Science.gov

Sample records for inconsistent research findings

  1. Structural Determinants of Inconsistent Condom Use with Clients Among Migrant Sex Workers: Findings of Longitudinal Research in an Urban Canadian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Sou, Julie; Shannon, Kate; Li, Jane; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie; Shoveller, Jean; Goldenberg, Shira M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant women in sex work experience unique risks and protective factors related to their sexual health. Given the dearth of knowledge in high-income countries, we explored factors associated with inconsistent condom use by clients among migrant female sex workers over time in Vancouver, BC. Methods Questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a longitudinal cohort, AESHA, were collected from 2010–2013. Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used to model correlates of inconsistent condom use by clients among international migrant sex workers over a 3-year study period. Results Of 685 participants, analyses were restricted to 182 (27%) international migrants who primarily originated from China. In multivariate GEE analyses, difficulty accessing condoms (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 3.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.13–12.47) independently correlated with increased odds of inconsistent condom use by clients. Servicing clients in indoor sex work establishments (e.g., massage parlours) (AOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.77), and high school attainment (AOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.09–0.50) had independent protective effects on the odds of inconsistent condom use by clients. Conclusions Findings of this longitudinal study highlight the persistent challenges faced by migrant sex workers in terms of accessing and using condoms. Migrant sex workers who experienced difficulty in accessing condoms were more than three times as likely to report inconsistent condom use by clients. Laws, policies and programs promoting access to safer, decriminalized indoor work environments remain urgently needed to promote health, safety and human rights for migrant workers in the sex industry. PMID:25970307

  2. Inconsistencies in findings from the early lung cancer action project studies of lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bach, Peter B

    2011-07-06

    Long-standing guidelines against screening high-risk individuals for lung cancer may change following the publication of the randomized National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which shows a benefit of computed tomography compared with chest x-ray screening. Guideline panels will likely also seek additional information from nonrandomized studies of computed tomography screening, such as the Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP). However, for the ELCAP findings to be incorporated into new guidelines, some inconsistencies in the published data should first be resolved. Specifically, some of the reports from ELCAP appear to contradict others in terms of important endpoints, and several findings from ELCAP appear to be statistically improbable or outliers when compared with analyses and studies by other research groups. Clarification of both internal and external inconsistencies is a prerequisite for evaluation of the body of work published by ELCAP investigators.

  3. Implicit memory functioning in schizophrenia: explaining inconsistent findings of word stem completion tasks.

    PubMed

    Soler, María José; Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Dasí, Carmen; Fuentes-Durá, Inma

    2015-03-30

    The definitive implicit memory profile of schizophrenia is yet to be clarified. Methodological differences between studies could be the reason for the inconsistent findings reported. In this study, we have examined implicit memory functioning using a word stem completion task. In addition, we have addressed methodological issues related with lexical and perceptual stimuli characteristics, and with the strategy used to calculate priming scores. Our data show similar performance values in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, we have not detected significant differences in priming between the two groups, even when this parameter was calculated using three different procedures. These results are in line with those we have reported previously using the same stimuli in a word fragment completion task. Considered as a whole, our research suggests that implicit memory functioning in schizophrenia is unimpaired when assessed using word fragment or stem completion tasks. In light of this, future studies should follow standardized criteria to assess implicit memory when the sensitivity of the task employed is essential for identifying potential memory deficits in schizophrenia.

  4. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Katuwal, Gajendra J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Dougherty, Chase C.; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W.; Moore, Gregory J.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  5. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism.

    PubMed

    Katuwal, Gajendra J; Baum, Stefi A; Cahill, Nathan D; Dougherty, Chase C; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W; Moore, Gregory J; Michael, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  6. Inconsistent findings for the eyes closed effect in children: the implications for interviewing child witnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakidou, Marilena; Blades, Mark; Carroll, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A child who alleges that they have been the victim of a crime will be interviewed by police officers. During a police interview it is important that the interviewer obtains the most accurate testimony possible from the child. Previous studies have shown that if children have their eyes closed during an interview they sometimes report more correct information. This paper includes two studies. In Experiment 1 156 children experienced an event and were then questioned about it. Half the children answered with their eyes open and half with their eyes closed. The participants with eyes closed provided more correct information. In Experiment 2 152 children answered questions in different conditions including eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In contrast to Experiment 1 there was no beneficial effect for the eyes closed condition. These inconsistent results are discussed with reference to actual police interviews. It is suggested that until there has been more research into eyes closed procedures caution should be taken in recommending such procedures for police interviews with children. PMID:24999333

  7. Implementing Institutional Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Although many agree that institutional research in higher education has come of age and is accepted as a part of institutional management, great variations exist in the extent to which institutional research findings are synthesized and utilized in management decision-making. A number of reasons can be identified as accounting for this phenomenon,…

  8. Parental Inconsistency: A Third Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children's mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries to assess its association with adolescents' psychological disorders. The results show that parental…

  9. Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

  10. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by

  11. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  12. Research Findings You Can Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Eight educational practices for improving classroom learning taken from the Department of Education's report "What Works--Research about Teaching and Learning" are reviewed. Reading comprehension, teaching writing, direct instruction, and homework are among the topics covered. (MT)

  13. 77 FR 32116 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National...''). Specifically, Respondent committed research misconduct by knowingly and intentionally: Falsifying...

  14. Finding translation in stress research.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Ahmad R; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    In our ongoing efforts to advance understanding of human diseases, translational research across rodents and humans on stress-related mental disorders stands out as a field that is producing discoveries that illuminate mechanisms of risk and pathophysiology at a brisk rate. Here we offer a Perspective on how a productive translational research dialog between preclinical models and clinical studies of these disorders is being powered by an ever-developing appreciation of the shared neural circuits and genetic architecture that moderate the response to stress across species. Working from these deep foundations, we discuss the approaches, both traditional and innovative, that have the potential to deliver a new generation of risk biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for stress-related disorders.

  15. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    PubMed

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  16. Textual Research and Coherence: Findings, Intuition, Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haswell, Richard H.

    1989-01-01

    Notes discrepancies between findings from textual studies and classroom practices and textbooks. Reviews research on cohesion and writing development. Argues that teachers must critically examine writing research and apply it in the classroom. (JAD/RAE)

  17. 77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Physiology, Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, UK, engaged in research misconduct in research supported... (NCRR), NIH, grant P20 RR105592. ] ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct...

  18. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... and Data Base Manager, CU, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of... Respondent's knowing and intentional falsification of data constitutes research misconduct as defined by...

  19. 78 FR 60873 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... former Assistant Scientist, UW, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National...

  20. 77 FR 46438 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., former Director of the Laboratory of Glycoimmunotheraphy, JWCI, engaged in research misconduct in... CA107316 and R03 CA107831. ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by...

  1. Learning from Inconsistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This position paper argues that inconsistencies that occur during the development of a software specification offer an excellent way of learning more about the development process. We base this argument on our work on inconsistency management. Much attention has been devoted recently to the need to allow inconsistencies to occur during software development, to facilitate flexible development strategies, especially for collaborative work. Recent work has concentrated on reasoning in the presence of inconsistency, tracing inconsistencies with 'pollution markers' and supporting resolution. We argue here that one of the most important aspects of inconsistency is the learning opportunity it provides. We are therefore concerned with how to capture this learning outcome so that its significance is not lost. We present a small example of how apprentice software engineers learn from their mistakes, and outline how an inconsistency management tool could support this learning. We then argue that the approach can be used more generally as part of continuous process improvement.

  2. 76 FR 62807 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., Duke, engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data in a grant application submitted to...

  3. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... intentionally tampered with research materials related to five (5) immunoprecipitation/Western blot experiments and switched the labels on four (4) cell culture dishes for cells used in the same type of...

  4. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Elizabeth R.; Rothenberg, Karen H.; Berkman, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)—findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research—and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher’s failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors—including customary practice and guidance documents—that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher’s duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This

  5. Brain Research Findings May Improve Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, W. Henry

    1982-01-01

    Administrators cannot afford to remain ignorant of the work of neuroscientists over the last 30 years. The findings of brain research can help administrators gain a better understanding of decision making. The author lists four benefits to education that administrators can provide through greater knowledge of the brain. (WD)

  6. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... (1) Yang, C.-S., Chuang, L.-Y., Ke, C.-H., Yang, C.-H., International Journal of Computer Science...., Baumgartner, C., Sittampalam, S., Lushington, G., International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the...

  7. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... misconduct in grant applications 1 R01 DK072026-01 and 1 R01 DK072026-01A2 submitted to the National... Respondent engaged in misconduct in science, 42 CFR 50.102, in NIDDK, NIH, grant application 1 R01...

  8. 76 FR 7568 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... experiments done in 2005 that were falsely labeled as if from different experiments to construct Figure 4A in... data provided are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the...

  9. 77 FR 22320 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... results of a pilot experiment in which he claimed to have injected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells... and no adverse effects. Respondent admitted that this experiment had not been conducted either by...

  10. 78 FR 25274 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... reporting the results from previous experiments as the actual results, when the experiments had not been... of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral loads in whole blood patient samples by falsely...

  11. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived, and that the...

  12. 76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary.... Specifically, ORI found that Respondent: Fabricated RT-PCR and ChIP experiments represented in Figures 1b, 2b, 3a,b, 4b,c, 6a,b, 7c in Mol. Endocrinol. 23(12):2075- 85, 2009; RT-PCR and/or ChIP experiments...

  13. Inconsistencies in steady state thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential μ, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. These quantities are determined via zero-flux conditions of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. For the models considered here, the fluxes are given in terms of certain stationary average densities, eliminating the need to perturb the system by actually exchanging particles; μ and Te are thereby obtained via open-circuit measurements, using a virtual reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas, both μ and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that the zeroth law is violated, and determine the size of the violations numerically. Our results highlight a fundamental inconsistency in the extension of thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Research supported by CNPq, Brazil.

  14. Health effects of uranium: new research findings.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Recent plans for a nuclear renaissance in both established and emerging economies have prompted increased interest in uranium mining. With the potential for more uranium mining worldwide and a growth in the literature on the toxicology and epidemiology of uranium and uranium mining, we found it timely to review the current state of knowledge. Here, we present a review of the health effects of uranium mining, with an emphasis on newer findings (2005-2011). Uranium mining can contaminate air, water, and soil. The chemical toxicity of the metal constitutes the primary environmental health hazard, with the radioactivity of uranium a secondary concern. The update of the toxicologic evidence on uranium adds to the established findings regarding nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and developmental defects. Additional novel toxicologic findings, including some at the molecular level, are now emerging that raise the biological plausibility of adverse effects on the brain, on reproduction, including estrogenic effects, on gene expression, and on uranium metabolism. Historically, most epidemiology on uranium mining has focused on mine workers and radon exposure. Although that situation is still overwhelmingly true, a smaller emerging literature has begun to form around environmental exposure in residential areas near uranium mining and processing facilities. We present and critique such studies. Clearly, more epidemiologic research is needed to contribute to causal inference. As much damage is irreversible, and possibly cumulative, present efforts must be vigorous to limit environmental uranium contamination and exposure.

  15. The water factor and mortality from ischemic heart disease: a review and possible explanations for inconsistent findings with additional data from Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zeid, H A

    1979-01-01

    The question of the relationship between water hardness and mortality from cardiovascular diseases is far from being settled. Marked discrepancies in the results of various studies in this area exist and there is a great need for closer examination of the reliability of measuring water hardness and other water characteristics. There is also a need for standardizing these measurements and for accounting for certain important questions in designing studies of this nature. This article reviews the results of various studies on the "water factor," points out their discrepancies, presents additional evidence from the Province of Manitoba against the "water factor;" and explains possible sources for discrepancies in the findings of various studies. Based on the evidence so far available, it is too early to universally accept the "water story" and to make recommendations for discouraging the softening of hard water as a measure for preventing cardiovascular disease mortality.

  16. The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research.

    PubMed

    Hens, Kristien; Nys, Herman; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris

    2011-03-01

    The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research context: the respect for a participant's autonomy and the duty of the researcher. Concepts such as autonomy and solidarity do not fit easily in the discussion when paediatric biobanks are concerned. Although parents may be allowed to enrol children in minimal risk genetic research on stored tissue samples, they should not be given the option to opt out of receiving important health information. Also, children have a right to an open future: parents do not have the right to access any genetic data that a biobank holds on their children. In this respect, the guidelines on genetic testing of minors are applicable. With regard to the duty of the researcher the question of whether researchers have a more stringent duty to return important health information when their research subjects are children is more difficult to answer. A researcher's primary duty is to perform useful research, a policy to return individual results must not hamper this task. The fact that vulnerable children are concerned, is an additional factor that should be considered when a policy of returning results is laid down for a specific collection or research project.

  17. Putting Research Findings into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Lawatia, Zainab; Al-Abri, Rashid; Bhargava, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A perception exists that clinicians in Oman are reluctant to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). This pilot study was undertaken to study the feasibility of using EBP pathways at the point of care in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. The ultimate aim was to facilitate EBP with the probability of developing a new system for implementing research findings/translational research at the clinical point of care. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective questionnaire pilot survey of clinicians at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, a tertiary care medical centre, was undertaken. Respondents included 135 physicians and surgeons with between 3 months and 25 years of clinical experience and included personnel ranging from interns to senior consultants, in areas ranging from primary care to specialist care. Results: Of those polled, 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85–95%) either strongly agreed or agreed that evidence-based practice protocols (EBPP) could help in decision making. A total of 87.4% of participants (95% CI 81.8–93%) either strongly agreed or agreed that EBPPs can improve clinical outcomes; 91.8% of participants (95% CI 87.2–96.4%) would use and apply EBPP in day-to-day care if they were available at the point of care and embedded in the hospital information system. Conclusions: The perception that clinicians at SQUH are reluctant to adopt EBP is incorrect. The introduction of EBP pathways is very feasible at the primary care level. Institutional support for embedding EBP in hospital information systems is needed as well as further outcome research to assess the improvement in quality of care. PMID:22548137

  18. 76 FR 64947 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ..., Department of Chemistry, UP, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of... National Organic Symposium, and in a manuscript, ``Total Synthesis of 9-desmethylpleurotin,'' prepared...

  19. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... Immunity, HSDM, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Arthritis and... the Respondent engaged in research misconduct involving one (1) laboratory presentation and two...

  20. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself.

  1. Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

  2. 78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... phospholipase A2 IIA is Up-regulated by TNF- and IL-1 / after Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.'' Brain Research 1134:199- 205, 2007 (hereafter referred to as the ``Brain Research paper''), as the sPLA 2 -IIA... the JBC paper and Figure 2A and 2C of the Brain Research paper by rearranging the bands such that...

  3. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues.

    PubMed

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Wilson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Depression has been described as a process of behavioural withdrawal from overwhelming aversive stressors, and which manifests itself in the diagnostic symptomatology for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The underlying neurobiological pathways to that behavioural withdrawal are suggested to include greater activation in the right vs the left frontal lobes, described as frontal EEG asymmetry. However, despite a previous meta-analysis that provided overall support for this EEG asymmetry hypothesis, inconsistencies and several methodological confounds exist. The current review examines the literature on this issue, identifies inconsistencies in findings and discusses several key research issues that require addressing for this field to move towards a defensible theoretical model of depression and EEG asymmetry. In particular, the position of EEG asymmetry in the brain, measurement of severity and symptoms profiles of depression, and the effects of gender are considered as potential avenues to more accurately define the specific nature of the depression-EEG asymmetry association.

  4. Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M; Thompson, H S

    1997-12-01

    Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength

  5. 78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National... falsely claimed long term survival, normal serum creatinine concentrations, and lack of adverse effects...

  6. Dissemination and Implementation of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charlie M., Ed.

    Fifty-five vocational educators participated in the 18th Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education at Louisiana State University. Presentations included in the document are: (1) "The Research Problem in Agricultural Education" by L. L. Pesson, (2) views on organizing a vocational agricultural education department for effective…

  7. Bibliotherapy as a Counseling Adjunct: Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Frederick A.; Engels, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews research relating to various aspects of bibliotherapy, including academic achievement, assertiveness, attitude change, behavioral change, fear reduction, helper effectiveness, marital accord, self-development, and therapeutic gains. Discusses implications for using bibliotherapy as an adjunct to counseling. (RC)

  8. Writing and publishing your research findings.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Charles T; Rush, A John

    2009-06-01

    Writing clearly is critical to the success of your scientific career. Unfortunately, this skill is not taught in medical school or postgraduate training. This article summarizes our approach to the writing and publication of your research. Here we focus on empirical or experimental reports of translational and clinically oriented research. We review the process of choosing what to write, how to write it clearly, and how to navigate the process of submission and publication.

  9. 78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research... of motivation on cognitive control.'' Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 12(4):692-718, 2012 Dec. (hereafter... Psychol Gen. 2012). 3. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. ``Motivated cognitive control: Reward...

  10. Educational Research: Biologists Finding Their Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Since the publication of the Dearing report (1997) there has been an increasing emphasis on the quality of teaching and learning provision within higher education institutions (HEIs). This focus on provision has in turn generated much educational research into "approaches" to both teaching practice and student learning within higher education…

  11. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  12. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  13. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games.

  14. Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during imaging performed for research: current legal and ethical implications

    PubMed Central

    Booth, T C; Jackson, A; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Waldman, A D

    2010-01-01

    Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during research imaging are common and have important implications for study design and performance, particularly in the areas of informed consent, subjects' rights, clinical image analysis and disclosure. In this study, we aimed to determine current practice and regulations concerning information that should be given to research subjects when obtaining consent, reporting of research images, who should be informed about any incidental findings and the method of disclosure. We reviewed all UK, European and international humanitarian, legal and ethical agencies' guidance. We found that the guidance on what constitutes incidental pathology, how to recognise it and what to do about it is inconsistent between agencies, difficult to find and less complete in the UK than elsewhere. Where given, guidance states that volunteers should be informed during the consent process about how research images will be managed, whether a mechanism exists for identifying incidental findings, arrangements for their disclosure, the potential benefit or harm and therapeutic options. The effects of incidentally discovered pathology on the individual can be complex and far-reaching. Radiologist involvement in analysis of research images varies widely; many incidental findings might therefore go unrecognised. In conclusion, guidance on the management of research imaging is inconsistent, limited and does not address the interests of volunteers. Improved standards to guide management of research images and incidental findings are urgently required. PMID:20335427

  15. Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esserman, June F., Ed.

    This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

  16. 77 FR 33737 - Findings of Research Misconduct; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct; Correction AGENCY: Office of the... notice published in the May 31, Federal Register entitled ``Findings of Research Misconduct.'' DATES... Research Misconduct notice published on May 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Gorirossi...

  17. Helping Teachers Use Research Findings: The Consumer-Validation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Robert E.; Huffman, James O.

    A program stressing teacher involvement and classroom implementation of educational research findings is described. The program was designed to familiarize teachers with current findings, have them apply the findings in their classrooms, analyze their own teaching behavior, and critically evaluate the findings in terms of their applicability to…

  18. Applications of Current Research Findings to Bilingual Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ana Maria

    Recent research findings that have potential application or are already contributing to the refinement of educational practice in bilingual education include developments in language research, teacher effectiveness research, and ethnography. In language research, these contributions include work on the need for and types of language proficiency,…

  19. Finding Intercultural Business Communication Research Sites in Companies (Doing Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskill, Linda; Shaw, Peggy

    1994-01-01

    Describes important resources for discovering sites for communication research related to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), to help identify appropriate companies and contact them. (SR)

  20. The application of qualitative research findings to oncology nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Colleen Ann; Moules, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) has established an ambitious research agenda and professional priorities based on a survey by LoBiondo-Wood et al. (2014). With the overall goal to "improve cancer care and the lives of individuals with cancer" (Moore & Badger, 2014, p. 93) through research activities, translating those research findings to direct clinical practice can be overwhelming. As clinicians, understanding how to critique research for quality prior to incorporating research findings into practice is important. The ultimate goal in this critique is to ensure that decisions made about patient care are based on strong evidence. However, the process for appraisal of qualitative research can be ambiguous and often contradictory as a result of the elusive aspect of quality in qualitative research methods (Seale, 1999). In addition, with more than 100 tools available to evaluate qualitative research studies (Higgins & Green, 2011), a lack of consensus exists on how to critically appraise research findings.

  1. Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863

  2. Was Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, Peter

    This paper follows up a debate as to the consistency of Newtonian cosmology. Whereas Malament [(1995). Is Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent? Philosophy of Science 62, 489-510] has shown that Newtonian cosmology is not inconsistent, to date there has been no analysis of Norton's claim [(1995). The force of Newtonian cosmology: Acceleration is relative. Philosophy of Science 62, 511-522.] that Newtonian cosmology was inconsistent prior to certain advances in the 1930s, and in particular prior to Seeliger's seminal paper of Seeliger [(1895). Über das Newton'sche Gravitationsgesetz. Astronomische Nachrichten 137 (3273), 129-136.] In this paper I agree that there are assumptions, Newtonian and cosmological in character, and relevant to the real history of science, which are inconsistent. But there are some important corrections to make to Norton's account. Here I display for the first time the inconsistencies-four in total-in all their detail. Although this extra detail shows there to be several different inconsistencies, it also goes some way towards explaining why they went unnoticed for 200 years.

  3. Researchers Find Essential Brain Circuit in Visual Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... 26, 2013 Researchers find essential brain circuit in visual development NIH-funded study could lead to new ... image shows the binocular zone of the mouse visual cortex. Amblyopia occurs when one eye is impaired ...

  4. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  5. Synthesis of Selected Research on Teacher Findings. Report No. 9009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Susan

    An overview of research on elementary secondary classroom teaching presents a synthesis of findings from large-scale, classroom-based studies on teacher effectiveness. Three sets of major research efforts, dealing with classroom management and organization, systematic instruction, and effective instruction, were selected for review. Certain…

  6. Secure Accommodation for Very Difficult Adolescents: Some Recent Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Roger; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research which has clarified the needs and problems of adolescents in secure units and has highlighted the relationship between provision offered in child care, penal, and health services. Discusses new research findings, particularly those arising out of studies of young people (n=104) in two youth treatment centers. (Author/ABL)

  7. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  8. Family violence: contemporary research findings and practice issues.

    PubMed

    Yegidis, B L

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe recent empirical research findings about family violence, and to explore selected social work treatment issues in the light of these findings. The last two decades has seen a proliferation of research about family violence. Most of the early research used small clinical samples and so generalizing findings to other groups has been difficult. However, the recent research has examined a number of important psychosocial correlates of family violence using more methodologically sound methods. As a result, we now know quite a bit about how and why family violence occurs. Also, within the last decade a number of studies have explicated the kinds of treatments and approaches that are most effective in dealing with abusive people. This paper summarizes these treatment strategies.

  9. In Search of New Ideas, Research Findings, and Emerging Technologies? Here's Where To Find Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary C.

    There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…

  10. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  11. Inconsistencies in Autism-Specific Emotion Interventions: Cause for Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Monica; Edmunds, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Precise educational interventions are the sine qua non of services for students with exceptionalities. Applying interventions riddled with inconsistencies, therefore, interferes with the growth and learning potential of students who need these interventions. This research synthesis documents the inconsistencies revealed during a critical analysis…

  12. Adult Regularization of Inconsistent Input Depends on Pragmatic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In a variety of domains, adults who are given input that is only partially consistent do not discard the inconsistent portion (regularize) but rather maintain the probability of consistent and inconsistent portions in their behavior (probability match). This research investigates the possibility that adults probability match, at least in part,…

  13. Research essentials: How to find funds to support projects.

    PubMed

    Higham, Sue; Simons, Joan

    2014-10-01

    IF YOU HAVE an idea for a research project, whether it is an investigation or a literature review, it can be difficult to know where to start looking for financial support. Finding colleagues to work with will provide you with a sounding board for your idea, as well as support and encouragement.

  14. Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…

  15. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception.

  16. Delinquent-Oriented Attitudes Mediate the Relation Between Parental Inconsistent Discipline and Early Adolescent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Lippold, Melissa A.; Nix, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in 6th grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by 7th grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by 8th grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. PMID:23544924

  17. Questioning the use value of qualitative research findings.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper the use value of qualitative research findings to nurses in practice is questioned. More precisely it is argued that, insofar as action follows belief then, in all but the rarest of cases, the beliefs that nurses in practice can justifiably derive from or form on the basis of qualitative research findings do not sanction action in the world and the assumption, apparently widely held, that qualitative research can as evidence productively inform practice collapses. If qualitative research does not have a substantive action guiding potential then, in consequence, three conclusions are permitted. First, regarding the requirement that nurses ground actions on evidence, regulators should redraft methodologically neutral or permissive guidelines to specify the sorts of research evidence that can serve this function. Second, qualitative methodologies should receive less prominence in nurse education programmes. Third, qualitative researchers should make it clear that their work cannot inform practice. Alternatively, if this claim is advanced the process by which this is to be achieved should be explicitly stated.

  18. Inconsistency of topologically massive hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragone, C.; Deser, S.

    1985-01-01

    The coupled topologically massive spin-5/2 gravity system in D = 3 dimensions whose kinematics represents dynamical propagating gauge invariant massive spin-5/2 and spin-2 excitations, is shown to be inconsistent, or equivalently, not locally hypersymmetric. In contrast to D = 4, the local constraints on the system arising from failure of the fermionic Bianchi identities do not involve the 'highest spin' components of the field, but rather the auxiliary spinor required to construct a consistent massive model.

  19. Informed Consent for Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Waldman, Cameron R.; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Parens, Erik; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Researchers face the dilemma of how to obtain consent for return of incidental findings (IFs) from genomic research. We surveyed and interviewed investigators and study participants, with the goal of providing suggestions for how to shape the consent process. Methods We performed an online survey of 254 US genetic researchers identified through the NIH RePORTER database and abstracts from the 2011 American Society of Human Genetics meeting; and qualitative semi-structured interviews with 28 genomic researchers and 20 research participants. Results Most researchers and participants endorsed disclosure of a wide range of information about return of IFs, including: risks, benefits, impact on family members, data security, and procedures for return of results in the event of death or incapacity and for recontact. However, most researchers were willing to devote 30 minutes or less to this process, and expressed concerns that disclosed information would overwhelm participants, a concern shared by many participants themselves. Conclusion There is a disjunction between the views of investigators and participants about the amount of information that should be disclosed and the practical realities of the research setting, including time available for consent discussions. This strongly suggests the need for innovative approaches to the informed consent process. PMID:24158054

  20. Bayesian Approach for Inconsistent Information

    PubMed Central

    Stein, M.; Beer, M.; Kreinovich, V.

