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Sample records for incorporating additional wave

  1. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  2. Accelerating procelain formation by incorporating a complex additive

    SciTech Connect

    Maslennikova, G.N.; Dubovitskii, S.A.; Moroz, I.K.

    1986-05-01

    The authors studied the influence of a complex additive consisting of oxides of calcium, zinc, and magnesium on the formaton of porcelain. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of the complex additive in the porcelain body it was incorporated in the form of water soluble salts-nitrates, which ensured comparability of results and excluded the effect of the different types of anions. The study of the main parameters of sintering (porosity, shrinkage, and mechanical strength) for the test bodies showed that they sinter at lower temperatures and attain zero porosity, maximum shrinkage, and mechanical strength. The most typical bodies indentified in this way were investigated by methods of complex differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction. Thus, the introduction of complex additives consisting of calcium, zinc, and magnesium oxides contributes to the earlier formation of porcelain. With the reduction of firing temperatures by 100/sup 0/C the authors observe an improvement in the basic properties of porcelain.

  3. Self-similar blast waves incorporating deflagrations of variable speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirguis, R. H.; Kamel, M. M.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the development of a systematic approach to the problem of self-similar blast waves incorporating nonsteady flames. The regime covered by the presented solutions is bounded on one side by an adiabatic strong explosion and, on the other, by deflagration propagating at an infinite acceleration. Results for a representative set of accelerations are displayed, taking into account the full range of propagation speeds from zero to velocities corresponding to the Chapman-Jouguet deflagration. It is found that the distribution of stored energy in the undisturbed medium determines the acceleration of the deflagration-shock wave system. The obtained results reveal the existence of a simple relation between the location of the deflagration and its Mach number.

  4. Incorporation of a Gravity Wave Momentum Deposition Parameterization into the VTGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, A. S.; Zalucha, A. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Rafkin, S. C.; Alexander, M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermospheric general circulation model for Venus (VTGCM) is a three dimensional model that can calculate temperatures, zonal winds, meridional winds, vertical winds, and concentration of specific species. The calculated nightside warm region (near ~100 km) and the O2-IR and NO-UV nightglow intensity distributions have been produced to represent mean conditions observed by Venus Express data and ground-based observations with the use of Rayleigh friction (Brecht et al. JGR, 2011). Rayleigh friction is implemented to parameterize gravity wave momentum drag effects on the global mean zonal wind flow. The purpose is to obtain a first order approximation of the necessary drag to reproduce observations. In addition, Rayleigh friction provides guidelines for the implementation and adjustment of a gravity wave momentum deposition scheme. Most recently, the Alexander and Dunkerton (AMS, 1999) gravity wave momentum parameterization has been incorporated into the VTGCM. The parameterization is designed to deposit momentum fluxes locally and totally at the altitude of wave breaking. Further, it allows waves to continue to propagate above the breaking altitude. Specific fields will be shown to illustrate the impacts the parameterization has on the global circulation (i.e. temperatures, zonal winds, and night airglow distributions (O2 IR and NO UV)). In addition, the chosen values for parameters will be discussed and their importance for depositing the gravity wave momentum. The gravity wave momentum parameterization launches waves from the cloud region within the VTGCM and provides a strong source for asymmetrical global winds.

  5. Efficient Representation of Detailed Foam Waves by Incorporating Projective Space.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Jung; Cha, Sungdeok; Kim, Chang-Hun

    2016-09-14

    We propose an efficient framework to realistically simulate foam effects in which 3D water particles from a base water solver are first projected onto 2D screen space in order to reduce computational complexity of finding foam particles. Because foam effects are often created primarily in fast and complicated water flows, we analyze acceleration and curvature values to identify the areas exhibiting such flow patterns. Identified foam particles are emitted in 3D simulation space, and each foam particle is advected by its classified type based on its velocity, thereby capturing the essential characteristics of foam wave motions (e.g., floating waves or scattering bubbles). In addition, we provide an intuitive and flexible mechanism (e.g., user sketch or image) to customize parameters and control the appearance of foam effects while minimizing the occurrence of popping artifacts. Experiments convincingly demonstrate that the proposed approach is efficient and easy to use while delivering high-quality results.

  6. Progressive wave tube facility with additional capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Paul; Bocksruker, Ron; Pilgram, Mark; Vallance, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The design and development of a new acoustic progressive wave tube facility was required to test the Titan IV rocket engine. Because of the large 6 feet diameter of the nozzle closure, circular shape, high over-all sound pressure level (OASPL), and high sound pressure levels (SPLs) above 1000 Hz, the acoustic environmental tests required consideration of a custom built facility. This paper describes a new oscillating supersonic shock generator (OSSG) for developing the high OASPL, for developing the high SPLs at above 1000 Hz, and for use with a conventional acoustic modulator. Also, the new OSSG permits impedance matching to the test volume annulus via the special geometry of the annular space between the elliptical containment domes upstream of the test volume annulus. A test annulus gap that is too small causes the test article to vibrate with a severe damping imposed by the pumping of trapped air in the annulus, and too large a gap reduces the OASPL. Consideration is given to tuning the axial and circumferential resonance frequencies of the annulus test space so that there is no coincidence with the principal resonant modes of the test structure. Also consideration is given to establishing the reverberant versus propagating modes of the test annulus.

  7. Longshore Sediment Transport Rate Calculated Incorporating Wave Orbital Velocity Fluctuations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    terminology; spilling breakers occur if the wave crest becomes unstable and flows down the front face of the wave producing a foamy water surface ; plunging...the crest remains unbroken while the lower part of the front face steepens and then falls, producing an irregular turbulent water surface ; surging...in which θ is the angle between the wave crest and shoreline, E is the average wave energy per unit surface area and Cg is the wave group celerity

  8. 27 CFR 31.102 - Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporation of partnership. 31.102 Section 31.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Partnerships § 31.102 Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership. Where a number of persons who have filed...

  9. 27 CFR 31.102 - Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... incorporation of partnership. 31.102 Section 31.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Partnerships § 31.102 Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership. Where a number of persons who have filed...

  10. 27 CFR 31.102 - Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporation of partnership. 31.102 Section 31.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Partnerships § 31.102 Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership. Where a number of persons who have filed...

  11. 27 CFR 31.102 - Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....102 Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership. Where a number of persons who have filed a registration under this part as partners admit one or more new members to the partnership or form a corporation... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Addition of partners...

  12. 27 CFR 31.102 - Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....102 Addition of partners or incorporation of partnership. Where a number of persons who have filed a registration under this part as partners admit one or more new members to the partnership or form a corporation... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addition of partners...

  13. [Effect of the incorporation of additives on the aging of corn starch gels and "arepas"].

    PubMed

    Rivero de Padua, M; Verde, O; Lucena de Orellana, M; Arias, J

    1988-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the effect of the incorporation of various additives on the ageing of corn starch and arepas. Starches were extracted from the endosperm of degerminated corn by a wet milling process, and its retrogradation, with or without the incorporation of additives was evaluated using the Brabender amilograph and by measuring the viscosity changes of the starch gels through time, using a Brookfield viscometer model RVT. The most effective additives in retarding the rate of ageing of starch gels, were used in the arepas. Likewise, trained panelists were utilized to find the levels of the additives incorporated in the arepas, by running taste threshold tests for each one of the additives. Textural changes of the arepas--maintained at two different storage temperatures, 9 degrees and 23 degrees C--were evaluated using an Instron texturometer. Preliminary tests with the corn starch allowed to choose the following additives: distilled monoglicerides, guar gum and hydrogenated vegetable oil. The effect of 15 different combinations of these additives on the texture of arepas was then studied, and findings revealed that only three of them were able to totally revert the retrogradation process, and maintain the hardness and elasticity within the expected range of a fresh-made arepa, when this is reheated until reaching a maximum temperature of 49 degrees C. A 66% of the hardening of the arepas prepared without additives can be reverted with the reheating process, but only if the product has not suffered dehydration. When stored for 24 hours at room temperature, unpacked arepas have a surface moisture loss of 47%, and even if reheated, hardening becomes irreversible in 84.6% of them.

  14. Surface-acoustic-wave device incorporating conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcroft, B.; Roberts, G. G.; Barraud, A.; Richard, J.

    1987-04-01

    Surface-acoustic-wave devices incorporating conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films are reported for the first time. Excellent characteristics have been obtained using a mixed valence charge transfer salt of a substituted pyridinium tetracyanoquinodimethane. The control afforded by the deposition technique has enabled the fractional change in surface wave velocity due to the electrical effects to be distinguished from those due to mass loading. The resistivity of the organic surface layer is measured to be 2 ohm-cm.

  15. Environmental behavior of cement-based stabilized foundry sludge products incorporating additives.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, M C; Irabien, A

    2004-06-18

    A series of experiments were conducted to stabilize the inorganic and organic pollutants in a foundry sludge from a cast iron activity using Portland cement as binder and three different types of additives, organophilic bentonite, lime and coal fly ash. Ecotoxicological and chemical behavior of stabilized mixes of foundry sludge were analyzed to assess the feasibility to immobilize both types of contaminants, all determined on the basis of compliance leaching tests. The incorporation of lime reduces the ecotoxicity of stabilized mixes and enhances stabilization of organic pollutants obtaining better results when a 50% of cement is replaced by lime. However, the alkalinity of lime increases slightly the leached zinc up to concentrations above the limit set under neutral conditions by the European regulations. The addition of organophilic bentonite and coal fly ash can immobilize the phenolic compounds but are inefficient to reduce the ecotoxicity and mobility of zinc of final products.

  16. Enhanced sensitivity of surface acoustic wave-based rate sensors incorporating metallic dot arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Shao, Xiuting; Liu, Xinlu; Liu, Jiuling; He, Shitang

    2014-02-26

    A new surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu) dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours) frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s(-1)) and good linearity were observed.

