had a favorable effect on lipid profile in postmenopausal elderly women and this was dependent on estrogen receptor SNP's – PvuII and XbaI. However, this interaction with ESR-α SNPs need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:21712736
Den Hollander, Geerte C; Browne, Joyce L; Arhinful, Daniel; van der Graaf, Rieke; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
To address the burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), research with pregnant women in these settings is increasingly common. Pregnant women in LMIC-context may experience vulnerability related to giving consent to participate in a clinical trial. To recognize possible layers of vulnerability this study aims to identify factors that influence the decision process towards clinical trial participation of pregnant women in an urban middle-income setting. This qualitative research used participant observation, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussion with medical staff and pregnant women eligible for trial participation, at a regional hospital in Accra, Ghana. Besides lack of familiarity with modern scientific concepts, specific factors influencing the decision-making process were identified. These include a wide power difference between health provider and patient, and a different perception of risk through externalization of responsibility of risk management within a religious context as well as a context shaped by authority. Also, therapeutic misconception was observed. The combination of these factors ensued women to rely on the opinion of the medical professional, rather than being guided by their own motivation to participation. Although being a (pregnant) woman per se should not render the label of being vulnerable, this study shows there are factors that influence the decision process of pregnant woman towards trial participation in a LMIC context that can result in vulnerability. The identification of context-specific factors that can create vulnerability facilitates adaptation of the design and conduct of research in a culturally competent manner.
Kortas, Jakub; Kuchta, Agnieszka; Prusik, Krzysztof; Prusik, Katarzyna; Ziemann, Ewa; Labudda, Sandra; Ćwiklińska, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Ewa; Jankowski, Maciej; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej
Excess body iron accumulation and oxidative stress has been associated with ageing. Regular exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and induce some changes in iron metabolism. However, the effects of exercise on both of these parameters have been poorly investigated. In our study, 35 elderly women participated in 12 weeks of Nordic walking (NW) training (three times a week). We demonstrated that the training caused a significant reduction in malondialdehyde advanced oxidation protein products-markers of oxidative stress but had no effects on paraoxonase 1 activity. These changes were associated with the decrease of blood ferritin (99.4 ± 62.7 vs. 81.4 ± 61.7 ng/ml p < 0.05). Measurement of physical fitness revealed that the training caused a significant improvement in performance and a negative correlation between the blood ferritin and endurance test was recorded (r = -0.34, p = 0.03). In addition, a significant correlation between blood ferritin and fasting glucose level was noted. The training induced a rise of HDL cholesterol from 70.8 ± 19.3-75.3 ± 21.1, p < 0.05, whereas other lipid parameters remained unchanged. In conclusion, NW training reduced body iron stores and it was associated with lower oxidative stress and better endurance.
Paillard, Thierry; Lafont, Christine; Soulat, Jean Marc; Montoya, Richard; Costes-Salon, Marie-Claude; Dupui, Philippe
Thirty-two women between 62 and 75 years old were randomized into 3 groups. Each group performed a program of 4 sessions a week over 6 weeks. Group SC (n = 11) climbed up and down stairs, group ES (n = 11) practiced electrostimulation, and group SC + ES (n = 10) superimposed the 2 activities simultaneously. Using a force platform and a seesaw platform, static and dynamic balance in eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were analyzed before and after the programs for each group. After the programs, the results indicated that dynamic balance improved for the 3 groups, but the contribution of visual information in the control of oscillation amplitude was lower in the SC group than in the ES and SC + ES groups. In the SC + ES group, the electrical stimulation interferes with neurophysiologic afference integration in postural control in relation to voluntary movement. Voluntary exercise appears to be more efficient than electrical stimulation and the superimposed techniques to change balancing tactics in the elderly.
Utilizing Workforce Investment Act Programs and TANF To Provide Education and Training Opportunities To Reduce Poverty among Low-Income Women. Testimony [before the] House Education and the Workforce Committee, Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness.
Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and the TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) programs can be coordinated in a number of ways, some of them especially focused on women. For example, research suggests the following: (1) WIA and TANF can be coordinated to improve low-income women's human capital development; (2) many states and localities…
Furtado, Hélio L; Sousa, Nelson; Simão, Roberto; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Vilaça-Alves, José
Purpose To compare functional fitness (FF) levels among independent-living (IL) and day care (DC) elderly women of different age groups and to analyze changes in FF after 8 months of participation in an exercise program intervention for the IL elderly women. Materials and methods A total of 674 elderly women were divided into four IL groups with age in the range of 60–64 years (IL60–64, n=149), 65–69 years (IL65–69, n=138), 70–74 years (IL70–74, n=135), and 75–79 years (IL75–79, n=83), and four DC groups with age in the range of 60–64 years (DC60–64, n=35), 65–69 years (DC65–69, n=34), 70–74 years (DC70–74, n=47), and 75–79 years (DC75–79, n=53). The intervention consisted of a multimodal exercise training, 3 days per week for 8 months. Senior Fitness Test battery performances were obtained at baseline and after 8-month intervention. Results Significant differences were identified between all IL groups and DC groups in all FF tests (P<0.001), except between IL70–74 and DC70–74 in the chair sit-and-reach. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) identified significant improvements in all FF tests between pre- and posttests in the IL groups (P<0.001), except in the chair sit-and-reach for the IL70–74. ANCOVA also showed a significant declining performance in all FF tests for DC groups (P<0.001), except in the chair sit-and-reach for the DC70–74 and DC75–79. Conclusion IL women are more fit than institutionalized DC elderly women. The multimodal training was effective in improving all FF components related to daily living activities, in all age groups. In contrast, institutionalized elderly showed a clear tendency to worsen their FF over the time. PMID:25941443
Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; Pereira, Liliane; dos Santos, Laurita; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Fávero, Priscila; Martin, Airton Abrahão
In the confocal Raman spectra of skin dermis, the band area in the spectral region of proline and hydroxyproline varies according to the age and health condition of the volunteers, classified as healthy young women, healthy elderly women, and diabetic elderly women. Another observation refers to the intensity variation and negative Raman shift of the amide I band. To understand these effects, we adopted a model system using the DFT/B3LYP:3-21G procedure, considering the amino acid chain formed by glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine, which interacts with two and six water molecules. Through these systems, polarizability variations were analyzed to correlate its values with the observed Raman intensities of the three groups of volunteers and to assign the vibrational spectra of the skin dermis. As a way to correlate other experimental trends, we propose a model of chemical reaction of water interchange between the bonding amino acids, in which water molecules are attached with glucose by hydrogen bonds. The theoretical results are in accordance with the observed experimental trends.
Rapuri, P B; Gallagher, J C; Haynatzki, G
Vitamin D2 and D3 are generally considered equipotent in humans. A few studies have reported that serum 25OHD levels are higher in vitamin D3- compared with vitamin D2-supplemented subjects. As both vitamin D2 and D3 supplements are commonly used by elderly in United States, in the present study we determined the effect of self-reported vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplement use on serum total 25OHD levels according to season in elderly women aged 65-77 years. Serum total 25OHD levels were determined in winter and summer in unsupplemented women ( N = 307) and in women who reported taking vitamin D2 ( N = 56) and vitamin D3 ( N = 55) supplements by competitive protein binding assay. In vitamin D2-supplemented women, the contribution of vitamin D2 and D3 to the mean serum total 25OHD level was assessed by HPLC. In summer, there were no significant differences in the mean total serum 25OHD levels (ng/ml) among the vitamin D2 (32 +/- 2.1), vitamin D3 (36.7 +/- 1.95), and unsupplemented (32.2 +/- 0.95) groups. In winter, the mean serum total 25OHD levels were higher in women on vitamin D2 (33.6 +/- 2.34, P < 0.05) and vitamin D3 (29.7 +/- 1.76, NS) supplements compared with unsupplemented women (27.3 +/- 0.72). In vitamin D2-supplemented women, about 25% of the mean serum total 25OHD was 25OHD2, in both summer and winter. Twelve percent of unsupplemented women and 3.6% of vitamin D-supplemented women had a mean serum total 25OHD level below 15 ng/ml in winter. In elderly subjects, both vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 supplements may contribute equally to circulating 25OHD levels, with the role of vitamin D supplement use being more predominant during winter.
Crist, Janice D.; Parsons, Mickey L.; Warner-Robbins, Carmen; Mullins, María Victoria; Espinosa, Yvette M.
