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Sample records for incontinence inpatient procedures

  1. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... incontinence. Over time, the leakage may come back. Alternative Names ... Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education and Research. Update of AUA guideline on the ...

  2. Fecal incontinence in an inpatient population: a not uncommon finding.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brian T; Chepyala, Pavan; Hendon, Shane; Crowell, Michael D; Olden, Kevin W

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) in hospitalized patients was determined, as well as the frequency with which physicians query about FI. Using a standardized questionnaire, subjects admitted to general medicine services at three university hospitals were questioned about FI. Investigators also reviewed the subjects' charts to determine if presence or absence of FI was documented. One hundred ninety-nine patients were enrolled, and 46% (92/199) reported ongoing FI. Advanced age, looser stools, symptoms of fecal urgency, urinary incontinence, and history of forceps delivery were found to be potential predictors of FI. Only 6% (6/92) with FI had documentation of FI in the medical chart and only 3% (6/199) of the entire sample were queried about FI. Fecal incontinence is an extremely common condition in hospitalized patients. Physician history-taking is severely deficient in this area. Methods to improve FI detection in the hospitalized patient population need to be developed.

  3. Trends over time with commonly performed obstetric and gynecologic inpatient procedures.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Sallie S; Jones, Keisha A; Wang, Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Lowder, Jerry L

    2010-10-01

    To estimate trends over time in inpatient obstetric and gynecologic surgical procedures, and to estimate commonly performed obstetric and gynecologic surgical procedures across a woman's lifespan. Data were collected for procedures in adult women from 1979 to 2006 using the National Hospital Discharge Survey, a federal discharge dataset of U.S. inpatient hospitals, including patient and hospital demographics and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes for adult women from 1979 to 2006. Age-adjusted rates per 1,000 women were created using 1990 U.S. Census data. Procedural trends over time were assessed. More than 137 million obstetric and gynecologic procedures were performed, comprising 26.5% of surgical procedures for adult women. Sixty-four percent were only obstetric and 29% were only gynecologic, with 7% of women undergoing both obstetric and gynecologic procedures during the same hospitalization. Obstetric and gynecologic procedures decreased from approximately 5,351,000 in 1979 to 4,949,000 in 2006. Both operative vaginal delivery and episiotomy rates decreased, whereas spontaneous vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery rates increased. All gynecologic procedure rates decreased during the study period, with the exception of incontinence procedures, which increased. Common procedures by age group differed across a woman's lifetime. Inpatient obstetric and gynecologic procedures rates decreased from 1979 to 2006. Inpatient obstetric and gynecologic procedure rates are decreasing over time but still comprise a large proportion of inpatient surgical procedures for U.S. women. III.

  4. [Incontinence].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, J; Muñoz Bueno, A M; Guerrero Palmero, A; Segovia Gómez, T

    2007-12-01

    Incontinence presents an additional problem for a bedridden patient, among other reasons because incontinence increases the risk of perineal dermatitis. Recently evaluation scales have been drawn up which permit evaluating the effects incontinence provokes on the integrity of the skin and new products have been developed which act as non-irritating barriers and which permit professionals to visually inspect the affected area. These new products increase the arsenal of already known products and tools such as bed pans, catheters, etc. which professionals have at their disposal to control incontinence.

  5. Markov chain decision model for urinary incontinence procedures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Ghildayal, Nidhi; Ghildayal, Neha

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common chronic health condition, a problem specifically among elderly women that impacts quality of life negatively. However, UI is usually viewed as likely result of old age, and as such is generally not evaluated or even managed appropriately. Many treatments are available to manage incontinence, such as bladder training and numerous surgical procedures such as Burch colposuspension and Sling for UI which have high success rates. The purpose of this paper is to analyze which of these popular surgical procedures for UI is effective. Design/methodology/approach This research employs randomized, prospective studies to obtain robust cost and utility data used in the Markov chain decision model for examining which of these surgical interventions is more effective in treating women with stress UI based on two measures: number of quality adjusted life years (QALY) and cost per QALY. Treeage Pro Healthcare software was employed in Markov decision analysis. Findings Results showed the Sling procedure is a more effective surgical intervention than the Burch. However, if a utility greater than certain utility value, for which both procedures are equally effective, is assigned to persistent incontinence, the Burch procedure is more effective than the Sling procedure. Originality/value This paper demonstrates the efficacy of a Markov chain decision modeling approach to study the comparative effectiveness analysis of available treatments for patients with UI, an important public health issue, widely prevalent among elderly women in developed and developing countries. This research also improves upon other analyses using a Markov chain decision modeling process to analyze various strategies for treating UI.

  6. [Urinary stress incontinence in the female: comparison of incontinence theories and new tension-free surgical procedures].

    PubMed

    Perucchini, D; Fink, D

    2002-01-01

    Urethral sphincter competence involves a complicated inter action of many factors which act in concert. Stress incontinence occurs due to damage to the urethral support and loss or deterioration of urethral sphincter function as a consequence of delivery or aging. Recent research indicates that a more integrated, comprehensive view regarding the different structures, both inside and outside the urethra, is needed to explain the mechanism of incontinence. According to the theories of de Lancey, urinary stress incontinence is caused by defects in the supporting tissues that both actively and passively stabilize the urethra in its correct anatomical position. The integral theory of Petros and Ulmstein explains how laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments may cause stress incontinence favored by laxity in the ligamentous insertion points of the vagina. Colposuspension procedures have dominated incontinence surgery for the last 50 years. The introduction of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure was a real innovation that has challenged our understanding of the continence mechanism and taught us the importance of the midurethra. Different modifications of the tension-free procedures have been introduced recently and are discussed in this paper.

  7. Voiding trial outcome following pelvic floor repair without incontinence procedures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Won, Sara; Haviland, Miriam J.; Bargen, Emily Von; Hacker, Michele R.; Li, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Our aim was to identify predictors of postoperative voiding trial failure among patients who had a pelvic floor repair without a concurrent incontinence procedure in order to identify low-risk patients in whom postoperative voiding trials may be modified. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent pelvic floor repair without concurrent incontinence procedures at two institutions from 1 November 2011 through 13 October 2013 after abstracting demographic and clinical data from medical records. The primary outcome was postoperative retrograde voiding trial failure. We used modified Poisson regression to calculate the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI). Results Of the 371 women who met eligibility criteria, 294 (79.2 %) had complete data on the variables of interest. Forty nine (16.7%) failed the trial, and those women were less likely to be white (p = 0.04), more likely to have had an anterior colporrhaphy (p = 0.001), and more likely to have had a preoperative postvoid residual (PVR) ≥150 ml (p = 0.001). After adjusting for race, women were more likely to fail their voiding trial if they had a preoperative PVR of ≥150 ml (RR: 1.9; 95 % CI: 1.1–3.2); institution also was associated with voiding trial failure (RR: 3.0; 95 % CI: 1.6–5.4). Conclusions Among our cohort, postoperative voiding trial failure was associated with a PVR of ≥150 ml and institution at which the surgery was performed. PMID:26886553

  8. Inpatient procedures in elderly women: an analysis over time.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Sallie S; Ghetti, Chiara; McGough, Richard L; Wang, Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Lowder, Jerry L

    2013-08-01

    To describe inpatient surgical and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures in women ≥65 years old and assess procedure trends over time. Procedure data for all women ≥65 years was collected using the National Hospital Discharge Survey, a federal dataset drawn from a representative sampling of U.S. inpatient hospitals which includes patient and hospital demographics and ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes for admissions from 1979 to 2006. Age-adjusted rates (AAR) per 1000 women were created using 1990 U.S. Census data to compare trends over time. Over 96 million procedures were performed in women age≥65 years from 1979 to 2006. Women age≥65 years constituted 17% of women with ≥1 inpatient procedure in 1979, rising to 32% in 2006. The most common surgical procedures were lower extremity joint replacement, open reduction internal fixation, and cholecystectomy. The most common concurrent diagnosis was femoral neck fracture. Women with femoral neck fracture were more likely to undergo open reduction internal fixation compared to joint replacement. AARs for ORIF fell from 4.3 to 3.2 (p=.02) from 1979 to 2006, while AARs for joint replacement increased from 0.2 to 3.4 (p≤.001, 1979-1988; p=.14, 1990-2006). The rate of women age≥65 years undergoing inpatient procedures has increased dramatically in the last 30 years. Hip fracture was the most common diagnosis for elderly women, highlighting the impact of osteoporosis and falls and the importance of prevention strategies and optimization of peri-operative care in this population. Further comparative study of hip fracture treatment strategies in this population is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 42 CFR 416.75 - Performance of listed surgical procedures on an inpatient hospital basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... inpatient hospital basis. 416.75 Section 416.75 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... procedures on an inpatient hospital basis. The inclusion of any procedure as a covered surgical procedure under § 416.65 does not preclude its coverage in an inpatient hospital setting under Medicare. ...

  10. 42 CFR 416.75 - Performance of listed surgical procedures on an inpatient hospital basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... inpatient hospital basis. 416.75 Section 416.75 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... procedures on an inpatient hospital basis. The inclusion of any procedure as a covered surgical procedure under § 416.65 does not preclude its coverage in an inpatient hospital setting under Medicare. ...

  11. 42 CFR 416.75 - Performance of listed surgical procedures on an inpatient hospital basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... inpatient hospital basis. 416.75 Section 416.75 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... procedures on an inpatient hospital basis. The inclusion of any procedure as a covered surgical procedure under § 416.65 does not preclude its coverage in an inpatient hospital setting under Medicare. ...

  12. Effect of pregnancy and delivery on urinary incontinence after the midurethral sling procedure.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Ozer, Irfan; Erkilinc, Selcuk; Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Doganay, Melike

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the continence status and to reveal the optimal delivery mode of women who had an infant after application of a midurethral sling to treat stress urinary incontinence. Between January 2007 and January 2013, 12 women who delivered an infant after application of a midurethral sling were detected and demographic data, type of MUS, interval between MUS and delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight of the newborn, complications during pregnancy, and continence status after delivery were collected. Between 2000 and 2014, in 14 articles listed in Pubmed, the data of 54 patients who had delivered after successful midurethral sling application were included. Postpartum recurrence of urinary incontinence was evaluated according to delivery type in 54 patients. Mean age of 12 patients at the time of MUS was 33.1 ± 4.3 years old and the interval between MUS procedure and pregnancy was 30.2 ± 14.2 months. Four patients had a transvaginal tape (TVT; 33.3%) and 8 had transobturator tape (TOT) procedure (66.7%) and mean follow-up after MUS surgery was 52 ± 12.3 months. Seven women had cesarean section (CS; 58.3%) and 5 women delivered vaginally (41.7%). Nine women were continent during pregnancy (75%) and 10 were continent after delivery (83.3%). Among 54 women who were included in the review, 28 underwent CS (51.9%), 26 women delivered vaginally (48.1%), and 11 women had postpartum incontinence (20.3%). In the case of postpartum urinary incontinence, there was no statistically significant difference between the CS and vaginal delivery groups (14.3 vs 26.9% respectively, p = 0.32). In logistic regression, incontinence during pregnancy was a risk factor for postpartum incontinence (OR:5.5; 95% CI: 1.1-27.6, p = 0.036). Risk of postpartum SUI recurrence in women who underwent application of midurethral slings seems to be similar independent of delivery mode and incontinence during pregnancy may be a risk factor for postpartum incontinence.

  13. 42 CFR 416.75 - Performance of listed surgical procedures on an inpatient hospital basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inpatient hospital basis. 416.75 Section 416.75 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... on an inpatient hospital basis. The inclusion of any procedure as a covered surgical procedure under § 416.65 does not preclude its coverage in an inpatient hospital setting under Medicare. ...

  14. 42 CFR 416.75 - Performance of listed surgical procedures on an inpatient hospital basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inpatient hospital basis. 416.75 Section 416.75 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... on an inpatient hospital basis. The inclusion of any procedure as a covered surgical procedure under § 416.65 does not preclude its coverage in an inpatient hospital setting under Medicare. ...

  15. Risk factors for mesh erosion after vaginal sling procedures for urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Kokanali, M K; Doğanay, M; Aksakal, O; Cavkaytar, S; Topçu, H O; Özer, İ

    2014-06-01

    To identify risk factors for mesh erosion in women undergoing vaginal sling procedures for urinary incontinence with synthetic meshes, and to estimate the incidence of mesh erosion after these procedures. Retrospective study of women who underwent vaginal sling procedures between January 2007 and January 2013. In total, 1439 consecutive women with stress urinary incontinence were investigated. Five hundred and sixty-six (39.3%) women underwent a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure and 873 (60.7%) women underwent a transobturator tape (TOT) procedure. All procedures were performed using meshes of the same type and size. Women who experienced mesh erosion were defined as cases, and women who were not re-admitted or identified with mesh erosion during the study period were defined as controls. Demographics, operative techniques and outcomes were taken from medical records. Multivariate regression identified the odds of mesh erosion. Sixty-one of 1439 (4.2%) women were found to have mesh erosion in the postoperative period: 41 (67.2%) after TOT procedures and 20 (32.8%) after TVT procedures. The rate of mesh erosion was 4.7% in the TOT group and 3.5% in the TVT group, and this difference was significant (p<0.05). Mean age, body mass index, current smoking, menopausal status and diabetes mellitus were significantly higher among cases than controls. Univariate analysis showed that length of vaginal incision >2 cm, recurrent vaginal incision for postoperative complications, and previous pelvic organ prolapse or incontinence surgery were significant risk factors for erosion. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that older age, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, length of vaginal incision >2 cm, recurrent vaginal incision for postoperative complications, and previous pelvic organ prolapse or incontinence surgery were independent risk factors for mesh erosion. Mesh erosion following vaginal sling procedures is a frustrating complication with relatively low incidence. It

  16. 42 CFR 412.434 - Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. 412.434 Section 412.434 Public Health... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.434 Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. (a) An inpatient psychiatric facility...

  17. 42 CFR 412.434 - Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. 412.434 Section 412.434 Public Health... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.434 Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. (a) An inpatient psychiatric facility...

  18. 42 CFR 412.434 - Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. 412.434 Section 412.434 Public Health... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.434 Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. (a) An inpatient psychiatric facility...

  19. Increasing costs of urinary incontinence among female Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Anger, Jennifer T; Saigal, Christopher S; Madison, Rodger; Joyce, Geoffrey; Litwin, Mark S

    2006-07-01

    We measured the financial burden of urinary incontinence in the United States from 1992 to 1998 among women 65 years old or older. We analyzed Medicare claims for 1992, 1995 and 1998 and estimated spending on the treatment of urinary incontinence. Total costs were stratified by type of service (inpatient, outpatient and emergency department). Costs of urinary incontinence among older women nearly doubled between 1992 and 1998 in nominal dollars, from $128 million to $234 million, primarily due to increases in physician office visits and ambulatory surgery. The cost of inpatient services increased only slightly during the period. The increase in total spending was due almost exclusively to the increase in the number of women treated for incontinence. After adjusting for inflation, per capita treatment costs decreased about 15% during the study. This shift from inpatient to outpatient care likely reflects the general shift of surgical procedures to the outpatient setting, as well as the advent of new minimally invasive incontinence procedures. In addition, increased awareness of incontinence and the marketing of new drugs for its treatment, specifically anticholinergic medication for overactive bladder symptoms, may have increased the number of office visits. While claims based Medicare expenditures are substantial, they do not include the costs of pads or medications and, therefore, underestimate the true financial burden of incontinence on the aging community.

  20. [Postoperative evaluation of different surgical procedures in genuine stress urinary incontinence: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Colorado, S; Pérez-Soriano, P; Alvarez-Mercado, R L; Herbert, A; Kunhardt-Rasch, J

    1996-06-01

    An evaluation of the surgical treatment for stress and mixed urinary incontinence and pelvic relaxation. One-year follow-up, was done. A retrospective study with 144 files from the surgeries performed between February 1993 and June 1994, at the Clínica de Urología Ginecológica del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología. We excluded 37 files because of incomplete information. The age, parity, hormonal stage, preoperative diagnosis by urodynamic studies, surgical treatments and one-year follow-up were analyzed. The mean age was 45.5 years. Pereyra procedure was performed in 53, Burch procedure in 47, anterior colporrhaphy in 5, and sling procedure in 2 patients. The incidence of complications was similar between the different groups. Resumption of spontaneous postsurgical voiding was delayed in the Pereyra group. The Burch urethropexy and Pereyra procedures were equally effective, with no statistical differences observed. Burch vaginal suspension was not more effective for the correction of urinary stress incontinence than Pereyra procedure.

  1. [Analysis of complications of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure for surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Broś, Magdalena; Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Kornacki, Piotr

    2003-09-01

    The most common types of urinary incontinence in women are stress, urge and mixed incontinence. Stress urinary incontinence may be caused by an urethral hypermobility and internal sphincter deficiency (ISD). There are over 100 different surgical procedure for the treatment of female stress incontinence. Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is a new anti-incontinence surgical technique which was first described by Ulmsten in 1996. The aim of the study was to evaluate the complications of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for the surgical treatment of female stress incontinence. The study group was consisted of 162 women, aged 32-84. All patients had a basic evaluation that included a history, frequency/volume chart, questionnaire of micturition (self-made), physical examination, stress test, Bonney test, urinalysis and bacterial culture of urine. Women with mixed urinary incontinence and who underwent surgical treatment of SUI in the past had been done urodynamic investigation. The operation was carried out under epidural, subarachnoid and general anesthesia. The TVT procedure was performed as described by Ulmsten. The follow-up was done after 1 day, 1 and 3 and 6 months since the operation. Among complications related to the procedure were 11 cases of cystotomy, 5 cases of urinary retention requiring four days catheterization, 3 cases of bleeding from the vagina, 14 cases of detrusor instability de novo. In 4 cases occurred postoperative obstinate pain. In 4 cases occurred recurrent urinary tract infection. None complication required invasive treatment. No evidence of defect healing or rejection of the tape was found. We conclude that the TVT procedure is safe method of the surgical treatment of urinary stress incontinence associated with a low complications.

  2. Evaluation of endoscopic laser excision of polypropylene mesh/sutures following anti-incontinence procedures.

    PubMed

    Davis, N F; Smyth, L G; Giri, S K; Flood, H D

    2012-11-01

    We reviewed our experience with and outcome of the largest series to our knowledge of patients who underwent endoscopic laser excision of eroded polypropylene mesh or sutures as a complication of previous anti-incontinence procedures. A total of 12 female patients underwent endoscopic laser excision of suture/mesh erosions at 1 center during a 10-year period. Primary outcome variables were the requirement of additional endoscopic or open surgery to remove mesh/sutures. Secondary outcome variables were persistence of urinary symptoms, postoperative complications, continence status and requirement of additional anti-incontinence procedures. The mean interval from previous surgery to erosion was 59 months (range 7 to 144) and the duration of presenting symptoms ranged from 3 to 84 months (mean 19). Ten patients underwent endoscopic excision of the mesh/suture with the holmium:YAG laser and 2 underwent excision with the thulium laser. Mean operative duration was 19 minutes (range 10 to 25) and followup was 65.5 months (range 6 to 134). Postoperatively 6 patients remain asymptomatic and 2 required a rectus fascial sling for recurrent stress urinary incontinence. Four patients underwent a second endoscopic excision due to minor persistence of erosion. Only 1 patient ultimately required open cystotomy to remove the eroded biomaterial. No intraoperative complications were recorded and all patients are currently asymptomatic. Endoscopic laser excision is an acceptable first line approach for the management of eroded biomaterials due to its high long-term success rate and minimally invasive nature. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of vaginal extrusion after tension-free vaginal tape procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Giri, Subhasis K; Sil, Debasri; Narasimhulu, Girish; Flood, Hugh D; Skehan, Mark; Drumm, John

    2007-06-01

    To report our experience in the management of vaginal extrusion after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence. Five patients diagnosed with vaginal extrusion after a TVT procedure performed at our institution were identified. We reviewed the patients' records retrospectively. The interval from TVT placement to diagnosis, presenting symptoms and signs, duration of symptoms, diagnostic test findings, treatment, and postoperative results were recorded. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months. From January 2001 to June 2004, a total of 166 patients underwent the TVT procedure. Of these, 5 patients (3%) were diagnosed with isolated vaginal extrusion 4 to 40 months postoperatively. No cases of urethral or bladder erosion occurred in this series. The symptoms included vaginal discharge, pain, bleeding, and dyspareunia. The eroded margin of the vaginal mucosa was trimmed, mobilized, and closed over the tape with interrupted vertical mattress sutures in a single layer using 2-0 polyglactin 910 to avoid mucosal inversion. All patients remained symptom free without any evidence of defective healing or additional extrusion at a minimal follow-up of 12 months. Primary reclosure of the vaginal mucosa over the TVT tape is an effective first-line treatment option for vaginal extrusion without compromising continence. Patients undergoing the TVT procedure should be adequately counseled about the possibility of this complication and the available treatment options.

  4. The dorsal nerve of the clitoris in relation to urinary incontinence sling procedures.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, Sonè; van Wijk, Frans J; Abdool, Zeelha; Oettlé, Anna C

    2017-01-01

    To avoid injury to the perineal branches of the pudendal nerve during urinary incontinence sling procedures, a thorough knowledge of the course of these nerve branches is essential. The dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) may be at risk when performing the retropubic (tension-free vaginal tape) procedure as well as the inside-out and outside-in transobturator tape procedures. The purpose of this study was to identify the anatomical relationships of the DNC to the tapes placed during the procedures mentioned and to determine the influence of body variations. In this cadaveric study, the body mass index (cBMI) of unembalmed cadavers was determined. Suburethral tape procedures were performed by a registered urologist and gynecologist on a sample of 15 female cadavers; six retropubic, seven inside-out and nine outside-in transobturator tapes were inserted. After embalmment, dissections were performed and the distances between the DNC and the tapes measured. In general the trajectory of the outside-in tape was closer to the DNC than that of the other tapes. cBMI was weakly and nonsignificantly correlated with the distance between the trajectory of the tape and the DNC for the inside-out tape and the tension-free vaginal tape, but not for the outside-in tape. The findings suggest that the DNC is less likely to be injured during the inside-out tape procedure than during the outside-in procedure, regardless of BMI. Future studies on larger samples are desirable to confirm these findings.

  5. Effects of laser procedure for female urodynamic stress incontinence on pad weight, urodynamics, and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yi-Wen; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Lee, Chien-Nan; Lin, Ho-Hsiung

    2017-03-01

    The impact of the IncontiLase(TM) procedure on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of the IncontiLase(TM) procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). All consecutive women with USI prospectively underwent the IncontiLase(TM) procedure. Urodynamic studies, pad testing, LUTS, and sexual function questionnaires were assessed before and after treatment. Thirty-five women underwent the IncontiLase(TM) procedure. Among the 28 women with baseline pad weights >1 g, 11 (39.3 %) were objectively cured and 11 (39.3 %) improved. Among the 18 women with mild USI (i.e., baseline pad weight 1-10 g), nine (50 %) were cured and five (27.8 %) improved. Among ten women with baseline pad weight >10 g, two (20 %) were cured and six (60 %) improved. Among the 32 women with complete questionnaire data at 6 months, seven (21.9 %) were subjectively cured, and four (12.5 %) improved. Regarding LUTS, the majority of domains on the King's Health Questionnaire and female sexual desire and function exhibited significant improvements. Forty percent (12/30) of the partners of these patients felt their sexual function had improved at 6 months. Nonetheless, urodynamic values did not differ across the timeline. The effect of the IncontiLase(TM) procedure for mild USI was moderate at 6-month follow-up but was not effective for pad weight >10 g. Moreover, it improved LUTS, quality of life, QoL, and sexual function of both partners. Further studies should be performed to assess long-term sustained efficacy.

  6. Comparison of the Bologna and Ingelman-Sundberg procedures for stress incontinence associated with genital prolapse: prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Debodinance, P; Querleu, D

    1993-11-01

    It is difficult to make a choice among the many surgical procedures designed for the correction of stress urinary incontinence by the vaginal route because their results have not been correctly compared. The Bologna (B) operation uses two flaps from the anterior vaginal wall that are anchored to the abdominal wall; the Ingelman-Sundberg (IS) operation is a suburethral sling made from two transplants from the pubococcygeus muscle. A prospective randomized study has been carried out in order to compare these two procedures. A selection of cases has been based upon the presence of genuine or potential stress incontinence, genital prolapse and available tissues (anterior vaginal wall excess and palpable pubococcygeus muscles) for both procedures. No significant difference was noted for clinical results (91.7% and 93.7% of patients cured by the B and IS operations, respectively) or for transmission rate gain at 3 months and 1 year. Maximum urethral closing pressure was maintained in both treatment arms. No significant postoperative complication or persistent dysuria occurred. The Bologna procedure is best indicated in case of frank anterior vaginal excess, and the Ingelman-Sundberg procedure when strong anterior parts of pubococcygeus muscles are available. Both are excellent in the cure of stress incontinence associated with genital prolapse.

  7. Impact of the tension-free vaginal tape obturator procedure on sexual function in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Song, Yanfeng; Huang, Huijuan

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate prospectively the impact of the tension-free vaginal tape obturator (TVT-O) procedure on sexual function in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The present prospective study included women with SUI and no concomitant prolapse who underwent a TVT-O procedure at Fuzhou General Hospital in Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Before and 6 months after surgery, the patients had their sexual function evaluated using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Only sexually active women were included in the final analysis. Among the 55 sexually active patients, 21.8% had coital incontinence, which was cured in 11 of 12 patients (91.7%). More than half (54.5%) the women reported an improvement in sexual function after surgery and 45.5% reported no change. No statistically significant difference was found between preoperative and postoperative total or domain (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) scores on the FSFI. The TVT-O procedure in women with SUI did not significantly affect sexual function. Further studies are needed to verify the findings and compare the impact of TVT-O on sexual function with that of other anti-incontinence procedures. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  9. Endoscopic holmium laser excision of intravesical tension-free vaginal tape and polypropylene suture after anti-incontinence procedures.

    PubMed

    Giri, Subhasis K; Drumm, John; Flood, Hugh D

    2005-10-01

    We report on our technique of endoscopic excision of intravesical tension-free vaginal tape procedure and polypropylene sutures using the holmium laser following various anti-incontinence procedures. Three patients who previously underwent the tension-free vaginal tape, Burch colposuspension and Stamey vesicopexy, respectively, presented with a range of symptoms including hematuria, recurrent urinary tract infection, frequency, urgency and urinary incontinence. Patients were evaluated with history and examination, and all 3 were found to have nonabsorbable intravesical material. There was obvious encrustation over the eroded polypropylene material within the bladder. A 365 microm tip firing holmium laser fiber was inserted through the working channel of the flexible cystoscope. The tape and sutures were successfully excised using a holmium laser output of 1.0 J per pulse at a rate of 10 Hz. Mean operative time was 15 minutes. Holmium laser excision of intravesical polypropylene tape or suture is a minimally invasive solution to the problem of intravesical perforation or erosion following anti-incontinence procedures.

  10. Impact of a bedside procedure service on general medicine inpatients: A firm-based trial.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Brian P; Asbury, Joseph K; Wang, Yue; Lee, Kuenok; Kumapley, Rudolf; Mba, Benjamin; Borkowsky, Shane; Asmar, Abdo

    2007-05-01

    Procedure services may improve the training of bedside procedures. However, little is known about how procedure services may affect the demand for and success of procedures performed on general medicine inpatients. Determine whether a procedure service affects the number and success of 4 bedside procedures (paracentesis, thoracentesis, lumbar puncture, and central venous catheterization) attempted on general medicine inpatients. Prospective cohort study. Large public teaching hospital. Nineteen hundred and forty-one consecutive admissions to the general medicine service. A bedside procedure service was offered to physicians from 1 of 3 firms for 4 weeks. This service then crossed over to physicians from the other 2 firms for another 4 weeks. Data on all procedure attempts were collected daily from physicians. We examined whether the number of attempts and the proportion of successful attempts differed based on whether firms were offered the beside procedure service. The number of procedure attempts was 48% higher in firms offered the service (90 versus 61 per 1000 admissions; RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.10; P = .030). More than 85% of the observed increase was a result of procedures with therapeutic indications. There were no differences between firms in the proportions of successful attempts or major complications. The availability of a procedure service may increase the overall demand for bedside procedures. Further studies should refine the indications for and anticipated benefits from these commonly performed invasive procedures. (c) 2007 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. 42 CFR 405.1206 - Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital care. 405.1206 Section 405.1206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Hospital Discharges § 405.1206 Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care. (a... expedited determination by the QIO when a hospital (acting directly or through its utilization review...

  12. 42 CFR 405.1206 - Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospital care. 405.1206 Section 405.1206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Hospital Discharges § 405.1206 Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care. (a... expedited determination by the QIO when a hospital (acting directly or through its utilization review...

  13. 42 CFR 405.1206 - Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospital care. 405.1206 Section 405.1206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Hospital Discharges § 405.1206 Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care. (a... expedited determination by the QIO when a hospital (acting directly or through its utilization review...

  14. 42 CFR 405.1206 - Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospital care. 405.1206 Section 405.1206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Hospital Discharges § 405.1206 Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care. (a... expedited determination by the QIO when a hospital (acting directly or through its utilization review...

  15. 42 CFR 405.1206 - Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospital care. 405.1206 Section 405.1206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Hospital Discharges § 405.1206 Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care. (a... expedited determination by the QIO when a hospital (acting directly or through its utilization review...

  16. Frequency and variety of inpatient pediatric surgical procedures in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sømme, Stig; Bronsert, Michael; Morrato, Elaine; Ziegler, Moritz

    2013-12-01

    Pediatric surgical procedures are being performed in a variety of hospitals with large differences in surgical volume. We examined the frequency and variety of inpatient pediatric surgical procedures in the United States by hospital type and geographic region using a nationally representative sample. The 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database for patients <18 years old was used to calculate surgical frequencies by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, (ICD-9-CM) codes. We performed stratified analysis by hospital type (free-standing children's hospital, children's unit within an adult hospital, and general hospital) and geographic region (South, West, Midwest, Northeast) to compare frequencies of surgical procedures. A total of 216 081 procedures were projected for 2009 with the top 20 procedures accounting for >90% of cases. As many as 40% of all pediatric inpatient surgical procedures are being performed in adult general hospitals. Infrequent complex low-volume neonatal surgical procedures (pullthrough for Hirschsprung disease, surgery for malrotation, esophageal atresia repair, and diaphragmatic hernia repair) were 6.8 to 16 times more likely to occur in a children's hospital. Significant regional variation in procedure frequency rates occurred for appendectomy and cholecystectomy. This report is the first to characterize pediatric surgical inpatient volume in the United States. Such data may influence the distribution of pediatric surgeons, number of trainees, and training curricula for pediatric surgeons, pediatricians, general surgeons and other surgical specialists who might operate on children. In addition, it raises the question of whether complex pediatric surgical procedures should preferably be performed at dedicated high volume children's hospitals.

  17. Complications Following Common Inpatient Urological Procedures: Temporal Trend Analysis from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christian P; Hollis, Michael; Cole, Alexander P; Hanske, Julian; O'Leary, James; Gupta, Soham; Löppenberg, Björn; Zavaski, Mike E; Sun, Maxine; Sammon, Jesse D; Kibel, Adam S; Fisch, Margit; Chun, Felix K H; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2016-04-01

    Measuring procedure-specific complication-rate trends allows for benchmarking and improvement in quality of care but must be done in a standardized fashion. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified all instances of eight common inpatient urologic procedures performed in the United States between 2000 and 2010. This yielded 327218 cases including both oncologic and benign diseases. Complications were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Each complication was cross-referenced to the procedure code and graded according to the standardized Clavien system. The Mann-Whitney and chi-square were used to assess the statistical significance of medians and proportions, respectively. We assessed temporal variability in the rates of overall complications (Clavien grade 1-4), length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality using the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) linear regression methodology. We observed an overall reduction in length of stay (EAPC: -1.59; p<0.001), whereas mortality rates remained negligible and unchanged (EAPC: -0.32; p=0.83). Patient comorbidities increased significantly over the study period (EAPC: 2.09; p<0.001), as did the rates of complications. Procedure-specific trends showed a significant increase in complications for inpatient ureterorenoscopy (EAPC: 5.53; p<0.001), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (EAPC: 3.75; p<0.001), radical cystectomy (EAPC: 1.37; p<0.001), radical nephrectomy (EAPC: 1.35; p<0.001), and partial nephrectomy (EAPC: 1.22; p=0.006). Limitations include lack of postdischarge follow-up data, lack of pathologic characteristics, and inability to adjust for secular changes in administrative coding. In the context of urologic care in the United States, our findings suggest a shift toward more complex oncologic procedures in the inpatient setting, with same-day procedures most likely shifted to the outpatient setting. Consequently, complications have increased for the majority of

  18. The artificial urinary sphincter and male sling for postprostatectomy incontinence: Which patient should get which procedure?

    PubMed Central

    Dobberfuhl, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Surgery is the most efficacious treatment for postprostatectomy incontinence. The ideal surgical approach depends on a variety of patient factors including history of prior incontinence surgery or radiation treatment, bladder contractility, severity of leakage, and patient expectations. Most patients choose to avoid a mechanical device, opting for the male sling over the artificial urinary sphincter. The modern male sling has continued to evolve with respect to device design and surgical technique. Various types of slings address sphincteric incompetence via different mechanisms of action. The recommended surgery, however, must be individualized to the patient based on degree of incontinence, detrusor contractility, and urethral compliance. A thorough urodynamic evaluation is indicated for the majority of patients, and the recommendation for an artificial urinary sphincter, a transobturator sling, or a quadratic sling will depend on urodynamic findings and the patient's particular preference. As advancements in this field evolve, and our understanding of the pathophysiology of incontinence and mechanisms of various devices improves, we expect to see continued evolution in device design. PMID:26966721

  19. Ten-Year Followup after Tension-Free Vaginal Tape-Obturator Procedure for Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Daniela; Tammaa, Ayman; Hölbfer, Susanne; Trutnovsky, Gerda; Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Tamussino, Karl; Aigmüller, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Suburethral tapes are a standard surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence. The aim of the study was to evaluate subjective and objective cure rates 10 years after a tension-free vaginal tape-obturator procedure. All 124 patients who underwent the tension-free vaginal tape-obturator procedure at a total of 2 centers in 2004 and 2005 were invited for followup. Objective cure was defined as a negative cough stress test at 300 ml. Subjects completed KHQ (King's Health Questionnaire), IOQ (Incontinence Outcome Questionnaire), FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index Questionnaire) and PGI-I (Patient Global Impression of Improvement). Overall, 55 of 112 women (49%) who were alive were available for clinical examination and 71 (63%) completed the questionnaires. The objective cure rate in the 55 women examined clinically was 69%, 22% were not cured and 9% (5) had undergone reoperation for recurrent or persistent stress urinary incontinence. Treatment was counted as having failed in these 5 women for study purposes. Subjective cure was reported by 45 of 71 women (64%). Three patients (5%) had vaginal tape extrusion at the time of clinical examination. Extrusion in all of them was small and asymptomatic, and did not require treatment for a cumulative extrusion rate of 7%. Six women (9%) had undergone reoperation for tension-free vaginal tape-obturator associated complications and 18 (26%) experienced de novo overactive bladder. Subjective and objective cure rates 10 years after the tension-free vaginal tape-obturator procedure were 69% and 64%, respectively. The vaginal extrusion rate in this study was slightly higher than in other series but major long-term complications appeared to be rare. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  1. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  2. Preoperative maximal flow rate may be a predictive factor for the outcome of tension-free vaginal tape procedure for stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Paick, Jae-Seung; Kim, Soo Woong; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Oh, Seung-June; Son, Hwancheol; Park, Jae Young

    2004-01-01

    This study examined factors potentially predicting on the outcome of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure for stress urinary incontinence. A total of 60 women (aged 35-71 years, mean 57) with at least follow-up of 2 years were included in the study. The tension-free vaginal tape procedure was performed under local anesthesia except in two patients. At the latest follow-up 50 (83.3%) were cured of stress urinary incontinence. Two patients had new-onset urge symptoms without urge incontinence episodes. Multivariate regression analysis showed maximal flow rate to be associated with 0.9-fold risk of the failure; no other parameters had statistical significance. Our results confirm the feasibility and safety of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure and demonstrate that preoperative low maximal flow rate may be associated with the failure of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure.

  3. Recurrence rate of stress urinary incontinence in females with initial cure after transobturator tape procedure at 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Taeyong; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Woo; Bae, Jungbum

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess recurrence rates of urinary incontinence in women with initial cure after transobturator tape (TOT) procedure at 3-year follow-up. Materials and Methods Between June 2006 and May 2013, a total of 402 consecutive patients underwent the TOT procedure for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) at Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital. Of the 402 patients, 223 had sufficient medical records for analysis. Therefore, they were followed-up for 3 years postoperatively. Patient characteristics, urinary symptoms, physical examination, and urodynamic parameters were evaluated. The primary end point of “cure” was defined as the absence of any complaint of urinary leakage without needing pads for usual activities. Results Of the 223 patients, 196 patients (87.9%) were initially cured within 6 months postoperatively. Of the 196 patients, 70 (35.7%) had recurrent urinary incontinence at 3 years postoperatively, 51 (26.0%) had SUI, 16 (8.2%) had urgency urinary incontinence, and 3 (1.5%) had mixed urinary incontinence. In univariate analysis, preoperative urinary obstructive symptom was found to significant contributor to the recurrence of urinary incontinence at 3-year postoperatively (p=0.004). Conclusions In our study, 35.7% of the women with initial cure after TOT experienced the recurrence of urinary leakage during the 3-year follow-up. The cure rate of TOT was decreased as time went by, although the initial cure rate was high. PMID:28097269

  4. Tension-free vaginal tape procedure for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence with intrinsic sphincter deficiency: short-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kuntay Kokanali, M; Cavkaytar, S; Onur Topçu, H; Ceran, U; Aksakal, O; Doğanay, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of tension-free vaginal tape procedures in female stress urinary incontinence with intrinsic sphincter deficiency, and to identify possible effective factors for cure rate of this treatment. Forty-nine women who underwent tension-free vaginal tape procedures due to urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence with intrinsic sphincter deficiency were included in this study. All women were followed up at 6 months postoperatively. Outcomes were evaluated by cough/Valsalva stress test, incontinence-related quality of life forms (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and Urogenital Distress Inventory). Procedure-related complications were noted. Multivariable regression was used to identify the odds for poor surgical outcome. In 49 patients, postoperative quality of life scores decreased significantly as compared with preoperative scores. Forty-one (83.7%) patients were found as cured, while 3 (6.1%) women were in failure. The complaints decreased in 5 (10.2%) women, postoperativeley. Low maximal urethral clossure pressure measured by urodynamics was found as a significant effective factor for poor surgical outcome. Tension-free vaginal tape is an effective minimal invasive surgical procedure with low complication incidence for female stress urinary incontinence with intrinsic sphincter deficiency in short term. However, intrinsic sphincter deficiency patients with low maximal urethral closure pressure should be informed preoperatively about possible poor outcomes.

  5. Radiofrequency remodelling of the endopelvic fascia is not an effective procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sharif I M F

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of transvaginal radiofrequency remodelling of the endopelvic fascia as a primary procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence due to urethral hypermobility in women. It included 24 patients who had the procedure at two district general hospitals. Outcome measures included the pad test, urodynamic assessment, continence diary, pain scores and operative as well as post-operative complications and assessment was made on recruitment during hospital admission and at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up. A rising failure rate was noted as early as 3 months, leading to a cumulative cure rate of 45.8% at 12 months follow-up. This low effectiveness could be attributed to inherent weakness of the endopelvic fascia. No major complications were encountered and pain scores were mild.

  6. Therapeutic Efficacy of a New Procedure for Male Urinary Incontinence Combining a Suburethral Polypropylene Mesh and Cardiovascular Patch

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in men is a complication secondary to prostatectomy or resulting from neurological lesions. This study presents our experiences with male suburethral slings over the past decade. Methods In this study, we considered patients who presented with SUI and were diagnosed with an intrinsic sphincteric deficiency due to postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI) or other causes (non-PPI). Patients who underwent the suburethral sling procedure using a polypropylene mesh and a cardiovascular patch were retrospectively included. An urodynamic study was performed before and after the operation. Global response assessment (GRA) and SUI grading were used for surgical outcome. The revision rate and the infection rate were also evaluated. Results A total 31 patients were enrolled in this study; the mean patient age was 59.5±18.9 years, and the mean follow-up period was 36.9±29.4 months. Fourteen patients comprised the non-PPI group and 17 were in the PPI group. The preoperative SUI of all patients were categorized as a moderate to severe problem according to the SUI grade, with a mean score of 2.32±0.48 before the operation and 0.48±0.57 after the operation. With a mean score of 2.35±0.71, GRA showed that the patients were satisfied with the treatment. After the sling procedure, 4 patients (13%) reported a mild improvement, 12 (38.7%) a moderate improvement, while 15 (48.4%) reported an excellent improvement. Six patients (19.4%), including 5 from the non-PPI group (35.7%) and 1 (5.9%) from the PPI group (P=0.037), underwent sling removal because of infection. Conclusions The male suburethral sling procedure using a polypropylene mesh and a cardiovascular patch is a safe, efficacious, and inexpensive surgical procedure for PPI. In cases of neurological incontinence, however, the higher infection rate in non-PPI patients means that they should be carefully managed. PMID:28361511

  7. Correlation of persistent stress urinary incontinence with quality of life after suspension procedures: is continence the only decisive postoperative criterion of success?

    PubMed

    Filbeck, T; Ullrich, T; Pichlmeier, U; Kiel, H J; Wieland, W F; Roessler, W

    1999-08-01

    To determine objective continence rates and to include in the evaluation subjective assessment of continence and quality of life by the affected patients and correlate these with the objective continence rates in a retrospective study. One hundred thirty-three female patients in our clinic underwent suspension procedures for stress urinary incontinence, 68 undergoing a Burch colposuspension and 65 a Raz bladder neck suspension. The continence rate was evaluated by questionnaire and compared with patients' postoperative self-assessment of continence and pre- and postoperative quality of life assessments. For the 105 women returning evaluable questionnaires (57 Burch and 48 Raz procedure), the continence rate was 69.5% (75.4% in the Burch group, 60.4% in the Raz group). Mild incontinence requiring 1 to 2 sanitary pads daily was found in 19.3% of the Burch group and 31.3% of the Raz group. Moderate incontinence requiring 3 to 5 pads daily was found in 5.3% of the Burch and 8.3% of the Raz group. No patients had severe incontinence (more than 5 pads daily). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in postoperative quality of life. Despite persistent incontinence, the satisfaction rate was comparable to that of continent patients. The results show that in addition to objective parameters, subjective assessment of quality of life is a factor that should be included in the postoperative evaluation of surgical results.

  8. A Proximal Straining Mesh Location Is Associated With De Novo Stress Urinary Incontinence After Transobturator Mesh Procedures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chen; Yang, Jenn-Ming

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between mesh location and de novo stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after transvaginal mesh procedures. We retrospectively analyzed a database of women who had received transvaginal mesh procedures for stage III or greater cystocele according to the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system. Only data for women who neither reported SUI preoperatively nor had received concomitant anti-incontinence surgery were included for analyses. The mesh location was investigated by sonography via the percentage of the urethra covered by mesh, defined as the number calculated by dividing the portion of the urethral length covered by mesh (the distance from the bladder neck to the point of the urethra, which was indicated by an imaginary line at the level of the lower [caudal] mesh end and perpendicular to the urethra) by the total urethral length (the distance from the bladder neck to the external urethral meatus) in the sagittal plane. The resting, straining, coughing, and squeezing mesh locations of women who did (n = 29) and did not (n = 54) report SUI at the 12-month follow-up were compared. At the 12-month follow-up, women who reported SUI had a significantly smaller straining percentage of the urethra covered by mesh (mean ± SD, 28.5% ± 9.6%) compared with continent women (35.2% ± 15.8%), indicating a more proximal straining mesh location. Sonography is useful in investigating the location of the transvaginal mesh. De novo SUI after transvaginal mesh procedures is associated with a more proximal straining mesh location. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. An inexpensive modified transobturator vaginal tape inside-out procedure for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinliang; Li, Huaifang; Fan, Bozhen; Yang, Xiang; Tong, Xiaowen

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a modified transobturator vaginal tape inside-out (TVT-O) procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) using custom-tailored polypropylene mesh and helical needles. A 1x15-cm mesh made from the Gynemesh is positioned without tension under the mid-urethra using custom-made helical needles through the obturator. The procedure was carried out in 80 consecutive patients (mean age 65.0+/-13.2 years). The mean operative time was 15 min (range 6-22 min). All patients had a follow-up visit at 1 year after surgery. Of the 80 patients, 75 (93.68%) were cured, and 5 (6.2%) were improved; no failure occurred. No bladder or urethral injuries and no vascular or neurological complications were encountered. Our modified TVT-O procedure is a simple, safe, efficacious, and economic surgical procedure for SUI. The technique avoids damage to the urethra and bladder. The promising results are currently under evaluation.

  10. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to restrict your activities and limit your social interactions Increase the risk of falls in older adults ... increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. ...

  11. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  12. The tension-free transvaginal tape procedure in the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence: a French prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Soulié, M; Cuvillier, X; Benaïssa, A; Mouly, P; Larroque, J M; Bernstein, J; Soulié, R; Tollon, C; Brucher, P; Vazzoler, N; Seguin, P; Pontonnier, F; Plante, P

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate in a prospective multicentre study (five centres) the preliminary results regarding efficacy and morbidity of the new tension-free transvaginal tape (TVT) technique in the treatment of urinary stress incontinence (USI) in women. From November 1996 to May 1999, 52 women of mean age 64 (range 37--91) years underwent the TVT procedure to treat isolated grade 2 or 3 USI (44 cases) or grade 1 or 2 USI associated with uterine or rectal prolapse surgery (8 cases). Twenty-nine patients (55.8%) presented recurrent USI (1--4 previous procedures). Clinical data showed urethrovesical junction hypermobility in 35 cases (67.3%), isolated intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) in 17 cases (32.6%) and pelvic organ prolapse in 8 cases. Urodynamics confirmed ISD in 27 cases (51.9%) with a mean urethral closure pressure of 18.5 (range 7--25) cm H(2)O. All data were collected by surgeons on a questionnaire. The surgical procedure was performed under spinal cord anaesthesia in 82.7% of patients (local anaesthesia 11.5%) with a mean operation time of 30 (range 20--60) min for TVT implantation. Six bladder injuries (11.5%) were identified and the needle was repositioned. Mean hospital stay was 2.5 (range 1-7) days in the group who underwent TVT alone. Mean follow-up of continence was 15.2 (range 6--36) months: 83% of patients were dry and 17% were improved. Nine patients (17.3%) required self-catheterization for 2--10 days postoperatively. No recurrence of USI, defect healing or tape rejection were reported. TVT is a new technique for the surgical treatment of USI which is useful for recurrent cases. The advantages are simplicity, low morbidity, reproducibility and reduced operative time. These early results indicate the technique is effective in correcting incontinence and is locally well tolerated. But these are preliminary data and the long-term outcome on USI and the urethra is needed.

  13. An Evaluation of the Effects of the Transobturator Tape Procedure on Sexual Satisfaction in Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence Using the Libido Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Narin, Raziye; Nazik, Hakan; Narin, Mehmet Ali; Aytan, Hakan; Api, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis. Most women experience automatic urine leakage in their lifetimes. SUI is the most common type in women. Suburethral slings have become a standard surgical procedure for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence when conservative therapy failed. The treatment of stress urinary incontinence by suburethral sling may improve body image by reducing urinary leakage and may improve sexual satisfaction. Methods. A total of 59 sexually active patients were included in the study and underwent a TOT outside-in procedure. The LSS was applied in all patients by self-completion of questionnaires preoperatively and 6 months after the operation. General pleasure with the operation was measured by visual analogue score (VAS). Pre- and postoperative scores were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Results. Two parameters of the LSS, orgasm and who starts the sexual activity, increased at a statistically significant rate. Conclusion. Sexual satisfaction and desire have partially improved after the TOT procedure. PMID:24288621

  14. A Content Incontinent: Report of Liposomal Bupivacaine Induced Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Proper surgical management of anal fistula demands sound clinical judgment and extraordinary care to prevent incontinence and adequate postoperative pain control and provide satisfactory resolution to optimize quality of life. Fecal incontinence can be a devastating complication of procedures performed for fistula in ano. We report a unique case in which temporary incontinence (for less than 4 days) followed injection of liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative pain control after draining seton placement for fistula in ano. Patients and physicians should be aware as it may be mistaken for a more serious anatomical and permanent cause of fecal incontinence. PMID:27747127

  15. Utilization of apical vaginal support procedures at time of inpatient hysterectomy performed for benign conditions: a national estimate.

    PubMed

    Ross, Whitney Trotter; Meister, Melanie R; Shepherd, Jonathan P; Olsen, Margaret A; Lowder, Jerry L

    2017-10-01

    Apical vaginal support is considered the keystone of pelvic organ support. Level I evidence supports reestablishment of apical support at time of hysterectomy, regardless of whether the hysterectomy is performed for prolapse. National rates of apical support procedure performance at time of inpatient hysterectomy have not been well described. We sought to estimate trends and factors associated with use of apical support procedures at time of inpatient hysterectomy for benign indications in a large national database. The National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample was used to identify hysterectomies performed from 2004 through 2013 for benign indications. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to select both procedures and diagnoses. The primary outcome was performance of an apical support procedure at time of hysterectomy. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed. There were 3,509,230 inpatient hysterectomies performed for benign disease from 2004 through 2013. In both nonprolapse and prolapse groups, there was a significant decrease in total number of annual hysterectomies performed over the study period (P < .0001). There were 2,790,652 (79.5%) hysterectomies performed without a diagnosis of prolapse, and an apical support procedure was performed in only 85,879 (3.1%). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of hysterectomies with concurrent apical support procedure (high of 4.0% in 2004 to 2.5% in 2013, P < .0001). In the multivariable logistic regression model, increasing age, hospital type (urban teaching), hospital bed size (large and medium), and hysterectomy type (vaginal and laparoscopically assisted vaginal) were associated with performance of an apical support procedure. During the study period, 718,578 (20.5%) inpatient hysterectomies were performed for prolapse diagnoses and 266,743 (37.1%) included an apical support procedure. There was a significant increase in the proportion

  16. A real-world comparative assessment of complications following various mid-urethral sling procedures for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Magee, Glenn; Roy, Sanjoy; Hinoul, Piet; Moretz, Chad; Kozarev, Roumen; Waters, Heidi; Whitmore, Kristene

    2012-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence affects a significant proportion of the adult female population in the United States with prevalence increasing with growing age. Mid-urethral slings are among surgical options offering important improvement in the condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes of different mid-urethral sling products with respect to postsurgery complications. This retrospective study utilized data from the Premier Perspective Database for mid-urethral sling procedures between 2005 and 2009. Patients were grouped into retropubic or transobturator cohorts, and these cohorts were further divided by the sling utilized during the procedure. Surgical outcomes and 12-month complication rates were assessed. In general, there were fewer complications noted for transobturator procedures than for retropubic procedures. In the retropubic category, Gynecare TVT had significantly lower rates of urinary obstruction/retention than other retropubic procedures. In the transobturator category, lower rates of overall pelvic complications as well as urologic complications, including urgency incontinence and urinary tract infections, were observed in the Gynecare TVTO subgroup than other transobturator procedures. Results of this study confirm the low overall rate of complications for midurethral sling procedures while at the same time suggesting that product choice may also have an impact on complication rates.

  17. [Urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Incontinence is a common age-dependent and increasing problem in women that may mainly present as stress incontinence, overactive bladder, mixed incontinence or other forms. A thorough history, gynaecological and neurological examination and urinalysis as initial step will lead to the diagnosis and treatment. If midstream urine is difficult to receive, a catheter urine will be easy to obtain. Further investigations as urodynamics, cystoscopy and ultrasound may be required. As initial step, stress incontinence should be treated with physiotherapy and pelvic floor exercises, if not successful with operations as suburethral slings. Slings have good long-term success rates of approximately 85 % with a low morbidity and can even be inserted under local anaesthetic. The treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder consists of bladder training, a behavioural therapy, and mainly anticholinergics. Anticholinergics may cause side effects particularly in the elderly who are under several medications that may add anticholinergic effects as antidepressants, antibiotics or antihistaminics.

  18. Fecal Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Fecal Incontinence Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  19. Short-term effect of TVT-SECUR procedure on quality of life and sexual function in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang; Zhu, Lan; Zhong, Wen; Li, Bin; Lang, Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether patient quality of life and sexual function are improved after the tension-free vaginal tape SECUR (TVT-S) procedure (H-type). Prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Single-center hospital. Thirty-three women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (high urethral mobility) and no concomitant pelvic floor prolapse underwent TVT-S between October 2009 and October 2011. TVT-S procedure. Before and after surgery(6 and 12 months), all patients completed the Chinese version of the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL). In addition, 28 sexually active patients who underwent the TVT-S procedure completed the short-form Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-12) before and after surgery (6 and 12 months). We used a paired t test to compare I-QOL scores before and after surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the preoperative and postoperative PISQ scores. The objective cure rate was 78% (26 of 33 patients) at 12 months after surgery. The objective improvement rate was 12.1% (4 of 33 patients). The subjective satisfaction rate was 90%. Three operations (9.1%) were considered failures. Two patients underwent a TVT procedure after TVT-S because of recurrence. No patients reported severe pain; the mean (SD) visual analog scale pain score was 1.8 (1.2) after surgery. Only 1 patient (3%) was found to have sling erosion at 12 months postoperatively. The I-QOL score was 28.3 (14.2) before surgery and increased to 69.5 (18.9) at 12 months after the TVT-S procedure. The I-QOL score improved significantly after surgery (p <.001). The total PISQ-12 score at 6 months after surgery in all sexually active patients was 33.82 (0.87), compared with 31.57 (1.20) before surgery (p <.05). Physical domain scores on the PISQ-12 demonstrated significant improvement, increasing from 12.61 (0.75) to 14.36 (0.49) (p <.05). No significant difference was found between I-QOL and PISQ-12

  20. A comperative study for short-term surgical outcomes of midurethral sling procedures in obese and non-obese women with stress urinary incontinence().

    PubMed

    Kokanalı, Mahmut Kuntay; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanalı, Demet; Aksakal, Orhan; Doganay, Melike

    2016-11-01

    There is little data comparing the surgical outcomes of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and transobturator tape (TOT) procedures in obese women. Therefore, we aimed to compare the surgical outcomes of TOT and TVT procedures among obese women with a diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). One hundred and eighty-nine women who underwent TVT or TOT procedures due to pure SUI were included. Women in whom the body mass index (BMI) was ≥30 kg/m(2) were considered as obese, while <30 kg/m(2) were non-obese. And women with BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) was defined as morbidly obese. At sixth month postoperative follow-up, neither the comparison of TVT and TOT results in obese women nor the comparison of TVT or TOT results between obese and non-obese women showed any significant differences in terms of objective and subjective cure rates, quality of life improvements, or intra/postoperative complications. TVT and TOT procedures also have similar effectiveness among morbidly obese women. We have concluded that TVT and TOT operations seem to be equally effective and safe surgical treatment procedures for female SUI regardless of BMI.

  1. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel movement. A child who is constipated may soil his or her underpants. Soiling happens when liquid ... Incontinence and Aging Managing Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  2. Nursing home status is an independent risk factor for adverse 30-day postoperative outcomes after common, nonemergent inpatient procedures.

    PubMed

    Caldararo, Mario D; Stein, David E; Poggio, Juan L

    2016-08-01

    Nursing home residents undergoing surgery have a higher rate of postoperative adverse outcomes than nonnursing home patients. This study seeks to determine what contribution nursing home status makes to theses occurrences, independent of comorbid conditions. Using the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, the 30-day postoperative outcomes of the 5 commonest nonemergent inpatient procedures performed on nursing home residents were compared with those in nonnursing home residents using logistic regression analysis. Nursing home status was found to be an independent risk factor for septic complications in all procedures, for blood transfusion requirement after lower leg amputation, for pneumonia and stroke/cerebrovascular accident after thromboendarterectomy, and for mortality after partial colectomy with primary anastomosis. These data suggest that, in addition to serving as a surrogate indicator of health status and current morbidity, residence in a nursing home makes an independent contribution to adverse postoperative outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  4. Current Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer Y; Abbas, Maher A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the management of fecal incontinence, which affects more than 1 in 10 people and can have a substantial negative impact on quality of life. Methods: The medical literature between 1980 and April 2012 was reviewed for the evaluation and management of fecal incontinence. Results: A comprehensive history and physical examination are required to help understand the severity and type of symptoms and the cause of incontinence. Treatment options range from medical therapy and minimally invasive interventions to more invasive procedures with varying degrees of morbidity. The treatment approach must be tailored to each patient. Many patients can have substantial improvement in symptoms with dietary management and biofeedback therapy. For younger patients with large sphincter defects, sphincter repair can be helpful. For patients in whom biofeedback has failed, other options include injectable medications, radiofrequency ablation, or sacral nerve stimulation. Patients with postdefecation fecal incontinence and a rectocele can benefit from rectocele repair. An artificial bowel sphincter is reserved for patients with more severe fecal incontinence. Conclusion: The treatment algorithm for fecal incontinence will continue to evolve as additional data become available on newer technologies. PMID:24355892

  5. Does Preoperative Urodynamic Testing Improve Surgical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing the Transobturator Tape Procedure for Stress Urinary Incontinence? A Prospective Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Sudheer; Patnaik, Pranab; Shaw, Dipak; Jain, Madhu; Trivedi, Sameer; Dwivedi, Udai Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Urodynamic studies are commonly performed as part of the preoperative work-up of patients undergoing surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We aimed to assess the extent to which these urodynamic parameters influence patient selection and postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods Patients presenting with SUI were randomly assigned to two groups: one undergoing office evaluation only and the other with a preoperative urodynamic work-up. Patients with unfavorable urodynamic parameters (detrusor overactivity [DO] and/or Valsalva leak point pressure [VLPP]<60 cm H2O and/or maximum urethral closure pressure [MUCP]<20 cm H2O) were excluded from the urodynamic testing group. All patients in both groups underwent the transobturator midurethral sling procedure. Evaluation for treatment success (reductions in urogenital distress inventory and incontinence impact questionnaire scoring along with absent positive stress test) was done at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Results A total of 72 patients were evaluated. After 12 patients with any one or more of the abnormal urodynamic parameters were excluded, 30 patients were finally recruited in each of the "urodynamic testing" and "office evaluation only" groups. At both the 6- and the 12-month follow-ups, treatment outcomes (reduction in scores and positive provocative stress test) were significantly better in the urodynamic testing group than in the office evaluation only group (p-values significant for all outcomes). Conclusions Our findings showed statistically significantly better treatment outcomes in the urodynamic group (after excluding those with poor prognostic indicators such as DO, low VLPP, and MUCP) than in the office evaluation only group. We recommend exploiting the prognostic value of these urodynamic parameters for patient counseling and treatment decisions. PMID:25512817

  6. Does preoperative urodynamic testing improve surgical outcomes in patients undergoing the transobturator tape procedure for stress urinary incontinence? A prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Abhinav; Rathi, Sudheer; Patnaik, Pranab; Shaw, Dipak; Jain, Madhu; Trivedi, Sameer; Dwivedi, Udai Shankar

    2014-12-01

    Urodynamic studies are commonly performed as part of the preoperative work-up of patients undergoing surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We aimed to assess the extent to which these urodynamic parameters influence patient selection and postoperative outcomes. Patients presenting with SUI were randomly assigned to two groups: one undergoing office evaluation only and the other with a preoperative urodynamic work-up. Patients with unfavorable urodynamic parameters (detrusor overactivity [DO] and/or Valsalva leak point pressure [VLPP]<60 cm H2O and/or maximum urethral closure pressure [MUCP]<20 cm H2O) were excluded from the urodynamic testing group. All patients in both groups underwent the transobturator midurethral sling procedure. Evaluation for treatment success (reductions in urogenital distress inventory and incontinence impact questionnaire scoring along with absent positive stress test) was done at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. A total of 72 patients were evaluated. After 12 patients with any one or more of the abnormal urodynamic parameters were excluded, 30 patients were finally recruited in each of the "urodynamic testing" and "office evaluation only" groups. At both the 6- and the 12-month follow-ups, treatment outcomes (reduction in scores and positive provocative stress test) were significantly better in the urodynamic testing group than in the office evaluation only group (p-values significant for all outcomes). Our findings showed statistically significantly better treatment outcomes in the urodynamic group (after excluding those with poor prognostic indicators such as DO, low VLPP, and MUCP) than in the office evaluation only group. We recommend exploiting the prognostic value of these urodynamic parameters for patient counseling and treatment decisions.