  17. Aluminum bioavailability from basic sodium aluminum phosphate, an approved food additive emulsifying agent, incorporated in cheese

    PubMed Central

    Yokel, Robert A.; Hicks, Clair L.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined in the rat from basic [26Al]-sodium aluminum phosphate (basic SALP) in a process cheese. Consumption of ~ 1 gm cheese containing 1.5 or 3% basic SALP resulted in oral Al bioavailability (F) of ~ 0.1 and 0.3%, respectively, and time to maximum serum 26Al concentration (Tmax) of 8 to 9 h. These Al bioavailability results were intermediate to previously reported results from drinking water (F ~ 0.3%) and acidic-SALP incorporated into a biscuit (F ~ 0.1%), using the same methods. Considering the similar oral bioavailability of Al from food vs. water, and their contribution to the typical human’s daily Al intake (~ 95 and 1.5%, respectively), these results suggest food contributes much more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water. These results do not support the hypothesis that drinking water provides a disproportionate contribution to total Al absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18436363

  18. Flux and Passage Enhancement in Hemodialysis by Incorporating Compound Additive into PVDF Polymer Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qingzhao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Suoding; Liu, Shaobin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) with compound addtive. The compound additive was made with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and Poly ethylene glycol (PEG). The results showed that the modified PVDF membrane had better separation performance than virgin PVDF membrane. The UF flux of modified PVDF membrane can reach 684 L·h−1·m−2 and lysozyme (LZM) passage is 72.6% while virgin PVDF membrane is 313 L·h−1·m−2 and 53.2%. At the same time, the biocompatibility of PVDF membranes was also improved. Compared with commercial polysulfone hemodialysis membrane (Fresenius F60S membrane), the modified PVDF membrane had better mechanical and separation performance. The stress and tensile elongation of modified PVDF membrane was 0.94 MPa and 352% while Fresenius F60S membrane was 0.79 MPa and 59%. The LZM passage reached 72.6% while Fresenius F60S membrane was 54.4%. It was proven that the modified PVDF membrane showed better hydrophilicity, antithrombogenicity, less BSA adsorption, and lower hemolytic ratio and adhesion of platelets. Water contact angle and BSA adsorption of the modified PVDF membrane are 38° and 45 mg/m2 while Fresenius F60S membrane are 64° and 235 mg/m2. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the modified PVDF membrane are 56.5 s and 25.8 s while Fresenius F60S membrane is 35.7 s and 16.6 s. However, further biocompatibility evaluation is needed to obtain a more comprehensive conclusion. PMID:27775566

  19. Imaging the lithosphere beneath NE Tibet: teleseismic P and S body wave tomography incorporating surface wave starting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Ceri; Roecker, Steven W.; Tilmann, Frederik J.; Priestley, Keith F.; Heyburn, Ross; Sandvol, Eric A.; Ni, James F.; Chen, Yongshun John; Zhao, Wenjin; Team, The Indepth

    2014-03-01

    The northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which includes the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi terranes as well as the Kunlun Shan and the Qaidam Basin, continues to deform in response to the ongoing India-Eurasia collision. To test competing hypotheses concerning the mechanisms for this deformation, we assembled a high-quality data set of approximately 14 000 P- and 4000 S-wave arrival times from earthquakes at teleseismic distances from the International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya, Phase IV broad-band seismometer deployments. We analyse these arrival times to determine tomographic images of P- and S-wave velocities in the upper mantle beneath this part of the plateau. To account for the effects of major heterogeneity in crustal and uppermost mantle wave velocities in Tibet, we use recent surface wave models to construct a starting model for our teleseismic body wave inversion. We compare the results from our model with those from simpler starting models, and find that while the reduction in residuals and results for deep structure are similar between models, the results for shallow structure are different. Checkerboard tests indicate that features of ˜125 km length scale are reliably imaged throughout the study region. Using synthetic tests, we show that the best recovery is below ˜300 km, and that broad variations in shallow structure can also be recovered. We also find that significant smearing can occur, especially at the edges of the model. We observe a shallow dipping seismically fast structure at depths of ˜140-240 km, which dies out gradually between 33°N and 35°N. Based on the lateral continuity of this structure (from the surface waves) we interpret it as Indian lithosphere. Alternatively, the entire area could be thickened by pure shear, or the northern part could be an underthrust Lhasa Terrane lithospheric slab with only the southern part from India. We see a deep fast wave velocity anomaly (below 300 km), that is consistent with

  20. Remarkable enhancement of charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymer field-effect transistors upon incorporating an ionic additive.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hewei; Yu, Chenmin; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Geng, Hua; Yi, Yuanping; Broch, Katharina; Hu, Yuanyuan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Jiang, Lang; Qi, Penglin; Cai, Zhengxu; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhang, Deqing

    2016-05-01

    Organic semiconductors with high charge carrier mobilities are crucial for flexible electronic applications. Apart from designing new conjugated frameworks, different strategies have been explored to increase charge carrier mobilities. We report a new and simple approach to enhancing the charge carrier mobility of DPP-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-conjugated polymer by incorporating an ionic additive, tetramethylammonium iodide, without extra treatments into the polymer. The resulting thin films exhibit a very high hole mobility, which is higher by a factor of 24 than that of thin films without the ionic additive under the same conditions. On the basis of spectroscopic grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy studies as well as theoretical calculations, the remarkable enhancement of charge mobility upon addition of tetramethylammonium iodide is attributed primarily to an inhibition of the torsion of the alkyl side chains by the presence of the ionic species, facilitating a more ordered lamellar packing of the alkyl side chains and interchain π-π interactions.

  1. Remarkable enhancement of charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymer field-effect transistors upon incorporating an ionic additive

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hewei; Yu, Chenmin; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Geng, Hua; Yi, Yuanping; Broch, Katharina; Hu, Yuanyuan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Jiang, Lang; Qi, Penglin; Cai, Zhengxu; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhang, Deqing

    2016-01-01

    Organic semiconductors with high charge carrier mobilities are crucial for flexible electronic applications. Apart from designing new conjugated frameworks, different strategies have been explored to increase charge carrier mobilities. We report a new and simple approach to enhancing the charge carrier mobility of DPP-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene–conjugated polymer by incorporating an ionic additive, tetramethylammonium iodide, without extra treatments into the polymer. The resulting thin films exhibit a very high hole mobility, which is higher by a factor of 24 than that of thin films without the ionic additive under the same conditions. On the basis of spectroscopic grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy studies as well as theoretical calculations, the remarkable enhancement of charge mobility upon addition of tetramethylammonium iodide is attributed primarily to an inhibition of the torsion of the alkyl side chains by the presence of the ionic species, facilitating a more ordered lamellar packing of the alkyl side chains and interchain π-π interactions. PMID:27386541

  2. A kinematic wave model in Lagrangian coordinates incorporating capacity drop: Application to homogeneous road stretches and discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai; Knoop, Victor L.; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2017-01-01

    On freeways, congestion always leads to capacity drop. This means the queue discharge rate is lower than the pre-queue capacity. Our recent research findings indicate that the queue discharge rate increases with the speed in congestion, that is the capacity drop is strongly correlated with the congestion state. Incorporating this varying capacity drop into a kinematic wave model is essential for assessing consequences of control strategies. However, to the best of authors' knowledge, no such a model exists. This paper fills the research gap by presenting a Lagrangian kinematic wave model. "Lagrangian" denotes that the new model is solved in Lagrangian coordinates. The new model can give capacity drops accompanying both of stop-and-go waves (on homogeneous freeway section) and standing queues (at nodes) in a network. The new model can be applied in a network operation. In this Lagrangian kinematic wave model, the queue discharge rate (or the capacity drop) is a function of vehicular speed in traffic jams. Four case studies on links as well as at lane-drop and on-ramp nodes show that the Lagrangian kinematic wave model can give capacity drops well, consistent with empirical observations.

  3. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  4. Incorporating Love- and Rayleigh-wave magnitudes, unequal earthquake and explosion variance assumptions and interstation complexity for improved event screening

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N; Bonner, Jessie L; Stroujkova, Anastasia; Shumway, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Our objective is to improve seismic event screening using the properties of surface waves, We are accomplishing this through (1) the development of a Love-wave magnitude formula that is complementary to the Russell (2006) formula for Rayleigh waves and (2) quantifying differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion-generated surface waves. We have applied the M{sub s} (VMAX) analysis (Bonner et al., 2006) using both Love and Rayleigh waves to events in the Middle East and Korean Peninsula, For the Middle East dataset consisting of approximately 100 events, the Love M{sub s} (VMAX) is greater than the Rayleigh M{sub s} (VMAX) estimated for individual stations for the majority of the events and azimuths, with the exception of the measurements for the smaller events from European stations to the northeast. It is unclear whether these smaller events suffer from magnitude bias for the Love waves or whether the paths, which include the Caspian and Mediterranean, have variable attenuation for Love and Rayleigh waves. For the Korean Peninsula, we have estimated Rayleigh- and Love-wave magnitudes for 31 earthquakes and two nuclear explosions, including the 25 May 2009 event. For 25 of the earthquakes, the network-averaged Love-wave magnitude is larger than the Rayleigh-wave estimate. For the 2009 nuclear explosion, the Love-wave M{sub s} (VMAX) was 3.1 while the Rayleigh-wave magnitude was 3.6. We are also utilizing the potential of observed variances in M{sub s} estimates that differ significantly in earthquake and explosion populations. We have considered two possible methods for incorporating unequal variances into the discrimination problem and compared the performance of various approaches on a population of 73 western United States earthquakes and 131 Nevada Test Site explosions. The approach proposes replacing the M{sub s} component by M{sub s} + a* {sigma}, where {sigma} denotes the interstation standard deviation obtained from the

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Incorporating floating surface objects into a fully dispersive surface wave model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzech, Mark D.; Shi, Fengyan; Veeramony, Jayaram; Bateman, Samuel; Calantoni, Joseph; Kirby, James T.

    2016-06-01

    The shock-capturing, non-hydrostatic, three-dimensional (3D) finite-volume model NHWAVE was originally developed to simulate wave propagation and landslide-generated tsunamis in finite water depth (Ma, G., Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., 2012. Ocean Model. 43-44, 22-35). The model is based on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in which the z-axis is transformed to a σ-coordinate that tracks the bed and surface. As part of an ongoing effort to simulate waves in polar marginal ice zones (MIZs), the model has now been adapted to allow objects of arbitrary shape and roughness to float on or near its water surface. The shape of the underside of each floating object is mapped onto an upper σ-level slightly below the surface. In areas without floating objects, this σ-level continues to track the surface and bed as before. Along the sides of each floating object, an immersed boundary method is used to interpolate the effects of the object onto the neighboring fluid volume. Provided with the object's shape, location, and velocity over time, NHWAVE determines the fluid fluxes and pressure variations from the corresponding accelerations at neighboring cell boundaries. The system was validated by comparison with analytical solutions and a VOF model for a 2D floating box and with laboratory measurements of wave generation by a vertically oscillating sphere. A steep wave simulation illustrated the high efficiency of NHWAVE relative to a VOF model. In a more realistic MIZ simulation, the adapted model produced qualitatively reasonable results for wave attenuation, diffraction, and scattering.

  7. Further Calculations of the Performance of Turbofan Engines Incorporating a Wave Rotor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    altitude table was incorporated to automate ambient conditions using Reference 13; (4) A graphics plotting Loutine was added using GRAFkit software ...initialize GRAFkit software Suis ................ sends plots to screen $run ENGINElA ........... runs ENGINE program ........... select options from screen...i***II SUBFOUTrNE COMPPRPPN,TIN,po~r,Tois,riN,ro.IDc) COMMON/ ETAB /ETALC,ETANlC,ETACC,ETAUTETALT,ETALAS,vcoxrr CONION/LOSSES/DIFLOS,CCLOSS,ABLOSS

  8. Effect of incorporating carbon nanocoils on the efficiency of electromagnetic-wave shielding of carbon-nanomaterial composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanocoils (CNCs) were deposited on Al2O3 substrates using C2H2 and H2 as source gases in a thermal chemical vapor deposition system. Composites of CNCs in polyurethane (CNC@PU) and CNCs plus other carbon-based materials, such as carbon microcoils (CMCs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in polyurethane (CNC + CMC@PU, CNC + CNT@PU) was fabricated. The electromagnetic-wave-shielding effectiveness of the CNCs-incorporated composites were examined and compared with those of other carbon-based materials in the measurement-frequency range of 0.25-4.0 GHz. The incorporation of CNCs in CMC@PU composites reduced the shielding effectiveness; on the other hand, it slightly enhanced the shielding effectiveness of CNT@PU composites within the measurement frequency range of 0.5-3.0 GHz. Based on the resulting shielding effectiveness, we conclude that the incorporation of CNCs was useful for the materials that exhibited reflection-based shielding effectiveness although the CNCs themselves had poor electrical conductivity.