    2013-01-01

    In engineering situations, we usually have a large amount of prior knowledge that needs to be taken into account when processing data. Traditionally, the Bayesian approach is used to process data in the presence of prior knowledge. Sometimes, when we apply the traditional Bayesian techniques to engineering data, we get inconsistencies between the data and prior knowledge. These inconsistencies are usually caused by the fact that in the traditional approach, we assume that we know the exact sample values, that the prior distribution is exactly known, etc. In reality, the data is imprecise due to measurement errors, the prior knowledge is only approximately known, etc. So, a natural way to deal with the seemingly inconsistent information is to take this imprecision into account in the Bayesian approach – e.g., by using fuzzy techniques. In this paper, we describe several possible scenarios for fuzzifying the Bayesian approach. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the estimated imprecise parameters. In this paper, to implement the corresponding fuzzy versions of the Bayesian formulas, we use straightforward computations of the related expression – which makes our computations reasonably time-consuming. Computations in the traditional (non-fuzzy) Bayesian approach are much faster – because they use algorithmically efficient reformulations of the Bayesian formulas. We expect that similar reformulations of the fuzzy Bayesian formulas will also drastically decrease the computation time and thus, enhance the practical use of the proposed methods. PMID:24089579

  1. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  2. Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

  3. Three scenarios of ranking inconsistencies involving search tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Samuelson, Frank W.; Zeng, Rongping; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Our previous work on assessment of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) image quality revealed inconsistencies in ranking the reconstruction algorithms' performances for a location-known-exactly (LKE) detection and a location-unknown searching task. Such results made us wonder that ranking inconsistencies may not be rare phenomena at all. In this work, we conducted a small literature review that involved three publications (He, Samuelson, Zeng and Sahiner SPIE 2016; Park, Kupinski, Clarkson and Barrett, IPMI 2003 and JOSA 2005). These publications compared the LKE and search performance for a variety of observers using the AUC value as the performance criterion (human observers, CHOs for detection, scanning CHOs for search, and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo ideal observer for detection and search). We categorized the experimental findings into three types of ranking inconsistencies: 1) Ranking inconsistencies in LKE and search tasks; 2) human/ideal observer ranking inconsistencies; and 3) LKE/search ranking inconsistencies in the presence of signal variability. The empirical evidence presented in this work suggested that ranking inconsistencies for imaging systems existed, but these inconsistencies often do not draw enough attention in the literature.

  4. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    PubMed

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  5. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  6. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27247671

  7. Researcher and Institutional Review Board Chair Perspectives on Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Driessnack, Martha; Downing, Nancy; Shinkunas, Laura; Brandt, Debra; Simon, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Genomic research can produce findings unrelated to a study's aims. The purpose of this study was to examine researcher and Institutional Review Board (IRB) chair perspectives on genomic incidental findings (GIFs). Methods: Nineteen genomic researchers and 34 IRB chairs from 42 institutions participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Researchers and chairs described GIFs within their respective roles. Few had direct experience with disclosure of GIFs. Researchers favored policies where a case by case determination regarding whether GIF disclosure would be offered after discovery, whereas IRB chairs preferred policies where procedures for disclosure would be determined prior to approval of the research. Conclusions: Researcher and IRB chair perspectives on management of GIFs overlap, but each group provides a unique perspective on decisions regarding disclosure of GIFs in research. Engagement of both groups is essential in efforts to provide guidance for researchers and IRBs regarding disclosure of GIFs in research. PMID:22352737

  8. Holdridge life zone physical inconsistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, A., Sr.; Ochoa, A.

    2015-12-01

    Life zones is a very used classification system, developed by L.R. Holdridge in 1967, used to discern why plants have different adaptation mechanism to their surrounding environment. In this paper, the relation between potential evapotranspiration rate (ETr ), anual precipitation (P ) and biotemperature (Tb ) in the Holdridge triangle, is parametrized (P = (500/9)*ETr) to evaluate if the rain process is conserved in Colombia. Further, an adiabatic ascent of air with diurnal and interannual variability, and cluster analysis is view as a classification example of the advantage of using physical process to evaluate the plants adaptation mechanisms . The most inconsistency life zones are situated in the rainiest places of Colombian pacific costs in tropical latitudinal region, are non-exist places in holdridge triangle with annual biotemperature higher than 26◦ C, annual precipitation about 10.000mm and annual potential evapotranspiration rate about 0.1. The difference between Holdridge predicted precipitation and the precipitation measured with TRMM are about 5.000mm in these places. Classification systems based on an annual average, do not stablish adaptation as a function of diurnal variability, for example, the difference between valley sides vegetation could not being determined. This kind of limitations, added to a validation procces and the auscence of a physic procces in the variable interaction, make the Holdridge Life Zones a very useful tool, but physically inconsistent for caracterice vegetation as a function of precipitation. The rain process is very complex, depend of mass and energy exchanges and is still a controversial topic in atmospheric modeling, as a biotic pump.

  9. Does Status Inconsistency Matter for Marital Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Min

    2007-01-01

    This study tests status inconsistency theory by examining the associations between wives' and husbands' relative statuses--that is, earnings, work-time, occupational, and educational inconsistencies--and marital quality and global happiness. The author asks three questions: (a) Is status inconsistency associated with marital quality and overall…

  10. Test Response Inconsistency in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vane, Julia R.; Motta, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    These studies indicated preschool children show a high degree of variability when responding to the same test questions within short time intervals. In two studies, children were inconsistent in responding. In a third, one-third of the children responded inconsistently. Studies with standardized test items revealed inconsistency among most…

  11. 'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.

    PubMed

    Cevc, Gregor

    2014-01-23

    Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing.

  12. Research on Interest in Science: Theories, methods, and findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the 'Programme for International Student Assessment' (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical roots that help to understand recent discussions on interest in science education. As interest is a widely used concept with manifold facets, it is essential to discuss different ways of modelling the relationship between a person and a comprehensive object like science with all of its different aspects, including wide ranges of content as well as contexts. Models that can be used for describing the content structure of science interest and the process of interest development are presented. Based on an overview of typical methods for assessing interests, exemplary findings on students' interest in science are presented, which play an important role in the current scientific debate. Finally, challenges for future research on interest in science education are discussed.

  13. The law of incidental findings in human subjects research: establishing researchers' duties.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susan M; Paradise, Jordan; Caga-anan, Charlisse

    2008-01-01

    Research technologies can now produce so much information that there is significant potential for incidental findings (IFs). These are findings generated in research that are beyond the aims of the study. Current law and federal regulations offer no direct guidance on how to deal with IFs in research, nor is there adequate professional or institutional guidance. We advocate a defined set of researcher duties based on law and ethics and recommend a pathway to be followed in handling IFs in research. This article traces the underlying ethical and legal theories supporting researcher duties to manage IFs, including duties to develop a plan for management in the research protocol, to discuss the possibility of and management plan for IFs in the informed consent process, and to address, evaluate, and ultimately offer to disclose IFs of potential clinical or reproductive significance to research participants when they arise.

  14. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were

  15. Managing Incidental Findings and Research Results in Genomic Research Involving Biobanks & Archived Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Susan M.; Crock, Brittney N.; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Beskow, Laura M.; Cho, Mildred K.; Christman, Michael F.; Green, Robert C.; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Kohane, Isaac S.; LeRoy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J.; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Richardson, Henry S.; Scott, Joan A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wolf, Wendy A.

    2013-01-01

    Biobanks and archived datasets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using “biobank” here to refer to both collections of samples and collections of data). This paper reports recommendations from a 2-year, NIH-funded project. The authors analyze responsibilities to manage return of IFs and IRRs in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). They suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When re-identification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities: to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) re-identify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. The authors suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and that are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. The paper specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks and biobanks already in existence. PMID:22436882

  16. Putting Research Findings to Work. ANPA News Research Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauro, John B.; Bonney, Christopher F.

    Twenty-six American Newspaper Publishers Association research reports published since 1978 are reviewed in this paper. The paper analyzes each of the reports in order to provide an overview of what their findings really say and what newspapers can do in their own market areas to use the findings to improve their product. Among the topics covered…

  17. The Underlying Message in LD Intervention Research: Findings from Research Syntheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Gersten, Russell; Chard, David J.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the critical findings of recent research syntheses concerning intervention with students who have learning disabilities. The syntheses examined research on higher-order processing and problem- solving, reading comprehension, written expression, and grouping practices associated with improved outcomes in reading. Principles…

  18. Dimensions of poverty and inconsistent condom use among youth in urban Kenya.

    PubMed

    Davidoff-Gore, Alena; Luke, Nancy; Wawire, Salome

    2011-10-01

    To date, research on the link between poverty and unsafe sexual behaviors has utilized limited measures of socioeconomic status and has overlooked key dimensions of poverty at the individual level. This study explored how various dimensions of socioeconomic status are associated with inconsistent condom use and how these associations vary by gender. We analyzed unique life history survey data from 261 young men and women in Kisumu, Kenya, and conducted analyses based on 959 person-months in which respondents had been sexually active in nonmarital relationships. Dependent variables were inconsistent condom use (not always using a condom) and never use of condoms. Condoms were used inconsistently in 57% of months and were never used in 31%. Corroborating existing literature, lower household wealth and lower educational attainment were associated with inconsistent condom use. Lower individual economic status (lower earned income, food insufficiency, and larger material transfers from partners) were also important determinants of inconsistent condom use. There were no significant differences in these associations by gender, with the exception of food insufficiency, which increased the risk of inconsistent condom use for young women but not for young men. None of these individual measures of socioeconomic status were associated with never use of a condom. The findings suggest that both household- and individual-level measures of socioeconomic status are important correlates of condom use and that individual economic resources play a crucial role in negotiations over the highest level of usage. The results highlight the importance of poverty in shaping sexual behavior, and, in particular, that increasing individual access to resources beyond the household, including ensuring access to food and providing educational and work opportunities, could prove to be effective strategies for decreasing the risk of HIV among youth.

  19. Finding a Mentor for High School Independent Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Being involved with scientific research in high school is rewarding and fun. Research enables students to: (1) learn in depth about a particular area; (2) meet other students who are also enthusiastic about learning and who have done amazing research; and (3) earn scholarships for college if the research is entered in competitions. Completing a…

  20. Disclosure and management of research findings in stem cell research and banking: policy statement.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M; Andrews, Peter W; Bredenoord, Annelien; Colman, Alan; Hin, Lee Eng; Hull, Sara; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Sipp, Douglas; Stacey, Glyn; Wahlstrom, Jan; Zeng, Fanyi

    2012-05-01

    Prompted by an increased interest of both research participants and the patient advocacy community in obtaining information about research outcomes and on the use of their biological samples; the international community has begun to debate the emergence of an ethical 'duty' to return research results to participants. Furthermore, the use of new technologies (e.g., whole-genome and -exome sequencing) has revealed both genetic data and incidental findings with possible clinical significance. These technologies together with the proliferation of biorepositories, provide a compelling rationale for governments and scientific institutions to adopt prospective policies. Given the scarcity of policies in the context of stem cell research, a discussion on the scientific, ethical and legal implications of disclosing research results for research participants is needed. We present the International Stem Forum Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement and trust that it will stimulate debate and meet the concerns of researchers and research participants alike.

  1. Next generation sequencing in psychiatric research: what study participants need to know about research findings.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Ghislaine; Groisman, Iris Jaitovich; Godard, Beatrice

    2013-10-01

    The use of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in psychiatric genetics research and its potential to generate individual research results will likely have far reaching implications for predictive and diagnostic practices. The extent of this impact may not be easily understood by psychiatric research participants during the consent process. The traditional consent process for studies involving human subjects does not address critical issues specific to NGS research, such as the return of results. We examined which type of research findings should be communicated, how this information should be conveyed during the consent process and what guidance is required by researchers and IRBs to help psychiatric research participants understand the peculiarities, the limits and the impact of NGS. Strong standards are needed to ensure appropriate use of data generated by NGS, to meet participants' expectations and needs, and to clarify researchers' duties regarding the disclosure of data and their subsequent management. In the short term, researchers and IRBs need to be proactive in revising current consent processes that deal with the disclosure of research findings.

  2. Speaking up about Advocacy: Findings from a Partnership Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Melanie; Bannister, Susan; Davies, Julie; Fleming, Simon; Graham, Claire; Mcmaster, Andrea; Seddon, Angela; Wheldon, Anita; Whittell, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…

  3. English-Language Teachers' Engagement with Research: Findings from Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…

  4. Neurobiology Research Findings: How the Brain Works during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kweldju, Siusana

    2015-01-01

    In the past, neurobiology for reading was identical with neuropathology. Today, however, the advancement of modern neuroimaging techniques has contributed to the understanding of the reading processes of normal individuals. Neurobiology findings today have uncovered and illuminated the fundamental neural mechanism of reading. The findings have…

  5. Basic Skills Resource Center: Report on the Preliminary Research Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Research Laboratory Harold F. O’Neil, Jr., Director o-.--LI.J U-~% ELFCT A . .-III- A U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social ...BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES b.4 .IN A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel L. NEALE COSBY EDGAR M...OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral January 1985 and Social Sciences, 5001 Eisenhower Ave., 13

  6. Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

  7. Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, Evelyn H.; Cook-Chennault, Kimberly; Hirsch, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    In addressing the nation's need for a more technologically-literate society, the Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering (RU RET-E) is designed to: (1) engage middle and high school math and science teachers in innovative "green" engineering research during the summer, and (2) support teachers in integrating…

  8. Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

  9. Training Methods; An Analysis of the Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Air Force (England). Technical Training Command.

    To report research on different instructional methods and variables, to indicate limitations of the research, and to suggest criteria for methods for particular learning goals, this review discusses and evaluates several major instructional methods: lectures, lesson-demonstration, programed instruction, case studies, tutorials, brainstorming,…

  10. "Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Cathy A.

    2009-01-01

    The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

  11. Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

  12. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires that— (a) There be a...

  13. Keyboarding Issues in Elementary Education: Some Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercher, Lydia; McClurg, Patricia

    This paper explores the issue of how, when, and where to teach keyboarding at the elementary school level through a review of the keyboarding literature and descriptions of three studies conducted with fifth grade students in the laboratory school at the University of Wyoming. The literature review briefly summarizes findings on the following…

  14. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    AS A RESULT OF TWO CONFERENCES HELD IN 1963-64, INTERVIEW-TYPE SURVEYS OF EMPLOYMENT NEEDS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES WERE CONDUCTED IN 26 STATES IN 1964. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FINDINGS RESULTED IN THIS SYNTHESIS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON -- (1) NUMBERS OF PEOPLE EMPLOYED, (2) PRESENT NUMBER, ESTIMATED INCREASE, OCCUPATIONAL GROUP AND LEVEL…

  15. Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

  16. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  17. Operationalizing Culturally Responsive Instruction: Preliminary Findings of CRIOP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Rebecca; Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Malo-Juvera, Victor; Correll, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many scholars have espoused the use of culturally responsive instruction (CRI) for closing achievement gaps, yet there is a paucity of research supporting its effectiveness. In this article, we share results of a mixed methods study that examined the use of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) as a…

  18. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

  19. Aligning Economic and Workforce Development Activities in Baltimore. Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Olins, Alexandra; Prince, Heath

    Recent efforts to build economic and work force development systems in seven leading cities were reviewed to inform similar efforts undertaken in Baltimore, Maryland. Research examining efforts to establish work force development systems in the following cities were analyzed: Austin, Texas; Berkeley, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Cleveland,…

  20. Emergency Medical Services. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of emergency medical services (EMS), established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train paramedics. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I;…

  1. LEADERSHIP IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS--SOME RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANGE, CARL J.

    THE EFFECT OF A LEADER'S ACTIONS ON HIS FOLLOWERS IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS WAS THE SUBJECT OF SEVERAL RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED TO EXPLORE THE NATURE OF THE LEADERSHIP PROCESS, WITH THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF DEVELOPING TRAINING THAT WOULD USE IMPROVED PRESENTATIONAL MATERIALS AND WOULD BE BASED ON LEADERSHIP DOCTRINE WITH DEMONSTRATED VALIDITY. THE…

  2. Finding a Place for Genomics in Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, S.M.; Knerr, S.; Burke, W.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery. PMID:22488458

  3. Environmental Horticulture. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachler, Mike; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of environmental horticulture, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to address the needs of the horticulture field. Section 1 contains general information:…

  4. Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

  5. Employee Retention at ABC & Co. Northwest Arkansas. Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Timothy; And Others

    A 7-month research project was conducted by graduate students at a garment manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to gain information about high employee turnover. Information also was gathered about the employment situation in northwest Arkansas in general, union-labor relationships, and how other companies handled turnover. Data were…

  6. Enhancing the Elementary School Assistant Principalship: Some Findings from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Clinton R.

    Research on 125 assistant elementary principals in North Carolina revealed seven concerns about performance of duties: (1) lack of a well-defined job description, (2) lack of authority to implement assigned tasks, (3) lack of involvement in the instructional process, (4) lack of recognition, (5) make-shift office space, (6) low salaries, and (7)…

  7. Commercial Art. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial art, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train commercial artists. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I; description…

  8. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

  9. Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…

  10. Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

  11. Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

  12. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

  13. Children of substance abusers: overview of research findings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Leff, M

    1999-05-01

    A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of

  14. Implementing research findings into mental health nursing practice: exploring the clinical research fellowship approach.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Johnston, Linda; Hill, Christine

    2003-12-01

    The lack of research utilization within nursing practice has been extensively discussed in the literature. The Clinical Research Fellowship (CRF) program was developed to assist nurses to change practice on the basis of high-quality research evidence. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study examining the experiences of four CRF participants and three of their unit managers in completing the program and implementing changes within the clinical setting. The major themes to emerge from the data were: experience of the program, outcomes, implementation, assistance from the Centre for Psychiatric Nursing Research and Practice, Victoria, Australia, benefits and drawbacks to the program and whether it would be recommended to others. The findings indicate a positive view of the program itself although problems with the implementation stage were clearly evident. Further support following completion of the program is required to achieve maximum benefit from the program.

  15. Research findings help characterize Fort Worth basin's Barnett shale

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.E. ); McKetta, S. ); Lowry, P.H. )

    1993-03-08

    Analytical techniques that have grown out of the Gas Research Institute's Appalachian basin research effort are being successfully applied to the Mississippian Barnett shale of Texas' Fort Worth basin. Analysis has shown that well performance can be explained by a layered reservoir description, productive pay may be overstated by log analysis, productivity is enhanced by natural fractures, and long, bounded, high conductivity fractures are indeed being created and propped. As with the Appalachian shales, the key to fracture treatment optimization appears to be a better characterization of the Barnett shale via an integration of log and test data. The paper describes the geologic setting, drilling since 1981, a summary of the cooperative work performed on the 2 T.P. Sims well, the shale-specific log, core analysis fracture orientation, frac treatment analysis, and production data analysis.

  16. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1999-06-06

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

  17. Mental health epidemiological research in South America: recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Silva de Lima, Maurício; Garcia de Oliveira Soares, Bernardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to review the recent mental health epidemiological research conducted in South America. The Latin American and the Caribbean (LILACS) database was searched from 1999 to 2003 using a specific strategy for identification of cohort, case-control and cross-sectional population-based studies in South America. The authors screened references and identified relevant studies. Further studies were obtained contacting local experts in epidemiology. 140 references were identified, and 12 studies were selected. Most selected studies explored the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders, and several of them used sophisticated methods of sample selection and analysis. There is a need for improving the quality of psychiatric journals in Latin America, and for increasing the distribution and access to research data. Regionally relevant problems such as violence and substance abuse should be considered in designing future investigations in this area. PMID:16633474

  18. Highlighting inconsistencies regarding metal biosorption.

    PubMed

    Robalds, Artis; Naja, Ghinwa Melodie; Klavins, Maris

    2016-03-05

    Thousands of articles have been devoted to examine different types of biosorbents and their use in cleaning polluted waters. An important objective of some studies has been the identification of the biosorption mechanisms. This type of investigation is not always performed, as it can only be done if scientists are aware of all mechanisms that, at least theoretically, control the removal of the target substances. Mistakes are often made, even in highly cited review articles, where biosorption mechanisms are named and/or grouped. The aim of this article is to highlight errors and inaccuracies as well as to discuss different classification systems of the biosorption mechanisms. This article serves as a guide, as well as a platform for discussion among researchers involved in the investigation of biosorbents, in an effort to avoid reproducing errors in subsequent articles.

  19. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. PMID:21967450

  20. Journals Find Many Images in Research Are Faked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005, Roovers'…

  1. Behavioral Variability of Choices Versus Structural Inconsistency of Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker’s binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a strict weak order. Likewise, the very concept of a utility function over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak order preferences over those lotteries, while intransitive heuristic models violate such weak orders. Using new quantitative interdisciplinary methodologies we dissociate variability of choices from structural inconsistency of preferences. We show that laboratory choice behavior among stimuli of a classical “intransitivity” paradigm is, in fact, consistent with variable strict weak order preferences. We find that decision makers act in accordance with a restrictive mathematical model that, for the behavioral sciences, is extraordinarily parsimonious. Our findings suggest that the best place to invest future behavioral decision research is not in the development of new intransitive decision models, but rather in the specification of parsimonious models consistent with strict weak order(s), as well as heuristics and other process models that explain why preferences appear to be weakly ordered. PMID:22506679

  2. Inconsistencies in steady-state thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential μ, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. μ and Te are determined via coexistence, i.e., zero flux of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas both μ and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that in this case the zeroth law is violated for Metropolis exchange rates, and determine the size of the violations numerically. The zeroth law appears to be violated for generic exchange rates. Remarkably, the system-reservoir coupling proposed by Sasa and Tasaki [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 125 (2006), 10.1007/s10955-005-9021-7] is free of inconsistencies, and the zeroth law holds. This is because the rate depends only on the state of the donor system, and is independent of that of the acceptor.

  3. Remote ergonomic research in space: spacelab findings and a proposal.

    PubMed

    Wichman, H A; Donaldson, S I

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ergonomics research using remotely situated video cameras in spacecraft. Two prototype studies of crewmembers working in the micro-G environments aboard the first two flights of Spacelab are described. Various aspects of crew restraint, stabilization, manipulation of controls, and mobilization were observed, operationally defined, and quantified by observing videotaped scenes of Spacelab crewmembers. In the first study, four performance behaviors were quantified to provide estimates of their frequency of occurrence and variation over the course of each of the flights. The behaviors and their mean percent of observed times were: Hand-Hold 32.2%, Foot Restraint 35.3%, Translation 9.4%, and Struggle 3.7%. Because we observed that nearly a third of a crewmember's time was spent inefficiently holding on with one hand while trying to work with the other, a second study was conducted exploring the use of foot restraints and hand stabilization. During 18 episodes of single-foot restraint, for example, there were 52 instances of hand stabilization and 135 instances of stabilization attempts with the other foot. The paper concludes with some defining characteristics of adequate foot restraints, and a proposal for extending this research model to future spacecraft studies.

  4. Gate valve and motor-operator research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

  5. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions. (a) Opportunity to contest. A respondent may contest ORI findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including...

  6. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

  7. Integration inconsistency removal in data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuller, Julius

    2000-04-01

    The technological progress in the areas of the hardware, specially in the field of the (secondary) memories where the ever increasing capacities are paradoxically in the last several years available at ever decreasing prices and smaller physical sizes, and the software, continuously more and more user friendly, efficient and cheaper, together with the general expansion of the computers to almost all human activities, make it easier to realize the integration of many already existing databases. Unfortunately the process of databases integration can be accompanied by many various difficulties and problems. One of them is surely the possible occurrence of the inconsistencies appearing in this process of the integration. As we will see these inconsistencies can occur at various levels and they can be of different types. At the next stage some users go even further and try to get more from the accumulated data through data mining techniques. A data warehouse can be considered as a suitable technology for this purpose. Having in mind the data mining view of a data warehouse, one needs to know the sources of possible inconsistencies when building such a data warehouse in order to eliminate them as much as possible. In the paper we will define several existence conditions under which can occur different types of the inconsistencies in a warehouse and we will propose a classification of these inconsistencies based on the their sources. We will also propose a methodology and a procedure both of which aim at the elimination of these inconsistencies.

  8. [Parents of children with autism: recent research findings].

    PubMed

    Pisula, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    The parents of autistic children have become objects of many controversial studies and theories. This is a review of the studies that have been conducted in the nineties with this group of parents. The studies are combined into three categories: works on the broader phenotype, studies on the parental stress and the perception of the child, and finally, parents as therapists of their children. Although the idea of genetic determination of the cognitive, social and communication deficits, has been widely spread, it still has not been sufficiently proved. The research show that parents of children with autism experience profound stress. This stress response has specific profile--the most difficult for parents are handicaps related with atypical child behaviors, and the lack of knowledge about real development limitation and child problems. But even though, the parents supported by professionals may become the good teachers and therapists for their children. The partnership between parents and professionals is one of the conditions of the parent's success in these roles.

  9. Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.

    PubMed

    Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

    2012-08-01

    Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies.

  10. Quantitative research on the primary process: method and findings.

    PubMed

    Holt, Robert R

    2002-01-01

    Freud always defined the primary process metapsychologically, but he described the ways it shows up in dreams, parapraxes, jokes, and symptoms with enough observational detail to make it possible to create an objective, reliable scoring system to measure its manifestations in Rorschach responses, dreams, TAT stories, free associations, and other verbal texts. That system can identify signs of the thinker's efforts, adaptive or maladaptive, to control or defend against the emergence of primary process. A prerequisite and a consequence of the research that used this system was clarification and elaboration of the psychoanalytic theory of thinking. Results of empirical tests of several propositions derived from psychoanalytic theory are summarized. Predictions concerning the method's most useful index, of adaptive vs. maladaptive regression, have been repeatedly verified: People who score high on this index (who are able to produce well-controlled "primary products" in their Rorschach responses), as compared to those who score at the maladaptive pole (producing primary-process-filled responses with poor reality testing, anxiety, and pathological defensive efforts), are better able to tolerate sensory deprivation, are more able to enter special states of consciousness comfortably (drug-induced, hypnotic, etc.), and have higher achievements in artistic creativity, while schizophrenics tend to score at the extreme of maladaptive regression. Capacity for adaptive regression also predicts success in psychotherapy, and rises with the degree of improvement after both psychotherapy and drug treatment. Some predictive failures have been theoretically interesting: Kris's hypothesis about creativity and the controlled use of primary process holds for males but usually not for females. This body of work is presented as a refutation of charges, brought by such critics as Crews, that psychoanalysis cannot become a science.

  11. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and...

  12. Interinstitutional review of slides for forensic pathology: types of inconsistencies.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Gokhan; Akyildiz, Elif Ulker; Korkmaz, Gulay; Albek, Emre

    2010-09-01

    Because of the specific structure of forensic medicine in Turkey, reexamination of histopathologic specimens is a frequent practice. The aim of the present study is the assessment of microscopic diagnostic consistency in forensic pathology between different laboratories. Reports of the Council of Forensic Medicine between 2001 and 2004 were examined, and 150 cases with second pathologic examination were found. Results of histopathologic reports from peripheral laboratories were compared with those made by the Council pathologists with regard to diagnostic consistency. Consistency was assessed in 3 groups and 1 subgroup. Group 1, consistent and minor inconsistency; includes a major consistency subgroup. Group 2, major inconsistency, is the second diagnosis which is lethal; group 3, major inconsistency, is the first diagnosis which is lethal. The lung was found to be the organ with the highest frequency of diagnostic major inconsistency (group 2 and 3) and major consistency. Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis. The brain had the highest frequency of intercenter diagnostic overall consistency (90.2%, group 1). Myocardial infarction was the diagnosis most frequently rejected on reevaluation (group 3). In conclusion, forensic pathology requires different experience than surgical ones. In cases of discrepancy between the anamnesis of the lethal event and pathologic findings, reevaluation of specimen is mandatory to avoid any diagnostic errors. Quality assurance systems with all include internal and external control mechanisms will improve the diagnostic reliability.

  13. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...

  14. Inconsistency and social decision making in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Nora; Brändle, Laura S; Hager, Oliver M; Haynes, Melanie; Fischbacher, Urs; Hasler, Gregor

    2016-09-30

    Inconsistent social behavior is a core psychopathological feature of borderline personality disorder. The goal of the present study was to examine inconsistency in social decision-making using simple economic social experiments. We investigated the decisions of 17 female patients with BPD, 24 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 36 healthy controls in three single shot economic experiments measuring trust, cooperation, and punishment. BPD severity was assessed using the Zanarini Rating Scale for BPD. Investments across identical one-shot trust and punishment games were significantly more inconsistent in BPD patients than in controls. Such inconsistencies were only found in the social risk conditions of the trust and punishment conditions but not in the non-social control conditions. MDD patients did not show such inconsistencies. Furthermore, social support was negatively correlated with inconsistent decision-making in the trust and punishment game, which underscores the clinical relevance of this finding.