  7. Improving outcomes using German Inpatient Quality Indicators in conjunction with peer review procedures.

    PubMed

    Mansky, Thomas; Völzke, Tatjana; Nimptsch, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Some hospital comparisons seem to generate confusion because different methods of outcome comparisons lead to different results in hospital rankings. This article questions the concept of overall comparisons of hospitals, which are multiproduct enterprises and may have specialties that provide good results in some areas despite having worse outcomes in others. Therefore, the authors argue for a disease specific view of outcome measurement. The concept of the German Inpatient Quality Indicators is explained. These indicators cover volume, mortality, and other information by a disease specific approach, which includes information for potential patients as well as specific feedback to the physicians responsible for the respective specialty. This article focuses on the feedback to the hospitals and explains how these indicators can be used for improvement in conjunction with a peer review process. The indicators provide information to the hospitals regarding their relative position because German reference values are available for all indicators. Thus, the indicators can serve as a trigger instrument for identifying possible quality problems. Based on these indications, peer review can be used to analyze the treatment processes and to eventually verify weaknesses and define actions for improvement. The first studies indicate that the use of this approach within hospital quality management can largely improve hospital outcomes in hospitals with subpar results compared to the German average.

  8. [Tethered tape or the fourth factor. A new cause of recurrent stress incontinence after midurethral tape procedures vaginal tape insertion].

    PubMed

    Kociszewski, J; Fabian, G; Grothey, S; Viereck, V; Füsgen, I; Wiedemann, A

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report of a newly identified cause of recurrent stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after midurethral tape insertion. This article reports a series of cases with primary or secondary tape failure including clinical presentation and findings, the results of pelvic floor (PF) ultrasound, and the (surgical) correction of malpositioned vaginal tapes. A vaginal tape for treating SUI must be accurately placed under the mid-third of the urethra and at a distance of 3-5 mm from the urethra. Alignment parallel to the urethra in the urethrovaginal septum is also essential for adequate function. A tethered tape refers to the adhesion of a tape edge to the anterior vaginal wall either during primary wound closure or due to secondary ingrowths and is typically associated with recurrent SUI during activities or changes in posture. Less common is SUI through an increase in pressure from cranially, which occurs when coughing or laughing. "Vaginal polyps" may point to imminent vaginal erosion of the tape. In the sagittal plane, the PF examination will identify an oblique orientation of the tape at rest, an abnormal closeness of the tape to the transducer, and changes in tape shape upon manipulation of the vaginal probe. Once the diagnosis has been established, a tethered tape is easy to correct by realignment or tightening to accomplish correct positioning parallel to the urethra. This measure restores tape function and continence. Primary or secondary failure of a tension-free vaginal tape may be caused by a tethered tape. This complication can be diagnosed on the basis of characteristic findings at PF ultrasound. In most women, the tape position can be corrected and there is no need for tape removal.

  9. The cost of obesity for nonbariatric inpatient operative procedures in the United States: national cost estimates obese versus nonobese patients.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rodney J; Moroney, Jolene R; Berne, Thomas V

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the economic impact of obesity on hospital costs associated with the commonest nonbariatric, nonobstetrical surgical procedures. Health care costs and obesity are both rising. Nonsurgical costs associated with obesity are well documented but surgical costs are not. National cost estimates were calculated from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, 2005-2009, for the highest volume nonbariatric nonobstetric procedures. Obesity was identified from the HCUP-NIS severity data file comorbidity index. Costs for obese patients were compared with those for nonobese patients. To control for medical complexity, each obese patient was matched one-to-one with a nonobese patient using age, sex, race, and 28 comorbid defined elements. Of 2,309,699 procedures, 439,8129 (19%) were successfully matched into 2 medically equal groups (obese vs nonobese). Adjusted total hospital costs incurred by obese patients were 3.7% higher with a significantly (P < 0.0001) higher per capita cost of $648 (95% confidence interval [CI]: $556-$736) compared with nonobese patients. Of the 2 major components of hospital costs, length of stay was significantly increased in obese patients (mean difference = 0.0253 days, 95% CI: 0.0225-0.0282) and resource utilization determined by costs per day were greater in obese patients due to an increased number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needed postoperatively (odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93-0.96). Postoperative complications were equivalent in both groups (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-1.02). Annual national hospital expenditures for the largest volume surgical procedures is an estimated $160 million higher in obese than in a comparative group of nonobese patients.

  10. Prescription procedures in medication for relapse prevention after inpatient treatment for alcohol use disorders in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Buri, Caroline; Moggi, Franz; Giovanoli, Anna; Strik, Werner

    2007-01-01

    In randomized controlled trials with high internal validity, pharmacotherapy using acamprosate, naltrexone, and, to a somewhat lesser extent, disulfiram has proved effective in preventing relapse in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD). There remains, however, a paucity of studies with sufficient external validity in which the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in clinical practice is investigated. This study aimed to make a contribution to close this gap in research. In this naturalistic, prospective study, a comparison on indices of substance use, psychiatric symptoms, and treatment service utilization was carried out using samples of 92 patients who received pharmacotherapy and 323 patients who did not receive pharmacotherapy following discharge from 12 residential AUD programmes (index stay). Patients that received pharmacotherapy were more likely to use alcohol during the index stay and at the 1-year follow-up. Moreover, this patient group more readily utilized treatment services during a 2-year period prior to and a 1-year period following index stay than patients who were not given pharmacotherapy. Nevertheless, when pharmacotherapy was prescribed before first post-treatment alcohol use, it was associated with delay of alcohol use, fewer relapses, and a reduced need for inpatient treatment. In many cases, however, medication was not prescribed until alcohol use and relapse had occurred. The length of time to first alcohol use was longer, and the cumulative abstinence rate higher, for disulfiram than for acamprosate, the latter being generally prescribed for more severely alcohol-dependent patients. There is a need for further studies to probe the reasons why medication for relapse prevention is not prescribed upon discharge from residential treatment and for less severely alcohol-dependent patients.

  11. Discharges with surgical procedures performed less often than once per month per hospital account for two-thirds of hospital costs of inpatient surgery.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Liam; Dexter, Franklin; Park, Sae-Hwan; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-09-01

    Most surgical discharges (54%) at the average hospital are for procedures performed no more often than once per month at that hospital. We hypothesized that such uncommon procedures would be associated with an even greater percentage of the total cost of performing all surgical procedures at that hospital. Observational study. State of Texas hospital discharge abstract data: 4th quarter of 2015 and 1st quarter of 2016. Inpatients discharged with a major therapeutic ("operative") procedure. For each of N=343 hospitals, counts of discharges, sums of lengths of stay (LOS), sums of diagnosis related group (DRG) case-mix weights, and sums of charges were obtained for each procedure or combination of procedures, classified by International Classification of Diseases version 10 Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS). Each discharge was classified into 2 categories, uncommon versus not, defined as a procedure performed at most once per month versus those performed more often than once per month. Major procedures performed at most once per month per hospital accounted for an average among hospitals of 68% of the total inpatient costs associated with all major therapeutic procedures. On average, the percentage of total costs associated with uncommon procedures was 26% greater than expected based on their share of total discharges (P<0.00001). Average percentage differences were insensitive to the endpoint, with similar results for the percentage of patient days and percentage of DRG case-mix weights. Approximately 2/3rd (mean 68%) of inpatient costs among surgical patients can be attributed to procedures performed at most once per month per hospital. The finding that such uncommon procedures account for a large percentage of costs is important because methods of cost accounting by procedure are generally unsuitable for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk of major nonemergent inpatient general surgical procedures in patients on long-term dialysis.

    PubMed

    Gajdos, Csaba; Hawn, Mary T; Kile, Deidre; Robinson, Thomas N; Henderson, William G

    2013-02-01

    Patients on long-term dialysis undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures are thought to have high rates of postoperative complications and death. Retrospective cohort study. Academic and private hospitals. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to select dialysis and nondialysis patients who had undergone nonemergent major general surgical procedures between 2005 and 2008. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of dialysis on 30-day surgical outcomes adjusted for age, race, sex, work relative value units, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and recent operations (within the past 30 days). Patient morbidity, mortality, and failure-to-rescue rates. Dialysis patients undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator dependence, and need for a reoperation within 30 days from the index procedure. Dialysis patients also had a higher risk of vascular complications and postoperative death. Older dialysis patients (aged ≥ 65 years) had a significantly higher postoperative mortality rate compared with their younger counterparts. Dialysis patients were significantly more likely to die after any complication occurred, and mortality rates were especially high following stroke, myocardial infarction, and reintubation. Abnormalities in potentially modifiable preoperative variables (blood urea nitrogen level, albumin level, and hematocrit) did not increase the risk of postoperative complications or death in dialysis patients compared with nondialysis patients. Dialysis patients undergoing nonemergent general surgery have significantly elevated risks of postoperative complications and death, particularly if they are aged 65 years or older.

  13. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Find a Doctor Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us What is Incontinence? FAQs Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's Guide to Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms ...

  14. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Find a Doctor Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us What is Incontinence? FAQs Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's Guide to Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms ...

  15. Low-cost transobturator vaginal tape inside-out procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence using ordinary polypropylene mesh.

    PubMed

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Elsergany, Ragheb; ElShenoufy, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the use of ordinary polypropylene mesh and our modified helical passers through a transobturator vaginal tape inside-out technique (TVT-O) as a low-cost alternative to available commercial kits in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with evaluation of its long-term safety and efficacy. This is important in developing countries due to limited health care resources. Tailored (11 × 1.5 cm) polypropylene tape was inserted in 59 women from June 2006 to June 2009 at the Urology Department, Cairo University Hospitals as an open prospective study. SUI was diagnosed by positive cough stress test (CST) and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP). Patients with post-void residual urine (PVRU) > 100 ml, bladder capacity < 300 ml, or neurological lesions were excluded. The Stress and Urge Incontinence and Quality of Life Questionnaire (SUIQQ), urodynamic parameters, and other variables were compared pre- versus postoperatively with paired t, Wilcoxon signed rank, McNemar, or chi-square tests. The mean age was 47.47 ± 8.52 years. Twenty-one (35.6 %) patients had intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD). The mean operative time was 21.22 ± 4.26 min (15-30). Procedures for prolapse were done in four (6 %) patients. Complications were vaginal discharge (6 %), dyspareunia (1 %), groin pain (20 %), urinary tract infection (3 %), obstructive symptoms (1 %), accidental cut of polypropylene suture (1 %) and felt subcutaneous polypropylene sutures (3 %). We had no cases of erosions or de novo urgency. SUIQQ indices improved significantly, while urodynamic parameters showed no significant difference postoperatively. Of the patients, 54 (91 %) were cured and 3 (5 %) improved, while failure was detected in 2 (3 %) patients. Our technique is safe with excellent 5-year results. It should be considered as a low-cost alternative to available commercial kits in the treatment of SUI mainly for public health systems with few

  16. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  17. Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    Jay, J; Staskin, D

    1998-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of urinary incontinence, most affected women don't seek help, primarily because of embarrassment or because they are not aware that effective treatment is available. Failure to store urine may be caused by an abnormality in any component of the lower urinary tract. Common abnormalities are poor bladder compliance and bladder outlet failure. Patients who experience failure to empty can present with recurrent urinary tract infections, retention or incontinence. Using a symptom-based classification of incontinence, this would be referred to as overflow incontinence. Other possible categories of urinary incontinence are failure to store and empty and functional incontinence. A combination of a failure to store and empty is difficult to diagnose and treat clinically. Treatments are directed at the particular cause of incontinence and can include medical or surgical therapies.

  18. Clinical indications for augmentation in children with neurogenic urinary incontinence following bladder outlet procedures: Results of a 14-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Warren; Granberg, Candace

    2016-02-01

    We report continence, upper tract changes, and augmentation indications and rates in consecutive patients undergoing bladder outlet surgery without augmentation for neurogenic urinary incontinence. From 2000 to 2007, 37 patients underwent bladder neck sling (BNS), and from 2007 to 2013, 45 patients had Leadbetter/Mitchell bladder neck revision plus sling (LMS), all without augmentation. Mitrofanoff channels were created in all cases. Twenty children with persistent outlet insufficiency underwent bladder neck closure (BNC). All patients had pre- and postoperative urodynamic testing (UD). Mean follow-up was 60 months after BNS, 38 months after LMS, and 29 months after BNC. Continence (dry, no pads) was achieved significantly more often with LMS versus BNS (66% vs. 37%). There were no significant differences between these patients in preoperative UD % capacity, end filling pressure (EFP), or compliance. Those that became dry had a greater % capacity on postoperative UD, but postoperative EFP was similar between dry and wet LMS and BNS patients. BNC resulted in dryness in 65% of patients, with most incontinence occurring from the Mitrofanoff stoma associated with filling pressures > 40 cm. A total of 10 (12%) children had augmentation, seven after BNC. Clinical indications were end filling pressures > 40 cm plus hydronephrosis ≥ grade 3, and/or persistent incontinence. Need for augmentation was not predicted by preoperative urodynamic parameters. Postoperative UD in those who were augmented showed significantly less % capacity and compliance, and significantly greater EFP, than those not augmented. Dryness was achieved in only 33% of BNS versus 66% of LMS and BNC patients. Twelve percent of consecutive children undergoing bladder outlet surgery for neurogenic incontinence developed clinical parameters leading to augmentation. These occurred most often after BNC. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Long-Term Outcomes of the Tension-free Vaginal Tape Procedure for Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: Data from Minimum 13 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Song, Phil Hyun; Kwon, Dae Hyeon; Ko, Young Hwii; Jung, Hee Chang

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes from the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure, we investigated the data from a minimum 13-year follow-up and predictive risk factors affecting efficacy for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A total of 206 (mean age, 59.2 ± 8.8 years) women who underwent the TVT procedure for SUI were selected and followed up for at least 13 years (mean, 162.4 months; range, 156-174) after TVT procedure. We analyzed the long-term results and the predictive parameters for success rates and patients' satisfaction. At 13 years after surgery, the overall cure rate was 82.5%, with a satisfaction rate of 67.5%. Univariable analysis demonstrated an association of symptom grade of SUI with cure rates, while the presence of frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence showed an association with patients' satisfaction. However, in multivariable logistic regression model, none of those variables were identified as an independent risk factor related to the cure and satisfaction rate. Twenty one patients (10.2%) had postoperative complications at 1-year follow-up after surgery. However, at 13 years follow-up after surgery, only three patients (1.5%) had postoperative complications, including mesh exposure in one patient and de novo urgency in two patients. Our long-term data, which illustrate the absence of long-term adverse events secondary to TVT procedure and the high success rate both in subjective and objective goals regardless of any independent predictive factors, suggest the TVT procedure as a recommendable method for the management of female SUI. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. [Stress urinary incontinence. Its surgical management].

    PubMed

    Neri Ruz, E S; Azcona Arteaga, F J

    1991-10-01

    Ninety eight patients with stress urinary incontinence treated surgically at Central Military Hospital, were studied. We analyzed the risk factors as age, weight, height, parity, menopause age, and previous medical and surgical procedures. They were divided in two groups. The Group I, vaginal approach, with 35 patients and Group II, retropubic surgery, with 63 patients. There were no differences both groups regarding age, weight, height, parity and menopausal age. The most frequent illness associated with stress urinary incontinence, was pelvic floor relaxation. The complications were 17.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The efficacy of Burch is procedure for the management of stress urinary incontinence, with a success rate of 84.1% versus 62.1% in the vaginal approach, was confirmed.

  1. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshitaka; Brown, Heidi W; Brubaker, Linda; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Daly, J Oliver; Cartwright, Rufus

    2017-07-06

    Urinary incontinence symptoms are highly prevalent among women, have a substantial effect on health-related quality of life and are associated with considerable personal and societal expenditure. Two main types are described: stress urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with physical exertion, and urgency urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with a sudden compelling desire to void. Women who experience both symptoms are considered as having mixed urinary incontinence. Research has revealed overlapping potential causes of incontinence, including dysfunction of the detrusor muscle or muscles of the pelvic floor, dysfunction of the neural controls of storage and voiding, and perturbation of the local environment within the bladder. A full diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence requires a medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, assessment of quality of life and, when initial treatments fail, invasive urodynamics. Interventions can include non-surgical options (such as lifestyle modifications, pelvic floor muscle training and drugs) and surgical options to support the urethra or increase bladder capacity. Future directions in research may increasingly target primary prevention through understanding of environmental and genetic risks for incontinence.

  2. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast infections likely. Bedsores ( pressure sores ) may also develop ... drying the skin. Incontinence problems can cause a yeast infection on the skin. This is an itchy, ...

  3. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allis, WI . Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication ... of Hope "For a person who is incontinent, replacing feelings of helplessness with a measure of empowerment , with teaching a person that they can take steps to ...

  4. Prevalence of Bowel Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Urinary Incontinence in Adults. December 12, 2007. Drossman DA, Li Z, Andruzzi E, et al. U.S. Householder ... Rectum Vol. 41, No. 10 October 1998. Drossman DA, Sandler RS, Broom CM, et al. Urgency and ...

  5. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Urine leakage that gets worse Pain where the injection was done Allergic reaction to the material Implant ...

  6. Eldercare at Home: Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... on long trips or in unfamiliar settings. However, diapers and pads can worsen incontinence if the older person relies only on them and does not practice bladder exercises. If pads or diapers are necessary, change them often to avoid odor, ...

  7. Homemade male incontinence pouch.

    PubMed

    Lafrades, A R

    1999-09-01

    It is estimated that more than 13 million Americans experience incontinence or loss of bladder control. As a registered nurse specializing in urology, the author created a male drip collector, made from a female sanitary napkin (ALWAYS with Wings). This homemade male incontinence pouch is cost effective, comfortable to use, easy to make, can absorb 20 cc to 70 cc of urine, and is available in any store.

  8. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  9. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  10. Gaining Control Over Fecal Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gump, Kendra; Schmelzer, Marilee

    2016-01-01

    Strategies that improve the regularity and efficiency of defecation can eliminate or minimize episodes of fecal incontinence. The medical-surgical nurse's role in identifying patients with fecal incontinence is discussed, along with various treatments to control bowel elimination.

  11. Fecal incontinence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Syed H

    2007-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is an underreported and underappreciated problem in older adults. Although fecal incontinence is more common in women than in men, this difference narrows with aging. Risk factors that lead to the development of fecal incontinence include dementia, physical disability, and fecal impaction. Treatment options include medical or conservative therapy for older adults who have mild incontinence, and surgical options can be explored in selected older adults if surgical expertise is available.

  12. Urinary incontinence. Noninvasive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C; Cafiero, M R

    1999-06-01

    One in six women older than 45 experiences incontinence, but 31% of them never discuss their condition with anyone. A proactive approach on the part of all health care providers is needed to break this silence, particularly among clinicians who care for women. Urinary incontinence is classified as stress, urge, mixed, overflow or functional incontinence. Differential diagnosis of incontinence is essential to choosing appropriate treatment options. This article outlines noninvasive treatment options that are specific to diagnosis.

  13. [Inpatient psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Spitzer, C; Rullkötter, N; Dally, A

    2016-01-01

    In German-speaking countries inpatient psychotherapy plays a major role in the mental healthcare system. Due to its characteristic features, i. e. multiprofessionalism, multimodality and method integration, the inpatient approach represents a unique and independent type of psychotherapy. In order to be helpful, the manifold verbal and non-verbal methods need to be embedded into an overall treatment plan. Additionally, the therapeutic milieu of the hospital represents an important effective factor and its organization requires a more active construction. The indications for inpatient psychotherapy are not only based on the mental disorder but also on illness, setting and healthcare system-related criteria. In integrative concepts, the multiprofessional team is a key component with many functions. The effectiveness of psychotherapeutic hospital treatment has been proven by meta-analysis studies; however, 20-30% of patients do not benefit from inpatient psychotherapy and almost 13% drop-out prematurely.

  14. Management of patients with faecal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Duelund-Jakobsen, Jakob; Worsoe, Jonas; Lundby, Lilli; Christensen, Peter; Krogh, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence, defined as the involuntary loss of solid or liquid stool, is a common problem affecting 0.8–8.3% of the adult population. Individuals suffering from faecal incontinence often live a restricted life with reduced quality of life. The present paper is a clinically oriented review of the pathophysiology, evaluation and treatment of faecal incontinence. First-line therapy should be conservative and usually include dietary adjustments, fibre supplement, constipating agents or mini enemas. Biofeedback therapy to improve external anal sphincter function can be offered but the evidence for long-term effect is poor. There is good evidence that colonic irrigation can reduce symptoms and improve quality of life, especially in patients with neurogenic faecal incontinence. Surgical interventions should only be considered if conservative measures fail. Sacral nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive procedure with high rate of success. Advanced surgical procedures should be restricted to highly selected patients and only performed at specialist centres. A stoma should be considered if other treatment modalities fail. PMID:26770270

  15. Trends, Predictors, and Outcomes of Healthcare Resources Used in Patients Hospitalized with Alzheimer's Disease with at Least One Procedure: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Shaked, Danielle; Zonderman, Alan B; Eid, Shaker M

    2017-01-01

    We assessed trends, predictors and outcomes of resource utilization in hospital inpatient discharges with a principal diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with at least one procedure. Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample data (NIS, 2002-2012), discharges primarily diagnosed with AD, aged ≥60 y and with ≥1 procedure, were selected (Weighted N = 92,300). Hospital resource utilization were assessed using ICD-9-CM codes, while hospitalization outcomes included total charges (TC, 2012$), length of stay (LOS, days), and mortality risk (MR, %). Brain and respiratory/gastrointestinal procedure utilization both dropped annually by 3-7%, while cardiovascular procedures/evaluations, blood evaluations, blood transfusion, and resuscitation ("CVD/Blood") as well as neurophysiological and psychological evaluation and treatment ("Neuro") procedures increased by 5-8%. Total charges, length of stay, and mortality risk were all markedly higher with use of respiratory/gastrointestinal procedures as opposed to being reduced with use of "Brain" procedures. Procedure count was positively associated with all three hospitalization outcomes. In sum, patterns of hospital resources that were used among AD inpatients changed over-time, and were associated with hospitalization outcomes such as total charges, length of stay, and mortality risk.

  16. [Conservative treatment of urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Soljanik, I; Schorsch, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    Urinary incontinence can be treated with medicinal products in addition to active pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation. A local hormone therapy should be first discussed with the gynaecologist. The active substance duloxetine has been used for a few years for treating stress incontinence. Several older and newer active substances are available for treating irritable bladder and stress incontinence.

  17. Diaper area granuloma of incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, W Z; Abahussein, A A; Alzayer, A A

    1992-05-01

    Granulomas in the diaper area developed in four patients; two male infants following surgery for Hirschsprung's disease and two female children with urinary (and/or fecal) incontinence. The use of the term 'Diaper area granuloma of incontinence' is suggested to describe these lesions seen in the elderly, as well as in incontinent infants and children.

  18. Incontinence: The Potential Budget Buster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Someone who lives with incontinence, whether bowel, bladder, or both, knows the social stigma and personal toll on his life. Incontinence is the ever-present shadowy silhouette lurking over almost every decision, sometimes requiring complex preplanning. In this article, the author describes the challenges of incontinence and discusses how she…

  19. Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Background: Condition and Target Population Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. The Technology Being Reviewed: Sacral Nerve Stimulation Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is

  20. [Postpartum incontinence. Narrative review].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Alós, Rafael; Carceller, M Soledad; Solana, Amparo; Frangi, Andrés; Ruiz, M Dolores; Lozoya, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The development of fecal incontinence after childbirth is a common event. This incontinence responds to a multifactorial etiology in which the most common element is external anal sphincter injury. There are several risk factors, and it is very important to know and avoid them. Sphincter injury may result from perineal tear or sometimes by incorrectly performing an episiotomy. It is very important to recognize the injury when it occurs and repair it properly. Pudendal nerve trauma may contribute to the effect of direct sphincter injury. Persistence of incontinence is common, even after sphincter repair. Surgical sphincteroplasty is the standard treatment of obstetric sphincter injuries, however, sacral or tibial electric stimulation therapies are being applied in patients with sphincter injuries not repaired with promising results. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Sexuality and incontinence].

    PubMed

    Buffat, J

    2009-03-18

    Incontinence is anything that inhibits the expression of sexuality. Male problems like premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunctions are forms of incontinence. The inability to retain ejaculation or maintain erection long enough to give pleasure to the partner generates feelings of shame and guilt which weaken virility. Feminine sexual dysfunctions like loss of desire, anorgasmia and vaginismus are results of excessive continence due to negative familial and religious education, moral and social values. The sexologist's task is first to find out the origins of the sexual trouble then to propose an adequate treatment.

  2. Faecal incontinence in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Owen, R E; Choo, P W; Jayaratnam, F J

    1991-04-01

    Faecal incontinence is distressing both to the patient and the carers. However with accurate diagnosis of its cause, the condition can often be treated. Causes can be classified by pathophysiology. The most common cause in the elderly is faecal impaction with overflow incontinence. Other causes include inflammatory conditions of the bowel, neurological disorder, functional incontinence and iatrogenic incontinence. Management depends on an accurate diagnosis. A proper bowel and drug history is important. A rectal examination is mandatory, in order not to miss a diagnosis of faecal impaction with overflow incontinence. Specific treatment is directed at the cause.

  3. Reduction in hospital costs and resource consumption associated with the use of advanced topical hemostats during inpatient procedures.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Derek; Kocharian, Richard; Lim, Sangtaeck; Meckley, Lisa M; Miyasato, Gavin; Prifti, Katerina; Rao, Yajing; Riebman, Jerome B; Scaife, Jillian G; Soneji, Yogesh; Corral, Mitra

    2015-06-01

    The use of hemostatic agents has increased over time for all surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the newer topical absorbable hemostat products Surgicel * Fibrillar † and Surgicel SNoW ‡ (Surgicel advanced products, abbreviated as SAPs) compared to the older product Surgicel Original (SO) with respect to healthcare resource use and costs in procedures where these hemostats are most commonly used. A retrospective analysis of the Premier hospital database was used to identify adults who underwent brain/cerebral (BC), cardiovascular (CV: valve surgery and coronary artery bypass graft) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) between January 2011-December 2012. Among these patients, those treated with SAPs were compared to those treated with SO. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to create comparable groups to evaluate differences between SAPs and SO. The primary end-points for this study were length of stay (LOS), all-cause total cost, number of intensive care unit (ICU) days, ICU cost, transfusion costs and units, and SO/SAP product units per discharge. Matched PSM created patient cohorts for SO and SAPs were created for BC (n = 758 for both groups), CV (n = 3388 for both groups), and CEA (n = 2041 for both groups) procedures. Patients that received SAPs had a 14-16% lower mean LOS for each procedure compared to SO, as well as 12-18% lower total mean cost per discharge for each procedure (p < 0.02 for all results). Mean ICU costs for SAPs were also lower, with a reduction of 20% for BC and 19% for CV compared to SO (p < 0.01). However, for CEA, there was no statistically significant difference in ICU costs for SAPs compared to SO. In a retrospective hospital database analysis, the use of SAPs were associated with lower healthcare resource utilization and costs compared to SO.

  4. Outcome of the laparoscopic two-team sling procedure, tension-free vaginal tape insertion, and transobturator tape insertion in women with recurrent stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Hassonah, Seham; Medel, Sebastian; Lovatsis, Danny; Drutz, Harold P; Alarab, May

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Bien que la prise en charge chirurgicale de l’incontinence urinaire à l’effort primaire (IUE) ait été bien étudiée, la prise en charge optimale de l’IUE persistante ou récurrente constitue un défi considérable pour le chirurgien et les données publiées pertinentes sont limitées. Cette étude avait pour but de documenter les données quant aux issues de diverses techniques chirurgicales utilisées dans notre centre pour la prise en charge de l’IUE récurrente, ainsi que d’évaluer les complications immédiates et à long terme étant associées à ces interventions. Méthodes : Cette étude rétrospective a évalué l’issue de l’intervention laparoscopique de fronde à deux équipes, de l’insertion d’une bandelette vaginale sans tension (TVT) et de l’insertion d’une bandelette transobturatrice (TOT) dans la prise en charge de l’IUE récurrente chez des femmes. Parmi les données recueillies, on trouvait les caractéristiques démographiques des patientes, les données urodynamiques, la guérison postopératoire subjective et la guérison objective (test à la toux négatif), ainsi que les complications peropératoires et postopératoires. Résultats : Quarante-six femmes présentant une IUE récurrente ont été admises à l’étude : 24 d’entre elles ont subi une intervention laparoscopique de fronde à deux équipes, 15 ont subi une insertion de TVT et 7 ont subi une insertion de TOT. Les taux de guérison objective ont été de 91,7 %, de 73,3 % et de 85,7 %, respectivement, tandis que les taux de guérison subjective ont été de 79,2 %, de 60 % et de 57,1 %, respectivement. Au sein du groupe « intervention laparoscopique de fronde à deux équipes », une des participantes en est venue à présenter un hématome infecté, tandis qu’une autre a nécessité une chirurgie en raison d’une occlusion de l’intestin grêle. Conclusion : L’intervention laparoscopique de fronde à deux

  5. Symptoms of Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... might feel the urge to have a bowel movement, but impaired muscles are unable to control it ... sure when an episode might strike. The personal impact of incontinence becomes even more profound as sufferers begin to withdraw from social situations because of the problem. They may participate ...

  6. Incontinence products and devices for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2004-08-01

    Devices and products to contain or collect the urine are part of the management of bladder dysfunction, particularly urinary incontinence (UI) (Newman, Bliss, & Fader, in press). The aim of continence nurse experts and those who care for incontinent individuals during the past decade has been to greatly decrease the indiscriminate use of absorbent pads and garments, external collecting devices, and indwelling catheterization, through the successful treatment of urinary incontinence (UI) with behavioral interventions, drug therapies, and new surgical procedures. However, these products and devices can be beneficial for persons who are elderly, fail treatment and remain incontinent, who are too ill or disabled to participate in behavioral programs, who cannot be helped by medications, or who have a type of UI that cannot be alleviated by other interventions (Newman, 2003). The judicious use of products to contain urine loss and maintain skin integrity is a first-line defense for these patients (Fantl et al., 1996). Urinary collection devices and products that are appropriate for elderly patients, that are used by nurses in all clinical settings, and are available at local pharmacies, retail stores, medical equipment dealers or directly from manufacturers are discussed.

  7. Variations in data collection methods between national databases affect study results: a comparison of the nationwide inpatient sample and national surgical quality improvement program databases for lumbar spine fusion procedures.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Daniel D; Russo, Glenn S; Basques, Bryce A; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Fu, Michael C; Long, William D; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-12-03

    There has been an increasing use of national databases to conduct orthopaedic research. Questions regarding the validity and consistency of these studies have not been fully addressed. The purpose of this study was to test for similarity in reported measures between two national databases commonly used for orthopaedic research. A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion procedures during 2009 to 2011 was performed in two national databases: the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and inpatient adverse events were directly compared between databases. The total numbers of patients included were 144,098 from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 8434 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. There were only small differences in demographic characteristics between the two databases. There were large differences between databases in the rates at which specific comorbidities were documented. Non-morbid obesity was documented at rates of 9.33% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 36.93% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 0.25; p < 0.05). Peripheral vascular disease was documented at rates of 2.35% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 0.60% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 3.89; p < 0.05). Similarly, there were large differences between databases in the rates at which specific inpatient adverse events were documented. Sepsis was documented at rates of 0.38% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 0.81% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 0.47; p < 0.05). Acute kidney injury was documented at rates of 1.79% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 0.21% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 8.54; p < 0.05). As database studies become more prevalent in orthopaedic surgery, authors, reviewers, and readers should

  8. Management of urinary incontinence in women: scientific review.

    PubMed

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; Straus, Sharon E

    2004-02-25

    suburethral sling procedure. Urinary incontinence in women is an important public health concern, and effective treatment options exist.

  9. Temperature-Controlled Delivery of Radiofrequency Energy in Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Arjan P; Lam, Tze J; Meurs-Szojda, Maria M; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F

    2017-08-01

    Controlled delivery of radiofrequency energy has been suggested as treatment for fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical response to the radiofrequency energy procedure is superior to sham in patients with fecal incontinence. This was a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial from 2008 to 2015. This study was conducted in an outpatient clinic. Forty patients with fecal incontinence in whom maximal conservative management had failed were randomly assigned to receiving either radiofrequency energy or sham procedure. Fecal incontinence was measured using the Vaizey incontinence score (range, 0-24). The impact of fecal incontinence on quality of life was measured by using the fecal incontinence quality-of-life score (range, 1-4). Measurements were performed at baseline and at 6 months. Anorectal function was evaluated using anal manometry and anorectal endosonography at baseline and at 3 months. At baseline, Vaizey incontinence score was 16.8 (SD 2.9). At t = 6 months, the radiofrequency energy group improved by 2.5 points on the Vaizey incontinence score compared with the sham group (13.2 (SD 3.1), 15.6 (SD 3.3), p = 0.02). The fecal incontinence quality-of-life score at t = 6 months was not statistically different. Anorectal function did not show any alteration. Patients with severe fecal incontinence were included in the study, thus making it difficult to generalize the results. Both radiofrequency energy and sham procedure improved the fecal incontinence score, the radiofrequency energy procedure more than sham. Although statistically significant, the clinical impact for most of the patients was negligible. Therefore, the radiofrequency energy procedure should not be recommended for patients with fecal incontinence until patient-related factors associated with treatment success are known. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A373.

  10. Incontinence after prostatectomy: coping with incontinence after prostate cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mary H; Fogarty, Linda A; Somerfield, Mark R; Powel, Lorrie L

    2003-01-01

    To describe the nature of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence, determine how men manage postsurgery urinary incontinence, identify men's perceptions of adequacy of preoperative counseling, and identify men's expectations regarding the probability of postsurgery incontinence. Survey. United States. Members of US TOO International, who experienced urinary incontinence after surgery. Copies of the survey (N = 370) were mailed to all chapters of US TOO International, a prostate cancer support group, for distribution to members. A letter of invitation also was posted on the US TOO International Web site and in the monthly newsletter. Men who desired to complete the survey (N = 130) called the researcher's office, and a copy of the survey and a stamped return envelope was mailed to them. Surveys returned to the researchers from June 1998 to January 1999 were included in the analyses. Urinary incontinence, management of urinary incontinence, and coping. 166 men returned surveys. The majority was Caucasian (95%) and married (83%). The median age was 67 years, 87% of the men rated their health as good or excellent, and 114 men (69%) reported becoming incontinent after surgery. Most men experienced stress incontinence symptoms. The majority (89 of 111 men) reported that they were told preoperatively that urinary incontinence was a possible complication. Overall, regardless of length of time since surgery, men (74%) thought that incontinence was an important problem to resolve. Men used containment devices such as pads, special undergarments, and even sanitary napkins as management strategies. The majority of men (54%) used pelvic muscle exercises, especially those who were fewer than two years postsurgery (72%). Urinary incontinence is a prevalent postoperative complication for men, even up to five years after surgery, and a source of great distress for some. Men reported stress and urge incontinence symptoms and used an array of strategies to contain their urine. Finding

  11. Slings in iatrogenic male incontinence: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Fabrizio; Schenone, M.; Giberti, C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The increasing number of prostatectomies entails an increasing number of patients suffering from iatrogenic incontinence despite improved surgical techniques. The severity of this problem often requires invasive treatments such as periurethral injection of bulking agents, artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, and sub-urethral sling positioning. The artificial urethral sphincter has represented, until today, the gold standard but, in the recent years, sling systems have been investigated as minimally invasive alternative options. Today, three different sling procedures are commonly performed: bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems. The aim of this review is to critically report the current status of sling systems in the treatment of iatrogenic male incontinence. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched and all articles between 1974 and 2009 were evaluated. Results: With regard to bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems, cure rates ranged between 58.0% and 86.0%, 55.5% and 73.0%, and 40.0% and 63.0%, respectively, while major complication rates ranged between 0 and 14.5%, 10.0 and 22.2%, and 0 and 10.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Suburethral slings are the only alternative techniques which can be favorably compared with the AUS, showing more advantages with respect to AUS implantations which are mainly represented by a quick and less invasive approach, low morbidity, and low costs. In spite of the difficulty in identifying the most effective sling procedure, overall, sling systems can be recommended for patients with persistent mild or moderate incontinence. However, the indication can also be extended to patients with severe incontinence, after appropriate counseling, allowing AUS implantation in the event of sling failure. PMID:20877609

  12. Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bakuła, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

  13. Surgical management of pediatric urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sumit; Salle, Joao Luiz Pippi

    2013-08-01

    The surgical management of pediatric urinary incontinence secondary to neurogenic bladder and congenital anomalies is challenging, and continues to evolve with new surgical innovations. The goal of these surgical procedures is to achieve complete and socially acceptable urinary dryness, while preserving volitional voiding where possible, without causing damage to the upper tracts. This review focuses on recent studies and highlights the pros and cons of these advances, based on our experience. The short-term success in achieving urinary continence has to be tempered with the long-term implications of these reconstructive procedures, about which our knowledge is limited.

  14. [Enuresis and pediatric urinary incontinence : Diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Schultz-Lampel, D; Goepel, M; Reitz, A; Braun, P

    2016-12-01

    Differentiated non-invasive diagnostic procedures allow a discrimination between nocturnal enuresis and behavior-linked urinary incontinence in children with daytime symptoms, which are different entities of a pathological pediatric micturition syndrome. The article describes the diagnostic procedure as well as the therapeutic approach to all forms of micturition disorders in childhood. All behavioral, medical and biofeedback therapeutic methods according to the recently published S2k guidelines from the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) on enuresis and non-organic (functional) incontinence in children and adolescents are mentioned and discussed.

  15. Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ouslander, Joseph G.

    1981-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing problem for elderly patients, their families and friends, and the health professionals who care for them. It is a heterogeneous condition, and appropriate management depends on a thorough evaluation and understanding of the multiple factors that can play a role in its cause and perpetuation. Identifying reversible causes of transient incontinence, and appropriate management of incontinence that is associated with acute illness, can be important in preventing the problem from becoming established. A thorough diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence in the elderly, and appropriate use of the different types of therapy, will greatly improve the management in these cases. The need and opportunities for research to improve the management of incontinent elderly persons should be considered by all those involved in caring for this population. PMID:7039134

  16. Economic cost of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Menees, Stacy B; Zochowski, Melissa K; Fenner, Dee E

    2012-05-01

    Despite its prevalence and deleterious impact on patients and families, fecal incontinence remains an understudied condition. Few data are available on its economic burden in the United States. The aim of this study was to quantify per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. A mail survey of patients with fecal incontinence was conducted in 2010 to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics, fecal incontinence symptoms, and utilization of medical and nonmedical resources for fecal incontinence. The analysis was conducted from a societal perspective and included both direct and indirect (ie, productivity loss) costs. Unit costs were determined based on standard Medicare reimbursement rates, national average wholesale prices of medications, and estimates from other relevant sources. All cost estimates were reported in 2010 US dollars. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution. The analysis included 332 adult patients who had fecal incontinence for more than a year with at least monthly leakage of solid, liquid, or mucous stool. The primary outcome measured was the per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. The average annual total cost for fecal incontinence was $4110 per person (median = $1594; interquartile range, $517-$5164). Of these costs, direct medical and nonmedical costs averaged $2353 (median, $1176; interquartile range, $294-$2438) and $209 (median, $75; interquartile range, $17-$262), whereas the indirect cost associated with productivity loss averaged $1549 per patient annually (median, $0; interquartile range, $0-$813). Multivariate regression analyses suggested that greater fecal incontinence symptom severity was significantly associated with higher annual direct costs. This study was based on patient self-reported data, and the sample was derived from a single institution. Fecal incontinence is associated with substantial economic cost, calling for more

  17. Predictive factors of stress incontinence after posterior sacral rhizotomy.

    PubMed

    Chinier, Eva; Egon, Guy; Hamel, Olivier; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    The Brindley procedure, used since the 1980s, consists of implantation of a stimulator for sacral anterior root stimulation combined with a posterior sacral rhizotomy to enable micturition. Patients suitable for the procedure are patients with detrusor overactivity and a complete spinal cord lesion with intact sacral reflexes. S2 to S4 posterior sacral rhizotomy abolishes sacral hyperreflexia and may lead to decreased urethral closure pressure and loss of reflex adaptation of continence, leading to stress incontinence. In this retrospective study of 96 patients from Nantes or Le Mans, implanted with a Finetech-Brindley stimulator, we analyzed the incidence of stress incontinence one year after surgery and looked for predictive factors of stress incontinence one year after posterior sacral rhizotomy: age, gender, level of injury between T10 and L2 , previous urethral surgery, incompetent bladder neck, Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure before surgery less than 30 cmH2 O, compliance before surgery less than 30 ml/cmH2 0. Patients with persistent involuntary detrusor contractions with or without incontinence after surgery were excluded. One year after surgery, 10.4% of the patients experienced stress incontinence. Urethral closure pressure was significantly decreased by 18% after posterior sacral rhizotomy (P = 0.002). This study highlights the only significant predictive factor of stress incontinence after rhizotomy: incompetent bladder neck (P = 0.002). As screening of patients undergoing the Brindley procedure is essential to achieve optimal postoperative results, on the basis of this study, we propose preoperative assessment to select the population of patients most likely to benefit from the Brindley procedure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comprehensive approach for post-prostatectomy incontinence in the era of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Haga, Nobuhiro; Takinami, Ruriko; Tanji, Ryo; Onagi, Akifumi; Matsuoka, Kanako; Koguchi, Tomoyuki; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hata, Junya; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kataoka, Masao; Sato, Yuichi; Ishibashi, Kei; Aikawa, Ken; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-08-09

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has enabled steady and stable surgical procedures due to both meticulous maneuvers and magnified, clear, 3-dimensional vision. Therefore, better surgical outcomes have been expected with RARP than with other surgical modalities. However, even in the RARP era, post-prostatectomy incontinence has a relatively high incidence as a bothersome complication. To overcome post-prostatectomy incontinence, it goes without saying that meticulous surgical procedures and creative surgical procedures, i.e., "Preservation", "Reconstruction", and "Reinforcement" of the anatomical structures of the pelvis, are most important. In addition, medication and appropriate pad usage might sometimes be helpful for patients with post-prostatectomy incontinence. However, patients who have 1) BMI > 26 kg/m(2), 2) prostate volume > 70 mL, 3) eGFR < 60 mL/min, or a 4) Charlson comorbidity index > 2 have a tendency to develop post-prostatectomy incontinence despite undergoing the same surgical procedures. It is important for patients who have a high risk for post-prostatectomy incontinence to be given information about delayed recovery of post-prostatectomy incontinence. Thus, not only the surgical procedures, but also a comprehensive approach, as mentioned above, are important for post-prostatectomy incontinence.

  19. Fecal incontinence - Challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Saldana Ruiz, Nallely; Kaiser, Andreas M

    2017-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a frequent and debilitating common final pathway symptom resulting from numerous different causes. Incontinence not only impacts the patient’s self-esteem and quality of life but may result in significant secondary morbidity, disability, and cost. Treatment is difficult without any panacea and an individualized approach should be chosen that frequently combines different modalities. Several new technologies have been developed and their specific roles will have to be defined. The scope of this review is outline the evaluation and treatment of patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:28104977

  20. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for patients with faecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Allison, Marion

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a new, non-invasive treatment for faecal incontinence. It is given in an outpatient setting and has few side effects. An increasing number of studies confirm its efficacy. This article discusses the procedure, reports early experiences of using PTNS at one centre in the UK and considers cost effectiveness.

  1. Management of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E

    2008-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common condition that often impairs quality of life. It is generally caused by a variety of conditions that are associated with anorectal sensorimotor dysfunction and/or diarrhea. A detailed characterization of symptoms, particularly bowel habits, is useful for assessing symptom severity and guiding management. A careful digital rectal examination is invaluable for gauging anal resting and squeeze pressures and anorectal evacuation. Tests should be tailored to age, symptom severity, and response to previous therapy. Anorectal manometry and sphincter imaging are useful starting tests. Depending upon the clinical circumstances, additional testing and therapeutic options may be useful. Fecal continence can be improved by measures to regulate bowel habits and pelvic floor retraining. Surgical repair of anal sphincter defects improves fecal continence in the short but not in the long term. Newer surgical therapies and devices are of limited and/or unproven utility.

  2. Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common condition that often impairs quality of life. It is generally caused by a variety of conditions that are associated with anorectal sensorimotor dysfunction and/or diarrhea. A detailed characterization of symptoms, particularly bowel habits, is useful for assessing symptom severity and guiding management. A careful digital rectal examination is invaluable for gauging anal resting and squeeze pressures and anorectal evacuation. Tests should be tailored to age, symptom severity, and response to previous therapy. Anorectal manometry and sphincter imaging are useful starting tests. Depending upon the clinical circumstances, additional testing and therapeutic options may be useful. Fecal continence can be improved by measures to regulate bowel habits and pelvic floor retraining. Surgical repair of anal sphincter defects improves fecal continence in the short but not in the long term. Newer surgical therapies and devices are of limited and/or unproven utility. PMID:21960903

  3. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences.

  4. Urinary incontinence following radical vulvectomy.

    PubMed

    Reid, G C; DeLancey, J O; Hopkins, M P; Roberts, J A; Morley, G W

    1990-05-01

    Although incontinence has been reported after radical vulvectomy, its relationship to operative technique, anatomy, and treatment has not been defined. Twenty-one patients having vulvectomies for vulvar cancer were prospectively evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with urodynamic function studies. A portion of the urethra was removed in four patients undergoing radical vulvectomy, and 14 had a vulvectomy excision that came within 1 cm of the distal urethra. Six patients (28%) developed a change of continence, with three developing total incontinence, two stress incontinence, and one urge incontinence. All four patients who had a portion of the urethra excised developed stress or total incontinence. The other two patients with incontinence (one total, one urge) had the vulvectomy excision that came close to the urethra. No patient had a change in continence when surgery did not involve or come close to the urethra. When the four patients with a distal urethral resection were compared with patients in whom the urethra was not excised, there was a significant decrease postoperatively in functional urethral length (P less than .0001), anatomical urethral length (P less than .0001), and distal urethral pressure transmission ratios in Q3 (P = .004), Q4 (P = .02), and Q5 (P = .005); but no difference in urethral support (Q-tip test), flow rates, residual urine, bladder capacity, maximal urethral pressure, resting closure pressure, or squeeze pressure. Histologic examination of urethral specimens demonstrated that a portion of the compressor urethrae muscle was often excised. Radical vulvectomy by itself does not cause incontinence, but it would appear that removal of a portion of the urethra increases the chance of incontinence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Management of male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Katie C.; Lucas, Malcolm G.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of male urinary incontinence seen is secondary to sphincter weakness following prostatic surgery. As there is a rising elderly population and increasing numbers of surgical interventions for prostate cancer, incidence of male incontinence is increasing. Hence, management of male incontinence has become a subject of increased interest for urologists. Various non-surgical and surgical approaches have been suggested for this devastating condition. Non-invasive therapies are suggested for early postoperative and mild incontinence. For surgical treatment the artificial urinary sphincter is still labeled the gold standard despite the introduction of several more minimally invasive treatments. However, as yet there is no consensus on the optimal timing and best modality for managing these men. Well designed, centrally funded clinical trials are required to establish which treatment modality to offer and when in the broad spectrum of male incontinence. This review focuses mainly on the management of post-prostatectomy incontinence since the management of other types varies little from the modalities of treatment in women. PMID:20877603

  6. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    PubMed

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  7. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: a cross-sectional prevalence study in the Australian acute care hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jill L; Coyer, Fiona M; Osborne, Sonya R

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the prevalence of incontinence and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) in Australian acute care patients and to describe the products worn to manage incontinence, and those provided at the bedside for perineal skin care. Data on 376 inpatients were collected over 2 days at a major Australian teaching hospital. The mean age of the sample group was 62 years and 52% of the patients were male. The prevalence rate of incontinence was 24% (91/376). Urinary incontinence was significantly more prevalent in females (10%) than males (6%) (χ(2)  = 4·458, df = 1, P = 0·035). IAD occurred in 10% (38/376) of the sample group, with 42% (38/91) of incontinent patients having IAD. Semi-formed and liquid stool were associated with IAD (χ(2)  = 5·520, df = 1, P = 0·027). Clinical indication of fungal infection was present in 32% (12/38) of patients with IAD. Absorbent disposable briefs were the most common incontinence aids used (80%, 70/91), with soap/water and disposable washcloths being the clean-up products most commonly available (60%, 55/91) at the bedside. Further data are needed to validate this high prevalence. Studies that address prevention of IAD and the effectiveness of management strategies are also needed.

  8. Does electrostimulation cure urinary incontinence?

    PubMed

    Fall, M

    1984-04-01

    A followup study is presented of a prospective series of women treated with an inflatable intravaginal electrode carrier and an external pulse generator. The devices were individually adjustable with respect to electrode positioning and stimulation parameters. The study included 40 women with detrusor instability and/or genuine stress incontinence. The primary results for urge symptoms were favorable. Of the patients 73 per cent were primarily free of symptoms during treatment and 45 per cent remained free of symptoms after withdrawal of treatment, including two-thirds in whom re-education persisted during the followup of 6 years. Of the patients with genuine stress incontinence 40 per cent exhibited persistent re-education. There were considerable discrepancies between symptomatic cure or improvement, and the urodynamic findings at followup. Intravaginal electrical stimulation may be regarded as the treatment of choice for urge incontinence due to detrusor instability, and in mixed stress and urge incontinence. The method also is an alternative to an operation in some women with genuine stress incontinence.

  9. Urinary incontinence in the bitch: an update.

    PubMed

    Reichler, I M; Hubler, M

    2014-06-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI), defined as the involuntary loss of urine during the filling phase of the bladder (Abrams et al. 2002), is a commonly seen problem in veterinary practice. Urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after spaying is the most common micturition disorder, and its medical treatment is normally successful, even though the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood. Hormonal changes inducing structural and functional alterations in the bladder, as well as in the urethra composition, are discussed. To manage incontinent patients successfully, possible underlying abnormalities besides USMI should be ruled out. In the majority of cases, history, physical examination and simple tests including urinalysis and urine bacterial culture lead to a presumed aetiology. If USMI is the most likely cause, then the advantage of further diagnostic tests should be discussed with the owner before starting a trial therapy with alpha-adrenergic drugs. Potential side effects of this therapy have to be mentioned even though they rarely occur. It is important to thoroughly evaluate the success of the initial treatment. Its failure should lead to further diagnostic testing. Specialized clinical assessments may provide an aetiological diagnosis, and this could serve as a basis for discussing further treatment options. Surgical procedures, which may in rare cases cause irreversible side effects, may be instituted. If incontinence reoccurs after initial treatment was successfully performed, the diagnostic work-up including urinalysis should always be repeated. As results of urinalysis did not correlate well with results of bacterial culture, a urine culture is recommended (Comer and Ling 1981). Cystocentesis is the preferred method of urine collection (Bartges 2004). Equivocal results of quantitative cultures of urine samples obtained during midstream voiding or by catheterization require repeat collection by cystocentesis (Comer and Ling 1981).

  10. Sacral nerve stimulation for urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. SACRAL NERVE STIMULATION Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is implanted in the abdomen or buttock to stimulate the sacral nerves in an

  11. Factors associated with urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, J W; Voyle, G J; Sweetnam, P M; Milbank, J; Richards, C J; Stephenson, T P

    1982-03-01

    Possible aetiological factors for urinary incontinence were examined in a prevalence study among a random sample of 1000 women aged 18 and over. Infective factors were not markedly associated with incontinence but mechanical factors such as parity and obesity were. No association was found, however, between a history of perineal damage at childbirth and incontinence. Women with incontinence had on average a higher score for a 'neuroticism' trait elicited by questionnaire than women without the disorder.

  12. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  13. [Stress incontinence in elderly women].

    PubMed

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P

    2013-06-01

    Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women.

  14. Findings of universal cystoscopy at incontinence surgery and their sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Zyczynski, Halina M.; Sirls, Larry T.; Greer, W. Jerod; Rahn, David D.; Casiano, Elizabeth; Norton, Peggy; Kim, Hae-Young; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report the frequency of abnormal cystoscopy at incontinence surgery and to identify risk factors and sequelae of injury. STUDY DESIGN Findings of cystoscopy were collected prospectively in 3 multicenter surgical trials. Clinical, demographic, and procedure characteristics and surgeon experience were analyzed for association with iatrogenic injury and noninjury abnormalities. Impact of abnormalities on continence outcomes and adverse events during 12 months after the procedure were assessed. RESULTS Abnormal findings in the bladder or urethra were identified in 95 of 1830 women (5.2%). Most injuries (75.8%) were iatrogenic. Lower urinary tract (LUT) injury was most common at retropubic urethropexy and retropubic midurethral sling procedures (MUS; 6.4% each), followed by autologous pubovaginal sling procedures (1.7%) and transobturator MUS (0.4%). Increasing age (56.9 vs 51.9 years; P = .04), vaginal deliveries (3.2 vs 2.6; P = .04), and blood loss (393 vs 218 mL; P=.01) were associated with LUT injury during retropubic urethropexy; however, only age (62.9 vs 51.4 years; P = .02) and smoking history (P = .04) were associated for pubovaginal sling procedures. No factors correlated with increased risk of injury at retropubic and transobturator MUS. Notably, previous incontinence surgery, concomitant procedures, anesthesia type, and trainee participation did not increase LUT injury frequency. Although discharge with an indwelling catheter was more common after trocar perforation compared with the noninjury group (55.6% vs 18.5%; P < .001), they did not differ in overall success, voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infections, or urge urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION Universal cystoscopy at incontinence surgery detects abnormalities in 1 in 20 women. Urinary trocar perforations that are addressed intraoperatively have no long-term adverse sequelae. PMID:24380742

  15. Surgery for faecal incontinence in adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven R; Wadhawan, Himanshu; Nelson, Richard L

    2010-09-08

    Faecal incontinence is a debilitating problem with significant medical, social and economic implications. Treatment options include conservative, non-operative interventions (e.g. pelvic floor muscle training, biofeedback, drugs) and surgical procedures. A surgical procedure may be aimed at correcting an obvious mechanical defect, or augmenting a functionally deficient but structurally intact sphincter complex. To assess the effects of surgical techniques for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults who do not have rectal prolapse. Our aim was firstly to compare surgical management with non-surgical management and secondly, to compare the various surgical techniques. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 26 November 2009), the Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Group Specialised Register (searched 26 November 2009), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009) and EMBASE (1 January 1998 to 30 June 2009) were undertaken. The British Journal of Surgery (1 January 1995 to 30 June 2009) Colorectal Diseases (1 January 2000 to 30 June 2009) and the Diseases of the Colon and Rectum (1 January 1995 to 30 June 2009) were specifically handsearched. The proceedings of the UK Association of Coloproctology meeting held from 1999 to 2009 were perused. Reference lists of all relevant articles were searched for further trials. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of surgery in the management of adult faecal incontinence (other than surgery for rectal prolapse). Three reviewers independently selected studies from the literature, assessed the methodological quality of eligible trials and extracted data. The three primary outcome measures were: change or deterioration in incontinence, failure to achieve full continence, and the presence of faecal urgency. Thirteen trials were included with a total sample size of 440 participants. Two trials included a group managed non-surgically. One trial compared levator with anal plug electrostimulation

  16. Inpatient Mental Health Recapture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-07

    Administration Graduate Management Project Proposal Inpatient Mental Health Recapture A Business Case Analysis at Evans Army Community Hospital Fort Carson...This report provides a basis for evaluating potential costs and savings associated with relocation of inpatient mental health services to Evans...Recommendations Evans Army Community Hospital is currently hemorrhaging money for inpatient mental health services within the Colorado Springs

  17. Urinary incontinence: is cesarean delivery protective?

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid

    2006-10-01

    About half of all women develop transient urinary incontinence during pregnancy. Three months postpartum, the prevalence and incidence rates of urinary incontinence are 9% to 31% and 7% to 15%, respectively. Antenatal incontinence increases the risk of postpartum incontinence, which in turn increases the risk of long-term persistent incontinence. After the first delivery, women delivered vaginally have two-fold more incontinence than those delivered by cesarean. The protective effect of cesarean on urinary incontinence may dissipate after further deliveries, decreases with age, and is not present in older women. Data are mixed about whether cesarean done before labor confers greater protection than cesarean done after labor. To understand the true impact of cesarean delivery on urinary incontinence, future studies must compare incontinence by planned (not actual) delivery modes, consider a woman's entire reproductive career, focus on leakage severe enough to be problematic, consider other bladder symptoms as well as incontinence, and take into account other risk factors, particularly antepartum urinary incontinence.

  18. Medicare program; FY 2014 inpatient prospective payment systems: changes to certain cost reporting procedures related to disproportionate share hospital uncompensated care payments. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2013-10-03

    : In the fiscal year (FY) 2014 inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS)/long-term care hospital (LTCH) PPS final rule, we established the methodology for determining the amount of uncompensated care payments made to hospitals eligible for the disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payment adjustment in FY 2014 and a process for making interim and final payments. This interim final rule with comment period revises certain operational considerations for hospitals with Medicare cost reporting periods that span more than one Federal fiscal year and also makes changes to the data that will be used in the uncompensated care payment calculation in order to ensure that data from Indian Health Service (IHS) hospitals are included in Factor 1 and Factor 3 of that calculation.

  19. Use of Sacral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Overlapping Constipation and Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Sreepati, Gouri; James-Stevenson, Toyia

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 51 Final Diagnosis: Fecal incontinence Symptoms: Constipation • fecal incontinence Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Sacral nerve stimulator Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Fecal incontinence and constipation are common gastrointestinal complaints, but rarely occur concurrently. Management of these seemingly paradoxical processes is challenging, as treatment of one symptom may exacerbate the other. Case Report: A 51-year-old female with lifelong neurogenic bladder secondary to spina bifida occulta presented with progressive symptoms of daily urge fecal incontinence as well as hard bowel movements associated with straining and a sensation of incomplete evacuation requiring manual disimpaction. Pelvic floor testing showed poor ability to squeeze the anal sphincter, which indicated sphincter weakness as a major contributor to her fecal incontinence symptoms. Additionally, on defecography she was unable to widen her posterior anorectal angle or relax the anal sphincter during defecation consistent with dyssynergic defecation. A sacral nerve stimulator was placed for management of her fecal incontinence. Interestingly, her constipation also dramatically improved with sacral neuromodulation. Conclusions: This unique case highlights the emerging role of sacral nerve stimulation in the treatment of complex pelvic floor dysfunction with improvement in symptoms beyond fecal incontinence in a patient with dyssynergic-type constipation. PMID:28265107

  20. Post-stroke urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Z; Birns, J; Bhalla, A

    2013-11-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the current evidence on post-stroke urinary incontinence. An electronic database search was performed to identify relevant studies and review articles related to Urinary Incontinence (UI) in the stroke population between the years 1966 and 2012. Urinary incontinence following stroke is a common problem affecting more than one-third of acute stroke patients and persisting in up to a quarter at 1 year. It is well established that this condition is a strong marker of stroke severity and is associated with poorer functional outcomes and increased institutionalisation and mortality rates compared with those who remain continent. Despite evidence linking better outcomes to those patients who regain continence, the results of national audits have demonstrated that the management of UI following stroke is suboptimal, with less than two-thirds of stroke units having a documented plan to promote continence. Current evidence supports a thorough assessment to categorise the type and severity of post-stroke urinary incontinence. An individually tailored, structured management strategy to promote continence should be employed. This has been associated with better stroke outcomes and should be the aim of all stroke health professionals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Some Observations on the Surgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Millin, Terence

    1939-01-01

    Types: A. Essential. B. Paradoxical. C. False. D. True. True incontinence.—A. Congenital: (a) Developmental abnormalities. (b) Malformations of nervous system. B. Acquired: (a) Local abnormalities. (b) False passages. (c) Disturbance of innervation. Anatomy of sphincteric mechanism in male and female. Diagnosis: Need for careful investigation including cysto-urethroscopy, cysto-urethrography, and cysto-manometry. Treatment: A. Physiotherapy. B. Direct surgical repair. C. Surgical diversion of urine. Types of true incontinence amenable to direct surgical repair: A. Epispadias. B. Aberrant ureteric ostia. C. Fistulæ. D. Congenital or acquired defective sphincteric mechanism. Operative treatment of vesico-vaginal fistulæ. Transvesical operation for cure of congenitally defective sphincteric mechanism—report of seven cases. Stress incontinence.—Value of urethrograms to ascertain nature of defect. Operative treatment. Incontinence following prostatic surgery.—Types of operation advocated. New operative procedure utilizing ribbon catgut with demonstrative moving picture. ImagesFig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19991939

  2. Advances in the surgical treatment of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Person, Benjamin; Wexner, Steven D

    2005-03-01

    Although surgery for fecal incontinence has been shown to be effective, it is still very challenging and sometimes frustrating. Overlapping sphincteroplasty, by far the most common procedure, is effective in patients with sphincter defects; however, recent data suggest that success rates tend to deteriorate over time. A thorough preoperative evaluation incorporates numerous factors, including patient characteristics, severity of incontinence, type and size of the sphincter defect as assessed by physical examination, anal ultrasound, and anorectal physiology studies including anal manometry, electromyography, and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency assessment. The use of these evaluation methods has allowed better patient assignment for a variety of new alternative treatment options. Innovations in the surgical treatment of fecal incontinence range from simple, office-based sphincter augmentation techniques to surgical implantation of mechanical devices. This article reviews 5 alternative surgical treatment options for fecal incontinence: injection of carbon-coated beads in the submucosa of the anal canal, radiofrequency energy delivery, stimulated graciloplasty, artificial bowel sphincter, and sacral nerve stimulation.