  9. A theoretical study of wave dispersion and thermal conduction for HMX/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The wave dispersion rule for non-uniform material is useful for ultrasonic inspection and engine life prediction, and also is key in achieving an understanding of the energy dissipation and thermal conduction properties of solid material. On the basis of linear response theory and molecular dynamics, we derive a set of formulas for calculating the wave dispersion rate of interface systems, and study four kinds of interfaces inside plastic bonded explosives: HMX/{HMX, TATB, F2312, F2313}. (HMX: octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; TATB: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; F2312, F2313: fluoropolymers). The wave dispersion rate is obtained over a wide frequency range from kHz to PHz. We find that at low frequency, the rate is proportional to the square of the frequency, and at high frequency, the rate couples with the molecular vibration modes at the interface. By using the results, the thermal conductivities of HMX/additive interfaces are derived, and a physical model is built for describing the total thermal conductivity of mixture explosives, including HMX multi-particle systems and {TATB, F2312, F2313}-coated HMX.

  10. Novel method for incorporating model uncertainties into gravitational wave parameter estimates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher J; Gair, Jonathan R

    2014-12-19

    Posterior distributions on parameters computed from experimental data using Bayesian techniques are only as accurate as the models used to construct them. In many applications, these models are incomplete, which both reduces the prospects of detection and leads to a systematic error in the parameter estimates. In the analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors, for example, accurate waveform templates can be computed using numerical methods, but the prohibitive cost of these simulations means this can only be done for a small handful of parameters. In this Letter, a novel method to fold model uncertainties into data analysis is proposed; the waveform uncertainty is analytically marginalized over using with a prior distribution constructed by using Gaussian process regression to interpolate the waveform difference from a small training set of accurate templates. The method is well motivated, easy to implement, and no more computationally expensive than standard techniques. The new method is shown to perform extremely well when applied to a toy problem. While we use the application to gravitational wave data analysis to motivate and illustrate the technique, it can be applied in any context where model uncertainties exist.

  11. Auxiliary Lagrangian and Conservation Laws for a Wave Equation Incorporating Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Long

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the Lagrangian and the conservation laws for a wave equation with a dissipative source. Using semi-inverse method, we show that the equation possesses a nonlocal Lagrangian with an auxiliary function. As a result, from a modified Noether's theorem and the nonclassical Noether symmetry generators, we construct some conservation laws for this equation, which are different from the ones obtained by Ibragimov's theorem in [Y. Wang and L. Wei, Abstr. App. Anal. 2013 (2013) 407908]. The results show that our method work for arbitrary functions f(u) and g(u) rather than special ones. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11101111, and Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. LY14A010029 and LY12A01003

  12. Methods and apparatus of suppressing tube waves within a bore hole and seismic surveying systems incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Haefner, Daryl

    2004-08-17

    Methods and apparatus for attenuating waves in a bore hole, and seismic surveying systems incorporating the same. In one embodiment, an attenuating device includes a soft compliant bladder coupled to a pressurized gas source. A pressure regulating system reduces the pressure of the gas from the gas source prior to entering the bladder and operates in conjunction with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in a bore hole to maintain the pressure of the bladder at a specified pressure relative to the surrounding bore hole pressure. Once the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid exceeds that of the gas source, bore hole fluid may be admitted into a vessel of the gas source to further compress and displace the gas contained therein. In another embodiment, a water-reactive material may be used to provide gas to the bladder wherein the amount of gas generated by the water-reactive material may depend on the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid.

  13. Methods and apparatus of suppressing tube waves within a bore hole and seismic surveying systems incorporating same

    SciTech Connect

    West, Phillip B.; Haefner, Daryl

    2005-12-13

    Methods and apparatus for attenuating waves in a bore hole, and seismic surveying systems incorporating the same. In one embodiment, an attenuating device includes a soft compliant bladder coupled to a pressurized gas source. A pressure regulating system reduces the pressure of the gas from the gas source prior to entering the bladder and operates in conjunction with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in a bore hole to maintain the pressure of the bladder at a specified pressure relative to the surrounding bore hole pressure. Once the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid exceeds that of the gas source, bore hole fluid may be admitted into a vessel of the gas source to further compress and displace the gas contained therein. In another embodiment, a water-reactive material may be used to provide gas to the bladder wherein the amount of gas generated by the water-reactive material may depend on the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid.

  14. Mass Sensitivity Optimization of a Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Incorporating a Resonator Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenchang; Liu, Jiuling; Liu, Minghua; Liang, Yong; He, Shitang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the sensitive area of the two-port resonator configuration on the mass sensitivity of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (R-SAW) sensor was investigated theoretically, and verified in experiments. A theoretical model utilizing a 3-dimensional finite element method (FEM) approach was established to extract the coupling-of-modes (COM) parameters in the absence and presence of mass loading covering the electrode structures. The COM model was used to simulate the frequency response of an R-SAW resonator by a P-matrix cascading technique. Cascading the P-matrixes of unloaded areas with mass loaded areas, the sensitivity for different sensitive areas was obtained by analyzing the frequency shift. The performance of the sensitivity analysis was confirmed by the measured responses from the silicon dioxide (SiO2) deposited on different sensitive areas of R-SAW resonators. It is shown that the mass sensitivity varies strongly for different sensitive areas, and the optimal sensitive area lies towards the center of the device. PMID:27104540

  15. Mass Sensitivity Optimization of a Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Incorporating a Resonator Configuration.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenchang; Liu, Jiuling; Liu, Minghua; Liang, Yong; He, Shitang

    2016-04-20

    The effect of the sensitive area of the two-port resonator configuration on the mass sensitivity of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (R-SAW) sensor was investigated theoretically, and verified in experiments. A theoretical model utilizing a 3-dimensional finite element method (FEM) approach was established to extract the coupling-of-modes (COM) parameters in the absence and presence of mass loading covering the electrode structures. The COM model was used to simulate the frequency response of an R-SAW resonator by a P-matrix cascading technique. Cascading the P-matrixes of unloaded areas with mass loaded areas, the sensitivity for different sensitive areas was obtained by analyzing the frequency shift. The performance of the sensitivity analysis was confirmed by the measured responses from the silicon dioxide (SiO₂) deposited on different sensitive areas of R-SAW resonators. It is shown that the mass sensitivity varies strongly for different sensitive areas, and the optimal sensitive area lies towards the center of the device.

  16. Natural orbitals from single and double excitation configuration interaction wave functions: their use in second-order configuration interaction and wave functions incorporating limited triple and quadruple excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grev, Roger S.; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    1992-05-01

    As an alternative to orbitals obtained from a molecular complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) wave function, we have investigated the use of natural orbitals (NOs) obtained from configuration interaction (CI) wave functions including all single and double excitations (CISD) for use in multireference CI (MRCI) studies. The specific MRCI methods investigated are (1) second-order CI (SOCI), which includes all single and double excitations with respect to a full CI in the valence space and (2) a wave function that includes all single and double excitations out of a valence space CISD reference function. The latter wave function can also be described as a single-double-triple-quadruple excitation CI in which only two electrons are allowed to simultaneously reside outside of the valence space, ``which we call CISD[TQ].'' Comparison is made with CASSCF-SOCI and full CI results for NH2 (2B1), CH3 (2A`2), and SiH2 (1B1) at equilibrium bond distances (Re) 1.5 and 2.0Re, and with full CI results for the dissociation energy of N2. The dissociation energies of N2 and C2 are also obtained using large atomic natural orbital basis sets and the results compared to CASSCF-SOCI and internally contracted MRCI results. In all, the MRCI results with CISD NOs are very similar to the CASSCF-MRCI results, and at geometries where the reference wave function is dominant, the relatively compact CISD[TQ] method yields results that are very close to SOCI. In addition to their ease of generation, the CISD NOs offer the added advantage of allowing for truncation of the CI configuration list on an orbital basis by simply deleting high-lying virtual orbitals. The errors introduced by this truncation are almost quantitatively obtained at the CISD level of theory.

  17. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-04-20

    WEC-Sim is a midfidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve multibody dynamics and models wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency-domain boundary-element methods. This paper presents the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim. The first feature discussed conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space form. This enhancement offers a substantial computational benefit after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced and the number of interactions increases exponentially with each additional body. Additional features include the ability to calculate the wave-excitation forces based on the instantaneous incident wave angle, allowing the device to weathervane, as well as import a user-defined wave elevation time series. A review of the hydrodynamic theory for each feature is provided and the successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  18. The influence of small additions of diethylenetriamine on the detonation waves stability for nitromethane/acetone solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, V.; Utkin, A.

    2014-05-01

    Instability of detonation front in the nitromethane/acetone (NM/A) solution was observed in our previous work: at 10% of acetone the amplitude of heterogeneities was about 20 microns and at 20% of acetone this size was 50 microns. It is known that small additions of diethylenetriamine (DETA) considerably increase the initial rate of chemical reaction in detonation waves for NM. It was expected that DETA would influence the stability of detonation waves in the NM/A solution too. To investigate this phenomenon the laser interferometer VISAR was used for the recording of particle velocity profiles in detonation waves for NM/A. It was found that at the addition of 0.5% DETA to NM/A 90/10 the oscillations in the velocity profile decreased several times over. At the addition of 1% DETA the profile is smooth, i.e. the heterogeneities disappear and detonation wave becomes steady-state. In NM/A 80/20 at the addition of 5% DETA the heterogeneities size is reduced by the order. The increase of detonation wave velocity of NM/A grater than 1% was observed at small concentrations of DETA. Thus it was found that small additions of DETA to the NM/A solution with an unstable detonation front resulted not only in the decrease of heterogeneities size but in their disappearance and stabilization of detonation waves.

  19. Prediction of maximum P- and S-wave amplitude distributions incorporating frequency- and distance-dependent characteristics of the observed apparent radiation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Manabu; Yoshimoto, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Frequency-dependent model of the apparent radiation pattern has been extensively incorporated into engineering and scientific applications for high-frequency seismic waves, but distance-dependent properties have not yet been fully taken into account. We investigated the unified characteristics of frequency and distance dependences in both apparent P- and S-wave radiation patterns during local crustal earthquakes. Observed distortions of the apparent P- and S-wave radiation patterns could be simply modeled by using a function of the normalized hypocentral distance, which is a product of the wave number and hypocentral distance. This behavior suggests that major cause of distortion of the apparent radiation pattern is seismic wave scattering and diffraction within the heterogeneous crust. On the basis of observed normalized hypocentral distance dependency, we proposed a method for prediction of spatial distributions of maximum P- and S-wave amplitudes. Our method incorporating normalized hypocentral distance dependence of the apparent radiation pattern reproduced the observed spatial distributions of maximum P- and S-wave amplitudes over a wide frequency and distance ranges successfully.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Incorporating Love- and Rayleigh-Wave Magnitudes, Unequal Earthquake and Explosion Variance Assumptions, and Intrastation Complexity for Improved Event Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion - generated surface waves. We have applied the Ms (VMAX) analysis (Bonner et al...for Rayleigh waves and (2) quantifying differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion - generated surface waves. We...quantifying differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion - generated surface waves. RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHED Love

  1. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  2. Incorporation of 210Pb and 210Po to Poultry through the Addition of Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) to the Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Gasa, J.; Anguita, M.