Eliminating health disparities involving minority groups is a major national priority. Action research, a response to this national priority, may be derived from different theoretical models. The purposes of action research are to involve key community stakeholders in developing knowledge and taking pragmatic action to solve problems. In this article, the authors examine how the model was put into action for 2 distinct programs of research, comparing and contrasting final results, one report primarily focusing on recruitment and retention of participants and the other focusing on a community faith-based action research with formerly incarcerated women. PMID:19752634
Henderson, Vida; Stumbras, Katrina; Caskey, Rachel; Haider, Sadia; Rankin, Kristin; Handler, Arden
Background While there is considerable variability with respect to attendance at the postpartum visit, not much is known about women's preferences with respect to postpartum care. Likewise, there is also limited information on providers' practices regarding the postpartum visit and care including the delivery of contraception. To understand and address deficits in the delivery and utilization of postpartum care, we examined the perceptions of low-income postpartum women with respect to barriers to and preferences for the timing and location of the postpartum visit and receipt of contraception. We also examined providers' current prenatal and postnatal care practices for promoting the use of postpartum care and their attitudes toward alternative approaches for delivering contraceptive services in the postpartum period. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews were completed with 20 postpartum women and in-depth qualitative phone interviews were completed with 12 health care providers who had regular contact with postpartum women. Interviews were coded using Atlas.ti software and themes were identified. Results Women believed that receiving care during the postpartum period was an important resource for monitoring physical and mental health and also strongly supported the provision of contraception earlier than the 6-week postpartum visit. Providers reported barriers to women's use of postpartum care on the patient, provider, and system levels. However, providers were receptive to exploring new clinical practices that may widen the reach of postpartum care and increase access to postpartum contraception. Conclusion Approaches that increase the flexibility and convenience of postpartum care and the delivery of postpartum contraception may increase the likelihood that women will take advantage of essential postpartum services.
Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo
Background Almost 50% of women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) don't receive adequate antenatal care. Women's views can offer important insights into this problem. Qualitative studies exploring inadequate use of antenatal services have been undertaken in a range of countries, but the findings are not easily transferable. We aimed to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies. Methods and Findings Using a predetermined search strategy, we identified robust qualitative studies reporting on the views and experiences of women in LMICs who received inadequate antenatal care. We used meta-ethnographic techniques to generate themes and a line-of-argument synthesis. We derived policy-relevant hypotheses from the findings. We included 21 papers representing the views of more than 1,230 women from 15 countries. Three key themes were identified: “pregnancy as socially risky and physiologically healthy”, “resource use and survival in conditions of extreme poverty”, and “not getting it right the first time”. The line-of-argument synthesis describes a dissonance between programme design and cultural contexts that may restrict access and discourage return visits. We hypothesize that centralised, risk-focused antenatal care programmes may be at odds with the resources, beliefs, and experiences of pregnant women who underuse antenatal services. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there may be a misalignment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of some women in LMICs. Antenatal care provision that is theoretically and contextually at odds with local contextual beliefs and experiences is likely to be underused, especially when attendance generates increased personal risks of lost family resources or physical danger during travel, when the promised care is not delivered because of resource constraints, and when women experience covert or
Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan
Objective This study explored fast food intake as a potential mediator of the relationships among employment status; stress; depression; and fruit, vegetable, and fat intakes by race (African American vs. Non-Hispanic White) and body mass index (BMI category: overweight vs. obesity). Methods Low-income overweight and obese pregnant women (N = 332) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Michigan. Path analysis was performed to explore mediation effects by race and BMI category. Results Fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.02) in Non-Hispanic White women, but no mediation effect was detected in African American women. For overweight women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04) and the relationship between depression and vegetable intake (p = 0.01). Also, fast food intake partially mediated the relationship between depression and fat intake (p = 0.003). For obese women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04). Conclusion Fast food is an important topic for nutrition education for overweight and obese pregnant women. Future interventions may be more successful if they address issues associated with employment status (e.g., lack of time to plan and cook healthy meals) and depressive mood (e.g., inability to plan meals or shop for groceries when coping with negative emotions).
Bondonno, Nicola P; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L; Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Schousboe, John T; Woodman, Richard J; Kiel, Douglas P; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a consistent inverse relationship between fruit intake with CVD events and mortality in cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, but the relationship of fruit intake with measurements of atherosclerosis in humans is less clear. Nutritional effects on abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a marker for subclinical intimal and medial atherosclerotic vascular disease, have not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship of total and individual fruit (apple, pear, orange and other citrus, and banana) intake with AAC, scored between 0 and 24. The current study assessed baseline data for a cohort of 1052 women over 70 years of age who completed both a food frequency questionnaire assessing fruit intake, and underwent AAC measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. AAC scores were significantly negatively correlated with total fruit and apple intakes (p < 0.05), but not with pear, orange or banana intakes (p > 0.25). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, each standard deviation (SD; 50 g/day) increase in apple intake was associated with a 24% lower odds of having severe AAC (AAC score >5) (odd ratio OR): 0.76 (0.62, 0.93), p = 0.009). Total and other individual fruit intake were not associated with increased odds of having severe AAC. Apple but not total or other fruit intake is independently negatively associated with AAC in older women.
Bondonno, Nicola P.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Prince, Richard L.; Lim, Wai H.; Wong, Germaine; Schousboe, John T.; Woodman, Richard J.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Bondonno, Catherine P.; Ward, Natalie C.; Croft, Kevin D.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a consistent inverse relationship between fruit intake with CVD events and mortality in cross-sectional and prospective observational studies, but the relationship of fruit intake with measurements of atherosclerosis in humans is less clear. Nutritional effects on abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a marker for subclinical intimal and medial atherosclerotic vascular disease, have not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship of total and individual fruit (apple, pear, orange and other citrus, and banana) intake with AAC, scored between 0 and 24. The current study assessed baseline data for a cohort of 1052 women over 70 years of age who completed both a food frequency questionnaire assessing fruit intake, and underwent AAC measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. AAC scores were significantly negatively correlated with total fruit and apple intakes (p < 0.05), but not with pear, orange or banana intakes (p > 0.25). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, each standard deviation (SD; 50 g/day) increase in apple intake was associated with a 24% lower odds of having severe AAC (AAC score >5) (odd ratio OR): 0.76 (0.62, 0.93), p = 0.009). Total and other individual fruit intake were not associated with increased odds of having severe AAC. Apple but not total or other fruit intake is independently negatively associated with AAC in older women. PMID:26978394
Bartolomeu, Raul F; Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Lopes, Vítor P; Bragada, José A; Costa, Mário J
The purpose of this study was to: (1) establish the relationship between acute physiological responses and musical cadence; and (2) compare physiologic responses between young and older women. Eighteen older (mean = 65.06 ± 5.77 years) and 19 young (mean = 22.16 ± 2.63 years) women underwent an intermittent and progressive protocol performing the head-out aquatic exercise the "rocking horse." Results showed that older women demonstrated lower mean heart rate, blood lactate concentration (bLa), and oxygen uptake (VO2) at rest. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that variations in the rating of perceived effort and individual metabolic equivalent of task did not differ significantly by age group. However, during exercise, physiological responses of younger women were significantly different than for older women: in mean values, for each increased musical beat per minute, mean bLa was 0.003 mmol/l, VO2 was 0.024 ml/kg/min, and energy expenditure was 0.0001 kcal/kg/min higher for younger women. This study shows that increases in musical cadence increased the cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and energy expenditure responses. However, these responses during increasing intensity seemed to differ between young and older women, with lower values for the elderly group, when performing head-out aquatic exercises.
Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Lima, Lucas S; de Andrade, Socrates; Madureira, Angelo; Rica, Roberta L; dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Silva, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Daniel; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW) gain control in older people. Methods Seventy older women (>60 years old) voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI): appropriate weight (AW) control (AWC) and trained (AWT) groups, overweight (OW) control (OWC) and trained (OWT) groups, and obesity (O) control (OC) and trained (OT) groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work). The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m), body weight (BW, kg), body fat (BF, %), fat mass (FM, kg), lean mass (LM, kg), and BMI (kg/m2). Results The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%), BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%), LM (3.0% ± 0.3%), and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0%) to the OT group were higher (P < 0.05) than in the AWT (BW: −2.0% ± 1.1%; BF: −4.6% ± 1.8%; FM: −7.0% ± 2.8%; LM: 0.2% ± 1.1%) and OWT (BW: −4.5% ± 1.0%; BF: −11.0% ± 2.2%; FM: −16.1% ± 3.2%; LM: −0.2% ± 1.0%) groups; additionally, no differences were found for C groups. While reduction (P < 0.03) in BMI according to absolute values was observed for all trained groups (AWT: 22 ± 1 versus 21 ± 1; OWT: 27 ± 1 versus 25 ± 1, OT: 34 ± 1 versus 30 ± 1) after training, no differences were found for C groups. Conclusion In summary, circuit-based exercise is an effective method for promoting reduction in anthropometrics parameters in obese older women. PMID:23271901
Perry, Clinton S; Thomas, Ayanna K; Taylor, Holly A; Jacques, Paul F; Kanarek, Robin B
Habitual caffeine consumption has often been associated with decreasing age-related cognitive decline. However, whether habitual caffeine use preferentially spares different cognitive processes is unclear. Furthermore, whether basing habitual caffeine consumption patterns on current consumption or on a lifetime measure better represents an individual's use remains unclear. In the present study, we collected information from women, aged 56-83, about their current caffeine consumption patterns and history of use, including age they began consuming caffeine. Regression models assessed the relationship between caffeine consumption and performance on batteries designed to probe speed of processing, inhibition, memory, and executive function. While we found no direct associations between caffeine exposure and cognitive performance, we found that caffeine consumption and participant BMI interacted for inhibitory function and speed of processing performance. We discuss possible protective effects of long term caffeine use as well as the possibility of dose dependent effects.
Background Mental health is a key component of overall wellbeing and mental disorders are relatively common, including among older adults. Yet the causal effect of income on mental health status among older adults is poorly understood. Aims This paper considers the effects of a major source of transfer income, Social Security retirement benefits, on the mental health of older adults. Methods The Social Security benefit “Notch” is as a large, permanent, and exogenous shock to Social Security income in retirement. The “Notch” is used to identify the causal effect of Social Security income on mental health among older ages using data from the AHEAD cohort of the Health and Retirement Study. Results We find that increases in Social Security income significantly improve mental health status and the likelihood of a psychiatric diagnosis for women, but not for men. Discussion The effects of income on mental health for older women are statistically significant and meaningful in magnitude. While this is one of the only studies to use plausibly exogenous variation in household income to identify the effect of income on mental health, a limitation of this work is that the results only directly pertain to lower-education households. Implications Public policy proposals that alter retirement benefits for the elderly may have important effects on the mental health of older adults. PMID:25862202
Cahill, Jodi M; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Shah, Bijal S; Lu, Hongxing
Healthful dietary practices and a return to prepregnancy weight are of significant importance in the prevention of obesity for women. The Eating Stimulus Index (ESI) was used to determine the relationship between motivations to eat and diet quality and food intake in 115 overweight/obese, low-income women in early postpartum. In this cross-sectional design, participants completed the ESI and food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed using the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index. Diet quality was related to greater fruit and vegetable availability, convenience eating resistance, and vegetable taste preference. Women with high fruit and vegetable availability consumed more vegetables, as compared to those with low availability. High convenience eating resistance was associated with lower discretionary energy intakes. High taste preference for vegetables was related to greater intakes of these foods. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that convenience eating resistance was the strongest predictor of diet quality followed by vegetable taste preference, and fruit and vegetable availability. Convenience eating resistance was also the strongest predictor of discretionary energy intake. In conclusion, women who were less vulnerable to environmental eating cues, had greater fruit and vegetable availability, and preferred the taste of vegetables consumed a more healthful diet. Thus, the ESI may be a useful screening tool for the design of personalized weight loss messages in the treatment of obesity.
Boghani, Safia; Mei, Zuguo; Perry, Geraldine S.; Brittenham, Gary M.; Cogswell, Mary E.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of capillary hemoglobin (Hb) measurements in detecting anemia among low-income toddlers (aged 12–35 months) and pregnant women. In analyses of data among toddlers from Kansas City (n = 402) and St. Louis, Missouri (n = 236), and pregnant women at <20 weeks gestation from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 397), we compared subjects’ anemia status based on capillary Hb concentrations in finger puncture samples as measured by the HemoCue system with their anemia status based on venous Hb concentrations as measured by the HemoCue and Coulter Counter. The sensitivity of capillary blood analyses in identifying cases of anemia was 32.8% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 21.0%–46.3%), among Kansas City toddlers, 59.7% (95% CI: 45.8%–72.4%) among St. Louis toddlers, and 66.7% (95% CI: 46.0%–83.5%) among pregnant women in Cleveland; the corresponding specificities were 97.7%, 86.6%, and 96.7%, respectively. The correlation between HemoCue and Coulter Counter measurements of venous Hb (0.9) was higher than that between HemoCue measurements of capillary and venous blood (0.8). The results show that Hb measurements of capillary blood with HemoCue were not optimal for determining the anemia status of toddlers and pregnant women. PMID:28282926
Hawkes, S; Morison, L; Foster, S; Gausia, K; Chakraborty, J; Peeling, R W; Mabey, D
This paper presents a study on the syndromic management of reproductive tract infections among women in low-income and low-prevalence situations. Women complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge and seeking care at health centers in Matlab, Bangladesh, were examined for the presence of laboratory-diagnosed reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. In the results, 30% of 320 women were diagnosed as having endogenous infections. Overall result of the study revealed a low prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among these women. The WHO algorithm had 100% sensitivity but a low specificity, while the speculum-based algorithm had a low sensitivity (0-59%) but a higher specificity (79-97%). Cost analysis indicated that 87% of expenditure was wasted on overtreatment under the WHO algorithm, while only 36% of expenditure was wasted on overtreatment using the speculum-based algorithm. In conclusion, the development of simple, affordable and effective diagnostic tests should be prioritized by policymakers and public health specialists to ensure the provision of adequate services among the higher risk groups in society.
Royak-Schaler, Renee; Blocker, Deborah E.; Yali, Ann Marie; Bynoe, Monica; Briant, Katherine Josa; Smith, Shannon
BACKGROUND: Information on breast and colorectal cancer risk factors is widely available to women and the physicians who provide their healthcare; however, many women are unable to identify the major risk factors, continue to misperceive their personal risk of developing these cancers, and do not engage in routine early detection. METHODS: Qualitative methods were used to investigate breast and colorectal cancer risk knowledge, perceptions, behaviors, and risk communication formats with low-income African-American and Hispanic study participants in Harlem, NY, aged 40-60 years. RESULTS: Focus group results indicated strong participant interest in strategies necessary to understand and reduce the risk of developing breast and colorectal cancers. Preferred risk communication tools presented information about family history and personal risk in graphic and quantitative formats. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals who serve low-income African-American and Hispanic female populations should deliver information to them about the personal risk of developing targeted cancers and ways to reduce this risk in formats that are meaningful and effectively address the special needs of these populations. PMID:15160974
McGuirt, Jared T.; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Ward, Rachel; Crawford, Thomas W.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.
Objective: To examine the influence of farmers’ market pricing and accessibility on willingness to shop at farmers’ markets, among low-income women. Design: Qualitative interviews using scenarios with quantitative assessment of willingness to shop at farmers’ market given certain pricing and accessibility scenarios. Setting: Eastern North Carolina. Participants: Thirty seven low-income women of child-bearing age (18-44 years) receiving family planning services at the health department. Phenomenon of Interest: Willingness to shop at a farmers’ market. Analysis: Fisher’s exact test was used to examine associations between willingness to shop at farmers’ markets by urban/rural residence, race, and employment status. Direct quotations relevant to participants' use of farmers' markets were extracted based upon a positive deviance framework. Results: Participants were increasingly willing to shop at the farmers’ market when price savings increased and when the market was incrementally closer to their residence. Willingness was highest when there was at least a 20% price savings. Participants seemed to be influenced more by a visual representation of a greater quantity of produce received with the price savings rather than the quantitative representation of the money saved by the reduced price. Conclusions and Implications: Future farmers’ market interventions should take into account these consumer level preferences. PMID:24201077
Raje, L; Ghugre, P
Maternal weight gain and pattern of weight gain during pregnancy influence the ultimate outcome of pregnancy. Pregravid body mass index (BMI), maternal dietary intake, maternal height and age all determine the weight gain during pregnancy. The study was taken up with an objective to observe maternal weight gain and its pattern in pregnancy in women from an upper income group and to find out their association with pregnancy outcome. 180 normal primiparous pregnant Indian women (20-35 years) from an upper income group were recruited between the 10th and 14th weeks of pregnancy and were followed up throughout their pregnancy to record total and trimester-wise weight gain. Neonatal birth weights were recorded. The results showed that mothers with high pregravid BMI gained more weight during pregnancy than the recommended weight gain; in addition, weight gain in the first trimester was significantly correlated with birth weight of the neonates (P = 0.019). Significant correlation was found between weight gain in the third trimester and birth weight of the neonate irrespective of maternal BMI. The rate of weight gain was significantly correlated with neonatal birth weights irrespective of maternal pregravid BMI (P = 0.022) and as per its categories (P = 0.027). Thus, overall it can be concluded that adequate maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy is important for adequate weight gain by the mother and can result in better outcome of pregnancy. The rate of weight gain is also an important contributing factor.
Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J; Petersen, Devan; Babbitt, Tina
The Tele-Lactation Pilot Project (TLPP), 1 of 13 community-based breastfeeding projects implemented in Indiana in 2013 using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant funds, explored the feasibility of using videoconferencing technology to provide breastfeeding education and support to low-income women by a centrally located International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC). The IBCLC was housed at the Breastfeeding Center at the hospital where the women would deliver; the women receiving the education and support were located at an inner-city community health center (CHC) where they received their primary care. The videoconferencing sessions were juxtaposed with the women's regularly scheduled prenatal and postnatal visits at the CHC. After delivery, the lactation consultant visited the mother and infant in person at the hospital to offer additional support. Overall, 35 mothers were served by the TLPP during the 9-month project period. A total of 134 visits (30-45 minutes each) were conducted (3.8 sessions per woman). At the conclusion of the project, interviews with key participants indicated that the tele-lactation videoconferencing sessions were easy to implement, allowed the IBCLC to reach a wider client base, and allowed the women to receive expert support that they might not have otherwise received. Comments indicated that, in addition to providing education and increasing the women's confidence, the tele-lactation sessions appeared to have decreased the mothers' anxiety about the birthing process and the hospital experience. The TLPP demonstrated that incorporating videoconferencing technology into routine care can help foster collaboration among health care providers and provide mothers with continuous, easily accessible breastfeeding education and support.
Illangasekare, Samantha; Burke, Jessica; Chander, Geetanjali; Gielen, Andrea
Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are epidemics among low-income urban women that have been described together as the "SAVA syndemic" because of their co-occurring nature. This study examines the synergistic or "syndemic" effect of these three health issues on depression among urban women and evaluates social support as a protective factor that might reduce depressive symptoms associated with the Substance Abuse, Violence, and AIDS (SAVA) syndemic. Data from 445 urban women were collected through in-person interviews. All women were over the age of 18, not pregnant, English speaking, and reported having a main partner in the past year. Twenty-five percent had experienced all three factors of the SAVA syndemic (were HIV-positive, had experienced IPV in the past year, and had used cocaine or heroin in their lifetime). HIV-positive status, hard drug use, IPV, and low levels of social support were all individually associated with greater depressive symptoms. When controlling for demographics and other SAVA factors, IPV and hard drug use in the past 30 days remained associated with depressive symptoms, as did low social support. However, social support did not modify the effect of the SAVA factors on depression. Compared to women who experienced no SAVA factors, women who had experienced all three factors were 6.77 times more likely to have depressive symptoms. These findings confirm that IPV is significantly associated with depressive symptoms and that the syndemic impact of IPV, substance use, and HIV could have even more extreme effects on depression outcomes.
Sampson, McClain; Villarreal, Yolanda; Rubin, Allen
Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs at higher rates among impoverished mothers than the general population. Depression during pregnancy is one of the strongest predictors of developing PPD. Research indicates that non-pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing depressive symptoms but engaging and retaining low-income mothers remains a…
Elevated homocysteine is a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures among elders, yet it may be a marker for low B vitamin status. Objective: To examine the associations of plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and homocysteine with bone loss and hip fracture risk in elderly...
Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; de Mello Franco, Fábio Gazelato; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Nasri, Fábio; Monteiro-Costa, Maria Luiza; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; de Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify if there is sex difference in the associations among handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and timed up and go (TUG) test results. METHODS: The sample included 288 consecutive elderly men (n=93) and women (n=195). Functional capacity was measured using the TUG test, and muscle strength was measured based on handgrip. Moreover, as a measure of current health status, PEF was evaluated. Linear regression procedures were performed to analyze the relationships between handgrip and both PEF and TUG test results, with adjustment for confounders, and to identify the possible mediating role of PEF in the association between handgrip strength and TUG test results. RESULTS: In men, handgrip strength was associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). After adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance remained significant. In women, handgrip strength was also associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). However, after adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Mobility in the elderly is sex dependent. In particular, PEF mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance in women, but not in men. PMID:27652833
Park, Seong Hoon; Hwangbo, Gak
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] Thirty women over 65 years of age diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis participated in the present study. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10), a progressive resistance training group (n=10), or a Russian electrical stimulation group (n=10). [Methods] Each group was treated 3 times weekly for 8 weeks, and each session lasted 45 minutes. Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the peak torque of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and at the fourth and eighth weeks of the treatment period. [Results] All groups showed significant intragroup differences in the quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque after the treatment intervention. There were significant intergroup differences between the Russian electrical stimulation group and the other groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation can be effective in strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscle in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.
Golden, Annis G; Pomerantz, Anita
In the context of reproductive and sexual health, African American women have higher incidence of disease and poorer outcomes on key indicators when compared with White women. In this study, we used discourse analysis to identify and examine the workings of two clusters of interpretive resources ("interpretative repertoires") associated with reproductive/sexual health care seeking among low-income African American women who participated in semistructured interviews as part of a health promotion initiative. Interpretative repertoires are ways of accounting for engaging in or refraining from engaging in actions, which are shared by people in a community. We labeled the two interpretative repertoires "Don't Want to Know," and "Take Charge of Your Health." Within the "Don't Want to Know" repertoire, that testing would lead to threatening findings was assumed, a chain of devastating consequences was imagined, and a preference for uncertainty over certain knowledge was expressed. Conversely, the "Take Charge of Your Health" repertoire valued certainty over uncertainty, though in both interpretive frameworks, knowledge-based and emotion-based decision-making were intertwined. We conclude that health promotion initiatives--if they are to succeed in encouraging women to obtain valuable preventive health care services--must respond, in their choices of language and outreach strategies, to the expressed dilemma of wishing for reassurance but fearing bad news, to the intertwining of emotional reasoning and technorationality in health decision making, and to the particular relational experiences of African American women. Failure to do so will contribute to the continuation of reproductive and sexual health disparities.
Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Jianbing; Jin, Mingjuan; Li, Mei; Zhou, Litao; Jing, Fangyuan; Chen, Kun
Background The People’s Republic of China’s population is aging rapidly, partly because of the impact of the one-child policy and improvements in the health care system. Caring for bedridden seniors can be a challenge for many families in the People’s Republic of China. Objective To identify the inequality of income among different age groups and social statuses, and evaluate the medical burden and health insurance compensation in the People’s Republic of China. Methods We measured income inequality and insurance compensation levels among bedridden patients in Zhejiang province, People’s Republic of China. Factor analysis and Gini coefficients were used to evaluate degree of income inequality and insurance compensation level. Results We found distinct regional disparities in Zhejiang province, including the aspects of income, expenses, and time. Gini coefficients of older adults with long-term care needs in urban and rural areas were 0.335 and 0.602, respectively. In all age groups, Gini coefficients increased after adjustment for medical expenditures, and the inequality persisted after insurance reimbursement was taken into consideration. Conclusion A significant income disparity between rural and urban areas was observed. Inequality increased with age, and medical expenditure is a huge burden for older people with long-term care needs. Health insurance does not play an important role in reducing inequalities among patients who need long-term care services. PMID:24855346
Oyeyemi, Sunday O; Wynn, Rolf
Background Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. Objectives We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Design Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid), Web of Science (ISI), and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication) to either make calls or send text messages. Results Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. Conclusions While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.