  3. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marchetti-Krantz (MMK) procedure; Laparoscopic retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension ... bladder. There are two ways to do retropubic suspension: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. Either way, surgery ...

  4. [Therapy for urinary incontinence in general practice].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, A; Füsgen, I

    2009-08-01

    In national and international guidelines the general practitioner plays an important role in the diagnosis and first-line therapy for urinary incontinence. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data concerning details of the management of incontinence in primary care in Germany. Therefore a series of nationwide educational events for general practitioners and gynaecologists was used to perform a survey dealing with the situation of urinary incontinence in general practice. With 2530 questionnaires filled out and returned, this is the largest European survey on this subject. General practitioners declare in 57.3 % to be often involved with urinary incontinence. They usually question elderly patients about urinary incontinence (73.7 %) or those patients with diseases carrying the risk of developing urinary incontinence (64.9 %). Based on the diagnostic options in primary care, an incontinence anamnesis and urine evaluation are performed. A sonography or micturition diary was more infrequent in primary care in this survey. General practitioners most frequent refer the patient to a specialist (76.6 %) or prescribe the incontinence-type anticholinergic drugs (59.4 %) or absorbent products (45.4 %); duloxetine (27.3 %) is less frequently prescribed. The knowledge about urinary incontinence is gained in educational events (72.2 %); the course of studies was the source of incontinence skills for general practitioners only in 35 %. In conclusion, this survey gives a realistic view on the incontinence management in primary care in Germany. The majority of general practitioners are engaged in incontinence, perform basic diagnostic features and prescribe drugs or absorbent products. The course of (university medical school) studies as a source of skills to diagnose or to treat incontinence should be improved.

  5. [Efficacy of PTQ agent in the treatment of faecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Gaj, Fabio; Trecca, Antonello; Crispino, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    Faecal incontinence caused by a weak or disrupted internal anal sphincter is common and the efficacy of current treatments for this condition is poor. This study evaluated the short- and long-term effects of injections of silicone biomaterials (PTQ) commonly used to increase anal internal sphincter resistance. A total of 16 patients with a mean age of 66 years affected by faecal incontinence with a low anal resistance to the pressure due to previous surgery of the pelvic region were submitted to intra-sphincteric PTQ injections. The effects of the treatment on the symptoms associated with faecal incontinence and on quality of life were evaluated with the American Medical System Score and with anal ultrasound at 3 months and one year after the procedures in comparison with the scores calculated at entry. At 3 months from the procedure, anal ultrasound confirmed that PTQ injections had been correctly performed without material migration to other regions. Faecal continence was significantly improved but more efficacy was found one year after the injections. The American Medical System Score calculated one year after the procedures was significantly improved in comparison with the scores calculated at entry. During the follow-up the Authors did not observe any significant complications. PTQ injections significantly improved faecal continence and consequently the quality of life of patients with sphincter dysfunctions.

  6. The coexistence of anal incontinence in women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Murat; Kupelioglu, L C; Yasar, L; Savan, K; Akcig, Z; Ozcan, A J

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the coexistentence of anal incontinence (AI) in patients with urinary incontinence (UI). UDI 6 questionnaire was applied to consecutive 800 patients for the determination of symptomatic UI. Cases were also questioned for AI. The patients with the complaint of UI were evaluated for the coexistence of AI. Each patient with AI, had completed the Cleveland Clinic Florida Fecal Incontinence questionnaire for the determination of the severity of AI. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the evaluation of qualitative data. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression was done to test the overall significance of all variables that were significantly associated with UI using univariate analysis. There were 233 (29.1%) cases of UI and 105 (13.1%) cases of AI. 60 (7.5%) of these patients were suffering from both UI and AI. 60 (57.1%) of 105 patients with AI also had UI. In patients with UI, the coexistence of AI was found in 25.7%. There was a positive correlation between UI and AI (R = 0.240, Chi-square P < 0.001). In logistic regression model, AI [(OR) 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.26, 5.49], parity and episiotomy were found to be associated with UI. Parity and vaginal delivery by episiotomy were risk factors for the occurrence of AI. AI is positively correlated with UI patients. Symptoms of AI must be questioned in all gynecology patients. Unnecessary episiotomy should be avoided.

  7. Role of antimuscarinics in the treatment of nonneurogenic daytime urinary incontinence in children.

    PubMed

    Nijman, Rien J M

    2004-03-01

    Idiopathic or "functional" urinary incontinence in children--incontinence with no known neurologic or anatomic cause--may take the form of urge incontinence, the most common type of incontinence, which is characterized by detrusor overactivity during the filling phase, or dysfunctional voiding. The latter may be classified as staccato voiding (periodic bursts of pelvic floor activity with prolonged voiding and, in some cases, residual urine), interrupted voiding (insufficient bladder emptying, infrequent voiding with several phases of micturition), or "lazy bladder" syndrome (infrequent voiding and large bladder capacity). The etiology of functional incontinence is unknown. Theories include genetic predisposition, recurrent urinary tract infections, immaturity or too-early toilet training, and sexual abuse. A severe form of urge incontinence, nonneurogenic neurogenic (Hinman) bladder, may be the end stage of dysfunctional voiding, but an occult neurologic component should also be considered. Diagnostic procedures recommended for children with urinary incontinence include careful history taking, a voiding diary, and physical examination to identify symptoms and to minimize the need for invasive procedures. Treatments include behavioral modification, biofeedback, antibiotics, anticholinergics, counseling, and neuromodulation. The antimuscarinics oxybutynin and tolterodine are, at present, the most commonly used drugs to treat incontinence. Common side effects with these agents (ie, reduced saliva production and worsening constipation) can be severe and can cause up to 10% of children using oxybutynin to discontinue treatment. Current evidence suggests that tolterodine may have a more favorable safety profile than oxybutynin. In addition, new antimuscarinics in the pipeline, eg, darifenacin and solifenacin, are expected to possess more favorable safety and tolerability profiles and may therefore help to alleviate these limitations.

  8. High Costs of Urinary Incontinence Among Women Electing Surgery to Treat Stress Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Brubaker, Linda; Chai, Toby C.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Diokno, Ananias C.; Goode, Patricia S.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Kusek, John W.; Leng, Wendy W.; Lukacz, Emily S.; Norton, Peggy; Tennstedt, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate costs for incontinence management, health-related quality of life, and willingness to pay for incontinence improvement in women electing surgery for stress urinary incontinence. METHODS A total of 655 incontinent women enrolled in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy Trial, a randomized surgical trial. Baseline out-of-pocket costs for incontinence management were calculated by multiplying self-report of resources used (supplies, laundry, dry cleaning) by national resource costs ($2006). Health-related quality of life was estimated with the Health Utilities Index Mark 3. Participants estimated willingness to pay for 100% improvement in incontinence. Potential predictors of these outcomes were examined by using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS Mean age was 52±10 years, and mean number of weekly incontinence episodes was 22±21. Mean and median (25%, 75% interquartile range) estimated personal costs for incontinence management among all women were $14±$24 and $8 (interquartile range $3, $18) per week, and 617 (94%) women reported any cost. Costs increased significantly with incontinence frequency and mixed compared with stress incontinence. The mean and median Health Utilities Index Mark 3 scores were 0.73±0.25 and 0.84 (interquartile range 0.63, 0.92). Women were willing to pay a mean of $118±$132 per month for complete resolution of incontinence, and willingness to pay increased significantly with greater expected incontinence improvement, household income, and incontinent episode frequency. CONCLUSION Urinary incontinence is associated with substantial costs. Women spent nearly $750 per year out of pocket for incontinence management, had a significant decrement in quality of life, and were willing to pay nearly $1,400 per year for cure. PMID:18378749

  9. Fecal Incontinence: Etiology, Evaluation, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Dana M.; Weiss, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a debilitating problem facing ~2.2% of the U.S. general population over 65 years of age. Etiologic factors include traumatic, neurologic, congenital, and iatrogenic. Most commonly, obstetric trauma causes fecal incontinence as well as poorly performed anorectal surgery or pelvic radiation. Several severity scores and quality of life indexes have been developed to quantify incontinent symptoms. There are several nonsurgical and surgical options for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Biofeedback is among the most successful nonoperative strategies. Depending on the cause, anal sphincter repair, artificial bowel sphincter, and sacral nerve stimulation are used to treat fecal incontinence with some success. Unfortunately, fecal incontinence is an extremely difficult problem to manage: there has not been one, single treatment option that has proven to be both safe and effective in long-term studies. PMID:22379407

  10. [Urinary incontinence in patients with acute ictus].

    PubMed

    Suñer Soler, R; Vega Iñigo, R; García Garrido, L; García Gutiérrez, T; Mascort Toral, Z; Segura Martín, T; Dávalos Errando, A

    2000-02-01

    This project won the "Ausonia" Incontinence First Prize among those projects submitted during 1999. This article analyzes the prevalence of urinary incontinence among patients diagnosed as suffering acute ictus after 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. The authors also investigate those factors associated with acute ictus incontinence, how incontinence influences a patient's evolution, and how incontinence affects the environment where recuperation occurs, at home or in an institution, while the patient is recovering. The results confirm that acute urinary incontinence is a forecasting factor, independent of the poor middle and long range functional prognosis, and that the potential prognosis is superior than the seriousness of the neurological deficit at the moment a patient enters a hospital.

  11. [Female urinary incontinence: An update].

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz de León, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; Jalón-Monzón, A; García-Rodríguez, J

    2017-03-16

    The urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom in the adult female population. It has important psychosocial and economic connotations, and affects the quality of life of these patients. As it is an under-diagnosed problem due to patients not always consulting for it, it is very important to keep this in mind and to provide an opportunistic screening from Primary Health Care. It is difficult to determine the costs of this, but it is estimated to be the 2% of the health budget. Because of all of this, it is very important to know how to make a correct diagnose of this condition, to determine the different types of incontinence, possible causes, and treatments available. The purpose of this review is to show the different diagnostic and therapeutic tools available, to show the Primary Health Care role in this condition, and when to refer to specialist care.

  12. Conservative treatment for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Anal incontinence (AI) in adults is a troublesome condition that negatively impacts upon quality of life and results in significant embarrassment and social isolation. The conservative management of AI is the first step and targets symptomatic relief. The reported significant improvement with conservative treatments for AI is close to 25% and involves prescribed changes in lifestyle habits, a reduced intake of foods that may cause or aggravate diarrhea or rectal urgency, and the use of specific anti-diarrheal agents. The use of a mechanical barrier in the form of an anal plug and the outcomes and principles of pelvic kinesitherapies and biofeedback options are outlined. This review discusses a gastroenterologist's approach towards conservative therapy in patients referred with anal incontinence. PMID:24759347

  13. EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Thüroff, Joachim W; Abrams, Paul; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Artibani, Walter; Chapple, Christopher R; Drake, Marcus J; Hampel, Christian; Neisius, Andreas; Schröder, Annette; Tubaro, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    The first European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on incontinence were published in 2001. These guidelines were periodically updated in past years. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of the 2009 update of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence (UI). The EAU working panel was part of the 4th International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI) and, with permission of the ICI, extracted the relevant data. The methodology of the 4th ICI was a comprehensive literature review by international experts and consensus formation. In addition, level of evidence was rated according to a modified Oxford system and grades of recommendation were given accordingly. A full version of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence is available as a printed document (extended and short form) and as a CD-ROM from the EAU office or online from the EAU Web site (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The extent and invasiveness of assessment of UI depends on severity and/or complexity of symptoms and clinical signs and is different for men, women, frail older persons, children, and patients with neuropathy. At the level of initial management, basic diagnostic tests are applied to exclude an underlying disease or condition such as urinary tract infection. Treatment is mostly conservative (lifestyle interventions, physiotherapy, physical therapy, pharmacotherapy) and is of an empirical nature. At the level of specialised management (when primary therapy failed, diagnosis is unclear, or symptoms and/or signs are complex/severe), more elaborate assessment is generally required, including imaging, endoscopy, and urodynamics. Treatment options include invasive interventions and surgery. Treatment options for UI are rapidly expanding. These EAU guidelines provide ratings of the evidence (guided by evidence-based medicine) and graded recommendations for the appropriate assessment and according treatment options and put them into clinical perspective. Copyright

  14. [EAU Guidelines on Urinary Incontinence].

    PubMed

    Thüroff, J W; Abrams, P; Andersson, K-E; Artibani, W; Chapple, C R; Drake, M J; Hampel, C; Neisius, A; Schröder, A; Tubaro, A

    2011-01-01

    The first European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on incontinence were published in 2001. These guidelines were periodically updated in past years. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of the 2009 update of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence (UI). The EAU working panel was part of the 4th International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI) and, with permission of the ICI, extracted the relevant data. The methodology of the 4th ICI was a comprehensive literature review by international experts and consensus formation. In addition, level of evidence was rated according to a modified Oxford system and grades of recommendation were given accordingly. A full version of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence is available as a printed document (extended and short form) and as a CD-ROM from the EAU office or online from the EAU Web site (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The extent and invasiveness of assessment of UI depends on severity and/or complexity of symptoms and clinical signs and is different for men, women, frail older persons, children, and patients with neuropathy. At the level of initial management, basic diagnostic tests are applied to exclude an underlying disease or condition such as urinary tract infection. Treatment is mostly conservative (lifestyle interventions, physiotherapy, physical therapy, pharmacotherapy) and is of an empirical nature. At the level of specialised management (when primary therapy failed, diagnosis is unclear, or symptoms and/or signs are complex/severe),more elaborate assessment is generally required, including imaging, endoscopy, and urodynamics. Treatment options include invasive interventions and surgery. Treatment options for UI are rapidly expanding. These EAU guidelines provide ratings of the evidence (guided by evidence-based medicine) and graded recommendations for the appropriate assessment and according treatment options and put them into clinical perspective. Copyright

  15. [The artificial sphincter: therapy for faecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, U

    2012-08-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) challenges a patient's professional, social and sexual life. Often the patient becomes depressive and socially isolated. If able to break open for therapy the patient should receive as first line a conservative treatment (like dietary measures, pelvic re-education, biofeedback, bulking agents, irrigation). When is the time to implant an artificial anal sphincter? If conservative therapy fails as well as surgical options (like a sphincteroplasty - if indicated a reconstruction of the pelvic floor if insufficient, or a sacral nerve stimulation) an ultimo surgical procedure should be offered to appropriate and compliant patients: an artificial anal sphincter. Worldwide, there are two established devices on the market: the artificial bowel sphincter® (ABS) from A. M. S. (Minnetonka, MN, USA) and the soft anal band® from A. M. I. (Feldkirch, Austria). How to implant the artificial anal sphincter? Both devices consist of a silicon cuff which can be filled with fluid. Under absolute aseptic conditions this cuff is placed in the lithotomy position by perianal incisions around the anal canal below the pelvic floor. A silicon tube connects the anal cuff with a reservoir (containing fluid) which is placed either behind the pubis bone in front of the bladder (ABS) or below the costal arch (anal band). With a pump placed in the scrotum/labia (ABS) or by pressing the balloon (anal band) in both types operated by the patient the fluid is shifted forth and back between the anal cuff and the reservoir closing or opening the anal canal. Both systems are placed completely subcutaneously. Both devices improve significantly the anal continence. Both systems have a high rate of reoperations. However, the causes for the redos are different. The ABS is associated with high infection and anal penetration rates of the cuff leading to an explantation rate to up to 60 % of the implants. This kind of complication seems to be much lower with the anal band. The major

  16. Discreet products for women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Evans, Debra

    It is estimated that 10 million women in the UK suffer with urinary incontinence (Hunskarr et al, 2004). Many women consider bladder weakness to be an inevitable consequence of childbirth or the menopause. Haslam (2004) reported on a telephone survey that examined whether women were aware of stress urinary incontinence, their attitude to it and the impact it had on their daily lives. In the UK, 505 women were interviewed, 206 of whom responded positively to a question about symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, giving a prevalence rate of 41 per cent. There is also evidence that most patients with urinary incontinence do not present to their doctors

  17. [Use of a micturition-monitoring device in elderly inpatients].

    PubMed

    Toba, K; Sudo, N; Nagano, K; Eto, M; Kozaki, K; Akishita, M; Hashimoto, M; Yumita, K; Hara, M; Fukushima, M; Orimo, H; Ouchi, Y

    1996-09-01

    More than 100,000 people suffer from functional urinary incontinence in Japan. To improve the quality of life of these people, we tested a device for monitoring micturition by means of a thin-layer membrane sensor in a diaper. The device was tested in elderly inpatients, and associated changes in the wordload of the nursing staff were also recorded. The device was beneficial because the precise micturition time was easily obtained and thus the daily pattern of micturition became obvious. With the use of this device, the time during which the patients wore wet diapers was shorter than with the conventional system of scheduled changes. However, the increase in the frequency of diaper changed doubled the workload of the nursing staff. In conclusion, improving the quality of life with regard to urinary incontinence entails an increase in the workload of the nursing staff; efficient distribution of that work may require some staff members to devote all their time to changing diapers.

  18. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Hellen Cristina de Almeida; Reiners, Annelita Almeida Oliveira; Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Abreu, Débora Regina de Oliveira Moura; de Oliveira, Adriana Delmondes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25), polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05), visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23), gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14), urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44) and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39) and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event. PMID:26083943

  19. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence with a generic transobturator tape.

    PubMed

    Abougamrah, Amgad; Ibrahim, Moustafa; Elsabaa, Haitham; Ellaithy, Mohamed; Sweed, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a generic tape tailored from type 1 monofilamentous, macroporous polypropylene mesh during transobturator tape (TOT) surgery. A prospective study was performed in a tertiary center in Cairo, Egypt, between July 2004 and December 2013. Women with stress urinary incontinence scheduled for TOT surgery using the outside-in technique were recruited. Monarc tape was used in all patients until November 2005, after which it was used for patients who could afford it only; generic tape was used in the other patients. The primary outcome measures were the objective and subjective cure rates. Overall, 431 women were included in analyses. After 5 years of follow-up, objective cure was achieved in 143 (94.1%) of 152 women who received Monarc tape and 249 (89.2%) of 279 who received the generic tape (P=0.135). Subjective cure was achieved in 121 (79.6%) women who received the Monarc tape and 236 (84.6%) women who received the generic tape (P=0.229). There were no significant between-group differences in postoperative urgency, de novo urgency, urge incontinence, voiding dysfunction, urinary retention, vaginal erosion, or the frequency of TOT-related reoperation or repeat anti-incontinence procedures. The TOT outside-in procedure can be easily, safely, and effectively performed in low-resource settings using a generic polypropylene tape. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urological disorders in men: urinary incontinence and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan W; Miller, Mindi S

    2011-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are 2 common urogenital problems in men. UI is associated with involuntary leakage of urine and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Types of UI include functional, urge, stress, and overflow. Treatment for UI is based on the type of incontinence, patient-specific factors, and treatment preferences of both patients and health care providers. Options for the management of UI include environmental modifications, disposable incontinence products, pelvic floor exercises, pharmacotherapy, surgically implanted devices, and intermittent catheterization. BPH may be also associated with LUTS. Patient symptoms, assessed with a measurement tool such as the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI), serve as the basis for determining treatment. Management approaches for BPH include pharmacotherapy, surgery, and minimally invasive procedures. Anticholinergic drugs as well as α-receptor antagonists and 5-α reductase inhibitors, either alone or in combination, are effective and useful for LUTS unresponsive to traditional pharmacotherapy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) can eliminate symptoms of BPH but is associated with relatively more complications than other available surgical and minimally invasive procedures.

  1. Hysterectomy and urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Bela I; Shveiky, David; Gutman, Robert E; Jacoby, Vanessa; Sokol, Andrew I; Rodabough, Rebecca; Howard, Barabara V; Blanchette, Patricia; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate an association between hysterectomy and urinary incontinence (UI) in postmenopausal women. Women (aged 50-79) with uteri (N = 53,569) and without uteri (N = 38,524) who enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study between 1993 and 1996 were included in this secondary analysis. Baseline (BL) and 3-year demographic, health/physical forms and personal habit questionnaires were used. Statistical analyses included univariate and logistic regression methods. The baseline UI rate was 66.5 %, with 27.3 % of participants having stress urinary incontinence (SUI), 23 % having urge UI (UUI), and 12.4 % having mixed UI (MUI). 41.8 % of women had undergone hysterectomy, with 88.1 % having had the procedure before age 54. Controlling for health/physical variables, hysterectomy was associated with UI at BL (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.19, 1.32) and over the 3-year study period (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.11, 1.36). Excluding women with UI at BL, a higher incidence of UUI and SUI episodes was found in hysterectomy at year 3. Among women who had undergone hysterectomy, those with bilateral oophorectomy (BSO) did not have increased odds of developing UI at BL or over the 3-year study period. Hormone use was not associated with a change in UI incidence (estrogen + progesterone, p = 0.17; unopposed estrogen, p = 0.41). Risk of UI is increased in postmenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy compared with women with uteri.

  2. Treatment Options for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Eric S; Wein, Alan J

    2004-01-01

    Treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women are designed to prevent the involuntary loss of urine from the urethra during increases in intraabdominal pressure that occur during physical activity, coughing, or sneezing. Effective nonsurgical therapies include behavioral therapy (eg, bladder training, fluid and dietary modification) and drug therapy. Surgical therapy for this condition has existed for well over 100 years. Currently, approximately 200 different surgical procedures have been described. Because of the physiologic risks inherent in surgical procedures, the cost of hospitalization, and the loss of productivity during convalescence, surgeons continue to modify their techniques to improve efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness, and to minimize invasiveness. No single procedure or intervention is optimal for all patients. Having a variety of treatment options offers the possibility of tailoring therapy to the desires and needs of the individual patient. The key to an optimal therapeutic outcome is an accurate diagnosis combined with the selection of an appropriate intervention that is acceptable to the patient after balancing multiple factors. PMID:16985862

  3. Incontinence in persons with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander; Equit, Monika; Medoff, David; Wagner, Catharina; Curfs, Leopold

    2017-08-01

    To assess the rates of incontinence and associated psychological problems in children, adolescents and adults with Down Syndrome, a genetic syndrome caused by partial or complete triplication (trisomy) of chromosome 21 and characterized by typical facial features, a physical growth delay and mild or moderate intellectual disability. Three hundred and seventeen persons with Down Syndrome (4-51 years) were recruited through a German parent support group (59.6% male, mean age 19.2 years). The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, the Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, as well as the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC) for parents or for adults were filled out by parents or care-givers. 17.2% of the sample had nocturnal enuresis, 15.9% had daytime urinary incontinence, and 14.2% had fecal incontinence. Incontinence was present in 64.0% of young children (4-12 years), 10.3% of teens (13-17 years), 12.8% of young adults (18-30 years) and in 22.4% of older adults (>30 years). 13.6% of children and 8.4% of adults had a DBC score in the clinical range. 19.5% of children and 27.8% of adults with incontinence had behavioral problems. There was a significant association between nocturnal enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence and clinical DBC scores in adults. Incontinence in Down Syndrome is mainly present in young children and increases in older adults. Behavioral comorbidity is associated with incontinence only in adults with Down Syndrome. Screening and treatment of incontinence in individuals with Down Syndrome is recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hispanic Inpatient Pain Intensity.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Deborah Dillon; Ambrose, Margaret; Morey, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Hispanic adults experience significant pain, but little is known about their pain during hospitalization. The purpose of this research was to describe Hispanic inpatients' pain intensity and compare their pain intensity with that of non-Hispanic patients. A post hoc descriptive design was used to examine 1,466 Hispanic inpatients' medical records (63.2% English speakers) and 12,977 non-Hispanic inpatients' medical records from one hospital for 2012. Mean documented pain intensity was mild for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic inpatients. Pain intensity was greater for English-speaking Hispanic patients than Spanish speakers. The odds of being documented with moderate or greater pain intensity decreased 30% for Spanish-speaking patients. Greater pain intensity documented for English-speaking Hispanic inpatients suggests underreporting of pain intensity by Spanish-speaking patients. Practitioners should use interpreter services when assessing and treating pain with patients who speak languages different from the practitioners' language(s).

  5. Urinary incontinence: the role of menopause.

    PubMed

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzman; Mann, Kristy Pamela; Dietz, Hans P

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of menopause and hormone therapy on the symptoms and signs of stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Records of women who attended a tertiary urogynecological unit were reviewed retrospectively. A standardized interview included evaluations of symptoms, menopause age (ie, time since last menstrual period or onset of menopausal symptoms), current or previous hormone use, and visual analogue scales for bother. Multichannel urodynamics, including urethral pressure profilometry and determination of abdominal leak point pressure, was performed. Of 382 women seen during the inclusion period, 62% were postmenopausal. Current systemic or local hormone use was reported by 7% and 6%, respectively. Two hundred eighty-eight women (76%) reported symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 5.7, and 273 women (72%) reported symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 6.4. On univariate analysis, symptoms and bother of urge incontinence were significantly related to menopause age, whereas this relationship was not found for stress incontinence. After calendar age was controlled for, length of menopause showed no significant relationship with any symptom or sign of urinary incontinence. Hormone deficiency after menopause is unlikely to play a major role in urinary incontinence.

  6. Giggle incontinence: Evolution of concept and treatment.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bridget Linehan; Blais, Samantha

    2017-06-07

    Giggle incontinence is a sudden and involuntary episode of urinary incontinence that is provoked by an episode of laughter. Decades of case studies and small research studies have formed the basis of what is known about giggle incontinence; however, much remains unknown about this type of incontinence, leaving the recommendations for clinical management somewhat unguided. A systematic review of 22 articles on the topic of "giggle incontinence" and related terms was conducted, including all published articles and commentaries since the term was first seen in print in 1959. This review provides a historical context for the diagnosis, a summary of what is known about its etiology, and a summary of current treatments. There is disagreement about the pathophysiology of laughter incontinence, with two differing explanations. The first emphasizes the neurologic origin of the cascade of events during laughter and urination, and draws a likeness to cataplexy and other CNS disorders, and emphasizes treatment with methylphenidate. The second emphasizes urologic dysfunction, with biofeedback and bladder retraining as the recommended therapy. Comprehensive treatment of children with laughter incontinence requires an appreciation of both concepts. Since inception of the concept there has been question about the appropriateness of the term "giggle incontinence." This review encourages discussion among readers/clinicians about the term and the essential qualities of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  8. Managing a common dermatological problem: incontinence dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarko, Linda

    2007-08-01

    Incontinence dermatitis is an under-recognized and under-researched problem that mostly affects older people who have continence problems. Nurses who are aware of the risk factors can provide care that reduces the risk of this distressing problem. If incontinence dermatitis occurs, evidence-based care can be used to treat the person and reduce the risks of further complications.

  9. Urinary incontinence and nocturia in healthy schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, S

    1994-09-01

    A frequency/volume chart was used to investigate the micturition pattern of healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-15 years. Of 242 objectively and subjectively healthy children, incontinence was recorded by 36 (14.9%). Nocturnal enuresis, defined as at least one wet night in three months, occurred in 19 (7.9%) children and daytime incontinence occurred with the same frequency. Four girls had both symptoms. Twenty-seven (11.2%) children woke up to void during the night of the investigation but habitual nocturia was established for only 4.1%. There was no difference in the micturition pattern between continent and incontinent children, and there was no correlation between incontinence, nocturnal micturitions and recorded oral fluid intake. At a follow-up one year later, using a questionnaire administrated to the same children, a persistent high rate of incontinence confirmed the original findings.

  10. A Prospective, Descriptive, Quality Improvement Study to Decrease Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis and Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kimberly D; Clark, Rebecca C

    2015-07-01

    Incontinence is a common problem among hospitalized patients and has been associated with multiple health complications, including incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs). A prospective, descriptive study was conducted in 2 acute care neurology units to 1) assess the prevalence of incontinence and incidence of IAD and HAPUs among incontinent patients, and 2) evaluate the effect of caregiver education and use of a 1-step cleanser, moisturizer, barrier product on the development of IAD and HAPUs among patients with incontinence. During a period of 1 month, the incontinence status of admitted patients was recorded and skin was assessed for the presence/absence of IAD and HAPUs twice per day. After the 1-month data collection, all clinicians on the study units completed a facility-based online education program about IAD, HAPUs, and skin care followed by the implementation of a 1-step cleanser/barrier product for skin care of all patients with incontinence. Data collection procedures remained the same. Data were collected using a paper/pencil instrument and entered into a spreadsheet for analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated and prevalence and incidence rates were compared between the pre-intervention and post-intervention phase using Fisher's exact analysis. During the first phase of the study, 17 of 40 admitted patients (42.5%) were incontinent. Of those, 5 (29.4%) developed IAD and all of these patients developed HAPUs (5 of 40 admitted, 29.4%) during an average length of stay of 7.3 (range: 2-14) days. In the intervention phase of the study, 25 of 46 (54.3%) patients were incontinent and none developed IAD or a HAPU during an average length of stay of 7.4 (range: 2-14) days. The average Braden scale score was 14.14 in the pre-intervention group of patients with incontinence and 12.74 in the intervention group. The prevalence of incontinence among patients admitted to acute care neurology units and the rate

  11. Predicting urinary incontinence after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Jelovsek, John E

    2016-10-01

    Many women choosing to have surgery for pelvic organ prolapse also choose to undergo continence surgery. This review focuses on available evidence that clinicians may use to counsel patients when choosing whether to perform continence surgery and how predictive analytic tools improve this decision-making process. Midurethral sling, Burch cystourethropexy and bladder neck sling are highly effective for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Trials demonstrate that continence surgery may be routinely performed to reduce the risk of postoperative incontinence in women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse with or without preoperative stress urinary incontinence. Although these procedures are effective and well tolerated on average, media concerns, regulatory warnings and litigation reinforce the need for a balanced discussion regarding efficacy and potential adverse events directed at the individual patient during the preoperative visit. Advances in predictive analytics allow surgeons to quantitate individual risk using algorithms that tailor estimates for the individual patient and facilitate shared understanding of risks and benefits. These models are less prone to cognitive biases and frequently outperform experienced clinicians. This review discusses how predictive analytic tools can be used to improve decisions about continence surgery in the woman planning to undergo prolapse surgery.

  12. Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a multifactorial disorder that imposes considerable social and economic burdens. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of current and emerging treatment options for FI. A MEDLINE search was conducted for English-language articles related to FI prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment published from January 1, 1990 through June 1, 2013. The search was extended to unpublished trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and relevant publications cited in included articles. Conservative approaches, including dietary modifications, medications, muscle-strengthening exercises, and biofeedback, have been shown to provide short-term benefits. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation was considered ineffective in a randomized clinical trial. Unlike initial studies, sacral nerve stimulation has shown reasonable short-term effectiveness and some complications. Dynamic graciloplasty and artificial sphincter and bowel devices lack randomized controlled trials and have shown inconsistent results and high rates of explantation. Of injectable bulking agents, dextranomer microspheres in non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA Dx) has shown significant improvement in incontinence scores and frequency of incontinence episodes, with generally mild adverse effects. For the treatment of FI, conservative measures and biofeedback therapy are modestly effective. When conservative therapies are ineffective, invasive procedures, including sacral nerve stimulation, may be considered, but they are associated with complications and lack randomized, controlled trials. Bulking agents may be an appropriate alternative therapy to consider before more aggressive therapies in patients who fail conservative therapies. PMID:25014235

  13. Urinary Incontinence Management Costs are Reduced Following Burch or Sling Surgery for Stress Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Brubaker, Linda; Kusek, John W.; Schembri, Mr. Michael; Lukacz, Emily S.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Chai, Toby C.; Norton, Peggy; Tennstedt, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of Burch and fascial sling surgery on out-of-pocket urinary incontinence (UI) management costs at 24 months post-operatively and identify predictors of change in cost among women enrolled in a randomized trial comparing these procedures. Methods Resources used for UI management (supplies, laundry, dry cleaning) were self-reported by 491 women at baseline and 24 months post-surgery and total out-of-pocket costs for UI management (in 2012 US dollars) were estimated. Data from the two surgical groups were combined to examine change in cost for UI management over 24 months. Univariate and bivariate changes in cost were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Predictors of change in cost were examined using multivariate mixed models. Results At baseline mean (±SD) age of participants was 53±10 years, and frequency of weekly UI episodes was 23±21. Weekly UI episodes decreased by 86% at 24 months (P<0.001). Mean weekly cost was $16.60±$27 (median $9.39) at baseline and $4.57±$15 (median $0.10) at 24 months (P<0.001), a decrease of 72%. In multivariate analyses, cost decreased by $3.38±$0.77 per week for each decrease of 1 UI episode per day (P<0.001) and was strongly associated with greater improvement in UDI and IIQ scores (P<0.001) and decreased 24-hour pad weight (P<0.02). Conclusion Following Burch or fascial sling surgery, UI management cost at 24 months decreased by 72% ($625 per woman per year) and was strongly associated with decreasing UI frequency. Reduced out-of-pocket expenses may be a benefit of these established urinary incontinence procedures. PMID:24631433

  14. Nonsurgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Parker, William P; Griebling, Tomas Lindor

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in elderly women with significant associated morbidity. Incontinence can by grouped into several types: stress incontinence, urgency incontinence, overflow incontinence, functional incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. Careful evaluation, including history and physical examination, is critical to making the correct diagnosis and guiding therapy. A variety of nonsurgical treatments, including behavioral therapies, pelvic floor muscle exercise, medications, and other treatments, are available; can be successful for many older women; and may preclude the need for surgery. Working closely with the patient, understanding her goals of care, and targeting treatments accordingly are essential for success.

  15. An evaluation of two incontinence skin care protocols in a long-term care setting.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Byers, Kari; Thayer, Debra

    2002-12-01

    Caring for the skin of patients with incontinence is an essential activity in long-term care. A prospective descriptive study to compare the effect of two skin care protocols on skin condition, pain, and caregiver time was conducted. Thirty-two (32) skilled nursing facility residents with incontinence participated in the 3-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard care regimen (soap and water cleansing after each incontinence episode, followed by application of a moisturizing lotion) or study care protocol (no-rinse skin cleanser after each episode and application of a barrier cream with durable properties after the first incontinence episode of each shift). Number and type of incontinence episodes, skin condition, pain, and caregiver time spent were assessed. Skin integrity was maintained in the majority of control (69%) and study group (72%) patients and improvement occurred in 8% of control and 17% of the study group (NS). Study protocol procedures took less time to complete than control procedures (a savings of 79 minutes/patient/day). A positive correlation between pain intensity and level of skin impairment was observed (r = 0.88). The results of this study suggest that at this facility, use of soap, water, and a moisturizer may be less effective and more time-consuming than using a no-rinse cleanser and a durable barrier product.

  16. Directions for future nursing research on fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Norton, Christine A; Miller, Janis; Krissovich, Marta

    2004-01-01

    As knowledge of the prevalence and impact of fecal incontinence increases, additional research is needed to improve patient outcomes and support the practice of nurses in this area. To outline needs for future nursing research on fecal incontinence in aging adults. Existing literature about fecal incontinence was analyzed to generate a plan for future research. Recommendations for investigation were proposed in the following areas: mechanisms underlying fecal incontinence and common to fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence; assessment of fecal incontinence; management strategies; and tracking a patient's response to fecal incontinence therapies across the healthcare system. Other areas of study identified as priorities included lessening the psychological burden of fecal incontinence, preventing perineal skin problems with appropriate skin care protocols and products, and developing efficacious nursing home routines and environments. Increasing the capacity of nursing research focused on fecal incontinence through funding support and recruitment incentives for new investigators is essential to achieve the proposed agenda.

  17. Incontinence in persons with Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C; Niemczyk, J; Equit, M; Curfs, L; von Gontard, A

    2017-02-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a congenital syndrome with a prevalence of 1:15,000. Individuals with AS often have severe intellectual disability, typical dysmorphic signs, and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the rate of incontinence and associated psychological problems in children and adults with AS. Ninety children (4-18 years) and 54 adults (18-31 years) with AS were recruited through a parent support group (55.6% male, mean age 15.1 years). The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, the Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-CLUTS), as well as the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for parents (DBC-P) or for adults (DBC-A) were filled out by parents or caregivers. 85.6% of individuals with AS were affected by at least one subtype of incontinence (82.7% nocturnal enuresis (NE), 64.7% daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), and 57.1% fecal incontinence (FI)). 52.5% of the children and 32.6% of adults reached a clinically relevant DBC score. Incontinence was not associated with behavioral problems. NE and DUI were associated with genotype and epilepsy.

  18. Evaluation of the patient with incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gormley, E Ann

    2007-12-01

    The incontinent patient is evaluated in order to make a presumptive diagnosis so that treatment can be offered. The evaluation begins with a history and a physical examination. The history focuses on the description of the patient's incontinence. Assessing the patient's bother and determining their expectations of treatment may further guide how aggressive one needs to be both with the evaluation and the presentation of treatment options. The important parts of the physical exam are an examination of the abdomen and pelvis including a provocative stress test. A urinalysis and a post-void residual (PVR) should be performed in all incontinent patients. Incontinence questionnaires, voiding diaries, and pad weight tests can provide more objective data than the history alone. Upper tract imaging is indicated in the patient with a history of hematuria and in patients with suspected hydroureteronephrosis. Other imaging may be useful to further evaluate other suspected pelvic pathology. Urodynamics are performed to determine if the incontinence is due to bladder or urethral dysfunction or both, to assess if the patient has a storage or emptying problem and lastly in an effort to identify patients whose upper tracts are at risk due to high bladder storage pressures. Cystoscopy is indicated in the work up of some incontinent patients. The evaluation of the incontinent patient consists of a history, a physical, urinalysis and a post-void residual. Optional evaluative tests consist of a variety of urodynamic tests, imaging studies and cystoscopy.

  19. Social networks lack useful content for incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Goldman, Howard B

    2011-10-01

    To assess the incontinence resources readily available for patients among social networks. Social networks allow users to connect with each other and share content and are a widely popular resource on the Internet. These sites attract millions of users; however, social media are underused in the healthcare industry. A search for "incontinence" was performed on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube in September 2010. The first 30 results were reviewed for each. The results were evaluated as useful or not useful and additionally catalogued as healthcare professionals, commercial products, or complementary and alternative medicine resources. On Facebook, 4 results (13%) were informative, 12 (40%) advertised commercial incontinence products, and 14 (47%) had no usable information. Of the live "tweets" reviewed on Twitter, 18 (60%) linked to incontinence-related healthcare information (none were from, or referred one to, healthcare professionals), 9 (30%) advertised for commercial incontinence products, 1 (3%) advertised complementary and alternative medicine resources, and 2 (7%) were humorous. Of 4 Twitter user results, 1 was comic, 1 provided incontinence-related health information, and 2 were incontinence medical supply companies. There were 14 (47%) informational YouTube videos, of which 9 came from healthcare professionals or professional organizations. Of the remainder, 12 (40%) were commercial, 1 (3%) advertised complementary and alternative medicine resources, and the remaining 3 (10%) were not useful. The results of our study show that social networks have insufficient useful incontinence content, especially from healthcare professionals and incontinence organizations. Medical professionals and societies should target these avenues to reach and educate patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Obesity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David James; Strain, Matthew; Gomelsky, Alex; Rothschild, Jennifer; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in the obese female patient and draw conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of this condition in this unique patient population. Obesity results in increased intra-abdominal pressure and this leads to weakening of the pelvic floor innervation and musculature. Weight loss through lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery improves stress urinary incontinence. Success of stress urinary incontinence surgery in obese women is similar to nonobese patients. Obese women should not be excluded from potentially curative surgery based on their body mass index (BMI) alone.

  1. Incidence and Characteristics of Incontinence Associated Dermatitis in Community-Dwelling Persons with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Zimmaro; Funk, Taylor; Jacobson, Megan; Savik, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the incidence and characteristics of incontinence associated dermatitis (IAD) in community-living individuals with fecal incontinence. The primary aim of this study was to describe the incidence and characteristics of self-reported IAD among community-living individuals with fecal incontinence. The study also examined whether IAD was associated with older age, gender, presence of urinary incontinence, or fecal incontinence severity. Design Secondary data analysis using a prospective cohort design. Subjects and Setting Community-living adults (N = 98) with fecal incontinence (76% female, 34% aged 65+ years, 90% White) who participated in a study about dietary fiber supplementation and were free of IAD at the start. Thirty five percent also had urinary incontinence. Methods Subjects assessed their skin for IAD daily for 52 days reporting types of IAD damage (redness, rash/fungal infection, and skin loss), location of IAD, and symptoms. They reported fecal incontinence on a diary for the first and last 14 study days. Results The incidence of IAD was 41% (40/98). The fecal incontinence severity score for subjects developing IAD was 1.2 higher than those who never had IAD (p < .001). There was no significant association of IAD with age, gender, or dual fecal and urinary incontinence. Incontinence Associated Dermatitis developed within 2 weeks and healed in approximately 1 week. The most common sign and symptom were redness (60% patients) and soreness (78%), respectively. Most subjects (85%) had IAD in one location. Conclusions Assessing for IAD in community-living patients with fecal incontinence is important as IAD is common and causes discomfort. The relatively mild severity of IAD offers WOC nurses opportunity for improving patient outcomes by preventing and managing this problem. PMID:26336048

  2. Comparison between elderly inpatient fallers with and without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Si Ching; Mamun, Kaysar; Lim, Jim KH

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to examine the various factors associated with inpatient falls among patients with and without dementia in a hospital setting. METHODS This was a retrospective one-year study using data collected from Singapore General Hospital's electronic reporting system for inpatient falls. RESULTS In the study period, 298 patients aged ≥ 65 years fell during their hospital stay. The majority of the patients (n = 248) did not have dementia. In our study, fallers with dementia were more likely to use ambulatory aids, be visually impaired and have urinary incontinence. More patients with dementia than those without had a history of previous falls, and were placed on fall precaution with restricted freedom of movement, which at times, included restraints. However, the difference between patients who were put on restraints and those who were allowed to move freely was not statistically significant. The majority of falls in both groups occurred at the bedside. We found that fallers without dementia were more likely to fall during the morning shift, whereas fallers with dementia were more likely to fall during the night shift. Fallers with dementia were more likely to be confused at the time of the fall. CONCLUSION In our study, we found that fallers with dementia were more likely to have visual impairment, have urinary incontinence, use walking aids, and to be confused and physically restrained at the time of the fall. The fallers without dementia in our study may have undiagnosed dementia. PMID:24570314

  3. Traditional suburethral sling operations for urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Haroon; Bezerra, Carlos A; Bruschini, Homero; Cody, June D; Aluko, Patricia

    2017-07-26

    and less long-term voiding dysfunction. One study showed there was a 20% lower risk of bladder perforation with the sling procedure but a 50% increase in urinary tract infection with the sling procedure compared with colposuspension. Fewer women developed prolapse after slings (compared with after colposuspension) in two small trials but this did not reach statistical significance.Twelve trials addressed the comparison between traditional sling operations and minimally invasive sling operations. These seemed to be equally effective in the short term (RR for incontinence within first year 0.97, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.20) but minimally invasive slings had a shorter operating time, fewer peri-operative complications (other than bladder perforation) and some evidence of less post-operative voiding dysfunction and detrusor symptoms.Six trials compared one type of traditional sling with another. Materials included porcine dermis, lyophilised dura mater, fascia lata, vaginal wall, autologous dermis and rectus fascia. Participant-reported improvement rates within the first year favoured the traditional autologous material rectus fascia over other biological materials (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98). There were more complications with the use of non-absorbable Gore-Tex in one trial.Data for comparison of bladder neck needle suspension with suburethral slings were inconclusive because they came from a single trial with a small specialised population.No trials compared traditional suburethral slings with anterior repair, laparoscopic retropubic colposuspension or artificial sphincters. Most trials did not distinguish between women having surgery for primary or recurrent incontinence when reporting participant characteristics.For most of the comparisons, clinically important differences could not be ruled out. Traditional slings seem to be as effective as minimally invasive slings, but had higher rates of adverse effects. This should be interpreted with some caution however, as the

  4. Urinary Incontinence: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Child Health and Human Development) Also in Spanish What is Urinary Incontinence? (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish Diagnosis and Tests Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy (National Institute ...

  5. New drug treatments for urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2010-04-01

    Urinary incontinence remains a common and distressing condition affecting many women and is known to have a significant effect on quality of life (QoL). Whilst conservative and behavioural therapy are important in the management of women with both stress incontinence and overactive bladder (OAB) ultimately many may benefit from pharmacological therapy. Antimuscarinic drugs are the commonly used agents in the treatment of OAB although often compliance and persistence are affected by adverse effects. Consequently many newer agents remain under investigation. In addition duloxetine has recently been introduced for the management of women with stress incontinence and may offer an alternative to surgery in selected cases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and new developments in the management of women with urinary incontinence as well as reviewing the role of oestrogen therapy in relation to lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  6. Incontinence after radical prostatectomy: Anything new in its management?

    PubMed Central

    Caremel, Romain; Corcos, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: With the increasing number of radical prostatectomies (RP) performed, male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has become common. The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is the gold standard to treat SUI post-RP, but new devices have recently been developed. We review the recent studies on the treatment of SUI post-RP; we also describe the surgical techniques, mechanisms of action and results of these new procedures. Methods: We conducted a literature review search in the PubMed/Medline and Embase databases. Our search was restricted to recent articles. We included studies even if the urinary incontinence was due to sphincter deficiency after RP in non-neurologic patients. Results: We found 8 cohort studies for the surgical procedure: 3 studies concerning slings, 1 involving balloons adjustable implant, and 4 involving new devices. The only randomized controlled trial (RCT) was a pharmacologic clinical trial comparing duloxetine to placebo. The social continence rates were analyzed for 6 studies and were up to 66%. Conclusion: New minimally invasive surgical procedures have emerged as the main alternative to AUS, with social continence rates up to 60% despite just 1 RCT studying the pharmacologic approach. There is an urgent need for well-designed clinical trials to clarify the role of new surgical alternatives in the management of SUI post-RP. New technologies should continue to be evaluated and compared with the AUS, which remains the gold standard. PMID:25024791

  7. [Treatment of urinary stress incontinence using a laparoscopic technique].

    PubMed

    Hernández Fernández, Carlos; de Palacio España, Andrés; Escribano Patiño, Gregorio; Díez Cordero, Jose María; Bielsa Carrillo, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate our own experience with laparoscopic bladder neck suspension. The laparoscopic procedure is performed by anchoring a mesh from the vagina to the ligament, thus creating tension. This technique has several characteristics that make it very attractive: it is easy to learn, operating times are short and it is a commonly indicated procedure. We present a series of 72 women with history of urinary stress incontinence to whom a laparoscopic bladder neck suspension was indicated. The procedure was completed in 69 patients, with a mean operative time of 40 minutes. Mean hospital stay was 1.6 days (Range 1 to 5 days). Continence rate was 82% after a median follow up of 31 months. 12 patients recurred after the operation, 7 of them recurred in the first 2 months and 5 had previous surgical history; this makes us think whether the technique was not adequately performed or the indication for treatment was not suitable. We believe that, although it is necessary a longer follow-up, laparoscopic bladder neck suspension can be considered a good alternative in the treatment of urinary stress incontinence.

  8. What is the best surgical intervention for stress urinary incontinence in the very young and very old? An International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society update.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Castro-Diaz, David; Giarenis, Ilias; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Anding, Ralf; Burton, Claire; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of continence procedures are being performed in women of all ages. An overview of the existing literature and consensus regarding surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in the young and the old was presented and discussed at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society Think Tank. This manuscript reflects the Think Tank's summary and opinion. Despite the increasing number of continence procedures, there are relatively few data to guide management in the very young and the very old. When considering continence surgery in the young, long-term efficacy and safety are paramount, and the future effects of pregnancy and childbirth need to be carefully considered. Conversely, in the elderly, minimally invasive procedures with low morbidity are important, especially in the frail elderly who may have significant co-morbidities. Further research including prospective randomised trials, cohort studies and national registries, should help guide our management in these two challenging groups of patients.

  9. Etiopathogenesis, diagnostics and history of surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jovan, Hadži-Djokić; Uroš, Babić; Aleksandar, Argirović; Miodrag, Aćimović; Milan, Radovanović; Bogomir, Milojević; Tomisla, Pejčić; Zoran, Džamić

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence represents involuntary urine leakage into the urethra. This pathological condition represents a major medical, social and hygienic problem. The paper presents risk factors for development of the disorder, as well as diagnostic methods applied in evaluation of the female patients. Chronological review of diverse surgical techniques used in treatment of stress urinary incontinence reported in the published scientific papers is also presented. Review of the literature data was also performed. Sling procedures with application of suburethral loops have been used since the beginning of the last century in treatment of this disorder. Surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence is applied when conservative treatment fails to give any effects according to strictly defined indications. During the last 100 years, surgical techniques have undergone different improvements and the results have also been significantly improved.

  10. [A prophylactic program for strain urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Stadnicka, Grazyna; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grazyna J; Bień, Agnieszka M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to work out a prophylactic program for strain urinary incontinence. Analysis of literature on the subject and results of own investigations presented in the first part of the paper indicate that the program of prophylaxis of strain urinary incontinence should primarily include: (1) Preparation of the medical staff (nurses, midwives) for propagating health education among women on prevention of strain urinary incontinence. (2) Preparation of adequate educational materials in the form of brochures, leaflets, information posters about symptoms, causes and prophylaxis of urinary incontinence indicating health care institutions available to all women when the disease is suspected or already present. (3) Propagation of problems connected with strain urinary incontinence in the mass media providing information to a wide audience in order to make people realize the significance of this social problem and break stereotypes associated with this disease of "shame". (4) Preparation of sets of exercises for the muscles of the base of the pelvis to be performed during pregnancy, confinement and menopause to maintain their proper function. (5) Indicating factors predisposing to strain urinary incontinence with focus on possibilities of their reduction or elimination.

  11. [Validation of questionnaires to assess quality of life related to fecal incontinence in children with anorectal malformations and Hirschsprung's disease].

    PubMed

    Mathias, Arthur Loguetti; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Ferreira, Mariana Aparecida Elisei; Santos, Maria Mercês; Tannuri, Uenis

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) leads to alterations in bowel habits and fecal incontinence, with consequent quality of life impairment. The objectives were to create and validate a Questionnaire for the Fecal Incontinence Index (FII) based on the Holschneider score, as well as a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Quality of Life Related to Fecal Incontinence in Children and Adolescents (QQVCFCA), based on the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life. The questionnaires were applied to 71 children submitted to surgical procedure, in two stages. Validity was tested by comparing the QQVCFCA and a generic quality of life questionnaire (SF-36), and between QQVCFCA and the FII. A group of 59 normal children was used as control. At two stages, 45.0% (32/71) and 42.8% (21/49) of the patients had fecal incontinence. It was observed that the QQVCFCA showed a significant correlation with the SF-36 and FII (Pearson's correlation 0.57), showing that the quality of life is directly proportional to improvement in fecal incontinence. Quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence is still globally impaired, when compared with control subjects (p<0.05, Student's t test). There were also significant differences between the results of children with ARMs and children with HD. QQVCFCA and FII are useful tools to assess the quality of life and fecal incontinence in these groups of children. Children with ARMs submitted to surgical procedure and HD have similar quality of life impairment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of questionnaires to assess quality of life related to fecal incontinence in children with anorectal malformations and Hirschsprung's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Arthur Loguetti; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Ferreira, Mariana Aparecida Elisei; Santos, Maria Mercês; Tannuri, Uenis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Surgical treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) leads to alterations in bowel habits and fecal incontinence, with consequent quality of life impairment. The objectives were to create and validate a Questionnaire for the Fecal Incontinence Index (FII) based on the Holschneider score, as well as a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Quality of Life Related to Fecal Incontinence in Children and Adolescents (QQVCFCA), based on the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life. Methods: The questionnaires were applied to 71 children submitted to surgical procedure, in two stages. Validity was tested by comparing the QQVCFCA and a generic quality of life questionnaire (SF-36), and between QQVCFCA and the FII. A group of 59 normal children was used as control. Results: At two stages, 45.0% (32/71) and 42.8% (21/49) of the patients had fecal incontinence. It was observed that the QQVCFCA showed a significant correlation with the SF-36 and FII (Pearson's correlation 0.57), showing that the quality of life is directly proportional to improvement in fecal incontinence. Quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence is still globally impaired, when compared with control subjects (p<0.05, Student's t-test). There were also significant differences between the results of children with ARMs and children with HD. Conclusions: QQVCFCA and FII are useful tools to assess the quality of life and fecal incontinence in these groups of children. Children with ARMs submitted to surgical procedure and HD have similar quality of life impairment. PMID:26522822

  13. Six years of experience with sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Hanne B; Thompson-Fawcett, Mark; Lundby, Lilli; Krogh, Klaus; Laurberg, Søren; Buntzen, Steen

    2010-04-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is one of many new surgical modalities for fecal incontinence. Short-term results from sacral nerve stimulation have been more encouraging than those from other modalities. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of percutaneous nerve evaluation tests and sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of fecal incontinence from a single center covering a period of 6 years since the procedure was introduced. All of the candidates for a percutaneous nerve evaluation test and sacral nerve stimulation seen at our anal physiology unit between March 2001 and March 2007 were included in the study. A total of 177 patients with fecal incontinence (160 females), median age 59.5 (range, 27-88) years, underwent a percutaneous nerve evaluation test. Of these patients, 142 (80%) had a positive test, including 21 of 25 (84%) patients who required a repeat percutaneous nerve evaluation test. Because of a functional failure, 16 patients underwent a revision of the permanent electrode, 7 of whom (44%) were satisfied with the functional result after the revision. Of 126 patients, 15 (12%) have undergone an explantation, with an infection rate of only 1.6%. Overall, after a median follow-up of 24 (range, 3-72) months, the median Wexner incontinence score decreased from 16 (range, 6-20) to 10 (range, 0-20) (P < .0001). In the 10 patients who underwent at least 6 years of treatment, the effect was sustained, as the median Wexner incontinence score decreased from 20 (range, 12-20) to 7 (range, 2-11) (P < .0001). Sacral nerve stimulation is a simple, safe, and minimally invasive technique with low morbidity and excellent results, which appear to be maintained for the first 6 years after the procedure. For patients who underwent the treatment, median Wexner incontinence score decreased significantly after a median follow-up of 24 (range, 3-72) months. Twelve percent were explanted. The infection rate was 1.6%.

  14. Selecting appropriate absorbent products to treat urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Payne, Drew

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence can have a significant negative effect on a person's life, especially if left unmanaged and untreated. Continence assessment, often carried out by community nurses, is an important element in the management of a person's urinary incontinence, and so is the selection of appropriate absorbent incontinence pads. This article reviews: the causes and effects of urinary incontinence; how to derive the most appropriate information from a continence assessment; strategies for selecting incontinence pads for a person, on the basis of the results of the continence assessment; and some of the problems and risks associated with the use of incontinence pads.

  15. The use of synthetic materials in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Kądziołka, Przemysław; Stanek, Anna M.; Szymanowski, Krzysztof; Wilczak, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a very serious problem which has been noticed by the WHO. This difficult medical condition poses a serious problem as it affects c.a. 20% of the female population and it increases up to 35% in the group of females over 60 years of age. Since there is no single standard surgical procedure which could solve this problem, numerous synthetic materials are used for the operations. It seems that the materials are effective as they improve the condition of women suffering from stress urinary incontinence. Unfortunately these materials have their shortcomings which might lead to certain post-operative complications. Stress urinary incontinence is a disease which affects the social life of the patients. It has a high percentage of recurrence and causes the patient substantial difficulties with keeping high standards of personal hygiene which is consequence makes it impossible to fulfill their social roles. The etiology of this disease is complex and calls for a cross-disciplinary approach to the problem. As there are no standardized or unanimous treatment methods of stress urinary incontinence, numerous sources based on the clinical experience of many medical centers suggest performing TVT and TOT procedures as the most effective treatment methods. The efficacy of the TOT procedure is about 90.8%. PMID:27582680

  16. Disposable Versus Reusable Absorbent Underpads for Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis and Pressure Injuries.

    PubMed

    Francis, Kathleen; Pang, Sau Man; Cohen, Brenda; Salter, Helene; Homel, Peter

    The primary purpose of our study was to determine if there is a difference in the occurrence of hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) in incontinent adults using a disposable versus reusable absorptive underpads. We also compared hospital length of stay in the 2 groups. Randomized controlled trial using cluster randomization based on inpatient care unit. Four hundred sixty-two patients admitted to 4 medical-surgical study units participated in the study; 252 used reusable underpads (control group) and 210 subjects used disposable underpads (intervention group). The study setting was a 711-bed acute care hospital located in Brooklyn, New York. Two units were randomly allocated to use disposable incontinence pads, and the remaining 2 units used standard, reusable incontinence pads. Data for PI and IAD occurrences were collected weekly by specially trained RNs (skin care champions) on the assigned units. A 2-level hierarchical linear model was used to analyze the effects of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes separately from any effects of the unit of randomization. HAPIs were significantly lower in the disposable underpads group: 5% versus 12% (P = .02). Rates of hospital IAD were not significantly different between the groups (P = .22). Analysis of a secondary outcome, hospital length of stay, was also lower in patients who used disposable underpads (6 days vs 8 days; P = .02). Findings suggest that use of disposable incontinence pads reduces HAPI but not IAD occurrences. The effect of disposable, absorbent incontinence pads should be considered when initiating a hospital-wide skin and PI prevention and treatment plan.