  15. Great lakes research--important human health findings and their impact on ATSDR's Superfund research program.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Heraline E; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2002-03-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, commonly known as Superfund. ATSDR is the principal United States federal public health agency involved with issues of public health and applied science concerning the human health impact of living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site, or emergencies resulting from unplanned releases of hazardous substances into community environments. In pursuing these mandates, ATSDR's mission is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. There are more than 2,000 toxic substances found at hazardous waste sites in the United States. ATSDR has developed a prioritized list of 275 substances that pose the greatest hazard to human health. In conducting its work ATSDR has identified data gaps in knowledge about the toxicity of various hazardous substances as well as gaps in human exposure characterization. As part of its mandate, ATSDR initiated a Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP) to address these data gaps. The ATSDR Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program (GLHHERP) is a congressionally-mandated research program that characterizes exposure to persistent toxic substances and investigates the potential for adverse health outcome in at-risk populations. The research findings from this program in the areas of exposure, sociodemographic data, and health effects have significant public health implications for ATSDR's Superfund research activities.

  16. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... administrative actions. After completing its review, ORI either closes the case without a finding of research... administrative actions based on the record of the research misconduct proceedings and any other information... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and...

  17. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. When a final HHS action results in a settlement or research misconduct... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding...

  18. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  19. Regulatory agencies' recommendations for medicine information leaflets: Are they in line with research findings?

    PubMed

    Young, Amber; Tordoff, June; Smith, Alesha

    2017-03-04

    The design of medicine information leaflets can determine whether a leaflet will be read or discarded by patients. It may also influence patients' ability to understand the information about their medicines within the leaflet. Researchers compared regulatory agencies' recommendations for medicine information leaflet design from New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States against recommended good design principles to determine the appropriateness, comprehensiveness, and consistency of their recommendations. Recommendations for medicine information leaflets varied between the regulatory agencies. There were some inconsistencies between the recommendations and some gaps were identified. There was little regulatory guidance given to creators of medicine information leaflets in New Zealand compared to other countries, and this could lead to manufacturer-produced information leaflets of a poorer quality. Up-to-date and enforceable guidance for creators of medicine information leaflets should be provided in all countries to ensure they are of an appropriate standard.

  20. Partially Correct Constructs Illuminate Students' Inconsistent Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron, Gila; Dreyfus, Tommy; Hershkowitz, Rina

    2010-01-01

    We present a view of knowledge construction processes, focusing on partially correct constructs. Motivated by unexpected and seemingly inconsistent quantitative data based on the written reports of students working on an elementary probability task, we analyze in detail the knowledge construction processes of a representative student. We show how…

  1. Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.

    PubMed

    Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways.

  2. Word Production Inconsistency of Singaporean-English-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Betty; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Butcher, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nature of speech disorders in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) remains controversial despite various explanations put forth in the literature to account for the observed speech profiles. A high level of word production inconsistency in children with DS has led researchers to query whether the inconsistency continues into…

  3. Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Anna; Malone, Kendra; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Fulda, Kimberly G.; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed. Results A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention. Conclusion Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants. PMID:24808109

  4. The impact of the 1991 Gulf War on the mind and brain: findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research

    PubMed Central

    Vasterling, Jennifer J; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have complained of somatic and cognitive symptoms that may be neurological in nature. However, whether or not changes in brain function are associated with GW service continues to be debated. Studies of GW veterans using objective, performance-based neuropsychological measures have yielded inconsistent findings, with those indicating deficits among GW veterans typically revealing only relatively mild levels of neuropsychological impairment. Further, performances on objective neuropsychological tasks show little correspondence to subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. Although preliminary magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies demonstrate reduced N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio in select brain regions among GW veterans who report health concerns, this work requires further replication with larger, more representative samples. There is no evidence from neuroimaging studies of a non-specific effect of GW service or of changes in brain structure or function related to health status when conventional radiological methods are used. Owing to the paucity of objective exposure, baseline health data, and the now significant time elapsed since the GW, aetiological issues may never be fully resolved. Therefore, research addressing clinical management of GW veterans with neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities may prove more fruitful than exclusive focus on aetiology. PMID:16687264

  5. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  6. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  7. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  8. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  9. Empirical evidence about inconsistency among studies in a pair-wise meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Kirsty M; Turner, Rebecca M; Higgins, Julian P T

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates how inconsistency (as measured by the I(2) statistic) among studies in a meta-analysis may differ, according to the type of outcome data and effect measure. We used hierarchical models to analyse data from 3873 binary, 5132 continuous and 880 mixed outcome meta-analyses within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Predictive distributions for inconsistency expected in future meta-analyses were obtained, which can inform priors for between-study variance. Inconsistency estimates were highest on average for binary outcome meta-analyses of risk differences and continuous outcome meta-analyses. For a planned binary outcome meta-analysis in a general research setting, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among log odds ratios had median 22% and 95% CI: 12% to 39%. For a continuous outcome meta-analysis, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among standardized mean differences had median 40% and 95% CI: 15% to 73%. Levels of inconsistency were similar for binary data measured by log odds ratios and log relative risks. Fitted distributions for inconsistency expected in continuous outcome meta-analyses using mean differences were almost identical to those using standardized mean differences. The empirical evidence on inconsistency gives guidance on which outcome measures are most likely to be consistent in particular circumstances and facilitates Bayesian meta-analysis with an informative prior for heterogeneity. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Empirical evidence about inconsistency among studies in a pair‐wise meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rebecca M.; Higgins, Julian P. T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how inconsistency (as measured by the I2 statistic) among studies in a meta‐analysis may differ, according to the type of outcome data and effect measure. We used hierarchical models to analyse data from 3873 binary, 5132 continuous and 880 mixed outcome meta‐analyses within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Predictive distributions for inconsistency expected in future meta‐analyses were obtained, which can inform priors for between‐study variance. Inconsistency estimates were highest on average for binary outcome meta‐analyses of risk differences and continuous outcome meta‐analyses. For a planned binary outcome meta‐analysis in a general research setting, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among log odds ratios had median 22% and 95% CI: 12% to 39%. For a continuous outcome meta‐analysis, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among standardized mean differences had median 40% and 95% CI: 15% to 73%. Levels of inconsistency were similar for binary data measured by log odds ratios and log relative risks. Fitted distributions for inconsistency expected in continuous outcome meta‐analyses using mean differences were almost identical to those using standardized mean differences. The empirical evidence on inconsistency gives guidance on which outcome measures are most likely to be consistent in particular circumstances and facilitates Bayesian meta‐analysis with an informative prior for heterogeneity. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26679486

  11. Top 10 Greatest "Hits": Important Findings and Future Directions for Intimate Partner Violence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author highlights her choice of the 10 most important recent findings from the intimate partner violence research literature, which include (a) the creation of the Conflict Tactics Scale; (b) the finding that violent acts are most often perpetrated by intimates; (c) a series of findings that indicate that women also engage in…

  12. Detection of Tampering Inconsistencies on Mobile Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hong; Kot, Alex C.

    Fast proliferation of mobile cameras and the deteriorating trust on digital images have created needs in determining the integrity of photos captured by mobile devices. As tampering often creates some inconsistencies, we propose in this paper a novel framework to statistically detect the image tampering inconsistency using accurately detected demosaicing weights features. By first cropping four non-overlapping blocks, each from one of the four quadrants in the mobile photo, we extract a set of demosaicing weights features from each block based on a partial derivative correlation model. Through regularizing the eigenspectrum of the within-photo covariance matrix and performing eigenfeature transformation, we further derive a compact set of eigen demosaicing weights features, which are sensitive to image signal mixing from different photo sources. A metric is then proposed to quantify the inconsistency based on the eigen weights features among the blocks cropped from different regions of the mobile photo. Through comparison, we show our eigen weights features perform better than the eigen features extracted from several other conventional sets of statistical forensics features in detecting the presence of tampering. Experimentally, our method shows a good confidence in tampering detection especially when one of the four cropped blocks is from a different camera model or brand with different demosaicing process.

  13. Early Literacy Research: Findings Primary-Grade Teachers Will Want to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article shares recent research findings in early literacy that every primary grade teacher has had questions about at one time or another ranging from handwriting to phonemic awareness, writing to concepts about print, and more. The article reports research that elaborates upon and extends early literacy research that was reported by the…

  14. Applying Effective Instruction Research Findings in Teacher Education: Six Influencing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elsie W.

    This preliminary report provides an overview of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study which began in 1982 and will continue through 1985. ARTE: RUETE explores specific processes for incorporating recent research findings of effective instruction into preservice…

  15. Do researchers have an obligation to actively look for genetic incidental findings?

    PubMed

    Gliwa, Catherine; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of next-generation genetic sequencing has prompted debate about the responsibilities of researchers toward genetic incidental findings. Assuming there is a duty to disclose significant incidental findings, might there be an obligation for researchers to actively look for these findings? We present an ethical framework for analyzing whether there is a positive duty to look for genetic incidental findings. Using the ancillary care framework as a guide, we identify three main criteria that must be present to give rise to an obligation to look: high benefit to participants, lack of alternative access for participants, and reasonable burden on researchers. Our analysis indicates that there is no obligation to look for incidental findings today, but during the ongoing translation of genomic analysis from research to clinical care, this obligation may arise.

  16. Utility of qualitative research findings in evidence-based public health practice.

    PubMed

    Jack, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological data, derived from quantitative studies, provide important information about the causes, prevalence, risk correlates, treatment and prevention of diseases, and health issues at a population level. However, public health issues are complex in nature and quantitative research findings are insufficient to support practitioners and administrators in making evidence-informed decisions. Upshur's Synthetic Model of Evidence (2001) situates qualitative research findings as a credible source of evidence for public health practice. This article answers the following questions: (1) where does qualitative research fit within the paradigm of evidence-based practice and (2) how can qualitative research be used by public health professionals? Strategies for using qualitative research findings instrumentally, conceptually, and symbolically are identified by applying Estabrooks' (1999) conceptual structure of research utilization. Different research utilization strategies are illustrated through the use of research examples from the field of work on intimate partner violence against women. Recommendations for qualitative researchers disseminating findings and for public health practitioners/policy makers considering the use of qualitative findings as evidence to inform decisions are provided.

  17. Affirming our commitment to research: the Medical Library Association's research policy statement: the process and findings*

    PubMed Central

    Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.; Perry, Gerald J.; McKibbon, K. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Building on its 1995 research policy statement, the Medical Library Association (MLA) has issued a new research policy, The Research Imperative. This paper shares the background research that informed the new policy. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifty-one key informants representing various library types, functions, geographic locations, ages, and ethnicities. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze the resulting textual database. Additionally, to gather input from the membership as a whole, two open forums were held at MLA annual meetings. Results: Key informant data indicated that the policy should provide roles for MLA in leadership, advocacy, collaboration, services, education, publishing, and development of a research agenda. Evidence-based library and information practice was emphasized. Six themes emerged to center the new policy: creation of a research culture, challenges, domains of research, research skills set, roles of stakeholders, and measurement of progress. Conclusion: Reflecting the interests and beliefs of the membership, The Research Imperative challenges MLA members to build a supportive culture that values and contributes to a research base that is recognized as an essential tool for future practice. PMID:18379666

  18. Finding a Place for Systems-Based, Collaborative Research in Emerging Disease Research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Theresa E; Stephen, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The need to adequately predict, prevent and respond to infectious diseases emerging unexpectedly from human-animal-environmental systems has driven interest in multisectoral, socio-economic, systems-based, collaborative (MSC) research approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health. Our goals were to document how MSC research has been used to address EIDs in Asia, and to explore how MSC approaches align with current priorities for EID research in Asia. We gathered priorities for EID research from the peer-reviewed and grey literature, documented organizational descriptions of MCS research approaches, and analysed a series of EID MSC projects. We found that priority areas for EID research in Asia included (1) understanding host-pathogen-environment interactions; (2) improving tools and technologies; (3) changing people's behaviour; and (4) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. We found that the unifying characteristics of MSC research were that it was action-oriented and sought to inspire change under real-world conditions at the complex interface of human and natural systems. We suggest that MSC research can be considered a type of 'pragmatic research' and might be most useful in describing change in complex human-animal-environmental systems, accelerating research-to-action, and evaluating effectiveness of interventions in 'real world' settings.

  19. Return of Individual Research Results & Incidental Findings: Facing the Challenges of Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The debate over return of individual research results and incidental findings to research participants is a key frontier in research ethics and practice. Fundamentally, this is a problem of translational science, a question of when information about an individual that is generated in research should be communicated for clinical attention, as the technology itself is moving into clinical care. There is growing consensus that investigators should offer participants at least those individual findings of high clinical importance and actionability. Increasing attention to what information biobanks and secondary researchers owe people who provide data and samples offers an opportunity to treat these source individuals as research partners. Cutting-edge issues include return of results in pediatric populations and return to kin and family, including after death of the proband. Progress will require facing the continuum linking research and clinical care and developing standards and models for return. PMID:23875796

  20. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  1. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  2. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

  3. A Clinical Service to Support the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings in Human Research

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Andrew J.; Austin, Howard; Bluemke, David A.; Cannon, Richard O.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Gahl, William; Goldman, David; Grady, Christine; Greene, Mark H.; Holland, Steven M.; Hull, Sara Chandros; Porter, Forbes D.; Resnik, David; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2016-01-01

    Human genome and exome sequencing are powerful research tools that can generate secondary findings beyond the scope of the research. Most secondary genomic findings are of low importance, but some (for a current estimate of 1%–3% of individuals) confer high risk of a serious disease that could be mitigated by timely medical intervention. The impact and scope of secondary findings in genome and exome sequencing will only increase in the future. There is considerable agreement that high-impact findings should be returned to participants, but many researchers performing genomic research studies do not have the background, skills, or resources to identify, verify, interpret, and return such variants. Here, we introduce a proposal for the formation of a secondary-genomic-findings service (SGFS) that would support researchers by enabling the return of clinically actionable sequencing results to research participants in a standardized manner. We describe a proposed structure for such a centralized service and evaluate the advantages and challenges of the approach. We suggest that such a service would be of greater benefit to all parties involved than present practice, which is highly variable. We encourage research centers to consider the adoption of a centralized SGFS. PMID:26942283

  4. Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research…

  5. Integrative Bioethics: A Conceptually Inconsistent Project.

    PubMed

    Ivanković, Viktor; Savić, Lovro

    2016-06-01

    This article provides a critical evaluation of the central components of Integrative Bioethics, a project aiming at a bioethical framework reconceptualization. Its proponents claim that this new system of thought has developed a better bioethical methodology than mainstream Western bioethics, a claim that we criticize here. We deal especially with the buzz words of Integrative Bioethics - pluriperspectivism, integrativity, orientational knowledge, as well as with its underlying theory of moral truth. The first part of the paper looks at what the claims of a superior methodology consist in. The second reveals pluriperspectivism and integrativity to be underdeveloped, hazy terms, but which seem to be underpinned by two theses - the incommensurability and the inclusiveness theses. These theses we critically scrutinize. We then consider strategies the project's proponents might apply to curb these theses in order to acquire minimal consistency for their framework. This part of the article also deals with the conception of moral truth that drives the theory, a position equally burdened with inconsistencies. In the last part of the article, we observe the concept of orientational knowledge, and develop two interpretations of its possible meaning. We claim that, following the first interpretation, Integrative Bioethics is completely descriptive, in which case it is informative and important, but hardly bioethics; if it is normative, following the second interpretation, it is bioethics as we already know it, but merely clad in rhetorical embellishments. We conclude that there is nothing new about this project, and that its inconsistencies are reason enough for its abandonment.

  6. Young, Drunk, Dangerous and Driving: Underage Drinking and Driving Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Robert; Clontz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes major, recent research findings concerning illegal alcohol use and intoxicated driving among American youth. Examines what research revealed about the nature of underage drinking and driving; what health, social, and legal ramifications are associated with drinking and driving; and what characteristics and behavioral patterns are found…

  7. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  8. Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Karlan, George R.

    2011-01-01

    The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

  9. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... misconduct and administrative actions. 93.501 Section 93.501 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity...

  10. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  11. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  12. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  13. Research Findings' Impact on the Representation of Proportional Reasoning in Swedish Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahl, Linda Marie

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of research findings on the representation of proportional reasoning in two commonly used Swedish mathematics textbook series for grades 7-9. A research-based framework that identifies five learning goals for understanding of proportional reasoning was used to analyse the textbooks. The results brought to…

  14. Communicating pesticide neurotoxicity research findings and risks to decision-makers and the public.

    PubMed

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The extensive research findings on neurotoxic risks of pesticides tend to remain in academic publications rather than being comprehensibly communicated to decision-makers and the public. Protecting health and promoting risk reduction, particularly in developing countries, requires access to current findings in a format that can inform policy, regulations, behaviour change and risk reduction. Successfully communicating research findings may require multiple strategies depending on the target audience's varying comprehension skills (e.g., numeracy literacy, visual literacy) and ability to interpret scientific data. To illustrate the complexities of risk communication, a case study of exposure to neurotoxic street pesticides amongst poor, urban South African communities attempting to control poverty related pests, is presented. What remains a challenge is how to communicate neurotoxicity research findings consistently and in a meaningful manner for a lay audience, consisting of both the general public and decision makers. A further challenge is to identify who will monitor and evaluate the ways in which these findings are communicated to ensure quality is maintained. Ultimately, researchers should carry the responsibility of knowledge translation and engaging with communication specialists when appropriate. Additionally, institutions should reward this as part of promotion and academic accolade systems, and funders should fund the translational process. Ethics review boards should also play an instrumental role in ensuring that knowledge translation is part of the ethics review requirement, while professional societies should take more responsibility for disseminating research findings to non-academics.

  15. New research findings on emotionally focused therapy: introduction to special section.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan M; Wittenborn, Andrea K

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients for which EFT is effective (Denton, Wittenborn, & Golden, this issue) and the next two studies (Furrow, Edwards, Choi, & Bradley, this issue; Wittenborn, this issue) focus on the person of the therapist and provide some implications for EFT intervention and training. Together, these three studies provide valuable lessons on how to deepen our knowledge of the application of EFT for different populations and therapists.

  16. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity

  17. Dissemination as Dialogue: Building Trust and Sharing Research Findings Through Community Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Mutchler, Matt G.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Green, Harold D.; Lawrence, Sean Jamar; Mutepfa, Kieta D.; Nogg, Kelsey A.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental feature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is sharing findings with community members and engaging community partners in the dissemination process. To be truly collaborative, dissemination should involve community members in a two-way dialogue about new research findings. Yet little literature describes how to engage communities in dialogue about research findings, especially with historically marginalized communities where mistrust of researchers may exist because of past or present social injustices. Through a series of interactive community presentations on findings from a longitudinal study, we developed a process for community dissemination that involved several overlapping phases: planning, outreach, content development, interactive presentations, and follow-up. Through this process, we built on existing and new community relationships. Following each interactive presentation, the research team debriefed and reviewed notes to identify lessons learned from the process. Key themes included the importance of creating a flexible dissemination plan, tailoring presentations to each community group, establishing a point person to serve as a community liaison, and continuing dialogue with community members after the presentations. Core strategies for developing trust during dissemination included engaging community members at every step, reserving ample time for discussion during presentations, building rapport by sharing personal experiences, being receptive to and learning from criticism, and implementing input from community members. This process led to a deeper understanding of research findings and ensured that results reached community members who were invested in them. PMID:26986541

  18. Dissemination as Dialogue: Building Trust and Sharing Research Findings Through Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    McDavitt, Bryce; Bogart, Laura M; Mutchler, Matt G; Wagner, Glenn J; Green, Harold D; Lawrence, Sean Jamar; Mutepfa, Kieta D; Nogg, Kelsey A

    2016-03-17

    A fundamental feature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is sharing findings with community members and engaging community partners in the dissemination process. To be truly collaborative, dissemination should involve community members in a two-way dialogue about new research findings. Yet little literature describes how to engage communities in dialogue about research findings, especially with historically marginalized communities where mistrust of researchers may exist because of past or present social injustices. Through a series of interactive community presentations on findings from a longitudinal study, we developed a process for community dissemination that involved several overlapping phases: planning, outreach, content development, interactive presentations, and follow-up. Through this process, we built on existing and new community relationships. Following each interactive presentation, the research team debriefed and reviewed notes to identify lessons learned from the process. Key themes included the importance of creating a flexible dissemination plan, tailoring presentations to each community group, establishing a point person to serve as a community liaison, and continuing dialogue with community members after the presentations. Core strategies for developing trust during dissemination included engaging community members at every step, reserving ample time for discussion during presentations, building rapport by sharing personal experiences, being receptive to and learning from criticism, and implementing input from community members. This process led to a deeper understanding of research findings and ensured that results reached community members who were invested in them.

  19. Research education: findings of a study of teaching-learning research using multiple analytical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Fritz, Roschelle

    2014-12-01

    This multimethod, qualitative study provides results for educators of nursing doctoral students to consider. Combining the expertise of an empirical analytical researcher (who uses statistical methods) and an interpretive phenomenological researcher (who uses hermeneutic methods), a course was designed that would place doctoral students in the midst of multiparadigmatic discussions while learning fundamental research methods. Field notes and iterative analytical discussions led to patterns and themes that highlight the value of this innovative pedagogical application. Using content analysis and interpretive phenomenological approaches, together with one of the students, data were analyzed from field notes recorded in real time over the period the course was offered. This article describes the course and the study analysis, and offers the pedagogical experience as transformative. A link to a sample syllabus is included in the article. The results encourage nurse educators of doctoral nursing students to focus educational practice on multiple methodological perspectives.

  20. Intervention research: Appraising study designs, interpreting findings and creating research in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ebbels, Susan H

    2017-01-13

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are increasingly required to read, interpret and create evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions. This requires a good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different intervention study designs. This paper aims to take readers through a range of designs commonly used in speech-language pathology, working from those with the least to most experimental control, with a particular focus on how the more robust designs avoid some of the limitations of weaker designs. It then discusses the factors other than research design which need to be considered when deciding whether or not to implement an intervention in clinical practice. The final section offers some tips and advice on carrying out research in clinical practice, with the hope that more SLPs will become actively involved in creating intervention research.

  1. Academic detailing can play a key role in assessing and implementing comparative effectiveness research findings.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael A; Avorn, Jerry

    2012-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research evaluates the relative effectiveness, safety, and value of competing treatment options in clinically realistic settings. Such evaluations can be methodologically complex and difficult to interpret. There will be a growing need for critical evaluation of comparative effectiveness studies to assess the adequacy of their design and to put new information into a broader context. Equally important, this knowledge will have to be communicated to clinicians in a way that will actually change practice. We identify three challenges to effective dissemination of comparative effectiveness research findings: the difficulty of interpreting comparative effectiveness research data, the need for trusted sources of information, and the challenge of turning research results into clinical action. We suggest that academic detailing-direct outreach education that gives clinicians an accurate and unbiased synthesis of the best evidence for practice in a given clinical area-can translate comparative effectiveness research findings into actions that improve health care decision making and patient outcomes.

  2. Inconsistency of Minkowski higher-derivative theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietti, Ugo G.; Anselmi, Damiano

    2017-02-01

    We show that Minkowski higher-derivative quantum field theories are generically inconsistent, because they generate nonlocal, non-hermitian ultraviolet divergences, which cannot be removed by means of standard renormalization procedures. By "Minkowski theories" we mean theories that are defined directly in Minkowski spacetime. The problems occur when the propagators have complex poles, so that the correlation functions cannot be obtained as the analytic continuations of their Euclidean versions. The usual power counting rules fail and are replaced by much weaker ones. Self-energies generate complex divergences proportional to inverse powers of D'Alembertians. Three-point functions give more involved nonlocal divergences, which couple to infrared effects. We illustrate the violations of the locality and hermiticity of counterterms in scalar models and higher-derivative gravity.

  3. Becoming an Engineering Education Researcher: Finding Pathways toward Interdisciplinarity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allendoerfer, Cheryl; Adams, Robin; Bell, Philip; Fleming, Lorraine; Leifer, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary thinking is gaining momentum as an important topic for empirical investigation, particularly in regard to how crossing disciplinary boundaries can enrich teaching and learning across fields. There is a need for researchers who can think and work at the interdisciplinary interface. However, despite increased attention given to…

  4. Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, George G.

    Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

  5. Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

  6. MicroResearch--Finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Tobias R; Bortolussi, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-06-01

    The urgent need in Africa for research capacity building has been recognized by African leaders and governments for many years. However, lack of large research funding opportunities has been seen as a major obstacle to improving research capacity in precisely those countries that need it the most. Microfinance has shown that a small infusion of capital can "prime the pump" to creative local economic productivity. In a similar way, MicroResearch has proven effective in promoting a similar bottom-up strategy to find sustainable solutions to local health challenges through local community focused research. Specifically, MicroResearch through hands-on didactic courses, mentoring and small-scale research funding promotes small research projects that improve research skills across the entire health-care provider spectrum to unleash a culture of inquiry. This in turn stimulates health care providers to identify the locally most relevant obstacles that need to be overcome and implement locally feasible and sustainable solutions. MicroResearch is a bottom-up strategy proven effective at finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges.

  7. Female survivors of child sexual abuse: finding voice through research participation.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie; Amar, Angela Frederick

    2013-07-01

    It is unclear whether survivors of trauma are at risk of emotional or psychological distress when they participate in research because there is little data on the subjective experience of research study participants and how they make meaning from their participation in research. This qualitative descriptive study explored the experience of research participation by survivors of childhood sexual abuse. We interviewed 12 female survivors and identified themes. Participants noted both positive personal and societal benefits of study participation and reported no harm due to their research participation. Study findings can help researchers understand the perspectives of participants regarding the benefits of taking part in violence research and can help allay concerns over causing participants undue psychological distress.

  8. A Systematic Review on the Designs of Clinical Technology: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    PhD, Greg Alexander; Staggers, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into three categories based on HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables. PMID:19707093

  9. Divergent hemispheric reasoning strategies: reducing uncertainty versus resolving inconsistency

    PubMed Central

    Marinsek, Nicole; Turner, Benjamin O.; Gazzaniga, Michael; Miller, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence from diverse research domains suggest that the left and right hemispheres play distinct, yet complementary, roles in inferential reasoning. Here, we review research on split-brain patients, brain-damaged patients, delusional patients, and healthy individuals that suggests that the left hemisphere tends to create explanations, make inferences, and bridge gaps in information, while the right hemisphere tends to detect conflict, update beliefs, support mental set-shifts, and monitor and inhibit behavior. Based on this evidence, we propose that the left hemisphere specializes in creating hypotheses and representing causality, while the right hemisphere specializes in evaluating hypotheses, and rejecting those that are implausible or inconsistent with other evidence. In sum, we suggest that, in the domain of inferential reasoning, the left hemisphere strives to reduce uncertainty while the right hemisphere strives to resolve inconsistency. The hemispheres’ divergent inferential reasoning strategies may contribute to flexible, complex reasoning in the healthy brain, and disruption in these systems may explain reasoning deficits in the unhealthy brain. PMID:25374526

  10. Divergent hemispheric reasoning strategies: reducing uncertainty versus resolving inconsistency.

    PubMed

    Marinsek, Nicole; Turner, Benjamin O; Gazzaniga, Michael; Miller, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence from diverse research domains suggest that the left and right hemispheres play distinct, yet complementary, roles in inferential reasoning. Here, we review research on split-brain patients, brain-damaged patients, delusional patients, and healthy individuals that suggests that the left hemisphere tends to create explanations, make inferences, and bridge gaps in information, while the right hemisphere tends to detect conflict, update beliefs, support mental set-shifts, and monitor and inhibit behavior. Based on this evidence, we propose that the left hemisphere specializes in creating hypotheses and representing causality, while the right hemisphere specializes in evaluating hypotheses, and rejecting those that are implausible or inconsistent with other evidence. In sum, we suggest that, in the domain of inferential reasoning, the left hemisphere strives to reduce uncertainty while the right hemisphere strives to resolve inconsistency. The hemispheres' divergent inferential reasoning strategies may contribute to flexible, complex reasoning in the healthy brain, and disruption in these systems may explain reasoning deficits in the unhealthy brain.