    2008-08-01

    Due to the replacement of calcium by uranium in the phosphorite, sedimentary phosphate rock contains high concentrations of 238U (i.e. from 1500 Bqṡkg-1 in Morocco to 4000 Bqṡkg-1 in Tanzania ores). Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) is produced by the wet acid digestion of the phosphorite, and is used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for livestock feed supplement. If the phosphorite acid digestion is made with hydrochloric acid, DCP may present specific activities of about 103 Bqṡkg-1 of 238U and some of its decay chain daughters. In particular, due to its radiological implications, the presence of 210Pb and 210Po in DCP is of special relevance. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential incorporation of these radionuclides to poultry through its diet. Three different diets were therefore prepared with different contents of both DCP and 210Pb and 210Po. Diet A was used as a blank, and had a 2.5% in weight of monocalcium phosphate (MCP); diet B, with a 5% in weight of DCP; and diet C, with a 2.5% of DCP. Concentrations of 210Pb were 0.93, 101.4 and 51.2 Bqṡkg-1; whereas concentrations of 210Po were 0.92, 74 and 36 Bqṡkg-1 of food for diets A, B and C, respectively. Accumulation of 210Pb and 210Po was analysed at several times during poultry growth in samples of bone, liver, kidney, muscle, excrements as well as entire animals, with a total of 30 broilers fed with the 3 different diets. Results showed clear enhancements in the accumulation of both 210Pb and 210Po in chicken for diets B and C, and in particular in liver and bone. However, total accumulation of radionuclides in chicken, and especially in edible parts, is low compared to its expulsion through excrements. These results are interpreted in terms of the potential dose through consumption of chicken.

  3. Resonance scattering and radiation force calculations for an elastic cylinder using the translational addition theorem for cylindrical wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-09-15

    The standard Resonance Scattering Theory (RST) of plane waves is extended for the case of any two-dimensional (2D) arbitrarily-shaped monochromatic beam incident upon an elastic cylinder with arbitrary location using an exact methodology based on Graf’s translational addition theorem for the cylindrical wave functions. The analysis is exact as it does not require numerical integration procedures. The formulation is valid for any cylinder of finite size and material that is immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) for the incident, internal and scattered linear pressure fields are derived, and the analysis is further extended to obtain generalized expressions for the on-axis and off-axis acoustic radiation force components. The wave-fields are expressed using generalized PWSEs involving the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) and the scattering coefficients of the cylinder. The off-axial BSCs are expressed analytically in terms of an infinite PWSE with emphasis on the translational offset distance d. Numerical computations are considered for a zeroth-order quasi-Gaussian beam chosen as an example to illustrate the analysis. Acoustic resonance scattering directivity diagrams are calculated by subtracting an appropriate background from the expression of the scattered pressure field. In addition, computations for the radiation force exerted on an elastic cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of the beam, and shifted off-axially are analyzed and discussed.

  4. The Effect of Detonation Wave Incidence Angle on the Acceleration of Flyers by Explosives Heavily Laden with Inert Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The incidence angle of a detonation wave is often assumed to weakly influence the terminal velocity of an explosively driven flyer. For explosives heavily loaded with dense additives, this may not be true due to differences in momentum and energy transfer between detonation products, additive particles, and the flyer. For tangential incidence the particles are first accelerated against the flyer via an expansion fan, whereas they are first accelerated by the detonation wave in the normal case. In the current study we evaluate the effect of normal versus tangential incidence on the acceleration of flyers by nitromethane heavily loaded with a variety of additives. Normal detonation was initiated via an explosively driven slapper. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser interferometry (PDV). The influence of wave angle is evaluated by comparing the terminal velocity in the two cases (i.e., normal and grazing) for the heavily loaded mixtures. The decrement in flyer velocity correlated primarily with additive volume fraction and had a weak dependence on additive density or particle size. The Gurney energy of the heterogeneous explosive was observed to increase with flyer mass, presumably due to the timescale over which impinging particles could transfer momentum.

  5. The effect of detonation wave incidence angle on the acceleration of flyers by explosives heavily laden with inert additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David L.; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence angle of a detonation wave in a conventional high explosive influences the acceleration and terminal velocity of a metal flyer by increasing the magnitude of the material velocity imparted by the transmitted shock wave as the detonation is tilted towards normal loading. For non-ideal explosives heavily loaded with inert additives, the detonation velocity is typically subsonic relative to the flyer sound speed, leading to shockless accelerations when the detonation is grazing. Further, in a grazing detonation the particles are initially accelerated in the direction of the detonation and only gain velocity normal to the initial orientation of the flyer at later times due to aerodynamic drag as the detonation products expand. If the detonation wave in a non-ideal explosive instead strikes the flyer at normal incidence, a shock is transmitted into the flyer and the first interaction between the particle additives and the flyer occurs due to the imparted material velocity from the passage of the detonation wave. Consequently, the effect of incidence angle and additive properties may play a more prominent role in the flyer acceleration. In the present study we experimentally compared normal detonation loadings to grazing loadings using a 3-mm-thick aluminum slapper to impact-initiate a planar detonation wave in non-ideal explosive-particle admixtures, which subsequently accelerated a second 6.4-mm-thick flyer. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser velocimetry (PDV). The explosive mixtures considered were packed beds of glass or steel particles of varying sizes saturated with sensitized nitromethane, and gelled nitromethane mixed with glass microballoons. Results showed that the primary parameter controlling changes in flyer velocity was the presence of a transmitted shock, with additive density and particle size playing only secondary roles. These results are similar to the grazing detonation experiments, however under normal loading the

  6. Charge-storage performance of Li/LiFePO4 cells with additive-incorporated ionic liquid electrolytes at various temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongittharom, Nithinai; Wang, Chueh-Han; Wang, Yi-Chen; Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Li, Hui-Ying; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Lee, Tai-Chou; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

    2014-08-01

    Butylmethylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMP-TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with LiTFSI solute is used as a base electrolyte for Li/LiFePO4 cells. Three kinds of electrolyte additive, namely vinylene carbonate (VC), gamma-butyrolactone (γ-BL), and propylene carbonate (PC), with various concentrations are introduced. The thermal stability, flammability, and electrochemical properties of the electrolytes are investigated. At 25 °C, the additives (γ-BL is found to be the most effective) can significantly improve the capacity, high-rate performance, and cyclability of the cells. With an increase in temperature to 50 °C, the benefits of the additives gradually become insignificant. At 75 °C, the additives even have adverse effects. At such an elevated temperature, in the plain IL electrolyte (without additives), a LiFePO4 capacity of 152 mAh g-1 is found at 0.1 C. 77% of this capacity can be retained when the rate is increased to 3 C. These values are superior to those found for the additive-incorporated IL and conventional organic electrolytes. Moreover, negligible capacity loss is measured after 100 charge-discharge cycles at 75 °C in the plain IL electrolyte.

  7. Drift wave stabilized by an additional streaming ion or plasma population.

    PubMed

    Bashir, M F; Vranjes, J

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that the universally unstable kinetic drift wave in an electron-ion plasma can very effectively be suppressed by adding an extra flowing ion (or plasma) population. The effect of the flow of the added ions is essential, their response is of the type (vph-vf0)exp[-(vph-vf0)2], where vf0 is the flow speed and vph is the phase speed parallel to the magnetic field vector. The damping is strong and it is mainly due to this ion exponential term, and this remains so for vf0

  8. Market surveillance on non-halal additives incorporated in surimi based products using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-southern hybridization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravindran, S.; Sahilah, A. M.; Aminah, A.

    2014-09-01

    Halal surveillance on halal ingredients incorporated in surimi based products were studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-southern hybridization on chip analysis. The primers used in this technique were targeted on mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequence which able to differentiate 7 type (beef, chicken, duck, goat, buffalo, lamb and pork) of species on a single chip. 17 (n = 17*3) different brands of surimi-based product were purchased randomly from Selangor local market in January 2013. Of 17 brands, 3 (n = 3*3) brands were positive for chicken DNA, 1 (n = 1*3) brand was positive for goat DNA, and the remainder 13 brands (n = 13*3) have no DNA species detected. The sensitivity of PCR-southern hybridization primers to detect each meat species was 0.1 ng. In the present study, it is evidence that PCR-Southern Hybridization analysis offered a reliable result due to its highly specific and sensitive properties in detecting non-halal additive such as plasma protein incorporation in surimi-based product.

  9. Nitrogen and oxygen functionalized hollow carbon materials: The capacitive enhancement by simply incorporating novel redox additives into H2SO4 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yong Fu; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang Ying; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-07-01

    In present work, we have developed a simple but effective template carbonization method for producing hollow carbon materials with high content of nitrogen and oxygen from thiocarbanilide. Among all samples, the NPC-1 exhibits high specific surface area (736 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (5.93 cm3 g-1) with high content of heteroatoms (∼11.25 at% nitrogen and ∼5.74 at% oxygen), which is conducive to the improvement of electrochemical performance. Specifically, the high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability over 5000 cycles of the NPC-1-based electrode are achieved in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte. Additionally, pyrocatechol and rutin as novel redox additives that can easily cause redox-reactions have been incorporated into H2SO4 electrolyte to improve the capacitances. As a result, the NPC-1-R-0.15 and NPC-1-P-0.15 samples deliver high specific capacitances of 120.5 and 368.7 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of the NPC-1 sample (66.2 F g-1) without redox-additives at same current density. Furthermore, the large energy density of 18.9 and 11.9 Wh kg-1 of the NPC-1-based symmetric supercapacitors have been obtained in H2SO4+pyrocatechol and H2SO4+rutin electrolyte, respectively, and both samples also demonstrate excellent cyclic performance for 5000 cycles.

  10. Nitrogen [N]-incorporated ZnO piezoelectric thin films and their application for ultra-small film bulk acoustic wave resonator device fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunju; Zhang Ruirui; Yoon, Giwan

    2011-10-01

    Nitrogen [N]-incorporated ZnO films with columnar grains of a preferred c-axis orientation were deposited on p-Si (100) wafers, using an RF magnetron sputter deposition technique. For the N incorporation into the ZnO films, an N{sub 2}O gas was used as a doping source and also various process conditions such as N{sub 2}O gas fraction and RF power were applied. Besides, some of the ZnO films were treated with the post annealing process. And then, the micro-structural characteristics of the N-incorporated ZnO films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, an X-ray diffractometer, and an atomic force microscope techniques. Finally, employing the N-incorporated ZnO films, the solidly mounted resonator-type film bulk acoustic wave resonator devices were fabricated and their resonance characteristics were extracted. As a result, an excellent return loss (S{sub 11}) of- 63 dB was observed at{approx} 0.6 GHz, better than ever reported.