Storm, D; Eslin, R; Porter, E S; Musgrave, K; Vereault, D; Patton, C; Kessenich, C; Mohan, S; Chen, T; Holick, M F; Rosen, C J
Elderly women are at increased risk for bone loss and fractures. In previous cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of women residing in northern latitudes, bone loss was most pronounced during winter months and in those consuming less than 1 g calcium per day. In this study we sought to test the hypothesis that calcium supplementation by either calcium carbonate or dietary means would prevent seasonal bone loss and preserve bone mass. Sixty older postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were randomized to one of three treatment arms: Dietary milk supplementation (D-4 glasses of milk/day), Calcium carbonate (CaCO3-1000 mg/day in two divided doses), or placebo (P). After 2 yr, placebo-treated women consumed a mean of 683 mg/day of calcium and lost 3.0% of their greater trochanteric (GT) bone mineral density (BMD) (P < 0.03 vs. baseline); Dietary supplemented women averaged a calcium intake of 1028 mg/day and sustained minimal loss from the GT (-1.5%; P = 0.30), whereas CaCO3-treated women (total Ca intake, 1633 mg/day) suffered no bone loss from the GT and showed a significant increase in spinal and femoral neck BMD (P < 0.05). Femoral bone loss occurred exclusively during the two winters of the study (i.e. total loss, -3.2%; P < 0.02 in placebo-treated women) with virtually no change in GT BMD during summer. Serum 25-OH vitamin D declined by more than 20% (P < 0.001) in all groups during the winter months but returned to baseline in summer; PTH levels rose approximately 20% (P < 0.001) during winter but did not return to baseline during the summers. Urine N-telopeptide and osteocalcin levels increased significantly but only in the P-treated women and only during winter. Serum insulin growth factor binding protein 4, an inhibitory insulin growth factor binding protein, rose 15% (P < 0.03) from summer to winter, but this increase was significant only in those women consuming <1000 mg/day of calcium. By multivariate analysis, total calcium intake was the strongest
Wagman, Jennifer A; Donta, Balaiah; Ritter, Julie; Naik, D D; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G
Husbands' alcohol use has been associated with family-level stress and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in India. Joint family systems are common in India and IPV often co-occurs with non-violent family maltreatment of wives (e.g., nutritional deprivation, deprivation of sleep, blocking access to health care). Alcohol use increases for some parents following the birth of a child. This study examined 1,038 postpartum women's reports of their husbands' alcohol use and their own experiences of IPV (by husband) and non-violent maltreatment from husbands and/or in-laws. We analyzed cross-sectional, quantitative data collected in 2008, from women (ages 15-35) seeking immunizations for their infants <6 months at three large urban health centers in Mumbai, India. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models estimated associations between the independent variable (husbands' past month use of alcohol) and two dependent variables (postpartum IPV and maltreatment). Overall, 15% of husbands used alcohol, ranging from daily drinkers (10%) to those who drank one to two times per week (54%). Prevalence of postpartum IPV and family maltreatment was 18% and 42%, respectively. Prevalence of IPV among women married to alcohol users was 27%. Most abused women's husbands always (27%) or sometimes (37%) drank during violent episodes. Risk for IPV increased with a man's increasing frequency of consumption. Women who lived with a husband who drank alcohol, relative to non-drinkers, were more likely to report postpartum IPV, aOR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.3, 3.1]. Husbands' drinking was marginally associated with increased risk for family maltreatment, aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.0, 2.1]. Our findings suggest that men's alcohol use is an important risk factor for postpartum IPV and maltreatment. Targeted services for Indian women contending with these issues are implicated. Postpartum care offers an ideal opportunity to screen for IPV, household maltreatment, and
Epstein, Bernice A.; And Others
Four articles in this special section report on (1) Arizona curriculum for home-based caregivers of the elderly in rural communities (Epstein, Koenig); (2) educational programs for nursing home caregivers (Marsden); (3) extension programs for helping low-income elderly with money management (Koonce); and (4) energy education for the elderly…
Junk, Virginia; Heikkinen, Michael
Identified factors which were significant in predicting familiarity with, and participation in, energy assistance programs for low-income elderly people (N=181). Specific subgroups of elderly people were identified as being most in need of home energy information. Recommendations are made for those providing energy education to elderly people.…
Yoo, Jina H.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Lai, Choi; Fu, Qiang
This study tests the processes through which breast cancer narrative messages are effective by taking a functional approach. We explore how discrete negative emotions (i.e., sadness, fear, and anger) induced by breast cancer survivor stories affect African American women’s message processing, recall of message content, and attitudinal outcomes. Structural equation modeling was performed for narrative and informational versions of a breast cancer screening video shown to 409 low-income African American women ages 40 and older. The model was well fitted. Sadness enhanced the persuasive process, while fear inhibited it. Sadness also helped participants recall more message-relevant content, while fear inhibited recall. Anger was not related to the persuasive process. Implications of these findings for narrative research and application are discussed. PMID:24111724
Guliani, Harminder; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Serieux, John
Prenatal and delivery care are critical both for maternal and newborn health. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data for thirty-two low-income countries across Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, and employing a two-level random-intercept model, this paper empirically assesses the influence of prenatal attendance and a wide array of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics on a woman's decision to give birth at a health facility or at home. The results show that prenatal attendance does appreciably influence the use of facility delivery in all three geographical regions, with women having four visits being 7.3 times more likely than those with no prenatal care to deliver at a health facility. These variations are more pronounced for Sub-Saharan Africa. The influence of the number of prenatal visits, maternal age and education, parity level, and economic status of the birthing women on the place of delivery is found to vary across the three geographical regions. The results also indicate that obstetrics care is geographically and economically more accessible to urban and rural women from the non-poor households than those from the poor households. The strong influence of number of visits, household wealth, education and regional poverty on the site of delivery setting suggests that policies aimed at increasing the use of obstetric care programs should be linked with the objectives of social development programs such as poverty reduction, enhancing the status of women, and increasing primary and secondary school enrollment rate among girls.
Florêncio, Telma M M T; Bueno, Nassib B; Clemente, Ana P G; Albuquerque, Fabiana C A; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Sawaya, Ana L
The present study aimed to investigate the possible changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters in low-income women living in the outskirts of Maceió (northeast Brazil), and to explore the possible role of dietary intake and physical activity in these changes. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a cohort of mothers of malnourished children who attended the Center for Nutritional Recovery and Education, an outreach programme of the Federal University of Alagoas. Socio-economic, anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were assessed at baseline and after a follow-up period of 4 years. Energy expenditure (using doubly labelled water) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometers) were assessed only in a subgroup of women after 4 years. A total of eighty-five women were assessed. Participants showed an altered biochemical profile, increased systolic blood pressure, decreased thyroid hormone levels, and body-weight gain. However, dietary intakes of the participants did not include large quantities of highly processed and high-glycaemic index foods. The energy intake of the participants did not differ from their total energy expenditure (7990.3 (7173.7-8806.8) v. 8798.1 (8169.0-9432.4) kJ, respectively; P= 0.084). Multivariate analyses showed a significant effect of time spent watching television (β = 0.639 (0.003 to 1.275); P= 0.048) and dietary diversity score (β = -1.039 ( -2.010 to -0.067); P = 0.036) on weight gain. The present study indicates that poor women, who are mothers of malnourished children and have a reasonably balanced dietary intake, exhibit weight gain and are at risk of developing chronic diseases.
Parks, Sharyn E.; Kim, Kevin H.; Day, Nancy L.; Garza, Mary A.; Larkby, Cynthia A.
Study aims were to examine the relations between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment (CM) and adult violent victimization (AVV) and to explore other significant covariates of the relations between CM and AVV. Data were collected from women (n = 477) who participated in two longitudinal studies in the Maternal Health Practices and Child…
Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.
A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…
Godfrey, Erin B.; Wolf, Sharon
Objectives Economic inequality is a growing concern in the United States and globally. The current study uses qualitative techniques to (1) explore the attributions low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women make for poverty and wealth in the U.S., and (2) clarify important links between attributions, critical consciousness development and system justification theory. Methods In-depth interview transcripts from 19 low-income immigrant Dominican and Mexican and native African-American mothers in a large Northeastern city were analyzed using open coding techniques. Interview topics included perceptions of current economic inequality and mobility and experiences of daily economic hardships. Results Almost all respondents attributed economic inequality to individual factors (character flaws, lack of hard work). Structural explanations for poverty and wealth were expressed by less than half the sample and almost always paired with individual explanations. Moreover, individual attributions included system-justifying beliefs such as the belief in meritocracy and equality of opportunity and structural attributions represented varying levels of critical consciousness. Conclusions Our analysis sheds new light on how and why individuals simultaneously hold individual and structural attributions and highlights key links between system justification and critical consciousness. It shows that critical consciousness and system justification do not represent opposite stances along a single underlying continuum, but are distinct belief systems and motivations. It also suggests that the motive to justify the system is a key psychological process impeding the development of critical consciousness. Implications for scholarship and intervention are discussed. PMID:25915116
Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Cai, Guowen; Klohe, Deborah M; Jordan, Kristine C; Lane, Michelle A; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H
Metabolic syndrome is a group of disorders involving obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Obesity is the most crucial risk factor of metabolic syndrome, because it is known to precede other risk factors. Obesity is also associated with disturbances in the metabolism of the trace mineral, zinc. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term weight loss on plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors. An 8-week weight loss intervention study was conducted with 90 low-income overweight/obese mothers, whose youngest child was 1-3 years old. Plasma levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured and compared at weeks 0 and 8 of the weight loss program. At pre-study, plasma zinc was low in 39% and, within normal values in 46%, of obese/overweight mothers. By the end of intervention, plasma zinc rose by 22% and only 5% of the mothers continued to exhibit low plasma zinc. At post-study, the metabolic syndrome risk factors of waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05) showed significant improvements. Plasma zinc increased by a greater margin (67%) in women with low zinc, as compared to those with normal zinc (18%); weight reduction was similar in both the groups. Finally, changes in % body fat were related negatively with changes in plasma zinc (r=- 0.28, p<0.05). The circulating levels of zinc, as well as the metabolic syndrome components, showed significant improvements in overweight/obese low-income women after weight loss.