  17. Urinary incontinence in the elderly. Drug treatment options.

    PubMed

    Chutka, D S; Takahashi, P Y

    1998-10-01

    Urinary incontinence is commonly seen in the elderly. It has multiple complications and is often the reason an elderly person is forced to abandon independent living and enter a nursing home. There are multiple causes of urinary incontinence: it is not a single entity or a specific diagnosis. In most patients, the incontinence can be placed into 1 of the following 4 categories: detrusor overactivity (urge incontinence), overflow incontinence, stress incontinence (outlet incompetence) or functional incontinence. To understand the pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, some knowledge of the urinary tract anatomy and physiology is required. It is also important to know how the anatomy and physiology changes in response to the aging process. Successful treatment depends on the specific cause of the incontinence. If incorrectly diagnosed, various treatments may actually worsen the incontinence or cause other problems. Since most elderly patients do not volunteer a problem of urinary incontinence, questions regarding the presence of symptoms must be asked. In most patients, the specific type of incontinence can be diagnosed with a thorough medical history and physical examination. Several simple and widely available laboratory tests may also be useful in the evaluation. Occasionally, urological consultation or urodynamic testing should be performed. Once correctly diagnosed, there are a large number of pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological treatments (behavioural, surgical) available. This article concentrates on the pharmacological therapies for patients with various types of urinary incontinence. Since most patients with urinary incontinence are elderly, they are more susceptible to the effects as well as the adverse effects of medications. This must be taken into account before any pharmacological therapy is initiated. Although many elderly patients believe their symptoms of urinary incontinence to be a part of growing old, urinary incontinence is never a

  18. Effects of bariatric surgery on urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bulbuller, Nurullah; Habibi, Mani; Yuksel, Mustafa; Ozener, Onur; Oruc, Mehmet Tahir; Oner, Osman Zekai; Kazak, Mehmet Altug

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is an important modifiable etiological factor associated with several diseases. There is strong evidence that urinary incontinence (UI) is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI). Aim One of the many benefits experienced by obese patients after bariatric surgery is decrease in UI. To investigate this correlation, we aimed to examine the effects of weight loss on UI in female patients who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Materials and methods Obese female patients (n=120), ≥18 years of age, and planning to undergo LSG were included in this prospective study. We administered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) to the patients prior to surgery and 6 months after the surgery. Using the collected data, we determined the incidence of UI and examined the relationship between the preoperative and postoperative BMI and UI values. Results The mean age of the patients was 39.19 (standard deviation [SD] =9.94) years and the mean preoperative BMI was 46.17 (SD =5.35). Of the 120 patients, 72 (60%) complained of UI preoperatively. Among these 72 patients, 23 (31.95%) described urge incontinence, 18 (25%) stress incontinence, and 31 (43.05%) mixed-type incontinence. At 6 months postoperatively, the percentage of excess weight loss was 70.33% (SD =14.84%). For all three UI subtypes, the 6-month postoperative ICIQ-UI-SF and IIQ-7 scores decreased significantly compared to the preoperative scores (P<0.05). Conclusion LSG results in a clinically significant improvement in most common types of UI, regardless of patient reproductive history, existence of comorbid conditions, and smoking status. PMID:28176911

  19. Patient Satisfaction with Stress Incontinence Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, Kathryn L.; Brubaker, Linda; Richter, Holly E.; Wai, Clifford Y.; Litman, Heather J.; France, Diane Borello; Menefee, Shawn A.; Sirls, Larry T.; Kraus, Stephen R; Johnson, Harry W.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To identify predictors and correlates of patient satisfaction 24 months after Burch colpopexy or autologous fascial sling for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Participants were the 655 randomized subjects in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy Trial (SISTEr). Variables potentially associated with satisfaction were tested in bivariate analysis, including demographics, baseline clinical characteristics of incontinence, and outcomes on validated subjective and objective measures. Satisfaction with treatment was defined as a response of “completely satisfied” or “mostly satisfied” on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) at 24 months. Variables significantly related to satisfaction were entered into multivariable regression models to test their independent association with satisfaction. Results At 24 months post-surgery, 480 (73%) participants completed the PSQ. Mean (±SD) age of the sample was 52 (±10) years and 77% were white. Most (82%) were completely or mostly satisfied with their surgery related to urine leakage. In the final multivariable model, patient satisfaction was associated with greater reduction in SUI symptoms (from baseline to 24 months; OR=1.17, 95% CI:1.10, 1.24) and greater reductions in symptom distress (OR=1.16; CI:1.08, 1.24). Lower odds of satisfaction were associated with greater urge incontinence symptoms at baseline (OR=0.09, CI:0.04, 0.22), detrusor overactivity at 24 months (OR=0.29, CI:0.12, 0.69), and a positive stress test at 24 months (OR=0.45, CI:0.22, 0.91). Conclusions Stress incontinent women who also have urge incontinence symptoms may benefit from additional preoperative counseling to set realistic expectations about potential surgical outcomes or proactive treatment of urge incontinence symptoms to minimize their post-operative impact. PMID:20976815

  20. Preventing Suicide Among Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sakinofsky, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inpatient suicide comprises a proportionately small but clinically important fraction of suicide. This study is intended as a qualitative analysis of the comprehensive English literature, highlighting what is known and what can be done to prevent inpatient suicide. Method: A systematic search was conducted on the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and a personal database for articles on cohort series, preferably controlled, of inpatient suicide (not deliberate self-harm or attempted suicide, unless they also dealt specifically with suicide data). Results: A qualitative discussion is presented, based on the findings of the literature searched. Conclusions: The bulk of inpatient suicides actually occur not on the ward but off premises, when the patient was on leave or had absconded. Peaks occur shortly after admission and discharge. It is possible to reduce suicide risk on the ward by having a safe environment, optimizing patient visibility, supervising patients appropriately, careful assessment, awareness of and respect for suicide risk, good teamwork and communication, and adequate clinical treatment. PMID:24881161

  1. [In-patient (early) rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Wallesch, Claus-W; Lautenschläger, Sindy

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to develop the financing and hospital provision of interventions for early rehabilitation within the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. In addition to a range of partially rehabilitative complex interventions, the system recognizes three main forms of early rehabilitative interventions: geriatric, neurological/neurosurgical, and interdisciplinary and others. In this article, the appropriate definitions and cost-effectiveness of these procedures are analyzed and compared. The early rehabilitative interventions are characterized by constant cooperation in the therapeutic team, especially neurological early rehabilitation through the incorporation of nursing as a therapeutic profession. Whereas geriatric and neurological early rehabilitation are reflected in the DRG system, the former provided in many general hospitals and the latter mainly in specialized institutions, interdisciplinary early rehabilitation has only occasionally been represented in the DRG system so far. If all acute in-patients who require early rehabilitation should receive such an intervention, an additional fee must be implemented for this this interdisciplinary service.

  2. Cell Therapy for Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Melanie L; Izeta, Ander; Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo; Amend, Bastian; Brinchmann, Jan E

    2015-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is the involuntary loss of urine and is a common condition in middle-aged and elderly women and men. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is caused by leakage of urine when coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting, and exercise, even standing leads to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Other types of UI also exist such as urge incontinence (also called overactive bladder), which is a strong and unexpected sudden urge to urinate, mixed forms of UI that result in symptoms of both urge and stress incontinence, and functional incontinence caused by reduced mobility, cognitive impairment, or neuromuscular limitations that impair mobility or dexterity. However, for many SUI patients, there is significant loss of urethral sphincter muscle due to degeneration of tissue, the strain and trauma of pregnancy and childbirth, or injury acquired during surgery. Hence, for individuals with SUI, a cell-based therapeutic approach to regenerate the sphincter muscle offers the advantage of treating the cause rather than the symptoms. We discuss current clinically relevant cell therapy approaches for regeneration of the external urethral sphincter (striated muscle), internal urethral sphincter (smooth muscle), the neuromuscular synapse, and blood supply. The use of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells is a major step in the right direction, but they may not be enough for regeneration of all components of the urethral sphincter. Inclusion of other cell types or biomaterials may also be necessary to enhance integration and survival of the transplanted cells.

  3. Non-ablative erbium YAG laser for the treatment of type III stress urinary incontinence (intrinsic sphincter deficiency).

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Adrian; Brandi, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a new non-ablative erbium YAG laser procedure for the treatment of type III stress urinary incontinence (intrinsic sphincter deficiency) in women. Twenty-two patients with a Valsalva leak point pressure less than 60 cm H2O were recruited and treated with a non-ablative erbium laser delivering low fluence pulses inside the whole length of the urethra through a specially designed cannula. Treatment consisted of two treatment sessions with a 3-week interval in-between. Therapeutic efficacy, as assessed by a questionnaire addressing quality of life during urinary incontinence and the 1-h pad test, was measured at 3 and 6 months after the procedure. Both methods of assessment showed similar levels of improvement in terms of incontinence severity and improvement in quality of life. All patients tolerated the therapy well and adverse effects were mild and transient. The results of this pilot study showed significant improvement of type III stress urinary incontinence. Despite the limitations of this study, being small patient number and short follow-up, this non-ablative intraurethral erbium YAG laser procedure seems to be a safe and efficacious alternative for patients with type III stress urinary incontinence. More controlled studies should be performed to confirm this data and to evaluate the long-term effects.

  4. Outcomes of Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Faecal Incontinence in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, GW; Dasari, BV; Irwin, R; Johnston, D

    2017-01-01

    Background Sacral nerve root stimulation (SNS) is an effective and developing therapy for faecal incontinence, a debilitating condition that can result in social and personal incapacitation. Objectives The objectives of this study are to assess the morbidity of the procedure, improvement in the incontinence scores and Quality of Life (QoL) following SNS. Materials and methods Patients were identified from the Northern Ireland regional SNS service from 2006 to 2012. Numbers of patients who had temporary placement and permanent placement were collated. Pre and postoperative assessment of severity of incontinence and QoL was performed using Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) respectively. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Morbidity was assessed by retrospective review of patient records. Results Seventy-five patients were considered for trial of a temporary SNS. Sixty-one proceeded to insertion of a temporary SNS and, of these, 40 elected to have a permanent SNS. There was a significant reduction in the pre-SNS and post-SNS Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Scores from median of 14 to 9 respectively (p=0.008). There was a significant improvement in Role Physical (p=0.017), General Health (p=0.02), Vitality (p=0.043), Social Functioning (p=0.004), Role Emotional (p=0.007), Mental Health (p=0.013) and Mental Health Summary (p=0.003). However, this is not reflected in the bodily pain and physical functional domains. Conclusion Permanent sacral nerve stimulation is effective and results in significant improvement of faecal incontinence scores and quality of life. PMID:28298708

  5. Predictors of Gains During Inpatient Rehabilitation in Patients with Stroke– A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chang, Enoch H.; Cragg, Samantha; Cramer, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of disability. The cost of stroke rehabilitation is substantial. Understanding the factors that predict response to inpatient stroke rehabilitation may be useful, for example, to best individualize the content of therapy, or to maximize the efficiency with which resources are directed. This review reviewed the literature and found that numerous variables were associated with outcome after inpatient stroke rehabilitation. The strongest evidence exists for factors such as age, stroke subtype, nutritional status, psychosocial factors such as living with family prior to stroke or presence of a caregiver. Functional status on admission, urinary incontinence, post-stroke infection, and aphasia each can also impact prognosis. Strengths and weaknesses of cited studies are considered in an attempt to inform design of future studies examining the factors that predict response to inpatient rehabilitation after stroke. PMID:25541570

  6. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920... garment for incontinence. (a) Identification. A protective garment for incontinence is a device that... garment from the patient's excreta. This generic type of device does not include diapers for infants....

  7. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920... garment for incontinence. (a) Identification. A protective garment for incontinence is a device that... garment from the patient's excreta. This generic type of device does not include diapers for infants....

  8. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920... garment for incontinence. (a) Identification. A protective garment for incontinence is a device that... garment from the patient's excreta. This generic type of device does not include diapers for infants....

  9. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: reducing adverse events.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Mark; Colegrave, Melanie; Ousey, Karen

    2016-10-13

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common problem in patients with faecal and/or urinary incontinence. Urine alters the normal skin flora and increases permeability of the stratum corneum and faecal enzymes on the skin contribute to skin damage. Faecal bacteria can then penetrate the skin, increasing the risk of secondary infection. However, IAD can be prevented and healed with timely and appropriate skin cleansing and skin protection. This includes appropriate use of containment devices. This article also looks at HARTMANN incontinence pads that have been developed to absorb the fluids that cause IAD and maintain the skin's acidic pH. The acidic pH of the skin contributes to its barrier function and defence against infection. Therefore, maintaining an acidic pH will help protect the skin from damage.

  11. Novel minimally invasive laser treatment of urinary incontinence in women

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Urška B.; Senčar, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common disorder that affects women of various ages and impacts all aspects of life. Our aim was to evaluate the non‐invasive erbium:yttrium‐aluminum‐garnet (Er:YAG) laser that exploits its thermal effect and has been used in reconstructive and rejuvenation surgery as a potential treatment strategy for stress UI (SUI) and mixed UI (MUI). Study Design/Materials and Methods We included 175 women (aged 49.7 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed SUI (66% of women) and MUI (34%), respectively. Patients were clinically examined and classified by incontinence types (SUI and MUI) and grades (mild, moderate, severe, and very severe) using International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) and assessing Incontinence Severity Index (ISI). Using Er:YAG laser, we performed on average 2.5 ± 0.5 procedures in each woman separated by a 2 month period. At each session, clinical examination was performed, ICIQ and ISI assessed and treatment discomfort measured with visual analog system (VAS) pain scale, and adverse effects and patients’ satisfaction were followed. Follow‐ups were performed at 2, 6, and 12 months after the treatment. Results After the treatment, ISI decreased for 2.6 ± 1.0 points in patients diagnosed with mild UI before the treatment, for 3.6 ± 1.4 points in those with moderate UI, for 5.7 ± 1.8 points in those with severe UI and for 8.4 ± 2.6 in those with very severe UI (P < 0.001, paired samples t‐test). Altogether, in 77% patients diagnosed with SUI, a significant improvement was found after treatment, while only 34% of women with MUI exhibited no UI at one year follow‐up. Age did not affect the outcome. No major adverse effects were noticed in either group. Conclusion The results of our study, have shown that new non‐invasive Er:YAG laser could be regarded as a promising additional treatment strategy for SUI with at least one year lasting

  12. Novel minimally invasive laser treatment of urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Ogrinc, Urška B; Senčar, Sabina; Lenasi, Helena

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common disorder that affects women of various ages and impacts all aspects of life. Our aim was to evaluate the non-invasive erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser that exploits its thermal effect and has been used in reconstructive and rejuvenation surgery as a potential treatment strategy for stress UI (SUI) and mixed UI (MUI). We included 175 women (aged 49.7 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed SUI (66% of women) and MUI (34%), respectively. Patients were clinically examined and classified by incontinence types (SUI and MUI) and grades (mild, moderate, severe, and very severe) using International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) and assessing Incontinence Severity Index (ISI). Using Er:YAG laser, we performed on average 2.5 ± 0.5 procedures in each woman separated by a 2 month period. At each session, clinical examination was performed, ICIQ and ISI assessed and treatment discomfort measured with visual analog system (VAS) pain scale, and adverse effects and patients' satisfaction were followed. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 6, and 12 months after the treatment. After the treatment, ISI decreased for 2.6 ± 1.0 points in patients diagnosed with mild UI before the treatment, for 3.6 ± 1.4 points in those with moderate UI, for 5.7 ± 1.8 points in those with severe UI and for 8.4 ± 2.6 in those with very severe UI (P < 0.001, paired samples t-test). Altogether, in 77% patients diagnosed with SUI, a significant improvement was found after treatment, while only 34% of women with MUI exhibited no UI at one year follow-up. Age did not affect the outcome. No major adverse effects were noticed in either group. The results of our study, have shown that new non-invasive Er:YAG laser could be regarded as a promising additional treatment strategy for SUI with at least one year lasting positive effects. On the other hand, it does not seem appropriate for treating MUI. © 2015 Wiley

  13. Incontinence: enhancing care in women's prisons.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Vari; Goodman, Claire; Norton, Christine; Wells, Amanda

    There is no evidence on the prevalence of urinary and faecal incontinence symptoms in women prisoners. To explore the extent and management of bladder and bowel symptoms to inform prison health services and prison nursing practice. An anonymous self-report questionnaire tailored to low levels of English literacy, and administered in one women's prison. Women prisons have a higher reported prevalence of urinary and faecal incontinence, constipation and nocturnal enuresis than community populations; this is an unrecognised health problem. Prison primary care nurses should consider introducing sensitive but direct questions on bladder and bowel symptoms into admission assessment processes.

  14. Female Epispadias Presenting as Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Nusret; Zvizdic, Zlatan; Milišic, Emir; Karavdic, Kenan; Paddy, Dewan

    2017-01-01

    Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1 in 484,000 females. The presenting features of female epispadias are urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 6-year-old girl presented with primary urinary incontinence who on physical examination had a bifid clitoris and labia minora. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux and a funnel shaped proximal urethra. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, one-stage reconstruction of the urethra, bladder neck, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  15. Female Epispadias Presenting as Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jonuzi, Asmir; Popovic, Nusret; Zvizdic, Zlatan; Milišic, Emir; Karavdic, Kenan; Paddy, Dewan

    2017-01-01

    Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1 in 484,000 females. The presenting features of female epispadias are urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 6-year-old girl presented with primary urinary incontinence who on physical examination had a bifid clitoris and labia minora. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux and a funnel shaped proximal urethra. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, one-stage reconstruction of the urethra, bladder neck, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  16. Inpatient Consultative Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Biesbroeck, Lauren K; Shinohara, Michi M

    2015-11-01

    Dermatology consultation can improve diagnostic accuracy in the hospitalized patient with cutaneous disease. Dermatology consultation can streamline and improve treatment plans, and potentially lead to cost savings. Dermatology consultants can be a valuable resource for education for trainees, patients, and families. Inpatient consultative dermatology spans a breadth of conditions, including inflammatory dermatoses,infectious processes, adverse medication reactions, and neoplastic disorders, many of which can be diagnosed based on dermatologic examination alone, but when necessary, bedside skin biopsies can contribute important diagnostic information.

  17. New concept for treating female stress urinary incontinence with radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Lordelo, Patrícia; Vilas Boas, Andrea; Sodré, Danielle; Lemos, Amanda; Tozetto, Sibele; Brasil, Cristina

    2017-06-14

    To evaluate the clinical response and adverse effects of radiofrequency on the urethral meatus in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. This phase one study included ten women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). The evaluation consisted of 1 hour Pad tests to quantify urine loss and to assess the degree of procedure satisfaction by using the Likert scale. To evaluate safety, we observed the number of referred side effects. Average age was 53.10 years±7.08 years. In assessing the final Pad Test, 70% showed a reduction and 30% a worsening of urinary loss. Using the Pad Test one month later, there was a reduction in all patients (p=0.028). The degree of satisfaction was 90% and no side effects have been observed. One patient reported burning sensation. The treatment of SUI with radiofrequency on the urethral meatus has no adverse effects, being a low risk method that reduces urinary loss in women. However, to increase the validity of the study, larger clinical trials are warranted. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  18. Incontinence Pad Usage in Medical Welfare Facilities in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyub; Kang, Ji Soon; Kim, Jeong-Wha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of urinary incontinence and the usage of incontinence pads by elderly residents in Korean medical welfare facilities were investigated. Methods From a total of 1,832 facilities, 33 medical welfare facilities in the capital area were randomly selected; all nursing homes were excluded. All data were collected by questionnaires to investigate the residents' age and sex, the presence or absence of urinary incontinence, incontinence pad usage per month, and management methods for urinary incontinence. Surveys were also conducted from January 2010 to August 2010. Results A total number of residents in medical welfare facilities were 2,783, and all of them were selected for this study. Approximately, 65.3% of residents (1,816 individuals) had incontinence. The mean usage was 75 incontinence pads per month. Only 15.6% of residents received proper management for urinary incontinence, while the remaining 84.4% of residents did not have any experience in evaluating or managing their urinary symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of urinary incontinence in medical welfare facilities in Korea was about 65.3%. However, the management of urinary incontinence was insufficient. Urologists should make further efforts for the proper management of urinary incontinence in elders in these facilities. PMID:24466466

  19. Electrokinetic properties of incontinence nonwoven devices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of the water transport properties of nonwoven incontinence devices is a prerequisite to the design of cotton-based nonwovens. A complete understanding of the interfacial moisture movement which occurs between the layers of coverstock, acquisition layer, distribution layer, absorbent...

  20. Faecal incontinence products and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Evans, Debra

    Faecal incontinence has been defined as the involuntary or inappropriate passage of faeces (Royal College of Physicians, 1995). It is a distressing and isolating problem that affects people of all ages, with an estimated incidence of 1-2 per cent of the population (Soffer and Hull, 2000). Many people must rely on continence products to manage this stigmatising and embarrassing problem.

  1. Coping with the Impact of Incontinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartley, Cheryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents Part 2 of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. In this article, the author contends that it is extremely important to teach children coping skills…

  2. The medical management of urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Ahmed; Drake, Marcus J; Hashim, Hashim

    2010-01-15

    Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine; it affects millions of people worldwide, causing significant detrimental effects on their quality of life. Direct expenses, such as containment products, long-term drug prescriptions and surgery, complemented by indirect costs, such as reduced employment productivity, result in overall expenditure running to billions of dollars. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) occurs on physical exertion, and results from weakness of the bladder outlet. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) results from inability to resist a sudden compelling desire to pass urine, arising as a consequence of bladder dysfunction. Clinical evaluation clarifies the underlying mechanisms and excludes diseases causing similar symptoms. Urodynamic studies to measure bladder and abdominal pressures and deduce the bladder and outlet function are undertaken when invasive treatments are being considered or when the nature of the incontinence is not entirely clear. Initial management of SUI involves pelvic floor muscle exercise training; if insufficient symptom improvement results, surgical measures are needed. UUI treatment commences with advice on suitable fluid intake and measures to improve ability to defer voiding, followed by antimuscarinic drugs. Refractory UUI is a difficult problem, currently managed with a range of surgical interventions, including bladder injections of botulinum-A neurotoxin, augmentation cystoplasty and nerve stimulation methods. New treatment options are needed, because of the risk of impeding voiding function, resulting in urinary retention. Persistent leakage is controlled with containment products, such as pads, or collection devices, such as catheters.

  3. Functional daytime incontinence: non-pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    van Gool, J D; Vijverberg, M A; Messer, A P; Elzinga-Plomp, A; de Jong, T P

    1992-01-01

    In children with 'functional incontinence', defined as any form of (daytime) wetting caused by non-neuropathic bladder/sphincter dysfunction, most signs and symptoms are rooted in habitual non-physiological responses to signals from bladder and urethra. These responses develop at toddler age, when children learn how to remain dry. Once they have become a habit, incomplete bladder emptying and recurrent urinary tract infections come into play, reiterating the non-physiological responses into fixed patterns of bladder/sphincter dysfunction with functional incontinence as the leading symptom. Non-pharmacological treatment of functional incontinence implies relearning and training the normal responses to signals from bladder and urethra: a cognitive process, with perception of the signals reinforced by biofeedback. This type of treatment is best combined with long-term chemoprophylaxis. Severe cases will benefit from anticholinergic drugs, as adjuvants to the training programme. Urodynamics play a crucial role in documenting the specific patterns of incontinence and in providing biofeedback. For a successful programme, psychological screening of the children is indispensable.

  4. Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Bosco Ramos; Guarisi, Telma; Camargo, Ana Carolina Marchesini de; Gollop, Thomaz Rafael; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Borges, Pítia Cárita de Godoy

    2010-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence among women residing in the city of Jundiaí (São Paulo, Brazil), and the relation between the type of incontinence and the obstetric history of these women. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted. A total of 332 women were interviewed; they were seen for whatever reason at the public primary healthcare units of the city of Jundiaí, from March 2005 to April 2006. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and consisted of questions used in the EPINCONT Study (Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord-Trondelag). Statistical analysis was carried out using the χ2 test and odds ratio (95%CI). Urinary incontinence was a complaint for 23.5% of the women interviewed. Stress urinary incontinence prevailed (50%), followed by mixed urinary incontinence (35%) and urge incontinence (15%). Being in the age group of 35-64 years, having a body mass index of 30 or greater and having had only vaginal delivery or cesarean section, with uterine contraction, regardless of the number of pregnancies, were factors associated with stress urinary incontinence. However, being in the age group of 55 or older, having a body mass index of 30 or greater and having had three or more pregnancies, only with vaginal deliveries, were factors associated with mixed urinary incontinence. One third of the interviewees complained of some type of urinary incontinence, and half of them presented stress urinary incontinence. Cesarean section, only when not preceded by contractions, was not associated with stress urinary incontinence. The body mass index is only relevant when the stress factor is present.

  5. Obesity and Urinary Incontinence: Epidemiology and Clinical Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Richter, Holly E.; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the epidemiological literature on the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and summarized clinical trial data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods We systematically searched for published community based prevalence studies with bivariate or multivariate analysis of the association of urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women. Case series and randomized controlled trials of the effect of surgical, behavioral and pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies showed that obesity is a strong independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There was a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with about a 20% to 70% increase in the urinary incontinence risk, and the maximum effect of weight rarely exceeded an OR of greater than 4 to 5 on well controlled analyses. The odds of incident urinary incontinence during 5 to 10 years increased by approximately 30% to 60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There may be a stronger association of increasing weight with prevalent and incident stress incontinence, including mixed incontinence, than with urge incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. Weight loss studies indicated that surgical and nonsurgical weight loss led to significant improvements in urinary incontinence symptoms. Conclusions Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by surgical and more conservative approaches is effective to decrease urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered a first line treatment in this patient population. PMID:19846133

  6. Sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence and constipation in adults.

    PubMed

    Thaha, Mohamed A; Abukar, Amin A; Thin, Noel N; Ramsanahie, Anthony; Knowles, Charles H

    2015-08-24

    Faecal incontinence (FI) and constipation are both socially-embarrassing and physically-disabling conditions that impair quality of life. For both, surgery may be required in a minority of people when more conservative measures fail. However, the invasiveness and irreversible nature of direct surgery on bowel and sphincter muscles, poor long-term outcomes and well-established compIications makes such procedures unappealing for these benign conditions. A less-invasive surgical option to treat faecal incontinence and constipation is direct, low-voltage stimulation of the sacral nerve roots, termed sacral nerve stimulation (SNS). SNS has become the first line surgical treatment for FI in people failing conservative therapies. Its value in the treatment of constipation is less clear. To assess the effects of sacral nerve stimulation using implanted electrodes for the treatment of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) ICTRP and handsearched journals and conference proceedings (searched 5 February 2015), EMBASE (1 January 1947 to 2015 Week 5), and the reference lists of retrieved relevant articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials assessing the effects of SNS for faecal incontinence or constipation in adults. Two review authors independently screened the search results, assessed the methodological quality of the included trials, and undertook data extraction. Six crossover trials and two parallel group trials were included.Six trials assessed the effects of SNS for FI. In the parallel group trial conducted by Tjandra, 53 participants with severe FI in the SNS group experienced fewer episodes of faecal incontinence compared to the control group who received optimal medical therapy (mean difference (MD) -5

  7. [Sub-urethral sling in the treatment of female urinary incontinence: which? how?].

    PubMed

    Debodinance, P; Hermieu, J-F

    2010-10-01

    Review of the literature that formed the basis for drafting the guideline on the sub-uretral sling in the first-line surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Medline database query since the introduction of TVT on the questions of various chapters and sub-chapters of the present article. The use of tapes made of polypropylene monofilament exclusively, knitted, is recommended to the exclusion of any other material. Regarding the choice of procedure, the objective cure rate of transobturator and retro-pubic routes cannot be evaluated clearly because of vague evaluation criteria from one study to another. Without adequate clinical trials proving their efficacy and safety, the mini-bands can so far be recommended to treat female stress urinary incontinence. Moderate overweight does not affect the results of laying tape. In patients with severe obesity, surgery to correct obesity is even better than surgery for incontinence. Age is not a contra-indication. If the patient is young and nulliparous, it is reasonable to advise her to postpone surgery after her last pregnancy. In case of multiparous patient, the risk of vaginal delivery does not seem sufficient to suggest a cesarean section. To conclude, sub-urethral slings are the first-line surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome: current options and new targets for management.

    PubMed

    Elser, Denise M

    2012-05-01

    In the United States, office visits for women seeking treatment for urinary incontinence more than doubled between 1994 and 2000, from 1845 per 100 000 women. This review article addresses treatment options for 2 common types of incontinence in women: stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and detrusor overactivity (DO), commonly referred to as urge urinary incontinence (UUI). In the past, those with SUI typically faced limited treatment options, such as Kegel exercises, pessaries, or major surgery (Burch or Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz operations). However, treatment options for women also included anticholinergic medications, behavioral therapy, and implantable neuromodulation. In recent years, more options have become available. For women with SUI, a variety of minimally invasive synthetic midurethral sling approaches (eg, retropubic, transobturator, and single incision) and office-based procedures (eg, periurethral injection of bulking agents and radiofrequency collagen denaturation [Renessa®; Novasys Medical]) are now offered. More outpatient options will hopefully be available soon, including an inflatable, free-floating balloon to act as a shock absorber, and injection of muscle-derived stem cells into the periurethral tissue. Women with UUI now have targeted options, such as posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) and intravesical injections of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®; Allergan, Inc.), in addition to nonoral systemic medications.

  9. Cost savings of outpatient versus standard inpatient total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Adrian; Ryu, Jae-Jin; Dervin, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background With diminishing reimbursement rates and strained public payer budgets, a high-volume inpatient procedure, such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is a common target for improving cost efficiencies. Methods This prospective case–control study compared the cost-minimization of same day discharge (SDD) versus inpatient TKA. We examined if and where cost savings can be realized and the magnitude of savings that can be achieved without compromising quality of care. Outcome variables, including detailed case costs, return to hospital rates and complications, were documented and compared between the first 20 SDD cases and 20 matched inpatient controls. Results In every case–control match, the SDD TKA was less costly than the inpatient procedure and yielded a median cost savings of approximately 30%. The savings came primarily from costs associated with the inpatient encounter, such as surgical ward, pharmacy and patient meal costs. At 1 year, there were no major complications and no return to hospital or readmission encounters for either group. Conclusion Our results are consistent with previously published data on the cost savings associated with short stay or outpatient TKA. We have gone further by documenting where those savings were in a matched cohort design. Furthermore, we determined where cost savings could be realized during the patient encounter and to what degree. In carefully selected patients, outpatient TKA is a feasible alternative to traditional inpatient TKA and is significantly less costly. Furthermore, it was deemed to be safe in the perioperative period. PMID:28234591

  10. Incontinence in children with treated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, J; Equit, M; Hoffmann, L; von Gontard, A

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and incontinence (nocturnal enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence) are common disorders in childhood. Both disorders are strongly associated with each other. ADHD can affect compliance to incontinence therapy in a negative way; it can also affect outcome. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of incontinence, age of bladder and bowel control, and psychological symptoms in children having treatment for ADHD compared to a control group. Forty children having treatment for ADHD (75% boys, mean age 11.4 years) and 43 matched controls (60.5% boys, mean age 10.7 years) were assessed. Their parents filled out questionnaires to assess: child psychopathology (Child Behavior Checklist), incontinence (Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence; Encopresis Questionnaire - Screening Version) and symptoms of the lower urinary tract (International-Consultation-on-Incontinence-Questionnaire - Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms). The ICD-10 diagnoses and children's IQ were measured by standardized instruments (Kinder-DIPS, Coloured Progressive Matrices/Standard Progressive Matrices). Rates of incontinence in the ADHD group (5% nocturnal enuresis, 5% daytime urinary incontinence, 2.5% fecal incontinence) did not differ significantly from incontinence rates in the control group (4.7% daytime urinary incontinence). More children in the ADHD group had Child Behavior Checklist scores in the clinical range. Further ICD-10 disorders were present in eight children with ADHD and in one control child. More children with ADHD had delayed daytime and nighttime bladder control, as well as delayed bowel control, than the controls. The present study showed that if children are treated for their ADHD, according to standard practice guidelines, incontinence rates are similar to those without ADHD. More children with ADHD reached continence at a later age than the controls, which could be an

  11. [Delayed necrotizing fasciitis: a complication of stress incontinence surgery by suburethral sling].

    PubMed

    Tholozan, A-S; Delapparent, T; Terzibachian, J-J; Leung, F; Govyadovskiy, A; Maillet, R; Riethmuller, D

    2014-06-01

    We report a 50-year-old woman case with an extensive necrotizing fasciitis (NF). The NF appeared 10 years after a tension free vaginal tape procedure for urinary stress incontinence. Vital prognosis was engaged due to the initial sepsis severity. This kind of complication is rare and could be under estimated. NF usually appear soon after surgery, whatever within the year following implantation. Anyway, NF are always related to a vaginal erosion of the tape.

  12. Glycemic Control and Urinary Incontinence in Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karter, Andrew J.; Thai, Julie N.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Huang, Elbert S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Although many studies have shown that diabetes increases the risk for urinary incontinence, it is unclear whether poor glycemic control in women with diabetes is associated with incontinence. This study aims to determine the relationship between the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and urinary incontinence in a large, diverse cohort of older women. Methods We examined 6026 older women who responded to a survey (62% response rate) and were enrolled in the Diabetes and Aging Study, an ethnically stratified random sample of patients with diabetes enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Our primary independent variable was the mean of all HbA1c measurements in the year preceding the survey. Outcomes included the presence/absence of incontinence and limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. We used modified Poisson regression and ordinal logistic regression models to account for age, race, body mass index, parity, diabetes treatment, duration of diabetes, and comorbidity. Results Sixty-five percent of women reported incontinence (mean age 59±10 years). After adjustment, HbA1c levels were not associated with the presence or absence of incontinence. However, among women reporting incontinence, HbA1c ≥9% was associated with more limitations due to incontinence than HbA1c <6% (adjusted odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.09–2.57). Conclusion In this cross-sectional analysis, HbA1c level is not associated with the presence or absence of incontinence. However, for women with incontinence, poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥9%) is associated with more limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether improving glycemic control to HbA1c <9% leads to fewer limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. PMID:24032999

  13. Characteristics of inpatient anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions and concomitant injuries.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; McPherson, April L; Rao, Marepalli B; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this epidemiologic study was to quantify the incidence, expense, and concomitant injuries for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) procedures in the USA from 2003 to 2011 that required an inpatient stay. It was hypothesized that the relative reported rates of concomitant knee injuries would be greater with the MCL and menisci compared to all other concomitant knee injuries. The National Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2011 was retrospectively sampled using ICD-9-CM codes to identify ACLR patients and to extrapolate national averages. Between the years of 2003-2011, an average of 9,037 ± 1,728 inpatient hospitalization included ACLRs, of which 4,252 ± 1,824 were primarily due to the ACLR. Inpatient visits primarily due to ACLR involved an average hospitalization of 1.7 ± 0.2 days and cost $30,118 ± 9,066 per patient. Knee injuries that were commonly reported along with inpatient ACLRs included medial meniscus damage (18.1 %), lateral meniscus damage (16.8 %), collateral ligament repairs (12.3 %), and medial collateral ligament strains (6.9 %). Prevalence of meniscus injuries was consistent across years, but MCL-related injuries increased over time. ACLR-related inpatient hospitalizations account for approximately 7.1 % of the total ACLRs performed annually in the USA. Inpatient ACLR procedures continue to decrease in frequency; however, the mean cost per patient increased. Meniscus and collateral ligament injuries were the most commonly reported concomitant knee injuries. The clinical relevance of this investigation is that it informs, on a large clinical cohort of patients, the current state of incidence and expense for ACLR surgeries in an inpatient setting. Prognostic, retrospective study, Level II.

  14. Prevalence of urinary incontinence in community dwelling men: a cross sectional nationwide epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Diokno, Ananias C; Estanol, Maria Victoria C; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Awad; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on urinary incontinence (UI) in adult men of all ages are scarce. We aim to describe the UI phenomenon among community dwelling adult males in the United States (US). We analyzed data from male respondents to a 14-item mailed UI symptoms questionnaire to the National Family Opinion (NFO) World Group Panel of 45,000 households matching the US 2000 census population on five key demographic elements. A total of 29,903 households responded, of which 21,590 were male heads of household (mean age 50 +/-15.2 years old). A total of 2,059 men (12.7%) reported symptoms of UI during the last 30 days. Symptoms of urge urinary incontinence (UUI), stress urinary incontinence (SUI), mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) symptoms, and other types of urinary incontinence (OUI) symptoms, were reported by 44.6%, 24.5%, 18.8%, and 12.3%, respectively. Among those with UI symptoms, the proportion of UUI and MUI symptoms increases with age while SUI symptoms decrease as age increases. Of those with UI symptoms, 44% consulted a physician of whom 57% did so within 6 months of the onset of symptoms. Treatments reported included absorbent pads (48%), prescription medication (30%), surgical procedure (18%), and intermittent catheterization (4%). Almost 1 in 10 males reported symptoms of UI. The UI prevalence rate increases with age and UUI symptoms is the most prevalent type reported. Less than half of men with UI symptoms sought professional help and half of them did so within 6 months of onset of UI symptoms.

  15. Dynamic Article: Percutaneous Nerve Evaluation Versus Staged Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Fecal Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Rice, Teresa C; Quezada, Yarini; Rafferty, Janice F; Paquette, Ian M

    2016-10-01

    Sacral neuromodulation using a 2-staged approach is an established therapy for fecal incontinence. Office-based percutaneous nerve evaluation is a less-invasive alternative to the stage 1 procedure but is seldom used in the evaluation of patients with fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical success of percutaneous nerve evaluation versus a staged approach. This was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained, single-institution database of patients treated with sacral neuromodulation for fecal incontinence. This study was conducted at a single academic medical center. Eighty-six consecutive patients were treated with sacral neuromodulation for fecal incontinence. Percutaneous nerve evaluation was compared with a staged approach. The primary outcome measured was the proportion of patients progressing to complete implantation based on >50% improvement in Wexner score during the testing phase. Percutaneous nerve evaluation was performed in 45 patients, whereas 41 underwent a staged approach. The mean baseline Wexner score did not differ between testing groups. Success was similar between the staged approach and percutaneous nerve evaluation (90.2% versus 82.2%; p = 0.36). The mean 3-month Wexner score was not significantly different between testing methods (4.4 versus 4.1; p = 0.74). However, infection was more likely to occur after the staged approach (10.5% versus 0.0%; p < 0.05). This study was limited by its retrospective nature and potential for selection bias. Percutaneous nerve evaluation offers a viable alternative to a staged approach in the evaluation of patients for sacral neuromodulation in the setting of fecal incontinence. Not only are success rates similar, but percutaneous nerve evaluation also has the benefit of limiting patients to 1 operating room visit and has lower rates of infection as compared with the traditional staged approach for sacral neuromodulation.

  16. A Comparative Evaluation of Suburethral and Transobturator Sling in 209 Cases with Stress Urinary Incontinence in 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Prakash; D’Costa, Sylvia; Shirkande, Preeti; Kumar, Shilpi; Patil, Mangala

    2009-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of suburethral and transobturator sling in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence in 209 cases from 2002 to 2010. The criteria evaluated were success, failure, complications, operating time, ease of the procedure, availability and cost effectivity of the sling. Design and Setting: A retrospective comparative study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre for female urinary incontinence. Material and Methods: A total of 209 patients (females from 27 to 79 years of age) with proven stress urinary incontinence were treated by suburethral transvaginal tape (TVT) type of slings in 101 cases and transobturator Monarc type of sling in 108 cases at the National Institute of Endoscopic Surgery and Urinary Incontinence Center, Mumbai, India, from March 2002 to June 2010. The maximum follow up was for 8 years. Results: The TVT type of slings had higher complication rate like needle entering the bladder, retention of urine necessitating to cut the tape in the center and had a success rate of 94.5% compared to Monarc/Trivedi obturator tape (TrOT) type of sling with outside-in technique, which had a negligible complication (less than 1%), pain in groin or leg movement that reduced in 6 weeks and a success rate of 95%. Specially, the Indian design Trivedi’s stress urinary incontinence tape (TSUIT) and TrOT with reusable needles, the cost was only 15–20% of the international brands. PMID:22442522

  17. [Nursing diagnoses of urinary incontinence in patients with stroke].

    PubMed

    Leandro, Telma Alteniza; Araujo, Thelma Leite de; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Oliveira, Tyane Mayara Ferreira de; Lopes, Ana Cecília Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Identifying the prevalence of Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), Urge urinary incontinence (UUI), Functional urinary incontinence (FUI), Overflow urinary incontinence (OUI) and Reflex urinary incontinence (RUI) nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics in stroke patients. A cross-sectional study with 156 patients treated in a neurological clinic. Data were collected through interviews and forwarded to nurses for diagnostic inference. 92.3% of the patients had at least one of the studied diagnoses; OUI showed the highest prevalence (72.4%), followed by FUI (53.2%), RUI (50.0%), UUI (41.0%) and SUI (37.8%). Overdistended bladder and reports of inability to reach the toilet in time to avoid urine loss were the most prevalent defining characteristics. A statistically significant association of the defining characteristics with the studied diagnosis was verified. The five incontinence diagnoses were identified in the evaluated patients, with different prevalence.

  18. Predictors of female urinary incontinence at midlife and beyond.

    PubMed

    Menezes, M; Pereira, M; Hextall, A

    2010-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is an important middle age health issue and approximately 20% of women over 40 years of age have problems with continence. Urinary incontinence poses a significant negative impact on social functioning and quality of life to many individuals. It is estimated that around three million people are regularly incontinent in the UK with a prevalence of about 40 per 1000 adults. There are various factors which can cause incontinence such as pregnancy, childbirth, obesity, menopause, or just inherent connective-tissue weakness. All of these factors can cause pathophysiology changes in the muscular and fascial structures of the pelvic floor and lead to pelvic support defects and possibly pelvic floor dysfunction. We aim with this review article to highlight predictors or predisposing factors of incontinence; in order to help clinicians during their decisions and put in place a policy of a preventive strategy to decrease the incontinence rate in the general population.

  19. Mixed Incontinence: How Best to Manage It?

    PubMed

    Porena, Massimo; Costantini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Although common in women, mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is under-reported and under-treated. It is linked to concomitant disturbances, which may be due to childbirth, ageing, or other medical conditions, in the complex bladder-urethra coordinated system of urine storage and emptying. Primary care physicians can evaluate MUI through history and simple clinical assessment or they can avail of more complex device and tools, such as urodynamic assessment. There is a wide range of therapeutic options. The recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence offers innovative strategies for therapy but products risk being introduced without long-term safety and efficacy assessment. Direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of MUI.

  20. Double incontinence in a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Espuña-Pons, Montserrat; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Sánchez, Emília

    2012-11-01

    To estimate the frequency of double incontinence, and to identify associated risk factors during pregnancy and postpartum in previously continent nulliparous women. A cohort study in healthy, nulliparous, continent pregnant women, attending the public healthcare system of Catalonia (Spain) was designed. The field work was conducted during the control visits of pregnancy, at the time of delivery, and in the postpartum. Double incontinence was defined as a situation in which participants reported simultaneously urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence with the help of a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates, and their corresponding confidence intervals (95% CI), were calculated, as well as the impact on daily life. Multivariable logistic regressions in pregnancy and postpartum were estimated to assess the association of potential risk factors. The prevalence rate of double incontinence during pregnancy was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.0-10.3). Age over 35 years, and family history of UI were associated to a higher risk of double incontinence. After delivery, the prevalence rate decreased to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.4-4.6); only 6.7% of women with double incontinence in pregnancy had a persistency of their symptoms in early postpartum. Instrumental vaginal deliveries carried 2.2 times more risk of double incontinence than spontaneous ones. Episiotomy implied a higher risk for double incontinence. Symptoms of double incontinence are prevalent during first pregnancy; age and other intrinsic factors may favor the occurrence of double incontinence throughout gestation, while instrumental delivery and episiotomy increase the risk of double incontinence in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Urinary incontinence in a vulnerable population: older women.

    PubMed

    Criner, J A

    2001-01-01

    Urinary incontinence creates a tremendous hardship on older women and results in social isolation, anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, and decreased life satisfaction. Stress, urge, overflow, and functional incontinence can be treated by behavioral methods, medications, or invasive techniques. The nurse should complete a health history before making an informed decision with the older women about the most appropriate treatment plan. There can be improved quality of life for women with incontinence if health care providers focus on this problem.

  2. [Causes and diagnosis of female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Schorsch, I; Soljanik, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    The primary cause of stress incontinence is birth traumata. However, obesity, asthma, chronic constipation or hard physical work can also overtax the pelvic floor and lead to injury of the connective tissue and a slackening of the ligamentous apparatus. Pelvic floor defects are initially diagnosed simply through a thorough urogynaecological examination. To predict the success of a surgical treatment, the functions can be tested by performing simulated operations.

  3. Novel Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Adam; Hurley, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating condition affecting a substantial portion of the population. The etiologies of FI are wide ranging, as are the treatment options. When conservative measures fail, often surgical intervention is required. As in any area where a wide range of treatment options exist, there is no one perfect solution. Fortunately, novel treatment options for FI are becoming available, namely, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, magnetic anal sphincter, stem cell transplant, pyloric transplantation, and acupuncture. PMID:25320572

  4. Measuring family satisfaction with inpatient rehabilitation care.

    PubMed

    Angelino, Elisabetta; Gragnano, Andrea; Miglioretti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the Questionnaire of Family members' Satisfaction about the Rehabilitation (QFSR), a new questionnaire assessing the satisfaction of patients' families with the in-hospital rehabilitation service, i.e., the organizational procedure, medical treatment, relationship with nurses/other health workers, and outcome. The QFSR (13 items) was administered to 1,226 (F=60.4 percent; mean age=57.4, SD 15 years) family members of patients admitted to two units for inpatient rehabilitation, i.e., cardiovascular and neuromotor. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the theoretical four-factor structure of the questionnaire in a subsample of 308 respondents randomly selected from the sample (SB χ² (61)=57.4, p=0.61; RMSEA=0.0; 90 percent CI [0.0, 0.031], CFI=1.00). The remaining 708 respondents (393 relatives of cardiovascular unit inpatients and 315 relatives of neuromotor unit inpatients) were used to test measurement invariance between the groups of family members with patients in the two units. The configurial, scalar, and strict factorial invariance provided a good fit to the data. The QFSR, specifically developed to measure the satisfaction of family members of patients undergoing rehabilitation, appears to be a promising brief questionnaire that can provide important indications for continuous improvement in the delivery of healthcare.

  5. Treatment of mixed urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Gomelsky, Alex; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2011-10-01

    Deciding on an optimal therapy for mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is challenging, as a single-treatment modality may be inadequate for alleviating both the urge and stress component. A MEDLINE search was conducted regarding English-language literature pertaining to the treatment for MUI focusing on literature within the last 18 months. Behavioral therapy and lifestyle modification, such as moderate weight loss and caffeine reduction, should be considered first-line options for all women with MUI. The addition of pelvic floor muscle therapy may have an additional salutary effect. Treatment of the urge component with antimuscarinics is effective; however, the stress component is likely to persist after therapy. Treatment with vaginal estrogen cream may help in the short-term, but long-term benefits are unknown. Anti-incontinence surgery may have a positive impact on both the stress and urge components of MUI; however, it appears that women with MUI may have lower cure rates compared to women with pure stress urinary incontinence. The optimum treatment of MUI may often require multiple treatment modalities. Although surgery may often have a positive impact on both components, its routine implementation should be approached with caution and patients should be carefully selected and counseled. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  6. [Sport and urinary incontinence in women].

    PubMed

    Lousquy, R; Jean-Baptiste, J; Barranger, E; Hermieux, J-F

    2014-09-01

    Women are more attentive to their physical appearance and a quarter of French women use to practice a regular physical activity. Benefits of sport on general health are recognized. However, sport may be the cause of various diseases when it is poorly chosen or improperly performed. In literature, intensive exercise is a risk factor for urinary incontinence, defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine". It is essentially stress urinary incontinence, occurring because of the phenomenon of intrabdominal hyperpressure, inherent with certain activities, and excess capacity of sphincters. Some sports are more risky than others, and high-level sportswomen are the most exposed. Health professionals must invest in information, screening, prevention, counseling and treatment track athletes So, the general practitioner and the doctor of sports play a vital role in informing, screening, prevention, therapeutic and monitoring of sportswomen. Better information is needed because according to the severity of incontinence and its impact, there are simple, effective, more or less invasive treatment options. The aim of this study was to establish an inventory of scientific knowledge and to improve the management of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Incontinence-related skin damage: essential knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gray, Mikel

    2007-12-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis, a clinical manifestation of moisture-associated skin damage, is a common consideration in patients with fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Among hospitalized patients, the prevalence rate has been found to be as high as 27%. Exposure to skin surface irritants may be a predictor and the condition, in turn, may be a factor in pressure ulcer risk because skin integrity is compromised. Differential diagnosis, usually based on visual examination, can help determine whether incontinence-associated dermatitis or a pressure ulcer is present. Prevention comprises following a structured skin care regimen that includes gentle cleansing, moisturization, and application of a skin protectant or moisture barrier. Treatment goals include protecting the skin from further exposure to irritants, establishing a healing environment, and eradicating any cutaneous infection. This concise review of relevant literature underscores the scant amount of evidence-based information available and highlights the need for further studies that involve comparing protocol and product efficacy to determine best practice for this oft-encountered condition.

  8. Bacteriuria is associated with urge urinary incontinence in older women

    PubMed Central

    Rodhe, Nils; Englund, Lars; Mölstad, Sigvard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between bacteriuria and frequency and type of urinary incontinence in elderly people living in the community. Bacteriuria and urinary incontinence are common conditions and often coexisting in this population; the authors have previously reported the prevalence of bacteriuria to be 22.4% in women and 9.4% in men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The catchment area of a primary healthcare centre in a Swedish middle-sized town. Subjects Residents, except for those in nursing homes, aged 80 and over. Participation rate: 80.3% (431/537). Main outcome measures Urinary cultures and questionnaire data on urinary incontinence. Results In women the OR for having bacteriuria increased with increasing frequency of urinary incontinence; the OR was 2.83 (95% CI 1.35–5.94) for women who were incontinent daily as compared with continent women. Reporting urge urinary incontinence increased the risk of having bacteriuria: 3.36 (95% CI 1.49–7.58) in comparison with continent women while there was no significant association between stress urinary incontinence and bacteriuria. The prevalence of bacteriuria among men was too low to make any meaningful calculations about the association between bacteriuria and frequency and type of incontinence. Conclusion Bacteriuria is associated with more frequent leakage and predominantly with urge urinary incontinence. The causes of this association and their clinical implications remain unclear. There might be some individuals who would benefit from antibiotic treatment, but further studies are warranted. PMID:18297561

  9. Factors Related to Urinary Incontinence among the Malaysian Elderly.

    PubMed

    Eshkoor, S A; Hamid, T A; Shahar, S; Mun, C Y

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in the elderly that is the spontaneous leakage of urine. It is an age-related problem and increases especially in people aged above 65 years. It can cause many psychological, behavioral, biological, economic and social effects. The treatment of urinary incontinence can reduce morbidity and mortality. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effects of variables including age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, body weight, blood elements and nutritional parameters on urinary incontinence among the Malaysian elderly. The study was on 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of independent variables for urinary incontinence among respondents. The findings indicated that approximately 3.80% of subjects had urinary incontinence. In addition, constipation was found a significant factor that increased the risk of urinary incontinence in samples (p=0.006; OR=3.77). The increase in dietary monounsaturated fat (p=0.038; OR=0.59) and plasma triglyceride levels (p=0.029; OR=0.56) significantly reduced the risk of incontinence in subjects. Many of suspected variables including socio-demographic factors, diseases, nutritional minerals, blood components and body weight were non-relevant factors to urinary incontinence in respondents. Constipation increased the risk of urinary incontinence in subjects, and increase in dietary monounsaturated fat and plasma triglyceride levels decreased the risk.

  10. [A survey on urinary incontinence in the institutionalized elderly].

    PubMed

    Homma, Y; Takai, K; Takahashi, S; Higashihara, E; Aso, Y; Urushibara, A

    1992-08-01

    A survey on urinary incontinence in 161 (41 male, 120 female) institutionalized elderly was independently performed by urologists and attending nurses. Urinary incontinence was found in 107 cases (66%), with 76 cases (47%) suffering from severe leakage (more than 5 times a day and needs diaper). The prevalences of incontinence and severe leakage were 63% and 52% at geriatric hospitals, 59% and 29% at intermediate care centers and 78% and 63% at nursing homes, respectively. The risk factors for incontinence were consciousness disturbance, urinary urgency, impaired mobility and dementia, and those for severe leakage were apathy, loss of urinary sensation, dementia and impaired mobility. The type of incontinence was considered functional one in 81% of cases. The agreement of the incontinence type evaluated by urologists and that by nurses was found in 90% of incontinent cases. Incontinence was estimated "incurable" in 54% of cases by attending nurses. These observations indicate a high prevalence of severe and "incurable" incontinence in the institutionalized elderly, urgently warranting an effective remedy for the increasing aged society.

  11. Urinary incontinence in the aged, Part 2: Management strategies.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, P; Fuentevilla-Clifton, A

    1992-06-01

    Treatments for urge incontinence associated with uninhibited bladder contractions include medications with anticholinergic and smooth muscle relaxant properties as well as habit training, bladder retraining, contingency therapy, and biofeedback. Pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises improve stress incontinence in 60 to 90% of female patients. For patients who fail to improve with pelvic floor exercises, a combination of an alpha-adrenergic agent and conjugated estrogen is recommended. Surgery is particularly effective in elderly women with significant pelvic prolapse. Management of overflow incontinence requires surgery or intermittent/chronic catheterization. Functional incontinence may be improved with correction of the underlying disorder and availability of a motivated caregiver.

  12. The Challenge of Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Graham

    1989-01-01

    By 2021 Canada will have an enormous population older than 65 years of age. Before the wholesale introduction of programs for seniors with urinary incontinence, careful evaluation of present treatments and the extent to which they can usefully be applied in the community is necessary. We need more information about the diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly and about both patient and caregiver compliance with treatment for urinary incontinence. There is a great need for research on the efficiency of programs targeted at the incontinent group and for community surveys to reassess the problem's long-term consequences. PMID:21249070

  13. [Appropriateness of the use of incontinence absorbent products in hospitalized adults].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lasquetty Blanc, Blanca; Lorente Granados, Gloria; Tenías Burillo, José María; Racionero Montealegre, Angel Luis; Alcañiz Octavio, Ignacio; Gigante León, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of incontinence absorbent products in adults can negatively affect self-esteem, quality of life and independence of the patient, as well as increase the workload and cause adverse events. There are few studies evaluating the appropriateness of diapers using validated scales for it, or the justification of nurses for its use in elderly who are hospitalized. To determine the frequency of diaper use in patients admitted to a hospital and to identify the criteria that determined their use and adequacy. Observational, cross-sectional study of adult patients using diapers while admitted in Inpatient Units. For data collection cut day was held in April 2013, collecting data from nursing assessment records, patients themselves and their family. Barthel Index items were used as criteria of adequacy concerning mobility and disposal. 228 patients admitted. 83 (34.4%) of them had diapers and 25 (30.1%) of them had no criteria for using them. 28.8% (21) had not previously used diapers, the use of diapers in half of them was inappropriate. Factors associated with inappropriate use of diapers were older age, being female, more comorbidity and days of hospitalization. The results of this study show the often excessive use of incontinence absorbent products without proper application, not based on validated criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of an improved absorbent pad on incontinence-associated dermatitis in older women: cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most older adults with urinary incontinence use absorbent pads. Because of exposure to moisture and chemical irritating substances in urine, the perineal skin region is always at risk for development of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an improved absorbent pad against IAD. Methods A cluster randomized controlled design was used to compare the efficacy of two absorbent pads. Female inpatients aged ≥65 years who had IAD and used an absorbent pad or diaper all day were enrolled. Healing rate of IAD and variables of skin barrier function such as skin pH and skin moisture were compared between the usual absorbent pad group (n = 30) and the test absorbent pad group (n = 30). Results Thirteen patients (43.3%) from the test absorbent pad group and 4 patients (13.3%) from the usual absorbent pad group recovered completely from IAD. Moreover, the test absorbent pad group healed significantly faster than the usual absorbent pad group (p = 0.009). On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the two groups in skin barrier function. Conclusion The test absorbent pad for older adults with urinary incontinence might be more efficacious against IAD than usual absorbent pad. Trial registration UMIN-CTR: UMIN000006188 PMID:22642800

  15. German version of the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire for urinary incontinence health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Christian; Lehr, Dirk; Janhsen, Ellen; Steuber, Christian; Gäbel, Elisabeth; von Gontard, Alexander; Bachmann, Hannsjörg

    2009-10-01

    We translated and cross-culturally adapted the English version of the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire, and tested the reliability and validity of the German version. This cross-sectional study was done at 3 tertiary referral centers for childhood urinary incontinence. The self-reported and proxy English version was translated and cross-culturally adapted. From July 2007 to April 2008 we evaluated the German version in 91 boys and 54 girls with a mean +/- SD age of 9.3 +/- 2.2 years (range 6 to 18) with nonneurogenic urinary incontinence and in their parents. For concurrent criterion related validity, the German questionnaire scales were compared with those of the DCGM-10/-12. On reliability testing of the self-reported and proxy German versions Cronbach's alpha was 0.84 and 0.86, respectively. Interrater convergence between the self-reported and proxy versions showed an ICC of 0.81. Reproducibility was satisfactory for the self-reported and proxy versions (ICC 0.77, 95% CI 0.77-0.90 and 0.85, 95% CI 0.67-0.84, respectively). German version scores correlated with DCGM-10/-12 scores (self-report and proxy r = -0.71 and -0.69, respectively). Mean German version total scores were 23.0 in boys and 23.9 in girls. Except for a slight significant association between age and German version total score in the proxy version (p = 0.01), age, sex and incontinence type or severity (number of wet days/nights per 14 days) were not significantly associated with German version total scores. The German version of the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire is a valid and reliable outcome measure to assess health related quality of life in children and adolescents with urinary incontinence.

  16. Incontinence Symptom Index-Pediatric: development and initial validation of a urinary incontinence instrument for the older pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Caleb P; Park, John M; Bloom, David A; Wan, Julian; Dunn, Rodney L; Wei, John T

    2007-10-01

    Although urinary incontinence is common in children, no validated pediatric instruments exist for measuring urinary incontinence symptoms and bother. We developed and validated a patient reported pediatric survey for urinary incontinence measurement. The Incontinence Symptom Index-Pediatric is an 11-item instrument comprising 2 domains, that is 1) impairment and 2) symptom severity, including subdomains for stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence, insensate urinary incontinence, nocturnal urinary incontinence and pad use. The survey was self-administered twice, 2 weeks apart, to boys and girls ages 11 to 17 years. Children completed the survey independently. Cases consisted of patients presenting to pediatric urology clinic with the chief complaint of urinary incontinence. Controls consisted of healthy children presenting for evaluation up at a general pediatric practice. Formal validation analysis was performed. A total of 19 subjects per arm completed at least 1 survey. Internal consistency was good with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84 for the complete instrument. Item-scale correlations were greater than 0.60 for all except 1 item. Test-retest reliability was also good (r = 0.97, p <0.0001). Discriminative validity was good with a total severity scale score of 9.3 in wet children and 0.7 in controls (p <0.0001). Impairment scale scores differed by 2.2 points (p <0.0001). Mean scores differed significantly between subscales for all domains except pad use. The most dramatic difference was in the urge urinary incontinence domain, which differed by a mean of 3.6 points (p = 0.0002). This pilot study provides initial validation of a survey instrument for urinary incontinence in children and adolescents. This instrument can be used in children ages 11 to 17 years to objectively and reproducibly measure patient reported urinary incontinence.

  17. Incontinence in individuals with Angelman syndrome: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Radstaake, Maartje; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne; Korzilius, Hubert; Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Lang, Russell; von Gontard, Alexander; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2013-11-01

    Frequency and type of incontinence and variables associated with incontinence were assessed in individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS; n=71) and in a matched control group (n=69) consisting of individuals with non-specific intellectual disability (ID). A Dutch version of the "Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence" (Beetz, von Gontard, & Lettgen, 1994) was administered and information on primary caretakers' perspectives regarding each individual's incontinence was gathered. Results show that diurnal incontinence and fecal incontinence during the day more frequently occurred in the control group than in the AS group. In both groups, nocturnal enuresis was the most common form of incontinence. More incontinence was seen in individuals with AS who were younger, had a lower level of adaptive functioning and/or had epilepsy. Individuals with AS were able to stay dry for longer periods of time than the controls and often showed both in-toilet urination and urinary accidents during the day, whereas accidents and correct voids during the day were more set apart in the control group. Also, persons with AS had a lower micturition frequency implying possible voiding postponement. Both groups showed high rates of LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms) possibly indicative of functional bladder disorders such as voiding postponement, dysfunctional voiding, or even an underactive bladder. In general, most primary caretakers reported severe intellectual disability as the main cause for urinary incontinence. Based on these results incontinence does not appear to be part of the behavioral phenotype of Angelman syndrome. Therefore, pediatric or urologic diagnostics and treatment are recommended for all persons with incontinence and intellectual disability. Further implications for practice and research are given.

  18. Programmed Instruction, Self-Control, and In-Patient Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, Terrence; And Others

    The extension of the instructional programming process, as outlined by Markle and Tiemann (1967), to the treatment of psychiatric in-patients is described. Three case studies are presented as examples of the application of the programming procedures as derived from the Constructional Model of Dr. Israel Goldiamond. The emphasis throughout all…

  19. Long-term results of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Chêne, G; Amblard, J; Tardieu, A S; Escalona, J R; Viallon, A; Fatton, B; Jacquetin, B

    2007-09-01

    Prospective evaluation of outcome and complications over a 5-year period post-treatment of urinary stress incontinence by TVT, and comparison of our results with the reference studies. About 94 patients were treated for urinary stress incontinence only by one TVT procedure (single surgical procedure), between April 1997 and December 1998; 68% of patients presented pure urinary stress incontinence and 32% mixed incontinence. We found also a 25.5% rate of sphincter deficiency (UCP < 20 cm H(2)O) in this cohort. Patients were evaluated after 5 years: 52 complete evaluations (clinical, flow measurement with measurement of post-mictional residue, 24h PAD-test, quality of life questionnaire), 30 complete telephone interviews, 12 lost to follow-up (2 patients deceased). About 87% of the patients had a 5-year follow-up. The success rate was 79.2% overall (84.5% for the pure urinary stress incontinence and 67% for the mixed incontinence cases), and 72.2% for the cases of associated sphincter deficiency. We had only a 13% rate of patients lost to follow-up. More than half of the urinary urgency cases were treated successfully, however with a less satisfactory outcome in cases of bladder instability. The urodynamic exploration appeared to reveal that TVT caused dysuria: 52% of patients had a maximum flowrate below 15 ml/s, but the quality of life was improved, with a 95% rate of satisfaction without functional problems. We observed no late complications such as vaginal erosion or rejection of the prolene; the de novo syndrome was rare, with 8.5% of urinary frequency, 6% of urinary urgency and only 5.7% of invalidating dysuria. We saw no cases of pelvic floor disease after TVT treatment. Our casuistry results are comparable with the reference studies by Scandinavian authors, Rezapour and Ulmsten, confirming the long-term success of the TVT procedure. Concerning the apparently elevated rates of post-TVT dysuria found by urodynamic exploration, a distinction has to be drawn

  20. An Overview of Bowel Incontinence: What Can Go Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Bowel incontinence, also called fecal incontinence, is the loss of control over liquid or solid stools. It can occur at any age--as a child, teenager, or adult. Severity can range from infrequent leakage of a small amount of stool to total loss of bowel control. Some persons might feel the urge to have a bowel movement but be unable to control it…

  1. School Experiences of an Adolescent with Medical Complexities Involving Incontinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filce, Hollie Gabler; Bishop, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The educational implications of chronic illnesses which involve incontinence are not well represented in the literature. The experiences of an adolescent with multiple complex illnesses, including incontinence, were explored via an intrinsic case study. Data were gathered from the adolescent, her mother, and teachers through interviews, email…

  2. The Management of Urinary Incontinence by Community-Living Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitteness, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored ways elderly people (N=30) manage urinary incontinence. Subjects tended to dismiss their urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging and used various behavioral and psychological strategies to maintain their independence, usually without any assistance from the health professions. Management strategies commonly involved some degree of…

  3. [Fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. Clinico-functional assessment].