  11. Additive Effects of Millimeter Waves and 2-Deoxyglucose Co-Exposure on the Human Keratinocyte Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Soubere Mahamoud, Yonis; Aite, Meziane; Martin, Catherine; Zhadobov, Maxim; Sauleau, Ronan; Le Dréan, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter Waves (MMW) will be used in the next-generation of high-speed wireless technologies, especially in future Ultra-Broadband small cells in 5G cellular networks. Therefore, their biocompatibilities must be evaluated prior to their massive deployment. Using a microarray-based approach, we analyzed modifications to the whole genome of a human keratinocyte model that was exposed at 60.4 GHz-MMW at an incident power density (IPD) of 20 mW/cm2 for 3 hours in athermic conditions. No keratinocyte transcriptome modifications were observed. We tested the effects of MMWs on cell metabolism by co-treating MMW-exposed cells with a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxyglucose (2dG, 20 mM for 3 hours), and whole genome expression was evaluated along with the ATP content. We found that the 2dG treatment decreased the cellular ATP content and induced a high modification in the transcriptome (632 coding genes). The affected genes were associated with transcriptional repression, cellular communication and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. The MMW/2dG co-treatment did not alter the keratinocyte ATP content, but it did slightly alter the transcriptome, which reflected the capacity of MMW to interfere with the bioenergetic stress response. The RT-PCR-based validation confirmed 6 MMW-sensitive genes (SOCS3, SPRY2, TRIB1, FAM46A, CSRNP1 and PPP1R15A) during the 2dG treatment. These 6 genes encoded transcription factors or inhibitors of cytokine pathways, which raised questions regarding the potential impact of long-term or chronic MMW exposure on metabolically stressed cells. PMID:27529420

  12. Modeling the Effects of Anisotropic Turbulence and Dispersive Waves on Oceanic Circulation and their Incorporation in Navy Ocean Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    anisotropic turbulence and dispersive waves in different environments , test them, compare them with data and implement them in ocean models. In this project...stratification and/or a solid body rotation. We have also performed computer simulations with an idealized circulation model of quasi-two-dimensional...member of a team on Martian planetary boundary layer at the International Space Science Institute and was responsible for reviewing turbulence models

  13. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    DOEpatents

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  14. Fast acoustic streaming in standing waves: generation of an additional outer streaming cell.

    PubMed

    Reyt, Ida; Daru, Virginie; Bailliet, Hélène; Moreau, Solène; Valière, Jean-Christophe; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Weisman, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Rayleigh streaming in a cylindrical acoustic standing waveguide is studied both experimentally and numerically for nonlinear Reynolds numbers from 1 to 30 [Re(NL)=(U0/c0)(2)(R/δν)(2), with U0 the acoustic velocity amplitude at the velocity antinode, c0 the speed of sound, R the tube radius, and δν the acoustic boundary layer thickness]. Streaming velocity is measured by means of laser Doppler velocimetry in a cylindrical resonator filled with air at atmospheric pressure at high intensity sound levels. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically with high resolution finite difference schemes. The resonator is excited by shaking it along the axis at imposed frequency. Results of measurements and of numerical calculation are compared with results given in the literature and with each other. As expected, the axial streaming velocity measured and calculated agrees reasonably well with the slow streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for fast streaming (ReNL>1). Both experimental and numerical results show that when ReNL is increased, the center of the outer streaming cells are pushed toward the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes.

  15. Demonstration of the Recent Additions in Modeling Capabilities for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    WEC-Sim is a mid-fidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion (WEC) devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve the multi-body dynamics and models the wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency domain boundary element methods. In this paper, the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim will be presented. The first feature discussed is the conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space approximation that provides significant gains in computational speed. The benefit of the state-space calculation becomes even greater after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced as the number of interactions increases exponentially with the number of floating bodies. The final feature discussed is the capability toadd Morison elements to provide additional hydrodynamic damping and inertia. This is generally used as a tuning feature, because performance is highly dependent on the chosen coefficients. In this paper, a review of the hydrodynamic theory for each of the features is provided and successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  16. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 2. Tropospheric variability and the zonal wave-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island, Nairobi (Kenya), Irene (South Africa), Réunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, San Cristóbal (Galapagos), and Natal (Brazil). Total, stratospheric, and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November. Other features are a persistent zonal wave-one pattern in total column ozone and signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. The wave-one is due to a greater concentration of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic than the Pacific and appears to be associated with tropical general circulation and seasonal pollution from biomass burning. Tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Oceans displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 El Niño, seasonal convection, and pollution transport from Africa. The most distinctive feature of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone is variability in the data, e.g., a factor of 3 in column amount at 8 of 10 stations. Seasonal and monthly means may not be robust quantities because statistics are frequently not Gaussian even at sites that are always in tropical air. Models and satellite retrievals should be evaluated on their capability for reproducing tropospheric variability and fine structure. A 1999-2000 ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more representative tropospheric ozone climatology for models and satellite retrievals requires additional Northern Hemisphere tropical data.

  17. A square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of Amaranth, a food additive dye.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ahmad H

    2005-01-01

    Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the azo coloring agent Amaranth are described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by initiation of a negative sweep. In a pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, Amaranth gave a well-defined and sensitive AdSV peak at -518 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this azo dye was found to be optimal in carbonate buffer (pH 10) under the following experimental conditions: accumulation time, 120 s; accumulation potential, 0.0 V; scan rate, 600 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 90 mV; and frequency, 50 Hz. Under these optimized conditions the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 1 x 10(-8)-1.1 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-9) mol/L (1.03 ppb). This analytical approach possessed enhanced sensitivity, compared with conventional liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry and it was simple and fast. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.23%, whereas the accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was 104%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102), gelatin, natural and artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also investigated. The developed electroanalyticals method was applied to the determination of Amaranth in soft drink samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) of these data showed that the results of the 2 methods compared favorably.

  18. Influence of incorporated bromodeoxyuridine on the induction of chromosomal alterations by ionizing radiation and long-wave UV in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Zwanenburg, T S; van Zeeland, A A; Natarajan, A T

    1985-01-01

    Incorporation of BrdUrd into nuclear DNA sensitizes CHO cells (1) to the induction of chromosomal aberrations by X-rays and 0.5 MeV neutrons and (2) to induction of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs by lw-UV. We have attempted to establish a correlation between induced chromosomal alterations and induced single- or double-strand breaks in DNA. The data show that while DSBs correlate very well with X-ray-induced aberrations, no clear correlation could be established between lw-UV induced SSBs (including alkali-labile sites) and chromosomal alterations. In addition the effect of 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) on the induction of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs induced by lw-UV has been determined. It is shown that 3AB is without any effect when lw-UV-irradiated cells are posttreated with this inhibitor. The significance of these results is discussed.

  19. Effect of incorporation of additives in tris-based egg yolk extender on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm tyrosine phosphorylation during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Atreja, S K

    2012-06-01

    Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm protein is a known indicator of capacitation and a major intracellular signalling event. There is evidence that sperm cryopreservation promotes tyrosine phosphorylation and is associated with reduced fertility of spermatozoa. Under this study, cryoprotective role of different additives namely taurine, trehalose, catalase and 4-bromophenacyl bromide on buffalo sperm quality was evaluated. Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender supplemented with additives like taurine (50 mm) or trehalose (100 mm) or 4-bromophenacyl bromide (200 μm) or catalase (100 U/ml) and used for assessment of levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The results obtained were compared with the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation of semen cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender without additives. Proteins were extracted from a total number of nine ejaculates from three individual buffalo bulls chosen at random and analysed for tyrosine phospho-proteins using SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting. Monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody (Clone pT-154) was used as primary antibody followed by treatment with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody. Signals were detected on X-ray film using chemiluminescence. Nine proteins (p20, p30, p32, p38, p49, p56, p59, p72 and p86) were found to be tyrosine phosphorylated in cryopreserved spermatozoa. Supplementation of additives significantly (p<0.05) reduced the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. Moreover, this study showed improved (p<0.05) post-thaw motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on addition of these additives. The results obtained clearly indicate reduced level of capacitation like changes on supplementation of additives in terms of protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  20. Traveling-wave Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Reveals Additional Mechanistic Details in the Stabilization of Protein Complex Ions through Tuned Salt Additives

    PubMed Central

    Han, Linjie; Ruotolo, Brandon T.

    2013-01-01

    Ion mobility–mass spectrometry is often applied to the structural elucidation of multiprotein assemblies in cases where X-ray crystallography or NMR experiments have proved challenging. Such applications are growing steadily as we continue to probe regions of the proteome that are less-accessible to such high-resolution structural biology tools. Since ion mobility measures protein structure in the absence of bulk solvent, strategies designed to more-broadly stabilize native-like protein structures in the gas-phase would greatly enable the application of such measurements to challenging structural targets. Recently, we have begun investigating the ability of salt-based solution additives that remain bound to protein ions in the gas-phase to stabilize native-like protein structures. These experiments, which utilize collision induced unfolding and collision induced dissociation in a tandem mass spectrometry mode to measure protein stability, seek to develop a rank-order similar to the Hofmeister series that categorizes the general ability of different anions and cations to stabilize gas-phase protein structure. Here, we study magnesium chloride as a potential stabilizing additive for protein structures in vacuo, and find that the addition of this salt to solutions prior to nano-electrospray ionization dramatically enhances multiprotein complex structural stability in the gas-phase. Based on these experiments, we also refine the physical mechanism of cation-based protein complex ion stabilization by tracking the unfolding transitions experienced by cation-bound complexes. Upon comparison with unbound proteins, we find strong evidence that stabilizing cations act to tether protein complex structure. We conclude by putting the results reported here in context, and by projecting the future applications of this method. PMID:23539363

  1. Influence of nanographene platelets (NGP) incorporation on Fe3O4 nanoparticles as materials additives for enhancement thermal properties stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryadin, M. K.; Andiarto, R.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and Fe3O4/NGP composite were used as material additive for enhancement thermal properties of stearic acid (SA). The both material additive were synthesized using sol-gel method. Phase change material (PCM) composites SA-Fe3O4 and Sa-Fe3O4/NGP mixtures were made through the dispersion technique with three different weight % ratio of material additives into stearic acid: 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 5 wt.%. X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural properties. Magnetic properties also measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to see influence of NGP in PCM composites. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used in order to analyse the thermal properties of the samples. The results show an enhancement of the latent heat, thermal stability as well as specific heat by the presence of material additives in SA. Compare to SA- Fe3O4, SA-Fe3O4/NGP show better improvement in enhancement of thermal performance of SA. The improvement by about 41.2% in specific heat and 21.2% in latent heat.