  11. Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2013-01-01

    Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes.

  12. Managing clinically significant findings in research: the UK10K example.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Jane; Hurles, Matthew; Griffin, Heather; Grewal, Jasote; Bobrow, Martin; Timpson, Nic; Smee, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Durbin, Richard; Dyke, Stephanie; Fitzpatrick, David; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Raymond, Lucy F; Semple, Robert; Spector, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology allow data on the human genome to be generated more quickly and in greater detail than ever before. Such detail includes findings that may be of significance to the health of the research participant involved. Although research studies generally do not feed back information on clinically significant findings (CSFs) to participants, this stance is increasingly being questioned. There may be difficulties and risks in feeding clinically significant information back to research participants, however, the UK10K consortium sought to address these by creating a detailed management pathway. This was not intended to create any obligation upon the researchers to feed back any CSFs they discovered. Instead, it provides a mechanism to ensure that any such findings can be passed on to the participant where appropriate. This paper describes this mechanism and the specific criteria, which must be fulfilled in order for a finding and participant to qualify for feedback. This mechanism could be used by future research consortia, and may also assist in the development of sound principles for dealing with CSFs.

  13. Managing clinically significant findings in research: the UK10K example

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Jane; Hurles, Matthew; Griffin, Heather; Grewal, Jasote; Bobrow, Martin; Timpson, Nic; Smee, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Durbin, Richard; Dyke, Stephanie; Fitzpatrick, David; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Raymond, Lucy F; Semple, Robert; Spector, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology allow data on the human genome to be generated more quickly and in greater detail than ever before. Such detail includes findings that may be of significance to the health of the research participant involved. Although research studies generally do not feed back information on clinically significant findings (CSFs) to participants, this stance is increasingly being questioned. There may be difficulties and risks in feeding clinically significant information back to research participants, however, the UK10K consortium sought to address these by creating a detailed management pathway. This was not intended to create any obligation upon the researchers to feed back any CSFs they discovered. Instead, it provides a mechanism to ensure that any such findings can be passed on to the participant where appropriate. This paper describes this mechanism and the specific criteria, which must be fulfilled in order for a finding and participant to qualify for feedback. This mechanism could be used by future research consortia, and may also assist in the development of sound principles for dealing with CSFs. PMID:24424120

  14. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.

  15. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative

  16. Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure

  17. Ethical Considerations for the Return of Incidental Findings in Ophthalmic Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Otlowski, Margaret; Craig, Jamie E.

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome and whole exome sequencing technologies are being increasingly used in research. However, they have the potential to identify incidental findings (IF), findings not related to the indication of the test, raising questions regarding researchers' responsibilities toward the return of this information to participants. In this study we discuss the ethical considerations related to the return of IF to research participants, emphasizing that the type of the study matters and describing the current practice standards. There are currently no legal obligations for researchers to return IF to participants, but some viewpoints consider that researchers might have an ethical one to return IF of clinical validity and clinical utility and that are actionable. The reality is that most IF are complex to interpret, especially since they were not the indication of the test. The clinical utility often depends on the participants' preferences, which can be challenging to conciliate and relies on participants' understanding. In summary, in the context of a lack of clear guidance, researchers need to have a clear plan for the disclosure or nondisclosure of IF from genomic research, balancing their research goals and resources with the participants' rights and their duty not to harm. PMID:26929883

  18. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations.

  19. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  20. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  1. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  2. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an…

  3. Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

  4. Using Interactive Technology to Disseminate Research Findings to a Diverse Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockley, Denise; Beyer, Wanda; Hutchinson, Nancy; DeLugt, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Versnel, Joan; Munby, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how case stories can be used to disseminate the findings of several case studies on negotiating accommodations in the workplace. It highlights the power of interactive technology and of the partnership between the researchers and the Canadian Council for Rehabilitation and Work (CCRW). The paper describes the process of…

  5. Methodological Research on Knowledge Use and School Improvement. Volume I. Project Overview and Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, William N.; And Others

    This report summarizes major findings and policy implications of a University of Pittsburgh project titled Methodological Research on Knowledge Use and School Improvement. The major emphasis has been methodological rather than substantive. The primary purpose has been to describe, evaluate, and recommend alternative concepts, methods, and…

  6. 75 FR 62892 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Correction In notice document 2010-24809 beginning on page 61220 in the issue of...

  7. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  8. Towards Improved Compensatory Education: Findings of Five Conferences to Plan Fresh Follow Through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Beatrice; Gross, Ronald

    This report synthesizes findings of five conferences funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) to plan new Follow Through research. In particular, conference discussions focused on the notion of systematic change; time-on-task as the most promising strategy for success; and encouragement of principal and teacher support for implementing…

  9. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions. 93.404 Section 93.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  10. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions. 93.404 Section 93.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  11. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions. 93.404 Section 93.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  12. Interpretation of Research Findings in Terms of Ausubel's Theory and Implications for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews educational research in terms of Ausubelian learning theory and finds that the data reported can be interpreted as consistent with these theories, although many studies cited were inadequate for critical testing of the theories. Cites 10 studies concerning amount of instructional structure, 21 comparing group and individualized…

  13. Introducing the Concept of Salutogenesis to School Leadership Research: Problematizing Empirical Methodologies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces and explores the concept of "salutogenesis" as a way of interpreting school leadership research and its findings in two significant areas: its effect on student outcomes and the motivation of incumbents. In its original setting, salutogenesis describes an approach that focuses on health, rather than on disease, but…

  14. How Do Psychology Researchers Find Studies to Include in Meta-Analyses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a technique used in a variety of disciplines to combine and summarize the findings of previous research. One step in the production of a meta-analysis is a thorough literature search for relevant studies. A variety of methods can be used to increase the number of studies that are found. This study examines the extent to which some…

  15. 78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct AGENCY... States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Kathleen Sebelius, Howard K. Koh, Nancy Gunderson... experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data, procedures, and methodology...

  16. Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

  17. An Initial Test of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory: How Partners of Drug Abusers Assist Their Partners' Sobriety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Poire, Beth A.; Hallett, Jennifer S.; Erlandson, Karen T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how inconsistent nurturing as control theory asserts that because of competing goals of nurturing and controlling, partners of drug-dependent individuals will unintentionally encourage the very behavior they are trying to extinguish through inconsistent manifestations of reinforcement and punishment. Finds that partners of substance…

  18. Translating research findings of chronic kidney disease management to clinical practice: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Lesley Ann; Levin, Adeera

    2004-01-01

    Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) has been identified as a public health epidemic, fueled in part by improved outcomes of both diabetic and cardiac patient populations, as well as by the increasing recognition that it is possible to identify CKD at earlier stages. The estimated 8 to 10 million Americans that have CKD, with its concomitant morbidity and mortality, have the potential to overwhelm the current system of specialty practice medicine and health care resources. How can clinicians, clinician scientists, and health care administrators translate research findings into clinical practice in an effective manner to improve the care of this burgeoning patient group? The challenge of translating research into clinical care requires identification of that which we do and do not know, communication of knowledge between those who do and do not know, and efficient collection of information for systematic evaluation. This article will describe the challenges of translating current research findings into clinical practice. There is a need to identify the complexity of CKD disease processes and issues associated with delivery of care and to describe the difficulties in the dissemination of new knowledge to physicians. Because of the propensity of CKD to affect identifiable groups of patients, we will discuss the potential challenges of these strategies given the racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity in North America. A potential solution to these challenges is a new paradigm of "process-based medicine" that integrates clinical and basic science research findings with multidisciplinary and shared care models of health care delivery. In this context, attention to advances in information technology, the cognitive processes that underlie physician learning, and the findings of outcome research may ensure true integration of clinical research and clinical practice.

  19. The Past, Present & Future of the Debate Over Return of Research Results & Incidental Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this introduction to a symposium on managing incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) in genomic research involving biobanks and archived datasets, the principal investigator of the underlying NIH-funded project discusses the roots, current state, and likely future of this debate. The roots lie in the recognition that research participants are not mere means to scientific progress, but vulnerable individuals. After key position papers on return of IFs and IRRs by investigators, the debate has now turned to the more complex question addressed in this symposium--how large-scale research using biobanks and archived datasets should approach IFs and IRRs. Where is the debate headed next? The answer lies in the history itself, a history of progress toward recognizing the humanity and informational needs of research participants. Increasingly, participants will be offered individual information. Limits will be set, to preserve the capacity to perform research and to protect participants from faulty information. And not all studies and biobanks will undertake individual return. It will take research and work to tailor return to serve participants’ needs and research realities. But debating return is the next step toward recognizing those who contribute specimens and data as partners in the research process. PMID:22481182

  20. New findings and future directions for subjective well-being research.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed

    2012-11-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB have also been found. Research on social comparison suggests that a world standard for a desirable income has developed. New findings on adaptation indicate that habituation to conditions is not always complete and that circumstances in some cases can have a large and lasting effect on SWB. An important finding is that high SWB benefits health, longevity, citizenship, and social relationships. Because of the benefits of SWB as well as the strong effects societal conditions can have on it, I proposed national accounts of SWB, which are now being seriously considered by nations. Finally, I review advances in methodology that are needed to move beyond conclusions based on simple cross-sectional correlations based on global self-report scales. Each of the findings raises new and important questions for future research.

  1. Inconsistent reporting of minimally invasive surgery errors

    PubMed Central

    White, AD; Skelton, M; Mushtaq, F; Pike, TW; Mon-Williams, M; Lodge, JPA; Wilkie, RM

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a complex task requiring dexterity and high level cognitive function. Unlike surgical ‘never events’, potentially important (and frequent) manual or cognitive slips (‘technical errors’) are underresearched. Little is known about the occurrence of routine errors in MIS, their relationship to patient outcome, and whether they are reported accurately and/or consistently. Methods An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, gathering demographic information, experience and reporting of MIS errors, and a rating of factors affecting error prevalence. Results Of 249 responses, 203 completed more than 80% of the questions regarding the surgery they had performed in the preceding 12 months. Of these, 47% reported a significant error in their own performance and 75% were aware of a colleague experiencing error. Technical skill, knowledge, situational awareness and decision making were all identified as particularly important for avoiding errors in MIS. Reporting of errors was variable: 15% did not necessarily report an intraoperative error to a patient while 50% did not consistently report at an institutional level. Critically, 12% of surgeons were unaware of the procedure for reporting a technical error and 59% felt guidance is needed. Overall, 40% believed a confidential reporting system would increase their likelihood of reporting an error. Conclusion These data indicate inconsistent reporting of operative errors, and highlight the need to better understand how and why technical errors occur in MIS. A confidential ‘no blame’ reporting system might help improve patient outcomes and avoid a closed culture that can undermine public confidence. PMID:26492908

  2. Funding considerations for the disclosure of genetic incidental findings in biobank research.

    PubMed

    Black, L; Avard, D; Zawati, M H; Knoppers, B M; Hébert, J; Sauvageau, G

    2013-11-01

    The use of biobanks in biomedical research has grown considerably in recent years. As a result of the increasing analysis of tissue samples stored in biobanks, there has also been an increase in the probability of discovering-in addition to the research target-incidental findings (IF). We identified 23 laws, policies and guidelines from international, regional and national organizations that provide guidance or identify the need for the disclosure of IF to research participants. We analyzed these instruments to determine their contemplation of the funding considerations for the disclosure of IF, examining their guidance for who discloses and the extent of researcher responsibilities. We found that the available normative documents provide little guidance to researchers and biobanks for how they should address cost and funding concerns associated with IF disclosure. It is therefore essential that the research and policy communities think through the financial implications of imposing an ethical responsibility to disclose IF. Concerted efforts should be made by policymakers, ethicists, researchers, clinicians and research institutions to develop detailed funding recommendations, potentially universal in application, to aid in the disclosure of IF, and we provide recommendations on steps that can be taken to ensure full consideration of these issues.

  3. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development.

  4. Models of Consent to Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Parens, Erik; Waldman, Cameron R.; Klitzman, Robert; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic research has the capacity to generate a wide array of findings that go beyond the goals of the study—usually referred to as “incidental findings.” The evolving consensus of researchers, participants, and expert panels is that at least some incidental results should be made available to participants. However, there are a number of challenges to discussing these issues with participants and ascertaining their preferences, including the complexity and magnitude of the relevant information. Believing that usual models of informed consent are not likely to be effective in this context, we identify four approaches that investigators and IRBs might consider: traditional consent, staged consent, mandatory return, and outsourcing. Each has advantages and disadvantages compared with the other options, and which one is selected for a given project will depend on a mix of practical and normative considerations that are described in this paper. PMID:24919982

  5. Population studies: return of research results and incidental findings Policy Statement.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Deschênes, Mylène; Zawati, Ma'n H; Tassé, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    The Public Population Project in Genomics and Society (P³G) is a not-for profit international consortium with members from more than 40 countries. Its objective is to lead, catalyze, and co-ordinate international efforts and expertise in order to optimize the use of population studies, biobanks, research databases, and other similar health and social science research infrastructures. The year 2011-2012 witnessed a plethora of special issues of journals on the return of results but few discussed the particular situation of population studies that serve as resources for future unspecified research. P³G considers it important to propose a policy that distinguishes between the contexts of population research and disease (clinical) research involving patients and then delineates actual and future obligations. The objectives of this Policy Statement are to: (1) delineate the particular characteristics of population studies, (2) distinguish the circumstances surrounding access by researchers to such studies, and (3) develop a framework for the return of research results and incidental findings.

  6. HESS Opinions "On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.

    2011-01-01

    Flood forecasting increasingly relies on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts to achieve longer lead times (see Cloke et al., 2009; Cloke and Pappenberger, 2009). One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is when consecutive forecasts are different, leading to different conclusions regarding the issuing of forecasts, and hence inconsistent. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "jumpiness", "turning points", "continuity" or number of "swings"; Zoster et al., 2009; Mills and Pepper, 1999; Lashley et al., 2008). We begin by defining what forecast inconsistency is; why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse it; what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments (for a limited discussion on NWP inconsistency see Persson, 2011). However, in this opinion paper we restrict the discussion to a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain in which river discharge forecasts are produced using inputs from NWP. In this area of research (in)consistency is receiving recent interest and application (see e.g., Bartholmes et al., 2008; Pappenberger et al., 2011).

  7. Dispelling the Notion of Inconsistencies in Teachers' Mathematics Beliefs and Practices: A 3-Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Francis, Dionne I.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in the field of mathematics education have focused on beliefs as a significant area of study because of the influence of beliefs on what is taught and learned. Much of the research in this area speaks about inconsistency between teachers' beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning and their classroom practices. In this case study,…

  8. Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

  9. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  10. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the ORI makes a finding of research misconduct or seeks to impose or enforce HHS administrative actions, other than debarment or... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of...

  11. Brands matter: Major findings from the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) project

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Ross, Craig S.; Naimi, Timothy; Albers, Alison; Skeer, Margie; Rosenbloom, David L.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. This paper summarizes our findings, plus the results of other published studies on alcohol branding and youth drinking. Results Our findings revealed several interesting facts regarding youth drinking. For example, we found that: 1) youth are not drinking the cheapest alcohol brands; 2) youth brand preferences differ from those of adult drinkers; 3) underage drinkers are not opportunistic in their alcohol consumption, but instead consume a very specific set of brands; 4) the brands that youth are heavily exposed to in magazines and television advertising correspond to the brands they most often report consuming; and 5) youth consume more of the alcohol brands to whose advertising they are most heavily exposed. Conclusion The findings presented here suggests that brand-level alcohol research will provide important insight into youth drinking behaviors, the factors that contribute to youth alcohol consumption, and potential avenues for effective public health surveillance and programming. PMID:27034628

  12. Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Laurier, D; Grosche, B; Auvinen, A; Clavel, J; Cobaleda, C; Dehos, A; Hornhardt, S; Jacob, S; Kaatsch, P; Kosti, O; Kuehni, C; Lightfoot, T; Spycher, B; Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Wakeford, R; Ziegelberger, G

    2014-09-01

    Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out.

  13. Judging Social Issues: Difficulties, Inconsistencies, and Consistencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turiel, Elliot; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined high school and college students' reasoning about issues of abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and incest. In the first study, groups differed in judgments about these issues but not about moral issues in general. Findings of second study paralleled those of first. Third study showed that assumptions associated with…

  14. Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2012-01-01

    Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

  15. 19 CFR 177.13 - Inconsistent customs decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inconsistent customs decisions. 177.13 Section 177.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.13 Inconsistent...

  16. Development of an Inconsistent Responding Scale for the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure.

    PubMed

    Mowle, Elyse N; Kelley, Shannon E; Edens, John F; Donnellan, M Brent; Smith, Shannon Toney; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin

    2016-10-17

    Inconsistent or careless responding to self-report measures is estimated to occur in approximately 10% of university research participants and may be even more common among offender populations. Inconsistent responding may be a result of a number of factors including inattentiveness, reading or comprehension difficulties, and cognitive impairment. Many stand-alone personality scales used in applied and research settings, however, do not include validity indicators to help identify inattentive response patterns. Using multiple archival samples, the current study describes the development of an inconsistent responding scale for the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010), a widely used self-report measure of psychopathy. We first identified pairs of correlated TriPM items in a derivation sample (N = 2,138) and then created a total score based on the sum of the absolute value of the differences for each item pair. The resulting scale, the Triarchic Assessment Procedure for Inconsistent Responding (TAPIR), strongly differentiated between genuine TriPM protocols and randomly generated TriPM data (N = 1,000), as well as between genuine protocols and those in which 50% of the original data were replaced with random item responses. TAPIR scores demonstrated fairly consistent patterns of association with some theoretically relevant correlates (e.g., inconsistency scales embedded in other personality inventories), although not others (e.g., measures of conscientiousness) across our cross-validation samples. Tentative TAPIR cut scores that may discriminate between attentively and carelessly completed protocols are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Marketing orientation in hospitals: findings from a multi-phased research study.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    It is clear from numerous studies conducted over a wide variety of industries that marketing-oriented organizations perform better than those that do not adopt this business philosophy. Recent studies have confirmed this finding in healthcare organizations as well. What is now coming to light is the way in which a marketing orientation does contribute to better performance in hospitals, and the difficulties marketers face in getting recognition of that fact by non-marketers in their organization. This article reports on a multi-phased research study of the implementation of marketing-oriented behaviors in a hospital setting.

  18. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (I) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows thai SPA can dell-oct porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points

  19. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person,Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (1) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows that SPA can detect porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points.

  20. Recent findings on biosolids cake odor reduction--results of WERF phase 3 biosolids odor research.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Zeynep K; Forbes, Robert H; Witherspoon, Jay; Adams, Greg; Hargreaves, Ron; Morton, Rob; Novak, John; Higgins, Matthew

    2008-11-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) has sponsored three phases of a long-term project entitled "Identifying and Controlling Odors in the Municipal Wastewater Environment." The current (third) phase focuses on reduction of odors from dewatered biosolids cakes, and is entitled "Biosolids Processing Modifications for Cake Odor Reduction." This phase encompasses nine research agenda items developed from the results of the prior phase of research (Phase 2), which was completed in December 2003 as WERF Report No. 00-HHE-5T and was entitled "Impacts of In-Plant Parameters on Biosolids Odor Quality." The current phase (Phase 3) was a 2.5-year project, the first half of which was dedicated to testing several of the more promising hypotheses from Phase 2 in the laboratory to help determine the cause-effect relationships of odor generation from biosolids, and to develop odor reduction techniques. It is important to note that this research project covers the reduction or prevention of odorous emissions from dewatered biosolids cake, not odor control by means of containment or adsorption or absorption of malodorous emissions. In the remainder of the Phase 3 project, promising laboratory findings are being applied to biosolids handling processes at one or more wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with the goal of achieving significant cake odor reduction in a realistic, full-scale setting. The Phase 3 laboratory results were used to identify the relative effectiveness of methods for reducing biosolids cake odors, using techniques and measurements of biosolids cake odor production potential that have been developed by the WERF Project Team. Plans to demonstrate the most promising research findings at full-scale biosolids digestion and dewatering facilities constitute the final, fourth phase of the project. Contacts have been made with wastewater treatment facilities that have an interest or need to reduce their biosolids cake odors. The main goal of the next phase of

  1. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  2. Inconsistencies and open questions regarding low-dose health effects of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaum, R H; Köhnlein, W

    1994-01-01

    The effects on human health of exposures to ionizing radiation at low doses have long been the subject of dispute. In this paper we focus on open questions regarding the health effects of low-dose exposures that require further investigations. Seemingly contradictory findings of radiation health effects have been reported for the same exposed populations, or inconsistent estimates of radiation risks were found when different populations and exposure conditions were compared. Such discrepancies may be indicative of differences in sensitivities among the applied methods of epidemiological analysis or indicative of significant discrepancies in health consequences after comparable total exposures of different populations under varying conditions. We focus first on inconsistencies and contradictions in presentations of the state of knowledge by different authoritative experts. We then review studies that found positive associations between exposure and risks in dose ranges where traditional notions (generalized primarily from high-dose studies of A-bomb survivors or exposed animals) would have predicted negligible effects. One persistent notion in many reviews of low-dose effects is the hypothesis of reduced biological effectiveness of fractionated low-dose exposures, compared to that of the same acute dose. This assumption is not supported by data on human populations. From studies of populations that live in contaminated areas, more and more evidence is accumulating on unusual rates of various diseases other than radiation-induced malignancies, health effects that are suspected to be associated with relatively low levels of internal exposures originating from radioactive fallout. Such effects include congenital defects, neonatal mortality, stillbirths, and possibly genetically transmitted disease. A range of open questions challenges scientists to test imaginative hypotheses about induction of disease by radiation with novel research strategies. Images Figure 1. PMID

  3. Judges' views of child sexual abuse: evaluating beliefs against research findings in a Finnish sample.

    PubMed

    Korkman, Julia; Svanbäck, Jatta; Finnilä, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N = 104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding their professional experience of CSA cases. The judges held both correct and incorrect beliefs; while their CSA prevalence estimates were rather well in line with research findings, half of the participants estimated that no professionals use suggestive methods when interviewing children and more than 40% thought suggestive methods can be useful when trying to get a child to tell about real events. Judges correctly assumed symptoms cannot be used to assess a CSA case, however, the majority thought play observations were appropriate means for evaluating such suspicions. Experience seemed to lead to more confidence in their own expertise but not in an actual increase in knowledge, namely, judges thought themselves more expert when more experienced although their expertise as measured by the questionnaire did not improve. Overall, the judges had both correct and erroneous beliefs but while experience did not improve the situation, gaining information about CSA did. More research about the beliefs of judges and how such beliefs impact legal decision-making is needed.

  4. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research findings and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Corbera, Esteve; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled “Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change. The special feature addresses two main research themes. The first theme concerns the resilience of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (hereafter TEK) and the conditions that might explain its loss or persistence in the face of global change. The second theme relates to new findings regarding the way in which TEK strengthens community resilience to respond to the multiple stressors of global environmental change. Those themes are analyzed using case studies from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. Theoretical insights and empirical findings from the studies suggest that despite the generalized worldwide trend of TEK erosion, substantial pockets of TEK persist in both developing and developed countries. A common trend on the studies presented here is hybridization, where traditional knowledge, practices, and beliefs are merged with novel forms of knowledge and technologies to create new knowledge systems. The findings also reinforce previous hypotheses pointing at the importance of TEK systems as reservoirs of experiential knowledge that can provide important insights for the design of adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with global environmental change. Based on the results from papers in this feature, we discuss policy directions that might help to promote maintenance and restoration of living TEK systems as sources of social-ecological resilience. PMID:26097492

  5. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  6. Exome Sequencing and Unrelated Findings in the Context of Complex Disease Research: Ethical and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers. PMID:21794208

  7. Disclosing incidental findings in brain research: the rights of minors in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Illes, Judy

    2013-11-01

    MRI is used routinely in research with children to generate new knowledge about brain development. The detection of unexpected brain abnormalities (incidental findings; IFs) in these studies presents unique challenges. While key issues surrounding incidence and significance, duty of care, and burden of disclosure have been addressed substantially for adults, less empirical data and normative analyses exist for minors who participate in minimal risk research. To identify ethical concerns and fill existing gaps, we conducted a comprehensive review of papers that focused explicitly on the discovery of IFs in minors. The discourse in the 21 papers retrieved for this analysis amply covered practical issues such as informed consent and screening, difficulties in ascertaining clinical significance, the economic costs and burden of responsibility on researchers, and risks (physical or psychological). However, we found little discussion about the involvement of minors in decisions about disclosure of IFs in the brain, especially for IFs of low clinical significance. In response, we propose a framework for managing IFs that integrates practical considerations with explicit appreciation of rights along the continuum of maturity. This capacity-adjusted framework emphasizes the importance of involving competent minors and respecting their right to make decisions about disclosure.

  8. Feminism, status inconsistency, and women's intimate partner victimization in heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Cortney A; Menaker, Tasha A

    2014-07-01

    This study used a random community sample of 303 women in romantic relationships to investigate the role of educational and employment status inconsistency and patriarchal family ideology as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, while considering demographic factors and relationship context variables. Sequential multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated a decrease in the odds of IPV victimization for Hispanic women and women who were older as compared with their counterparts. In addition, increased relationship distress, family-of-origin violence, and employment status inconsistency significantly increased the odds of IPV. Clinical intervention strategies and future research directions are discussed.

  9. Factor analysis of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory: Inconsistent handedness yields a two-factor solution.

    PubMed

    Christman, Stephen D; Prichard, Eric C; Corser, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    While neuropsychology has long focused on direction (left versus right) of handedness, a growing body of evidence indicates that degree (inconsistent versus consistent) of handedness is at least as important. A promising feature of this new emphasis on degree of handedness is its greater concordance with extant genetic models of handedness, which posit a continuum from inconsistent-handedness to consistent right-handedness, not a continuum from left- to right-handedness. Specifically, departures away from consistent-right-handedness are thought to reflect the action of a neutral genetic factor that leaves handedness up to random environmental influences. To test whether handedness in inconsistent-handers reflects the presence of multiple factors (compared to the presence of a single factor only in consistent-right-handers), factor analyses of handedness inventory scores were conducted on data from 987 right-handers, divided into consistent- versus inconsistent-handers. Consistent with predictions, analyses of inconsistent- versus consistent-handers yielded two versus one factor solutions, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of their potential implications for genetic models of handedness and for researchers interested in consistency of handedness as a neuropsychological variable.