    PubMed

    Santini, L; Pezzullo, L; Caracò, C; Candela, G; Esposito, B

    1995-09-01

    Rectal Prolapse is a rare and distressing condition, with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Often, this pathology is associated with fecal incontinence. The recommended approach to the patient with rectal prolapse and fecal incontinence is to repair the prolapse first, then deal particularly with fecal incontinence at a second operation. A retrospective, clinical and manometric study has varying degrees of fecal incontinence. Clinically five of their operation, and a further three patients improved, in two patients the degree of fecal incontinence remained invariable. One patient was worsened after surgery. Manometrically resting and pressure (RAP) was significantly higher in continent patients than in voluntary contraction pressure (MVCP) (p < 0.05) in preoperative testing. Postoperatively, there was a significant increase in the resting anal pressure as well as in maximum voluntary contraction pressure. Patients who remained incontinent had a significantly lower RAP and MVCP than patients who improved our regained continence. In conclusion this study shows an alteration of internal and external sphincteric function in patients with rectal prolapse. The surgical treatment of this disease improves sphincteric function. Incontinent patients with RAP < 10 mmHg and MCVP < 20 mmHg, probably they would be better treated simultaneously either for rectal prolapsus and incontinence. In this kind of patients the perianal proctectomy with total sphincteroplasty could be the elective treatment.

  4. [Intrinsic sphincter deficiency and female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Cour, F; Le Normand, L; Lapray, J-F; Hermieu, J-F; Peyrat, L; Yiou, R; Donon, L; Wagner, L; Vidart, A

    2015-06-01

    Stress urinary female incontinence (SUI) is primary due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) and urethral hypermobility. Despite a lack of standardised international definition, ISD needs to be clearly diagnosed in order to be correctly treated. This work is an update about the female ISD produced from a review of a published article. This review of article published on this subject in the Medline (Pubmed database), selected according to their scientific relevants, of consensus conferences and published guidelines, has been performed by the committee for women pelvic floor surgery of the French Urological Association. Although there is no international consensus definition, we can consider that the ISD is a composite concept combining urodynamic data (MUCP < 20 or 30 cmH20) and one or more clinical information (no urethral mobility, negative urethral support test, failure of a first surgery, leakage during abdominal straining, high stress incontinence scores). Imaging can provide additional evidence for intrinsic sphincter deficiency diagnosis, but the correlation between imaging and function remains low. By standardizing methodology and interpretations to better diagnose women with ISD, it may be possible to improve preoperative planning and outcomes for these patients. A retropubic midurethral sling can be performed as a first surgery. In case of a lack of urethral mobility, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) remains the gold standard. Adjustable continence therapy (ACT(®)) can be proposed as an alternative option. The efficacy and safety of muscle-derived cell therapy in ISD needs more studies. Injection of bulking agents may be an option according to the severity and the expectations of the patient. Bladder overactivity needs to be treated as first-line in case of mixed urinary incontinence. In elderly women, a careful evaluation of the bladder contractility and comorbidity must be performed. A geriatric evaluation can be necessary. Clinical and

  5. Promoting social continence using incontinence management products.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Lindsay

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common problem which affects men and women for a variety of reasons. For some people with UI cure is not achievable. For others, time is required to accurately diagnose and treat their urinary symptoms. In order to improve quality of life for people with UI, health professionals require awareness of the products available to achieve social continence. Continence products and devices fall into three categories: collective devices, containment products and occlusive devices. This article provides a brief overview of the more common products available and discusses some of the common benefits and drawbacks to their use.

  6. Parturition events and risk of urinary incontinence in later life.

    PubMed

    Thom, David H; Brown, Jeanette S; Schembri, Michael; Ragins, Arona I; Creasman, Jennifer M; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K

    2011-11-01

    To examine the association between specific events during vaginal deliveries and urinary incontinence later in life. A retrospective cohort study of 1,521 middle-aged and older women with at least one vaginal delivery who were long-term members of an integrated health delivery system. Age, race/ethnicity, current incontinence status, medical, surgical history, pregnancy and parturition history, menopausal status, hormone replacement, health habits, and general health were obtained by questionnaire. Labor and delivery records, archived since 1948, were abstracted by professional medical record abstractors to obtain parturition events including induction, length of labor stages, type of anesthesia, episiotomy, instrumental delivery, and birth weight. The primary dependent variable was current weekly urinary incontinence (once per week or more often) versus urinary incontinence less than monthly (including no incontinence) in past 12 months. Associations of parturition events and later incontinence were assessed in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 56 years. After adjustment for multiple risk factors, weekly urinary incontinence significantly associated with age at first birth (P = 0.036), greatest birth weight (P = 0.005), and ever having been induced for labor (OR = 1.51; 95%CI = 1.06-2.16, P = 0.02). Risk of incontinence increased from OR = 1.35 (95%CI = 0.92-1.97, P = 0.12) for women with one induction to OR = 2.67 (95%CI = 1.25-5.71, P = 0.01) for women with two or more inductions (P = 0.01 for trend). No other parturition factors were associated with incontinence. Younger age at first birth, greatest birth weight, and induction of labor were associated with an increased risk of incontinence in later life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Parturition Events and Risk of Urinary Incontinence in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Thom, David H.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Schembri, Michael; Ragins, Arona I.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between specific events during vaginal deliveries and urinary incontinence later in life. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1521 middle-aged and older women with at least 1 vaginal delivery who were long-term members of an integrated health delivery system. Age, race/ethnicity, current incontinence status, medical, surgical history, pregnancy and parturition history, menopausal status, hormone replacement, health habits, and general health were obtained by questionnaire. Labor and delivery records, archived since 1948, were abstracted by professional medical record abstractors to obtain parturition events including induction, length of labor stages, type of anesthesia, episiotomy, instrumental delivery, and birth weight. The primary dependent variable was current weekly urinary incontinence (once per week or more often) vs urinary incontinence less than monthly (including no incontinence) in past 12 months. Associations of parturition events and later incontinence were assessed in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Results The mean age of participants was 56 years. After adjustment for multiple risk factors, weekly urinary incontinence significantly associated with age at first birth (p=.036), greatest birth weight (p=.005), and ever having been induced for labor (OR=1.51; 95% CI=1.06–2.16, p=.02). Risk of incontinence increased from OR=1.35 (95% CI=0.92–1.97, p=0.12) for women with one induction to OR=2.67 (95% CI= 1.25–5.71, p=.01) for women with 2 or more inductions (p=0.01 for trend). No other parturition factors were associated with incontinence. Conclusions Younger age at first birth, greatest birth weight, and induction of labor were associated with an increased risk of incontinence in later life. PMID:21780171

  8. Women with Diabetes: Understanding Urinary Incontinence and Help Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Ashmi M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Morrill, Michelle Y.; Schembri, Michael; Thom, David H.; Brown, Jeanette S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of urinary incontinence by diabetes status and race and evaluate beliefs and help-seeking around incontinence in a population-based cohort of women with and without diabetes. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2,270 middle-aged and older racially/ethnically diverse women in Diabetes RRISK. Incontinence, help-seeking behavior, and beliefs were assessed by self-report questionnaires and in-person interviews. Incontinence characteristics of diabetics and non-diabetics were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate models. Results Women with diabetes reported weekly incontinence significantly more than women without diabetes (Weekly: 35.4% vs. 25.7%, respectively, p <0.001). Race prevalence patterns were similar (white and Latina women with the most prevalent incontinence and African-American and Asian women with the least) among women with and without diabetes. Less than 50% of women with diabetes discussed their incontinence with a doctor (42.2% vs. 55.5% (of women without diabetes) p <0.003). Women with diabetes were more likely than women without diabetes to report believing that incontinence is a rare condition (17% vs. 6%, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Incontinence is highly prevalent among women with diabetes. Race prevalence patterns are similar among women with and without diabetes. Understanding help-seeking behaviors are important to ensure appropriate care for patients. Physicians should be alert for urinary incontinence because it is often unrecognized and thereby under-treated among women with diabetes. PMID:20727547

  9. Transurethral injection of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid(®)) for the treatment of female stress or mixed urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Martan, Alois; Masata, Jaromir; Svabík, Kamil; Krhut, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cure effect of a transurethral injection (TUI) of Bulkamid(®) for female urodynamic stress (USI) and stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence. The hypothesis was that the cure effect of Bulkamid(®) is positive in patients who have undergone previous unsuccessful anti-incontinence surgery and in patients with ISD (Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency). This retrospective clinical study was performed on 52 patients for whom previous anti-incontinence surgery had failed (n=40) and on patients with ISD. Five patients had a reinjection of Bulkamid(®). The efficacy of TUI was evaluated an average of 22 months (minimum - 6 months, maximum - 50 months) after the procedure. Subjective assessment of the leakage of urine was based on the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF). Objective assessment of leakage of urine was assessed by the cough test. The cure effect of procedures was evaluated by VAS (Visual Analog Scale: VAS score 0-100; 100 - without leakage of urine, dry) and by using the five-point Likert scale. The statistics were calculated using the software STATISTICA 10-StatSoft. Inc software (Tulsa, USA). A retrospective study was performed on 52 women with urinary incontinence (stress 43, mixed 9), and 51 patients completed the study. One patient with SUI died during the study. Their mean age was 70 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.65, and mean parity was 1.76. Objective assessment by cough test showed that 19.6% of patients had negative results for this test 22 months after the operation. Subjective assessment by the ICIQ-UI SF questionnaire showed that 15.7% of patients were completely dry, while 45.1% of patients were dry or improved. The mean VAS score was 51.3, and on the Likert scale the cure effect was evaluated as 5 or 4 ("cured" or "improved") in 54.9% of patients. The hypothesis that the cure effect of Bulkamid(®) is positive in patients who have undergone

  10. Medium-term results of Mini-arc for urinary stress incontinence in ambulatory patients under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Almog; Nasra, Rasha; Shachar, Inbar Ben; Braun, Naama Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the medium-term outcome and patient's satisfaction after Single-incision mini-sling (SIMS) procedure done under local anesthesia in ambulatory set up for patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including all patients submitted to SIMS procedure for SUI with MiniArc (AMS, U.S.A) without concomitant surgery between January 2011 and March 2013. Patients were followed up during 12 months after surgery and once a year subsequently. Telephone interviews were conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction. Outcome masseurs included: SUI cure rate, urinary urge incontinence (UUI) cure rate in patients with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI), intra and post-operative complications and patient satisfaction. Results Ninety-three patients were included with mean follow-up of 23 months. Fifty percent had MUI with predominant SUI. The cure rates of SUI (objective and subjective) were 89%. UUI was cured in 40% of patients. No major complications occur, neither voiding obstruction or groin pain. Telephone interviews conducted after 26 months on average revealed high satisfaction rate from the procedure (8.8 out of 10) and from the local anesthesia. Visual analog scale (VAS) rating was low during and after the procedure (2.38 and 2.69 respectively). Conclusions The SIMS procedure is safe and highly effective for SUI and it can be performed successfully under local anesthesia in an ambulatory setup. PMID:27813384

  11. Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Neurological Patients With an Injectable Elastomer Prosthesis: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Citeri, Marco; Zanollo, Lucia; Guerrer, Chiara; Rizzato, Luigi; Frediani, Luca; Iselin, Christophe; Spinelli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Many treatment options for stress urinary incontinence are difficult to apply to neurological patients. Urolastic is a new agent that is primarily indicated for women with mild stress urinary incontinence or men after prostate surgery. In this report, we present a series of 5 cases describing the first use of Urolastic to treat neurological patients. All patients were evaluated with a voiding diary and the use of auxiliary devices as the main indicators of continence. The median operative time was 30.8 minutes, and no complications were observed. Of the 5 patients, 4 reported improved incontinence: 2 switched from diapers to small pads, while the other 2 patients were able to discontinue urinary condom use. The only instance of treatment failure occurred in a patient with a low-compliance bladder. The advantages of this procedure appear to include a soft-cuff effect, reversibility, and minimal invasiveness. However, a future randomized study would be necessary to validate this treatment option. PMID:28361514

  12. [Clinical and urodynamic repercussions after treatment of female stress incontinence with transobturator suburethral tape].

    PubMed

    Bram, R; Robert, G; Lapouge, O; Ballanger, P

    2010-05-01

    Analyse changes in voiding patterns after the treatment of female urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) with suburethral transobturator tape (TOT). Prospective study of 50 women with pure stress urinary incontinence treated between March 2004 and February 2006; mean age was 53+/-13 (34-87); parity was 2+/-0.75; mean follow-up was of 15 months (7-43). Each patient did a complete urodynamic examination and filled in two questionnaires (MHU and Contilife), before and three months after surgery. Cure rate was 94% (47/50). Three of 50 patients remained incontinent after surgery (6%). No peroperative complications occurred. Analysis of questionnaires showed that two clinical symptoms predominated postoperatively: dysuria (14%; n=7) and urgency (6%; n=3). Urodynamic profiles showed the following: a decrease in maximum flow rate from 23.6 to 18.9 ml/s (p<0.01), and an increase in urethral resistance from 0.12 to 0.23 (p<0.01). The number of patients with at least two Massey Abrams criteria defining obstruction rose from six to 19, while only seven patients had symptomatic dysuria. Quality of life improved significantly, from 2.32 to 4.63 (p<0.05). TOT is a safe, effective procedure with few complications. While urodynamic data show some obstruction, this has little impact upon clinical results or mid-term complications; it only mildly affects voiding and does not compromise patient satisfaction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Inpatient diabetology. The new frontier.

    PubMed

    Abourizk, Nicolas N; Vora, Chaula K; Verma, Parveen K

    2004-05-01

    Tight glycemic control is now an imperative of outpatient diabetes care. The inpatient arena remains under the influence of an ineffective paradigm characterized by tolerance for hyperglycemia and a reluctance to use insulin intensively. This article is a call to action against the lip service paid to inpatient diabetes care. The compelling in vitro and in vivo evidence for the benefit of intensive insulin-mediated glycemic control is summarized. The linchpin of current inpatient care is a commonly used insulin sliding scale. This autopilot approach as the sole mode of treatment for inpatient hyperglycemia has been strongly condemned. Nevertheless, it continues to survive. The evidence supports the compelling argument that the adverse effect of hyperglycemia on hospital length of stay, morbidity, and mortality is substantial. Clinicians, nurses, administrators, and insurers ought to look critically at the prevailing paradigm and spearhead the much-needed revolution in inpatient diabetology. The issue of glycemic targets, the need for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring, and the role of nursing staff in this revolution are raised. We call for the banning of the insulin sliding scale use as the sole diabetes order. Also, the use of basal insulin via continuous intravenous insulin infusion or subcutaneous insulin analogs should be embraced. Educating nurses, house staff, and other frontline professionals in the adverse consequences of the current paradigm is essential. Inpatient glycemic control matters; clinical and financial outcomes are at stake. It behooves the health care system and the diabetic public to address the contemporary state of inpatient diabetology as soon as possible.

  14. Suicide by mental health in-patients under observation.

    PubMed

    Flynn, S; Nyathi, T; Tham, S-G; Williams, A; Windfuhr, K; Kapur, N; Appleby, L; Shaw, J

    2017-10-01

    Observations in psychiatric in-patient settings are used to reduce suicide, self-harm, violence and absconding risk. The study aims were to describe the characteristics of in-patients who died by suicide under observation and examine their service-related antecedents. A national consecutive case series in England and Wales (2006-2012) was examined. There were 113 suicides by in-patients under observation, an average of 16 per year. Most were under intermittent observation. Five deaths occurred while patients were under constant observation. Patient deaths were linked with the use of less experienced staff or staff unfamiliar with the patient, deviation from procedures and absconding. We identified key elements of observation that could improve safety, including only using experienced and skilled staff for the intervention and using observation levels determined by clinical need not resources.

  15. Modified transobturator tape (canal transobturator tape) surgery for female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hun; Yoon, Hyo Jin; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kye Hyun; Choi, Joong Sub; Lee, Kyo Won

    2009-06-01

    To mitigate TOT complications we designed a modified TOT technique called canal TOT. We describe this new technique and evaluate its feasibility. Between October 2006 and June 2007, 105 consecutive women with stress urinary incontinence underwent a canal TOT procedure. Two oblique lateral incisions were made in the anterior vaginal wall and a suburethral canal was created between the incisions. Mesh was transferred beneath the canal. The subsequent canal TOT surgical steps were identical to those of the original TOT procedure. All patients were evaluated by urological examination and self-assessment questionnaires (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form and Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form) preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively. Reportedly dyspareunia developed after the operation. A minimum 1-year followup was available in 99 patients. Median operative time was 25 minutes (range 15 to 50). No mesh erosion, retropubic hematoma or complete bladder retention developed. Transient postoperative voiding dysfunction and transient de novo urgency were observed in 2 (2.0%) and 8 patients (8.1%), respectively. Dyspareunia developed after surgery in 4 patients (4.0%). Postoperatively Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form and Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form scores decreased significantly (p <0.05). Objective and subjective cure rates were 98.0% and 89.9%, respectively. The canal TOT procedure is feasible and effective for mitigating the complications of the original TOT procedure. This technique might be especially useful in patients with cystocele because of the paravaginal defect as well as in patients with obesity or prior vaginal surgery. However, a large-scale and long-term followup study is required to verify the effectiveness of this technique.

  16. Predictors of Treatment Failure 24 Months After Surgery For Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Holly E.; Diokno, Ananias; Kenton, Kimberly; Norton, Peggy; Albo, Michael; Kraus, Stephen; Moalli, Pamela; Chai, Toby C.; Zimmern, Philippe; Litman, Heather; Tennstedt, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Identify baseline demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment failure after surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials & Methods Data were obtained from 655 women randomized to Burch colposuspension or autologous rectus sling. Of those, 543 (83%) had stress failure status assessed at 24 months (269 Burch, 274 sling). Stress failure (n=261) was defined by any of the following: self-report of SUI by the Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA) questionnaire, positive stress test, or re-treatment for SUI. Non-stress failure (n=66) was defined as positive 24-hr pad test (>15 ml) or any incontinent episodes by 3-day voiding diary with none of the three criteria for stress failure. Subjects not meeting any failure criteria were considered a treatment success (n=185). Adjusting for surgical treatment group and clinical site, logistic regression models were developed to predict the probability of treatment failure. Results Severity of urge incontinence symptoms (p=0.041), prolapse stage (p=0.013), and being post-menopausal without hormone therapy (p=0.023) were significant predictors for stress failure. Odds of non-stress failure quadrupled for every 10-point increase in MESA urge score (OR:3.93, CI:1.45,10.65) and decreased over 2 times for every 10-point increase in stress score (OR:0.36, CI:0.16,0.84). The associations of risk factors and failure remained similar regardless of surgical group. Conclusion Two years after surgery, risk factors for stress failure are similar after Burch and sling procedures and include greater baseline urge incontinence symptoms, more advanced prolapse, and menopausal not on HRT. Higher urge scores predicted failure by non stress-specific outcomes. PMID:18206917

  17. Natural progression of anal incontinence after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Nordenstam, Johan; Altman, Daniel; Brismar, Sophia; Zetterström, Jan

    2009-09-01

    The aim of work is to study the natural progression of anal incontinence (AI) in women 10 years after their first delivery and to identify risk factors associated with persistent AI. A prospective cohort study of 304 primiparous women with singleton, cephalic delivery giving vaginal childbirth in 1995. Questionnaires distributed and collected at delivery, 9 months, 5 years and 10 years after, assessing anorectal symptoms, subsequent treatment, and obstetrical events. Women, 246 of 304, answered all questionnaires (81%). Thirty-five of 246 (14%) had a sphincter tear at the first delivery. One hundred ninety-six of 246 (80%) women had additional vaginal deliveries and no caesarean sections. The prevalence of AI at 10 years after the first delivery was 57% in women with a sphincter tear and 28% in women, a nonsignificant increase compared to the 5-year follow-up. Women who sustained a sphincter tear at the first delivery had an increased risk of severe AI (RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-11.8). Neither age, nor subsequent deliveries added to the risk. Severe AI at baseline and 5 years after delivery were independently strong predictors of severe AI at 10 years (RR 12.6, CI 3.3-48.3, and RR 8.3, CI 3.9-17.8, respectively). Persistent anal incontinence 10 years after the first parturition is frequent and sometimes severe, especially if vaginal delivery was complicated by an anal sphincter disruption.

  18. [Urine incontinence referral criteria for primary care].

    PubMed

    Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen.

  19. [Urine incontinence referral criteria for primary care].

    PubMed

    Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M

    2013-05-01

    Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. [Transobturator slings for female stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana; Jesus, André; Carvalho, Maria; Carvalho, Giselda; Marques, João; Falcão, Francisco; Torgal, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A incontinência urinária de esforço afeta 20 a 40% das mulheres. Os slings colocados sob a uretra média, aplicados por via transobturadora, são a terapêutica consensualmente aceite na atualidade. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e possíveis complicações associadas à aplicação dos slings colocados por via transobturadora no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço. Material e Métodos: Avaliaram-se retrospetivamente 363 doentes submetidas a cirurgia de incontinência urinária de esforço por via transobturadora, nos Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, no período de 1 Janeiro de 2008 a 1 Julho de 2010. Resultados: A média das idades das doentes foi de 56 anos [28-86]. Além da correção da incontinência urinária de esforço, em 13,5% das mulheres foi associada outra cirurgia vaginal. A maioria (95,3%) das mulheres apresentou hipermobilidade da uretra. Ocorreram complicações per-operatórias em 0,8%, complicações pós-operatórias imediatas em 5,2% e complicações pós-operatórias tardias em 15,7%. A taxa de sucesso global foi de 93,7%. A taxa de sucesso nas doentes com uretra fixa foi 77,8%, verificando-se melhores resultados (94,5%) naquelas com hipermobilidade da uretra (p = 0,02). A taxa de sucesso foi comparável nas doentes com e sem cirurgias vaginais associadas. Discussão: As técnicas transobturadoras têm taxas de sucesso elevadas, tendo-se tornado o tratamento de primeira linha para as doentes com IUE, independentemente se tratadas pela técnica outside-in (TOT®) ou pela inside-out (TVT-O®). Ambas as técnicas foram concebidas com o intuito de evitar a passagem no espaço retropúbico, reduzindo assim o número de complicações. Conclusão: As taxas de cura para as abordagens transobturadoras oscilam entre 80 e 95%. A taxa de cura aumenta quando o mecanismo responsável pela incontinência urinária de esforço é a hipermobilidade da uretra

  1. Skin care in the frail, elderly, dependent, incontinent patient.

    PubMed

    Jeter, K F; Lutz, J B

    1996-01-01

    Despite a plethora of recommendations, protocols and dictums in the nursing literature, no research studies have defined the basic elements of preventive skin care for incontinent patients, and the prevalence of skin problems associated with incontinence is unknown. Yet the importance of skin care for incontinent elderly or immobilized patients has long been acknowledged. This literature review sought to determine current practices and principles for skin care of frail, elderly, dependent, incontinent patients. Protocols vary widely. And although there is mounting evidence that incontinence, particularly fecal incontinence, is a primary risk factor for pressure ulcer development, most preventive efforts focus on pressure relief, repositioning, and nutrition, rather than incontinence care. More clinical trials are needed in this area. The design and analysis of these trials should take into account the frequency and manner in which skin is cleansed, products used for skin care, risks and benefits of absorbent products and devices, the presence of infection, and patients' concomitant medical conditions and degree of immobility.

  2. Combined method of bladder neck closure and concomitant augmentation cystoplasty in the setting of refractory urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Yang, Jennifer H; Baskin, Laurence S; Deng, Donna Y

    2012-04-01

    To describe the technique of concomitant bladder neck closure and augmentation cystoplasty in a 22-year-old woman with a history of bladder exstrophy and refractory urinary incontinence. This patient had prior augmentation cystoplasty and circumferential fascial urethral sling placement with continued incontinence. During closure of the bladder neck, the bladder neck was incorporated into the augmentation cystoplasty to help prevent failure of bladder neck closure. The patient had previously undergone augmentation cystoplasty, circumferential fascial urethral sling placement, and antegrade collagen injection of the bladder neck. Despite these interventions, she continued to have refractory urinary incontinence. Her bladder neck was closed by incorporating the bladder neck into the cystotomy and using the bladder neck as an edge of anastomosis during augmentation cystoplasty. The patient tolerated the procedure well. She catheterizes easily through her appendicovesicostomy and has remained continent. She has no leakage from her closed bladder neck 30 months after closure. Incorporating the bladder neck into the cystotomy during a planned augmentation cystoplasty and bladder neck closure should be considered as an alternative to separate bladder neck closure, which can fail and can result in continued urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Valdevenito, J P; Águila, F; Naser, M; Manríquez, V; Wenzel, C; Díaz, J P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the results of urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms, including the characteristics of the overactive detrusor. No other clinical assessments were taken into account. A retrospective study in women with urinary incontinence consecutively evaluated by urodynamic study. From a total of 710 women, only 108 (15%) with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms were selected. Women with prior urinary incontinence surgery, pelvic organ prolapse (stage ≥iii), pelvic radiotherapy, using medication active on the lower urinary tract and neurological diseases were excluded. Infusion rate was 70 ml/min. Detrusor overactivity was induced only by cough. A standardized cough stress test with progressive cough intensity was carried out. Reference urodynamic values for stress incontinent women are described. Urodynamic stress incontinence was observed in 79 women (73.1%), detrusor overactivity in 4 (3.7%) and mixed urodynamic diagnosis in 15 (13.8%). Test was inconclusive in 10 patients (9.2%). Two women had detrusor overactivity incontinence (1.9%). One patient had detrusor overactivity induced by cough without urodynamic stress incontinence (0.9%). There was an association between detrusor overactivity and nocturia ≥2 (P=.002; odds ratio: 3.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.39). One woman had a bladder outlet obstruction (0.9%). In women with pure stress urinary incontinence, without knowing the outcome of other clinical assessments, urodynamic study can provide useful information to define the proper therapy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis: literature review.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, Dimitri; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Heyneman, Alexander; Defloor, Tom

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of a review conducted to describe the current evidence about the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis and to formulate recommendations for clinical practice and research. Incontinence-associated dermatitis is a common problem in patients with incontinence. It is a daily challenge for healthcare professionals to maintain a healthy skin in patients with incontinence. PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, reference lists and conference proceedings were explored up to September 2008. Publications were included if they reported research on the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis. As little consensus about terminology was found, a very sensitive filter was developed. Study design was not used as a selection criterion due to the explorative character of the review and the scarce literature. Thirty-six publications, dealing with 25 different studies, were included. The implementation of a structured perineal skin care programme including skin cleansing and the use of a moisturizer is suggested. A skin protectant is recommended for patients considered at risk of incontinence-associated dermatitis development. Perineal skin cleansers are preferable to using water and soap. Skin care is suggested after each incontinence episode, particularly if faeces are present. The quality of methods in the included studies was low. Incontinence-associated dermatitis can be prevented and healed with timely and appropriate skin cleansing and skin protection. Prevention and treatment should also focus on a proper use of incontinence containment materials. Further research is required to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of various interventions.

  5. Efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape obturator and single-incision tension-free vaginal tape-Secur, hammock approach, in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Q; Pei, H H; Liang, Y Y; Yao, S Z

    2014-09-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape obturator and single-incision tension-free transvaginal tape Secur, hammock approach, in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Clinical data of patients who received anti-incontinence surgery between June 2008 and July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Efficacy and early failure rate of the tension-free vaginal tape obturator and tension-free vaginal tape-Secur hammock approach were assessed by cough test and criteria of International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also computed. There were 28 patients in the tension-free vaginal tape obturator group while 32 patients in the tension-free vaginal tape-Secur group. The mean operation time, intraoperative blood loss and inpatient days after surgery between the two groups showed no significant difference. The catheter retention time of the tension-free vaginal tape obturator group was longer than in the tension-free vaginal tape-Secur group. The cure rate of the tension-free vaginal tape obturator and tension-free vaginal tape-Secur groups were respectively 84% and 80%, and the recurrence rates were 14.3% and 16.7%, without significant difference. The scores of International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form in two groups both decreased after surgery, but there was no difference between the two groups. There were no serious complications in the two groups. Our study demonstrated that both tension-free vaginal tape obturator and tension-free vaginal tape-Secur can achieve a cure rate over 80% while with little complications, showing both methods are reliable to treat stress urinary incontinence.

  6. Vascular incontinence: incontinence in the elderly due to ischemic white matter changes

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Panicker, Jalesh; Fowler, Clare J; Tateno, Fuyuki; Kishi, Masahiko; Tsuyuzaki, Yohei; Ogawa, Emina; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    This review article introduces the new concept of vascular incontinence, a disorder of bladder control resulting from cerebral white matter disease (WMD). The concept is based on the original observation in 1999 of a correlation between the severity of leukoareosis or WMD, urinary symptoms, gait disorder and cognitive impairment. Over the last 20 years, the realization that WMD is not a benign incidental finding in the elderly has become generally accepted and several studies have pointed to an association between geriatric syndromes and this type of pathology. The main brunt of WMD is in the frontal regions, a region recognized to be crucial for bladder control. Other disorders should be excluded, both neurological and urological, such as normal-pressure hydrocephalus, progressive supranuclear palsy, etc., and prostatic hyperplasia, physical stress incontinence, nocturnal polyuria, etc. Treatment involves management of small vessel disease risk factors and anticholinergic drugs that do not easily penetrate the blood brain barrier to improve bladder control. PMID:23139851

  7. [Application of sacral nerve stimulation in patients with fecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingjiang; Shen, Zhanlong; Wang, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Fecal incontinence is one of diseases effecting the quality of life and mental health. Germany surgeon used sacral nerve stimulation(SNS) to treat fecal incontinence at first in 1995. The aim of SNS is to mobilize the ability to control the feces through stimulating the nerves of dominating the sphincter muscles and pelvic floor muscles. Standard SNS includes two stages: evaluation stage of SNS and permanent implantation stage. Preoperative evaluation plays important role in guaranteeing the success of treatment. SNS is the primary treatment of choice for severe fecal incontinence. The complications of SNS include pain, shift of electronic probe, wound dehiscence, bowel dysfunction and infection.

  8. Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Mixed Urinary Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Bilal; Laor, Leanna; Dunphy, Claire; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is a common clinical problem in the community and hospital setting. The broad definition of the term makes it difficult to diagnose, as well as determine effective treatment strategies. There are no current guidelines recommended for physicians. The estimated prevalence of this condition is approximately 30% in all women with incontinence. It has also been suggested that patients with MUI report more bothersome symptoms than either stress or urge incontinence; approximately 32% of 40- to 64-year-olds with MUI report symptoms of depression. The authors examine the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of patients with MUI. PMID:27222643

  9. Expert system for management of urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this nursing informatics and outcomes research study was to determine the effectiveness of an expert system for disseminating knowledge to ambulatory women health care consumers with urinary incontinence. Clinical knowledge from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) patient guideline for urinary incontinence and research literature for behavioral treatments provided the knowledge base for the expert system. Two experimental groups (booklet and expert system) and one control group were utilized. Study results suggest the use of an expert system as one effective communication means for disseminating clinical information in an advisory capacity to ambulatory women with urinary incontinence. PMID:8563340

  10. Kegel's exercises with biofeedback therapy for treatment of stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Burns, P A; Marecki, M A; Dittmar, S S; Bullough, B

    1985-02-01

    True stress incontinence due to a weakened pelvic floor is one of the most frequently cited urologic complaints of multiparous women past age 40. One treatment modality currently used to treat stress incontinence is exercising the pubococcygeus muscle. Combining biofeedback therapy with a vaginal probe (perineometer) helps patients identify the muscle, provides immediate feedback and assists the nurse and patient in assessing problem resolution. This article describes an intervention program using biofeedback, and measured Kegel's exercises on a small number of women with symptoms of stress incontinence. The lessening of symptoms became a major factor in continued compliance with the exercise program.

  11. Review of current technologies for urinary incontinence: strengths and limitations.

    PubMed

    Fader, M

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of continence products is available, and this paper focuses on products to prevent incontinence (such as urinals and commodes) and to contain or manage urinary incontinence (such as absorbent pads, penile sheaths and urethral catheters). Drawing on results from published clinical evaluations at the Continence Product Evaluation Network at UCL and at other centres, the strengths and limitations of the major categories of incontinence products currently on the market are reviewed. It is concluded that, although products for continence have improved considerably over the last 20 years, there is considerable scope for the designer and engineer to improve on current products.

  12. Obesity, overweight, and eating problems in children with incontinence.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Catharina; Equit, Monika; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to analyze the prevalence of eating problems and specific associations between overweight, obesity, and eating behavior in children with incontinence. Forty-three consecutively presented children with incontinence, diagnosed to International Children's Continence Society standards, and 44 matched continent controls were examined prospectively. All children received a physical examination, sonography, and a one-dimensional intelligence test. Child psychopathology was measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18). Eating problems were assessed with the German version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for Children (DEBQ-C) and a 40-item-parental questionnaire referring to atypical eating problems. Of the 43 children with incontinence, 23.3% had nocturnal enuresis (NE) only, 37.2% had any form of daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) (isolated or combined with NE) and 39.5% had fecal incontinence (FI) (isolated or combined with NE and/or DUI). Incontinent children showed significantly more CBCL externalizing symptoms (35.7% vs. 6.8%) and total problems (46.3% vs. 6.8%) in the clinical range (>90th percentile), as well as significantly lower mean IQ (105.5 vs. 120.6) than continent controls. Of the children with incontinence, 16.9% were affected by obesity (≥95th body mass index [BMI] percentile) compared with none of the continent controls. Especially in children with FI, the rate of obesity was significantly increased (23.5%). In addition, 46.5% of incontinent children, but none of the controls, had constipation. Again, children with FI (82.4%) had the highest rate of constipation (>DUI: 25% > NE only: 20%). "Food refusal" (FR) and "intense fear of gaining weight" (GW), but not other eating problems, were significantly more common among incontinent children (FR mean score 7.3; GW mean score 1.4) than in controls (FR mean score 5.6; GW mean score 0.7). After controlling for BMI percentiles, FR still was significantly higher in

  13. Involuntary reflexive pelvic floor muscle training in addition to standard training versus standard training alone for women with stress urinary incontinence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Luginbuehl, Helena; Lehmann, Corinne; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Annette; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2015-11-17

    Pelvic floor muscle training is effective and recommended as first-line therapy for female patients with stress urinary incontinence. However, standard pelvic floor physiotherapy concentrates on voluntary contractions even though the situations provoking stress urinary incontinence (for example, sneezing, coughing, running) require involuntary fast reflexive pelvic floor muscle contractions. Training procedures for involuntary reflexive muscle contractions are widely implemented in rehabilitation and sports but not yet in pelvic floor rehabilitation. Therefore, the research group developed a training protocol including standard physiotherapy and in addition focused on involuntary reflexive pelvic floor muscle contractions. The aim of the planned study is to compare this newly developed physiotherapy program (experimental group) and the standard physiotherapy program (control group) regarding their effect on stress urinary incontinence. The working hypothesis is that the experimental group focusing on involuntary reflexive muscle contractions will have a higher improvement of continence measured by the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence (short form), and - regarding secondary and tertiary outcomes - higher pelvic floor muscle activity during stress urinary incontinence provoking activities, better pad-test results, higher quality of life scores (International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire) and higher intravaginal muscle strength (digitally tested) from before to after the intervention phase. This study is designed as a prospective, triple-blinded (participant, investigator, outcome assessor), randomized controlled trial with two physiotherapy intervention groups with a 6-month follow-up including 48 stress urinary incontinent women per group. For both groups the intervention will last 16 weeks and will include 9 personal physiotherapy consultations and 78 short home training sessions (weeks 1

  14. Reporting of Inpatient Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-06

    1-5 .... ICD Procedure code 6 .... D-This MTF, not CRO patient R-This MTF, CRO patient X-Same-Day Surgery Program U-Another (same service) hospital C...BOLIVIA BL 0 BURMA BM BENIN (FORMERLY DM) BN SOLOMON ISLANDS BP NAVASSA ISLAND BQ BRAZIL BR BASSAS DA INDIA BS 0 BHUTAN BT BULGARIA BU BOUVET ISLAND BV...691 muscle(s) (substance), n.e.c .... 280 0 abdominal wall ............. ................... 704 nose ...................... 260 ovary

  15. Outpatient Myelography: A Prospective Trial Comparing Complications after Myelography between Outpatients and Inpatients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hidenori; Aoki, Takaaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Osawa, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective comparative study. Purpose To compare the incidence and severity of adverse reactions associated with myelography performed in outpatients vs. in inpatients and report the safety and usefulness of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. Overview of Literature Myelography is normally performed as an inpatient procedure in most hospitals in Japan. No studies have reported the usefulness and adverse effects of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. Methods We performed 221 myelography procedures. Eighty-five of the 221 patients underwent outpatient myelography using our new protocol. The incidence and severity of adverse reactions were compared with the other 136 patients, who underwent conventional inpatient myelography. We further compared the cost of outpatient and inpatient myelography. Results The overall rate of adverse effects was 9.4% in outpatients, as compared with 7.4% in inpatients. Overall, 1.2% of outpatients and 0.74% inpatients experienced "severe" adverse effects (requiring hospitalization). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in either the overall rate of adverse effects or the rate of "severe" adverse effects. Moreover, the average outpatient procedure cost was only one-third to one-half that of the inpatient procedure. Conclusions This was the first study to address the safety and usefulness of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. If selected according to proper inclusion criteria for outpatient procedure, no significant differences were observed in the adverse effects between inpatients and outpatients. The outpatient procedure is more economical and has the added benefit of being more convenient and time-efficient for the patient. PMID:26713127

  16. Consumer Perception of Inpatient Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Although it is currently popular to reflect consumers’ perspectives to medical service management, insufficient attempts have been made to understand detailed perception of the consumer side of medical services to promote medical services’ evaluation from the consumer viewpoint. The aim of this study was to descriptively reveal how consumers perceive medical services that they receive, focusing on inpatient medical services. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 adults who experienced hospitalization of five or more days. Constant comparative analysis was performed on the obtained descriptive data. We identified 1) medical procedures, 2) explanations from medical professionals, 3) behavior of medical service providers, 4) somatic sensations, and 5) self-perceived physical conditions as target factors that medical service consumers perceived during hospitalization. The response to the perceived target factors, “compared with the expectation that the consumer had before the hospitalization,” suggests that it is an important medical service consumer reaction to check if the service met their expectations for perceived factors. The response to the medical services perception targets suggested that medical service consumers are involved in medical services and interested in various perception targets. The expectations that medical service consumers have prior to hospitalization can largely influence inpatient medical services evaluation. PMID:27832165

  17. Comparison of inpatient and outpatient thyroidectomy: Demographic and economic disparities.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurayshi, Z; Srivastav, S; Kandil, E

    2016-07-01

    Thyroidectomy is increasingly being performed as an outpatient procedure. In this study, we aim to examine patient characteristics and clinical factors associated with outpatient thyroid surgeries as compared to inpatient procedures. A cross-sectional study for the period of 2007-2010. Inpatients and outpatients were selected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Databases, respectively. All patients were adults (≥18 years) who underwent thyroidectomy in the States of Florida and New York. A total of 25,267 outpatients, and 8219 inpatients were included. Outpatients were more likely to be female, White, have private insurance, and have one or no comorbidities (p < 0.001 each). Thyroid surgeries performed for thyroid conditions other than malignancy were more common in the outpatient settings (p < 0.05 each). High-volume surgeons were more likely to perform ambulatory thyroidectomy (p < 0.001). Post-outpatient thyroidectomy complications were higher for lower volume surgeons (p < 0.001). Moreover, hospital charges for outpatient surgeries performed by lower volume surgeons were significantly higher compared to high-volume surgeons (p < 0.001). Racial and economic disparities exist in the utilization of ambulatory thyroidectomy. Experienced surgeons are more likely to provide ambulatory thyroidectomy, and surgeries performed by them are associated with more favorable outcomes and lower hospital charges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fecal incontinence decreases sexual quality of life, but does not prevent sexual activity in women Running head: Anal incontinence and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff, Laurel R.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Subak, Leslee L.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Thom, David H.; Varma, Madhulika G.; Huang, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of anal incontinence on women’s sexual function is poorly understood. Objective To investigate the relationship between anal incontinence and sexual activity and functioning in women. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings Community-based integrated healthcare delivery system. Patients 2,269 ethnically-diverse women aged 40 to 80 years. Main Outcome Measures Self-administered questionnaires assessed accidental leakage of gas (flatal incontinence) and fluid/mucus/stool (fecal incontinence) in the past 3 months. Additional questionnaires assessed sexual activity, desire and satisfaction, as well as specific sexual problems (difficulty with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, or pain). Multivariable logistic regression models compared sexual function in women with 1) isolated flatal incontinence, 2) fecal incontinence (with or without flatal incontinence), and 3) no fecal/flatal incontinence, controlling for potential confounders. Results Twenty-four percent of women reported fecal incontinence and 43% reported isolated flatal incontinence in the prior 3 months. The majority were sexually active (62% of women without fecal/flatal incontinence, 66% with isolated flatal incontinence, and 60% with fecal incontinence; p=0.06). Compared to women without fecal/flatal incontinence, women with fecal incontinence were more likely to report low sexual desire (OR:1.41 [CI:1.10–1.82]), low sexual satisfaction (OR:1.56 [CI:1.14–2.12]), and limitation of sexual activity by physical health (OR:1.65 [CI:1.19–2.28]) after adjustment for confounders. Among sexually active women, women with fecal incontinence were more likely than women without fecal/flatal incontinence to report difficulties with lubrication (OR:2.66 [CI:1.76–4.00]), pain (OR:2.44 [CI:1.52–3.91]), and orgasm (OR:1.68 [CI:1.12–2.51]). Women with isolated flatal incontinence reported similar sexual functioning to women without fecal/flatal incontinence. Limitations Cross-sectional design

  19. [Significance of radiologic pelvic viscerography for rational therapy of female stress incontinence].

    PubMed

    Richter, K

    1987-08-01

    The rational therapy of stress incontinence requires a knowledge of the pathologico-anatomical physiology of the urorectogenital tract of the female pelvis. The usual urethrocystography gives only very incomplete, and in the case of the chain method, misleading information. Viscerography (Wick - urethro-cysto-colpo-rectoanography), however, informs about the possibilities and requirements of appropriate anatomical procedures in a complete and objective manner. The development, practice, interpretation and indication of the viscerography are thoroughly discussed and demonstrated by means of typical examples, on the basis of more than 2000 viscerograms.

  20. Pelvic artery embolization in the management of pelvic arterial bleeding following midurethral sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun-Ji; Kim, Jun-Bum; Park, So-Yun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2016-01-01

    The transobturator tape (TOT) method is the recent minimally invasive midurethral sling surgery. The TOT method was invented to reduce complication rate of surgical technique for female stress urinary incontinence. Pelvic bleeding following TOT procedure, although extremely rare, could be occurred. We presented three cases which treat pelvic arterial bleeding after midurethral sling (TOT and tension-free vaginal tape Secur) surgery via pelvic artery embolization. Therefore we report our cases with brief review of the literature. PMID:27004210

  1. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to SUI with the goal of developing prophylactic treatments. Methods of assessing SUI in animals that mimic diagnostic methods used clinically have been developed to evaluate the animal models. Use of these animal models to test innovative treatment strategies has the potential to improve clinical management of SUI. This chapter provides a review of the available animal models of SUI, as well as a review of the methods of assessing SUI in animal models, and potential treatments that have been tested on these models. PMID:21290221

  2. Office-Based Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Costilla, Vanessa C.; Mayer, Anita P.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating disorder that is more prevalent than previously realized. FI is the involuntary loss of stool. Many factors contribute to the pathophysiology of FI, including advanced age, bowel irregularity, parity, and obesity. A detailed history and focused rectal examination are important to making the diagnosis and determining contributing causes. Although multiple diagnostic studies are available to assess the cause of FI, specific guidelines that delineate when testing should be done do not exist. Clinicians must weigh the risk, benefit, and burden of testing against the need for empiric treatment. All types of FI are initially managed in the same way, which includes lifestyle modification to reduce bowel derangements, improved access to toileting, and initiation of a bulking regimen to improve stool consistency. If initial conservative management fails, pharmaco-logic agents, biofeedback, or surgery may be indicated. PMID:23935551

  3. Managing faecal retention and incontinence in neurodisability.

    PubMed

    Pierce, E; Cowan, P; Stokes, M

    The large number of patients with faecal retention and/or incontinence in continuing care wards and rehabilitation units presents a considerable challenge. In order to maintain dignity and minimize the unpleasant odour so commonly associated with these wards and units, effective bowel management should be planned for individual patients. For an effective bowel management regime a team approach should be adopted, involving, where possible, the patient and carer as well as all the health professionals administering the care. Two case studies illustrate the use of assessment and management of bowel problems in patients with severe complex neurodisability. Bowel dysfunction in this patient population, in general, is poorly covered in the literature. The present article, by relating theory to practice, offers information and guidance for nurses working with patients who have bowel-related problems.

  4. Caffeine and urinary incontinence in US women.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Jonathan L; Richter, Holly E; Redden, David T; Goode, Patricia S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Markland, Alayne D

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize associations between caffeine consumption and severity of urinary incontinence (UI) in US women. We hypothesized that moderate and high caffeine intake would be associated with UI in US women when controlling for other factors associated with UI. US women participated in the 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey. Using the Incontinence Severity Index, UI was categorized as "any" and "moderate/severe". Types of UI included stress, urge, mixed, and other. Food diaries were completed, and average water (grams/day), total dietary moisture (grams/day), and caffeine (milligrams/day) intake were calculated into quartiles. Stepwise logistic regression models were constructed adjusting for sociodemographics, chronic diseases, body mass index, self-rated health, depression, physical activity, alcohol use, dietary water and moisture intake, and reproductive factors. From the 4,309 nonpregnant women (aged ≥20 years) who had complete UI and dietary data, UI prevalence for any UI was 41.0 % and 16.5 % for moderate/severe UI, with stress UI the most common type (36.6 %). Women consumed a mean caffeine intake of 126.7 mg/day. After adjusting for multiple factors, caffeine intake in the highest quartile (≥204 mg/day) was associated with any UI [prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.47, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.01], but not moderate/severe UI (POR 1.42, 95 % CI 0.98-2.07). Type of UI (stress, urgency, mixed) was not associated with caffeine intake. Caffeine intake ≥204 mg/day was associated with any UI but not with moderate/severe UI in US women.

  5. [Neurogenic urinary incontinence. Value of surgical management].

    PubMed

    Kutzenberger, J

    2008-06-01

    Damage to the CNS, the cauda equina, and the pelvic nerval structures causes neurogenic bladder dysfunction with neurogenic urinary incontinence (NUI). The definitive diagnosis of NUI is made with urodynamic examination methods. The most frequent cause of NUI is neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). The treatment concept must take into account the physical and emotional restrictions. The treatment of NUI due to NDO is a domain of conservative therapy, i.e., mostly antimuscarinics and intermittent catheterization (IC). In about 30%, there is a good chance for therapy failures. An advancement in therapy is the injection of BTX-A into the detrusor. The missing drug approval is a disadvantage.Operative treatments are considered if conservative and minimally invasive therapies are unsuccessful. Sacral deafferentation (SDAF) and sacral anterior root stimulator implantation (SARSI) are available as organ-preserving techniques only for paraplegics with NDO and reflex urinary incontinence and neuromodulation for the other forms of NDO provided that a successful percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) test has previously taken place. Augmentation cystoplasty is indicated if SDAF and neuromodulation cannot be used and the bladder wall is damaged irreversibly by fibrosis. Kidney function of at least 25% and acceptance of IC are prerequisites. Myectomy (autoaugmentation) has an indication similar to augmentation cystoplasty but there must not be any fibrosis. Bladder neck insufficiency (BNI) caused by paralysis or iatrogenically can be treated by the implantation of an alloplastic sphincter high at the bladder neck. A stable reservoir function is required. If not all methods are possible, the ileum conduit or the suprapubic bladder fistula can be the last resort.

  6. [Stress incontinence after prostatectomy in treatment reality: results from a rehabilitation clinic].

    PubMed

    Lent, V; Schultheis, H M; Strauß, L; Laaser, M K; Buntrock, S

    2013-08-01

    In the current discussion on the operative therapy of prostate cancer, not only"if" but also"how" play a major role. Both questions are closely related as, e.g. a possible excessive therapy will result in additional suffering due to stress incontinence. For the most common, troublesome and expensive consequences of prostatectomy it is of interest to know which factors play a role in treatment reality and which could possibly be avoided. The hospital records of all patients who underwent follow-up treatment after prostatectomy in 2009 at the clinic in the spa park in Bad Wildungen-Reinhardshausen were evaluated with respect to relevant data on outcome and clinical endpoints. Of the 1,750 patients 405 (23.1 %) were continent on admission and discharge and a further 189 (10.8 %) were continent on discharge so that a total of 594 patients (33.9 %) were continent on discharge. Of the 1,155 patients (66.0 %) who were incontinent on admission and discharge, this remained the same during the rehabilitation period for 727 (62.9 %) who were diurnally incontinent and 659 (57.1 %) who were nocturnally incontinent. For 387 patients (33.5 %) the incontinence decreased during the day and for 370 (32.0 %) during the night, for 34 (3.4 %) the incontinence increased during the day and for 45 (3.9 %) during the night. An age < 60 years was advantageous for maintaining continence and in contrast > 70 years was disadvantageous. Retention of nerves showed a significant effect on maintaining continence. Statistically significant differences between the results of operative procedures and the results of the type of clinic (KKP communal, confessional and private or UK university clinic) were not observed. However, the results of maintaining continence (up to termination of rehabilitation treatment) for the 594 patients (33.9 %) was only achieved by 94 (51 %) of all 183 clinics, i.e. 78 (49.7 %) of the KKP clinics and 14 (53.9 %) of UK clinics. For the

  7. Olanzapine as a Cause of Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Lateef Olutoyin; Adegun, Patrick T; Tareo, Peter O

    2012-01-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is one of the most commonly used antipsychotics. Though olanzapine is commonly associated with endocrine side effects, it is generally well tolerated by most patients and is rarely associated with urinary incontinence. This report highlights the case of a 23 -year old male patient with schizophrenia who developed severe urinary incontinence following the use of olanzapine. No medications were given to relieve the incontinence contrary to some other studies where ephedrine was used. Olanzapine was changed to trifluoperazine, and the patient's condition improved within two days. Urinary incontinence, though uncommon, is an embarrassing side effect of olanzapine which could negatively affect drug compliance. As such, clinicians should enquire about it in order to improve the patient's health. PMID:23139697

  8. Consider Acupuncture for Incontinence, Not Certain Infertility Cases

    MedlinePlus

    ... 166898.html Consider Acupuncture for Incontinence, Not Certain Infertility Cases Research yields mixed results for this traditional ... and the other on a cause of female infertility. A research team found acupuncture did improve symptoms ...

  9. Managing faecal incontinence or leakage: the Peristeen Anal Plug.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Willie

    Incontinence can be a devastating problem to many individuals. It is embarrassing and limiting socially, and prevents those with the problem from going about their day-to-day activities. People adopt coping strategies to manage the problem and those with urinary incontinence often look for containment products such as disposable pads or nappy-style products. These products have been developed using different absorbent materials and are accessible to sufferers in local supermarkets. Absorbency of the products has improved so that once wetted, they hold urine more easily. However, the same cannot be said for faecal incontinence management products and there are few that can be called upon to manage this devastating condition. The Peristeen Anal Plug, developed originally as the Conveen Anal Plug, stands alone in the search for a device to manage faecal incontinence or leakage.

  10. What's best--reusable or disposable incontinence products?

    PubMed

    Haeker, S

    1986-05-01

    To use paper or cloth? The director of nursing for a 72-bed intermediate care facility opted to continue using reusable incontinence products based on the results of a three-week study conducted by her staff.

  11. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment system...

  12. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  13. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  14. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  15. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  16. Nursing interventions in inpatient psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Frauenfelder, F; Müller-Staub, M; Needham, I; van Achterberg, T

    2013-12-01

    The successful application of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in inpatient psychiatry depends on whether the classification adequately describes nursing care in this setting. The present study aimed to identify nursing interventions mentioned in journal articles on psychiatric inpatient nursing care and to compare these with the labels, definitions and activities described in the NIC to elucidate how well the classification covers these interventions. The MedLine, PsychInfo, Cochrane and CINAHL databases were searched for journal articles about nursing care in the adult inpatient setting. A qualitative content analysis approach was used to indentify nursing interventions in the articles. About 84% of the statements (terms and definitions) are encompassed by the interventions listed by the NIC. Very few interventions need to be added to the NIC classification or necessitate a reorganization of the taxonomy. Nevertheless, the further development of the NIC will promote its use in the daily work of psychiatric nurses and enhance the quality of nursing care in the inpatient setting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nursing phenomena in inpatient psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Frauenfelder, F; Müller-Staub, M; Needham, I; Van Achterberg, T

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the question if the nursing diagnosis classification of North American Nursing Association-International (NANDA-I) describes the adult inpatient psychiatric nursing care. The present study aimed to identify nursing phenomena mentioned in journal articles about the psychiatric inpatient nursing care and to compare these phenomena with the labels and the definitions of the nursing diagnoses to elucidate how well this classification covers these phenomena. A search of journal articles took place in the databases MedLine, PsychInfo, Cochrane and CINAHL. A qualitative content analysis approach was used to identify nursing phenomena in the articles. Various phenomena were found in the articles. The study demonstrated that NANDA-I describes essential phenomena for the adult inpatient psychiatry on the level of labels and definitions. However, some apparently important nursing phenomena are not covered by the labels or definitions of NANDA-I. Other phenomena are assigned as defining characteristics or as related factors to construct nursing diagnoses. The further development of the classification NANDA-I will strengthen the application in the daily work of psychiatric nurses and enhance the quality of nursing care in the inpatient setting. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  18. 29 CFR 825.114 - Inpatient care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.114 Inpatient care. Inpatient care means an overnight stay in a hospital, hospice, or residential medical care facility, including... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inpatient care. 825.114 Section 825.114 Labor...

  19. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  20. Inpatient Suicide in a Chinese Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64…

  1. 29 CFR 825.114 - Inpatient care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.114 Inpatient care. Inpatient care means an overnight stay in a hospital, hospice, or residential medical care facility, including... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inpatient care. 825.114 Section 825.114 Labor...

  2. 29 CFR 825.114 - Inpatient care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.114 Inpatient care. Inpatient care means an overnight stay in a hospital, hospice, or residential medical care facility, including... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inpatient care. 825.114 Section 825.114 Labor...

  3. 29 CFR 825.114 - Inpatient care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.114 Inpatient care. Inpatient care means an overnight stay in a hospital, hospice, or residential medical care facility, including... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inpatient care. 825.114 Section 825.114 Labor...

  4. 29 CFR 825.114 - Inpatient care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.114 Inpatient care. Inpatient care means an overnight stay in a hospital, hospice, or residential medical care facility, including... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inpatient care. 825.114 Section 825.114 Labor...

  5. Inpatient Suicide in a Chinese Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64…

  6. [Risk of hemorrhage after outpatient versus inpatient tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Theilgaard, S A; Nielsen, H U; Siim, C

    2001-09-10

    This study evaluates the risk of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage in outpatient surgery compared to conventional inpatient management. We reviewed 528 tonsillectomies performed at the ENT Department, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, in the period 1.6.1997 to 31.5.1998. The 264 outpatient tonsillectomies were compared with 264 inpatient procedures. The number of post-operative haemorrhages and the time interval from operation to post-operative bleeding were registered, along with the need for re-operation. Outpatients were discharged 8 hours after surgery, inpatients after 24 hours. Forty-five (8.5%) of 528 tonsillectomies had post-operative haemorrhage complications, 15 (2.8%) patients needed a re-operation. Twenty-five (55%) cases of reactionary haemorrhage occurred < 8 hours after surgery and nine needed a re-operation. Two of three cases of post-operative haemorrhage 8-24 hours after primary surgery were re-operated, whereas four of 17 patients with haemorrhage > 24 hours post-operatively needed another surgery. There were no differences between inpatient and outpatient management. Eighty-nine per cent of all early (0-24 h) post-operative haemorrhages occurred < 8 hours post-operatively. In the time period from 8-24 hours post-operatively there were only three cases of reactionary haemorrhage. The risk of post-operative haemorrhage after discharge was 4.2% and 3.4% after outpatient and inpatient management respectively, a difference of only 0.8%. This makes outpatient tonsillectomy an acceptable alternative to inpatient management.

  7. Diabetes, glycemic control, and urinary incontinence in women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Lefevre, Roger; Hacker, Michele R.; Golen, Toni H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between urinary incontinence and glycemic control in women ages 20 to 85. METHODS We included 7,270 women from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, stratified into three groups of glycemic control defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): i) those below the diagnostic threshold (HbA1c<6.5%), ii) those with relatively controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.5–8.5%), and iii) those with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>8.5%) to allow for a different relationship between glycemic control and urinary incontinence within each group. The primary outcomes were the presence of any, only stress, only urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence. We calculated adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regressions with robust variance estimates. RESULTS The survey-weighted prevalence was 52.9% for any, 27.2% for only stress, 9.9% for only urgency, and 15.8% for mixed urinary incontinence. Among women with relatively controlled diabetes, each one-unit increase in HbA1c was associated with a 13% (95% CI: 1.03–1.25) increase for any urinary incontinence and a 34% (95% CI 1.06–1.69) increase in risk for only stress incontinence but was not significantly associated with only urgency and mixed incontinence. Other risk factors included body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Worsening glycemic control is associated with an increased risk for stress incontinence for women with relatively controlled diabetes. For those either below the diagnostic threshold or with poorly controlled diabetes, the risk may be driven by other factors. Further prospective investigation of HbA1c as a modifiable risk factor may motivate measures to improve continence in women with diabetes. PMID:26313496

  8. [Sleep and nocturnal incontinence in hospital or institutional care].

    PubMed

    Walk, Eliane; Schwartz, Chantal; Hidot, Nathalie; Mazin, Véronique; Pochon, Sandrine; Renaux-Bouttier, Valérie; Guyon, Anne; Greusard, Claire; Wenger, Isabelle

    A survey carried out in 2004 studied the link between quality of sleep and the nocturnal management of incontinence. This same survey was repeated 10 years later. The results reveal the impact on quality of sleep, the deteriorating management of incontinence with the lenghtening of waiting time and the causes of waking. This discussion process on the quality of sleep must continue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Fecal incontinence in men: Causes and clinical and manometric features

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Ciriza de los Ríos, Constanza; Muñoz-Garrido, Francisco; Vara, Jesús; Solís-Herruzo, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the causes and characteristics of fecal incontinence in men and to compare these features with those presented by a group of women with the same problem. METHODS: We analyzed the medical history, clinical and manometric data from 119 men with fecal incontinence studied in our unit and compared these data with those obtained from 645 women studied for the same problem. Response to treatment was evaluated after 6 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of patients studied in our unit for fecal incontinence were male. Men took longer than women before asking for medical help. Ano-rectal surgery was the most common risk factor for men related to fecal incontinence. Chronic diarrhea was present in more than 40% of patients in both groups. Decreased resting and external anal sphincter pressures were more frequent in women. No significant differences existed between the sexes regarding rectal sensitivity and recto-anal inhibitory reflex. In 17.8% of men, all presenting soiling, manometric findings did not justify fecal incontinence. Response to treatment was good in both groups, as 80.4% of patients improved and fecal incontinence disappeared in 13.2% of them. CONCLUSION: In our series, it was common that men waited longer in seeking medical help for fecal incontinence. Ano-rectal surgery was the major cause of this problem. Chronic diarrhea was a predisposing factor in both sexes. Manometric differences between groups were limited to an increased frequency of hypotony of the external anal sphincter in women. Fecal incontinence was controllable in most patients. PMID:24976729

  10. The risk of anal incontinence in obese women.

    PubMed

    Altman, Daniel; Falconer, Christian; Rossner, Stephan; Melin, Ingela

    2007-11-01

    The objectives of this study was to estimate the risk of anal incontinence in morbidly obese women and to identify risk factors associated with anal incontinence in an obese population sample. A case-control study based on the registry of a university hospital obesity unit. A consecutive sample of women with body mass index > or = 35 (obesity class II) was randomly matched by age, gender and residential county to control subjects using the computerised Register of the Total Population. Data were collected by a self-reported postal survey including detailed questions on medical and obstetrical history, obesity history, socioeconomic indices, life style factors and the validated Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score. The questionnaire was returned by 131/179 (73%) of the cases and 453/892 (51%) of the control subjects. Compared to the control group, obese women reported a significantly increased defecation frequency (p < 0.001), inability to discriminate between flatus and faeces (p < 0.001) and flatus incontinence (p < 0.001). Compared with non-obese women, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for flatus incontinence in morbidly obese women was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.1]. A history of obstetric sphincter injury was independently associated with an increased risk of flatus incontinence (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.0-9.2) and incontinence of loose stools (OR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.4-31.4). Other medical and life style interactions did not remain at significant levels in an adjusted multivariable analysis. Obese women are at increased risk for mild to moderate flatus incontinence.