  2. Using volatile additives to alter the morphology and performance of active layers in thin-film molecular photovoltaic devices incorporating bulk heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Dang, Minh Trung; Wuest, James D

    2013-12-07

    Thin-film photovoltaic devices composed of polymers or small molecules have an exciting future as sources of renewable energy because they can be made in large sizes on flexible surfaces by inexpensive techniques of fabrication. Significant progress in developing new molecular photovoltaic materials and device architectures has been achieved in the last decade. The identity of molecular components in active layers and their individual optoelectronic properties obviously help determine the properties of devices; in addition, however, the behavior of devices depends critically on the nature of the local organization of the components. Recent studies have shown that the morphology of active layers can be tuned by adjusting various parameters, including the solvent used to cast the layer, thermal annealing, and special processing additives. In this review, we summarize the effect of volatile additives on the nanoscale morphology of molecular blends, and we show how these effects can improve the performance of devices. Although we focus on the behavior of mixtures of the type used in current molecular thin-film photovoltaic devices, the subject of our review will interest researchers in all areas of science and technology requiring materials in which separate phases must form intimate long-lived intermixtures with defined structures.

  3. Incorporation of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po to Poultry through the Addition of Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) to the Diet

    SciTech Connect

    Casacuberta, N.; Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Gasa, J.; Anguita, M.

    2008-08-07

    Due to the replacement of calcium by uranium in the phosphorite, sedimentary phosphate rock contains high concentrations of {sup 238}U (i.e. from 1500 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} in Morocco to 4000 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} in Tanzania ores). Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) is produced by the wet acid digestion of the phosphorite, and is used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for livestock feed supplement. If the phosphorite acid digestion is made with hydrochloric acid, DCP may present specific activities of about 10{sup 3} Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} of {sup 238}U and some of its decay chain daughters. In particular, due to its radiological implications, the presence of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in DCP is of special relevance. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential incorporation of these radionuclides to poultry through its diet. Three different diets were therefore prepared with different contents of both DCP and {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Diet A was used as a blank, and had a 2.5% in weight of monocalcium phosphate (MCP); diet B, with a 5% in weight of DCP; and diet C, with a 2.5% of DCP. Concentrations of {sup 210}Pb were 0.93, 101.4 and 51.2 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}; whereas concentrations of {sup 210}Po were 0.92, 74 and 36 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} of food for diets A, B and C, respectively. Accumulation of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po was analysed at several times during poultry growth in samples of bone, liver, kidney, muscle, excrements as well as entire animals, with a total of 30 broilers fed with the 3 different diets. Results showed clear enhancements in the accumulation of both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in chicken for diets B and C, and in particular in liver and bone. However, total accumulation of radionuclides in chicken, and especially in edible parts, is low compared to its expulsion through excrements. These results are interpreted in terms of the potential dose through consumption of chicken.

  4. Gravity and Rossby Wave Signatures in the Tropical Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Based on Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), 1998-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Allen, Amber L.; Lee, Sukyoung; Miller, Sonya K.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior investigations attempted to determine the relative influence of advection and convective processes on ozone and water vapor distributions in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through analyses of tracers, related physical parameters (e.g., outgoing long-wave radiation, precipitable water, and temperature), or with models. In this study, stable laminae in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde Network (SHADOZ) ozone profIles from 1998 to 2007 are interpreted in terms of gravity waves (GW) or Rossby waves (RW) that are identified with vertical and quasi-horizontal displacements, respectively. Using the method of Pierce and Grant (1998) as applied by Thompson et al. (2007a, 2007b, 2010, 2011), amplitudes and frequencies in ozone laminae are compared among representative SHADOZ sites over Africa and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. GW signals maximize in the TTL and lower stratosphere. Depending on site and season, GW are identified in up to 90% of the soundings. GW are most prevalent over the Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, a distribution consistent with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. Ozone laminae from RW occur more often below the tropical tropopause and with lower frequency 20%). Gravity wave and Rossby wave indices (GWI, RWI) are formulated to facilitate analysis of interannual variability of wave signatures among sites. GWI is positively correlated with a standard ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) index over American Samoa (14degS, 171degW) and negatively correlated at Watukosek, Java (7.5degS, 114degE), Kuala Lumpur (3degN, 102degE), and Ascension Island (80degS, 15degW). Generally, the responses of GW and RW to ENSO are consistent with prior studies.

  5. Effect of a fullerene C60 addition on the strength properties of nanocrystalline copper and aluminum under shock-wave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezruchko, G. S.; Razorenov, S. V.; Popov, M. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    The Hugoniot elastic limit and the spall strength of aluminum and copper samples pressed from a mixture of a metallic powder and 2-5 wt % C60 fullerene powder are measured under a shock loading pressure up to 6 GPa and a strain rate of 105 s-1 by recording and analyzing full wave profiles using a VISAR laser interferometer. It is shown that a 5% C60 fullerene addition to an initial aluminum sample leads to an increase in its Hugoniot elastic limit by an order of magnitude. Mixture copper samples with 2% fullerene also exhibit a multiple increase in the elastic limit as compared to commercial-grade copper. The elastic limits calculated from the wave profiles are 0.82-1.56 GPa for aluminum samples and 1.35-3.46 GPa for copper samples depending on the sample porosity. The spall strength of both aluminum and copper samples with fullerene additions decreases approximately threefold because of the effect of high-hardness fullerene particles, which serve as tensile stress concentrators in a material under dynamic fracture.

  6. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the Zonal Wave-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at () are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the zonal view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.

  7. Research of the Additional Losses Occurring in Optical Fiber at its Multiple Bends in the Range Waves 1310nm, 1550nm and 1625nm Long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Gorlov, N. I.; Alkina, A. D.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Kovtun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Article is devoted to research of the additional losses occurring in the optical fiber at its multiple bends in the range waves of 1310 nanometers, 1550 nanometers and 1625 nanometers long. Article is directed on creation of the external factors methods which allow to estimate and eliminate negative influence. The automated way of calculation of losses at a bend is developed. Results of scientific researches are used by engineers of “Kazaktelekom” AS for practical definition of losses service conditions. For modeling the Wolfram|Alpha environment — the knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms was chosen. The greatest losses are noted on wavelength 1310nm and 1625nm. All dependences are nonlinear. Losses with each following excess are multiplicative.

  8. Suppression of Oxygen Impurity Incorporation into Silicon Films Prepared from Surface-Wave Excited H2/SiH4 Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somiya, Satoru; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Hotta, Yoshihiko; Sugai, Hideo

    2004-11-01

    Surface-wave plasma (SWP) in SiH4 highly diluted with H2 at 2.45 GHz and 2 kW is applied to the deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films. When a quartz window is used as a microwave injection for discharge, an oxygen impurity level of up to ˜1.5% is observed in the deposited films. Mass spectrometry reveals that the origin of oxygen is water, i.e., the chemical erosion product of the quartz window (SiO2) caused by many hydrogen radicals in high-density plasma. By replacing the quartz window with an alumina (Al2O3) window, oxygen impurity level is markedly reduced, along with the increase in the grain size of films.

  9. Numerical modeling of the effects of wave energy converter characteristics on nearshore wave conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.; Ruehl, K.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J.; Chartrand, C.

    2015-12-24

    Modeled nearshore wave propagation was investigated downstream of simulated wave energy converters (WECs) to evaluate overall near- and far-field effects of WEC arrays. Model sensitivity to WEC characteristics and WEC array deployment scenarios was evaluated using a modified version of an industry standard wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), which allows the incorporation of device-specific WEC characteristics to specify obstacle transmission. The sensitivity study illustrated that WEC device type and subsequently its size directly resulted in wave height variations in the lee of the WEC array. Wave heights decreased up to 30% between modeled scenarios with and without WECs for large arrays (100 devices) of relatively sizable devices (26 m in diameter) with peak power generation near to the modeled incident wave height. Other WEC types resulted in less than 15% differences in modeled wave height with and without WECs, with lesser influence for WECs less than 10 m in diameter. Wave directions and periods were largely insensitive to changes in parameters. Furthermore, additional model parameterization and analysis are required to fully explore the model sensitivity of peak wave period and mean wave direction to the varying of the parameters.

  10. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube wave energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  11. Numerical modeling of the effects of wave energy converter characteristics on nearshore wave conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, G.; Ruehl, K.; Jones, C. A.; ...

    2015-12-24

    Modeled nearshore wave propagation was investigated downstream of simulated wave energy converters (WECs) to evaluate overall near- and far-field effects of WEC arrays. Model sensitivity to WEC characteristics and WEC array deployment scenarios was evaluated using a modified version of an industry standard wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), which allows the incorporation of device-specific WEC characteristics to specify obstacle transmission. The sensitivity study illustrated that WEC device type and subsequently its size directly resulted in wave height variations in the lee of the WEC array. Wave heights decreased up to 30% between modeled scenarios with and without WECs formore » large arrays (100 devices) of relatively sizable devices (26 m in diameter) with peak power generation near to the modeled incident wave height. Other WEC types resulted in less than 15% differences in modeled wave height with and without WECs, with lesser influence for WECs less than 10 m in diameter. Wave directions and periods were largely insensitive to changes in parameters. Furthermore, additional model parameterization and analysis are required to fully explore the model sensitivity of peak wave period and mean wave direction to the varying of the parameters.« less

  12. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  13. c-axis inclined ZnO films for shear-wave transducers deposited by reactive sputtering using an additional blind

    SciTech Connect

    Link, M.; Schreiter, M.; Weber, J.; Gabl, R.; Pitzer, D.; Primig, R.; Wersing, W.; Assouar, M.B.; Elmazria, O.

    2006-03-15

    This article reports on the growth and characterization of polycrystalline ZnO films having c axis inclined up to 16 deg. with respect to the substrate normal. These films allow the excitation of shear and longitudinal waves with comparable electromechanical coupling constants and are of significant interest for thin film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs). The films are deposited on silicon substrates covered by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} buffer layers under low pressure using a modified reactive dc-pulsed magnetron sputtering system. A blind has been positioned between target and substrate, allowing oblique particle incidence without tilting the wafer. The study of structural properties of the deposited ZnO films by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy has permitted to show the presence of the inclined structure. Electromechanical coupling constants K up to 13% have been extracted for shear-mode excitation using highly overmoded FBARs.

  14. WindWaveFloat

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Alla

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review includes in which principal investigator Alla Weinstein discusses project progress in development of a floating offshore wind structure - the WindFloat - and incorporation therin of a Spherical Wave Energy Device.

  15. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  16. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  17. Hysteresis of ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Dinklage, A.; Bruhn, B.; Testrich, H.; Wilke, C.

    2008-06-15

    A quasi-logistic, nonlinear model for ionization wave modes is introduced. Modes are due to finite size of the discharge and current feedback. The model consists of competing coupled modes and it incorporates spatial wave amplitude saturation. The hysteresis of wave mode transitions under current variation is reproduced. Sidebands are predicted by the model and found in experimental data. The ad hoc model is equivalent to a general--so-called universal--approach from bifurcation theory.

  18. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  19. Gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David

    1987-01-01

    Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.

  20. Shear-layer correction after Amiet under consideration of additional temperature gradient. Working diagrams for correction of signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrzynski, W.