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian approaches for detecting inconsistency in network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Hodges, James S; Ma, Haijun; Jiang, Qi; Carlin, Bradley P

    2016-09-10

    Network meta-analysis (NMA), also known as multiple treatment comparisons, is commonly used to incorporate direct and indirect evidence comparing treatments. With recent advances in methods and software, Bayesian approaches to NMA have become quite popular and allow models of previously unanticipated complexity. However, when direct and indirect evidence differ in an NMA, the model is said to suffer from inconsistency. Current inconsistency detection in NMA is usually based on contrast-based (CB) models; however, this approach has certain limitations. In this work, we propose an arm-based random effects model, where we detect discrepancy of direct and indirect evidence for comparing two treatments using the fixed effects in the model while flagging extreme trials using the random effects. We define discrepancy factors to characterize evidence of inconsistency for particular treatment comparisons, which is novel in NMA research. Our approaches permit users to address issues previously tackled via CB models. We compare sources of inconsistency identified by our approach and existing loop-based CB methods using real and simulated datasets and demonstrate that our methods can offer powerful inconsistency detection. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Culturally inconsistent spatial structure reduces learning.

    PubMed

    McCrink, Koleen; Shaki, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Human adults tend to use a spatial continuum to organize any information they consider to be well-ordered, with a sense of initial and final position. The directionality of this spatial mapping is mediated by the culture of the subject, largely as a function of the prevailing reading and writing habits (for example, from left-to-right for English speakers or right-to-left for Hebrew speakers). In the current study, we tasked American and Israeli subjects with encoding and recalling a set of arbitrary pairings, consisting of frequently ordered stimuli (letters with shapes: Experiment 1) or infrequently ordered stimuli (color terms with shapes: Experiment 2), that were serially presented in a left-to-right, right-to-left, or central-only manner. The subjects were better at recalling information that contained ordinal stimuli if the spatial flow of presentation during encoding matched the dominant directionality of the subjects' culture, compared to information encoded in the non-dominant direction. This phenomenon did not extend to infrequently ordered stimuli (e.g., color terms). These findings suggest that adults implicitly harness spatial organization to support memory, and this harnessing process is culturally mediated in tandem with our spatial biases.

  12. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

  13. Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

  14. Wireless technologies and accessibility for people with disabilities: findings from a policy research instrument.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul M A; Moon, Nathan W

    2008-01-01

    The near universal deployment in the United States of a wide variety of information and communications technologies, both wired and wireless, creates potential barriers to use for several key populations, including the poor, people with disabilities, and the aging. Equal access to wireless technologies and services can be achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including legislation and regulations, market-based solutions, and awareness and outreach-based approaches. This article discusses the results of policy research conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Wireless Technologies (Wireless RERC) using policy Delphi polling methodology to probe stakeholders' opinions on key access barrier issues and to explore potential policy responses. Participants included disability advocates, disability/wireless technology policy makers, and product developers/manufacturers. Respondent input informed subsequent development of potential policy initiatives to increase access to these technologies. The findings from the Delphi suggest that awareness issues remain most important, especially manufacturer awareness of user needs and availability of consumer information for selecting the most appropriate wireless devices and services. Other key issues included the ability of people with disabilities to afford technologies and inadequacies in legislation and policy making for ensuring their general accessibility, as well as usefulness in emergencies. Technical issues, including interoperability, speech-to-text conversion, and hearing aid compatibility, were also identified by participating stakeholders as important. To address all these issues, Delphi respondents favored goals and options congruent with voluntary market-driven solutions where possible but also supported federal involvement, where necessary, to aid this process.

  15. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C L; Biskup, C S; Herpertz, S; Gaber, T J; Kuhn, C M; Hood, S H; Zepf, F D

    2015-05-19

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research.

  16. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  17. Preprocessing Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations. Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

  18. Extending DerSimonian and Laird's methodology to perform network meta-analyses with random inconsistency effects.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dan; Law, Martin; Barrett, Jessica K; Turner, Rebecca; Higgins, Julian P T; Salanti, Georgia; White, Ian R

    2016-03-15

    Network meta-analysis is becoming more popular as a way to compare multiple treatments simultaneously. Here, we develop a new estimation method for fitting models for network meta-analysis with random inconsistency effects. This method is an extension of the procedure originally proposed by DerSimonian and Laird. Our methodology allows for inconsistency within the network. The proposed procedure is semi-parametric, non-iterative, fast and highly accessible to applied researchers. The methodology is found to perform satisfactorily in a simulation study provided that the sample size is large enough and the extent of the inconsistency is not very severe. We apply our approach to two real examples.

  19. Structuring Professional Learning to Develop a Culture of Data Use: Aligning Knowledge from the Field and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: This research review provides an analysis of current research related to school and district data use, with a particular focus on identifying key characteristics of schools and districts with effective "data using cultures." The research review identifies and analyzes findings in five key areas of practice: communicating…

  20. The emergence and effectiveness of global health networks: findings and future research.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Schmitz, Hans Peter; Berlan, David; Smith, Stephanie L; Quissell, Kathryn; Gneiting, Uwe; Pelletier, David

    2016-04-01

    Global health issues vary in the amount of attention and resources they receive. One reason is that the networks of individuals and organizations that address these issues differ in their effectiveness. This article presents key findings from a research project on the emergence and effectiveness of global health networks addressing tobacco use, alcohol harm, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Although networks are only one of many factors influencing priority, they do matter, particularly for shaping the way the problem and solutions are understood, and convincing governments, international organizations and other global actors to address the issue. Their national-level effects vary by issue and are more difficult to ascertain. Networks are most likely to produce effects when (1) their members construct a compelling framing of the issue, one that includes a shared understanding of the problem, a consensus on solutions and convincing reasons to act and (2) they build a political coalition that includes individuals and organizations beyond their traditional base in the health sector, a task that demands engagement in the politics of the issue, not just its technical aspects. Maintaining a focused frame and sustaining a broad coalition are often in tension: effective networks find ways to balance the two challenges. The emergence and effectiveness of a network are shaped both by its members' decisions and by contextual factors, including historical influences (e.g. prior failed attempts to address the problem), features of the policy environment (e.g. global development goals) and characteristics of the issue the network addresses (e.g. its mortality burden). Their proliferation raises the issue of their legitimacy. Reasons to consider them legitimate include their members' expertise and the attention they bring to neglected issues. Reasons to question their legitimacy include their largely elite composition and the fragmentation they

  1. Searching for sex- and gender-sensitive tuberculosis research in public health: finding a needle in a haystack

    PubMed Central

    Vissandjee, Bilkis; Mourid, Assia; Greenaway, Christina A; Short, Wendy E; Proctor, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors’ diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex–gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate usage of the terminology associated with sex and gender. In addition, public health database indexers ought to accept the task of developing and implementing adequate definitions of sex and gender terms so as to facilitate access to sex- and gender-related research. These twin advances will allow clinicians to more readily recognize and access knowledge pertaining to systems of redress that respond to gendered risks that compound existing health inequalities in disease management and control, particularly when dealing with already complex diseases. Given the methodological and linguistic challenges presented by the

  2. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  3. Kinematic Origins of Motor Inconsistency in Expert Pianists

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Kenta; Lee, André; Altenmüller, Eckart; Miyazaki, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    For top performers, including athletes and musicians, even subtle inconsistencies in rhythm and force during movement production decrease the quality of performance. However, extensive training over many years beginning in childhood is unable to perfect dexterous motor performance so that it is without any error. To gain insight into the biological mechanisms underlying the subtle defects of motor actions, the present study sought to identify the kinematic origins of inconsistency of dexterous finger movements in musical performance. Seven highly-skilled pianists who have won prizes at international piano competitions played a short sequence of tones with the right hand at a predetermined tempo. Time-varying joint angles of the fingers were recorded using a custom-made data glove, and the timing and velocity of the individual keystrokes were recorded from a digital piano. Both ridge and stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated an association of the inter-trial variability of the inter-keystroke interval (i.e., rhythmic inconsistency) with both the rotational velocity of joints of the finger used for a keystroke (i.e., striking finger) and the movement independence between the striking and non-striking fingers. This indicates a relationship between rhythmic inconsistency in musical performance and the dynamic features of movements in not only the striking finger but also the non-striking fingers. In contrast, the inter-trial variability of the key-descending velocity (i.e., loudness inconsistency) was associated mostly with the kinematic features of the striking finger at the moment of the keystroke. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the rhythmic and loudness inconsistencies. The results suggest distinct kinematic origins of inconsistencies in rhythm and loudness in expert musical performance. PMID:27537686

  4. Kinematic Origins of Motor Inconsistency in Expert Pianists.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Kenta; Lee, André; Altenmüller, Eckart; Miyazaki, Fumio; Furuya, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    For top performers, including athletes and musicians, even subtle inconsistencies in rhythm and force during movement production decrease the quality of performance. However, extensive training over many years beginning in childhood is unable to perfect dexterous motor performance so that it is without any error. To gain insight into the biological mechanisms underlying the subtle defects of motor actions, the present study sought to identify the kinematic origins of inconsistency of dexterous finger movements in musical performance. Seven highly-skilled pianists who have won prizes at international piano competitions played a short sequence of tones with the right hand at a predetermined tempo. Time-varying joint angles of the fingers were recorded using a custom-made data glove, and the timing and velocity of the individual keystrokes were recorded from a digital piano. Both ridge and stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated an association of the inter-trial variability of the inter-keystroke interval (i.e., rhythmic inconsistency) with both the rotational velocity of joints of the finger used for a keystroke (i.e., striking finger) and the movement independence between the striking and non-striking fingers. This indicates a relationship between rhythmic inconsistency in musical performance and the dynamic features of movements in not only the striking finger but also the non-striking fingers. In contrast, the inter-trial variability of the key-descending velocity (i.e., loudness inconsistency) was associated mostly with the kinematic features of the striking finger at the moment of the keystroke. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the rhythmic and loudness inconsistencies. The results suggest distinct kinematic origins of inconsistencies in rhythm and loudness in expert musical performance.

  5. Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

  6. Moderate use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during pregnancy: new approaches and update on research findings.

    PubMed

    Huizink, Anja C

    2009-09-01

    Interest in fetal origins of adverse offspring outcomes has grown extensively in the last decade. This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes. Exposure to maternal substance use in pregnancy is believed to be a preventable hazard, and is therefore a main issue for public health concern and policy. However, an important question in human studies remains whether prenatal substance use exposure has an aetiological role in pathways to adverse developmental and behavioural outcomes via teratological effects. Recent insights and developments in research methodology will aid the adequate and more refined testing of associations between prenatal substance use and offspring outcomes. In particular, novel approaches could assist in disentangling the exposure to substance effects from correlated risk factors. The purpose of this manuscript is therefore to provide an overview of methodological issues involved in studies that focus on the association between maternal substance use during pregnancy and offspring's outcomes, to describe novel approaches to test these associations, and present some examples of new and well-designed studies and discuss their findings.

  7. Finding common ground in team-based qualitative research using the convergent interviewing method.

    PubMed

    Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitative researchers but can occur between qualitative researchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position.

  8. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  9. Inconsistencies in the Hypophagic Action of Intracerebroventricular Insulin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Allister, Eugenia Mc; Pacheco-Lopez, Gustavo; Woods, Stephen C.; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Insulin inhibits eating after its intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration in multiple species and under a variety of conditions. Nevertheless, the results across reports are inconsistent in that ICV insulin does not always reduce food intake. The reasons for this variability are largely unknown. Using mice as a model, we performed several crossover trials with insulin vs. vehicle when infused into the third cerebral ventricle (i3vt) to test the hypothesis that recent experience with the i3vt procedure contributes to the variability in the effect of ICV insulin on food intake. Using a cross-over design with two days between injections, we found that insulin (0.4 µU/mouse) significantly reduced food intake relative to vehicle in mice that received vehicle on the first and insulin on the second trial, whereas this effect was absent in mice that received insulin on the first and vehicle on the second trial. Higher doses (i3vt 4.0 and 40.0 µU/mouse) had no effect on food intake in this paradigm. When injections were spaced 7 days apart, insulin reduced food intake with no crossover effect. Mice that did not reduce food intake in response to higher doses of i3vt insulin did so in response to i3vt infusion of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II (MT-II), indicating that the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system, which mediates the effect of insulin on eating, was not impaired by whatever interfered with the insulin effect, and that this interference occurred upstream of the melanocortin receptors. Overall, our findings suggest that associative effects based on previous experience with the experimental situation can compromise the eating inhibition elicited by i3vt administered insulin. PMID:26344647

  10. Inconsistencies in the hypophagic action of intracerebroventricular insulin in mice.

    PubMed

    Mc Allister, Eugenia; Pacheco-Lopez, Gustavo; Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Insulin inhibits eating after its intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration in multiple species and under a variety of conditions. Nevertheless, the results across reports are inconsistent in that ICV insulin does not always reduce food intake. The reasons for this variability are largely unknown. Using mice as a model, we performed several crossover trials with insulin vs. vehicle when infused into the third cerebral ventricle (i3vt) to test the hypothesis that recent experience with the i3vt procedure contributes to the variability in the effect of ICV insulin on food intake. Using a cross-over design with two days between injections, we found that insulin (0.4 μU/mouse) significantly reduced food intake relative to vehicle in mice that received vehicle on the first and insulin on the second trial, whereas this effect was absent in mice that received insulin on the first and vehicle on the second trial. Higher doses (i3vt 4.0 and 40.0 μU/mouse) had no effect on food intake in this paradigm. When injections were spaced 7 days apart, insulin reduced food intake with no crossover effect. Mice that did not reduce food intake in response to higher doses of i3vt insulin did so in response to i3vt infusion of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II (MT-II), indicating that the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system, which mediates the effect of insulin on eating, was not impaired by whatever interfered with the insulin effect, and that this interference occurred upstream of the melanocortin receptors. Overall, our findings suggest that associative effects based on previous experience with the experimental situation can compromise the eating inhibition elicited by i3vt administered insulin.

  11. Leading US nano-scientists' perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists' perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists' perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  12. Text-in-Context: A Method for Extracting Findings in Mixed-Methods Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. Background International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. Data source The data extraction challenges described here were encountered and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011–2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. Discussion To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. Implications for nursing The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. Conclusion This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. PMID:22924808

  13. Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 1, Research Findings. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    Educational television and radio research and evaluation findings are the subject of 25 papers summarized in this document. Seven papers deal with evaluation of research projects in educational television and radio. Four papers on adult education and two on educational technology in teacher training are also summarized. Research in teaching with…

  14. Inconsistency of scale invariant curvature coupled to gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Zoller, D.

    1990-01-01

    We show that the scale invariant curvature action for paths, the point particle version of Polyakov's extrinsic curvature action for surfaces, does not couple consistently to gravity. Although the curvature action for paths yields a massless representation of the Poincare group with fixed helicity and so potentially provides a description of single photons and gravitons, the inconsistent coupling to gravity apparently suggests such a description is not viable. We present a physical interpretation of the inconsistency in terms of the non-localizability of the photon and point out a conceptual kinship between the local symmetry of the curvature theory and the local supersymmetry of a spinning particle or spinning string. 11 refs.

  15. Belief, its inconsistency, and the implications for the teaching faculty

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1984-01-01

    The traditional concept of belief is analyzed and compared with a behavior analytic concept of belief. Beliefs and belief statements are differentiated and relationships between them are examined. The often troublesome inconsistencies in people's beliefs are examined in general and explained, including the phenomena of compartmentalization and repression. Social implications are pursued relative to both punishment for inconsistency in belief and counter-controls thwarting such punishment. The role of teachers in shaping beliefs is analyzed, and appropriate teaching strategies are reviewed. PMID:22478593

  16. Multi-Site Implementation and Replication of Research Findings: Is the Modified RD&D Model Viable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Rand; And Others

    Described here is a research project being undertaken to address two points: the relationship of the fidelity of program replication to program outcomes at user sites; and the extent to which fidelity can occur in programs with more than a few replicates. The findings will have bearing on the usefulness of the Research, Development, and Diffusion…

  17. Two For The Price Of One! Staff Development Through The Utilisation of Findings from Research on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, W. John

    A review of the research indicates that the interface between the findings from research on teaching and staff development of teachers is an important but neglected one. An improvement in teaching skills calls for an interactive or collaborative mode of professional development which is based on classroom interests and the needs of teachers, with…

  18. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section 93.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  19. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section 93.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  20. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section 93.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  1. Teaching, Learning and Assessing HRD: Findings from a BMAF/UFHRD Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse and explore the results of a research project, which aimed to identify recent and current research on TLA within HRD programmes. From that base the project also intended to identify areas for future research and a basis for establishing a Special Interest Group. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive…

  2. Teachers' Approaches to Finding and Using Research Evidence: An Information Literacy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dorothy; Coles, Louisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: The use of research evidence produced by others is seen as central to the reflective practice of school teachers. There have been many recent UK initiatives aimed at improving access to research evidence, but there are still concerns about the lack of engagement by teachers. Previous research has looked at this issue from different…

  3. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or...

  4. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement...

  5. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  6. Comparing Individual Differences in Inconsistency and Plasticity as Predictors of Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grand, Jacob H.G.; Stawski, Robert S.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent theorizing differentiates key constraints on cognition, including one’s current range of processing efficiency (i.e., flexibility or inconsistency) as well as the capacity to expand flexibility over time (i.e., plasticity). The present study uses intensive assessment of response time data to examine the interplay between markers of intraindividual variability (inconsistency) and gains across biweekly retest sessions (plasticity) in relation to age-related cognitive function. Method Participants included 304 adults (aged 64 to 92 years: M=74.02, SD=5.95) from Project MIND, a longitudinal burst design study assessing performance across micro and macro intervals (response latency trials, weekly bursts, annual retests). For two reaction time measures (choice RT and one-back choice RT), baseline measures of response time (RT) inconsistency (intraindividual standard deviation (ISD) across-trials at the first testing session) and plasticity (within-person performance gains in average RT across the 5 biweekly burst sessions) were computed, and then employed in linear mixed models as predictors of individual differences in cognitive function and longitudinal (6 year) rates of cognitive change. Results Independent of chronological age and years of education, higher RT inconsistency was associated uniformly with poorer cognitive function at baseline and with increased cognitive decline for measures of episodic memory and crystallized verbal ability. In contrast, predictive associations for plasticity were more modest for baseline cognitive function and were absent for 6-year cognitive change. Conclusions These findings underscore the potential utility of response times for articulating inconsistency and plasticity as dynamic predictors of cognitive function in older adults. PMID:26898536

  7. Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2013-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact

  8. Perspectives on Research: Recent Findings and Future Directions: A Report of the Iowa Research Consortium for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Timothy, Ed.; And Others

    The monograph addresses the issue of research on learning disabilities (LD) and proposes directions for research in Iowa by means of four articles, a report of a survey of needed research, and six brief response papers. The first paper, "Issues on the Identification of Learning Disabled Children" (S.W. Ehly), discusses the problems of…

  9. Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health: adoption of research findings in health research and practice as a scientific priority.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T

    2017-02-22

    The National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its Strategic Plan for 2017 to 2021. This plan highlights three scientific priorities: (1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, (2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and (3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on the challenges and opportunities to facilitate the adoption of research findings in health research and in practice. In addition to the ongoing NIH support for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, we must address transformative challenges and opportunities such as better disseminating and implementing D&I research, merging research and practice, adopting more rigorous and diverse methods and measures for both D&I and clinical trials research, evaluating technological-based delivery of interventions, and transitioning from minimally adaptable intervention packages to planned adaptations rooted in behavior change principles. Beyond translation into practice and policy, the OBSSR Strategic Plan also highlights the need for translation of behavioral and social science findings into the broader biomedical research enterprise.

  10. Why do people cooperate with medical research? Findings from three studies.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Tarrant, Carolyn

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we distinguish decisions about cooperation with medical research from decisions about research participation. We offer an empirical and theoretical exploration of why people in three different UK-based medical research projects chose to cooperate. Data analysis of the accounts of 128 participants across the three studies was based on the constant comparative method. Participants' cooperation was engaged by a perception that they would be contributing to the 'public good', but they also wanted to justify their decision as sensible and safe. Critical to their cooperation was their belief that researchers would fulfil their side of the cooperative bargain, by not exposing participants to risks of harm or exploitation. Although participants were generally unaware of the details of the regulatory regime for research, they demonstrated a generalised reliance on regulation as a feature of everyday life that would provide a safe context for cooperation. In their assessment of particular projects, participants made judgements about whether to cooperate based on more specific cues, which acted as signs to assure them that researchers shared their cooperative intentions. These cues included organisational and professional credentials, the role identities and perceived trustworthiness of those involved in recruiting to research, and visible signs of reasonable practice mandated by regulatory systems. Thus participants drew on their understandings of an institutional field that was much broader than that of research alone. We propose that the social organisation of research is fundamental to the judgements people make about cooperation with research. Cooperation may be a more useful way of thinking about how people come to engage in collaboratively oriented actions such as research participation, rather than currently dominant individualistic models. Attention to the institutional context of research is critical to understanding what makes cooperation possible

  11. 18- and 24-month-olds' discrimination of gender-consistent and inconsistent activities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sara E; Flom, Ross

    2007-02-01

    18- and 24-month-olds' ability to discriminate gender-stereotyped activities was assessed. Using a preferential looking paradigm, toddlers viewed male and female actors performing masculine and feminine-stereotyped activities. Consistent with our predictions, and previous research, 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, looked longer at the gender-inconsistent activities than the gender-consistent activities. Results are discussed in terms of toddlers emerging gender stereotypes and perception of everyday events.

  12. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  13. 17 CFR 250.28 - Inconsistent financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms, Procedure and... Commission by rule, regulation, order, statement of administrative policy, or otherwise, no registered..., financial statements which are inconsistent with the book accounts of such company or financial...

  14. Camera calibration correction in shape from inconsistent silhouette

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of shape from silhouette for reconstruction tasks is plagued by two types of real-world errors: camera calibration error and silhouette segmentation error. When either error is present, we call the problem the Shape from Inconsistent Silhouette (SfIS) problem. In this paper, we show how sm...

  15. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino Involvement in Clinical Research Opportunities: Qualitative Findings from Hawai'i

    PubMed Central

    Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderón, José L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community. PMID:16312944

  16. Adult age differences in memory for schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in a real-world setting.

    PubMed

    Prull, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in the inconsistency effect, in which memory is enhanced for schema-inconsistent information compared to schema-consistent information. Young and older adults studied schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in an academic office under either intentional or incidental encoding instructions, and were given two recognition tests either immediately or after 48 hr: A yes/no item recognition test that included modified remember/know judgments and a token recognition test that required determining whether an original object was replaced with a different object with the same name. Young and older adults showed equivalent inconsistency effects in both item and token recognition tests, although older adults reported phenomenologically less rich memories of schema-inconsistent objects relative to young adults. These findings run counter to previous reports suggesting that aging is associated with processing declines at encoding that impair memory for details of schema-inconsistent or distinctive events. The results are consistent with a retrieval-based account in which age-related difficulties in retrieving contextual details can be offset by environmental support.

  17. Neural mechanisms of selective exposure: an EEG study on the processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Reinweber, Matthias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Schäfer, Axel; Schienle, Anne; Volberg, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Decision makers tend to prefer decision-consistent information and/or neglect decision-inconsistent information (selective exposure). In the present EEG study the neural mechanisms of the classic selective exposure effect were examined by investigating oscillatory brain responses to consistent vs. inconsistent information. Twenty participants made an economic decision and subsequently were exposed to 45 consistent and 45 inconsistent images concerning their decision. EEG was recorded from 31 electrodes and differences between oscillatory brain responses towards consistent and inconsistent information were examined. The main result was an increase of induced theta power (5-8Hz, 0-0.7s) in the consistent compared to the inconsistent condition at right temporo-parietal electrodes, as well as a corresponding increase of evoked theta power at frontal electrodes. Since theta oscillations are often observed during memory formation, we conclude that decision-consistent information triggers memory formation, whereas decision-inconsistent information seems not to do so. This finding supports the classic motivational perspective of Leon Festinger on the selective exposure effect.

  18. The crystalline revolution :ISO's finding opens a new research field, "astro-mineralogy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    Silicate minerals were known to be a main component of dust in space, but detecting them in a crystallised state has been a surprise. It allows the identification of precise silicates in astronomical objects, which will open "a totally new field in astronomy: astro-mineralogy. This is the crystalline revolution", said the author, Dutch astronomer Rens Waters of Amsterdam university. "It's really fantastic, this possibility of identifying the silicates. Before ISO everybody thought that all silicates in space were amorphous, without a well-ordered internal structure; that means you cannot differentiate among the many different silicates existing. Now we can try to identify them and track their presence in different regions. A whole new research field is starting", said Rens Waters, who brought to the press conference samples of several terrestrial crystalline silicates: olivine and pyroxene, the most common silicates on Earth. Crystals give key clues about the physical conditions and evolutionary history of crystal-bearing objects. The precise mechanisms for crystal-making are now being researched now very actively in the laboratories, although some working-hypotheses are already being used. For instance, crystals can be made by heating the material to temperatures above 1 300 degrees Centigrade and then cooling it down slowly. Those found so far by ISO are at -170 degrees Centigrade, both in stellar envelopes and in protoplanetary discs. In the case of the old stars -red giant stars, where crystals are found to account for as much as 20% of all the surrounding dust, astronomers think that that the high temperatures near the star triggered the crystallisation of the silicates. In the protoplanetary discs some experts postulate that electric shocks - like lightning flashes - heated the dust, which cooled afterwards. "The crystals detected by ISO in these discs have a size of about a thousandth of a millimetre. They collide with each other, forming bigger and bigger

  19. The Ethical Maze: Finding an Inclusive Path towards Gaining Children's Agreement to Research Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Alison J.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, the ethics of engaging in sociological research directly involving children have primarily been shaped by definitions of "competence". While this has been a crucial guideline for researchers in shaping the concept of informed consent, it has also acted, perhaps inadvertently, as a way of excluding particular children from the…

  20. No Teacher Is an Island: Bridging the Gap between Teachers' Professional Practice and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Deborah; Daubenmire, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research regarding best practices for the teaching and learning of chemistry, as well as two sets of national reform documents for science education, classroom instruction in high school chemistry classrooms remains largely unchanged. One key reason for this continued gap between research and practice is a reliance on…

  1. What They Take with Them: Findings from the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors from…

  2. Biomedical and Behavioral Research Scientists: Their Training and Supply. Volume 1: Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    This is the first of three volumes which presents the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel's examination of the educational process that leads to doctoral degrees in biomedical and behavioral science (and to postdoctoral study in some cases) and the role of the National Research Service Awards (NRSA) training programs in it.…

  3. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

  4. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

    2005-01-01

    Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

  6. Development of CAI Presentations for Science Teaching and Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Mridula D.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) used in the form of computer assisted instruction (CAI) may benefit student learning. There is, however, limited research about the application of CAI in non-Western educational contexts. Here I describe the use of CAI in the learning of science in India. Evaluation of student…

  7. Moving beyond Citation Analysis: How Surveys and Interviews Enhance, Enrich, and Expand Your Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Susann; Kelly, Robert; Storm, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional mixed methods research model of citation analysis, a survey, and interviews was selected to determine if the Bruce T. Halle Library at Eastern Michigan University owned the content that faculty cited in their research, if the collection was being utilized, and what library services the faculty used. The combination of objective data…

  8. Implementation Research: Finding Common Ground on What, How, Why, Where, and Who

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century, Jeanne; Cassata, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Over many decades, educators have developed countless interventions and theories about how to create lasting change. Implementation research is the study of these efforts with a set of basic questions: What are we doing? Is it working? For whom? Where? When? How? And, Why? In other words, implementation research is an endeavor to understand if and…

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY OF EDUCATION FROM PSYCHOLOGICAL AND OTHER BASIC RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, CALVIN W.; AND OTHERS

    A BROAD EXPLORATORY AND THEORETICAL STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IN A FUNDAMENTAL SENSE THE IMPLICATIONS AND IMPACT WHICH NEW RESEARCH IN THE BASIC BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE FIELDS HAD ON EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AND THEORY. THE TOTAL TASK WAS TO BUILD A NEW EDUCATIONAL THEORY USING SAMPLINGS FROM ALL BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH AND TO INVESTIGATE WAYS TO REDUCE…

  10. Using EPIC to Find Conflicts, Inconsistencies, and Gaps in Department of Defense Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    new tool that automates one step of the methodology. We describe the framework, methodol- ogy, and new software- based tool and demonstrate with case...analysts showed that 113 of the extractions were related to standards. Analy- 1 The EPIC tool is a Microsoft (MS) Office– based program written in...designated approving authority DARS DoD Architecture Registry System DAS Defense Acquisition System DATO Denial of Authorization to Operate DBSMC Defense

  11. Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... health web site and downloadable booklet Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders web page www.niaaa.nih.gov/research/major-initiatives/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders . Spectrum e-zine story: Underage drinking: One ...