  11. Early incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a community based retrospective analysis in 911 men and implications for preoperative counseling.

    PubMed

    Khoder, Wael Y; Trottmann, Matthias; Stuber, Andrea; Stief, Christian G; Becker, Armin J

    2013-10-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is curative for localized prostatic cancer. Incontinence after RP (P-RP-I) varies widely (2% to <60%) according to the definition and quantification of incontinence, timing of evaluation, and who evaluates (physician or patient). Conservative treatments, including pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), anal electrical stimulation (AES), lifestyle adjustment, or combination are usually recommended at first for P-RP-I. Between January 2002 and December 2004, a total of 911 patients, median age 63 years (46-78), with different grades of P-RP-I have been retrospectively examined for perioperative risk factors and effect of rehabilitation procedures. These consecutive patients were from 67 clinics with median postoperative interval of 26 days. Incontinence was graded by Stamey classification, number of used pads and pads' consistency (dry, lightly wet, and wet). Therapeutic measures were done by team of specialists in rehabilitation, psycho-oncology, physiotherapy, internal medicine, and urology. Ninety-six percent of patients suffered different grades of incontinence at beginning of hospitalization. This was reported as Stamey first grade (49.4%), second grade (36.4%), and third grade (10.3%). Analysis included patients' age, body mass index (BMI), prostate volume, surgical approach, nerve sparing, pelvic lymphadenectomy, previous therapy, and catheterization time. Analysis showed age, nerve sparing, and BMI as significant risk factors for P-RP-I. Conservative therapy, including PFMT, AES, or combinations has been performed on all patients. Grade of P-RP-I showed significant improvement after 3 weeks rehabilitation period. Preoperative counseling of patients should provide them with realistic expectations for P-RP-I and motivate them to conservative therapy, as it reduces the duration and degree of urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Counselling for erectile dysfunction during inpatient rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, W; Sommer, F; Mathers, M J; Gilbert, T; Waidelich, R

    2011-04-01

    For men erectile function is essential for quality of life. Besides urine incontinence postsurgical erectile dysfunction (ED) following radical prostatectomy (RPE) represents a significant and prevalent problem. One of the first approaches to this condition should be a consultation performed by professionals in a rehabilitation clinic.A total of 149 patients post RPE participated in this prospective study. All patients were questioned about their understanding of postoperative surgical ED after RPE and if affected they were asked about their own psychological burden as well as their knowledge of possible therapy options. The qualities of presurgical patient information as well as the modules of information pertaining to ED during the rehabilitation were evaluated. Of the patients, 53% expressed that they experienced a considerable burden due to postsurgical ED during their follow-up rehabilitation (AR group) and 70% of the patients during oncological rehabilitation treatment (rehab group). Men who were sexually more active prior to surgery suffered more from postsurgical ED than their less active counterparts. A negative correlation between psychological burden and age was found in the AR group, which however was levelled in the rehab group. Particularly in older patients the burden of ED increases with more time elapsing after the operation. The medical information on ED therapy options provided during the inpatient rehabilitation was considered to be essential by 60% of the men in the AR group and 48% of the patients in the rehab group.Therapeutic possibilities for postsurgical ED following RPE cannot always be given to patients in the preoperative phase or during their stay in the hospital. Since however a large majority of men suffer from postoperative ED following RPE a specialized inpatient urological rehabilitation is suited for a comprehensive consultation.

  13. Is Alcohol Consumption Associated with Male Urinary Incontinence?

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Hirayama, Fumi

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and urinary incontinence among Japanese men. Seven hundred men aged 40-75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual alcohol consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Among the 683 eligible male participants, 49 men (7.2%) experienced urine leakage for the past 2.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.9). Their prevalence of alcohol drinking (beer, sake, shochu, wine, whisky) was lower than others without the condition, even though the daily mean ethanol intakes were similar between the two groups, 31.8 g (SD 45.4) and 31.3 g (SD 41.9), respectively. Relative to non-drinkers, the adjusted odds of urinary incontinence were 0.43 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.96) for low ethanol intake, and up to 32 g per day and 0.53 (95% CI 0.22 to 1.28) for drinking, at most, one can (350 mL) of beer daily. However, higher levels of alcohol consumption had no significant benefit in reducing the incontinence risk. The findings suggested an inverse association between urinary incontinence and low alcohol consumption particularly beer in middle-aged and older Japanese men. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Identification of Key Odorants in Used Disposable Absorbent Incontinence Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Gunnar; Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify key odorants in used disposable absorbent incontinence products. DESIGN: Descriptive in vitro study SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Samples of used incontinence products were collected from 8 residents with urinary incontinence living in geriatric nursing homes in the Gothenburg area of Sweden. Products were chosen from a larger set of products that had previously been characterized by descriptive odor analysis. METHODS: Pieces of the used incontinence products were cut from the wet area, placed in glass bottles, and kept frozen until dynamic headspace sampling of volatile compounds was completed. Gas chromatography–olfactometry was used to identify which compounds contributed most to the odors in the samples. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Twenty-eight volatiles were found to be key odorants in the used incontinence products. Twenty-six were successfully identified. They belonged to the following classes of chemical compounds: aldehydes (6); amines (1); aromatics (3); isothiocyanates (1); heterocyclics (2); ketones (6); sulfur compounds (6); and terpenes (1). CONCLUSION: Nine of the 28 key odorants were considered to be of particular importance to the odor of the used incontinence products: 3-methylbutanal, trimethylamine, cresol, guaiacol, 4,5-dimethylthiazole-S-oxide, diacetyl, dimethyl trisulfide, 5-methylthio-4-penten-2-ol, and an unidentified compound. PMID:28328644

  15. [Urinary incontinence in the elderly can be treated].

    PubMed

    van Houten, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A recent survey on the use of drugs for incontinence in the elderly stated that only anticholinergic drugs used for urge incontinence have a slight positive effect on incontinence episodes. However, this does not mean that there are no potential treatments for incontinence in the frail elderly. The Dutch surveillance on problems in the care sector, the 'National prevalence survey of care problems' ('Landelijke prevalentiemeting zorgproblemen'), shows that between 2004 and 2014 the prevalence of urinary incontinence dropped from 76% to 49%. This fall in prevalence is due to the policies developed by institutions, and by training for nurses and physicians. Successful treatment begins with assessment of functionality (mobility and cognition), assessment of relevant multimorbidity and reconsideration of the use of drugs with an impact on continence. As a next step, bladder retraining and pelvic floor exercises may be used if the elderly person is able to perform these exercises independently. An anticholinergic drug can be tried as a last resort if there is urge incontinence and there are no contraindications.

  16. Minimising postoperative incontinence following radical prostatectomy: considerations and evidence.

    PubMed

    Cambio, Angelo J; Evans, Christopher P

    2006-11-01

    To review evidence regarding perioperative predictors of incontinence after radical prostatectomy (RP), related anatomic and patient factors, and surgical techniques used to minimise incontinence. A search of the Pubmed, Cancerlit, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science databases was performed for the key words prostatectomy, incontinence, and continence. Relevant articles were reviewed, summarised, and analysed. Enhanced understanding of pelvic anatomy applied to surgical approaches has improved continence rates following RP; however, incontinence remains a potential adverse outcome. Evidence suggests that increasing patient body weight and prostate volume are not associated with continence outcomes, but increasing patient age may be predictive. Behavioural therapy may aid in early return to continence although the timing of therapy and benefit of biofeedback assistance are unclear. Various surgical techniques are used to improve continence, but no evidence overwhelmingly supports any specific technique. At best, evidence supports early return to continence with some techniques. No technique significantly increased margin positivity solely at the experimental anatomic site. Despite enhanced knowledge of anatomy and improved surgical approach, incontinence persists as a potential adverse outcome of RP. Urologists may not find an evidence-based rationalisation for any particular surgical technique due to the nature of surgical series, variability in the definition of incontinence, and individual surgical skills, preferences, and techniques. Giving careful consideration to the trial design can potentially improve the resulting level of evidence.

  17. Incontinence in Intellectual Disability: An Under Recognized Cause

    PubMed Central

    Sagayaraj, Benjamin; V.T.T., Rajan; Kumar, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome may develop urinary incontinence during adolescence or nearing adulthood. Most often low mental ability, behavioural issues, urinary tract infection, hypothyroidism, atlanto-axial subluxation or sexual abuse may be suspected to be the reason. We report a case of Down syndrome with tethered cord syndrome (TCS) and Lipoma of Filum terminale with Cauda equina in normal position, as a cause of bowel and bladder incontinence. The need for operating with Cauda Equina in normal position is debated. But a conscious decision was taken to operate and the incontinence improved markedly which was documented by using a standardized questionnaire (King’s questionnaire) and thereby making a difference in the child’s life. A literature search did not result in any case of Down syndrome with tethered cord syndrome and secondary incontinence as presentation. Considering the possibility of TCS as a cause of incontinence, often neglected even in normal children, careful evaluation and correction of such problems will make a difference in the life of many intellectually disabled children. Incontinence should not be casually attributed to intellectual disability without ruling out other causes. PMID:26500975

  18. [Urodynamic studies in the child with urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Schwöbel, M; Bodmer, C

    1998-01-01

    Voiding disorders in children are frequent. To establish an exact anamnesis, it has to be distinguished between enuresis and incontinence and this may consequently already have a therapeutical effect. Enuresis is defined as a normal void occurring at an inappropriate time or place. Incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine and a pathological voiding habit, often in combination with urinary infections. The causes of an enuresis are always functional, the causes for incontinence may be organic or functional. Organic causes are neurogenic bladder dysfunctions or structural anomalies of the lower urinary tract. The functional causes are divided in urge incontinence, dysfunctional voiding, lazy bladder syndrome and stress incontinence. The most important screening examination in each child with voiding disorders is the uroflowmetry, in combination with an electromyography (EMG) of pelvic floor and abdominal muscles. For registration of the muscle activity, surface electrodes are used that only show muscle groups, but do not hurt on application. Cystometry, an invasive method, is used as a second step. The therapy of functional incontinence consists in bladder training, physiotherapy of the pelvic floor and biofeedback. Medicaments are given in second priority. The therapy of functional voiding disorders is only successful in cooperation with the child and its parents.

  19. Associated Factors and the Impact of Fecal Incontinence in Women with Urge Urinary Incontinence: From the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network’s BEDRI Study

    PubMed Central

    MARKLAND, Alayne D.; RICHTER, Holly E.; KENTON, Kimberly S.; WAI, Clifford; NAGER, Charles W.; KRAUS, Stephen R.; XU, Yan; TENNSTEDT, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine prevalence, risk factors, and impact on quality of life (QOL) that fecal incontinence (FI) symptoms have on women seeking treatment for urge urinary incontinence (UUI). Study Design Baseline sociodemographic, history, physical examination, and validated questionnaire data were analyzed in 307 women enrolled in the Behavior Enhances Drug Reduction of Incontinence (BEDRI) study for associations with FI. FI was defined as loss of liquid/solid stool occurring at least monthly. Multivariable logistic regression models compared women with FI and UUI to women with only UUI. Results Prevalence of monthly FI was 18%, liquid stool (12%) and solid stool (6%). In multivariable analysis, FI was associated with vaginal delivery, posterior vaginal wall prolapse, higher body mass index, and UUI symptoms. QOL was worse in women with FI/UUI than isolated UUI. Conclusion Women seeking treatment for UUI have high rates of monthly FI with a negative impact on QOL. PMID:19200939

  20. Challenges of Conducting Multi-Center, Multi-Disciplinary Urinary Incontinence Clinical Trials: Experience of the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network

    PubMed Central

    Steers, William; Richter, Holly; Nyberg, Leroy; Kusek, John; Kraus, Stephen; Dandrea, Kimberly; Chai, Toby; Brubaker, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Aims The Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network (UITN) was established in 2000 as a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional network by the National Institute for Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to investigate treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Methods Over 8 years this network composed of urologists, urogynecologists, geriatricians, behavioral psychologists, physical therapists, nurses, epidemiologists, social scientists and statisticians from nine academic sites and a Data Coordinating Center has been effective in designing and completing prospective randomized clinical trials for treatments of urinary incontinence in women. Results Two major clinical trials have been completed and a third has completed recruitment. The focus of the completed trials was a comparison of surgical methods to treat stress urinary incontinence whereas the third examined the potential benefit of combined behavioral intervention and antimuscarinic drug therapy to eliminate the need for long-term use of drug therapy alone to manage urge urinary incontinence. The scientific output of the network measured by abstracts, original papers and presentations demonstrates the productivity of the network. Conclusions Many unique challenges are posed by a multi-disciplinary team located at sites across the United States undertaking several clinical trials. This review presents some of the logistics, barriers, tactics, and strategies used to create this successful clinical trials network focused on urinary incontinence. PMID:19030190

  1. Addressing Inpatient Glycaemic Control with an Inpatient Glucometry Alert System.

    PubMed

    Seheult, J N; Pazderska, A; Gaffney, P; Fogarty, J; Sherlock, M; Gibney, J; Boran, G

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor inpatient glycaemic control has a prevalence exceeding 30% and results in increased length of stay and higher rates of hospital complications and inpatient mortality. The aim of this study was to improve inpatient glycaemic control by developing an alert system to process point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) results. Methods. Microsoft Excel Macros were developed for the processing of daily glucometry data downloaded from the Cobas IT database. Alerts were generated according to ward location for any value less than 4 mmol/L (hypoglycaemia) or greater than 15 mmol/L (moderate-severe hyperglycaemia). The Diabetes Team provided a weekday consult service for patients flagged on the daily reports. This system was implemented for a 60-day period. Results. There was a statistically significant 20% reduction in the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted values >15 mmol/L compared to the preimplementation period without a significant change in the percentage of hypoglycaemic values. The time-to-next-reading after a dysglycaemic POC-BG result was reduced by 14% and the time-to-normalization of a dysglycaemic result was reduced from 10.2 hours to 8.4 hours. Conclusion. The alert system reduced the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted glucose values and the time-to-normalization of blood glucose.

  2. Addressing Inpatient Glycaemic Control with an Inpatient Glucometry Alert System

    PubMed Central

    Seheult, J. N.; Pazderska, A.; Gaffney, P.; Fogarty, J.; Sherlock, M.; Gibney, J.; Boran, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor inpatient glycaemic control has a prevalence exceeding 30% and results in increased length of stay and higher rates of hospital complications and inpatient mortality. The aim of this study was to improve inpatient glycaemic control by developing an alert system to process point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) results. Methods. Microsoft Excel Macros were developed for the processing of daily glucometry data downloaded from the Cobas IT database. Alerts were generated according to ward location for any value less than 4 mmol/L (hypoglycaemia) or greater than 15 mmol/L (moderate-severe hyperglycaemia). The Diabetes Team provided a weekday consult service for patients flagged on the daily reports. This system was implemented for a 60-day period. Results. There was a statistically significant 20% reduction in the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted values >15 mmol/L compared to the preimplementation period without a significant change in the percentage of hypoglycaemic values. The time-to-next-reading after a dysglycaemic POC-BG result was reduced by 14% and the time-to-normalization of a dysglycaemic result was reduced from 10.2 hours to 8.4 hours. Conclusion. The alert system reduced the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted glucose values and the time-to-normalization of blood glucose. PMID:26290664

  3. Urologic diseases in America project: urinary incontinence in women-national trends in hospitalizations, office visits, treatment and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Thom, David H; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2005-04-01

    We describe temporal trends in hospitalizations, outpatient visits and the treatment of female urinary incontinence (UI), and estimated the costs of incontinence using national databases. The analytic methods used to generate these results have been described previously. The rate of hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of UI decreased from 51/100,000 women in 1994 to 44/100,000 in 2000 and mean length of stay decreased from 3.1 days to 2.1. In contrast, outpatient visits for UI more than doubled during the same period from 845/100,000 women to 1,845/100,000. Rates of inpatient surgical treatment for UI decreased slightly from 1994 to 2000, while ambulatory surgical center visit rates for Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older more than doubled from 60/100,000 in 1992 to 142/100,000 in 1998. Medical expenditures for UI increased substantially during the 1990s, almost doubling from 128.1 million dollars in 1992 to 234.4 million dollars in 1998 for Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older. This increase was due almost entirely to increased outpatient costs, which increased from 25.4 million dollars or 9.1% of total costs in 1992 to 329 million dollars or 27.3% of total costs in 2000 in this group. While existing national databases generally capture only the minority of incontinent women with UI who seek and receive care for UI, they are useful for documenting treads in service use and surgical treatments, and estimating economic impact. This data can be helpful when formulating public policy and designing observational and clinical studies.

  4. National audit of pressure ulcers and incontinence-associated dermatitis in hospitals across Wales: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Michael; Semple, Martin J; Ivins, Nicola; Mahoney, Kirsten; Harding, Keith

    2017-08-21

    The Chief Nurse National Health Service Wales initiated a national survey of acute and community hospital patients in Wales to identify the prevalence of pressure ulcers and incontinence-associated dermatitis. Teams of two nurses working independently assessed the skin of each inpatient who consented to having their skin observed. Over 28 September 2015 to 2nd October 2015, 8365 patients were assessed across 66 hospitals with 748 (8.9%) found to have pressure ulcers. Not all patients had their skin inspected with all mental health patients exempt from this part of the audit along with others who did not consent or were too ill. Of the patients with pressure ulcers, 593 (79.3%) had their skin inspected with 158 new pressure ulcers encountered that were not known to ward staff, while 152 pressure ulcers were incorrectly categorised by the ward teams. Incontinence-associated dermatitis was encountered in 360 patients (4.3%), while medical device-related pressure ulcers were rare (n=33). The support surfaces used while patients were in bed were also recorded to provide a baseline against which future changes in equipment procurement could be assessed. The presence of other wounds was also recorded with 2537 (30.3%) of all hospital patients having one or more skin wounds. This survey has demonstrated that although complex, it is feasible to undertake national surveys of pressure ulcers, incontinence-associated dermatitis and other wounds providing comprehensive and accurate data to help plan improvements in wound care across Wales. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Lígia da Silva; Lúcio, Adélia; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001), multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009), gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02) and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035). Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent. Investigar os fatores de risco para a incontinência urinária (IU) no puerpério e as suas características. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle com 344 puérperas (77 casos e 267 controles), com até 90 dias pós-parto. Foi aplicado, em um único momento, um questionário para os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, e dois outros para avaliar a perda urinária, situações de perda e o tipo de IU. Apresentaram IU de esforço 45,5%, perda urinária diversas vezes ao dia 44,2%, sendo 71,4% em pequena quantidade e 57,1% ao tossir ou espirrar. Em 70,1% dos casos a IU iniciou-se na gestação e permaneceu no puerpério. Ao ajustar-se um modelo de regressão logística bin

  6. Knowledge and understanding of urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Katherina; Hunter, Kathleen F.; Wagg, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate family physicians’ knowledge of, attitudes toward, and understanding of urinary incontinence (UI), as well as their perceptions of barriers to continence care, as a foundation for designing interventions to improve service provision for those in northern Alberta who suffer from UI. Design Descriptive survey using a standardized instrument. The survey instrument was completed either by telephone interview or on paper copy faxed back to the researchers, depending on participant preference. Setting Northern Alberta. Participants Random sample of family physicians (N = 158). Main outcome measures Physician knowledge of and attitudes toward UI, UI management practices, and barriers to providing UI care. Results Survey response rate was 10.6% (158 of 1488); 84.2% (133 of 158) of respondents practised in urban settings, 44.9% (71 of 158) had been in practice for fewer than 15 years, 24.1% (38 of 158) reported having no training in UI management since graduation, and 53.8% (85 of 158) reported that they proactively discussed UI with their patients. Overall, 70.0% of respondents felt fairly confident in managing UI. Most family physicians referred patients for specialist care, with few referrals to community services. Respondents thought that continence services were scarce, with long waiting times, and that such services were generally overstretched; they believed that although high-quality continence care was a personal priority, it was not a priority focus for their practice partnerships or networks. In terms of the highest ranked areas for improvement in UI management, increased awareness and understanding among physicians (ranked first by 28.5% of respondents), followed by dedicated incontinence clinics or nurses for referral (17.7%) and improving patient awareness and understanding (12.0%). Conclusion There continues to be considerable variation in knowledge about UI management and a relative overreliance on specialist care, despite

  7. Comparison of Perineal Sonographically Measured and Functional Urodynamic Urethral Length in Female Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Janetzki, Nadine; Kennes, Lieven; Stickeler, Elmar; Serno, Julia; Behrendt, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To detect the anatomical insufficiency of the urethra and to propose perineal ultrasound as a useful, noninvasive tool for the evaluation of incontinence, we compared the anatomical length of the urethra with the urodynamic functional urethral length. We also compared the urethral length between continent and incontinent females. Methods. 149 female patients were enrolled and divided into four groups (stress, urge, or mixed incontinence; control). Sonographically measured urethral length (SUL) and urodynamic functional urethral length (FUL) were analyzed statistically. Standardized and internationally validated incontinence questionnaire ICIQ-SF results were compared between each patient group. Results. Perineal SUL was significantly longer in incontinent compared to continent patients (p < 0.0001). Pairwise comparison of each incontinent type (stress, urge, or mixed incontinence) with the control group showed also a significant difference (p < 0.05). FUL was significantly shorter in incontinent patients than in the control group (p = 0.0112). But pairwise comparison showed only a significant difference for the stress incontinence group compared with the control group (p = 0.0084) and not for the urge or mixed incontinent group. No clear correlation between SUL, FUL, and ICIQ-SF score was found. Conclusions. SUL measured by noninvasive perineal ultrasound is a suitable parameter in the assessment of female incontinence, since incontinent women show a significantly elongated urethra as a sign of tissue insufficiency, independent of the type of incontinence. PMID:27819004

  8. Distal urethral polypropylene sling surgical management for urodynamic stress incontinence in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Khae Hawn; Lee, Hyo Won; Kim, Kye Hyun; Choi, Joong Sub; Yoon, Sang Jin; Han, Jong Sul; Lee, Kyo Won

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the objective and subjective efficacy of the distal urethral polypropylene sling (DUPS) for urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) in Korean women. We performed DUPS in 89 consecutive patients with USI. The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were used to evaluate the surgical outcomes. The mean operative time was 29.4 min (range 25-40). Concomitant procedures were performed including rectocele repair (n = 48), laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (n = 12) and laparoscopic myomectomy (n = 1). There were no intraoperative complications or major postoperative complications. The average follow-up was 15 months (range 12-18). Both mean IIQ-7 and UDI-6 scores decreased significantly after DUPS. In addition, 87% of the patients reported no symptoms of USI under any circumstances and 95% of the patients reported never or rarely being bothered by USI. DUPS is a safe, inexpensive, simple, and effective surgical method for USI. The procedure provides a high cure rate in Korean women. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Muscle-Derived Cells for Treatment of Iatrogenic Sphincter Damage and Urinary Incontinence in Men

    PubMed Central

    Gerullis, H.; Eimer, C.; Georgas, E.; Homburger, M.; El-Baz, A. G.; Wishahi, M.; Borós, M.; Ecke, T. H.; Otto, T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of injection of autologous muscle-derived cells into the urinary sphincter for treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence in men and to characterize the injected cells prior to transplantation. Methods. 222 male patients with stress urinary incontinence and sphincter damage after uroloical procedures were treated with transurethral injection of autologous muscle-derived cells. The transplanted cells were investigated after cultivation and prior to application by immunocytochemistry using different markers of myogenic differentiation. Feasibility and functionality assessment was achieved with a follow-up of at least 12 months. Results. Follow-up was at least 12 months. Of the 222 treated patients, 120 responded to therapy of whom 26 patients (12%) were continent, and 94 patients (42%) showed improvement. In 102 (46%) patients, the therapy was ineffective. Clinical improvement was observed on average 4.7 months after transplantation and continued in all improved patients. The cells injected into the sphincter were at least ~50% of myogenic origin and representative for early stages of muscle cell differentiation. Conclusions. Transurethral injection of muscle-derived cells into the damaged urethral sphincter of male patients is a safe procedure. Transplanted cells represent different phases of myogenic differentiation. PMID:22919359

  10. Usage results of a mobile app for managing urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jeff; Zhang, Amy; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiao Hui

    2015-04-01

    Slight changes in urinary incontinence severity may be difficult to notice, so that even high functioning patients are unable to detect if urinary incontinence is improving or worsening. We describe a recently released free software app, iDry®, that enables individuals with urinary incontinence to document incontinence symptoms, view progress, evaluate effectiveness of interventions and report status to their health care provider. After 2 field trials, iDry was published as a free download from the Apple® App Store and was downloaded 1,231 times in the first 19 months. iDry also collects large quantities of anonymized usage data for research purposes. Data analysis shows that long-term users had significantly more severe urinary incontinence symptoms (p ≤ 0.01) than short-term users. Short-term users reduced pad use by 20% but long-term users' pad use remaining unchanged. Average leakage was reduced 14.6 mg per day for short-term vs 4.5 mg per day for long-term users, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.93) due to high data variability (SD 611). There was no significant difference between long-term and short-term users in severity of self-reported stress and urge incontinence. Bladder training positively correlated with a reduction in pad use (p=0.03) and leakage amount (p=0.02). Overall our findings suggest that iDry is a useful, accessible and convenient tool to document urinary incontinence symptoms and improvement, but controlled studies are needed to assess its effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incontinence, bladder neck mobility, and sphincter ruptures in primiparous women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the function of the pelvic floor in primiparae before and during pregnancy with the status post partum concerning symptoms of incontinence, sphincter ruptures, bladder-neck mobility and the influence of the different modes of deliveries. Methods Questionnaire evaluating symptoms of urinary and anal incontinence in nulliparous women before and after delivery and correlating these symptoms with functional changes of the pelvic floor based on a careful gynaecologic examination as well as perineal and endoanal ultrasound. Results 112 women were included in our study and came for the first visit, 99 women returned for follow-up 6 months after childbirth. Stress and flatus incontinence significantly increased from before pregnancy (3 and 12%) to after childbirth (21 and 28%) in women with spontaneous delivery or vacuum extraction. No new symptoms occurred after c-section. There was no significant difference between the bladder neck position before and after delivery. The mobility of the bladder neck was significantly higher after vaginal delivery using a vacuum extraction compared to spontaneous delivery or c-section. The bladder neck in women with post partum urinary stress incontinence was significantly more mobile than in continent controls. The endoanal ultrasound detected seven occult sphincter defects without any correlation to symptoms of anal incontinence. Conclusion Several statistically significant changes of the pelvic floor after delivery were demonstrated. Spontaneous vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction increases the risk for stress or anal incontinence, delivery with vacuum extraction leads to higher bladder neck mobility and stress incontinent women have more mobile bladder necks than continent women. PMID:20696633

  12. [Pelvic floor rehabilitation for female urinary incontinence: mechanisms of action].

    PubMed

    Deffieux, X; Billecocq, S; Demoulin, G; Rivain, A-L; Trichot, C; Thubert, T

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the proven mechanisms of action of pelvic rehabilitation in women presenting with urinary incontinence. Review of literature (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database) using following keywords: female; urinary incontinence; overactive bladder syndrome; stress urinary incontinence; bladder training; bladder diary; pelvic floor muscle training; pelvic floor rehabilitation; physiotherapy; cognitive therapies. Among 2906 articles (animal and anatomical studies have been excluded); 66 have been selected because they focused on the evaluation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of pelvic floor rehabilitation concerning female urinary incontinence. Studies on pelvic floor muscles training exercises showed a significant increase in the force of contraction of these muscles and it was correlated with improved scores of urinary incontinence and pad test (coefficient of correlation r ranged from 0.23 to 0.34) for women presenting with stress urinary incontinence. These studies have not observed an increase in the maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) or correction of urethral hypermobility related with the improvement of incontinence after rehabilitation sessions. Studies concerning pelvic floor stimulation observed an increase in the force of contraction of pelvic floor muscles after rehabilitation and a decrease in the intensity of detrusor contractions without changing the MUCP. There is very little data on the precise mechanisms of action of biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy. In studies that objectively evaluated the mechanisms of action of pelvic rehabilitation, it was observed that pelvic floor muscles voluntary exercises and electrostimulation resulted an increase in force of contraction of these muscles without changing the MUCP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic contributions to urgency urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Richter, Holly E; Whitehead, Nedra; Arya, Lily; Ridgeway, Beri; Allen-Brady, Kristina; Norton, Peggy; Sung, Vivian; Shepherd, Jonathan P; Komesu, Yuko; Gaddis, Nathan; Fraser, Matthew O; Tan-Kim, Jasmine; Meikle, Susan; Page, Grier P

    2015-06-01

    We identify genetic variants associated with urgency urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women. A 2-stage genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify variants associated with urgency urinary incontinence. The WHI GARNET substudy with 4,894 genotyped post-reproductive white women was randomly split into independent discovery and replication cohorts. Genome-wide imputation was performed using IMPUTE2 with the 1000 Genomes ALL Phase I integrated variant set as a reference. Controls reported no urgency urinary incontinence at enrollment or followup. Cases reported monthly or greater urgency urinary incontinence and leaked sufficiently to wet/soak underpants/clothes. Logistic regression models were used to predict urgency urinary incontinence case vs control status based on genotype, assuming additive inheritance. Age, obesity, diabetes and depression were included in the models as covariates. Following quality control, 975,508 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 2,241 cases (discovery 1,102; replication 1,133) and 776 controls (discovery 405, replication 371) remained. Genotype imputation resulted in 9,077,347 single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions with minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 available for analysis. Meta-analysis of the discovery and replication samples identified 6 loci on chromosomes 5, 10, 11, 12 and 18 associated with urgency urinary incontinence at p <10(-6). Of the loci 3 were within genes, the zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) gene on chromosome 18q11, the ADAMTS16 gene on chromosome 5p15 and the CIT gene on chromosome 12q24. The other 3 loci were intergenic. Although environmental factors also likely contribute, this first exploratory genome-wide association study for urgency urinary incontinence suggests that genetic variants in the ZFP521, CIT and ADAMTS16 genes might account for some of the observed heritability of the condition. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  14. Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Patrick J; Odlaug, Brian L; Thomarios, Nick; Davis, Andrew A; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Meyer, Craig S; Grant, Jon E

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of paraphilias in an adult inpatient psychiatric population. One hundred twelve consecutive, voluntarily admitted, adult male psychiatric inpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Sexual Disorders Module, Male Version, to assess the rates of DSM-IV paraphilias. Fifteen patients (13.4%) reported symptoms consistent with at least one lifetime DSM-IV paraphilia. The most common paraphilias were voyeurism (n = 9 [8.0%]), exhibitionism (n = 6 [5.4%]), and sexual masochism (n = 3 [2.7%]). Patients who screened positive for a paraphilia had significantly more psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .006) and, on a trend level, were more likely to have attempted suicide. In addition, patients with paraphilias were significantly more likely to report having been sexually abused than patients without a paraphilia (P = <.001). Only 2 of the 15 paraphilic patients (13.3%) carried an admission diagnosis of a paraphilia. Paraphilias appear to be more common in adult male psychiatric inpatients than previously estimated. The study also demonstrated that these disorders were not screened for by the treating physician and thus may go untreated. Further, larger-scale studies are necessary in order to further examine the rates of these disorders in the general population.

  15. [Treatment of female urinary stress incontinence with a Zoedler suspension-plasty and a new, stable, radiopaque polyester sling].

    PubMed

    Steffens, J; Steffens, L; Kranz, A

    1987-05-01

    We report on 183 patients with urinary stress incontinence treated with bladder-neck suspension plasty according to Zoedler from 1972-1982 using the conventional nylon sling. 86.1% of the patients were continent postoperatively. Long term follow-up to 10 years however showed a continuous decrease of success rate in the first 2 postoperative years (74.9% in the 1st, 67.2% in the 2nd year). From the 3rd postoperative year there was a stable continence-rate of 50.7%. As the significant increase of incontinence relapse is due to enzymatic destruction of the nylon sling--first described in ophtalmology--we developed a new form-stable and radiopaque polyester sling. Since 1983 we implanted this new sling in 40 patients. Long term results of the conventional Zoedler procedure and first results of a modified method using the new polyester sling are discussed.

  16. Infection rates in a large investigational trial of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Wexner, Steven D; Hull, Tracy; Edden, Yair; Coller, John A; Devroede, Ghislain; McCallum, Richard; Chan, Miranda; Ayscue, Jennifer M; Shobeiri, Abbas S; Margolin, David; England, Michael; Kaufman, Howard; Snape, William J; Mutlu, Ece; Chua, Heidi; Pettit, Paul; Nagle, Deborah; Madoff, Robert D; Lerew, Darin R; Mellgren, Anders

    2010-07-01

    Treatment options for patients with fecal incontinence (FI) are limited, and surgical treatments can be associated with high rates of infection and other complications. One treatment, sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), is approved for FI in Europe. A large multicenter trial was conducted in North America and Australia to assess the efficacy of SNS in patients with chronic fecal incontinence. The aim of this report was to analyze the infectious complication rates in that trial. Adult patients with a history of chronic fecal incontinence were enrolled into this study. Those patients who fulfilled study inclusion/exclusion criteria and demonstrated greater than two FI episodes per week underwent a 2-week test phase of SNS. Patients who showed a > or = 50% reduction in incontinent episodes and/or days per week underwent chronic stimulator implantation. Adverse events were reported to the sponsor by investigators at each study site and then coded. All events coded as implant site infection were included in this analysis. One hundred twenty subjects (92% female, 60.5 +/- 12.5 years old) received a chronically implanted InterStim Therapy device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Patients were followed for an average of 28 months (range 2.2-69.5). Thirteen of the 120 implanted subjects (10.8%) reported infection after the chronic system implant. One infection spontaneously resolved and five were successfully treated with antibiotics. Seven infections (5.8%) required surgical intervention, with infections in six patients requiring full permanent device explantation. The duration of the test stimulation implant procedure was similar between the infected group (74 min) and the non-infected group (74 min). The average duration of the chronic neurostimulator implant procedure was also similar between the infected (39 min) and non-infected group (37 min). Nine infections occurred within a month of chronic system implant and the remaining four infections occurred more than a year

  17. Mapping liquid distribution in absorbent incontinence products.

    PubMed

    Landeryou, M A; Yerworth, R J; Cottenden, A M

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews methods available for mapping the distribution of fluid in incontinence pad materials to assist with evaluating existing products and developing new ones, and to provide data for building and validating predictive models. Specifically, the following technologies are considered and their strengths and limitations described: discrete sensors based on conductance, temperature or optical measurements, optical imaging, gravimetric methods, X-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. It is suggested that the ideal method would enable fluid distribution to be mapped in three dimensions with good spatial and time resolution in single materials and composite structures of simple and complex geometries under static and dynamic mechanical loading. It would also allow liquid to be mapped in products when worn by users. It is concluded that, although each existing method meets some of these requirements, and each requirement is met, at least reasonably well, by at least one method, improved techniques are needed. The particular need for methods that can provide some measurement of liquid saturation within absorbent products, both in the laboratory and in real use, is highlighted. In many cases, simple methods used appropriately are sufficient to elicit the important aspects of liquid transport and storage within absorbent products.

  18. Faecal incontinence: Current knowledges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Alban; Bouvier, Michel; Vitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a disabling and frequent symptom since its prevalence can vary between 5% and 15% of the general population. It has a particular negative impact on quality of life. Many tools are currently available for the treatment of FI, from conservative measures to invasive surgical treatments. The conservative treatment may be dietetic measures, various pharmacological agents, anorectal rehabilitation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and transanal irrigation. If needed, patients may have miniinvasive approaches such as sacral nerve modulation or antegrade irrigation. In some cases, a surgical treatment is proposed, mainly external anal sphincter repair. Although these different therapeutic options are available, new techniques are arriving allowing new hopes for the patients. Moreover, most of them are non-invasive such as local application of an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, stem cell injections, rectal injection of botulinum toxin, acupuncture. New more invasive techniques with promising results are also coming such as anal magnetic sphincter and antropylorus transposition. This review reports the main current available treatments of FI and the developing therapeutics tools. PMID:26909229

  19. Urinary incontinence and loneliness in Canadian seniors.

    PubMed

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Gilmour, Heather

    2013-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI), a prevalent condition among seniors, can have substantial impacts on quality of life. Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging were used to examine the prevalence of UI, as well as the relationship between UI and loneliness in a sample of 16,369 people aged 65 or older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships, while adjusting for potential confounders. In 2008/2009, an estimated 512,000 seniors reported that they experienced UI. Women were more likely than men to have this complaint (14% versus 9%), as were older seniors. Those with UI were significantly more likely to be lonely than were those without the condition (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.5 to 2.0). This association persisted when socio-demographic, social and functional health factors were taken into account (OR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.7). This study highlights the prevalence of UI among Canadian seniors and its correlation with loneliness, which, itself, is associated with negative health outcomes. Further research is needed to establish exactly how UI has an impact on seniors' feelings of loneliness.

  20. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5-minute video) “ ... video in a new window) Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens ...

  1. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in American Indian women from a South Dakota tribe.

    PubMed

    Fiegen, Michael M; Benson, Kevin D; Hanson, Jessica D; Prasek, Jennifer; Hansen, Keith A; VanEerden, Peter

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors for urinary incontinence in a Northern Plains tribe of American Indian women. The Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence in a sample of American Indian women from one tribe. This was a cross-sectional convenience sampling of 234 eligible participants. Participant's ages ranged from 18 to 80 years. Stata/Se 9.1 software was used in statistical analysis. The overall prevalence of urinary stress incontinence was 15.4%, urgency incontinence 2.14%, and mixed incontinence 20.5%. Both stress and urgency incontinence was found to be low in this sample population. A reduced prevalence of stress and urgency incontinence is seen in our sample. Our study group showed a high prevalence of known risk factors associated with urinary incontinence. We intend to extend our study for further understanding of this patient population.

  2. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5-minute video) “ ... video in a new window) Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens ...

  3. Anticholinergic Therapy vs. OnabotulinumtoxinA for Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Visco, Anthony G.; Brubaker, Linda; Richter, Holly E.; Nygaard, Ingrid; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R.; Menefee, Shawn A.; Schaffer, Joseph; Lowder, Jerry; Khandwala, Salil; Sirls, Larry; Spino, Cathie; Nolen, Tracy L.; Wallace, Dennis; Meikle, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anticholinergic medications and onabotulinumtoxinA are used to treat urgency urinary incontinence, but data directly comparing the two types of therapy are needed. METHODS We performed a double-blind, double-placebo–controlled, randomized trial involving women with idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence who had five or more episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per 3-day period, as recorded in a diary. For a 6-month period, participants were randomly assigned to daily oral anticholinergic medication (solifenacin, 5 mg initially, with possible escalation to 10 mg and, if necessary, subsequent switch to trospium XR, 60 mg) plus one intradetrusor injection of saline or one intradetrusor injection of 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA plus daily oral placebo. The primary outcome was the reduction from baseline in mean episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per day over the 6-month period, as recorded in 3-day diaries submitted monthly. Secondary outcomes included complete resolution of urgency urinary incontinence, quality of life, use of catheters, and adverse events. RESULTS Of 249 women who underwent randomization, 247 were treated, and 241 had data available for the primary outcome analyses. The mean reduction in episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per day over the course of 6 months, from a baseline average of 5.0 per day, was 3.4 in the anticholinergic group and 3.3 in the onabotulinumtoxinA group (P = 0.81). Complete resolution of urgency urinary incontinence was reported by 13% and 27% of the women, respectively (P = 0.003). Quality of life improved in both groups, without significant between-group differences. The anticholinergic group had a higher rate of dry mouth (46% vs. 31%, P = 0.02) but lower rates of catheter use at 2 months (0% vs. 5%, P = 0.01) and urinary tract infections (13% vs. 33%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Oral anticholinergic therapy and onabotulinumtoxinA by injection were associated with similar reductions in the frequency of

  4. Fecal incontinence decreases sexual quality of life, but does not prevent sexual activity in women.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Laurel R; Brown, Jeanette S; Creasman, Jennifer M; Subak, Leslee L; Van den Eeden, Stephen K; Thom, David H; Varma, Madhulika G; Huang, Alison J

    2012-10-01

    The impact of anal incontinence on women's sexual function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anal incontinence and sexual activity and functioning in women. This is a cross-sectional study. This investigation was conducted in a community-based integrated health care delivery system. Included were 2269 ethnically diverse women aged 40 to 80 years. Self-administered questionnaires assessed accidental leakage of gas (flatal incontinence) and fluid/mucus/stool (fecal incontinence) in the past 3 months. Additional questionnaires assessed sexual activity, desire and satisfaction, as well as specific sexual problems (difficulty with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, or pain). Multivariable logistic regression models compared sexual function in women with 1) isolated flatal incontinence, 2) fecal incontinence (with or without flatal incontinence), and 3) no fecal/flatal incontinence, controlling for potential confounders. Twenty-four percent of women reported fecal incontinence and 43% reported isolated flatal incontinence in the previous 3 months. The majority were sexually active (62% of women without fecal/flatal incontinence, 66% with isolated flatal incontinence, and 60% with fecal incontinence; p = 0.06). In comparison with women without fecal/flatal incontinence, women with fecal incontinence were more likely to report low sexual desire (OR: 1.41 (CI: 1.10-1.82)), low sexual satisfaction (OR: 1.56 (CI: 1.14-2.12)), and limitation of sexual activity by physical health (OR: 1.65 (CI: 1.19-2.28)) after adjustment for confounders. Among sexually active women, women with fecal incontinence were more likely than women without fecal/flatal incontinence to report difficulties with lubrication (OR: 2.66 (CI: 1.76-4.00)), pain (OR: 2.44 (CI: 1.52-3.91)), and orgasm (OR: 1.68 (CI: 1.12-2.51)). Women with isolated flatal incontinence reported sexual functioning similar to women without fecal/flatal incontinence. The cross

  5. Anti-diuresis in the management of daytime urinary -incontinence.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Cardozo, L

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract dysfunction, whilst not life threatening conditions, remain an important cause of morbidity in women and are responsible for significant impairment of quality of life. Drug therapy is often used to treat women who complain of urgency and urge incontinence and has an emerging role in the management of stress urinary incontinence. However, bothersome side effects are known to affect compliance and therefore compromise efficacy, making longterm drug therapy unpopular. The principle aim of this thesis is to assess the role of antidiuresis in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence and also to examine its role as a 'designer therapy' which women can choose to use as, or when, required. In addition both the patients' and clinicians' attitudes towards treatment have been studied to clarify the meaning of 'cure', and to determine treatment acceptability, overall outcome and patient satisfaction. In the first study the patients' concept of cure is explored as well as their expectations regarding treatment and outcome. The second study examines cure from the clinician's perspective in addition to reviewing outcome measures in the clinical and research settings. Finally in the third study the use of desmopressin in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence is reported.

  6. Anti-diuresis in the management of daytime urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D.; Cardozo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract dysfunction, whilst not life threatening conditions, remain an important cause of morbidity in women and are responsible for significant impairment of quality of life. Drug therapy is often used to treat women who complain of urgency and urge incontinence and has an emerging role in the management of stress urinary incontinence. However, bothersome side effects are known to affect compliance and therefore compromise efficacy, making longterm drug therapy unpopular. The principle aim of this thesis is to assess the role of antidiuresis in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence and also to examine its role as a ‘designer therapy’ which women can choose to use as, or when, required. In addition both the patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards treatment have been studied to clarify the meaning of ‘cure’, and to determine treatment acceptability, overall outcome and patient satisfaction. In the first study the patients’ concept of cure is explored as well as their expectations regarding treatment and outcome. The second study examines cure from the clinician’s perspective in addition to reviewing outcome measures in the clinical and research settings. Finally in the third study the use of desmopressin in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence is reported. PMID:25478070

  7. Endoanal ultrasonography in fecal incontinence: Current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence has a profound impact in a patient’s life, impairing quality of life and carrying a substantial economic burden due to health costs. It is an underdiagnosed condition because many affected patients are reluctant to report it and also clinicians are usually not alert to it. Patient evaluation with a detailed clinical history and examination is very important to indicate the type of injury that is present. Endoanal ultrasonography is currently the gold standard for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence and is a simple, well-tolerated and non-expensive technique. Most studies revealed 100% sensitivity in identifying sphincter defect. It is better than endoanal magnetic resonance imaging for internal anal sphincter defects, equivalent for the diagnosis of external anal sphincter defects, but with a lower capacity for assessment of atrophy of this sphincter. The most common cause of fecal incontinence is anal sphincter injury related to obstetric trauma. Only a small percentage of women are diagnosed with sphincter tears immediately after vaginal delivery, but endoanal ultrasonography shows that one third of these women have occult sphincter defects. Furthermore, in patients submitted to primary repair of these tears, ultrasound revealed a high frequency of persistent sphincter defects after surgery. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography is currently largely used and accepted for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence, improving diagnostic accuracy and our knowledge of physiologic and pathological sphincters alterations. Conversely, there is currently no evidence to support the use of elastography in fecal incontinence evaluation. PMID:26078826

  8. Incontinence-associated dermatitis in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Foxley, Susan; Baadjies, Ruth

    Evidence-based patient care for those with urinary and faecal incontinence involves routine tasks that are integral to essential patient care. However, over the past few decades, researchers have demonstrated how ritualistic practice in this area has become. There is also a growing range of skin care products that can be used to prevent incontinence-associated dermatitis and for nurses, deciding which ones to use can be problematic Incontinent patients have a 22% higher risk of developing pressure ulcers - when immobile this risk increases to 30% - and the often indiscriminate use of various lotions, without a significant evidence base, is a growing cause of concern. Maintaining healthy skin for those patients who have a spinal cord injury and also experience urinary and faecal incontinence is a challenge faced by nurses in primary and secondary care. Research undertaken in secondary care demonstrates that standardization to an evidence-based skin care regime, to be used after incontinent episodes, improves patient care in this specialist area.

  9. Standardized pelvic floor exercises improve stress urinary incontinence in women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Corinne; Zipponi, Ingrid; Baumann, Marc U; Radlinger, Lorenz; Mueller, Michael D; Kuhn, Annette

    2016-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation is the conservative therapy of choice for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The success rate of surgical procedures in SUI patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) is low. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of a standardized physiotherapy on patients with SUI and normotonic urethra and ISD. In this study, 64 patients with ISD and 69 patients with normotonic urethra were enrolled. Maximum urethral pressure (MUCP) >20 cm H2 O was considered as normotonic urethral pressure. Before and after physiotherapy MUCP was measured and cough testing was performed. Additionally, patient reported outcome was assessed using the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ). For statistical analyses Excel 2010 (Microsoft Inc; Redmond, Washington) and SPSS 20 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, Illinois) for Windows were used. Power calculation was based on the primary endpoint incontinence impact and general health. For power calculation, GraphPad Statmate version 2.00 for Windows was used. Sixty-four patients with ISD and 69 patients with normotonic urethra were included in the study. In SUI patients with normotonic and hypotonic urethra KHQ-scores regarding the primary endpoins "general health" and "incontinence impact" significantly improved following standardized physiotherapy. In both groups MUCP increased after physiotherapy. In SUI patients with ISD standardized physiotherapy resulted in a decreased incidence of a positive cough test. Standardized physiotherapy should be offered to patients with SUI and ISD. Long-term results are subject to future studies. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:711-716, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Trocar-assisted sling suspension for stress urinary incontinence: three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chyi-Long; Yen, Chih-Feng; Wang, Chin-Jung; Lee, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Hsiao-Chen

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate 3-year outcomes of trocar-assisted sling suspension (TASS) for genuine stress incontinence. Retrospective review (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University-based, tertiary-level center for endoscopic surgery. One hundred forty women with genuine stress incontinence with bladder neck hypermobility. After standard surgery preparation and general endotracheal anesthesia, TASS was performed. The periurethral space and thicker parts of the pubocervical fascia were opened from the vagina. A 0.5-cm incision was made on both sides of the lower abdomen and was measured 4-cm lateral to the linea album and 2-3-cm above the pubic bone. A trocar was used to penetrate the incision site to the space of Retzius. A 2-cm x 30-cm folded polypropylene mesh was placed inside the vagina and was then pulled out of the trocar sheath by a laparoscopic forceps. All patients completed the procedures without exception. The average blood loss was less than 50 mL (range 10-200 mL). The operative time ranged from 20 to 90 minutes with a mean time of 32 +/- 12 minutes. Eleven patients had voiding difficulty. Six of them voided well after intermittent self-catheterization performed 28 days postoperatively. Seven patients had poor healing of the anterior vaginal wall; therefore, removal of mesh and wound repair were performed. One patient suffered from a retroperitoneal hematoma, and one patient had an intraoperative bladder injury. The overall complication rate was 14.3%. During 12-36 months of follow-up, 134 of 140 patients (95.7%) were satisfied with the surgery. Based on the results of our pilot study, TASS is quite feasible as a method of treatment for stress urinary incontinence. The surgery is not difficult to perform when compared with Burch colposuspension. Moreover, it encompasses the simplicity and effectiveness of tension-free vaginal tape surgery. In addition, TASS also can correct lateral wall defects such as cystocele.

  11. Controlling Costs for Inpatient CHAMPUS Psychiatric Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    average length of stay , primiry diagnoses, cost of admission, reimbursement rates, beneficiary category, and occupancy rates. Compare...Inpatient Psych 26 provided, total mental health care costs, average length of stay , average cost per admission, and average cost per day were calculated. A...depressions account for fully 46% of the total government inpatient bill. The average length of stay (LOS) for inpatient mental health for the

  12. Recent developments in alcoholism: inpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    Nace, E P

    1993-01-01

    The historical role of inpatient treatment for alcoholism is reviewed in terms of its advantages and disadvantages. The factors that have forced a change in the utilization of inpatient treatment include increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of alcoholic patients, negative outcome studies, and cost-containment efforts. The clinical domains that warrant inpatient treatment are outlined, and decisions of treatment placement are necessarily guided by the factors of acuteness, ability, safety, and stabilization.

  13. Clinical and urodynamic studies in 100 elderly incontinent patients.

    PubMed Central

    Castleden, C M; Duffin, H M; Asher, M J

    1981-01-01

    Clinical details were noted and urodynamic studies carried out on 100 elderly patients referred to an incontinence clinic, of whom 48 attended as day patients. Thirty patients had no problem apart from their incontinence, and only 38 had a clinically detectable neurological lesion. The average mental orientation score in 48 of the patients was 7.6, 23 patients scoring the top score of 10. Most patients were mobile without assistance from another person. Patients could be placed into one of four diagnostic groups according to the appearance of the cystometric tracings, but no bladder capacity or pressure was characteristic of any group. The maximum urethral closure pressure and functional profile length were similar for each group within each sex. There was no correlation between clinical and urodynamic findings, yet each of the four diagnostic categories have different therapeutic implications. It is concluded that urodynamic investigation is necessary in elderly incontinent patients before treatment. PMID:6786455

  14. Evaluation of a behavioral treatment for female urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Santacreu, Marta; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a medical, psychological, social, economic, and hygienic problem. Although it is difficult to state its prevalence, all authors agree that it is related to age and gender. This study aimed to carry out a urinary incontinence behavioral treatment in order to reduce urine leakages in 14 participants recruited from a senior center. The program consists of daily training of the pelvic floor muscles with a weekly control by a supervisor during a 2-month period and follow-up of results 2 months after the last control session. Urinary incontinence episodes were reduced by 75.67% after program completion. It appears that pelvic floor muscles training, carried out under controlled and constant supervision, significantly reduces urinary leakage. Moreover, maintaining this improvement after treatment depends on the continuation of the exercises as well as on the urinary leakage frequency baseline and the urinary leakage frequency during the last treatment session. PMID:21753868

  15. Psychocultural meanings of urinary incontinence in women: a review.

    PubMed

    Higa, Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Mores; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify and analyze studies in health literature about the psychocultural meanings reported by women who experience urinary incontinence (UI). A bibliographical search was executed in the following databases: Lilacs, Medline, Pubmed and Medscape. The present review showed that studies note several meanings. The articles were grouped in three categories defined as significant: according to age experiences, cultural-religious experiences and experiences in self-care. The studies revealed that the degree of anguish and the range of the difficulties experienced are related both with age, ethnic group or religion and with the perception each individual has of her incontinence, which will lead to different levels of emotional disorders and to seeking (or not seeking) treatment. Besides, barriers regarding self-care are perceived. It is concluded that the UI may cause suffering and incontinent women have difficulties to deal with this problem.

  16. Internal Medicine Training in the Inpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Di Francesco; Pistoria, Michael J; Auerbach, Andrew D; Nardino, Robert J; Holmboe, Eric S

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE Although the inpatient setting has served as the predominant educational site of internal medicine training programs, many changes and factors are currently affecting education in this setting. As a result, many educational organizations are calling for reforms in inpatient training. This report reviews the available literature on specific internal medicine inpatient educational interventions and proposes recommendations for improving internal medicine training in this setting. METHOD We searched Medline for articles published between 1966 and August 2004 which focused on internal medicine training interventions in the inpatient setting; bibliographies of Medline-identified articles, as well as articles suggested by experts in the field provided additional citations. We then reviewed, classified, and abstracted only articles where an assessment of learner outcomes was included. RESULTS Thirteen studies of inpatient internal medicine educational interventions were found that included an outcome assessment. All were single institution studies. The majority of these studies was of poor methodological quality and focused on specific content areas of internal medicine. None assessed the effectiveness or impact of internal medicine core inpatient experiences or curriculum. CONCLUSION This review identifies significant gaps in our understanding of what constitutes effective inpatient education. The paucity of high quality research in the internal medicine inpatient setting highlights the urgent need to formally define and study what constitutes an effective “core” inpatient curriculum. PMID:16423111

  17. Point prevalence study of pediatric inpatients who are unable to communicate effectively about pain.

    PubMed

    Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Dougherty, Susan; Vega, Cassandra; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric inpatients may be at risk for inadequate pain management if they are unable to communicate effectively because of age, physical or cognitive impairment, or medical procedures. We conducted a point prevalence study to estimate the proportion of inpatients at a children's hospital who have difficulty communicating to hospital staff. We obtained nurse reports of ability to communicate for all inpatients aged ≥12 months in a pediatric hospital. Demographic information was obtained from the medical record. Questionnaires were completed for 254 inpatients. Forty percent of inpatients had some difficulty communicating, and 69% had experienced pain during the hospitalization. Patient ability to communicate was not related to experiencing pain (χ(2) test, P = .30) or effectiveness of pain management (χ(2) test, P = .80) but was associated with difficulty communicating about pain and nurses needing help from the caretaker to communicate with the patient (χ(2) tests, Ps < .001). A substantial proportion of inpatients aged ≥12 months at a large children's hospital had difficulties communicating effectively and experienced pain during hospitalization. These communication difficulties were not associated with nurse reports of the effectiveness of pain management. However, patients who had difficulties communicating in general were also more likely to have difficulty communicating about pain specifically, and nurses were more likely to need help from the caregiver to understand these patients. Future directions include identifying which conditions, procedures, and medications are associated with inability to communicate. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Sexual function following surgery for urodynamic stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jha, Swati; Moran, Paul; Greenham, Helen; Ford, Caroline

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sexual function in women before and after surgery for urodynamic stress incontinence in the absence of pelvic organ prolapse. This was a prospective questionnaire survey. Fifty-four women undergoing surgery (tension-free vaginal tape/tension-free vaginal tape-obturator) for urodynamic stress incontinence with no evidence of detrusor overactivity or concomitant prolapse were assessed preoperatively and 6 months post operatively. Assessment was based on the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ), the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) and the Patient Global Impression of Improvement. Paired t-tests were used for comparing pre- and post-op scores and unpaired t-tests for comparing observations between groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used for testing whether two numerically scored items were related, and McNemar test was used to compare pre- and postoperative responses to individual questions. ICIQ scores showed significant improvement after surgery (p < 0.001). Women completing PISQ were significantly younger (mean = 54) than those who did not (mean = 65; p < 0.001). The total PISQ score was better postoperatively (preoperative = 87.2, postoperative = 92.7; p < 0.001), with improvements in both the physical (preoperative = 31.0, postoperative = 35.2; p < 0.001) and partner-related domains (preoperative = 18.8, postoperative = 19.9; p = 0.002) but no improvement in behaviour emotive domains (preoperative = 37.3, postoperative = 37.6; p = 0.70). There was a reduction in episodes of coital incontinence postoperatively (preoperatively = 16/54, postoperatively = 39/54; p < 0.002). Previous vaginal surgery, oestrogen status of respondents and hysterectomy status did not affect the PISQ. Surgical correction of stress incontinence is associated with an improvement in sexual function.

  19. Relation of Bowel Habits to Fecal Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Seide, Barbara M.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Melton, L. Joseph

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though most women with fecal incontinence (FI) have anorectal dysfunctions, a majority have intermittent symptoms. Variations in bowel habits and daily routine may partly explain this. AIM To compare bowel habits and daily routine between controls and FI, and between continent and incontinent stools among women with FI. METHOD Using a mailed questionnaire, we identified 507 women with FI among 5,300 women in Olmsted County, MN. Bowel habits were compared among 127 randomly selected controls and 154 women with self-reported FI, who did (“active” FI, N = 106) or did not (“inactive” FI, N = 48) have an incontinent episode during a 2-wk bowel diary period. RESULTS Independent risk factors for FI were: rectal urgency (odds ratio [OR] for inactive FI vs controls 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3–13.3; and OR for active FI vs inactive FI 2.0, 95% CI 0.9–4.3) and a sense of incomplete evacuation (OR for inactive FI vs controls 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.8; and OR for active FI vs inactive FI 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.9). Similar results were found for stool frequency and form. Among incontinent women, incontinent stools (versus continent stools) were less formed, more likely to occur at work, and to be preceded by rectal urgency. CONCLUSIONS Bowel patterns, rectal urgency, and daily routine influence the occurrence of FI. Stool characteristics explained 46% of the likelihood for incontinence episodes, emphasizing that anorectal sensorimotor dysfunctions must also contribute to FI in women. PMID:18510612

  20. Sensory Characterization of Odors in Used Disposable Absorbent Incontinence Products

    PubMed Central

    Widén, Heléne; Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla; Hall, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to characterize the odors of used incontinence products by descriptive analysis and to define attributes to be used in the analysis. A further objective was to investigate to what extent the odor profiles of used incontinence products differed from each other and, if possible, to group these profiles into classes. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Used incontinence products were collected from 14 residents with urinary incontinence living in geriatric nursing homes in the Gothenburg area, Sweden. METHODS: Pieces were cut from the wet area of used incontinence products. They were placed in glass bottles and kept frozen until odor analysis was completed. A trained panel consisting of 8 judges experienced in this area of investigation defined terminology for odor attributes. The intensities of these attributes in the used products were determined by descriptive odor analysis. Data were analyzed both by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey post hoc test and by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. RESULTS: An odor wheel, with 10 descriptive attributes, was developed. The total odor intensity, and the intensities of the attributes, varied considerably between different, used incontinence products. The typical odors varied from “sweetish” to “urinal,” “ammonia,” and “smoked.” Cluster analysis showed that the used products, based on the quantitative odor data, could be divided into 5 odor classes with different profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The used products varied considerably in odor character and intensity. Findings suggest that odors in used absorptive products are caused by different types of compounds that may vary in concentration. PMID:28328646

  1. Prospective multicentre randomised trial of tension-free vaginal tape and colposuspension as primary treatment for stress incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Karen; Hilton, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare tension-free vaginal tape with colposuspension as primary treatment for stress incontinence. Design Multicentred randomised comparative trial. Setting Gynaecology or urology departments in 14 centres in the United Kingdom and Eire, including university teaching hospitals and district general hospitals. Participants 344 women with urodynamic stress incontinence; 175 randomised to tension-free vaginal tape and 169 to colposuspension Main outcome measures Assessment before treatment and at six months postoperatively with the SF-36, the Bristol female lower urinary tract symptoms questionnaire, the EQ-5D health questionnaire, a one week urinary diary, one hour perineal pad test, cystometry, and, in some centres, urethral profilometry. Results 23 women in the colposuspension group and 5 in the vaginal tape group withdrew before surgery. No significant difference was found between the groups for cure rates: 115 (66%) women in the vaginal tape group and 97 (57%) in the colposuspension group were objectively cured (95% confidence interval for difference in cure −4.7% to 21.3%). Bladder injury was more common during the vaginal tape procedure; postoperative complications, in particular delayed resumption of micturition, were more common after colposuspension. Operation time, duration of hospital stay, and return to normal activity were all longer after colposuspension than after the vaginal tape procedure. Conclusion Surgery with tension-free vaginal tape is associated with more operative complications than colposuspension, but colposuspension is associated with more postoperative complications and longer recovery. Vaginal tape shows promise for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence because of minimal access and rapid recovery times; cure rates at six months were comparable with colposuspension. What is already known on this topicFew randomised trials exist on surgery for stress incontinenceSystematic reviews suggest that colposuspension is

  2. A comprehensive inpatient discharge system.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, E. M.; Teich, J. M.; Pedraza, L. A.; Thomas, D.