    1984-01-01

    Amiet's correction scheme for sound wave transmission through shear-layers is extended to incorporate the additional effects of different temperatures in the flow-field in the surrounding medium at rest. Within a parameter-regime typical for acoustic measurements in wind tunnels amplitude- and angle-correction is calculated and plotted systematically to provide a data base for the test engineer.

  1. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques.

    PubMed

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  2. Particle motions beneath irrotational water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhoday-Paskyabi, Mostafa

    2015-08-01

    Neutral and buoyant particle motions in an irrotational flow are investigated under the passage of linear, nonlinear gravity, and weakly nonlinear solitary waves at a constant water depth. The developed numerical models for the particle trajectories in a non-turbulent flow incorporate particle momentum, size, and mass (i.e., inertial particles) under the influence of various surface waves such as Korteweg-de Vries waves which admit a three parameter family of periodic cnoidal wave solutions. We then formulate expressions of mass-transport velocities for the neutral and buoyant particles. A series of test cases suggests that the inertial particles possess a combined horizontal and vertical drifts from the locations of their release, with a fall velocity as a function of particle material properties, ambient flow, and wave parameters. The estimated solutions exhibit good agreement with previously explained particle behavior beneath progressive surface gravity waves. We further investigate the response of a neutrally buoyant water parcel trajectories in a rotating fluid when subjected to a series of wind and wave events. The results confirm the importance of the wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes force effect in both amplifying (destroying) the pre-existing inertial oscillations and in modulating the direction of the flow particles. Although this work has mainly focused on wave-current-particle interaction in the absence of turbulence stochastic forcing effects, the exercise of the suggested numerical models provides additional insights into the mechanisms of wave effects on the passive trajectories for both living and nonliving particles such as swimming trajectories of plankton in non-turbulent flows.

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Guided wave applications of piezocomposite transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.A.; Rose, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The majority of ultrasonic nondestructive testing applications in use today utilize longitudinal wave techniques. These are very effective for flaw detection and thickness measurement in scanning applications. In sheet and tube type materials, however, a more rapid technique has been developed utilizing Guided Wave Inspection. This method is capable of interrogating large areas of the material without extensive transducer scanning. An important requirement in this method is the ability to utilize relatively broad bandwidth transducers in the test. This paper presents the concepts on which Guided Wave Inspection is based as well as piezocomposite transducer incorporate a combination of piezoelectric ceramics and polymers to enhance the ultrasonic performance of the device. Additionally, the transducer can be designed to match to non-planar surfaces increasing its versatility when a difficult shape is involved.

  5. Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.

  6. A Study of Alfven Wave Propagation and Heating the Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, J.; Song, P.

    2013-12-01

    Alfven wave propagation, reflection and heating of the solar atmosphere are studied for a one-dimensional solar atmosphere by self-consistently solving plasma and neutral fluid equations and Maxwell's equations with incorporation of the Hall effect, strong electron-neutral, electron-ion, and ion-neutral collisions. The governing equations are very stiff because of the strong coupling between the charged and neutral fluids. We have developed a numerical model based on an implicit backward difference formula (BDF2) of second order accuracy both in time and space to overcome the stiffness. A non-reflecting boundary condition is applied to the top boundary of the simulation domain so that the wave reflection within the domain due to the density gradient can be unambiguously determined. It is shown that the Alfven waves are partially reflected throughout the chromosphere. The reflection is increasingly stronger at higher altitudes and the strongest reflection occurs at the transition region. The waves are damped in the lower chromosphere dominantly through Joule dissipation due to electron collisions with neutrals and ions. The heating resulting from the wave damping is strong enough to balance the radiation energy loss for the quiet chromosphere. The collisional dissipation of the Alfven waves in the weakly collisional corona is negligible. The heating rates are larger for weaker background magnetic fields. In addition, higher frequency waves are subject to heavier damping. There is an upper cutoff frequency, depending on the background magnetic field, above which the waves are completely damped. At the frequencies below which the waves are not strongly damped, the waves may be strongly reflected at the transition region. The reflected waves interacting with the upward propagating waves may produce power at their double frequencies, which leads to more damping. Due to the reflection and damping, the energy flux of the waves transmitted to the corona is one order of

  7. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  8. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  9. Bearings Incorporating Deadband Rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, Guy V.

    1996-01-01

    Bearings in high-pressure turbopump redesigned to incorporate rollers allowing limited axial motion within small deadband. Does not permit radial deadband motion. Axial deadband motion used for rotor-thrust-balance control. Design eliminates some nonlinearities in dynamics of pump rotor and assists in suppressing vibrations at harmonics of frequency of rotation.

  10. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  12. Ring Current-Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, generated by ion temperature anisotropy in Earth s ring current (RC), is the best known example of wave- particle interaction in the magnetosphere. Also, there is much controversy over the importance of EMIC waves on RC depletion. Under certain conditions, relativistic electrons, with energies 21 MeV, can be removed from the outer radiation belt (RB) by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm. That is why the calculation of EMIC waves must be a very critical part of the space weather studies. The new RC model that we have developed and present for the first time has several new features that we have combine together in a one single model: (a) several lower frequency cold plasma wave modes are taken into account; (b) wave tracing of these wave has been incorporated in the energy EMIC wave equation; (c) no assumptions regarding wave shape spectra have been made; (d) no assumptions regarding the shape of particle distribution have been made to calculate the growth rate; (e) pitch-angle, energy, and mix diffusions are taken into account together for the first time; (f) the exact loss-cone RC analytical solution has been found and coupled with bounce-averaged numerical solution of kinetic equation; (g) the EMIC waves saturation due to their modulation instability and LHW generation are included as an additional factor that contributes to this process; and (h) the hot ions were included in the real part of dielectric permittivity tensor. We compare our theoretical results with the different EMIC waves models as well as RC experimental data.

  13. Zinc Incorporation Into Hydroxylapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.; Chappell, H; Dove, M; Reeder, R; Lee, Y

    2009-01-01

    By theoretical modeling and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the local coordination structure of Zn incorporated into hydroxylapatite was examined. Density function theory (DFT) calculations show that Zn favors the Ca2 site over the Ca1 site, and favors tetrahedral coordination. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results suggest one dominant coordination environment for the incorporated Zn, and no evidence was observed for other Zn-containing phases. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting of the synthetic samples confirms that Zn occurs in tetrahedral coordination, with two P shells at 2.85-3.07 {angstrom}, and two higher Ca shells at 3.71-4.02 {angstrom}. These fit results are consistent with the most favored DFT model for Zn substitution in the Ca2 site.

  14. Propagation of seismic waves in tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1998-01-01

    A discrete-time wave propagation formulation of the seismic response of tall buildings is introduced. The building is modeled as a layered medium, similar to a layered soil medium, and is subjected to vertically propagating seismic shear waves. Soil layers and the bedrock under the foundation are incorporated in the formulation as additional layers. Seismic response is expressed in terms of the wave travel times between the layers, and the wave reflection and transmission coefficients at the layer interfaces. The equations account for the frequency-dependent filtering effects of the foundation and floor masses. The calculation of seismic response is reduced to a pair of simple finite-difference equations for each layer, which can be solved recursively starting from the bedrock. Compared to the commonly used vibration formulation, the wave propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplified calculations, better representation of damping, ability to account for the effects of the soil layers under the foundation, and better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples presented show the versatility of the method. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  18. Biological effects of laser-induced stress waves

    SciTech Connect

    Doukas, A.; Lee, S.; McAuliffe, D.

    1995-12-31

    Laser-induced stress waves can be generated by one of the following mechanisms: Optical breakdown, ablation or rapid heating of an absorbing medium. These three modes of laser interaction with matter allow the investigation of cellular and tissue responses to stress waves with different characteristics and under different conditions. The most widely studied phenomena are those of the collateral damage seen in photodisruption in the eye and in 193 run ablation of cornea and skin. On the other hand, the therapeutic application of laser-induced stress waves has been limited to the disruption of noncellular material such as renal stones, atheromatous plaque and vitreous strands. The effects of stress waves to cells and tissues can be quite disparate. Stress waves can fracture tissue, damage cells, and increase the permeability of the plasma membrane. The viability of cell cultures exposed to stress waves increases with the peak stress and the number of pulses applied. The rise time of the stress wave also influences the degree of cell injury. In fact, cell viability, as measured by thymidine incorporation, correlates better with the stress gradient than peak stress. Recent studies have also established that stress waves induce a transient increase of the permeability of the plasma membrane in vitro. In addition, if the stress gradient is below the damage threshhold, the cells remain viable. Thus, stress waves can be useful as a means of drug delivery, increasing the intracellular drug concentration and allowing the use of drugs which are impermeable to the cell membrane. The present studies show that it is important to create controllable stress waves. The wavelength tunability and the micropulse structure of the free electron laser is ideal for generating stress waves with independently adjustable parameters, such as rise time, duration and peak stress.

  19. Ring Current Dynamic in the Presence of EMIC Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of EMIC waves, generated by a positive ion temperature anisotropy on Earth s RC ions is one of the best known examples of wave-particle interaction in the magnetosphere and the most controversial mechanism of RC losses. Under certain conditions, relativistic electrons with energy 21 MeV can be removed from the outer RB by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm much faster than by any other loss mechanisms. That is why the calculation of EMIC waves is a very critical part of the NASA LWS program. The new RC model that we have developed and present for the first time has several new features that we have combine together in a one single model: (a) several lower frequency cold plasma wave modes are taken into account; (b) wave tracing of these wave has been incorporated in the energy EMIC wave equation; (c) no assumptions regarding wave shape spectra have been made; (d) no assumptions regarding the shape of particle distribution have been made to calculate the growth rate; (e) pitch- angle, energy, and mix diffusions are taken into account together for the first time; (f) the exact loss-cone RC analytical solution has been found and coupled with bounce-averaged numerical solution of kinetic equation; (g) LHW are included as an additional factor that contributes to saturation process of EMIC waves; and (h) the hot ions were included in the real part of dielectric permittivity tensor. We compare our theoretical results with the different EMIC waves models as well as RC experimental data.

  20. Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Feng, Yijun; Cui, Li; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Zhu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The asymmetric transmission of electromagnetic (EM) wave can be fully manipulated by chiral metamaterials, but little can achieve real-time and high efficient tunability due to challenges in practically deployable solutions. Here, we proposed a new scheme for flexibly and dynamically controlling the asymmetric EM wave transmission at microwave frequencies using planar metamaterial of deep subwavelength thickness incorporated with active components of PIN diodes. The asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized EM wave exhibits a high efficiency and a pronounced real-time continuous tunability controlled by the external stimulation of voltage biasing. In addition, the asymmetric transmission effect can be well preserved at large oblique incident angle up to ±70°. The design principle and EM performance are validated by both full wave simulations and experimental measurements. Such dynamically controllable chiral metamaterial may provide robust and flexible approach to manipulate EM wave propagation, as well as to facilitate EM device integration to create diverse functionalities. PMID:28202903

  1. Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Feng, Yijun; Cui, Li; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Zhu, Bo

    2017-02-16

    The asymmetric transmission of electromagnetic (EM) wave can be fully manipulated by chiral metamaterials, but little can achieve real-time and high efficient tunability due to challenges in practically deployable solutions. Here, we proposed a new scheme for flexibly and dynamically controlling the asymmetric EM wave transmission at microwave frequencies using planar metamaterial of deep subwavelength thickness incorporated with active components of PIN diodes. The asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized EM wave exhibits a high efficiency and a pronounced real-time continuous tunability controlled by the external stimulation of voltage biasing. In addition, the asymmetric transmission effect can be well preserved at large oblique incident angle up to ±70°. The design principle and EM performance are validated by both full wave simulations and experimental measurements. Such dynamically controllable chiral metamaterial may provide robust and flexible approach to manipulate EM wave propagation, as well as to facilitate EM device integration to create diverse functionalities.