  12. The European antibody network's practical guide to finding and validating suitable antibodies for research

    PubMed Central

    Roncador, Giovanna; Engel, Pablo; Maestre, Lorena; Anderson, Amanda P.; Cordell, Jacqueline L.; Cragg, Mark S.; Šerbec, Vladka Č.; Jones, Margaret; Lisnic, Vanda J.; Kremer, Leonor; Li, Demin; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Pascual, Núria; Rodríguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio; Torensma, Ruurd; Turley, Helen; Pulford, Karen; Banham, Alison H.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely exploited as research/diagnostic tools and therapeutics. Despite providing exciting research opportunities, the multitude of available antibodies also offers a bewildering array of choice. Importantly, not all companies comply with the highest standards, and thus many reagents fail basic validation tests. The responsibility for antibodies being fit for purpose rests, surprisingly, with their user. This paper condenses the extensive experience of the European Monoclonal Antibody Network to help researchers identify antibodies specific for their target antigen. A stepwise strategy is provided for prioritising antibodies and making informed decisions regarding further essential validation requirements. Web-based antibody validation guides provide practical approaches for testing antibody activity and specificity. We aim to enable researchers with little or no prior experience of antibody characterization to understand how to determine the suitability of their antibody for its intended purpose, enabling both time and cost effective generation of high quality antibody-based data fit for publication. PMID:26418356

  13. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  14. The European antibody network's practical guide to finding and validating suitable antibodies for research.

    PubMed

    Roncador, Giovanna; Engel, Pablo; Maestre, Lorena; Anderson, Amanda P; Cordell, Jacqueline L; Cragg, Mark S; Šerbec, Vladka Č; Jones, Margaret; Lisnic, Vanda J; Kremer, Leonor; Li, Demin; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Pascual, Núria; Rodríguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio; Torensma, Ruurd; Turley, Helen; Pulford, Karen; Banham, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely exploited as research/diagnostic tools and therapeutics. Despite providing exciting research opportunities, the multitude of available antibodies also offers a bewildering array of choice. Importantly, not all companies comply with the highest standards, and thus many reagents fail basic validation tests. The responsibility for antibodies being fit for purpose rests, surprisingly, with their user. This paper condenses the extensive experience of the European Monoclonal Antibody Network to help researchers identify antibodies specific for their target antigen. A stepwise strategy is provided for prioritising antibodies and making informed decisions regarding further essential validation requirements. Web-based antibody validation guides provide practical approaches for testing antibody activity and specificity. We aim to enable researchers with little or no prior experience of antibody characterization to understand how to determine the suitability of their antibody for its intended purpose, enabling both time and cost effective generation of high quality antibody-based data fit for publication.

  15. Research on U.S. Gun Violence Still a Low Priority, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... led by Dr. David Stark of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City. Critics say foes of gun control have limited federally funded research into gun violence. For instance, the study authors noted that a ...

  16. Steps to strengthen ethics in organizations: research findings, ethics placebos, and what works.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change.

  17. Everyday technologies for Alzheimer's disease care: Research findings, directions, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Maria C; Dishman, Eric; Plowman, Tim

    2009-11-01

    The Everyday Technologies for Alzheimer's Care initiative was launched by the Alzheimer's Association and Intel Corporation in 2003 to identify and fund promising research in the use of technology-especially information and communication technologies-for monitoring, diagnosing, and treating Alzheimer's disease. At the last two progress meetings, scientific leaders of the two partners, together with aging health technology academic scientists, met to review the most recent research and discuss how current and developing technologies can address growing needs in Alzheimer care.

  18. Implementation of Subjective Probability Estimates in Army Intelligence Procedures: A Critical Review of Research Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    H. Phelps, Stanley M. Halpin, Edgar M. Johnson, and Franklin L. Moses HUMAN FACTORS TECHNICAL AREA U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral...Army Technical Director Commander NOTICES DISTRIBUTION: Primatry distribution of this rewot ha been mode by ARI. PIS.. addrescorrespondence 0O~rniflll...explored by relating the psychological research on the use of subjective probability estimates with the need of Army intelli- gence analysts to

  19. Evacuation Behavior and Problems: Findings and Implications from the Research Literature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    full explanation would take us too far afield and is unnecessary for purposes of this paper . However, some discussion is warranted because it will enable...probably not produce an identical frequency distribution. Second, the numbers depict quantity. They say nothing about the quality of the research...variables than any other topic specified by our model. The quantity of attention given to the topic, however, was not matched by quality in the research

  20. The barriers to the application of the research findings from the nurses’ perspective: A case study in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Mahaki, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of the nursing research findings is one of the most important indicators of development in the nursing profession, which leads to providing efficient and effective patient care and improving the quality of nursing care. According the result of some studies, transferring the evidence-based findings to the nurses’ practice and education in the world has been slow and sometimes unsuccessful. This study aimed to investigate the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the nurses’ perspective. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 210 nurses in a teaching hospital in Tehran in 2013. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire consisted of two parts, including items about nurses’ demographic characteristics and 30 items to identify the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the studied nurses’ perspective. Results: “The lack of sufficient time for reading the studies,” “the lack of sufficient time to implement the new ideas,” “the lack of adequate facilities to implement the ideas,” “nurses’ little interest in conducting studies,” and “the lack of authority to change the methods and patterns of care” with, respectively, 85%, 84.6%, 83.8%, 83.4%, and 80.5% agreement with the existence of barriers were the most barriers to application of research findings from the studied nurses’ perspective. Conclusion: The lack of time was the most important barrier to the use of research findings from the perspective of studied nurses. Therefore, some effective strategies should be used by hospital managers and health policy makers to overcome this barrier. Some of these strategies can be employing new personnel and hiring skilled and efficient human resources in order to decrease the workload of nurses, organizing the nurses’ work shifts, providing right balance between patients and nurses in the wards, etc. PMID

  1. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  2. Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA's Center X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quartz, Karen Hunter; Priselac, Jody; Franke, Megan Loef

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…

  3. Alternate Methods for Assuring Credibility of Research and Evaluation Findings in Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, William T.; Murray, Wayne R.

    This paper describes six existing evaluator-auditor working formats and the conditions which foster credibility of evaluation findings. Evaluators were classified as: (1) member of project developmental team, accountable to project director; (2) independent internal evaluator, accountable to system in general but not to project directors, and (3)…

  4. Does Grammar Translation Come from the Entrance Examination? Preliminary Findings from Classroom-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Yoshinori

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study investigating whether there is any connection between university entrance examinations in English as a Second Language in Japan and the prevalence of grammar-translation teaching there. Findings reveal that teacher factors, such as educational background, personal beliefs, and teaching experience may outweigh the possible…

  5. Pedagogy of Connections: Findings of a Collaborative Action Research Project in Outdoor and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lou; Griffiths, Amma

    2004-01-01

    Improving human-nature relationships is often a stated aim of outdoor education, yet this aim is not always made explicit in practice. This paper reflects on a pedagogical intervention which aims to find ways to explicitly develop students' connections with natural places through a tertiary outdoor and environmental education program. It describes…

  6. Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

  7. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE RUSSIAN HEALTH STUDIES PROGRAM AND UPDATED RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Fountos, Barrett N

    2016-11-24

    Recognized for conducting cutting-edge science in the field of radiation health effects research, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program has continued to generate excitement and enthusiasm throughout its 23-year mission to assess worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union. The three goals of the Program are to: (1) clarify the relationship between health effects and chronic, low-to-medium dose radiation exposure; (2) estimate the cancer risks from exposure to gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation; and (3) provide information to the national and international organizations that determine radiation protection standards and practices. Research sponsored by DOE's Russian Health Studies Program is conducted under the authority of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER), a bi-national committee representing Federal agencies in the United States and the Russian Federation. Signed in 1994, the JCCRER Agreement established the legal basis for the collaborative research between USA and Russian scientists to determine the risks associated with working at or living near Russian former nuclear weapons production sites. The products of the Program are peer-reviewed publications on cancer risk estimates from worker and community exposure to ionizing radiation following the production of nuclear weapons in Russia. The scientific return on investment has been substantial. Through 31 December 2015, JCCRER researchers have published 299 peer-reviewed publications. To date, the research has focused on the Mayak Production Association (Mayak) in Ozersk, Russia, which is the site of the first Soviet nuclear weapons production facility, and people in surrounding communities along the Techa River. There are five current projects in the Russian Health Studies Program: two radiation epidemiology studies; two historical dose reconstruction

  8. Reconciling inconsistencies in precipitation-productivity relationships: implications for climate change.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Alan K; Ciais, Philippe; Smith, Melinda D

    2017-04-01

    Contents 41 I. 41 II. 42 III. 43 IV. 44 V. 45 Acknowledgements 46 References 46 SUMMARY: Precipitation (PPT) is a primary climatic determinant of plant growth and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) over much of the globe. Thus, PPT-ANPP relationships are important both ecologically and to land-atmosphere models that couple terrestrial vegetation to the global carbon cycle. Empirical PPT-ANPP relationships derived from long-term site-based data are almost always portrayed as linear, but recent evidence has accumulated that is inconsistent with an underlying linear relationship. We review, and then reconcile, these inconsistencies with a nonlinear model that incorporates observed asymmetries in PPT-ANPP relationships. Although data are currently lacking for parameterization, this new model highlights research needs that, when met, will improve our understanding of carbon cycle dynamics, as well as forecasts of ecosystem responses to climate change.

  9. Digital Libraries and Recent Medical Informatics Research. Findings from the IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2001.

    PubMed

    Ammenwerth, E; Knaup, P; Maier, C; Mludek, V; Singer, R; Skonetzki, S; Wolff, A C; Haux, R; Kulikowski, C

    2001-05-01

    The Yearbook of Medical Informatics is published annually by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and contains a selection of recent excellent papers on medical informatics research (http://www.med.uni-heidelberg.de/mi/yearbook/index.htm). The special topic of the just published Yearbook 2001 is "Digital Libraries and Medicine". Digital libraries have changed dramatically and will continue to change the way we work with medical knowledge. The selected papers present recent research and new results on digital libraries. As usual, the Yearbook 2001 also contains a variety of papers on other subjects relevant to medical informatics, such as Electronic Patient Records, Health Information Systems, Health and Clinical Management, Decision Support Systems, Education, as well as Image and Signal Processing. This paper will briefly introduce the contributions covering digital libraries and will show how medical informatics research contributes to this important topic.

  10. Perspective on everyday technologies for Alzheimer's care: research findings, directions, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Eric; Carrillo, Maria C

    2007-07-01

    The Everyday Technologies for Alzheimer's Care (ETAC) initiative was launched by the Alzheimer's Association and Intel Corporation in 2003 to identify and fund promising research in the use of technology--especially information and communication technologies (ICTs)--for monitoring, diagnosing, and treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Agilent Technologies joined the initiative in 2005. In October 2006, representatives of the three partners, together with ETAC award grantees, met to review the most recent research, and discuss how current and developing technologies can address growing needs in Alzheimer's care.

  11. Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  12. A Systematic Review of the Management of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Information empowerment has been the greatest gain of genomics, yet it also poses serious threat to its survival, especially when the information is incidental. There may be an emerging consensus that actionable incidental findings be returned. But this has not been supported by any systematic review. Future directions are equally missing. These are significant gaps. To fill these gaps, an online search on PubMed and Genetics in Medicine website was conducted between 20th of August to 23rd of October, 2013; combining certain filters and phrases, such as ‘return incidental findings’. Nineteen (19) articles were selected from an avalanche of results, and reviewed. The review confirms a majority support for return of clinically actionable findings. The result also shows that the support represents views of Northern Americans. Critical contributions of Africans, Asians and Europeans are missing in this discourse. I recommended studies in this direction.

  13. World Bank: harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them.

  14. Maximizing the Learning Value of Tests in Technology Education Classes: A Summary of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, W. J., III

    2008-01-01

    Much of the learning in technology education is hands-on and best assessed via techniques other than traditional tests. Rubrics have become increasingly recognized as the best means of evaluating student efforts and accomplishments in projects, group work, presentations, various types of research papers, videotapes, web pages, and many other…

  15. Self-Regulation Advantage for High-IQ Children: Findings from a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Garcia-Martin, Maria Belen; Jimenez, Maria Isabel; Kazen, Miguel; Araque, Arsenio

    2007-01-01

    Current approaches in intelligence research indicate the need for a more extensive determination of characteristics of children with possible giftedness, not only at an intellectual level, but also at the level of self-regulation and motivation. The present study compares self-regulation efficiency between high-IQ and average-ability children aged…

  16. The National Child Care Research Program: First Year Executive Summary & Findings of the Initial Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergan, John R.; Feld, Jason K.

    Two institutions initiated a long-term National Child Care Research Program in 1990. The program has two components: (1) examining the comprehensiveness of services offered by licensed center-based child care; and (2) documenting the development of children in licensed center-based child care. This publication reports the results of the first…

  17. Do College Students Notice Errors in Evidence When Critically Evaluating Research Findings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Fernando; Ng, Annalyn; Shah, Priti

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined college students' ability to critically evaluate scientific evidence, specifically, whether first- and second-year students noticed when poor interpretations were drawn from research evidence. Fifty students evaluated a set of eight psychological studies, first in an informal context, then again in a critical-thinking context.…

  18. Finding God in Wellworth High School: More Legitimations of Story-Making as Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A curious piece of ironic, partially-dramatised auto/ethnography, this paper reflects an ongoing attempt to explore the vapid certainties of my own faith, some of the brittle discomforts of contemporary schooling, and the possibilities of a social science research methodology which can artfully assemble on the same stage belief, empirics and…

  19. Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

  20. A Report on the Industrial Relations Film "Indaba Ye Grievance." Research Finding PERS-392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsell, G.; And Others

    Attitudes and reactions are reported regarding the South African film, "Indaba Ye Grievance," (produced by the Human Sciences Research Council) which was designed to show unsophisticated workers the advantages of a grievance procedure and the problem of acceptability. Chapter 1, "Background to the Film 'Indaba Ye Grievance'"…

  1. Building the Future Students' Blended Learning Experiences from Current Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Amanda; Hyde, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2007 and February 2009, the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) funded a Learners Journeys project at the University of Hertfordshire. This was part of their second phase of investment in research into the Learners' Experiences through their E-Learning Programme and was known as LXP2. STROLL (STudent Reflections On Lifelong…

  2. Research Findings from Games Involving Basic Fact Operations and Algebraic Thinking at a PDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Enrique

    The purposes of this paper are to present research related to the development of new instructional games (named Survivor's Games), and measure the effectiveness of these games to help students (K-5) master basic fact operations (single-digit additions or factor and single- or double digit sums or products), stimulate the exploration of…

  3. Theory into Practice--The Translation of Research Findings into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen

    This paper discusses a research project that investigated the effectiveness of student surveys administered to eighth grade students on student involvement and learning. The surveys are called "Thinking About" and are presented at the beginning of each chapter in Core Science Textbooks. Two exercises were chosen for the study--chemical or physical…

  4. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  5. Can Technologies Make a Difference for Hospitalized Youth: Findings from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, D.; Mitchem, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Children and youth who are hospitalized for a short or long term become socially isolated from their family, school and classmates. As their isolation increases, so does their vulnerability as a result of disrupted schooling. Research studies suggest different ways of using technologies to overcome this isolation and support children during this…

  6. A Preview of Recent Findings About EMH Students to Films. Research Report No. 744.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Jack H.

    The model developed by the Computer Based Project for the Evaluation of Media for the Handicapped in Syracuse, New York to evaluate the use of captioned films for the deaf with mentally handicapped and emotionally disturbed children is briefly described, followed by a review of recent research conducted by the project staff. Among the areas which…

  7. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  8. The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…

  9. Standardization in EU Education and Training Policy: Findings from a European Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Hubert; Phillips, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an EU-funded project under the Training and Mobility of Researchers (TMR) Programme, with a particular emphasis on the Oxford-based part. Involving six European universities, the overarching investigation was concerned with the tensions between standardization and tradition in education. In Oxford the focus was on aspects of…

  10. Language of Instruction in Tanzania: Why Are Research Findings Not Heeded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The…

  11. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  12. Reporting and Interpreting Quantitative Research Findings: What Gets Reported and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer; Plonsky, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a set of guidelines for reporting on five types of quantitative data issues: (1) Descriptive statistics, (2) Effect sizes and confidence intervals, (3) Instrument reliability, (4) Visual displays of data, and (5) Raw data. Our recommendations are derived mainly from various professional sources related to L2 research but…

  13. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  14. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  15. Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ardy SixKiller

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

  16. Abduction Prevention Training: A Review of Findings and Issues for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Olsen, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed the research evaluating procedures for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. Examination of types of skills, types of abduction scenarios, training procedures, and assessment strategies indicated that children can learn abduction prevention skills through behavioral skills training procedures, and that individual…

  17. Resources. Some Findings and Conjectures from Recent Research into Resource Development and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The triannual newsletter, "Resources", published by Resources for the Future (RfF) typically contains excerpts from recent research in the area of natural resource development, conservation, and use. Announcements are also made of recent publications by RfF. Those interested in receiving the newsletter regularly should request that their name be…

  18. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  19. Socioeconomic Status and the Undergraduate Engineering Experience: Preliminary Findings from Four American Universities. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Krista; Lichtenstein, Gary; Sheppard, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Students of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be underrepresented in American higher education, particularly at four-year institutions and more selective universities. Education researchers have shown that in the four year period following high school, low SES students are less likely to persist to a bachelor's degree or have graduate…

  20. Building a Successful Adult Life: Findings from Youth-Directed Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky

    2007-01-01

    Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…

  1. California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard W.; Elder, Linda; Bartell, Ted

    This report examines a study on the extent to which California's teacher preparation programs were preparing candidates for teaching critical thinking and problem-solving skills in elementary and secondary schools. Researchers conducted interviews with education and subject matter faculty in private and public colleges and universities. Results…

  2. What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of…

  3. The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Otte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

  4. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  5. Non-Machian Singularity and Inconsistent Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Murli Manohar

    We show that the non-Machian feature of singularity in the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) can be avoided with scale-invariance. Further, the global non-conservation of energy in GTR results from inconsistency between scale-invariance and equivalence principle. We propose a negative energy density component with a positive equation of state that can drive the late-time acceleration in the universe, while the positive component confines to smaller scales.

  6. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R.; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:26413167

  7. Nanotoxicology and nanotechnology: new findings from the NIEHS and Superfund Research Program scientific community.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are characterized by their small size (i.e., nanometer scale) and can be engineered from nearly any chemical substance, creating materials that differ in composition, particle size, shape, and surface coatings. These materials are often seen as a "double-edged sword" by having properties that make them potentially beneficial in product development, drug delivery, and remediation of hazardous substances, but these same properties may result in interaction with biological systems and potential effects in the environment. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is interested in both the potential risks associated with exposure to these materials, while harnessing the power of engineered nanomaterials to improve public health. This presentation will consist of discussion of nanoparticle studies by NIEHS researchers and the extramural community and its efforts to develop cross-agency initiatives to solve the many vexing issues associated with nanomaterials. For example, researchers from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) are evaluating a number of nanomaterial classes in comprehensive toxicology studies. NIEHS also has an extensive extramural research grant portfolio consisting of the Nano Grand Opportunities (Nano GO) Program and NIEHS Centers for Nanotechnology Health Implications Research (NCNHIR) Consortium consisting of U19 and U01 Cooperative Centers. Furthermore, the NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP), which supports a network of university (P42, R01), small business (SBIR/STTR), and training grants (R25), provides funding to grantees evaluating the toxicology of nanomaterials, developing new or improved nanotechnologies to monitor and remediate hazardous substances, and training professionals in the use of these of materials. The NIEHS's Worker Education Branch also offers educational materials for training workers on risks of nanotechnology in laboratories, manufacturing facilities, at hazardous waste cleanup

  8. How Does a School Leader's Role Influence Student Achievements? A Review of Research Findings and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, David; Adams, Don; McCormack, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently, school systems around the globe are focusing on student achievements empowering school leaders along with curriculum and accountability frameworks. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the role of school leadership towards improving student achievements based on research findings and best practices. It refers to…

  9. Bonus Awards for Teachers in Texas' Performance Pay Program: Findings from the First Round of TEEG Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG schools…

  10. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  11. An Example of the Use of Research Methods and Findings as an Experiential Learning Exercise in an Accounting Theory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…

  12. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment Insecurity, Disinhibited Attachment, and Attachment Disorders--Where Do Research Findings Leave the Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. Methods: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited…

  13. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  14. Utility of genome-wide association study findings: prostate cancer as a translational research paradigm.

    PubMed

    Turner, A R; Kader, A K; Xu, J

    2012-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of consistently replicated associations between genetic markers and complex disease risk, including cancers. Alone, these markers have limited utility in risk prediction; however, when several of these markers are used in combination, the predictive performance appears to be similar to that of many currently available clinical predictors. Despite this, there are divergent views regarding the clinical validity and utility of these genetic markers in risk prediction. There are valid concerns, thus providing a direction for new lines of research. Herein, we outline the debate and use the example of prostate cancer to highlight emerging evidence from studies that aim to address potential concerns. We also describe a translational framework that could be used to guide the development of a new generation of comprehensive research studies aimed at capitalizing on these exciting new discoveries.

  15. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.

  16. New Study Finds Increasing Gender Equity at U.S. Research Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-06-01

    Women and men faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics for the most part have comparable opportunities within major U.S. research universities, according to a report released 2 June by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC). The report found that gender does not appear to have been a factor in a number of important career transitions and outcomes, including hiring for tenure track and tenure positions and promotions. “That is probably going to be surprising to many people. It was surprising to our own panel. And it may not have been the case if we had done the study in 1985 instead of 2005,” said Claude Canizares, cochair of the NRC committee that prepared the report, entitled Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty.

  17. Toward a sustainable biomedical research enterprise: Finding consensus and implementing recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Christopher L; Corb, Benjamin W; Matthews, C Robert; Sundquist, Wesley I; Berg, Jeremy M

    2015-09-01

    The US research enterprise is under significant strain due to stagnant funding, an expanding workforce, and complex regulations that increase costs and slow the pace of research. In response, a number of groups have analyzed the problems and offered recommendations for resolving these issues. However, many of these recommendations lacked follow-up implementation, allowing the damage of stagnant funding and outdated policies to persist. Here, we analyze nine reports published since the beginning of 2012 and consolidate over 250 suggestions into eight consensus recommendations made by the majority of the reports. We then propose how to implement these consensus recommendations, and we identify critical issues, such as improving workforce diversity and stakeholder interactions, on which the community has yet to achieve consensus.

  18. [Importance of diabetic nephropathy in childhood. Clinical findings and basic research in recent decades].

    PubMed

    Fekete, Andrea; Vannay, Ádám

    2014-01-26

    Over the past decades diabetes mellitus is becoming a global pandemic affecting more than 371 million people worldwide. Parallel with the increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes, there is a growing number of type 2 diabetes cases among children and adolescents that poses new challenges to pediatricians. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of end stage renal disease, developing in approximately 30% of diabetic patients. However, overt nephropathy is rare in childhood; screening and ongoing assessment for the earliest manifestation of renal injury is extremely important in this young population, as well. Although in the past decades intensive research activity focused on understanding of the pathomechanism of diabetic nephropathy and invention of new therapeutic approaches, prevention and definitive care are still urgently needed. The clinical section of the article summarizes the present state of epidemiology, diagnosis and current therapies of childhood diabetic nephropathy. Then, the authors discuss the state of basic research and show a few promising targets for drug development.

  19. Contributions to Cancer Research: Finding a Niche in Communication | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    This past July, I started a journey into the fields of communications and cancer research when I joined the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) as a fellow in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Health Communications Internship Program (HCIP). Cancer genomics and working in an office were new and uncharted territory for me: before I came to OCG, I was finishing a Ph.D. in cell biology at Vanderbilt University in Dr. Matthew Tyska’s laboratory.

  20. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors.

  1. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Taub, Leah; Oberhelman, Richard A.; Var, Chivorn

    2016-01-01

    Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming. PMID:28009812

  2. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Taub, Leah; Oberhelman, Richard A; Var, Chivorn

    2016-12-21

    Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  3. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  4. [Developing rehabilitation treatment groups for cardiology and orthopaedics -- findings of a research project].

    PubMed

    Ranneberg, J; Neubauer, G

    2005-02-01

    The call for a more specific and transparent service and reimbursement system for medical rehabilitation is not new. However, in practice, the idea was not followed up for a long time. This situation changed with the introduction of German Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) for acute care settings. It is now strongly being discussed whether such a sophisticated lump sum reimbursement system might also be a viable alternative in the field of rehabilitation. There still exist different opinions over the suitability of a lump sum-system for medical rehabilitation, but the main direction seems to be clear. There is no doubt that medical rehabilitation requires a needs-adapted, differentiated patient classification system. The benefits of such cost-homogeneous groups are evident. They support medical and management services and are suitable for both internal and external use. The main intent of the project presented was to develop such a patient classification system, adapted to the requirements of medical rehabilitation. The project concentrated on orthopaedic and cardiac rehabilitaton. For these two areas, needs-adapted and cost-homogeneous groups (RBG, Rehabilitationsbehandlungsgruppen - Rehabilitation Treatment Groups) were developed in order to adequately represent the underlying service portfolio and to act as a link between acute and post-acute care. In addition, severity level indicators were identified, in order to explain for different needs and resource volumes and in order to create severity-RBGs representing patients with the same severity level. Based on these groups, a needs-adapted lump sum reimbursement system can be developed, allowing for a differentiated service and cost controlling. The project described formed part of the Research Funding Programme Rehabilitation Sciences defrayed by the German Pension Insurance and the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. As part of the Freiburg/Bad Sackingen research network, it was realised at the

  5. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines

  6. Heroin Use, HIV-Risk, and Criminal Behavior in Baltimore: Findings from Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert P; Kelly, Sharon M; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; O'Grady, Kevin E; Jaffe, Jerome H

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted in Baltimore over the past 15 years, examining the following: (1) What factors differentiate heroin-addicted individuals who enter methadone treatment from those who do not? (2) How difficult is gaining access to methadone treatment? (3) What are effective ways to overcome barriers to treatment entry? (4) Why do so many methadone patients drop out of treatment prematurely? (5) What are the added benefits of counseling when coupled with methadone or buprenorphine treatment? (6) Does increasing access to treatment have an impact on overdose deaths? Specific recommendations are made for policymakers concerned with addressing heroin addiction.