Muraki, Satoshi; Kuroda, Koji; Noto, Hiroko; Ookura, Mitsuru; Saito, Seiji
The present study examined the effects of different knee-raising postures in the supine position on swelling in the lower legs and feet of elderly women. Seven elderly women with no illness-related swelling maintained a supine position for 40 min on a bed under four knee-raising postures: downhill, raising the knees and further raising the feet; horizon, raising the knees with the lower legs in a horizontal position; mountain, raising the knees to a height above the feet; and control, stretching the knees without elevation of the feet. While maintaining a supine position, downhill and horizon conditions showed significant decreases in circumferences and increased bio-impedance at all measured positions of the calf and foot, compared to the control condition. In contrast, the mountain condition did not show decreases in all circumferences. No significant differences were found for heart rate, blood pressure or scores of subjective comfort in any body areas among the conditions. These results suggest that the downhill and horizon conditions have effects on lower leg swelling without causing additional discomfort or circulatory strain.
Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26157235
Toma, Renata Luri; Vassão, Patrícia Gabrielli; Assis, Livia; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz
The aging process leads to a gradual loss of muscle mass and muscle performance, leading to a higher functional dependence. Within this context, many studies have demonstrated the benefits of a combination of physical exercise and low level laser therapy (LLLT) as an intervention that enhances muscle performance in young people and athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination of LLLT and strength training on muscle performance in elderly women. For this, a hundred elderly women were screened, and 48 met all inclusion criteria to participate in this double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Volunteers were divided in three groups: control (CG = 15), strength training associated with placebo LLLT (TG = 17), and strength training associated with active LLLT (808 nm, 100 mW, 7 J) (TLG = 16). The strength training consisted of knee flexion-extension performed with 80 % of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) during 8 weeks. Several outcomes related to muscle performance were analyzed through the 6-min walk test (6-MWT), isokinetic dynamometry, surface electromyography (SEMG), lactate concentration, and 1-RM. The results revealed that a higher work (p = 0.0162), peak torque (p = 0.0309), and power (p = 0.0223) were observed in TLG compared to CG. Furthermore, both trained groups increased the 1-RM load (TG vs CG: p = 0.0067 and TLG vs CG: p < 0.0001) and decreased the lactate concentration in the third minute after isokinetic protocol (CG vs TLG: p = 0.0289 and CG vs TG: p = 0.0085). No difference in 6-MWT and in fatigue levels were observed among the groups. The present findings suggested that LLLT in combination with strength training was able to improve muscle performance in elderly people.
Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to
Kendie, S. B.
In the examination of the implementation of rural drinking water facilities, not enough attention has been paid to analyzing the socioeconomic and political relationships that affect the effective utilization of the facilities, particularly as these relate to women in rural society. This paper suggests that much of the difficulty in instituting the utilization of safe water supply sources has to do with the rather low economic status of women—the main water collectors. Poverty consigns women to long periods of work in activities or jobs that bring little reward. This makes it difficult to effectively digest the messages delivered by program staff and limits the extent of usage of the safe water facilities.
Ajrouch, Kristine J; Reisine, Susan; Lim, Sungwoo; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid
We investigated the role of social support in the stress process by focusing on African-American women caring for young children in a high-poverty socio-economic context. Data came from 736 women living in Detroit who completed face-to-face interviews in 2002-2003 and 2004-2005. Regression analyses illustrated that the influence of social support varied according to instrumental and emotional support types as well as the stressor examined. Transportation and childcare support partially buffered the negative effects of food insufficiency on psychological distress. Financial support buffered the influence of neighborhood disorganization on psychological distress. Findings help to explicate further the complex role of social support in the stress process and have implications for social policy.
Pollet, Thomas V; van der Meij, Leander; Cobey, Kelly D; Buunk, Abraham P
Testosterone (T) has been argued to modulate mating and parenting behavior in many species, including humans. The role of T for these behaviors has been framed as the challenge hypothesis. Following this hypothesis, T should be positively associated with the number of opposite sex partners a male has. Indeed research in humans has shown that T is positively related to the number of opposite sex partners a young man has had. Here we test, in both men and women, whether this relationship extends to the lifetime number of sex partners. We also explored whether or not T was associated with current marital status, partnership status and whether or not the participant remarried. Using a large sample of elderly men and women (each sample n>700), we show that T is positively and sizably associated with the number of opposite sex partners in men. When controlling for potential confounding variables such as educational attainment, age, BMI, ethnicity, specific use of a medication and time of sampling this effect remained. For women, the relationship between T and number of opposite sex partners was positive but did not prove to be robust. In both men and women there was no evidence for an association between T and current marital status and partnership status (being in a relationship or not). However, remarriage was positively associated with T, but only in males. Results are discussed with reference to the literature on T and sex partners, remarriage and more broadly the challenge hypothesis.
Ahn, Soon-Ki; Kam, Sin; Chun, Byung-Yeol
Objectives: This community-based cohort study was performed to investigate the incidence of and factors related to self-reported fragility fractures among middle-aged and elderly women living in rural Korea. Methods: The osteoporosis cohort recruited 430 women 40 to 69 years old in 1999, and 396 of these women were followed over 11 years. In 1999, questionnaires from all participants assessed general characteristics, medical history, lifestyle, menstrual and reproductive characteristics, and bone mineral density. In 2010, self-reported fractures and the date, site, and cause of these fractures were recorded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Results: Seventy-six participants among 3949.7 person-years experienced fragility fractures during the 11-year follow-up. The incidence of fragility fractures was 1924.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1491.6 to 2356.8). In the multivariate model, low body mass index (HR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.13 to 6.24), a parental history of osteoporosis (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.49), and postmenopausal status (HR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.05 to 11.67) were significantly related to fragility fracture. Conclusions: Fracture prevention programs are needed among postmenopausal, rural, Korean women with a low body mass index and parental history of osteoporosis Korea. PMID:25274003
Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona
This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using chi (2) tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95-6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09-4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities.
This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using χ2 tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95–6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09–4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities. PMID:16739047
An Evaluation of Program M in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: An Analysis of Change in Self-Efficacy in Interpersonal Relationships, Gender Equity, and Self-Reported Risky Behaviors among Women in Two Low-Income Communities
This quantitative study examined whether Program M, an intervention targeting young women in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, promoted changes in gender equitable attitudes and self-efficacy in interpersonal relationships among program participants. Further, it investigated whether the program influenced these young…
Bornstein, Robert F; Porcerelli, John H; Huprich, Steven K; Markova, Tsveti
Studies have documented the construct validity of Bornstein and Languirand's (2003) Relationship Profile Test (RPT) in college students, psychotherapy patients, and nursing home residents, but no studies have examined the utility of RPT Destructive Overdependence (DO), Dysfunctional Detachment (DD), and Healthy Dependency (HD) scores in community samples. To fill this gap, we assessed links between RPT scores and theoretically related variables in low income urban women seeking medical services (N = 110), obtaining predicted links between RPT scores and scores on measures of childhood abuse and neglect, adult attachment style, conflict-resolution tactics involving a domestic partner, Axis I symptomatology, and overall quality of life. Comparison of RPT means in this sample with those in Bornstein et al.'s (2003) college student sample yielded differences that were generally in line with expectations. These results support the construct validity of RPT scores in urban women and suggest that the RPT may be a useful index of DO, DD, and HD in this heretofore unexamined population.