    1996-01-01

    Our group has developed a computer system that supports all phases of the inpatient discharge process. The system fills in most of the physician's discharge order form and the nurse's discharge abstract, using information available from sign-out, order entry, scheduling, and other databases. It supplies information for referrals to outside institutions, and provides a variety of instruction materials for patients. Discharge forms can be completed in advance, so that the patient is not waiting for final paperwork. Physicians and nurses can work on their components independently, rather than in series. Response to the system has been very favorable. PMID:8947755

  3. [Update on current care guidelines: urinary incontinence (female)].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Female urinary incontinence (UI) is divided into stress (SUI), urgency (UUI), mixed (MUI) and overflow incontinence (chronic retention). Advanced age, obesity and pregnancy are the most important risk factors. Standardised questionnaires are used in diagnosis. The pad test, cough stress test and bladder diary are objective tools. A gynaecological examination includes pelvic floor muscle palpation and residual urine measurement. Urodynamics, cystoscopy and ultrasonography are complementary tools. Guided pelvic floor-muscle training is the first-line therapy. UUI can be treated with anticholinergic medicines. If conservative treatments are ineffective, SUI and MUI can be treated surgically with mid-urethral slings (TVT TOT and TVT-0).

  4. Update on the Management of Fecal Incontinence for the Gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with fecal incontinence respond to conservative measures based upon a careful assessment and a multimodality approach that Is within the expertise of the practicing gastroenterologist. However, there Is a need for new and effective strategies when conservative therapy fails. This article reviews established therapies for fecal incontinence, such as biofeedback, as well as new therapies that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), such as sacral neuromodulation and an injectable bulking agent. Also reviewed are some of the newer approaches that have not yet been approved by the FDA or that have uncertain efficacy. PMID:27231444

  5. Prevention and management of incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nix, Denise; Haugen, Vicki

    2010-06-01

    Perineal dermatitis, recently relabelled 'incontinence-associated dermatitis' (IAD), is an inflammation of the skin that occurs when urine and/or stool comes into contact with the skin. It can range in severity from erythema with or without loss of skin integrity to infection. IAD affects as many as 41% of adults in long-term care; it is costly, painful and, for the most part, preventable. An effective plan of care for individuals with IAD must include assessment and management of incontinence aetiology, perineal skin and risk assessment, gentle cleansing and moisturization, application of skin barriers and treatment of secondary infection, and the use of containment devices if indicated.

  6. Reusables get high marks in adult incontinence care market.

    PubMed

    Tison-Rossman, J

    1992-11-01

    The adult incontinence care market is coming of age. As environmental concerns gradually erode the popularity of disposables, nursing homes and hospitals are looking at reusables in a new light. In addition, the aging of the U.S. population is expected to increase the demand for incontinence care products. A recent study found that the sales of reusable cloth diapers and pads accounted for $385 million annually. All of these factors add up to a lucrative market for textile rental companies that can supply these products.

  7. Pregnancy and postpartum bowel changes: constipation and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shin, Grace Hewon; Toto, Erin Lucinda; Schey, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are often associated with many gastrointestinal complaints, including nausea, vomiting, and heartburn; however, the most troublesome complaints in some women are defecatory disorders such as constipation and fecal incontinence, especially postpartum. These disorders are often multifactorial in etiology, and many studies have looked to see what risk factors lead to these complications. This review discusses the current knowledge of pelvic floor and anorectal physiology, especially during pregnancy, and reviews the current literature on causes and treatments of postpartum bowel symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence.

  8. Clinical outcome of fascial slings for female stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    de Rossi, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    We studied 27 women with urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence who had undergone surgery using fascial sling technique. During a mean follow-up of 20 months, all patients were continent. We observed a significant statistical reduction of urge symptoms. De novo detrusor hyperactivity and sensitive urgency were observed in 7.4% and 3.7% of patients, respectively. Two patients developed urinary flow problems. One patient had a bladder perforation during dissection. Urinary retention was observed in 3.7% and resolved spontaneously in 48 hours. We conclude that in the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence, slings promote clinical cure with few complications.

  9. A newly designed deodorant pad for urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Fukui, J; Sakai, Y; Hosaka, K; Yamashita, T; Ogawa, A; Shirai, H

    1990-08-01

    The authors designed a new pad for urinary incontinence. It is composed of a cloth of acrylonitrile copper sulfide and another cloth of iron-phthalocyanine. In vitro experiments showed that acrylonitrile copper sulfide cloth inhibited the growth of most bacteria causing urinary tract infection, and that iron-phthalocyanine cloth effectively eliminated bad-smelling gases. The use of this pad relieved diaper-dermatitis and diminished offensive smells from feces and urine. This pad was well received by nurses and helpers taking care of incontinent elderly people.

  10. Outcome and cost analysis of sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, F H; Bieler, A; Hahnloser, D; Löhlein, F; Clavien, P-A; Demartines, N

    2006-11-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) may be successful in treating incapacitating faecal incontinence. The technique is expensive, and no cost analysis is currently available. The aim of this study was to assess clinical outcome and analyse cost-effectiveness. Thirty-six consecutive patients underwent a two-stage SNS procedure. Outcome parameters and real costs were assessed prospectively. SNS was tested successfully in 33 of 36 patients, and 31 patients were stimulated permanently. In the first stage, eight of 36 patients reported minor complications (pain, infection or electrode dislocation), resulting in a cost of euro 4053 (range euro 2838-7273) per patient. For the second stage (permanent stimulation), eight of 33 patients had an infection, pain or loss of effectiveness, resulting in a cost of euro 11,292 (range euro 7406-20,274) per patient. Estimated costs for further follow-up were euro 997 per year. The 5-year cumulative cost for SNS was euro 22,150 per patient, compared with euro 33,996 for colostomy, euro 31,590 for dynamic graciloplasty and euro 3234 for conservative treatment. SNS is a highly cost-effective treatment for faecal incontinence. Options for further reduction of SNS costs include strict patient selection, treatment in an outpatient setting and using cheaper devices.

  11. Concomitant repair of stress urinary incontinence with proximal urethrovaginal fistula: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakonda Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Proximal urethrovaginal fistula (UVF) located close to the bladder neck may cause extensive sphincter damage and is usually associated with continuous incontinence, which may mask the associated stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simultaneous correction of SUI avoids a second surgery for SUI, which needs dissection in ischemic fields and carries a high risk of failure. The aim of this study is to describe our technique of concomitant repair of SUI with proximal UVF and our results. Methods: Between July 2010 and August 2014, 14 patients underwent UVF repair in Jackknife position by the interposition of a Martius flap and simultaneous correction of SUI by modified McGuire pubovaginal autologous fascial sling. The procedure was carried out a minimum of 3 months of presentation and after detailed preoperative evaluation. Results: After a mean follow-up of 28 months, all 14 patients were continent. None of the patients developed recurrence of the UVF. Two patients presented with retention immediately after catheter removal and clean intermittent catheterization training was given to both of them. Two patients became pregnant during the follow-up period and were advised cesarean section near term. Conclusions: Repair of proximal UVF and correction of SUI can be performed in the same session to avoid the operation in an ischemic field. PMID:27555683

  12. Effects of a magnetic field on pelvic floor muscle function in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Jonathan; Robertson, Jack R; Elia, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been found to affect neuromuscular function. To study the effect of a magnetic field on measurements of urethral function in women with stress urinary incontinence. Observational comparative study. Consecutive patients in a continence center. Twenty-six consecutive women with diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). History and physical examination, neurologic exam, urethrocystoscopy, urodynamic testing with water-filling cystometry, urethral profilometry at rest, during coughing, and during coughing while performing a levator ani contraction (knack maneuver). The same urodynamic procedures were performed again after the subjects were asked to step on specifically designed magnets (magnetic cushion device). Two-tailed student t test. Urethral pressure at rest, during coughing, and during coughing while performing a levator ani contraction. Mean age was 58.3 years (range: 36-81), mean parity 2.8 (range: 0-8). The urodynamic parameters measured without and with the use of the magnetic cushion device were not found to be different except for the knack maneuver. The pressure in the urethra during the knack maneuver while the subjects were stepping on the magnetic device was significantly higher than the 1 obtained without the magnetic field. In our patient population, a magnetic field increases the efficacy of voluntary levator ani contractions.

  13. The tethered vagina syndrome, post surgical incontinence and I-plasty operation for cure.

    PubMed

    Petros, P E; Ulmsten, U I

    1990-01-01

    Urinary incontinence was observed in 19 patients after bladder neck elevation or vaginal repair operations. Characteristically, patients could not suppress their urge to micturate on getting up in the morning, and they wet before arrival at the toilet. Urodynamically, a high posterior cough transmission ratio was noted. A 1.5 cm longitudinal incision in the vagina, dissected free and resutured horizontally (I-plasty), immediately cured this particular condition, but ultimately failed in 1/3 cases. Most of these failed patients were subsequently cured by further adjustment of vaginal tension under local anaesthesia (Tuck procedure). These findings confirm the emphasis given by the Integral Theory of Female Urinary Incontinence as to maintain adequate elasticity in the zone of critical elasticity (ZCE) of the supralevator vagina. The ZCE acts as an elastic hinge, allowing (i.e. facilitates) the separate and opposite contractile forces of anterior pubococcygeus, and levator plate which are necessary to close off urethra and bladder neck respectively. Inadequate elasticity at the ZCE converts the ZCE's role from facilitation to opposition. The stronger levator muscle contraction counteracts the forward section of the weaker anterior part of pubococcygeus muscle, preventing bladder neck closure.

  14. Randomized clinical trial comparing TVT Secur system and trans vaginal obturator tape for the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Ken; Gupta, Chander; Klippenstein, Peter; Girouard, Lise

    2014-07-01

    This prospective randomized study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of the TVT-Secur (TVT-S) with the trans vaginal obturator tape (TVT-O) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. We set out to enroll 136 patients in our study. 106 patients with stress urinary incontinence were randomized to either the TVT-S (n = 56) or TVT-O (n = 50) procedure. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at 2 months and 1 year. Our primary outcome was objective cure measured by the cough test. Secondary outcomes of subjective symptoms, questionnaires, pain scores, complications, and urodynamic studies were also included. Statistical analysis was by Chi-squared, Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, and Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. P values of <0.05 were considered significant. Objective cure rates were better for TVT-O compared with TVT-S at 1 year (86 % and 63 % respectively, p = 0.01). Subjective cure rates were 88 % for TVT-O and 63 % for TVT-S. Quality of life scores through questionnaires improved in both groups and were not statistically different. Initial post-operative groin pain was more prevalent in the TVT-O group; however, this resolved quickly with time. TVT-O was superior to TVT-S in the objective cure of stress urinary incontinence at 1-year follow-up.

  15. Evaluation of the use of PTQ implants for the treatment of incontinent patients due to internal anal sphincter dysfunction.

    PubMed

    de la Portilla, F; Fernández, A; León, E; Rada, R; Cisneros, N; Maldonado, V H; Vega, J; Espinosa, E

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of injectable silicone PTQ implants for faecal incontinence due to internal anal sphincter (IAS) dysfunction. Twenty patients (12 women) with partial faecal incontinence aged from 55 to 65 years were treated by a PTQ implant. All patients completed the Cleveland Clinic Continence and Quality of Life questionnaire. Endoluminal ultrasound and anorectal physiological testing were performed in each patient. All implants were inserted into the submucosal plane without ultrasound guidance. Faecal continence was significantly improved up to 1 year. The Wexner continence score fell from a median of 13.05 (range, 5-20) before treatment to 4.5 (range 2-7.7) at 1 month after (P < 0.005). This rose gradually to 6.2 (range, 0-16) at one year (P = 0.02) and 9.4 (range, 1-20) at 2 years (P = 0.127). There were no differences in resting or squeeze pressure before and at 3 months after treatment (P = 0.86 and P = 0.93). Fourteen (70%) patients experienced pruritus ani during the first few weeks after the procedure and one developed infection at the implant site. Silicone implantation is minimally invasive and technically simple. It is effective over 1 year in the treatment of faecal incontinence due to IAS dysfunction.

  16. Dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Saxe, G N; van der Kolk, B A; Berkowitz, R; Chinman, G; Hall, K; Lieberg, G; Schwartz, J

    1993-07-01

    This study attempted to determine 1) the prevalence of dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients, 2) the degree of reported childhood trauma in patients with dissociative disorders, and 3) the degree to which dissociative experiences are recognized in psychiatric patients. A total of 110 patients consecutively admitted to a state psychiatric hospital were given the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Patients who scored above 25 were matched for age and gender with a group of patients who scored below 5 on the scale. All patients in the two groups were then interviewed in a blind manner, and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the Traumatic Antecedent Questionnaire, and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Nonpatient Version, were administered. Chart reviews were also conducted on all patients. Fifteen percent of the psychiatric patients scored above 25 on the Dissociative Experiences Scale; 100% of these patients met DSM-III criteria for a dissociative disorder. These patients had significantly higher rates of major depression, PTSD, substance abuse, and borderline personality than did the comparison patients, and they also reported significantly higher rates of childhood trauma. Chart review data revealed that dissociative symptoms were largely unrecognized. A high proportion of psychiatric inpatients have significant dissociative pathology, and these symptoms are underrecognized by clinicians. The proper diagnosis of these patients has important implications for their clinical course.

  17. Results of tension-free vaginal tape for recurrent stress urinary incontinence after unsuccessful transobturator tape surgery.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Ozgor, Faruk; Kirecci, Sinan Levent; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Sonmezay, Erkan; Yuksel, Bahar; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cure rate and mid-term results of tension-free vaginal tape for recurrent stress urinary incontinence after failed transobturator tape surgery. Between January 2006 and December 2011, 42 women were enrolled in this study. Patient characteristics and operating parameters were recorded, and any complications were noted. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after the second surgery. The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and the Urinary Distress Inventory were used to identify satisfaction level. The mean age of the patients was 49.07 ± 8.6 years, and median period between transobturator surgery and the tension-free vaginal tape procedure was 12.8 (range 9.2-17.8) months. The cure rate was 83.3% and 76.2% at the first- and second-year follow-up visits, respectively. Intraoperative complications were transient and slight. Bladder injury in five patients and subcutaneous hematoma above the pubis in two patients were the most serious complications, but they were managed conservatively. We found the scores of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and Urinary Distress Inventory to be significantly lower at follow-up, compared to the preoperative assessment. De novo urgency was the most common complaint at follow-up and occurred in 11.9% of the women. We suggest that tension-free vaginal tape is a feasible surgical option for recurrent stress urinary incontinence. Further studies with larger patient numbers and longer follow-up periods are needed to support this finding. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Evaluation of the prevalence of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs: 566 cases (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Forsee, Kara M; Davis, Garrett J; Mouat, Emily E; Salmeri, Katharine R; Bastian, Richard P

    2013-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs and categorize affected dogs by age at time of ovariohysterectomy, number of litters prior to ovariohysterectomy, body weight, treatment of affected dogs, and severity of incontinence and to determine associations among these variables. Retrospective case series. 566 ovariohysterectomized dogs. An attempt was made to contact owners of 912 dogs ovariohysterectomized between January 2003 and January 2008 to discuss presence or absence of urinary incontinence. The actual number of responders was 566. Those owners with incontinent pets received a questionnaire further assessing degree of incontinence, diagnostic testing, treatment, and history. The prevalence of acquired urinary incontinence was determined to be 5.12% (29/566 dogs) on the basis of results of phone surveys and questionnaires. There was no significant difference in the age at time of ovariohysterectomy between incontinent and continent groups. A significant association was found between body weight and incontinence, with incontinence rates higher among larger (≥ 15 kg [33.1 lb]) dogs. Larger dogs were approximately 7 times as likely (OR, 7.2 [95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 21.1]) to develop acquired urinary incontinence, compared with small dogs (< 15 kg). Although acquired urinary incontinence in female dogs is known to be associated with ovariohysterectomy, the prevalence in this study was low.

  19. High-grade internal rectal prolapse: Does it explain so-called "idiopathic" faecal incontinence?

    PubMed

    Bloemendaal, A L A; Buchs, N C; Prapasrivorakul, S; Cunningham, C; Jones, O M; Hompes, R; Lindsey, I

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence is a multifactorial disorder, with multiple treatment options. The role of internal rectal prolapse in the aetiology of faecal incontinence is debated. Recent data has shown the importance of high-grade internal rectal prolapse in case of faecal incontinence. We aimed to determine the incidence and relevance of internal rectal prolapse in patients with faecal incontinence without an anal sphincter defect. Patient data, collected in a prospective pelvic floor database, were assessed. All females with moderate to severe pure faecal incontinence, without obstructed defecation and sphincter muscle defects, were included. Data on defecation proctography, anorectal physiology and incontinence scores were analysed. Of 2082 females in the database, 174 fitted the inclusion criteria. High-grade internal rectal prolapse was found in 49% of patients and was associated predominantly with urge faecal incontinence. Passive faecal incontinence was more common in low-grade compared to high-grade internal rectal prolapse patients. Maximum resting pressure was lower in older patients and in patients with high-grade compared to low-grade internal rectal prolapse. Internal rectal prolapse grade was not significantly correlated with faecal incontinence severity score. High-grade internal rectal prolapse is common in female patients suffering particularly urge faecal incontinence, without anal sphincter lesions. Defecation proctography should be routine in the work up of faecal incontinence. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality of Life of Women with Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bo Eun; Kim, Gi Yon; Roh, Young Sook; You, Mi Ae

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to review studies that have examined the quality of life of women with urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods A review was conducted that used the databases PubMED, Proquest, CINAHL, and Sciencedirect. Articles were included that were published in English between 2005 and 2010 the key words use were urinary incontinence, women, and quality of life. Results A total of 18 studies were identified, and the prevalence of urinary incontinence varied depending on the definition of incontinence used and the age of the population studied. The Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QoL), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-short form (IIQ-7), and King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) were the most commonly used instruments. Demographic, medical, physical, psychological, health, and intervention factors were reported as influencing factors on the quality of life of women with incontinence. Age, severity of urinary incontinence, type of urinary incontinence, number of urinary incontinence episodes, body weight, stress, and help-seeking behavior were statistically significant variables influencing quality of life. Conclusion Future studies are needed to identify factors related to quality of life among women with incontinence and to use validated instruments according to specific subjects. PMID:21179330

  1. All Incontinence is Not Created Equal: Impact of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence on Quality of Life in Adults with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Cain, Mark P; Whittam, Benjamin; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Misseri, Rosalia

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported that the self-reported amount of urinary incontinence is the main predictor of lower health related quality of life in adults with spina bifida. In this study we sought to determine the impact of fecal incontinence on health related quality of life after correcting for urinary incontinence. An international sample of adults with spina bifida was surveyed online in 2013 to 2014. We evaluated fecal incontinence in the last 4 weeks using clean intervals (less than 1 day, 1 to 6 days, 1 week or longer, or no fecal incontinence), amount (a lot, medium, a little or none), number of protective undergarments worn daily and similar variables for urinary incontinence. Validated instruments were used, including QUALAS-A (Quality of Life Assessment in Spina bifida for Adults) for spina bifida specific health related quality of life and the generic WHOQOL-BREF (WHO Quality of Life, short form). Linear regression was used (all outcomes 0 to 100). Mean age of the 518 participants was 32 years and 33.0% were male. Overall, 55.4% of participants had fecal incontinence, 76.3% had urinary incontinence and 46.9% had both types. On multivariate analysis fecal incontinence was associated with lower bowel and bladder health related quality of life across all amounts (-16.2 for a lot, -20.9 for medium and -18.5 for little vs none, p <0.0001) but clean intervals were not significant (-4.0 to -3.4, p ≥0.18). Conversely, health related quality of life was lower with increased amounts of urinary incontinence (-27.6 for a lot, -18.3 for medium and -13.4 for little vs none, p <0.0001). Dry intervals less than 4 hours were not associated with lower health related quality of life (-4.6, p = 0.053) but the use of undergarments was associated with it (-7.5 to -7.4, p ≤0.01). Fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence were associated with lower WHOQOL-BREF scores. Fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence are independent predictors of lower health related quality of

  2. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Czerwińska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:26327826

  3. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Opara, Józef; Czerwińska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  4. [Urinary incontinence - what can be done by the family doctor and when is the urologist needed?].

    PubMed

    Keller, Isabelle Sonja; Brachlow, Jan Frederic; Padevit, Christian; Kurz, Michael; John, Hubert

    2014-10-01

    About 15% of the women and 10% of the men past the age of 65 years suffer from urinary incontinence. In most cases, accurate history taking can help differentiate between urge incontinence, stress incontinence and overflow incontinence, and is essential in choosing the appropriate treatment. Initial diagnostic testing can be conducted by the general practitioner, especially tests to exclude urinary tract infections or to rule out an overactive bladder. Patient education on changes to fluid intake and voiding habits as well as advice on suitable incontinence products are important first steps in the management of urinary continence. Also, drug treatment can be initiated in general practice. Patients with refractory urinary incontinence, particularly those who did not respond to anticholinergic medication, should be referred to a urologist for further evaluation since there may be an underlying tumour or other disorder of the bladder that is causing the incontinence.

  5. Diagnosis and office-based treatment of urinary incontinence in adults. Part two: treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, Masahito; Heidelbaugh, Joel J.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem in both men and women. In this review article we address treatment of the various forms of incontinence with conservative treatments, medical therapy, devices and surgery. The US Preventive Services Task Force, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PubMed were reviewed for articles focusing on urinary incontinence. Conservative therapy with education, fluid and food management, weight loss, timed voiding and pelvic floor physical therapy are all simple office-based treatments for incontinence. Medical therapy for incontinence currently is only available for urgency incontinence in the form of anticholinergic medication. Condom catheters, penile clamps, urethral inserts and pessaries can be helpful in specific situations. Surgical therapies vary depending on the type of incontinence, but are typically offered if conservative measures fail. PMID:23904858

  6. Dietary Issues Inpatients Face With Being Vegetarian

    PubMed Central

    Potter-Dunlop, Julie A.; Tse, Alice M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature from 1985 through 2010 on research related to the dietary issues vegetarian inpatients may encounter in the acute care setting. A thematic portrayal of vegetarianism in the context of the inpatient setting is described. Implications for future research and nursing practice are identified. PMID:22157507

  7. A CBT Approach to Inpatient Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Kim J.

    2005-01-01

    During a psychiatric hospitalization of 5 to 10 days, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies can be used for the management of inpatients and to support the transition to outpatient treatment. This format was chosen after several years of frustration dealing with crisis inpatient care. The use of CBT is well known, and it seemed that an…

  8. A novel implantation technique for pudendal nerve stimulation for treatment of overactive bladder and urgency incontinence.

    PubMed

    Possover, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Herein is described laparoscopic implantation of a neuroprosthesis to the pudendal nerve for treatment of non-neurogenic bladder overactivity. This case series study was performed at a tertiary referral unit that specializes in advanced gynecologic surgery and neuropelveology. Fourteen consecutive male and female patients underwent laparoscopic implantation of an electrode to the endopelvic portion of the pudendal nerve for pudendal neuromodulation. All procedures were performed successfully via laparoscopy, without any complications. The mean operative time for the entire procedure was 18 minutes. After a successful test phase of external stimulation, 11 patients (78.57%) underwent implantation of a permanent generator. These patients demonstrated a mean (SD) decreased micturition frequency, from 25 (11.7; range, 13-50) per day on average to 10.18 (2.7; range, 7-15) at final evaluation (mean follow-up, 18 months; range 9-49 months). Nocturia decreased from 5.82 (4.2; range, 3-18) to 2.18 (1.08; range, 1-5) micturitions per night. Cystometric bladder capacities increased from 159 mL (53; range, 80-230 mL) to 312 mL (104.9;160-500 mL). Mean incontinence episodes at the initial evaluation, based on a 3-day voiding diary, were 8.1. At final evaluation, 6 patients were completely dry. Number of pads used per day decreased from 7.3 (4.2) to 1.6 (2.3). No lead dislocation or migration occurred. It was concluded that laparoscopic implantation of a neuroprosthesis to the pudendal nerve is an effective, safe, and reproducible day procedure for treatment of intractable non-neurogenic overactive bladder with urinary urgency incontinence. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The logistics of an inpatient dermatology service.

    PubMed

    Rosenbach, Misha

    2017-03-01

    Inpatient dermatology represents a unique challenge as caring for hospitalized patients with skin conditions is different from most dermatologists' daily outpatient practice. Declining rates of inpatient dermatology participation are often attributed to a number of factors, including challenges navigating the administrative burdens of hospital credentialing, acclimating to different hospital systems involving potential alternate electronic medical records systems, medical-legal concerns, and reimbursement concerns. This article aims to provide basic guidelines to help dermatologists establish a presence as a consulting physician in the inpatient hospital-based setting. The emphasis is on identifying potential pitfalls, problematic areas, and laying out strategies for tackling some of the challenges of inpatient dermatology including balancing financial concerns and optimizing reimbursements, tracking data and developing a plan for academic productivity, optimizing workflow, and identifying metrics to document the impact of an inpatient dermatology consult service. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  10. The minimum important difference for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sirls, Larry T; Tennstedt, Sharon; Brubaker, Linda; Kim, Hae-Young; Nygaard, Ingrid; Rahn, David D; Shepherd, Jonathan; Richter, Holly E

    2015-02-01

    Minimum important difference (MID) estimates the minimum degree of change in an instrument's score that correlates with a patient's subjective sense of improvement. We aimed to determine the MID for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) using both anchor based and distribution based methods derived using data from the Trial of Midurethral Slings (TOMUS). Instruments for the anchor-based analyses included the urogenital distress inventory (UDI), incontinence impact questionnaire (IIQ), patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I), incontinence episodes (IE) on 7-day bladder diary, and satisfaction with surgical results. After confirming moderate correlation (r ≥ 0.3) of ICIQ-UI SF and each anchor, MIDs were determined by calculating the difference between the mean instrument scores for individuals with the smallest amount of improvement and with no change. The distribution-based method of MID assessment was applied using effect sizes of 0.2 and 0.5 SD (small to medium effects). Triangulation was used to examine these multiple MID values in order to converge on a small range of values. Anchor-based MIDs range from -4.5 to -5.7 at 12 months and from -3.1 to 4.3 at 24 months. Distribution-based MID values were lower. Triangulation analysis supports a MID of -5 at 12 months and -4 at 24 months. The recommended MIDs for ICIQ-UI SF are -5 at 12 months and -4 at 24 months. In surgical patients, ICIQ-UI SF score changes that meet these thresholds can be considered clinically meaningful. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Minimum Important Difference for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form in Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Sirls, Larry T.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Brubaker, Linda; Kim, Hae-Young; Nygaard, Ingrid; Rahn, David D.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Richter, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Minimum important difference (MID) estimates the minimum degree of change in an instrument's score that correlates with a patient's subjective sense of improvement. We aimed to determine the MID for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) using both anchor based and distribution based methods derived using data from the Trial of Midurethral Slings (TOMUS). Materials and Methods Instruments for the anchor-based analyses included the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ), Patient Global Impression of improvement (PGI-I), incontinence episodes (IE) on 7-day bladder diary and satisfaction with surgical results. After confirming moderate correlation (r ≥0.3) of ICIQ-UI SF and each anchor, MIDs were determined by calculating the difference between the mean instrument scores for individuals with the smallest amount of improvement and with no change. The distribution-based method of MID assessment was applied using effect sizes of 0.2 and 0.5 SD (small to medium effects). Triangulation was used to examine these multiple MID values in order to converge on a small range of values. Results Anchor-based MIDs range from -4.5 to -5.7 at 12 months and from -3.1 to 4.3 at 24 months. Distribution-based MID values were lower. Triangulation analysis supports a MID of -5 at 12 months and -4 at 24 months. Conclusion The recommended MIDs for ICIQ-UI SF are -5 at 12 months and -4 at 24 months. In surgical patients, ICIQ-UI SF score changes that meet these thresholds can be considered clinically meaningful. PMID:24273137

  12. Nursing management of stress urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Jeanette

    Although urinary incontinence is not a subject spoken about in general conversation, it is a cause of concern for many people. Stress urinary incontinence is common, being reported by 16.8% of women (Hunskaar et al, 2002). In the past, women with stress urinary incontinence were often dismissed as having an inevitable problem resulting from childbirth and the hormonal changes associated with ageing. They were often made to feel that they just had to put up with the problem--this is no longer the case. Conservative therapy is advocated as the primary intervention for those suffering with stress urinary incontinence and nurses are ideally placed to be a source of information and help. Furthermore, nurses can develop their skills in order to encompass therapies to become more specialist and effective. In 2000, the Department of Health (DoH) issued guidance on establishing integrated continence services (DoH, 2000). This becomes mandatory for older people from April 2004 (DoH, 2001a).

  13. Is caffeine intake associated with urinary incontinence in Japanese adults?

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H

    2012-05-01

    To investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among Japanese adults. A total of 683 men and 298 women aged 40 to 75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual beverage consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Mean daily caffeine intake was found to be similar between incontinent subjects (men 120 mg, women 94 mg) and others without the condition (men 106 mg, women 103 mg), p=0.33 for men and p=0.44 for women. The slight increases in risk of UI at the highest level of caffeine intake were not significant after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.36 (0.65 to 2.88) and 1.12 (0.57 to 2.22) for men and women, respectively. No association was evident between caffeine intake and UI in middle-aged and older Japanese adults. Further studies are required to confirm the effect of caffeine in the prevention of UI.

  14. Staying Trim, Strong May Cut Risk of Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... in decreasing the odds of new or worsening stress type of urinary incontinence," she said. The study was published recently in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society . SOURCES: Anne Suskind, M.D., assistant professor of urology, University of California, San Francisco; Megan Schimpf, M.D., ...

  15. Self-injury and incontinence in psychogenic seizures.

    PubMed

    Peguero, E; Abou-Khalil, B; Fakhoury, T; Mathews, G

    1995-06-01

    Two patients who incurred significant injuries during psychogenic seizures prompted us to do a telephone survey of self-injury and incontinence in 102 consecutive patients diagnosed with psychogenic seizures by EEG-closed-circuit TV (EEG-CCTV) monitoring. Seventy-three patients (or a close family member or friend) were reached by telephone and responded to our survey. During typical attacks of psychogenic seizures, 40% reported injuries, 44% reporting tongue biting, and 44% reported urinary incontinence. Suicide attempts were reported by 32% and were more common in those with self-injury and urinary incontinence. We compared the results of patients with psychogenic seizures with those of 30 patients with refractory epilepsy documented by ictal recordings, using a similar telephone survey. Injuries of all types were more commonly reported by epilepsy patients. Burn injuries were reported only by patients with epilepsy. Suicide attempts were more commonly reported by the psychogenic seizure group. Self-injury and incontinence are commonly reported by psychogenic seizure patients. In view of their significant association with suicide attempts, they may indicate an underlying depression.

  16. Electrokinetic profiles of nonowoven cotton for absorbent incontinence material

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper discusses recent work on cotton/synthetic nonwovens, their electrokinetic analysis, and their potential use in incontinence materials. Electrokinetic analysis is useful in exploring fiber surface polarity properties, and it is a useful tool to render a snap shot of the role of fiber char...

  17. Outcome measures for fecal incontinence: anorectal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E

    2004-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a symptom attributable to a variety of disorders affecting one or more factors that maintain continence. Objective assessments should complement symptom assessments as outcome measures in therapeutic trials; conceivably, these assessments may also predict the response to therapy. Consistent with existing trends, most therapeutic trials should incorporate anal sphincter pressures and rectal sensation as outcome variables, paying meticulous attention to techniques. Rectal sensation is increased after pelvic floor retraining by biofeedback therapy in fecal incontinence; however, the predictive value of improved anal pressures after biofeedback has not been clearly established. Other factors maintaining continence can be assessed by newer approaches. In addition to assessing rectal sensation, a barostat also measures rectal compliance; alterations in rectal compliance modulate rectal perception. Particularly appropriate end points for trials involving surgical repair are sphincter integrity, assessed by endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and puborectalis and pelvic floor motion, assessed by dynamic MRI. Despite disagreement about which technique is superior for evaluating the internal sphincter, MRI performs the same or better than ultrasound for assessing the external sphincter. The utility of measuring pudendal nerve latencies as a marker of pudendal nerve injury is limited; needle electromyography provides a sensitive measure of denervation and can usually identify myopathic damage, neurogenic damage, or mixed injury. These standardized, reproducible assessments of the multifaceted mechanisms maintaining fecal incontinence should be incorporated as outcome variables in therapeutic trials of fecal incontinence.

  18. Incontinence--an aggressive approach to treatment: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dornan, P R

    2005-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that, for some, leaking urine may be a barrier to physical activity. Although important from a lifestyle point of view, bladder problems and incontinence also affect both men and women socially, psychologically and economically. For example, it can be particularly distressing when incontinence occurs post-prostate surgery, especially if these patients were continent before surgery. This case series outlines an aggressive, innovative, exercise-based approach to the management of stress incontinence post-prostatectomy. The program attempts to enhance neuromuscular and vascular systems associated with continence, with emphasis placed on the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles. The program was undertaken by 14 incontinent post-prostatectomy patients (mean age 63.5 y, using a mean of 3.5 sanitary pads per day). The program was initiated a mean of two months post-op and had a mean duration of six months. Upon completion of the program. 10 patients were found to be completely dry with three retaining a small leakage (a few drops). The 14th could not comply with the program because of illness. The results of this study appear promising in this patient population. There are indications for further research.

  19. Assessment of the female patient with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Frankie

    2002-10-01

    Understanding the pelvic floor anatomy and all of its components is crucial when performing pelvic floor examination and assessing patients suffering from urinary incontinence. It is important for urology nurses to understand the pelvic floor, including the muscle, nerve, and fascia involved; external and internal examination of the vulva; and global assessment of the patient.

  20. The meanings of silence in Brazilian women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Higa, Rosângela; Chvatal, Vera Lucia Soares; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    We explored the meanings of silence for Brazilian women with urinary incontinence (UI). The sample consisted of 8 women, aged 30 to 45 years. Respondents worked as housekeepers or cleaning staff and were from lower social, economic, and educational strata. Their years of formal education varied from 0 to 8 years and they earned up to 4.5 times the Brazilian minimum wage, which is equivalent to US$900. A qualitative method using semistructured interviews was employed to gather data. Individual semistructured interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed, including researchers' observations of subjects' nonverbal behaviors. The interviews began with the question: "Can you tell me about your experience with urinary incontinence?" Data were analyzed using a content analysis technique. Respondents avoided discussing UI and initially resisted labeling themselves as incontinent, but their nonverbal behaviors provided clues to the psychosocial distress caused by urinary leakage. Results suggest that respondents' underprivileged social, economic, and cultural situation may aggravate their limitations when expressing their feelings. We found that the women employed silence as a means to contain the psychosocial distress created by their UI, and that the silence itself should be interpreted as an expression of distress associated with UI. The silence of Brazilian women with UI is an essential element of communication about incontinence. We believe that the silence used by these women expresses the pain and anxiety they experienced, and it acts as an adaptive psychosocial mechanism.

  1. Is Caffeine Intake Associated With Urinary Incontinence in Japanese Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Fumi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among Japanese adults. Methods A total of 683 men and 298 women aged 40 to 75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual beverage consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Results Mean daily caffeine intake was found to be similar between incontinent subjects (men 120 mg, women 94 mg) and others without the condition (men 106 mg, women 103 mg), p=0.33 for men and p=0.44 for women. The slight increases in risk of UI at the highest level of caffeine intake were not significant after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.36 (0.65 to 2.88) and 1.12 (0.57 to 2.22) for men and women, respectively. Conclusions No association was evident between caffeine intake and UI in middle-aged and older Japanese adults. Further studies are required to confirm the effect of caffeine in the prevention of UI. PMID:22712048

  2. [Urinary incontinence induced by the antidepressants - case report].

    PubMed

    Krhut, J; Gärtner, M

    2015-01-01

    Case study of the patient with urinary incontinence induced by the antidepressant mirtazapin and the review of the related literature. Case Report. Department of Urology, University Hospital Ostrava-Poruba. A case of 55-years old patiens, who was reffered to the surgical treatment of the urinary incontinence. We found a major discrepancies during the evaluation that led us to suspect that this is not a common uncomplicated case of stress urinary incontinence. Based on the detailed history we identified the antidepressant mirtazapine as a likely causal factor. After discontinuing mirtazapin patient has achieved full control of the continence. Given that antidepressants affects adrenergic and dopaminergic regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system, they may affect the lower urinary tract function. This work presents a case report where the disclosure of the less common cause of incontinence saved the patientoriginally proposed surgical treatment and allowed the effective restoration of the continence. We emphasize the need to consider the potential interaction of antidepressants with lower urinary tract function in daily practice.

  3. [The defecation balloon proctogram in the study of idiopathic incontinence].

    PubMed

    Ciarelli, A; Ciarelli, F; Mascia, D; Tentarelli, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their findings in the study of idiopathic rectal incontinence using a defecatory balloon proctogram. The study provides a detailed anatomico-functional analysis of the sphincteric tract and, together with manometric and electromyographic studies, is useful in assessing the need for reconstructive surgery and for monitoring the results of ileoanal and coloanal anastomoses, sphincteric plastic surgery and posterior anal plastic surgery.

  4. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920 Section 876.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5920 Protective...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920 Section 876.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5920 Protective...

  6. Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Felix W.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Urinary and fecal incontinence (UI, FI) are co-morbid conditions affecting over 50% of nursing home residents. Both forms of incontinence are risk factors for elderly persons to be placed in the nursing home, and such institutionalization itself is a risk factor for developing incontinence. Management should focus on identifying and treating underlying causes, such as detrusor instability, urinary tract infections, diet- or medication-induced diarrhea, constipation and fecal impaction. Despite appropriate management, residents may remain incontinent because of dementia and health or restraint-related immobility. Nursing homes lack the staff and financial resources to provide residents with sufficiently frequent toileting assistance (including prompted voiding). Use of special undergarments and absorbent pads is the usual practice. The article reviews the results of studies that have documented how prompted voiding programs can significantly reduce UI and FI, particularly if the intervention includes dietary and exercise components. Recent systematic anorectal testing of nursing home residents with FI has documented impaired sphincter function (risk factor for FI), decreased rectal sensation and sphincter dyssynergia (risk factor for constipation and impaction). The data suggest that the use of laxatives and stool softeners for prophylaxis against constipation and impaction related to underlying dyssynergia may have produced sufficient fluidity in the stool to predispose the residents with impaired sphincter function to manifest FI. Documentation of non-invasive and efficacious interventions by RCT and the labor costs of implementing these measures can lead to changes in how nursing home care is provided and funded. PMID:18794004

  7. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated risk factors in a cohort of nuns.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Gunhilde M; Chin, Michelle; Glantz, Chris; Guzick, David

    2002-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among a group of nulliparous nuns and to assess risk factors for developing incontinence. Information on symptoms of urinary incontinence, as well as medical history and demographic data were obtained from 149 nuns. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was determined, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the impact of demographic and medical risk factors on the likelihood of incontinence. The mean (+/- standard deviation) age of our sample of nuns was 68 (+/-11.7). All but one were white, 96% were postmenopausal, and 25% were taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.3 +/- 5.6. According to their self-reported symptoms, half the nuns had urinary incontinence. Of these, 22 nuns (30%) had stress incontinence, 18 (24%) had urge incontinence, 26 (35%) had mixed incontinence, and 8 (11%) had urine loss unrelated to stress and urge. More than half the incontinent nuns used sanitary pads for protection. From univariate analyses, statistically significant risk factors for urinary incontinence included BMI, current HRT use, multiple urinary tract infections, hypertension, arthritis, depression, hysterectomy, and previous spinal surgery. From multivariate logistic regression, only BMI, multiple urinary tract infections, and depression remained statistically significant after adjusting for the other variables. The prevalence of incontinence in nulliparous, predominantly postmenopausal nuns is similar to rates reported in parous, postmenopausal women. Even in the absence of pelvic floor trauma from childbirth, urine loss is associated with symptoms of stress incontinence more often than with symptoms of urge incontinence.

  8. Treatment histories of borderline inpatients.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, M C; Frankenburg, F R; Khera, G S; Bleichmar, J

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we describe the types and amounts of psychiatric treatment received by a well-defined sample of borderline personality disorder (BPD) inpatients, and compare these parameters with those of a group of carefully diagnosed personality-disordered controls. Finally, we assess the risk factors associated with a history of intensive, high-cost treatment, which we defined as having had two or more prior psychiatric hospitalizations. The treatment histories of 290 borderline inpatients and 72 axis II controls were assessed using a reliable semistructured interview. All nine forms of treatment studied except electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were common among borderline patients (36% to 96%). In addition, a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients than axis II controls reported a history of individual and group therapy, day and residential treatment, psychiatric hospitalization, participating in self-help groups, and taking standing medications. They were also significantly younger when they first entered individual therapy and began to take standing medications. In addition, borderline patients spent more time than axis II controls in individual therapy and psychiatric hospitals, and were on standing medications for a significantly longer period of time. They also reported a significantly higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, lifetime number of standing medications, and number of psychotropic medications taken at the same time. In addition, we found a highly significant multivariate predictive model for multiple prior hospitalizations. The six significant predictors were age 26 or older, a history of quasi psychotic thought, lifetime number of self-mutilative efforts and suicide attempts, a childhood history of reported sexual abuse, and an adult history of being physically and/or sexually assaulted. Taken together, these results confirm clinical impressions concerning the high rates of mental health services used by borderline patients

  9. [Drug administration to paediatric inpatient].

    PubMed

    Fontan, J E; Mille, F; Brion, F; Aubin, F; Ballereau, F; Benoît, G; Brunet, M L; Braguier, D; Combeau, D; Dugast, P; Gérout, A C; May, I; Meunier, P; Naveau-Ploux, C; Proust, V; Samdjee, F; Schlatter, J; Thébault, A; Vié, M

    2004-10-01

    Available commercial drugs in France are often unsuitable for children. The aim of this study was, for every medicinal form orally or parenterally administered, to identify and to quantify difficulties met by the nurses administering drugs to paediatric inpatients and to propose solutions to main identified problems. The study was realized in 14 hospitals by direct observation. The observer, provided with a questionnaire, followed during a time slot of at least 2 h for one or several nurses and raised all the oral or injectable administrations. One thousand and nine hundred forty-six observations were performed. The children were 12.6 +/- 17 months old, and weighed 8.5 +/- 9.4 kg. Injectable drugs: half of the observations showed a posology and a mode of dilution not corresponding to the summary of product characteristics. Eight percent of orally administered drugs were injectable drugs. In 35.5% of cases, administered amount was lower than the quarter of the present quantity in the therapeutic unity. The rest of the therapeutic unity was thrown (77.2% of cases). Liquid oral forms: liquid oral forms were ready for use regarding 83.8% of cases. The medicine was readministered to the same patient (23.5%), and/or administered to other patients (80.0%). Capsules: 66.9% of the administered capsules were prepared by the hospital pharmacies. The pharmacies organized with an unit dose drug dispensing system produced significantly more preparations than those working by global distribution (P < 0.0001). In 58.4% of cases, the administered capsule was an off-label drug. Tablets: 46% of drug administration concerned a tablet without pediatric indication. 46.7% of tablets were cut, 74% were crushed. Bags: in 35.2% of observations, the bag was not administered in its entirety. Our study confirms the unsuitability of drugs to paediatric inpatients, the necessity of recommendations of good practices in the administration of drugs to paediatric inpatients, and proposes corrective

  10. Effect of autologous muscle-derived cells in the treatment of urinary incontinence in female patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency and epispadias: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Tajalli, Farzam; Taheri, Maryam; Naji, Mohammad; Moghadasali, Reza; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein; Azimian, Vajihe; Jaroughi, Neda

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of autologous muscle-derived cells injection in the treatment of complicated stress urinary incontinence in female patients. Female patients presenting with severe and complicated stress urinary incontinence secondary to the bladder neck and/or urethral trauma or congenital epispadias (with or without exstrophy) were enrolled in this prospective study. They underwent transurethral injection of autologous muscle-derived cells. In selected cases, another injection was given after 6 months, as per the surgeon's assessment. All patients were monitored for 1 year, and the effect of autologous muscle-derived cells was evaluated by cough stress test, 1-h pad test and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-short form score. A multichannel urodynamic study and maximum urethral closure pressure were carried out before and 12 months after the last treatment session. Cough stress test, 1-h pad test and uroflowmetry were repeated 36 months after the last injection. Severity and occurrence of complications were recorded at each visit. All 10 patients who completed the study were monitored for 36 months. Three patients were cured, four had improved and three did not respond to the treatment. There was no major adverse effect related to the treatment. Muscle-derived cell therapy might represent a minimally-invasive and a safe procedure in the treatment of patients with severe and complicated stress urinary incontinence. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. Clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs used to treat urge incontinence.

    PubMed

    Guay, David R P

    2003-01-01

    Urge incontinence (also known as overactive bladder) is a common form of urinary incontinence, occurring alone or as a component of mixed urinary incontinence, frequently together with stress incontinence. Because of the pathophysiology of urge incontinence, anticholinergic/antispasmodic agents form the cornerstone of therapy. Unfortunately, the pharmacological activity of these agents is not limited to the urinary tract, leading to systemic adverse effects that often promote nonadherence. Although the pharmacokinetics of flavoxate, propantheline, scopolamine, imipramine/desipramine, trospium chloride and propiverine are also reviewed here, only for oxybutynin and tolterodine are there adequate efficacy/tolerability data to support their use in urge incontinence. Oxybutynin is poorly absorbed orally (2-11% for the immediate-release tablet formulation). Controlled-release oral formulations significantly prolong the time to peak plasma concentration and reduce the degree of fluctuation around the average concentration. Significant absorption occurs after intravesical (bladder) and transdermal administration, although concentrations of the active N-desethyl metabolite are lower after transdermal compared with oral administration, possibly improving tolerability. Food has been found to significantly affect the absorption of one of the controlled-release formulations of oxybutynin, enhancing the rate of drug release. Oxybutynin is extensively metabolised, principally via N-demethylation mediated by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A isozyme. The pharmacokinetics of tolterodine are dependent in large part on the pharmacogenomics of the CYP2D6 and 3A4 isozymes. In an unselected population, oral bioavailability of tolterodine ranges from 10% to 74% (mean 33%) whereas in CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers and poor metabolisers mean bioavailabilities are 26% and 91%, respectively. Tolterodine is metabolised via CYP2D6 to the active metabolite 5-hydroxymethyl-tolterodine and via CYP3A

  12. Incidence of fractures requiring inpatient care

    PubMed Central

    Somersalo, Axel; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lönnroos, Eija; Heinänen, Mikko; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of fractures has been addressed in several studies, but there are few data on different types of fractures that require inpatient care, even though they account for considerable healthcare costs. We determined the incidence of limb and spine fractures that required hospitalization in people aged ≥ 16 years. Patients and methods We collected data on the diagnosis (ICD10 code), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 9 additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward of Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Incidence rates were calculated for all fractures using data on the population at risk. Results and interpretation During the study period, 3,277 women and 2,708 men sustained 3,750 and 3,030 fractures, respectively. The incidence of all fractures was 4.9 per 103 person years (95% CI: 4.8–5.0). The corresponding numbers for women and men were 5.3 (5.1–5.4) and 4.5 (4.3–4.6). Fractures of the hip, ankle, wrist, spine, and proximal humerus comprised two-thirds of all fractures requiring hospitalization. The proportion of ankle fractures (17%) and wrist fractures (9%) was equal to that of hip fractures (27%). Four-fifths of the hospitalized fracture patients were operated. In individuals aged < 60 years, fractures requiring hospitalization were twice as common in men as in women. In individuals ≥ 60 years of age, the opposite was true. PMID:24694275

  13. Pelvic floor muscle training added to another active treatment versus the same active treatment alone for urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Ayeleke, Reuben Olugbenga; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Omar, Muhammad Imran

    2013-11-20

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is a first-line conservative treatment for urinary incontinence in women. Other active treatments include: physical therapies (e.g. vaginal cones); behavioural therapies (e.g. bladder training); electrical or magnetic stimulation; mechanical devices (e.g. continence pessaries); drug therapies (e.g. anticholinergics (solifenacin, oxybutynin, etc.) and duloxetine); and surgical interventions including sling procedures and colposuspension. This systematic review evaluated the effects of adding PFMT to any other active treatment for urinary incontinence in women To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training combined with another active treatment versus the same active treatment alone in the management of women with urinary incontinence. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 28 February 2013), EMBASE (January 1947 to 2013 Week 9), CINAHL (January 1982 to 5 March 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (searched 30 May 2013), WHO ICTRP (searched 3 June 2013) and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials with two or more arms in women with clinical or urodynamic evidence of stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. One arm of the trial included PFMT added to another active treatment; the other arm included the same active treatment alone. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and methodological quality and resolved any disagreement by discussion or consultation with a third party. We extracted and processed data in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Other potential sources of bias we incorporated into the 'Risk of bias' tables were ethical approval

  14. Female ejaculation orgasm vs. coital incontinence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Zlatko

    2013-07-01

    Women may expel various kinds of fluids during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Their origins, quantity, compositions, and expulsion mechanisms depend on anatomical and pathophysiological dispositions and the degree of sexual arousal. These are natural sexual responses but may also represent symptoms of urinary incontinence. The study aims to clarify the etiology of fluid leakage at orgasm, distinguish between associated physiological sexual responses, and differentiate these phenomena from symptoms of illness. A systematic literature review was performed. EMBASE (OvidSP) and Web of Science databases were searched for the articles on various phenomena of fluid expulsions in women during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Articles included focused on female ejaculation and its variations, coital incontinence (CI), and vaginal lubrication. Female ejaculation orgasm manifests as either a female ejaculation (FE) of a smaller quantity of whitish secretions from the female prostate or a squirting of a larger amount of diluted and changed urine. Both phenomena may occur simultaneously. The prevalence of FE is 10-54%. CI is divided into penetration and orgasmic forms. The prevalence of CI is 0.2-66%. Penetration incontinence occurs more frequently and is usually caused by stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Urodynamic diagnoses of detrusor overactivity (DOA) and SUI are observed in orgasmic incontinence. Fluid expulsions are not typically a part of female orgasm. FE and squirting are two different physiological components of female sexuality. FE was objectively evidenced only in tens of cases but its reported high prevalence is based mostly on subjective questionnaire research. Pathophysiology of squirting is rarely documented. CI is a pathological sign caused by urethral disorder, DOA, or a combination of both, and requires treatment. An in-depth appreciation of these similar but pathophysiologically distinct phenomena is essential for distinguishing normal, physiological sexual

  15. Caffeine Intake and Risk of Urinary Incontinence Progression Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Mary K.; Resnick, Neil M.; Grodstein, Francine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between long-term caffeine intake and risk of urinary incontinence (UI) progression over 2 years among women with moderate UI. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in 21,564 women with moderate UI enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II. Incontinence progression was identified from questionnaires during 2 years of follow-up. Baseline caffeine intake (ie, average intake during the past year) and change in caffeine intake during the 4 years prior to baseline were measured using food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) for incontinence progression according to caffeine intake were calculated for each cohort separately, and then for both cohorts combined. Results The percentage of women with UI progression was similar across categories of baseline level of caffeine intake and change in caffeine intake prior to baseline. For example, percentages were 21% versus 22% comparing 450 mg or more to less than 150 mg of caffeine per day (adjusted OR 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.08). Comparing women with increased caffeine intake to those with stable caffeine intake, percentages with progression were 22% versus 20% (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.95-1.22). Results were similar in separate analyses of urgency and stress UI. Conclusion Long-term caffeine intake over one year was not associated with risk of UI progression over 2 years among women with moderate incontinence, although we could not examine acute effects of caffeine. Improved understanding of the effect of caffeine on the bladder is needed to better advise women with incontinence about caffeine intake. PMID:22525905

  16. Caffeine intake and risk of urinary incontinence progression among women.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Mary K; Resnick, Neil M; Grodstein, Francine

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the association between long-term caffeine intake and risk of urinary incontinence (UI) progression over 2 years among women with moderate UI. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 21,564 women with moderate UI enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II. Incontinence progression was identified from questionnaires during 2 years of follow-up. Baseline caffeine intake (ie, average intake during the previous year) and change in caffeine intake during the 4 years before baseline were measured using food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) for incontinence progression according to caffeine intake were calculated for each cohort separately, and then for both cohorts combined. The percentage of women with UI progression was similar across categories of baseline level of caffeine intake and change in caffeine intake before baseline. For example, percentages were 21% compared with 22% comparing 450 mg or more to less than 150 mg of caffeine per day (adjusted OR 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.08). Comparing women with increased caffeine intake to those with stable caffeine intake, percentages with progression were 22% compared with 20% (OR 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.95-1.22). Results were similar in separate analyses of urge and stress UI. Long-term caffeine intake over 1 year was not associated with risk of UI progression over 2 years among women with moderate incontinence, although we could not examine acute effects of caffeine. Improved understanding of the effect of caffeine on the bladder is needed to better-advise women with incontinence about caffeine intake. II.

  17. Incontinence and gait disturbance after intraventricular extension of intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Andrew J.; Sekar, Padmini; Haverbusch, Mary; Osborne, Jennifer; Moomaw, Charles J.; Martini, Sharyl; Hosseini, Shahla M.; Ferioli, Simona; Worrall, Bradford B.; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sung, Gene; James, Michael L.; Testai, Fernando D.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Koch, Sebastian; Flaherty, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is associated with incontinence and gait disturbance among survivors of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at 3-month follow-ups. Methods: The Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Stroke study was used as the discovery set. The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage study served as a replication set. Both studies performed prospective hot-pursuit recruitment of ICH cases with 3-month follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify risk factors for incontinence and gait dysmobility at 3 months after ICH. Results: The study population consisted of 307 ICH cases in the discovery set and 1,374 cases in the replication set. In the discovery set, we found that increasing IVH volume was associated with incontinence (odds ratio [OR] 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–2.06) and dysmobility (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.17–2.15) after controlling for ICH location, initial ICH volume, age, baseline modified Rankin Scale score, sex, and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score. In the replication set, increasing IVH volume was also associated with both incontinence (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.27–1.60) and dysmobility (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.24–1.57) after controlling for the same variables. Conclusion: ICH subjects with IVH extension are at an increased risk for developing incontinence and dysmobility after controlling for factors associated with severity and disability. This finding suggests a potential target to prevent or treat long-term disability after ICH with IVH. PMID:26850978

  18. [Treatment of faecal incontinence in surgical specialist practice].

    PubMed

    Christiansen, John

    2008-11-17

    An analysis of the treatment of faecal incontinence in a surgical specialist practice with a particular interest in this disorder. From May 2003 to December 2005, a total of 61 patients, 49 women and 12 men with a median age of 72 and 67 years, respectively, were referred for diagnosis and treatment of faecal incontinence. The median Wexner incontinence score was 11 and median quality of life score, on a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 to 10, was 5. Treatment included surgical correction of recto-anal mucosal prolapse and grade 3 to 4 haemorrhoids, medical treatment and sphincter training. Patients were followed-up by a questionnaire after a median period of 23 months (range: 18-31). Six patients were immediately referred for hospital treatment. Ten patients in whom the result of conservative treatment was unsatisfactory were referred for treatment in specialized colorectal departments after 3-11 months. A total of 41 of the 45 patients returned the questionnaire. The median Wexner incontinence score fell from 11 to 5 (p < 0,01) and the median quality of life score dropped from 5 to 2 (p < 0,01). A total of 38 of the 51 patients who underwent conservative treatment were satisfied with the result and did not request referral to hospital for further treatment (75%; 95% confidence limit: 60-86). Patients suffering from a moderate degree of faecal incontinence which is not obviously of traumatic origin, including childbirth, may be treated conservatively with a satisfactory result in a surgical specialist practice with special interest in this disorder.

  19. Classification and treatment of functional incontinence in children.

    PubMed

    Nijman, R J

    2000-05-01

    Functional urinary incontinence in children may be caused by disturbances of the filling phase, the voiding phase or a combination of both. Detrusor overactivity may cause frequency and urgency, with or without urge incontinence. Girls present with symptoms of detrusor overactivity more often than boys, but sometimes other symptoms, e.g. urinary tract infections or constipation, prevail. Frequent contractions of the detrusor may cause the pelvic floor muscles to become overactive, resulting in staccato or fractionated voiding. When incontinence is the result of a voiding disorder the term 'dysfunctional voiding' is used. Bladder function in these children may be normal, but instability may be present. In children with a 'lazy' bladder, voiding occurs with no detrusor contractions, and postvoid residual volumes and overflow incontinence are the main characteristics. Diagnosis is based on the medical and voiding history, a physical examination, bladder diaries and uroflowmetry. The upper urinary tract should be evaluated in children with recurrent infections and dysfunctional voiding (reflux). Uroflowmetry can be combined with pelvic floor electromyography to detect overactivity of the pelvic floor muscles. Urodynamic studies are usually reserved for patients with dysfunctional voiding and those not responding to anticholinergic drugs. Treatment is usually a combination of 'standard therapy', behavioural therapy, bladder training, physiotherapy and medical treatment. The role of alpha-blockers needs to be evaluated further. Also, neuromodulation may have a place in treatment but the exact indications need to be defined. Clean intermittent self-catheterization is sometimes necessary in children with a lazy bladder and large residual volumes who do not respond to a more conservative approach. Future research needs to be directed towards improving understanding of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, classification and treatment modalities of functional incontinence in

  20. Acute inpatient presentation of scurvy.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Allison M; Hughey, Lauren C

    2010-10-01

    Scurvy is a well-known disease of vitamin C deficiency that still occurs in industrialized countries. The clinical manifestations of follicular hyperkeratosis, perifollicular petechiae, corkscrew hairs, and easy bruising are due to defective collagen synthesis and can be mistaken for small vessel vasculitis. Populations at risk for development of scurvy include elderly patients, alcohol and drug users, individuals who follow restrictive diets or have eating disorders, patients with malabsorption, and individuals with mental illness. We report an acute case of scurvy presenting in the inpatient/hospital setting with clinical findings initially thought to represent vasculitis. A high index of suspicion for scurvy must be kept in the appropriate clinical context, and a thorough medical history and physical examination are vital to make the diagnosis.

  1. Effect of insurance expansion on utilization of inpatient surgery.

    PubMed

    Ellimoottil, Chandy; Miller, Sarah; Ayanian, John Z; Miller, David C

    2014-08-01

    Enhanced access to preventive and primary care services is a primary focus of the Affordable Care Act, but the potential effect of this law on surgical care is not well defined. To estimate the differential effect of insurance expansion on utilization of discretionary vs nondiscretionary inpatient surgery with Massachusetts health care reform as a natural experimental condition. We used the state inpatient databases from Massachusetts and 2 control states (New Jersey and New York) to identify nonelderly adult patients (aged 19-64 years) who underwent discretionary vs nondiscretionary surgical procedures from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2010. We defined discretionary surgery as elective, preference-sensitive procedures (eg, joint replacement and back surgery) and nondiscretionary surgery as imperative and potentially life-saving procedures (eg, cancer surgery and hip fracture repair). All surgical procedures in the study and control populations. Using July 1, 2007, as the transition point between the prereform and postreform periods, we performed a difference-in-differences analysis to estimate the effect of insurance expansion on rates of discretionary and nondiscretionary surgical procedures in the entire study population and for subgroups defined by race, income, and insurance status. We then extrapolated our results from Massachusetts to the entire US population. We identified a total of 836 311 surgical procedures during the study period. Insurance expansion was associated with a 9.3% increase in the use of discretionary surgery in Massachusetts (P = .02). Conversely, the rate of nondiscretionary surgery decreased by 4.5% (P = .009). We found similar effects for discretionary surgery in all subgroups, with the greatest increase observed for nonwhite participants (19.9% [P < .001]). Based on the findings in Massachusetts, we estimated that full implementation of national insurance expansion would yield an additional 465 934

  2. Guideline-Based Strategies in the Surgical Treatment of Female Urinary Incontinence: The New Gold Standard is Almost the Same as the Old One

    PubMed Central

    Viereck, V.; Bader, W.; Lobodasch, K.; Pauli, F.; Bentler, R.; Kölbl, H.