  7. The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not.

  8. Development and validation of culture-specific Variable Response Inconsistency and True Response Inconsistency scales for use with the Korean MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Ketterer, Holly L; Han, Kyunghee; Hur, Jaehong; Moon, Kyungjoo

    2010-09-01

    In response to the concern that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989; J. N. Butcher et al., 2001) Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) score invalidity criteria recommended for use with American samples results in an excessive number of exclusions in Asian samples (F. M. Cheung, W. Z. Song, & J. X. Zhang, 1996), we examined the cross cultural equivalence of the original VRIN and TRIN scales, and developed and validated Korean-specific VRIN and TRIN scales with Korean adult normative, clinical, and college samples. Although the results from item pair correlation analyses suggested the superiority of the Korean VRIN and TRIN over the original VRIN and TRIN, the mean comparison results and classification accuracy statistics using data with varying degrees of randomly inserted true and/or false responses did not reveal a strong advantage of one version over the other. We present and discuss plausible causes of the findings.

  9. ANIMAL MODELS OF UROLOGIC CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROMES (UCPPS): FINDINGS FROM THE MAPP RESEARCH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Gereau, Robert W.; Luo, Yi; O’Donnell, Michael; Rudick, Charles N.; Pontari, Michel; Mullins, Chris; Klumpp, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the approach taken by MAPP (Multi-Disciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain) Research Network investigators to advance the utility of UCPPS (urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes) animal models. Methods A multidisciplinary team of investigators representing basic science and clinical expertise defined key phenotypic criteria for rodent models of UCPPS. UCPPS symptoms were prioritized based on their clinical significance. Methods for quantifying animal correlates to patient symptoms were developed. The methods were implemented across proposed rodent models for evaluation and comparison of animals for phenotypic characteristics relevant to human symptomatology. Results Pelvic pain and urinary frequency were deemed primary features of human UCPPS and were prioritized for assessment in animals. Nociception was quantified using visceromotor response to bladder distention, and by applying von Frey filaments to the lower abdomen (referred tactile allodynia). Micturition activity was assessed as free voiding using micturition cages or blotting pad assays, and in response to bladder filling by cystometry. Models varied in both depth of characterization and degree of recapitulating pelvic pain and urinary frequency characteristics of UCPPS. Conclusion Rodent models that reflect multiple, key characteristics of human UCPPS may be identified and provide enhanced clinical significance to mechanistic studies. We have developed a strategy for evaluating current and future animal models of UCPPS based on human symptomatology. This approach provides a foundation for improved translation between mechanistic studies in animals and clinical research, and serves as a validation strategy for assessing validity of models for symptom-driven disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26099889

  10. Evaluation applications of instrument calibration research findings in psychology for very small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Petry, P.

    2016-11-01

    Many published research studies document item calibration invariance across samples using Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement. A new approach to outcomes evaluation for very small samples was employed for two workshop series focused on stress reduction and joyful living conducted for health system employees and caregivers since 2012. Rasch-calibrated self-report instruments measuring depression, anxiety and stress, and the joyful living effects of mindfulness behaviors were identified in peer-reviewed journal articles. Items from one instrument were modified for use with a US population, other items were simplified, and some new items were written. Participants provided ratings of their depression, anxiety and stress, and the effects of their mindfulness behaviors before and after each workshop series. The numbers of participants providing both pre- and post-workshop data were low (16 and 14). Analysis of these small data sets produce results showing that, with some exceptions, the item hierarchies defining the constructs retained the same invariant profiles they had exhibited in the published research (correlations (not disattenuated) range from 0.85 to 0.96). In addition, comparisons of the pre- and post-workshop measures for the three constructs showed substantively and statistically significant changes. Implications for program evaluation comparisons, quality improvement efforts, and the organization of communications concerning outcomes in clinical fields are explored.

  11. PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

    2014-06-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

  12. Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Rahman, Ambreen

    2014-09-01

    This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and forms of media coverage (television, newspapers, radio, internet) studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both man-made and natural events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other forms of media coverage that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional media forms especially newer forms such as social media.

  13. Combination Pharmacotherapies for Stimulant Use Disorder: A Review of Clinical Findings and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts to identify a pharmacotherapy for managing stimulant use disorders, no widely effective medications have been approved. Innovative strategies are necessary to develop successful pharmacotherapies for stimulant use disorders. This manuscript reviews human laboratory studies and clinical trials to determine whether one such strategy, use of combination pharmacotherapies, holds promise. The extant literature shows that combination pharmacotherapy produced results that were better than placebo treatment, especially with medications shown to have efficacy as monotherapies. However, many studies did not compare individual constituents to the combination treatment, making it impossible to determine whether combination treatment is more effective than monotherapy. Future research should systematically compare combined treatments with individual agents using medications showing some efficacy when tested alone. PMID:24716825

  14. Measuring masculinity in research on men of color: findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes.

  15. Disaster Media Coverage and Psychological Outcomes: Descriptive Findings in the Extant Research

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Rahman, Ambreen

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and media formats studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both natural and man-made events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other media formats—newspapers, radio, and internet (including social media)—that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional formats especially newer formats such as social media. PMID:25064691

  16. Inconsistency of the ‘spin-3/2 gauge invariant’ interaction of Rarita-Schwinger fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badagnani, D.; Mariano, A.; Barbero, C.

    2017-02-01

    We perform the Dirac quantization of Rarita-Schwinger fields interacting with a spinor and the first derivative of a pseudoscalar field. We achieve the calculations for two forms of this interaction: first we review the conventional coupling of lowest derivative order, reproducing the well known inconsistencies in its anticommutator algebra. Then, we perform the analysis on the next order term popularly known as ‘spin-3/2 gauge invariant interaction’, which is claimed to be free of these inconsistencies. Nevertheless we find that the direct application of the Dirac formalism leads to inconsistencies in complete analogy to the previous case. This is of high relevance in the particle phenomenology field, where these interactions are used to interpret experimental data involving {{Δ }}(1232) resonances.

  17. Motivated reflection on attitude-inconsistent information: an exploration of the role of fear of invalidity in self-persuasion.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Joshua J; Valente, Matthew J; Leone, Christopher; Tormala, Zakary L

    2013-12-01

    The mere thought effect is defined in part by the tendency of self-reflective thought to heighten the generation of and reflection on attitude-consistent thoughts. By focusing on individuals' fears of invalidity, we explored the possibility that the mere opportunity for thought sometimes motivates reflection on attitude-inconsistent thoughts. Across three experiments, dispositional and situational fear of invalidity was shown to heighten reflection on attitude-inconsistent thoughts. This heightened reflection, in turn, interacted with individuals' thought confidence to determine whether attitude-inconsistent thoughts were assimilated or refuted and consequently whether individuals' attitudes and behavioral intentions depolarized or polarized following a sufficient opportunity for thought, respectively. These findings emphasize the impact of motivational influences on thought reflection and generation, the importance of thought confidence in the assimilation and refutation of self-generated thought, and the dynamic means by which the mere thought bias can impact self-persuasion.

  18. The Role of the Internet in Patient-Practitioner Relationships: Findings from a Qualitative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Flis; Wyatt, Sally

    2004-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that there has been an increase in the use of the Internet by patients in many Western societies. However, despite the many texts available on health and the Internet, not much is known about how much patients actually use the Internet to look up health information in their daily lives. We know little about what meaning this activity has for their experience of health and illness, and for their relationship with health-care practitioners. Objective To explore patients' and practitioners' use of the Internet and to consider whether use of the Internet is changing relationships between patients and health-care practitioners. Method The study used qualitative interviews and observations of patient–practitioner interaction. Our purposive sample of 47 patients (32 women and 15 men) had all had contact with the health services for information/treatment in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT)/menopause and Viagra/erectile dysfunction. The setting for the research was in general practitioners' surgeries, specialist clinics and patients' homes in the United Kingdom. Participants reflected a wide range of socio-economic groups, but most were white and British born, which, given the ethnic make-up of the town in which we conducted the research, was not surprising. In addition to patients, we interviewed 10 health-care practitioners (4 consultant doctors, 3 GPs, 2 specialist nurses, and a psychologist) about their own health information seeking practices (HISPs) and those of their patients. Results Use of the Internet can increase patients' knowledge about their health conditions, although patients in our study were often too overwhelmed by the information available on the Internet to make an informed decision about their own care. Patients have a great deal of trust in their health-care practitioners. Health-care practitioners need to improve their own skills in Internet use. Hype around Internet use by patients appears to exceed the

  19. Simplifying the Process for Finding Research Funding: A Cross-Campus Collaboration at a Large Academic Institution.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Merle; Smith, Judith E; Curtis, Ann; Puffenberger, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the collaboration between the University of Michigan's M-Library and the University of Michigan Medical School's Office of Research in developing a comprehensive online guide and consultation service. The guide was designed to assist researchers in finding available funding from both internal and external sources and was based on the results of a survey distributed by the Office of Research. Because many of the respondents were unaware of internal funding programs and needed more information on resources external to the university as well, the guide included information on both possibilities in an easy-to-use format that researchers use independently without needing further instruction, although personal consultation was also offered when necessary.

  20. Fertility awareness as a component of sexuality education. Preliminary research findings with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roth, B

    1993-03-01

    Fertility awareness refers to the observation and interpretation of cervical mucus, often called vaginal discharge. A woman's cervical-mucus pattern indicates the time of ovulation and differentiates the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle from each other. Fertility awareness enables a woman to know when pregnancy can and cannot occur on a daily basis during each menstrual cycle. There has been, to date, almost no exploration of the appropriateness of fertility-awareness instruction for adolescents. A review of the literature on adolescent cognitive development, sexual activity, knowledge of fertility and contraceptive risk-taking behavior is presented. Based on the literature review, a theoretical rationale for fertility-awareness instruction as a unique sex-education curriculum for adolescents is proposed. The content and teaching techniques of a fertility-awareness presentation for teenagers is described. Directions for future research in fertility-awareness instruction for teenagers, and the need for long-term follow-up to assess the effects of such education on teenagers' sexual activity and contraceptive use are discussed.

  1. "The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: A review of biological and therapeutic research findings"

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, David; Fallon, Daniel; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk let-down, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors. This hormone is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of human social behaviors, including social decision making, evaluating and responding to social stimuli, mediating social interactions, and forming social memories. In addition, oxytocin is intricately involved in a broad array of neuropsychiatric functions, and may be a common factor important in multiple psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. This review article examines the extant literature on the evidence for oxytocin dysfunction in a variety of psychiatric disorders and highlights the need for further research to understand the complex role of the oxytocin system in psychiatric disease to pave the way for developing new therapeutic modalities. Articles were selected that involved human participants with various psychiatric disorders, either comparing oxytocin biology to healthy controls or examining the effects of exogenous oxytocin administration. PMID:24651556

  2. A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services*

    PubMed Central

    Richwine, Margaret (Peggy); McGowan, Julie J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals. Methods: Based on the results of a needs assessment, a virtual medical library was created; various levels of training were provided. Virtual library users were asked to complete a Likert-type survey, which included questions on intent of use and impact of use. At the conclusion of the project period, structured interviews were conducted. Results: Impact of the virtual health sciences library showed a strong correlation with the impact of information provided by health sciences librarians. Both interventions resulted in avoidance of adverse health events. Data collected from the structured interviews confirmed the perceived value of the virtual library. Conclusion: While librarians continue to hold a strong position in supporting information access for health care providers, their roles in the information age must begin to move away from providing information toward selecting and organizing knowledge resources and instruction in their use. PMID:11209799

  3. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health.

  4. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  5. Self-disturbances in schizophrenia: history, phenomenology, and relevant findings from research on metacognition.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Aaron L; Lysaker, Paul H; Schwartz, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    With a tradition of examining self-disturbances (Ichstörungen) in schizophrenia, phenomenological psychiatry studies the person's subjective experience without imposing theoretical agenda on what is reported. Although this tradition offers promising interface with current neurobiological models of schizophrenia, both the concept of Ichstörung and its history are not well understood. In this article, we discuss the meaning of Ichstörung, the role it played in the development of the concept of schizophrenia, and recent research on metacognition that allows for the quantitative study of the link between self-disturbance and outcome in schizophrenia. Phenomenological psychiatrists such as Blankenburg, Binswanger, and Conrad interpreted the Ichstörung as disturbed relationship to self and others, thus challenging recent efforts to interpret self-disturbance as diminished pure passive self-affection, which putatively "explains" schizophrenia and its various symptoms. Narrative is a reflective, embodied process, which requires a dynamic shifting of perspectives which, when compromised, may reflect disrupted binding of the components of self-experience. The Metacognition Assessment Scale-abbreviated as MAS-A-suggests that persons with schizophrenia tend to produce narratives with reductions in the binding processes required to produce an integrated, embodied self within narrated life stories, and in interactive relationships with others.

  6. Inconsistency of scale-invariant curvature coupled to gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Zoller, D. )

    1990-10-29

    We show that the scale-invariant curvature action for paths, the point-particle version of Polyakov's extrinsic-curvature action for surfaces, does not couple consistently to gravity. The curvature action for paths yields a massless representation of the Poincare group with fixed helicity and so potentially provides a description of single photons and gravitons. We present a physical interpretation of the inconsistency in terms of the nonlocalizability of the photon and point out a conceptual kinship with the local supersymmetry of a spinning particle.

  7. Inconsistency of scale-invariant curvature coupled to gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoller, D.

    1990-10-01

    We show that the scale-invariant curvature action for paths, the point-particle version of Polyakov's extrinsic-curvature action for surfaces, does not couple consistently to gravity. The curvature action for paths yields a massless representation of the Poincaré group with fixed helicity and so potentially provides a description of single photons and gravitons. We present a physical interpretation of the inconsistency in terms of the nonlocalizability of the photon and point out a conceptual kinship with the local supersymmetry of a spinning particle.

  8. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  9. Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE).

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption.

  10. Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D.; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

  11. Regenerating the Academic Workforce: The Careers, Intentions and Motivations of Higher Degree Research Students in Australia. Findings of the National Research Student Survey (NRSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daniel; Bexley, Emmaline; Richardson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This report is the culmination of a project carried out for the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in collaboration with the Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE). The main findings of this report are based on the outcomes…

  12. The 35% carbon dioxide test in stress and panic research: overview of effects and integration of findings.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Kristin; Jafarpour, Sepehr; Mofidi, Amirsalar; Rafat, Bijan; Woznica, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The carbon dioxide test--a vital capacity breath of air containing 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2))--provokes panic attacks in many individuals with panic disorder (PD). It has thus been extensively used as an experimental model of panic and less frequently as a clinical method of provoking symptoms for interoceptive exposure treatment. Recently, stress researchers have suggested another use for the CO(2) test: that of an acute physiological stressor indexing the human stress response. The purpose of this review is to synthesize findings about the effects of the CO(2) test from both the panic and stress literatures in order to advance understanding about this increasingly popular test. Both panic and stress researchers have examined the fleeting effects of the CO(2) test, finding that the test engenders transient breathlessness, dizziness, and minor anxiety in most participants and panic attacks in those with or at risk for PD. Physiological measurements after the test indicate a brief homeostatic disruption in many bodily systems, including increased respiration, systolic blood pressure, and noradrenaline, and decreased heart rate. Most studies indicate increased cortisol. Possible benefits of integrating findings from the panic and stress research lines, given their common use of the CO(2) test, are discussed.

  13. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or

  14. Inconsistency in precipitation measurements across the Alaska-Yukon border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaff, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Mekis, E.

    2015-12-01

    This study quantifies the inconsistency in gauge precipitation observations across the border of Alaska and Yukon. It analyses the precipitation measurements by the national standard gauges (National Weather Service (NWS) 8 in. gauge and Nipher gauge) and the bias-corrected data to account for wind effect on the gauge catch, wetting loss and trace events. The bias corrections show a significant amount of errors in the gauge records due to the windy and cold environment in the northern areas of Alaska and Yukon. Monthly corrections increase solid precipitation by 136 % in January and 20 % for July at the Barter Island in Alaska, and about 31 % for January and 4 % for July at the Yukon stations. Regression analyses of the monthly precipitation data show a stronger correlation for the warm months (mainly rainfall) than for cold month (mainly snowfall) between the station pairs, and small changes in the precipitation relationship due to the bias corrections. Double mass curves also indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation over the study periods. This change leads to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, representing a significant modification in the precipitation pattern over the northern region. Overall, this study discovers significant inconsistency in the precipitation measurements across the USA-Canada border. This discontinuity is greater for snowfall than for rainfall, as gauge snowfall observations have large errors in windy and cold conditions. This result will certainly impact regional, particularly cross-border, climate and hydrology investigations.

  15. On Distribution Reduction and Algorithm Implementation in Inconsistent Ordered Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems. PMID:25258721

  16. On distribution reduction and algorithm implementation in inconsistent ordered information systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems.

  17. Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Simon, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population. PMID:21253522

  18. Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  19. Feedback of research findings for vaccine trials: experiences from two malaria vaccine trials involving healthy children on the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an 'ethical imperative' or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account.

  20. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    PubMed

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2016-10-31

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  1. Resolving 20 Years of Inconsistent Interactions Between Lexical Familiarity and Orthography, Concreteness, and Polysemy

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Numerous word recognition studies conducted over the past 2 decades are examined. These studies manipulated lexical familiarity by presenting words of high versus low printed frequency and most reported an interaction between printed frequency and one of several second variables, namely, orthographic regularity, semantic concreteness, or polysemy. However, the direction of these interactions was inconsistent from study to study. Six new experiments clarify these discordant results. The first two demonstrate that words of the same low printed frequency are not always equally familiar to subjects. Instead, subjects’ ratings of “experiential familiarity” suggest that many of the low-printed-frequency words used in prior studies varied along this dimension. Four lexical decision experiments reexamine the prior findings by orthogonally manipulating lexical familiarity, as assessed by experiential familiarity ratings, with bigram frequency, semantic concreteness, and number of meanings. The results suggest that of these variables, only experiential familiarity reliably affects word recognition latencies. This in turn suggests that previous inconsistent findings are due to confounding experiential familiarity with a second variable. PMID:6242753

  2. Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and short-lived episodes of mania like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or short-lived episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307

  3. All that glitters is not BOLD: inconsistencies in functional MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renvall, Ville; Nangini, Cathy; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is a widely-accepted marker of brain activity. The acquisition parameters (APs) of fMRI aim at maximizing the signals related to neuronal activity while minimizing unrelated signal fluctuations. Currently, a diverse set of APs is used to acquire BOLD fMRI data. Here we demonstrate that some fMRI responses are alarmingly inconsistent across APs, ranging from positive to negative, or disappearing entirely, under identical stimulus conditions. These discrepancies, resulting from non-BOLD effects masquerading as BOLD signals, have remained largely unnoticed because studies rarely employ more than one set of APs. We identified and characterized non-BOLD responses in several brain areas, including posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, as well as AP-dependence of both the signal time courses and of seed-based functional networks, noticing that AP manipulation can inform about the origin of the measured signals.

  4. Electroencephalographic findings in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marcele Regine de; Velasques, Bruna Brandao; Cagy, Mauricio; Marques, Juliana Bittencourt; Teixeira, Silmar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-12-01

    Some studies have reported the importance of electroencephalography (EEG) as a method for investigating abnormal parameters in psychiatric disorders. Different findings in time and frequency domain analysis with regard to central nervous system arousal during acute panic states have already been obtained. This study aimed to systematically review the EEG findings in panic disorder (PD), discuss them having a currently accepted neuroanatomical hypothesis for this pathology as a basis, and identify limitations in the selected studies. Literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, using the keywords electroencephalography and panic disorder; 16 articles were selected. Despite the inconsistency of EEG findings in PD, the major conclusions about the absolute power of alpha and beta bands point to a decreased alpha power, while beta power tends to increase. Different asymmetry patterns were found between studies. Coherence studies pointed to a lower degree of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity at the frontal region and intra-hemispheric at the bilateral temporal region. Studies on possible related events showed changes in memory processing in PD patients when exposed to aversive stimuli. It was noticed that most findings reflect the current neurobiological hypothesis of PD, where inhibitory deficits of the prefrontal cortex related to the modulation of amygdala activity, and the subsequent activation of subcortical regions, may be responsible to trigger anxiety responses. We approached some important issues that need to be considered in further researches, especially the use of different methods for analyzing EEG signals.

  5. Finding the voice of clinical experience: participatory action research with registered nurses in developing a child critical care nursing curriculum.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Minette; Britton, Margretta; Clow, Sheila E

    2005-04-01

    The voice of clinical nurses is important to find and hear in the design of curricula. A participative action research project proposed to add this voice to the design of a new Critical Care Child Nursing programme at the University of Cape Town (UCT). Nurses' experiences of nursing critically ill children and their perceived learning needs in this context, were the central focus of the study. Participants were registered nurses working in the paediatric intensive care unit at the Red Cross Children's Hospital (a specialist hospital), which offers secondary and tertiary care in the Cape Town region and beyond. Data were gathered in five focussed group discussions. Findings indicate that the Critical Care Child Nurse needs not only a specialised knowledge base and acutely developed assessment skills, but also astute interpersonal skills. The nurse's professional identity and integration into the multidisciplinary team need exploring. Together with the development of interpersonal skills, the nurse needs to engage the child and family.

  6. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy☆

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  7. Peer assessment of aviation performance: inconsistent for good reasons.

    PubMed

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Mavin, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Research into expertise is relatively common in cognitive science concerning expertise existing across many domains. However, much less research has examined how experts within the same domain assess the performance of their peer experts. We report the results of a modified think-aloud study conducted with 18 pilots (6 first officers, 6 captains, and 6 flight examiners). Pairs of same-ranked pilots were asked to rate the performance of a captain flying in a critical pre-recorded simulator scenario. Findings reveal (a) considerable variance within performance categories, (b) differences in the process used as evidence in support of a performance rating, (c) different numbers and types of facts (cues) identified, and (d) differences in how specific performance events affect choice of performance category and gravity of performance assessment. Such variance is consistent with low inter-rater reliability. Because raters exhibited good, albeit imprecise, reasons and facts, a fuzzy mathematical model of performance rating was developed. The model provides good agreement with observed variations.

  8. Duplicates, redundancies and inconsistencies in the primary nucleotide databases: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingyu; Zobel, Justin; Verspoor, Karin

    2017-01-01

    GenBank, the EMBL European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA DataBank of Japan, known collectively as the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration or INSDC, are the three most significant nucleotide sequence databases. Their records are derived from laboratory work undertaken by different individuals, by different teams, with a range of technologies and assumptions and over a period of decades. As a consequence, they contain a great many duplicates, redundancies and inconsistencies, but neither the prevalence nor the characteristics of various types of duplicates have been rigorously assessed. Existing duplicate detection methods in bioinformatics only address specific duplicate types, with inconsistent assumptions; and the impact of duplicates in bioinformatics databases has not been carefully assessed, making it difficult to judge the value of such methods. Our goal is to assess the scale, kinds and impact of duplicates in bioinformatics databases, through a retrospective analysis of merged groups in INSDC databases. Our outcomes are threefold: (1) We analyse a benchmark dataset consisting of duplicates manually identified in INSDC-a dataset of 67 888 merged groups with 111 823 duplicate pairs across 21 organisms from INSDC databases - in terms of the prevalence, types and impacts of duplicates. (2) We categorize duplicates at both sequence and annotation level, with supporting quantitative statistics, showing that different organisms have different prevalence of distinct kinds of duplicate. (3) We show that the presence of duplicates has practical impact via a simple case study on duplicates, in terms of GC content and melting temperature. We demonstrate that duplicates not only introduce redundancy, but can lead to inconsistent results for certain tasks. Our findings lead to a better understanding of the problem of duplication in biological databases.Database URL: the merged records are available at https

  9. Duplicates, redundancies and inconsistencies in the primary nucleotide databases: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingyu; Zobel, Justin; Verspoor, Karin

    2017-01-01

    GenBank, the EMBL European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA DataBank of Japan, known collectively as the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration or INSDC, are the three most significant nucleotide sequence databases. Their records are derived from laboratory work undertaken by different individuals, by different teams, with a range of technologies and assumptions and over a period of decades. As a consequence, they contain a great many duplicates, redundancies and inconsistencies, but neither the prevalence nor the characteristics of various types of duplicates have been rigorously assessed. Existing duplicate detection methods in bioinformatics only address specific duplicate types, with inconsistent assumptions; and the impact of duplicates in bioinformatics databases has not been carefully assessed, making it difficult to judge the value of such methods. Our goal is to assess the scale, kinds and impact of duplicates in bioinformatics databases, through a retrospective analysis of merged groups in INSDC databases. Our outcomes are threefold: (1) We analyse a benchmark dataset consisting of duplicates manually identified in INSDC—a dataset of 67 888 merged groups with 111 823 duplicate pairs across 21 organisms from INSDC databases – in terms of the prevalence, types and impacts of duplicates. (2) We categorize duplicates at both sequence and annotation level, with supporting quantitative statistics, showing that different organisms have different prevalence of distinct kinds of duplicate. (3) We show that the presence of duplicates has practical impact via a simple case study on duplicates, in terms of GC content and melting temperature. We demonstrate that duplicates not only introduce redundancy, but can lead to inconsistent results for certain tasks. Our findings lead to a better understanding of the problem of duplication in biological databases. Database URL: the merged records are available at https

  10. Avoiding sedation in research MRI and spectroscopy in infants: our approach, success rate and prevalence of incidental findings.

    PubMed

    Gale, Christopher; Jeffries, Suzan; Logan, Karen Mary; Chappell, Karyn E; Uthaya, Sabita N; Modi, Neena

    2013-05-01

    Performing magnetic resonance investigations in a paediatric population can be difficult; image acquisition is commonly complicated by movement artefact and non-compliance. Sedation is widely used for clinically indicated investigations, but there is controversy when used for research imaging. Over a 10-year period we have performed whole body MRI on over 450 infants and hepatic magnetic resonance spectroscopy on over 270 infants. These investigations have been accomplished without the use of sedation in infants up to 3 months of age. Our overall success rate in achieving good quality images free of movement artefact is 94%. The prevalence of incidental findings on whole body (excluding brain) MRI in our cohort was 0.8%. We conclude that the use of sedation for research MRI in this group is not necessary. Our approach to MRI in infancy is also described.