Hayman, Lenwood W; Lucas, Todd; Porcerelli, John H
Although stress is linked to mental and physical health, self-reports of stress may be operationalized using measures that emphasize cognitive appraisals of stressors or that simply record stressor exposure. Theory and research suggest that appraisal-based measures may be superior in measuring self-reports of stress. However, use of exposure-based measures persists, especially in ethnic disparities research. This study examined the utility of appraisal-based versus exposure-based stress measures in linking stress to mental and physical health in low-income black women. Measures emphasizing cognitive appraisals were superior in predicting mental and physical health because global stress rating best predicted physical health whereas mental health was best predicted by perceived stress. A checklist of exposure to stressful events was not substantially predictive of either mental or physical health, suggesting that cognitive appraisals of stressors are important in linking stress to health perceptions in blacks. The results also suggest that stress impacts mental health first, which then, in turn, influences physical health. Overall, these results illuminate the importance of cognitive appraisals in linking stress to perceptions of mental and physical health in black women.
Schröder, Helmut; Vila, Joan; Marrugat, Jaume; Covas, Maria-Isabel
Nutrient adequacy in the diet is of paramount importance to physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to characterize the dietary pattern associated with a low energy density diet and determine its nutrient adequacy in elderly men and women. The subjects were men (n = 1150) and women (n = 1094) >65 y, examined in 2 population-based cross-sectional surveys (2000 and 2005) in northeast Spain (Girona). Dietary data were recorded using a 165-item FFQ. Reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis was used to identify an energy density-associated dietary pattern. A nutrient adequacy score (NAS) and Mediterranean diet score (MDS) were computed to estimate the association of diet adequacy with energy density. The RRR-derived factor (dietary pattern) predicted 75.4% of the variance in energy density of the diet. Vegetables, fruits, legumes, cooked potatoes, and low-fat milk and yogurt were key to the low energy density of the diet. Higher proportions of men and women consuming low energy density diets met dietary recommendations for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, total fiber, vitamin C, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, calcium, and magnesium than their peers on high energy density diets. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed an inverse association (P < 0.001) of the NAS and MDS with energy density and energy density-related patterns. A low energy density diet has a higher capacity to prevent nutrient deficiency, despite lower energy content, than a high energy density diet in the elderly population studied.
Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Miller, Suzanne M.; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Fang, Zhu; Li, Tianyu; Buzaglo, Joanne; Hernandez, Enrique
Objectives Low-income, inner-city women bear a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer in both incidence and mortality rates in the United States, largely because of low adherence to follow-up recommendations after an abnormal cervical cytology result in the primary care setting. The goals of the present study were to delineate the theory-based psychosocial barriers underlying these persistent low follow-up rates and their sociodemographic correlates. Methods Guided by a well-validated psychosocial theory of health behaviors, this cross-sectional, correlational study assessed the barriers to follow-up adherence among underserved women (N = 210) who received an abnormal cervical cytology result. Participants were recruited through an inner-city hospital colposcopy clinic, and were assessed by telephone prior to the colposcopy appointment. Results Participants were largely of African American race (82.2%), lower than high school completion education (58.7%), single, never married (67.3%), and without full-time employment (64.1%). Knowledge barriers were most often endorsed (68%, M = 3.22), followed by distress barriers (64%, M = 3.09), and coping barriers (36%, M = 2.36). Forty-six percent reported more than one barrier category. Less education and being unemployed were correlated with higher knowledge barriers (P < .0001 and P < .01, respectively) and more coping barriers (P < .05 and P < .05, respectively). Women who were younger than 30 years displayed greater distress barriers (P < .05). Conclusion In the primary care setting, assessing and addressing knowledge and distress barriers after feedback of an abnormal cervical cytology result may improve adherence to follow-up recommendations. The use of structured counseling protocols and referral to navigational and other resources may facilitate this process and thereby reduce disparities in cervical cancer. PMID:24718518
Shah, Bijal S; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Cahill, Jodi M; Lu, Hongxing; Graves, Glenn R
Early postpartum is a critical period that may initiate consumption of an unhealthful diet, which can lead to obesity and adverse lipid profiles. The Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) is a tool that assesses diet quality in terms of adherence to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Previous versions of HEI have shown to be associated with serum lipids. The aim of this research is to evaluate the diet quality of women in early postpartum using the HEI 2005 and to examine the relationship of index scores with serum lipids and anthropometrics. A convenience sample of 125 multiethnic, overweight/obese women in early postpartum was recruited from urban clinics from June 2004 through April 2007. Dietary intake was measured via the average of a 24-hour dietary recall and 2-day food intake records. The HEI 2005 scores were computed to assess diet quality and were compared to anthropometrics and serum lipids. Descriptive statistics, analysis of covariance, and linear regression were utilized. This sample had low mean scores in fruits, total vegetables, whole grains, and oil components. Conversely, participants consumed more than recommended amounts of sodium, saturated fats, and discretionary calories. The HEI 2005 scores inversely predicted body mass index and low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, and positively predicted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Low-income women in early postpartum exhibited poor diet quality, as indicated by low total index scores. Further studies are warranted to identify appropriate dietary modifications in this population and to confirm the association of diet quality, as assessed by this HEI 2005 index, with lipids and other markers of health.
Fisher, Jane; Bower, Peter; Luchters, Stanley; Tran, Thach; Yasamy, M Taghi; Saxena, Shekhar; Waheed, Waquas
Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the mental health of women in the perinatal period and to evaluate any effect on the health, growth and development of their offspring, in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Methods Seven electronic bibliographic databases were systematically searched for papers published up to May 2012 describing controlled trials of interventions designed to improve mental health outcomes in women who were pregnant or had recently given birth. The main outcomes of interest were rates of common perinatal mental disorders (CPMDs), primarily postpartum depression or anxiety; measures of the quality of the mother–infant relationship; and measures of infant or child health, growth and cognitive development. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain a summary measure of the clinical effectiveness of the interventions. Findings Thirteen trials representing 20 092 participants were identified. In all studies, supervised, non-specialist health and community workers delivered the interventions, which proved more beneficial than routine care for both mothers and children. The pooled effect size for maternal depression was −0.38 (95% confidence interval: −0.56 to −0.21; I2 = 79.9%). Where assessed, benefits to the child included improved mother–infant interaction, better cognitive development and growth, reduced diarrhoeal episodes and increased immunization rates. Conclusion In LAMI countries, the burden of CPMDs can be reduced through mental health interventions delivered by supervised non-specialists. Such interventions benefit both women and their children, but further studies are needed to understand how they can be scaled up in the highly diverse settings that exist in LAMI countries. PMID:23940407
Greaney, Mary L; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry; Wallington, Sherrie F; Bennett, Gary G
Given the increasing interest in expanding obesity prevention efforts to cover community-based programs, we examined whether individuals would access a YMCA for physical activity promotion. We provided a no-cost 12-month YMCA membership to socioeconomically disadvantaged black women who were randomized to the intervention arm of a weight gain prevention trial (n = 91). Analyses examined associations of membership activation and use with baseline psychosocial, contextual, health-related, and sociodemographic factors. Many participants (70.3 %) activated their memberships; however, use was low (42.2 % had no subsequent visits, 46.9 % had one to ten visits). There were no predictors of membership activation, but individuals living below/borderline the federal poverty line were more likely to use the center (1+ visits), as were those who met physical activity guidelines at baseline. More comprehensive and intensive interventions may be necessary to promote use of community resources-even when provided free-among high-risk populations of women with obesity that live in rural areas of the USA.
Khare, Manorama M; Cursio, John F; Locklin, Cara A; Bates, Nancy J; Loo, Ryan K
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Hispanic women in the United States. In 2001, the Illinois Department of Public Health received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to implement the enhanced WISEWOMAN program (IWP) to address the disproportionate CVD risk among uninsured and underinsured women enrolled in the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. This paper presents the results of the Spanish-language arm of the IWP. Spanish speaking IWP participants were recruited from two sites, and randomized into either the minimum intervention (MI) or the enhanced intervention (EI) group. Both groups received CVD risk factor screening and educational handouts. The EI group also received an integrated 12-week nutrition and physical activity lifestyle change intervention. Of the 180 Spanish-speaking immigrants in this sample, 90 (50%) received the EI and 90 (50%) received the MI. At baseline there were no significant differences between group demographics or clinical values. At post-intervention, the EI group showed improvements in fat intake, fiber intake, moderate intensity physical activity, and total physical activity. At 1 year only the change in fiber intake remained. A significant improvement was also seen in body mass index (BMI) at the 1-year follow-up. The IWP Spanish-language arm was moderately successful in addressing risk factors for CVD in this population. The behavior changes that sustained up to a year were an increase in fiber intake and a decrease in BMI.