    2016-01-01

    The modern sling procedures for treating female stress urinary incontinence encompass numerous methods, materials and manufacturers. On the basis of the current S2e guidelines, the methods used most frequently in the diagnosis of and therapy for stress urinary incontinence in women are critically illustrated. An individualised procedure is necessary for the choice of the surgical method, especially in the presence of accompanying pathologies. This article is intended to help the treating physician to carry out quality-assured diagnostics and therapy for the patient and to offer the best possible urogynaecological management. In addition to the complications and chances of success of the surgical options, the legal aspects of therapy planning are also taken into consideration. PMID:27570251

  3. Female urinary incontinence and artificial urinary sphincter: study of efficacy and risk factors for failure and complications.

    PubMed

    Vayleux, Bertrand; Rigaud, Jérôme; Luyckx, François; Karam, Georges; Glémain, Pascal; Bouchot, Olivier; Le Normand, Loïc

    2011-06-01

    The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) has become a commonly used therapy for severe urinary incontinence (UI) due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD). To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy and risk factors for failure and complications of AUS implantation in women with nonneurologic UI. From May 1987 to December 2009, 215 women with ISD were treated by AUS implantation, with a mean age of 62.8 yr and a mean follow-up of 6 yr (standard deviation: 5.6 yr). Previous surgical procedures to treat incontinence had been performed in 88.8% of the patients. Urodynamic assessment was required. Patients using only 0 or 1 pad at the end of follow-up were considered continent. The patient's level of satisfaction was evaluated by a global analogue scale and clinical interview. All women had AUS implantation. Patients were evaluated for continence rate, risk factors for failures, and complications. At the end of follow-up, 158 patients (73.5%) were continent, and 170 (79%) were satisfied. The redo rate was 15.3% after a mean interval of 8.47 yr for the first redo procedure. Fifteen explantations (7%) were performed. The only risk factor for intraoperative complications (10.7%) was smoking (p<0.004). Six patients (2.8%) were lost to follow-up. AUS failed to treat incontinence in 51 patients (23.7%) due to defective manipulation in 27.4% of the cases. On multivariate analysis, risk factors for failure were age >70 yr (odds ratio [OR]: 2.46), a history of the Burch procedure (OR: 2.28), or pelvic radiotherapy (OR: 4.37) (p<0.05). The place for this safe and long-lasting effective technique in the treatment of UI due to recurrent sphincter deficiency is confirmed. Screening for these risk factors should allow better patient selection. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional outcomes following surgical management of pain, exposure or extrusion following a suburethral tape insertion for urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Gerard; Dwyer, Peter L; Rosamilia, Anna; Lim, Yik; Edwards, Geoffrey; Lee, Joseph K

    2014-02-01

    Surgical revision of a tape inserted for urinary stress incontinence may be indicated for pain, or tape exposure or extrusion. This study assesses the clinical outcomes of revision surgery. A retrospective review of 47 consecutive women who underwent surgical revision for the indications of pain, tape exposure or tape extrusion. Forty-seven women underwent revision. 29 women (62 %) had initial tape placement at another institution. Mean interval between placement and revision was 30 months. 39 women (83 %) had an identifiable tape exposure or extrusion with or without pain, while 8 women (17 %) presented with pain alone. 11 (23 %) of the tapes were infected clinically and histologically at revision, 10 of the 11 (90 %) being of a multifilament type. In 23 (49 %) cases, the revision aimed to completely remove the tape. Partial excision 24 (51 %) was reserved for localised exposures or extrusions where infection was not suspected. A concomitant continence procedure was performed in 9(19 %) at the time of tape revision. None of these 9 women has experienced recurrent stress urinary incontinence (SUI) compared with 11 out of 38 women (29 %) requiring further stress incontinence surgery when no continence procedure was performed (Fisher's exact p = 0.092). Eight out of 47 underwent revision surgery for pain with no identifiable exposure or extrusion; pain subsequently resolved in all 8 women. Excision is an effective treatment for tape exposure and pain whether infection is present or not. Tapes of a multifilament type are strongly associated with infection. When infection is present, complete sling removal is necessary. A concomitant procedure to prevent recurrent SUI should be considered if tape excision is planned and infection is not suspected.

  5. Economic impact of onabotulinumtoxinA for overactive bladder with urinary incontinence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Lewis; Bagshaw, Emma; Aracil, Javier; Velard, Marie-Eve; Pardhanani, Gianni; Hepp, Zsolt

    2016-12-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition that has a significant impact on patients' health-related quality-of-life and is associated with a substantial economic burden to healthcare systems. OnabotulinumtoxinA has a well-established efficacy and safety profile as a treatment for OAB; however, the economic impact of using onabotulinumtoxinA has not been well described. An economic model was developed to assess the budget impact associated with OAB treatment in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK, using onabotulinumtoxinA alongside best supportive care (BSC)-comprising incontinence pads and/or anticholinergic use and/or clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC)-vs BSC alone. The model time horizon spanned 5 years, and included direct costs associated with treatment, BSC, and adverse events. Per 100,000 patients in each country, the use of onabotulinumtoxinA resulted in estimated cost savings of €97,200 (Italy), €71,580 (Spain), and €19,710 (UK), and cost increases of €23,840 in France and €284,760 in Germany, largely due to day-case and inpatient administration, respectively. Projecting these results to the population of individuals aged 18 years and above gave national budget saving estimates of €9,924,790, €27,458,290, and €48,270,760, for the UK, Spain, and Italy, respectively, compared to cost increases of €12,160,020 and €196,086,530 for France and Germany, respectively. Anticholinergic treatment and incontinence pads were the largest contributors to overall spending on OAB management when onabotulinumtoxinA use was not increased, and remained so in four of five scenarios where onabotulinumtoxinA use was increased. This decreased resource use was equivalent to cost offsets ranging from €106,110 to €176,600 per 100,000 population. In three of five countries investigated, the use of onabotulinumtoxinA, in addition to BSC, was shown to result in healthcare budget cost savings over 5 years. Scenario analyses showed increased costs

  6. The development of national quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products for adult incontinence.

    PubMed

    Muller, Nancy; McInnis, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    Disposable absorbent products are widely used in inpatient care settings and in the community to manage adult urinary and fecal incontinence, but few product standards exist to help guide their production or optimal use. Increasing costs and reduced revenues have caused a number of states to evaluate absorbent product use among persons who receive care at home with the assistance of the Medicaid Waiver Program, further increasing concerns about the lack of product performance standards. To address these issues, the National Association For Continence (NAFC) formed a council of experts and key stakeholders with the objective of establishing national, independent quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products provided by states to Waiver Program recipients. The Council consisted of representatives from five purposefully selected states, technical directors from six nonwoven product manufacturers, an officer of the nonwoven manufactures trade association, a delegate from an academic nursing program and professional societies, a family caregiver, and a patient representative. Following a consensus method and guidelines for use, nine specific recommendations were developed, posted for public comment, and further refined. Final recommendations for product performance assessment include: rewet rate (a measure of a product's ability to withstand multiple incontinent episodes between changes), rate of acquisition (a measure of the speed at which urine is drawn away from the skin by a product, product retention capacity (a measure of a product's capacity to hold fluid without rewetting the skin), sizing options, absorbency levels, product safety, closure technology, breathable zones (a measure of the air permeability across a textile-like fabric at a controlled differential pressure), and elasticity. The Council also set values for and recommended four quantifiable parameters, and the testing methodology associated with each, to help consumers and states

  7. The Decline of Inpatient Penile Prosthesis over the 10-Year Period, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Alwaal, Amjad; Harris, Catherine R; Hussein, Ahmed A; Sanford, Thomas H; McCulloch, Charles E; Shindel, Alan W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2015-12-01

    Across all specialties, economic pressure is driving increased utilization of outpatient surgery when feasible. Our aims were to analyze national trends of penile prosthesis (PP) surgery and to examine patient and hospital characteristics, and perioperative complications in the inpatient setting. We analyzed data from National Inpatient Sample. Patients in NIS who underwent PP insertion between 2000 and 2010 were included. Our main outcomes were the number of inpatient PP procedures, type of prosthesis, patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital characteristics, and immediate perioperative complications. There was a progressive and dramatic decline by nearly half in the number of both inflatable (IPP) and noninflatable (NIPP) inpatient insertions performed from 2000 to 2010 (P = 0.0001). The overall rate of inpatient complications for PP insertion was 13.5%. Patients with three or more comorbidities were found to have a higher risk of complications than patients with no comorbidities (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.18-1.78) (P = 0.0001). Surgeries performed in high-volume hospitals (10 or more PP cases per year) were associated with reduced risk of complications (OR = 0.6) (P < 0.0001). There was a dramatic decrease in inpatient setting for PP placement in high-volume hospitals (32% in 2000 compared with 6% in 2010; P < 0.0001), and when compared with lower volume hospitals. NIPP was more likely performed in younger patients and in community hospitals, and less likely in white patients. Medicaid health insurance was associated with much higher rate of NIPP insertion than other types of insurance. The number of PP procedures performed in the inpatient setting declined between 2000 and 2010, likely reflecting a shift toward increasing outpatient procedures. Our data also suggest a better outcome for patients having the procedure done at a high-volume center in terms of inpatient complications. Alwaal A, Harris CR, Hussein AA, Sanford TH, Mc

  8. The Impact of Central Obesity on Storage Luts and Urinary Incontinence After Prostatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gacci, Mauro; Sebastianelli, Arcangelo; Salvi, Matteo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Moncada, Ignacio; Serni, Sergio; Maggi, Mario; Vignozzi, Linda

    2016-09-01

    In the developed and developing countries, the overall prevalence of central obesity in the elderly men is growing. In addition, the progressive aging of male population increased the possibilities of coexisting morbidities associated with obesity such as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or to prostate cancer (PCa) needing primary treatment, including radical prostatectomy (RP), which can further adversely affect the quality of life. Simple and radical prostatectomy are the most common surgical procedures in urologic unit all over the world for BPE and PCa, respectively. After both interventions, patients can present bothering storage LUTS that can worsen all the other clinical outcomes. Preset study will review the role of central obesity as a risk factor for storage LUTS or urinary incontinence, after prostatic surgery for BPE or PCa.

  9. Delayed sigmoid colon perforation and enterocutaneous fistula due to tension free transvaginal tape operation for stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Kyu; Sohn, Dong Wan

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient presented with sustained sigmoid colon perforation at the time of a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure and subsequently developed enterocutaneous fistula and subcutaneous abscess. She came to our emergency department complaining of left lower abdominal tenderness and swelling for 2 weeks previously. Her right thigh also was tender and swollen. A foreign body in sigmoid colon and subcutaneous abscess were found on computed tomography scan. We diagnosed the perforation of sigmoid colon and enterocutaneous fistula by TVT mesh. We performed laparoscopic excision of the mesh in sigmoid colon. We performed transobturator tape surgery for recurrence of stress urinary incontinence after 6 months. PMID:26085881

  10. Regional Correlates of Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Pirkola, Sami; Kaila, Minna; Saarni, Samuli I; Joffe, Grigori; Kontio, Raija; Oranta, Olli; Sadeniemi, Minna; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2016-12-05

    Current reforms of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) emphasize community-based care and the downsizing of psychiatric hospitals. Reductions in acute and semi-acute hospital beds are achieved through shortened stays or by avoiding hospitalization. Understanding the factors that drive the current inpatient treatment provision is essential. We investigated how the MHS service structure (diversity of services and balance of personnel resources) and indicators of service need (mental health index, education, single household, and alcohol sales) correlated with acute and semi-acute inpatient treatment provision. The European Service Mapping Schedule-Revised (ESMS-R) tool was used to classify the adult MHS structure in southern Finland (population 1.8 million, 18+ years). The diversity of MHS in terms of range of outpatient and day care services or the overall personnel resourcing in inpatient or outpatient services was not associated with the inpatient treatment provision. In the univariate analyses, sold alcohol was associated with the inpatient treatment provision, while in the multivariate modeling, only a general index for mental health needs was associated with greater hospitalization. In the dehospitalization process, direct resource re-allocation and substituting of inpatient treatment with outpatient care per se is likely insufficient, since inpatient treatment is linked to contextual factors in the population and the health care system. Mental health services reforms require both strategic planning of service system as a whole and detailed understanding of effects of societal components.

  11. Regional Correlates of Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Pirkola, Sami; Kaila, Minna; Saarni, Samuli I.; Joffe, Grigori; Kontio, Raija; Oranta, Olli; Sadeniemi, Minna; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Current reforms of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) emphasize community-based care and the downsizing of psychiatric hospitals. Reductions in acute and semi-acute hospital beds are achieved through shortened stays or by avoiding hospitalization. Understanding the factors that drive the current inpatient treatment provision is essential. We investigated how the MHS service structure (diversity of services and balance of personnel resources) and indicators of service need (mental health index, education, single household, and alcohol sales) correlated with acute and semi-acute inpatient treatment provision. The European Service Mapping Schedule-Revised (ESMS-R) tool was used to classify the adult MHS structure in southern Finland (population 1.8 million, 18+ years). The diversity of MHS in terms of range of outpatient and day care services or the overall personnel resourcing in inpatient or outpatient services was not associated with the inpatient treatment provision. In the univariate analyses, sold alcohol was associated with the inpatient treatment provision, while in the multivariate modeling, only a general index for mental health needs was associated with greater hospitalization. In the dehospitalization process, direct resource re-allocation and substituting of inpatient treatment with outpatient care per se is likely insufficient, since inpatient treatment is linked to contextual factors in the population and the health care system. Mental health services reforms require both strategic planning of service system as a whole and detailed understanding of effects of societal components. PMID:27929403

  12. Lessons for States in Inpatient Ratesetting Under the Boren Amendment

    PubMed Central

    Batavia, Andrew I.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; Gaumer, Gary; Gabay, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Encouraged by a 1990 Supreme Court decision, Medicaid providers have challenged State inpatient ratesetting methodologies under the Boren Amendment. Procedurally, State assurances to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that payment rates meet the Amendment's requirements must be supported by findings based on a reasonably principled analysis. Substantively, rates may fall within a zone of reasonableness, but courts have differed in interpreting and applying the Amendment's terms. Although some courts have found special studies and written findings unnecessary, States that undertake economic analyses to support their findings are more likely to withstand judicial scrutiny. Several applicable economic analyses are proposed. PMID:10135340

  13. [Predictive factors of 2-month postpartum anal incontinence among patients with an obstetrical anal sphincter injury].

    PubMed

    Ménard, S; Poupon, C; Bourguignon, J; Théau, A; Goffinet, F; Le Ray, C

    2016-10-01

    To determine prevalence of short-term postpartum anal incontinence after obstetrical anal sphincter injury and prognostic factors. Retrospective study including every patient with an obstetrical anal sphincter injury between January 2006 and December 2012 in one tertiary maternity unit. Patients were interviewed and examined at 2-month postpartum. Anal incontinence was defined by the presence of at least one of the following symptoms: flatus incontinence, faecal incontinence and faecal urgency. Among 17,110 patients who delivered vaginally during period study, 134 (0.8%) presented an anal sphincter injury. Postpartum obstetrical data were available for 110 of them. Among those patients, 50 women (45.5%) had at least one symptom of anal incontinence at 2-month postpartum and 8 (7.3%) had faecal incontinence. Only maternal age and second stage duration were significantly associated with anal incontinence after obstetrical anal sphincter injury. The degree of sphincter damage at delivery (IIIa, b, c, IV) was not associated with the risk of anal incontinence at 2-month postpartum. Maternal age and second stage duration were the only risk factor for anal incontinence after obstetrical anal sphincter injury in this study. High prevalence of anal incontinence at 2-month postpartum of obstetrical anal sphincter injury is observed no matter what is the degree of anal sphincter damage. Our results highlight the importance to diagnose all obstetrical anal sphincter injuries whatever the degree of damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Anal incontinence and fecal urgency following vaginal delivery with episiotomy among primiparous patients.

    PubMed

    Rusavy, Zdenek; Karbanova, Jaroslava; Jansova, Magdalena; Kalis, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    To investigate anal incontinence following mediolateral or lateral episiotomy during a first vaginal delivery. The present prospective follow-up study enrolled primiparous patients who underwent vaginal delivery including mediolateral or lateral episiotomy between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2012. Participants completed interviews before delivery, and were given anal-incontinence questionnaires to be returned for analysis at 3 months and 6 months postpartum. Anal incontinence was defined as a St Mark's incontinence score above four and individual anal-incontinence components were analyzed separately; results were compared between the two episiotomy techniques. Questionnaires were returned by 300 and 366 patients who underwent mediolateral and lateral episiotomies, respectively; baseline characteristics were similar. Anal incontinence at 3 months and 6 months was recorded among 21 (7.0%) and 9 (3.0%) patients who underwent mediolateral and 27 (7.4%) and 20 (5.5%) who underwent lateral episiotomy, respectively. The study was underpowered to confirm equivalence between the groups; however, no statistically significant differences were observed in the rates of anal incontinence, flatus, solid or liquid incontinence, and de novo incontinence. Fecal urgency (P=0.017) and de novo fecal urgency (P=0.008) were more prevalent among patients who underwent lateral episiotomies at 6 months. Anal incontinence was comparable between primiparous patients who underwent mediolateral or lateral episiotomy. The association between lateral episiotomy and fecal urgency merits further scientific interest. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and its relation with sedentarism in Spain.

    PubMed

    Leirós-Rodríguez, R; Romo-Pérez, V; García-Soidán, J L

    2017-06-03

    To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence in the elderly Spanish population of both sexes and identify a possible relationship between physical activity habits and the presence of urinary incontinence in the elderly. We used data from 8146 individuals older than 60 years (age range, 60-94 years), from which data from a 15-year cohort were obtained. Of these, 4745 (58.2%) were women and 3401 (41.8%) were men. We analysed the presence of urinary incontinence, physical activity habits and the influence of other variables such as sex, age, weight and body mass index. We detected a prevalence of urinary incontinence of 15% for the women and 11.6% for the men. Those with urinary incontinence had a greater average age, weight and body mass index than the healthy participants. At the same time, the patient group with incontinence showed more sedentary habits compared with the healthy participants. A strong relationship was observed between the body mass index and prevalence of urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence was also related to attitudinal aspects such as physical inactivity, a behaviour that predisposes the elderly to developing incontinence. For the first time, we observed a reduction in the prevalence of incontinence compared with previous studies. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk of Urinary Incontinence Following Prostatectomy: The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Luly, Jason; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Andriole, Gerald L.; Kibel, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Urinary incontinence is one of the most commonly reported and distressing side effects of radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma. Several studies have suggested that symptoms may be worse in obese men but to our knowledge no research has addressed the joint effects of obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. We evaluated the association of obesity and lack of physical activity with urinary incontinence in a sample of men who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Height and weight were abstracted from charts, and obesity was defined as body mass index 30 kg/m2 or greater. Men completed a questionnaire before surgery that included self-report of vigorous physical activity. Men who reported 1 hour or more per week of vigorous activities were considered physically active. Men reported their incontinence to the surgeon at their urology visits. Information on incontinence was abstracted from charts at 6 and 58 weeks after surgery. Results At 6 weeks after surgery 59% (405) of men were incontinent, defined as any pad use. At 58 weeks after surgery 22% (165) of men were incontinent. At 58 weeks incontinence was more prevalent in men who were obese and physically inactive (59% incontinent). Physical activity may offset some of the negative consequences of being obese because the prevalence of incontinence at 58 weeks was similar in the obese and active (25% incontinent), and nonbese and inactive (24% incontinent) men. The best outcomes were in men who were nonobese and physically active (16% incontinent). Men who were not obese and were active were 26% less likely to be incontinent than men who were obese and inactive (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52–1.06). Conclusions Pre-prostatectomy physical activity and obesity may be important factors in post-prostatectomy continence levels. Interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and decreasing weight in patients with prostate cancer may improve quality of life by offsetting the negative side effects

  17. Evaluation and Classification of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Current Concepts and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Osman, Nadir I; Marzi, Vincenzo Li; Cornu, Jean N; Drake, Marcus J

    2016-08-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common and bothersome problem that frequently requires operative management. Over the past two decades, novel techniques have been introduced into clinical practice. With the greater variety of surgical options now available, there is an increasing focus on selecting the appropriate procedure for the individual patient based on the likely underlying pathophysiologic mechanism. To review the methods used in the evaluation of SUI and the proposed classification systems. A search of the PubMed database for the relevant search terms was conducted, and selected articles were retrieved and reviewed. Standardised terminology for the description of SUI has been produced by the International Continence Society describing the problem in terms of symptoms, clinical signs, and urodynamic observations. The two major pathophysiologic theories that have emerged over the past 50 yr, urethral hypermobility and intrinsic sphincteric deficiency, have influenced the development and adoption of surgical techniques. It is now recognised that these two entities are not dichotomous but often coexist. The primary aim of the evaluation of the patient presenting with SUI is to confirm the diagnosis and assess symptom severity before instituting conservative treatments. Secondary evaluation consists of more sophisticated techniques that assess anatomy of the bladder neck and urethra under rest and stress (eg, videourodynamics, ultrasound) or direct or indirect physiologic measures of the integrity of the sphincter mechanism. Classification of patients with SUI into distinct groups based on probable pathophysiologic mechanism could help guide the choice of surgical procedure, but current systems are likely too simplistic, and methods of assessment lack standardisation in techniques and sensitivity. Urinary leakage on exertion, termed stress incontinence, is a common problem that affects many women. There is a need to develop better ways of categorising

  18. Systematic review of the management of incontinence and promotion of continence in older people in care homes: descriptive studies with urinary incontinence as primary focus

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Brenda; Flanagan, Lisa; Jack, Barbara; Barrett, James; Chung, Alan; Shaw, Christine; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Aim This is a review of descriptive studies with incontinence as the primary focus in older people in care homes. Background Incontinence is prevalent among residents of care home populations. Data sources MEDLINE and CINAHL were searched from 1996 to 2007 using the highly sensitive search strings of the Cochrane Incontinence Review Group for urinary and faecal incontinence including all research designs. Search strings were modified to enhance selectiveness for care homes and older people and exclude studies involving surgical or pharmacological interventions. Searching of reference sections from identified studies was also used to supplement electronic searches. The Cochrane Library was searched for relevant systematic reviews to locate relevant studies from those included or excluded from reviews. The search was limited to English-language publications. Methods A systematic review of studies on the management of incontinence, promotion of continence or maintenance of continence in care homes was conducted in 2007–2009. This is a report of descriptive studies. Results Ten studies were identified that reported on prevalence and incidence of incontinence (urinary with or without faecal), policies, assessment, documentation, management or economic evaluation of its management. Use of incontinence pads and toileting programmes comprised the most common management approaches used. No studies were identified that attempted to maintain continence of residents in care homes. Conclusions Studies on maintaining continence and identifying components of toileting programmes that are successful in managing or preventing incontinence and promoting continence in residents of care home populations along with their economic evaluation are warranted. PMID:21105895

  19. Nationwide Trends in the Performance of Inpatient Hysterectomy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jason D.; Herzog, Thomas J.; Tsui, Jennifer; Ananth, Cande V.; Lewin, Sharyn N.; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the use of inpatient hysterectomy and explore changes in the use of various routes of hysterectomy and patterns of referral. METHODS The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify all women aged 18 years or older who underwent inpatient hysterectomy between 1998 and 2010. Weighted estimates of national trends were calculated and the number of procedures performed estimated. Trends in hospital volume and across hospital characteristics were examined. RESULTS After weighting, we identified a total 7,438,452 women who underwent inpatient hysterectomy between 1998 and 2010. The number of hysterectomies performed annually rose from 543,812 in 1998 to a peak of 681,234 in 2002; it then declined consistently annually and reached 433,621 cases in 2010. Overall, 247,973 (36.4%) fewer hysterectomies were performed in 2010 compared with 2002. From 2002 to 2010 the number of hysterectomies performed for each of the following indications declined: leiomyoma (−47.6%), abnormal bleeding (−28.9%), benign ovarian mass (−63.1%), endometriosis (−65.3%), and pelvic organ prolapse (−39.4%). The median hospital case volume decreased from 83 procedures per year in 2002 to 50 cases per year in 2010 (P<.001). CONCLUSION The number of inpatient hysterectomies performed in the United States has declined substantially over the past decade. The median number of hysterectomies per hospital has declined likewise by more than 40%. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III PMID:23969789

  20. Female stress urinary incontinence: standard techniques revisited and critical evaluation of innovative techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Cornelia; de Riese, Werner T. W.

    2003-06-01

    Objectives: The treatment of female urinary incontinence (UI) is a growing health care concern in our aging society. Publications of recent innovations and modifications are creating expectations. This brief review provides some insight and structure regarding indications and expected outcomes for the different approaches. Materials: Data extraction is part of a Medline data base search, which was performed for "female stress incontinence" from 1960 until 2000. Additional literature search was performed to cover 2001 and 2002. Outcome data were extracted. Results: (1) INJECTION OF BULKING AGENTS (collagen, synthetic agents): The indication for mucosal coaptation was more clearly defined and in the majority of articles limited to ISD. (2) OPEN COLPOSUSPENSION (Burch, MMK): Best long-term results of all operative procedures, to date considered the gold standard. (3) LAPAROSCOPIC COLPOSUSPENSION (different modifications): Long-term success rates appear dependent on operator skills. There are few long-term data. (4) NEEDLE SUSPENSION: (Stamey, Pareyra and modifications): Initial results were equal to Burch with less morbidity, but long-term success rates are worse. (5) SLING PROCEDURES (autologous, synthetic, allogenic graft materials, different modes of support and anchoring, free tapes): The suburethral sling has traditionally been considered a procedure for those in whom suspension had failed and for those with severe ISD. The most current trend shows its use as a primary procedure for SUI. Long-term data beyond 5 years are insufficient. (6) EXTERNAL OCCLUSIVE DEVICES (vaginal sponges and pessaries, urethral insert): Both vaginal and urethral insert devices can be effective in selected patients. (7) IMPLANTABLE ARTEFICIAL URETHRAL SPHINCTERS: Modifications and improvements of the devices resulted in improved clinical results regarding durability and efficacy. CONCLUSION: (1) The Burch colposuspension is still considered the gold standard in the treatment of female

  1. CONSIDER - Core Outcome Set in IAD Research: study protocol for establishing a core set of outcomes and measurements in incontinence-associated dermatitis research.

    PubMed

    Van den Bussche, Karen; De Meyer, Dorien; Van Damme, Nele; Kottner, Jan; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2017-10-01

    This study protocol describes the methodology for the development of a core set of outcomes and a core set of measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis. Incontinence is a widespread disorder with an important impact on quality of life. One of the most common complications is incontinence-associated dermatitis, resulting from chemical and physical irritation of the skin barrier, triggering inflammation and skin damage. Managing incontinence-associated dermatitis is an important challenge for nurses. Several interventions have been assessed in clinical trials, but heterogeneity in study outcomes complicates the comparability and standardization. To overcome this challenge, the development of a core outcome set, a minimum set of outcomes and measurements to be assessed in clinical research, is needed. A project team, International Steering Committee and panelists will be involved to guide the development of the core outcome set. The framework of the Harmonizing Outcomes Measures for Eczema roadmap endorsed by Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative, is used to inform the project design. A systematic literature review, interviews to integrate the patients' perspective and a consensus study with healthcare researchers and providers using the Delphi procedure will be performed. The project was approved by the Ethics review Committee (April 2016). This is the first project that will identify a core outcome set of outcomes and measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis research. A core outcome set will reduce possible reporting bias, allow results comparisons and statistical pooling across trials and strengthen evidence-based practice and decision-making. This project has been registered in the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database and is part of the Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Transurethral injection of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence and changes in the cure rate over time].

    PubMed

    Martan, A; Mašata, J; Svabík, K; El-Haddad, R; Hubka, P

    2013-12-01

    (cured or improved) three and 22 months after operation by 78.4% / 54.9% patients. The cure effect of Bulkamid® operation decreases in correlation with the time that elapses after the operation, although this procedure is minimally invasive and is an option in cases where anti-incontinence surgery has failed.

  3. Inpatient hospital care of children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katherine E; Hexem, Kari R; Feudtner, Chris

    2012-05-01

    Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 are generally considered fatal anomalies, with a majority of infants dying in the first year after birth. The inpatient hospital care that these patients receive has not been adequately described. This study characterized inpatient hospitalizations of children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 in the United States, including number and types of procedures performed. Retrospective repeated cross-sectional assessment of hospitalization data from the nationally representative US Kids' Inpatient Database, for the years 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. Included hospitalizations were of patients aged 0 to 20 years with a diagnosis of trisomy 13 or trisomy 18. The number of hospitalizations for each trisomy type ranged from 846 to 907 per year for trisomy 13 (P = .77 for temporal trend) and 1036 to 1616 per year for trisomy 18 (P < .001 for temporal trend). Over one-third (36%) of the hospitalizations were of patients older than 1 year of age. Patients underwent a total of 2765 major therapeutic procedures, including creation of esophageal sphincter (6% of hospitalizations; mean age 23 months), repair of atrial and ventricular septal defects (4%; mean age 9 months), and procedures on tendons (4%; mean age 8 years). Children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 receive significant inpatient hospital care. Despite the conventional understanding of these syndromes as lethal, a substantial number of children are living longer than 1 year and undergoing medical and surgical procedures as part of their treatment.

  4. Development of an adolescent inpatient sexual abuse group: application of Lewin's model of change.

    PubMed

    Riddle, C R

    1994-01-01

    The development and implementation of an adolescent sexual abuse group on an inpatient psychiatric unit is described. Steps of Kurt Lewin's model of change are used as a framework for this planned change. Specific issues concerning group procedure and process are detailed. Recommendations for this group and broader use of the Lewin model are included.

  5. Medicare program; hospital outpatient prospective payment system and CY 2007 payment rates; CY 2007 update to the ambulatory surgical center covered procedures list; Medicare administrative contractors; and reporting hospital quality data for FY 2008 inpatient prospective payment system annual payment update program--HCAHPS survey, SCIP, and mortality. Final rule with comment period and final rule.

    PubMed

    2006-11-24

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system, and to implement certain related provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) of 2003 and the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005. In this final rule with comment period, we describe changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare hospital outpatient services paid under the prospective payment system. These changes are applicable to services furnished on or after January 1, 2007. In addition, this final rule with comment period implements future CY 2009 required reporting on quality measures for hospital outpatient services paid under the prospective payment system. This final rule with comment period revises the current list of procedures that are covered when furnished in a Medicare-approved ambulatory surgical center (ASC), which are applicable to services furnished on or after January 1, 2007. This final rule with comment period revises the emergency medical screening requirements for critical access hospitals (CAHs). This final rule with comment period supports implementation of a restructuring of the contracting entities responsibilities and functions that support the adjudication of Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) claims. This restructuring is directed by section 1874A of the Act, as added by section 911 of the MMA. The prior separate Medicare intermediary and Medicare carrier contracting authorities under Title XVIII of the Act have been replaced with the Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) authority. This final rule continues to implement the requirements of the DRA that require that we expand the "starter set" of 10 quality measures that we used in FY 2005 and FY 2006 for the hospital inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS) Reporting Hospital Quality Data

  6. Using the MMPI 168 with Medical Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Richard C.; Freeman, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Explores the potential utility of the MMPI 168 with two inpatient medical populations. Correlations and clinically relevant comparisons suggest that the MMPI 168 predicted the standard MMPI with a high degree accuracy. (Editor/RK)

  7. Urinary incontinence in women: a comprehensive review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, P; Dmochowski, R

    2014-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) or involuntary leakage of urine is a distressing and serious health problem. It has a significant psychosocial and economic burden leading to significant quality of life issues. UI is more prevalent than most chronic diseases yet largely underreported. Aging and age-related changes in the bladder play a significant role in the development of UI. This in combination with cognitive dysfunction, functional impairment, pharmacotherapy, smoking, childbearing, obesity and coexisiting comorbidities worsen the condition. Due to the burden UI places on the individual, their family and society, it is important for providers to diagnose and have ready treatment options available. The three most common types of UI are stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge urinary incontinence (UUI), or a combination of both, mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). This review describes the pathophysiology of incontinence; and diagnosis and treatment (conservative, pharmacological, and surgical therapies) of incontinence in women.

  8. [Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in female workers of hotels].

    PubMed

    Fontana, L; Falconi, G; Di Martino, T; Iavicoli, I

    2007-01-01

    The International Continence Society defines urinary incontinence (UI) as "a condition in which involuntary loss of urine is a social or hygienic problem and is objectively demonstrable". There are three different jorms of UI. stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence and mixed incontinence. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UI in a group of female workers in the hotel sector. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence short form (ICIQ-UI Short Form) was administered to all female workers and data were collected about age, body mass index, number of vaginal and Caesarean delivery. Results showed a prevalence of UI widely bigger in the plans waitress than in video display terminal workers and suggest the hypothesis that manual handling of loads representing a possible occupational risk for UI.

  9. An overview of urinary incontinence in adults: assessments and behavioral interventions.

    PubMed

    Beckman, N J

    1995-09-01

    Urinary incontinence affects millions of Americans. Often the goal of treatment is to improve the condition, prevent complications and provide comfort. Behavioral interventions can improve the condition in 54-75% of patients with urge and/or stress incontinence and can cure 12-16% of patients. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are in a unique position of both providing direct care to patients who experience these problems and educating other nurses about signs, symptoms and appropriate nursing interventions for urinary incontinence. The scope of the problem, costs of urinary incontinence and potential cost savings with treatment are discussed in this article. Acute and chronic urinary incontinence and the necessary assessments to be performed by the APN are reviewed. Bladder training, habit training, prompted voiding and pelvic muscle exercises are the behavioral interventions used with urinary incontinence. Adjunct therapy, including biofeedback, vaginal cones and electrical stimulation, also is discussed.

  10. Has deinstitutionalization affected inpatient suicide? Psychiatric inpatient suicide rates between 1990 and 2013 in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levi, Linda; Werbeloff, Nomi; Pugachova, Inna; Yoffe, Rinat; Large, Matthew; Davidson, Michael; Weiser, Mark

    2016-05-01

    To examine variations in rates of inpatient suicide and clinical risk factors for this phenomenon. The National Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry was used to study inpatient suicide. Clinical risk factors for inpatient suicide were examined in a nested case control design. Between 1990 and 2013 there were 326 inpatient suicides, at an average of one inpatient suicide per 1614 admissions. A significant decline in rates of suicide per admission over time (p<0.001) was associated with a reduced number of beds (p<0.001) and a decline in nationwide suicide rates (p=0.001). Clinical risk factors for inpatient suicide were: affective disorders (OR=5.95), schizoaffective disorder (OR=5.27), schizophrenia (OR=3.82), previous suicide attempts (OR=2.59), involuntary hospitalization (OR=1.67), and more previous hospitalizations (OR=1.16,). A multivariate model with sensitivity of 27.3% and specificity of 95.3% for inpatient suicide, showed a positive predictive value of 0.4%. The absolute number and rates of inpatient suicide per admission have decreased over time, probably due to the decreased number of beds lowering total time at risk. Patients with affective and psychotic disorders and with previous suicide attempts have the greatest risk of inpatient suicide. However, clinical characteristics do not enable identification of patients who are at risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An unfolding case with a linked OSCE: a curriculum in inpatient geriatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Karani, Reena; Callahan, Eileen H; Thomas, David C

    2002-09-01

    This study sought to design, implement, and evaluate a unique educational curriculum in inpatient geriatrics for internal medicine housestaff. Traditionally the didactic curriculum on an inpatient geriatrics unit varies according to the attending faculty on service, the types of patients admitted, and preferences of the housestaff and students-in-training. However, a more structured educational curriculum would allow for comprehensive attention to, and a detailed exploration of, the principles of geriatric care necessary to effectively treat all hospitalized older adults. We have developed a unique curriculum using an unfolding case that is followed by an OSCE, which assesses the knowledge and skills gained by the learners. An unfolding case is one that evolves over time and is unpredictable to the learners when they begin participating in the curriculum. It is well suited to postgraduate training and assessment since the learner must develop a differential diagnosis, discuss possible work-ups, and use the work-ups' results to reassess the case as it unfolds. Our scripted case, administered by a geriatrics fellow rotating on the unit, follows an ambulatory geriatric patient from her admission throughout her treatment and until the end of her stay. It culminates in a decision-making session about her functional ability and hence her discharge plans. Moreover, several topics relevant to inpatient geriatrics, including dementia, delirium, falls, urinary incontinence, wound care, and depression, are covered in three one-hour sessions. Written examinations or pre- and post-testing after an intervention are better suited to the early years of medical training but provide poor measures of curriculum mastery and clinical competency. Alternatively, our OSCE approach uses "stations" and "interstations" that provide a structured and timed opportunity to test these skills and assess specific areas of knowledge. We have designed a five-station, five-interstation OSCE that is

  12. Hypnotherapy for incontinence caused by the unstable detrusor.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, R M; Baxby, K

    1982-01-01

    Fifty incontinent women with proved detrusor instability completed 12 sessions of hypnosis (symptom removal by direct suggestion and "ego strengthening") over one month. This was continued at home with a prerecorded cassette, and all patients were followed up for at least six months. At the end of the 12 sessions 29 patients were entirely symptom free, 14 improved, and seven unchanged. Three months later cystometry in 44 of the patients showed conversion of the cystometrogram to stability in 22 and a significant improvement in a further 16; only six showed no objective improvement. Seven patients relapsed (three after bereavement). Further treatment was given and five out of six patients were rendered symptom free again. Patients with detrusor instability were not found to have a noticeably increased susceptibility to hypnosis. It is concluded that psychological factors are very important in "idiopathic" detrusor instability and that hypnotherapy is effective for incontinence due to this disorder. PMID:6805716

  13. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome and stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Aniuliene, R; Aniulis, P

    2015-11-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a disorder of development of the female genital tract, characterized by the absence of the upper portion of the vagina, an absent or hypoplastic uterus, and normal or hypoplastic fallopian tubes. Affected women may have associated urological or skeletal abnormalities. Case report. A 19-year-old female with MRKH syndrome, female genotype and phenotype, primary amenorrhoea and stress urinary incontinence was admitted to the outpatient department of the university hospital. The patient underwent tension free vaginal obturator tape (TVT-O) surgery for stress urinary incontinence. The patient's objective self-evaluation of the efficacy of treatment after 6 months was 60%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Barrier products in the treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yaping

    2016-07-20

    This article reviews contemporary primary research studies to establish the evidence supporting the use of barrier products and evaluate practice regarding their use in the acute hospital setting. Six primary research studies investigating the use of barrier products for preventing and managing incontinence-associated dermatitis were reviewed. The aim was to identify the most effective treatments for incontinence-associated dermatitis to enhance the quality of life of patients. The studies identified that there is no significant difference in efficacy between petrolatum, zinc oxide oil and a polymer-based barrier film, and that a polymer-based barrier film is more cost-effective than petrolatum or zinc oxide. However, further robust research studies are required to inform practice. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of barrier products can be enhanced by providing education in clinical practice on consistent skin care regimens and effective use of barrier products.

  15. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: new insights into an old problem.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, David

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common skin disorder seen in patients with incontinence. Typically IAD presents as inflammation of the skin surface characterised by redness, and in extreme cases, swelling and blister formation. If untreated this usually rapidly leads to excoriation and skin breakdown, which may subsequently become infected by the skin flora. While this is a common condition encountered in all areas of nursing practice, gaps remain in our understanding of the many contributing factors. A lack of standardised definitions of IAD, differences in terminology, and a bewildering increase in products available to prevent and manage IAD, makes it difficult for nurses to deliver evidence-based care. However, it is an area where nursing research has made a considerable contribution over the past few years. This article explores the current thinking on IAD and the implications for nursing practice.

  16. The Association between Urinary Incontinence and Low Back Pain and Radiculopathy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Kaptan, Hulagu; Kulaksızoğlu, Haluk; Kasımcan, Ömür; Seçkin, Bedreddin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common dysfunction, affecting especially women of all ages. The terminology of low back pain (LBP) and radiculopathy (RP) may be misused interchangeably with each other. There are many reports of the association with LBP and incontinence but those involving compression of nerve root(as RP), has not been distinguished from isolated low back pain. This study was structured to analyse the association of UI, LBP and RP. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients were included in the study. Patients with spinal or urinary infection, tumour (spinal or others), cauda equine, pelvic operation, spinal trauma, spinal surgery, urogenital pathology were not accepted for this study. Age and weight of all patients were determined. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was utilised for assessment of loss of function and SEAPI incontinence index was used for urinary incontinence. All patients were examined for neurological pathology to differentiate between the LBP and RP by department of neurosurgery. Student t-test and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used for statistical significance. RESULTS: There was no statistical significance between low back pain with overall urinary incontinence (p = 0.131), urge (p = 0.103) or stress incontinence (p = 0.68), respectively. However; The statistical aspects were identified relationship between overall (p = 0.026) and urge (p = 0.001) urinary incontinence with radiculopathy. The association of urge incontinence and radiculopathy seems to show a more significant relationship. Yet there was no correlation between radiculopathy and stress incontinence (P = 0.062). CONCLUSION: Low back pain should not be regarded as a predisposing factor for urinary incontinence; however, radiculopathy has a statistically positive correlation between overall incontinence and urge incontinence. PMID:28028410

  17. Teaching strategies for assessing and managing urinary incontinence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bradway, Christine; Cacchione, Pamela

    2010-07-01

    Urinary incontinence is common and affects many aspects of older adults' lives; therefore, it is essential that nursing faculty include this content in classroom and clinical teaching situations. This article describes innovative strategies for teaching upper-level nursing students (e.g., junior and senior undergraduates) about urinary incontinence in older adults, specifically, the relevant anatomy and physiology of continence and associated pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, risk factors and consequences, definitions and types, and effective nursing assessment and management strategies.

  18. Clinical profile of elderly urinary incontinence in Singapore: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Chan, C J; Merriman, A; Tan, E C; Osborn, V

    1991-11-01

    The prevalence of urinary incontinence in the elderly aged 65 years and above was found to be 4.6% (42 out of a total of 919 respondents), in a community-based study in Singapore. Urinary incontinence was defined as leakage of urine on at least two occasions in the previous one month. The clinical profile of 30 out of the 42 (71%) subjects were studied. There was equal distribution of male and female subjects. Eighteen (60%) of the subjects were below 75 years of age. Twenty-five (83.3%) subjects had severe incontinence. Twenty-four (80%) had the incontinence for more than one year. Despite the high percentage of patients with severe incontinence, only nine (30%) used some form of aid. Incontinence in our very old (75 years and above) was not related to frailty or physical dependence. Seven of the subjects (23.3%) were found to have functional incontinence associated with cognitive impairment. These patients were unable to indicate their toilet needs. They also had associated physical disability as well as double incontinence, and their carers were under stress. Ten of the subjects had pure urge incontinence. Seven of them had an underlying central nervous system disorder, suggesting that destrusor hyperreflexia may be the underlying cause for urinary incontinence in this group. All except one in this group had more than one possible precipitating factor for their incontinence. Eleven subjects had symptoms suggestive of outlet obstruction, although only two were found to have proven outlet obstruction. None of the female subjects had pure stress incontinence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Regenerative medicine based applications to combat stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Hatim; Sharma, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), as an isolated symptom, is not a life threatening condition. However, the fear of unexpected urine leakage contributes to a significant decline in quality of life parameters for afflicted patients. Compared to other forms of incontinence, SUI cannot be easily treated with pharmacotherapy since it is inherently an anatomic problem. Treatment options include the use of bio-injectable materials to enhance closing pressures, and the placement of slings to bolster fascial support to the urethra. However, histologic findings of degeneration in the incontinent urethral sphincter invite the use of tissues engineering strategies to regenerate structures that aid in promoting continence. In this review, we will assess the role of stem cells in restoring multiple anatomic and physiological aspects of the sphincter. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and CD34+ cells have shown great promise to differentiate into muscular and vascular components, respectively. Evidence supporting the use of cytokines and growth factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor further enhance the viability and direction of differentiation. Bridging the benefits of stem cells and growth factors involves the use of synthetic scaffolds like poly (1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) thin films. POC scaffolds are synthetic, elastomeric polymers that serve as substrates for cell growth, and upon degradation, release growth factors to the microenvironment in a controlled, predictable fashion. The combination of cellular, cytokine and scaffold elements aims to address the pathologic deficits to urinary incontinence, with a goal to improve patient symptoms and overall quality of life. PMID:24179600

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY INDICATORS FOR WOMEN WITH URINARY INCONTINENCE

    PubMed Central

    Anger, Jennifer T.; Scott, Victoria C. S.; Kiyosaki, Krista; Khan, Aqsa A.; Weinberg, Avivah; Connor, Sarah E.; Roth, Carol P.; Wenger, Neil; Shekelle, Paul; Litwin, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS To develop a means to measure the quality of care provided to women treated for urinary incontinence (UI) through the development of quality-of-care indicators (QIs). METHODS We performed an extensive literature review to develop a set of potential quality indicators for the management of urinary incontinence. QIs were modeled after those previously described in the Assessing the Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) project. Nine experts ranked the indicators on a nine-point scale for both validity and feasibility. We analyzed preliminary rankings of each indicator using the RAND Appropriateness Method. A forum was then held in which each indicator was thoroughly discussed by the panelists as a group, after which the indicators were rated a second time individually using the same nine-point scale. RESULTS QIs were developed that addressed screening, diagnosis, work-up, and both non-surgical and surgical management. Areas of controversy included whether routine screening for incontinence should be performed, whether urodynamics should be performed before non-surgical management is initiated, and whether cystoscopy should be part of the pre-operative work-up of uncomplicated stress incontinence. Following the expert panel discussion, 27 of 40 potential indicators were determined to be valid for UI with a median score of at least seven on a nine-point scale. CONCLUSIONS We identified 27 quality indicators for the care of women with UI. Once these QIs are pilot-tested for feasibility, they will be applied on a larger scale to measure the quality of care provided to women with UI in the United States. PMID:24105879

  1. Urinary Incontinence Due to Urethral Coitus in a Multiparous Woman.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Uzun, Canan; Doganay, Melike

    2015-01-01

    Urethral coitus in women with a normal vagina and introitus has very rarely been reported. We report the case of a 48-year-old gravida 5, para 5 woman with a history of urethral coitus complaining of urinary incontinence. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the fifth reported case of urethral coitus with normal genitalia, and it might be accepted as the first reported case of urethral coitus in a multiparous woman.

  2. Artificial urinary sphincter for post-prostatectomy incontinence: a review.

    PubMed

    James, Mary H; McCammon, Kurt A

    2014-06-01

    The artificial urinary sphincter remains the gold standard for treatment of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. The AMS 800 (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, USA) is the most commonly implanted artificial urinary sphincter. Having been on the market for almost 40 years, there is an abundance of literature regarding its use, but no recent review has been published. We reviewed the current literature regarding the indications, surgical principles, outcomes and complications of artificial urinary sphincter implantation for stress urinary incontinence after prostatectomy. A PubMed search was carried out for articles on the artificial urinary sphincter from 1995 to present. The review was centered on articles related to the use of the AMS 800 for stress urinary incontinence in males after prostatectomy. Relevant articles were reviewed. The majority of patients will achieve social continence (1 pad per day) after artificial urinary sphincter implantation; however, rates of total continence (no pad usage) are significantly lower. Patient satisfaction outcomes average greater than 80% in most series. Potential complications requiring reoperation include infection (0.5-10.6%) and urethral erosion (2.9-12%). Revision surgeries are most commonly as a result of urethral atrophy, which ranges from 1.6 to 11.4%. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier freedom from reoperation ranges from 50 to 79%, while the 10-year Kaplan-Meier freedom from mechanical failure is 64%. The artificial urinary sphincter is a reliable device with good outcomes. As expected with any prosthetic device, complications including mechanical failure, infection, erosion and recurrent incontinence remain significant concerns. Despite known complications, the patient satisfaction rates after artificial urinary sphincter implantation remain high. Appropriate patient counseling and adherence to surgical principles are imperative.

  3. [Submucous urethral augmentation in stress incontinence. Indications and results].

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Matal, W

    1994-01-01

    An endoscopic transurethral collagen implantation was performed in 45 women, suffering from mostly recurrent stress incontinence. No complications have been observed. The results were measured by a standardized PAD weight test. After 6 months, 17 women were cured and 21 were improved; after 12 months, 14 patients were still completely dry and 21 were improved (nearly 80% success rate). Using silicone particles in a lubricating carrier gel (Macroplast), even better and persisting results are expected.

  4. How do you define success in stress urinary incontinence treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmern, Philippe E.

    2012-01-01

    At present, there is no consensus on the best way to define treatment success in the context of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). There is, however, a recognition that it is important to include patient-reported outcomes among the core assessments. Going forward, there is a need to unite outcome reporting tools to be able to compare data across studies and perform meaningful meta-analyses. PMID:23092774

  5. Future Directions of Research and Care for Urinary Incontinence: Findings from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Summit on Urinary Incontinence Clinical Research in Women.

    PubMed

    Chai, Toby C; Asfaw, Tirsit S; Baker, Jan E; Clarkson, Becky; Coleman, Pamela; Hoffstetter, Susan; Konkel, Kimberly; Lavender, Missy; Nair, Shailaja; Norton, Jenna; Subak, Leslee; Visco, Anthony; Star, Robert A; Bavendam, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Female urinary incontinence is prevalent, costly and morbid. Participants in a NIDDK (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) sponsored summit reviewed findings from NIH (National Institutes of Health) funded clinical research on urinary incontinence in women and discussed the future of urinary incontinence research. The NIDDK convened the Summit on Urinary Incontinence Clinical Research in Women on March 14, 2014. Participants representing a broad range of clinical expertise reviewed completed NIH sponsored urinary incontinence related studies, including results from community based epidemiological studies such as the BACH (Boston Area Community Health) Survey and from randomized clinical trials such as PRIDE (Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise), and studies conducted by the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network and the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network. BACH Survey results improved our understanding of precursors, incidence, prevalence and natural history of urinary incontinence in a diverse group of women. The Pelvic Floor Disorders Network study found that anticholinergic medications and onabotulinumtoxinA are efficacious for treating urge urinary incontinence, and Burch colposuspension and retropubic mid urethral polypropylene slings are efficacious for decreasing stress urinary incontinence following pelvic organ prolapse surgery in women with potential stress urinary incontinence. The Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network study found that fascial slings were better than colposuspension, and that retropubic and transobturator mid urethral polypropylene slings were equivalent for stress urinary incontinence. In patients with stress urinary incontinence a preoperative urodynamic study was noninferior to basic office examinations for surgical outcome. The addition of behavioral intervention did not allow female patients to discontinue antimuscarinics for urge urinary incontinence. PRIDE showed that modest weight

  6. Surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence-trans-obturator tape compared with tension-free vaginal tape-5-year follow up: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lier, D; Robert, M; Tang, S; Ross, S

    2017-08-01

    To conduct an economic evaluation of the use of trans-obturator tape (TOT) compared with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) in the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses from a public-payer perspective, conducted alongside a randomised clinical trial. Health services provided in Alberta, Canada. A total of 195 women participated in the randomised clinical trial, followed to 5 years postsurgery. Comparisons were undertaken between study groups for cost and two health-outcome measures. Multiple imputation was used to estimate the 14% of missing data. Bootstrapping was used to account for sampling uncertainty. Sensitivity analyses were based on complete case analyses and the removal of a TVT patient with extreme health service cost. The 15D instrument was used to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the primary analysis. Absence of serious adverse events was also analysed. Costs were based on inpatient and outpatient hospital use data and practitioner fee-for-service claims data. The TOT group had a nonsignificant average saving of $2368 (95% CI -$7166 to $2548) and incremental gain of 0.04 QALYs (95% CI -0.06 to 0.14) compared with TVT. TOT was dominant in over 71% of bootstrap replications and cost-effective over a wide range of willingness-to-pay. Cost-effectiveness analysis using the absence of an serious adverse events provided similar results. The results suggest that TOT is cost-effective compared with TVT in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. The results of a 5-year cost-effectiveness analysis suggest that trans-obturator tape is cost-effective compared with tension-free vaginal tape in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. EAU guidelines on assessment and nonsurgical management of urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Malcolm G; Bosch, Ruud J L; Burkhard, Fiona C; Cruz, Francisco; Madden, Thomas B; Nambiar, Arjun K; Neisius, Andreas; de Ridder, Dirk J M K; Tubaro, Andrea; Turner, William H; Pickard, Robert S

    2012-12-01

    The previous European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on urinary incontinence comprised a summary of sections of the 2009 International Consultation on Incontinence. A decision was made in 2010 to rewrite these guidelines based on an independent systematic review carried out by the EAU guidelines panel, using a sustainable methodology. We present a short version of the full guidelines on assessment, diagnosis, and nonsurgical treatment of urinary incontinence, with the aim of increasing their dissemination. Evidence appraisal included a pragmatic review of existing systematic reviews and independent new literature searches, based on Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions. Appraisal of papers was carried out by an international panel of experts, who also collaborated on a series of consensus discussions, to develop concise structured evidence summaries and action-based recommendations using a modified Oxford system. The full version of the guidelines is available online (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The guidelines include algorithms that refer the reader back to the supporting evidence, and they are more immediately useable in daily clinical practice. These new guidelines present an up-to-date summary of the available evidence, together with clear clinical algorithms and action-based recommendations based on the best available evidence. Where such evidence does not exist, they present a consensus of expert opinion. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How sacral nerve stimulation works in patients with faecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gourcerol, G; Vitton, V; Leroi, A M; Michot, F; Abysique, A; Bouvier, M

    2011-08-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) reduces incontinence episodes and improves the quality of life of patients treated for faecal incontinence. However, the exact mechanism of action of this technique remains unclear. The present article reviews the pertinent neuroanatomy and neurophysiology related to SNS and provides explanations for potential mechanisms of action. A systematic review of the literature was performed for studies of the potential mechanisms of action of SNS, using MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Articles dealing with the technique, adverse events and economic evaluations of SNS, as well as literature reviews, were excluded, except for reviews dealing with the mechanisms of action of SNS. The following inclusion criteria were used to select articles: (i) articles in English, (ii) randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled studies, and (iii) cohort studies. Case-control studies or retrospective studies were cited only when randomized or cohort studies could not be found. We propose three hypotheses to explain the mechanism of action of SNS: (i) a somato-visceral reflex, (ii) a modulation of the perception of afferent information, and (iii) an increase in external anal sphincter activity. The mechanism of action of SNS in patients with faecal incontinence almost certainly depends on the modulation of spinal and/or supraspinal afferent inputs. Further research on humans and animals will be required to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of SNS. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. The Impact of Stress Incontinence Surgery of Female Sexual Function

    PubMed Central

    BRUBAKER, Linda; CHIANG, Seing; ZYCZYNSKI, Halina; NORTON, Peggy; KALINOSKI, D. Lynn; STODDARD, Anne; KUSEK, John W.; STEERS, William

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe change in sexual function 2 years after surgery to treat stress urinary incontinence. Methods This analysis included 655 women randomized to Burch colposuspension or sling surgery. Sexual activity was assessed by the PISQ-12 among those sexually active at baseline and two years after surgery. Results Mean PISQ-12 total score improved from baseline 32.23±6.85 to 36.85± 5.89. After surgery, fewer subjects reported incontinence (9% vs. 53%, p<0.0001), restriction of sexual activity due to fear of incontinence (10% vs. 52%, p<0.0001), avoidance of intercourse because of vaginal bulging (3% vs. 24%, p<0.0001) or negative emotional reactions during sex (9% vs. 35%, p<0.0001). Women with successful surgery had greater improvement PISQ-12 scores (5.77 vs. 3.79), p<0.006. Sexually active women were younger, thinner, and had lower MESA scores (total and urge subscale) than sexually inactive women. Conclusion Sexual function improves following successful surgery and did not differ between Burch or sling. PMID:19286143

  10. Quality of Life after Surgery for Stress Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Tennstedt, S. L.; Litman, H. J.; Zimmern, P.; Ghetti, C.; Kusek, J. W.; Nager, C.W.; Mueller, E.R.; Kraus, S.R.; Varner, E.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated changes in condition-specific quality of life (QOL) after surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Data from 655 women in a clinical trial comparing the Burch and fascial sling were examined. Results Improvement in QOL, measured with the IIQ (mean decrease 133.1; s.d. 109.8), was observed 6 months after surgery and persisted at 24 months. Women for whom surgery was successful (regardless of surgery type) had greater improvement in QOL (mean decrease 160.0; s.d 103.9) than did women for whom surgery was not successful (mean decrease 113.6; s.d 110.9) (p<0.0001), although not statistically significant after adjusting for covariates. Multivariable analysis showed that QOL improvement was related to decreased UI symptom bother, greater improvement in UI severity, younger age, Hispanic ethnicity and receiving Burch surgery. Among sexually active women, worsening sexual function had a negative impact on QOL. Conclusion Improved QOL was explained most by UI symptom improvement. Brief Summary Improvements in quality of life after stress incontinence surgery are significant, durable over 24 months, and associated with improvement of incontinence symptoms and symptom bother. PMID:18682875

  11. [Female stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy. A bibliographical review].

    PubMed

    Navarro García, Miguel Angel; De Carlos Alegre, Vanessa

    2009-10-01

    The authors have prepared a brief bibliographical review on female stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy. The high degree of incidence this disorder has and the introduction of the latest sanitary techniques combine to make necessary a profound review which aids medical professionals to realize the magnitude of this problem, as well as to diagnose and treat it effectively. Female stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy is an involuntary urine loss associated to the physical effort which an increase in abdominal pressure provokes. A literary review of articles related to this disorder leaves no doubt that among the risk factors which make a woman be predisposed to suffer female stress urinary incontinence, obstetric trauma as a consequence of pregnancy and birth is a main risk factor. The authors describe a couple of diagnostic tools, a ICIQ-SF questionnaire, and therapeutic tools, the pelvic floor muscle exercise program, whose effectiveness has been sufficiently demonstrated and may prove to have very beneficial clinical uses which can be applied in a nurse's office.

  12. Health Literacy and Emotional Responses Related to Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kristina; Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose was to begin to examine continence literacy of individuals with fecal incontinence (FI) by describing terms by which these individuals referred to FI and to explore their emotional responses to FI. A secondary aim was to compare differences in these results between male versus female and younger (< 65 yrs) versus older persons with FI. Design Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively in a clinical trial of fiber supplementation for FI. Methods Content analysis of participants’ statements reported in field notes of data collectors and their responses to data forms and questions. Results Six thematic categories of terms for FI emerged. Only one person used the term “fecal incontinence.” Alternate terms described stool characteristics, named other gastrointestinal problems, or referred to FI using a term that seemed to depersonalize the problems. Emotional responses to FI focused on the influence of bothersome symptoms of FI, interference with social activities, and need for control. Others showed use of humor for coping and emotional benefits gained from being in a study. Women were impacted by the social limitations of having FI more than men. Younger people expressed feelings of emotional upset. Conclusion There is need to increase health literacy about fecal incontinence. Continence nurse specialists are well qualified to educate patients about FI and to evaluate if higher continence literacy increases reporting of FI. Understanding the various emotional responses to FI may guide the optimal support that nurses can provide and facilitate better management of FI. PMID:20075695

  13. A warning detector for urinary incontinence for home health care.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Nakajima, K; Matsushita, T; Fujimoto, T; Shimooki, S; Nakano, T

    1995-01-01

    A telemetry system for monitoring urinary incontinence has been developed using two principles, temperature and impedance changes of a diaper. The system is composed of a pair of sensors, a transmitter, and a receiver. Temperature changes are monitored using thermistors, one in the center of the diaper and the other attached to the abdomen, and the temperature differences between them after urinary incontinence is detected. For the impedance method, two electroconductive cloths as electrodes placed in the diaper are used as sensors. Urine acts as a conductor to produce a current between the sensors. Clinical evaluation showed that both methods operate well; 13 of 17 incontinence episodes were detected using the temperature method and 32 of 35 with the impedance method. The misdetections were caused by faulty sensor arrangement for temperature measurement and by detection of exudates by the conductive sensors. These monitors may be used for the care of elderly people who use diapers for home health care, to save care time and help maintain hygiene.

  14. A chief of service rotation as an