  11. Impossible to _gnore: Word-Form Inconsistency Slows Preschool Children's Word-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined language acquisition under morphosyntactic or semantic inconsistency, but few have considered "word-form" inconsistency. Many young learners encounter word-form inconsistency due to accent variation in their communities. The current study asked how preschoolers recognize accent-variants of newly learned words.…

  12. The closed-mindedness that wasn’t: need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information

    PubMed Central

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is inconsistent with existing beliefs but instead they rely on category-based expectancies. The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information. Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information. Experiment 2 demonstrates that such information is also more likely to be used in judgment making, leading to judgmental moderation among high need-for-structure individuals. Experiments 3 and 4 used a person memory paradigm which requires categorical processing regardless of levels of need for structure. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that, whether expectancy-consistent or -inconsistent information is recalled better is a function of whether the majority of available information is compatible or incompatible with an initial category-based expectancy. Experiment 4 confirmed that the extent to which high need-for-structure individuals attend to different types of information varies with their distribution. The discussion highlights that task affordances have a critical influence on the consequences of categorical processing for memory and social judgment. Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness. PMID:26191017

  13. Development and Validation of Culture-Specific Variable Response Inconsistency and True Response Inconsistency Scales for Use with the Korean MMPI-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterer, Holly L.; Han, Kyunghee; Hur, Jaehong; Moon, Kyungjoo

    2010-01-01

    In response to the concern that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989; J. N. Butcher et al., 2001) Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) score invalidity criteria recommended for use with American samples results…

  14. The inconsistent mediating effects of psychosocial work characteristics on the education-health relationship.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hanyao; Bures, Regina; Shehan, Constance L

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and educational disparities in health. Informed by the evidence on the relationship between work pressure and higher education, we suggested reframing the distribution of psychosocial work characteristics in the context of education. We differentiated psychosocial work resources from demands and hypothesized that the inconsistent mediation effects of psychosocial resources and demands are associated with educational status. Using data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW), we found that psychosocial work resources and demands had inconsistent mediating effects on the education-health relationship. Higher educated employees were more likely to report autonomy, challenge and schedule control, but they were also more likely to experience overtime hours, job overload and work-family conflict. Work resources appeared to protect higher-educated workers from stress and health problems while work demands put them at risk of less favorable health outcomes. In addition we found that the 'costs' of psychosocial work demands were stronger among women, particularly those who were highly educated, suggesting that highly educated women did not reap the full health benefit of high educational attainment. Our findings illustrate that the observed positive associations between education and health mask important heterogeneity in the effects of psychosocial work characteristics. We discuss the implications of this study for health and family-based work policies.

  15. Sexual behavior, psychosocial and knowledge differences between consistent, inconsistent and non-users of condoms: a study of female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine K; Seage, George R; Sam, Noel E; Ao, Trong T H; Masenga, Elisante J; Hughes, Michael D; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2006-07-01

    Understanding psychosocial, sexual behavior and knowledge differences between never, inconsistent and consistent condom users can improve interventions to increase condom use in resource-poor countries, but they have not been adequately studied. We examined these differences in a cohort of 961 female hotel and bar workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Forty-nine percent of women reported no condom use; 39% reported inconsistent use, and 12% reported consistent use. Women with multiple sexual partners in the past five years were less likely to be consistent rather than inconsistent users as were women who had ever exchanged sex for gifts or money. Inconsistent users had higher condom knowledge and higher perceived acceptability of condom use than did never users, but they did not differ from consistent users by these factors. There are important differences between women by level of condom use. These findings can help inform interventions to increase condom use.

  16. Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyang; Ruan, Dan

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided

  17. Motivations, concerns and preferences of personal genome sequencing research participants: Baseline findings from the HealthSeq project

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Linderman, Michael D; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Diaz, George A; Zinberg, Randi E; Ferryman, Kadija; Wasserstein, Melissa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E

    2016-01-01

    Whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) is increasingly offered to ostensibly healthy individuals. Understanding the motivations and concerns of research participants seeking out personal WGS and their preferences regarding return-of-results and data sharing will help optimize protocols for WES/WGS. Baseline interviews including both qualitative and quantitative components were conducted with research participants (n=35) in the HealthSeq project, a longitudinal cohort study of individuals receiving personal WGS results. Data sharing preferences were recorded during informed consent. In the qualitative interview component, the dominant motivations that emerged were obtaining personal disease risk information, satisfying curiosity, contributing to research, self-exploration and interest in ancestry, and the dominant concern was the potential psychological impact of the results. In the quantitative component, 57% endorsed concerns about privacy. Most wanted to receive all personal WGS results (94%) and their raw data (89%); a third (37%) consented to having their data shared to the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Early adopters of personal WGS in the HealthSeq project express a variety of health- and non-health-related motivations. Almost all want all available findings, while also expressing concerns about the psychological impact and privacy of their results. PMID:26036856

  18. Climate change and human infectious diseases: A synthesis of research findings from global and spatio-temporal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lu; Gong, Peng

    2017-03-22

    The life cycles and transmission of most infectious agents are inextricably linked with climate. In spite of a growing level of interest and progress in determining climate change effects on infectious disease, the debate on the potential health outcomes remains polarizing, which is partly attributable to the varying effects of climate change, different types of pathogen-host systems, and spatio-temporal scales. We summarize the published evidence and show that over the past few decades, the reported negative or uncertain responses of infectious diseases to climate change has been growing. A feature of the research tendency is the focus on temperature and insect-borne diseases at the local and decadal scale. Geographically, regions experiencing higher temperature anomalies have been given more research attention; unfortunately, the Earth's most vulnerable regions to climate variability and extreme events have been less studied. From local to global scales, agreements on the response of infectious diseases to climate change tend to converge. So far, an abundance of findings have been based on statistical methods, with the number of mechanistic studies slowly growing. Research gaps and trends identified in this study should be addressed in the future.

  19. Motivations, concerns and preferences of personal genome sequencing research participants: Baseline findings from the HealthSeq project.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Linderman, Michael D; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Diaz, George A; Zinberg, Randi E; Ferryman, Kadija; Wasserstein, Melissa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E

    2016-01-01

    Whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) is increasingly offered to ostensibly healthy individuals. Understanding the motivations and concerns of research participants seeking out personal WGS and their preferences regarding return-of-results and data sharing will help optimize protocols for WES/WGS. Baseline interviews including both qualitative and quantitative components were conducted with research participants (n=35) in the HealthSeq project, a longitudinal cohort study of individuals receiving personal WGS results. Data sharing preferences were recorded during informed consent. In the qualitative interview component, the dominant motivations that emerged were obtaining personal disease risk information, satisfying curiosity, contributing to research, self-exploration and interest in ancestry, and the dominant concern was the potential psychological impact of the results. In the quantitative component, 57% endorsed concerns about privacy. Most wanted to receive all personal WGS results (94%) and their raw data (89%); a third (37%) consented to having their data shared to the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Early adopters of personal WGS in the HealthSeq project express a variety of health- and non-health-related motivations. Almost all want all available findings, while also expressing concerns about the psychological impact and privacy of their results.

  20. Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research - translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers' uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained from a research project in Myanmar, where results from epidemiological field investigations and intervention studies were 'translated' in an understandable manner to village communities. Rural chicken farmers were the central focus of this extension work and simple and sustainable methods to improve the health and production of scavenging chicken flocks were promoted. Unique extension materials transformed scientific outputs published in international journals into clear pictographic messages comprehendible by villagers, while maintaining country-specific, traditional, religious and public perspectives. Benefits, difficulties and pitfalls in using extension methods to communicate advice on preventive veterinary medicine measures in different cross-cultural settings are discussed and guidelines on how to distribute epidemiological research results to illiterate farmers are provided.

  1. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    DOE PAGES

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; ...

    2014-12-08

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content.more » This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO₂ given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m⁻²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m⁻²), where 3.7 W ⁻² denotes the forcing for doubled CO₂. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.« less

  2. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-12-08

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content. This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO₂ given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m⁻²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m⁻²), where 3.7 W ⁻² denotes the forcing for doubled CO₂. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.

  3. Classical Labeling of Bacterial Pathogens According to Their Lifestyle in the Host: Inconsistencies and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manuel T.

    2012-01-01

    An ample understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen will improve our ability to develop new prophylactic and therapeutic measures against infection. Precise classification of infectious agents in regards to their infective lifestyles in the host and corresponding pathogenic implications are required because clear concepts are essential to plan fruitful research. Classically, pathogenic bacteria are classified as extracellular, facultative intracellular, and obligate intracellular. In my opinion, this classification is inadequate because, as concluded from data here discussed, it is based on inconsistencies and hyper-valorizes the capacity of the infectious agent replicate in vitro in cell-free media. For a microbial pathogen, what matters is whether intra- or extracellularity is in the context of the in vivo life and in association with pathogenicity. When living as a pathogen in association with its host, what is relevant in microbiological terms is not the ability to grow in artificial cell-free bacteriological media or in environmental niches but whether the intracellular infectious agent, besides the phase of intracellular growth which is behind its label, also is able to live extracellularly in the natural settings of the extracellular territories of their hosts. To eliminate the inconsistencies associated with the classical labeling of bacterial pathogens, I propose that bacterial pathogens be labeled exclusive extracellular, dual intracellular/extracellular and exclusive intracellular based on their infective lifestyle in the host, not in the ability to grow in artificial bacteriological media. PMID:22393329

  4. Researching Expanded Notions of Learning and Work and Underemployment: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, D. W.

    2000-11-01

    The paper offers an analysis of the results of the first country-wide survey of the informal learning practices of adults in Canada, conducted in 1998. The survey was based on expanded conceptions of both learning (including informal learning and continuing education as well as schooling) and work (including community volunteer work and housework as well as paid employment). Respondents were found to be devoting unprecedented amounts of time to learning activities, including an average of 15 hours per week in informal learning projects. The patterns and interrelations of all of these dimensions of work and learning are summarized. Multiple dimensions of the underemployment of achieved learning in paid employment are briefly identified. The existence of widespread underemployment suggests that we are living in a knowledge society but not yet in a knowledge-based economy. The paper concludes with possible implications of the empirical research findings using these expanded conceptions of learning and work for policy and program initiatives.

  5. Reducing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) by Building Community Capacity: A Summary of Washington Family Policy Council Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Judy; Porter, Laura; Longhi, Dario; Becker-Green, Jody; Dreyfus, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Community capacity for organization and collaboration has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the health and well-being of communities. Since 1994 the Washington State Family Policy Council has supported the development of community capacity in 42 community public health and safety networks. Community networks bring local communities together to restructure natural supports and local resources to meet the needs of families and children, and increase cross-system coordination and flexible funding streams to improve local services and policy. In this study, researchers sought to demonstrate the strong impact of the community networks’ capacity to interrupt health and social problems. Findings suggest that community networks reduce health and safety problems for the entire community population. Further, community networks with high community capacity reduced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in young adults ages 18–34. PMID:22970785

  6. The Real Controversy about Child Sexual Abuse Research: Contradictory Findings and Critical Issues Not Addressed by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman in Their 1998 Outcomes Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Pamela Paradis; Whittenburg, John A.; Baker, Gail L.; Lemmey, Dorothy E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a review of all types of child sexual abuse research ignored by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman in their 1998 meta-analytic study. Eight major findings are addressed. Altogether these findings demonstrate the narrow focus of the meta-analysis. By restricting a broad meta-analysis to only some of the research and population in question,…

  7. Avoiding Failure for Australia's Digital Health Record: The Findings from a Rural E-Health Participatory Research Project.

    PubMed

    Almond, H; Cummings, E; Turner, P

    2016-01-01

    Low adoption and use of Australia's digital health record has driven the Australian Government to trial 'opt-out' registration from mid-June 2016. The assumption that automatic registration will increase use and thereby deliver benefit requires further investigation especially amongst those sections of the population in rural, regional, remote Australia living with complex chronic conditions. This paper reports on findings from a community based participatory e-health research project based on an initiative where people with complex chronic conditions and their carers attended a rural health promotion and lifestyle modification program. Through co-operative enquiry, health promotion officers and their clients were actively supported to adopt and use Australia's digital health record as an intervention. Simultaneously they were encouraged to reflect on its design and their perceptions of its overall impact on their individual ability to self-manage complex chronic conditions. The findings, ultimately contributing to a conceptual implementation and evaluation framework for Australia's digital health record that could directly avoid failure of the new 'opt-out' approach being adopted.

  8. Finding people who will tell you their thoughts on genomics-recruitment strategies for social sciences research.

    PubMed

    Middleton, A; Bragin, E; Parker, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper offers a description of how social media, traditional media and direct invitation were used as tools for the recruitment of 6,944 research participants for a social sciences study on genomics. The remit was to gather the views of various stakeholders towards sharing incidental findings from whole genome studies. This involved recruiting members of the public, genetic health professionals, genomic researchers and non-genetic health professionals. A novel survey was designed that contained ten integrated films; this was made available online and open for completion by anyone worldwide. The recruitment methods are described together with the convenience and snowballing sampling framework. The most successful strategy involved the utilisation of social media; Facebook, Blogging, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google Ads led to the ascertainment of over 75 % of the final sample. We conclude that the strategies used were successful in recruiting in eclectic mix of appropriate participants. Design of the survey and results from the study are presented separately.

  9. Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

    2011-01-01

    research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale. PMID:22048036

  10. Inconsistent handedness is linked to more successful foreign language vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J; Christman, Stephen D

    2009-06-01

    The study examined correlations between incidental learning of foreign words and interhemispheric connectivity, operationalized as consistency of hand preference, using pooled data of five experiments on adult foreign language learning (N = 242). Inconsistent hand preference was found to be positively correlated with vocabulary learning even after effects of cognitive variables (verbal working memory capacity and nonverbal IQ), identified previously as predictive of successful foreign-language vocabulary learning, were partialled out. This observed relationship between handedness consistency and vocabulary learning persisted when left-handed and right-handed individuals were analyzed separately, and there was no overall difference in performance between left- and right-handers. The findings confirm an association between degree of handedness and verbal episodic memory.

  11. Inconsistencies in emergency instructions on common household product labels.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, F Lee; Nordt, Sean Patrick; Krauss, Jamey R

    2013-10-01

    Human exposures to non-pharmaceutical products often results in serious injury and death annually in the United States. Studies performed more than 25 years ago described inadequate first aid advice on the majority of household products. The current study evaluates contemporary non-pharmaceutical products with respect to location, uniformity and type of their first aid and emergency contact instructions. A random, convenience sample of commercial product label information was obtained from local retail stores over an 8 month period. Twelve common non-pharmaceutical product categories, with large numbers of annual human exposures, were identified from National Poison Data Systems data. A minimum of 10 unique products for each category utilized. The following information identified: product name and manufacturer, location on container, presence and type of route-specific treatment, medical assistance referral information. A total of 259 product labels were examined. First aid/contact information was located on container: rear 162 (63 %), side 28 (11 %), front 3 (1 %), bottom 2 (0.77 %), behind label 14 (5 %), missing entirely 50 (19 %). Fifty-five products (21 %) lacked any first aid instructions. Suggested contacts for accidental poisoning: none listed 75 (29 %), physician 144 (56 %), poison control centers 102 (39 %), manufacturer 44 (17 %), "Call 911" 10 (4 %). Suggested contacts for unintentional exposure and content of first aid instructions on household products were inconsistent, frequently incomplete and at times absent. Instruction locations similarly lacked uniformity. Household product labels need to provide concise, accurate first aid and emergency contact instructions in easy-to-understand language in a universal format on product labels.

  12. Global Cue Inconsistency Diminishes Learning of Cue Validity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tony S. L.; Christie, Nicole; Howe, Piers D. L.; Little, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, we make decisions that are associated with probabilistic outcomes (e.g., the chance of rain today). People search for and utilize information that validly predicts an outcome (i.e., we look for dark clouds to indicate the possibility of rain). In the current study (N = 107), we present a two-stage learning task that examines how participants learn and utilize predictive information within a probabilistic learning environment. In the first stage, participants select one of three cues that gives predictive information about the outcome of the second stage. Participants then use this information to predict the outcome in stage two, for which they receive feedback. Critically, only one of the three cues in stage one gives valid predictive information about the outcome in stage two. Participants must differentiate the valid from non-valid cues and select this cue on subsequent trials in order to inform their prediction of the outcome in stage two. The validity of this predictive information, however, is reinforced with varying levels of probabilistic feedback (i.e., 75, 85, 95, 100%). A second manipulation involved changing the consistency of the predictive information in stage one and the outcome in stage two. The results show that participants, with higher levels of probabilistic feedback, learned to utilize the valid cue. In inconsistent task conditions, however, participants were significantly less successful in utilizing higher validity cues. We interpret this result as implying that learning in probabilistic categorization is based on developing a representation of the task that allows for goal-directed action. PMID:27891105

  13. Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Legro, Marcia W; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; Bowman, Candice; Curran, Geoffrey; Guihan, Marylou; Hagedorn, Hildi; Pineros, Sandra; Wallace, Carolyn M

    2006-01-01

    Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use or integrate other

  14. Procedural justice in punishment systems: inconsistent punishment procedures have detrimental effects on cooperation.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Gallucci, Marcello; Toeset, Gaby

    2008-06-01

    The current research examines a moderator who predicts in what situations punishment can have detrimental effects on cooperation. We hypothesized that when a punishment system is perceived as procedurally unfair, people's cooperation level decreases. Results of two experiments indicated that participants cooperated less in a group-based trust game when punishment was inconsistent between persons (i.e. not all group members would be punished for defection) than when punishment was consistent between persons (i.e. any group member who defected would be punished) or when there was no punishment. These effects were mediated by perceived belongingness. The authors conclude that an unfair punishment system leads people to feel marginalized as a group member, and this prompts them to display less cooperation.

  15. A Possible Explanation for the Z -R Parameter Inconsistency when Comparing Stratiform and Convective Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, John; Kasparis, Takis; Michaelides, Silas

    2016-04-01

    The well-known Z -R power law Z = ARb uses two parameters, A and b, in order to relate rainfall rate R to measured weather radar reflectivity Z. A common method used by researchers is to compute Z and R from disdrometer data and then extract the A-bparameter pair from a log-linear line fit to a scatter plot of Z -R pairs. Even though it may seem far more truthful to extract the parameter pair from a fit of radar ZR versus gauge rainfall rate RG, the extreme difference in spatial and temporal sampling volumes between radar and rain gauge creates a slew of problems that can generally only be solved by using rain gauge arrays and long sampling averages. Disdrometer derived A - b parameters are easily obtained and can provide information for the study of stratiform versus convective rainfall. However, an inconsistency appears when comparing averaged A - b pairs from various researchers. Values of b range from 1.26 to 1.51 for both stratiform and convective events. Paradoxically the values of Afall into three groups: 150 to 200 for convective; 200 to 400 for stratiform; and 400 to 500 again for convective. This apparent inconsistency can be explained by computing the A - b pair using the gamma DSD coupled with a modified drop terminal velocity model, v(D) = αDβ - w, where w is a somewhat artificial constant vertical velocity of the air above the disdrometer. This model predicts three regions of A, corresponding to w < 0, w = 0, and w > 0, which approximately matches observed data.

  16. A Possible Explanation for the Z-R Parameter Inconsistency when Comparing Stratiform and Convective Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John; Kasparis, Takis; Michaelides, Silas

    2016-01-01

    The well-known Z-R power law Z A R(sup b) uses two parameters, A and b, in order to relate rainfall rate R to measured weather radar reflectivity Z. A common method used by researchers is to compute Z and R from disdrometer data and then extract the A-b parameter pair from a log-linear line fit to a scatter plot of Z-R pairs. Even though it may seem far more truthful to extract the parameter pair from a fit of radar Z(sub R) versus gauge rainfall rate R(sub G), the extreme difference in spatial and temporal sampling volumes between radar and rain gauge creates a slew of problems that can generally only be solved by using rain gauge arrays and long sampling averages. Disdrometer derived A-b parameters are easily obtained and can provide information for the study of stratiform versus convective rainfall. However, an inconsistency appears when comparing averaged A-b pairs from various researchers. Values of b range from 1.26 to 1.51 for both stratiform and convective events. Paradoxically the values of A fall into three groups: 150 to 200 for convective; 200 to 400 for stratiform; and 400 to 500 again for convective. This apparent inconsistency can be explained by computing the A-b pair using the gamma DSD coupled with a modified drop terminal velocity model, v(D) alpha D(sup beta) - w, where w is a somewhat artificial constant vertical velocity of the air above the disdrometer. This model predicts three regions of A, corresponding to w less than 0, w = 0, and w greater than 0, which approximately matches observed data.

  17. Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility

  18. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  19. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use. Results On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09–2.86), self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79–5.67), self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35–4.17), illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65–10.09), and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07–8.12). Conclusions We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this

  20. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  1. Targeted intervention research studies on sexually transmitted diseases (STD): methodology, selected findings and implications for STD service delivery and communications.

    PubMed

    Field, M L; Price, J; Niang, C; N'tcha, J; Zwane, I T; Lurie, M; Nxumalo, M; Dialmy, A; Manhart, L; Gebre, A; Saidel, T; Dallabetta, G

    1998-01-01

    Targeted intervention research (TIR) studies were performed in five African countries (Senegal, Ethiopia, Benin, Morocco, and Swaziland) to improve the utilization of a community perspective in sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs. TIR, conducted by program managers with the aid of a multidisciplinary technical advisory group, examines factors at five levels of analysis (individual, social network, organization, community, and policy) through a variety of qualitative methods. The TIR studies indicated that patients' conceptions of normal versus abnormal health are fundamental to the process of interpreting symptoms and subsequently seeking care. The interpretation of STD symptoms varied across settings (e.g., vaginal lesions and discharge were considered signs of healing in Morocco and Benin), but increasing pain and discomfort were key triggers to seeking treatment. The concept of sexual transmission was blended with other causes such as violation of religious or moral codes, consumption of certain foods, and supernatural forces. Care-seeking tended to reflect an ordered yet loosely constructed process of elimination in pursuit of symptom relief, beginning with alternative regimens. Barriers to biomedical STD care included the need for husband's permission, costs, confidentiality concerns, long waits in public clinics, and fear of judgmental health provider attitudes. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of location-specific strategies aimed at increasing prompt care-seeking at qualified biomedical facilities.

  2. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions

    PubMed Central

    Schädler, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1–3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on

  3. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Schädler, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1-3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on

  4. [Transfer of research findings into the practice of rehabilitation and effects on the development and stabilization of the infrastructure of rehabilitation sciences--the pension insurance perspective].

    PubMed

    Klosterhuis, H; Zwingmann, C; Gerwinn, H

    2005-10-01

    The programme for research in rehabilitation has been established by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the German Pension Insurance scheme in 1998 to further develop the methodology in this field. In addition to other effects, the large number of projects has strengthened the research structure in Germany. An important aim of the programme is the transfer of the research findings into the practice of rehabilitation. The initiators also organize this transformation process in terms of a long-term task. The paper describes the transfer of findings in the topics selected by the Pension Insurance scheme: patient education, access to rehabilitation, and vocational orientation in medical rehabilitation. Furthermore, additional activities concerning the transfer are outlined. To improve the practice of rehabilitation by transferring research findings is of great importance for the Pension Insurance scheme.

  5. Competing Imaginations for Teaching and Learning: The Findings of Research into a Christian Approach to Teaching and Learning Called "What if Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooling, Trevor; Green, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    "What If Learning" is an approach to help teachers re-frame teaching and learning to support the Christian ethos of a school. This article presents the findings of research carried out with 14 teachers, in three state-funded church secondary schools in England. The findings provide an important insight into teachers' pedagogic practice.…

  6. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  7. Communication About Problematic Drinking Between Young Adults and their Parents: An Application of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 80% of college students drink, half of whom consume alcohol in the form of binge drinking. The current study applies Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory to examine the communication about excessive drinking that takes place between parents and their young adult children. Forty college students were asked to report on a moment or incident that led their parents to label their drinking as concerning and were then asked to report on how their parents acted towards the drinking before and after the moment of labeling. Interviews were transcribed and coded. The findings suggest that parents act with inconsistency when attempting to manage their children's drinking by enacting both reinforcing and punishing behaviors. Parents' reinforcing behaviors included drinking with their children and buying them alcohol, even after labeling the drinking as problematic. Parents' punishment behaviors included expressing concern about their children's sense of responsibility and making their children feel regretful about their drinking. Nearly 88% of the participants were able to recall the moment at which their parents labeled their drinking as problematic. Implications for using inconsistent messages in conversations about alcohol are discussed.

  8. The limits of early social evaluation: 9-month-olds fail to generate social evaluations of individuals who behave inconsistently.

    PubMed

    Steckler, Conor M; Woo, Brandon M; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2017-04-07

    Infant studies examining the development of the ability to evaluate others for their pro- and antisocial acts to date have explored how infants evaluate individuals who are either consistently prosocial or consistently antisocial. Yet in the real world, one regularly encounters individuals who behave inconsistently, engaging in multiple different kinds of behaviors that are variably prosocial and antisocial. In order to form accurate social evaluations of these inconsistently helpful and harmful individuals, then, evaluators must be able to aggregate across different types of behaviors and update previously formed evaluations based on new information. The current studies were designed to examine 9-month-old infants' social evaluations of characters who have displayed both prosocial and antisocial acts. Across three experiments using a previously utilized scenario for testing infants' preference for prosocial over antisocial others, infants repeatedly failed to prefer more- versus less-prosocial individuals when one of those individuals had previously acted both prosocially and antisocially, despite various attempts to facilitate responding across experiments. Notably, an additional experiment replicated infants' preference for consistently prosocial over consistently antisocial others. Together, findings from the current studies suggest that incorporating behavioral inconsistency into one's social evaluations may be especially difficult for infants in the first year.

  9. Photoelectron spectroscopy in heavy fermions: Inconsistencies with the Kondo model

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Blyth, R.R.; Canfield, P.C.; Thompson, J.D.; Bartlett, R.J.; Fisk, Z.; Lawrence, J.; Tang, J.; Riseborough, P.

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated a number of Ce and Yb heavy fermion compounds via photoelectron spectroscopy and compared the results to the predictions of the Imurity Anderson Hamiltonian within the Gunnarson-Schonhammer approach. For the low T{sub K} materials investigated we find little or no correlation with T{sub K}, the only parameter that can be determined independent of photoemission.

  10. 45 CFR 1151.5 - Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment... HANDICAP General Provisions § 1151.5 Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities. (a... complying with the regulation. For example, a music school receiving Endowment financial assistance...

  11. 45 CFR 1151.5 - Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment... HANDICAP General Provisions § 1151.5 Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities. (a... complying with the regulation. For example, a music school receiving Endowment financial assistance...

  12. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  13. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  14. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  15. Automated Generation of Node-splitting Models for Assessment of Inconsistency in Network Meta-analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Valkenhoef, Gert; Dias, Sofia; Ades, A. E.; Welton, Nicky J.

    2016-01-01

    Network meta-analysis enables the simultaneous synthesis of a network of clinical trials comparing any number of treatments. Potential inconsistencies between estimates of relative treatment effects are an important concern, and several methods to detect inconsistency have been proposed. This paper is concerned with the node-splitting approach,…

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of... and Translation of Contract (FEB 2000) In the event of inconsistency between any terms of...

  17. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of... and Translation of Contract (FEB 2000) In the event of inconsistency between any terms of...

  18. Recall of Information Separating Two Inconsistent Propositions: An Experimental Test of the "Cognitive Dumping" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Henry T., III

    A study investigated free recall of information bounded by internally inconsistent sentences compared to the same information in consistent text versions. Data were elicited from 40 undergraduate students enrolled in classes in educational psychology. Subjects were instructed to read one consistent and one inconsistent (containing two propositions…

  19. Report on Partial Findings of an Ongoing Research: Social Networking Sites (SNS) as a Platform to Support Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bt. Ubaidullah, Nor Hasbiah; Samsuddin, Khairulanuar; Bt. Fabil, Norsikin; Bt. Mahadi, Norhayati

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the partial findings of a survey that was carried out in the analysis phase of an ongoing research for the development of a prototype of a Social Networking Site (SNS) to support teaching and learning in secondary schools. For the initial phase of the study, a quantitative research method was used based on a survey involving 383…

  20. The Continuing Search to Find a More Effective and Less Intimidating Way to Teach Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature examining the teaching of research methods highlights difficulties students face when developing research competencies. Studies of student-centred teaching approaches have found increased student performance and improved confidence in undertaking research projects. To develop a student-centred approach, it could be beneficial…