Dantas, Filipe Fernandes Oliveira; Batista, Rafael Marinho Falcão; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto Cançado; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Lima, Kenio Costa
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of strength training on oxidative stress and the correlation of the same with forearm vasodilatation and mean blood pressure of hypertensive elderly women, at rest (basal) and during a static handgrip exercise. Insufficiently active hypertensive elderly women (N = 25; mean age = 66.1 years) were randomized into a 10 week strength training group (n = 13) or control (n = 12) group. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), plasma nitrite (NO2-), forearm blood flow (FBF), mean blood pressure (MBP) and vascular conductance ([FBF / MBP] x 100) were evaluated before and after the completion of the interventions. The strength training group increased the TAC (pre: Median = 39.0; Interquartile range = 34.0–41.5% vs post: Median = 44.0; Interquartile range = 38.0–51.5%; p = 0.006) and reduced the MDA (pre: 4.94 ± 1.10 μM vs post: 3.90 ± 1.35 μM; p = 0.025; CI-95%: -1.92 –-0.16 μM). The strength training group increased basal vascular conductance (VC) (pre: 3.56 ±0.88 units vs post: 5.21 ±1.28 units; p = 0.001; CI-95%: 0.93–2.38 units) and decreased basal MBP (pre: 93.1 ±6.3 mmHg vs post: 88.9 ±5.4 mmHg; p = 0.035; CI-95%: -8.0 –-0.4 mmHg). Such changes were also observed during static handgrip exercise. A moderate correlation was observed between changes in basal VC and MBP with changes in NO2- (ΔVC → r = -0.56, p = 0.047; ΔMBP → r = -0.41, p = 0.168) and MDA (ΔVC → r = 0.64, p = 0.019; ΔMBP → r = 0.31, p = 0.305). The strength training program reduced the oxidative stress of the hypertensive elderly women and this reduction was moderately correlated with their cardiovascular benefits. Trial Registration: ensaiosclinicos.gov.br RBR-48c29w PMID:27529625
Hans, Didier; Durosier, Claire; Kanis, John A; Johansson, Helena; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Krieg, Marc-Antoine
This study aimed to develop a hip screening tool that combines relevant clinical risk factors (CRFs) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the heel to determine the 10-yr probability of hip fractures in elderly women. The EPISEM database, comprised of approximately 13,000 women 70 yr of age, was derived from two population-based white European cohorts in France and Switzerland. All women had baseline data on CRFs and a baseline measurement of the stiffness index (SI) derived from QUS at the heel. Women were followed prospectively to identify incident fractures. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the CRFs that contributed significantly to hip fracture risk, and these were used to generate a CRF score. Gradients of risk (GR; RR/SD change) and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated for the CRF score, SI, and a score combining both. The 10-yr probability of hip fracture was computed for the combined model. Three hundred seven hip fractures were observed over a mean follow-up of 3.2 yr. In addition to SI, significant CRFs for hip fracture were body mass index (BMI), history of fracture, an impaired chair test, history of a recent fall, current cigarette smoking, and diabetes mellitus. The average GR for hip fracture was 2.10 per SD with the combined SI + CRF score compared with a GR of 1.77 with SI alone and of 1.52 with the CRF score alone. Thus, the use of CRFs enhanced the predictive value of SI alone. For example, in a woman 80 yr of age, the presence of two to four CRFs increased the probability of hip fracture from 16.9% to 26.6% and from 52.6% to 70.5% for SI Z-scores of +2 and -3, respectively. The combined use of CRFs and QUS SI is a promising tool to assess hip fracture probability in elderly women, especially when access to DXA is limited.
Drenkard, C; Dunlop-Thomas, C; Easley, K; Bao, G; Brady, T; Lim, S S
Minorities with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at high risk of poor disease outcomes and may face challenges in effectively self-managing multiple health problems. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an evidence-based intervention that improves the health of people with chronic illnesses. Although the CDSMP is offered by organizations throughout the United States and many countries around the world, it has not been tested among SLE patients. We pilot tested the benefits of the CDSMP in low-income African American patients with SLE. CDSMP workshops were delivered to 49 African American women with SLE who received medical care at a public lupus clinic in Atlanta, Georgia, US. We compared pre-post CDSMP changes (from baseline to 4 months after the start of the intervention) in health status, self-efficacy and self-management behaviors using self-reported measures. Additionally, we assessed health care utilization changes using electronic administrative records in the 6-month periods before and after the intervention. We observed significant improvements post-intervention in the SF-36 physical health component summary (mean change = 2.4, p = 0.032); self-efficacy (mean change = 0.5, p = 0.035); and several self-management behaviors: cognitive symptoms management (mean change = 0.3, p = 0.036); communication with physicians (mean change = 0.4, p = 0.01); and treatment adherence (mean change = 0.4, p = 0.01). The median number of outpatient visits decreased from 3 to 1 (p < .0001). The CDSMP is a promising intervention for low-income African Americans with SLE. It is an inexpensive program with growing availability around the world that should be further evaluated as a resource to improve patient-centered outcomes and decrease health service utilization among SLE patients.
Finnes, T E; Lofthus, C M; Meyer, H E; Eriksen, E F; Apalset, E M; Tell, G S; Torjesen, P; Samuelsen, S O; Holvik, K
The current study aimed to assess a possible association between the bone turnover marker procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and future hip fractures in elderly Norwegian men and women and to elucidate the relation between P1NP, bone mineral density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Men and women aged 71 to 77 from two population based health studies in Norway (1999-2001) were followed for a median period of 7.3 years with respect to hip fractures. The study was designed as a case-cohort study. P1NP and 25(OH)D were analysed in frozen serum samples obtained at baseline in hip fracture patients (n=340) and in randomly selected sex stratified sub-cohorts. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of participants. Cox proportional hazards regression with inverse probability weighting and robust variance was performed. No significant correlation between 25(OH)D and P1NP was found. A negative correlation between P1NP and BMD was observed in women (Rho=-0.36, p=0.001). A similar trend was observed in men. No association between quartiles of P1NP and rate of subsequent hip fractures was found. Spline analyses suggested a higher rate of hip fracture at P1NP levels above 60 μg/L in both men and women. A higher hip fracture rate, which was independent of BMD, was also indicated in women with very low levels of P1NP.
Benites, Mariana L.; Alves, Ragami C.; Ferreira, Sandro S.; Follador, Lucio; da Silva, Sergio G.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to verify the rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in elderly women, who did normally perform physical exercises, following eight weeks of strength training in a constant routine. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven sedentary women were subjected to anthropometric assessment. The maximum load (100%) for each used in this study was determined by performing a test to determined the 1RM for each of them according to the protocol of Fatouros et al. and the Feeling Scale and RPE scale were explained to the women. After these initial procedures, the subjects followed a routine for strength training, performing three sets of repetitions at 70% of the one-repetition maximum for each exercise (bench press, leg extension, pulldown, leg curl) without modifying the exercises and their execution order. The frequency of training was three days per week. ANOVA was used to analyze the behavior of the dependent variable, and the post hoc tests were used to identify significant differences. [Results] Strength increased only in the fifth week. The rate of perceived exertion showed a reduction only in the fifth week in the leg extension, pulldown, leg curl. [Conclusion] The percentage of 70% the one-repetition maximum recommended to increase the strength gains and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle does not provide feelings of displeasure when performing proposed exercise. However, it may be possible to modulate this percentage to obtain more pleasant feelings over two months. PMID:27065524
Hunt, I F; Murphy, N J; Cleaver, A E; Faraji, B; Swendseid, M E; Coulson, A H; Clark, V A; Laine, N; Davis, C A; Smith, J C
The effect of zinc supplementation on concentrations of zinc in hair and serum of 213 pregnant Hispanic women attending a clinic in Los Angeles was assessed using a random, double-blind experiment. Both the treatment (T) and control (C) groups received similar vitamin and mineral supplements except that 20 mg zinc was added to the supplements for the treatment group. Nutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recalls. The initial mean dietary zinc intake of both groups was about 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (9 +/- 5 mg). Initially there were no significant differences between the two groups in mean zinc levels in serum (66 +/- 11 micrograms/dl, C, and 65 +/- 12 micrograms/dl, T) or in hair (184 +/- 41 micrograms/g, C, and 175 +/- 38 micrograms/g, T). Zinc supplementation did not alter mean zinc levels in serum or hair but significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced the number of low serum zinc values (less than or equal to 53.3 micrograms/dl) toward the end of pregnancy. Although serum zinc levels do decline in pregnancy, our results suggest that severely depressed levels (less than or equal to 50 to 55 micrograms/dl) indicate inadequate zinc status.
Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Saito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Yoshida, Y