  2. Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; Feng, Yijun; Cui, Li; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Zhu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The asymmetric transmission of electromagnetic (EM) wave can be fully manipulated by chiral metamaterials, but little can achieve real-time and high efficient tunability due to challenges in practically deployable solutions. Here, we proposed a new scheme for flexibly and dynamically controlling the asymmetric EM wave transmission at microwave frequencies using planar metamaterial of deep subwavelength thickness incorporated with active components of PIN diodes. The asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized EM wave exhibits a high efficiency and a pronounced real-time continuous tunability controlled by the external stimulation of voltage biasing. In addition, the asymmetric transmission effect can be well preserved at large oblique incident angle up to ±70°. The design principle and EM performance are validated by both full wave simulations and experimental measurements. Such dynamically controllable chiral metamaterial may provide robust and flexible approach to manipulate EM wave propagation, as well as to facilitate EM device integration to create diverse functionalities.

  3. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  4. Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

  5. Millimeter Wave Holographical Inspection of Honeycomb Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, J. T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Stefes, G.; Hepburn, Frank L.; Hepburn, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-layered composite structures manufactured with honeycomb, foam or balsa wood cores are finding increasing utility in a variety of aerospace, transportation, and infrastructure applications. Due to the low conductivity and inhomogeneity associated with these composites standard nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are not always capable of inspecting their interior for various defects caused during the manufacturing process or as a result of in-service loading. On the contrary, microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods are well-suited for inspecting these structures since signals at these frequencies readily penetrate through these structures and reflect from different interior boundaries revealing the presence of a wide range of defects such as disbond, delamination, moisture and oil intrusion, impact damage, etc. Millimeter wave frequency spectrum spans 30 GHz - 300 GHz with corresponding wavelengths of 10 - 1 mm. Due to the inherent short wavelengths at these frequencies, one can produce high spatial resolution images of these composites either using real-antenna focused or synthetic-aperture focused methods. In addition, incorporation of swept-frequency in the latter method (i.e., holography) results in high-resolution three-dimensional images. This paper presents the basic steps behind producing such images at millimeter wave frequencies and the results of two honeycomb composite panels are demonstrated at Q-band (33-50 GHz). In addition, these results are compared to previous results using X-ray computed tomography.

  6. Millimeter Wave Holographical Inspection of Honeycomb Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, J. T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Steffes, G.; Hepburn, F. L.

    2008-02-01

    Multi-layered composite structures manufactured with honeycomb, foam, or balsa wood cores are finding increasing utility in a variety of aerospace, transportation, and infrastructure applications. Due to the low conductivity and inhomogeneity associated with these composites, standard nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are not always capable of inspecting their interior for various defects caused during the manufacturing process or as a result of in-service loading. On the contrary, microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods are well-suited for inspecting these structures since signals at these frequencies readily penetrate through these structures and reflect from different interior boundaries revealing the presence of a wide range of defects such as isband, delamination, moisture and oil intrusion, impact damage, etc. Millimeter wave frequency spectrum spans 30 GHz-300 GHz with corresponding wavelengths of 10-1 mm. Due to the inherent short wavelengths at these frequencies, one can produce high spatial resolution images of these composites either using real-antenna focused or synthetic-aperture focused methods. In addition, incorporation of swept-frequency in the latter method (i.e., holography) results in high-resolution three-dimensional images. This paper presents the basic steps behind producing such images at millimeter wave frequencies and the results of two honeycomb composite panels are demonstrated at Q-band (33-50 GHz). In addition, these results are compared to previous results using X-ray computed tomography.

  7. A Mock Circulatory System Incorporating a Compliant 3D-Printed Anatomical Model to Investigate Pulmonary Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Knoops, Paul G M; Biglino, Giovanni; Hughes, Alun D; Parker, Kim H; Xu, Linzhang; Schievano, Silvia; Torii, Ryo

    2016-12-07

    A realistic mock circulatory system (MCS) could be a valuable in vitro testbed to study human circulatory hemodynamics. The objective of this study was to design a MCS replicating the pulmonary arterial circulation, incorporating an anatomically representative arterial model suitable for testing clinically relevant scenarios. A second objective of the study was to ensure the system's compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for additional measurements. A latex pulmonary arterial model with two generations of bifurcations was manufactured starting from a 3D-printed mold reconstructed from patient data. The model was incorporated into a MCS for in vitro hydrodynamic measurements. The setup was tested under physiological pulsatile flow conditions and results were evaluated using wave intensity analysis (WIA) to investigate waves traveling in the arterial system. Increased pulmonary vascular resistance (IPVR) was simulated as an example of one pathological scenario. Flow split between right and left pulmonary artery was found to be realistic (54 and 46%, respectively). No substantial difference in pressure waveform was observed throughout the various generations of bifurcations. Based on WIA, three main waves were identified in the main pulmonary artery (MPA), that is, forward compression wave, backward compression wave, and forward expansion wave. For IPVR, a rise in mean pressure was recorded in the MPA, within the clinical range of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The feasibility of using the MCS in the MRI scanner was demonstrated with the MCS running 2 h consecutively while acquiring preliminary MRI data. This study shows the development and verification of a pulmonary MCS, including an anatomically correct, compliant latex phantom. The setup can be useful to explore a wide range of hemodynamic questions, including the development of patient- and pathology-specific models, considering the ease and low cost of producing rapid prototyping molds, and the

  8. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  9. Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  10. Project GlobWave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busswell, Geoff; Ash, Ellis; Piolle, Jean-Francois; Poulter, David J. S.; Snaith, Helen; Collard, Fabrice; Sheera, Harjit; Pinnock, Simon

    2010-12-01

    The ESA GlobWave project is a three year initiative, funded by ESA and CNES, to service the needs of satellite wave product users across the globe. Led by Logica UK, with support from CLS, IFREMER, SatOC and NOCS, the project will provide free access to satellite wave data and products in a common format, both historical and in near real time, from various European and American SAR and altimeter missions. Building on the successes of similar projects for Sea Surface Temperature and ocean colour, the project aims to stimulate increased use and analysis of satellite wave products. In addition to common-format satellite data the project will provide comparisons with in situ measurements, interactive data analysis tools and a pilot spatial wave forecast verification scheme for operational forecast production centres. The project will begin operations in January 2010, with direction from regular structured user consultation.

  11. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  12. Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

    2011-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

  13. GRAVITY WAVES ON HOT EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. I. PROPAGATION AND INTERACTION WITH THE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Chris; Cho, J. Y-K. E-mail: J.Cho@qmul.ac.u

    2010-05-01

    We study the effects of gravity waves, or g-modes, on hot extrasolar planets. These planets are expected to possess stably stratified atmospheres, which support gravity waves. In this paper, we review the derivation of the equation that governs the linear dynamics of gravity waves and describe its application to a hot extrasolar planet, using HD 209458 b as a generic example. We find that gravity waves can exhibit a wide range of behaviors, even for a single atmospheric profile. The waves can significantly accelerate or decelerate the background mean flow, depending on the difference between the wave phase and mean flow speeds. In addition, the waves can provide significant heating ({approx}10{sup 2} to {approx}10{sup 3} K per planetary rotation), especially to the region of the atmosphere above about 10 scale heights from the excitation region. Furthermore, by propagating horizontally, gravity waves provide a mechanism for transporting momentum and heat from the dayside of a tidally locked planet to its nightside. We discuss work that needs to be undertaken to incorporate these effects in current atmosphere models of extrasolar planets.

  14. Wave transformation over coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Ian R.

    1989-07-01

    Ocean wave attenuation on coral reefs is discussed using data obtained from a preliminary field experiment and from the Seasat altimeter. Marked attenuation of the waves is observed, the rate being consistent with existing theories of bottom friction and wave breaking decay. In addition, there is a significant broadening of the spectrum during propagation across reefs. Three-dimensional effects, such as refraction and defraction, can also lead to substantial wave height reduction for significant distances adjacent to coral reefs. As a result, a matrix of such reefs provides significantly more wave attenuation than may initially be expected.

  15. A multimodal wave spectrum-based approach for statistical downscaling of local wave climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hegermiller, Christie; Antolinez, Jose A A; Rueda, Ana C; Camus, Paula; Perez, Jorge; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Mendez, Fernando J

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of wave climate by bulk wave parameters is insufficient for many coastal studies, including those focused on assessing coastal hazards and long-term wave climate influences on coastal evolution. This issue is particularly relevant for studies using statistical downscaling of atmospheric fields to local wave conditions, which are often multimodal in large ocean basins (e.g. the Pacific). Swell may be generated in vastly different wave generation regions, yielding complex wave spectra that are inadequately represented by a single set of bulk wave parameters. Furthermore, the relationship between atmospheric systems and local wave conditions is complicated by variations in arrival time of wave groups from different parts of the basin. Here, we address these two challenges by improving upon the spatiotemporal definition of the atmospheric predictor used in statistical downscaling of local wave climate. The improved methodology separates the local wave spectrum into “wave families,” defined by spectral peaks and discrete generation regions, and relates atmospheric conditions in distant regions of the ocean basin to local wave conditions by incorporating travel times computed from effective energy flux across the ocean basin. When applied to locations with multimodal wave spectra, including Southern California and Trujillo, Peru, the new methodology improves the ability of the statistical model to project significant wave height, peak period, and direction for each wave family, retaining more information from the full wave spectrum. This work is the base of statistical downscaling by weather types, which has recently been applied to coastal flooding and morphodynamic applications.

  16. Overview of Plant Incorporated Protectants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When assessing the potential risks of genetically engineered plant-incorporated protectants, EPA requires extensive studies examining numerous factors. Learn more about the history and process for regulating PIPs.

  17. Reconnections of Wave Vortex Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    When wave vortices, that is nodal lines of a complex scalar wavefunction in space, approach transversely, their typical crossing and reconnection is a two-stage process incorporating two well-understood elementary events in which locally coplanar hyperbolas switch branches. The explicit description of this reconnection is a pedagogically useful…

  18. Frequency coded sensors incorporating tapers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor); Solie, Leland P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a piezoelectric substrate on which is formed a transducer that generates acoustic waves on the surface of the substrate from electrical waves received by the transducer. The waves are carried along an acoustic track to either a second transducer or a reflector. The transducers or transducer and reflector are formed of subsections that are constructed to operate at mutually different frequencies. The subsections of at least one of the transducers or transducer and reflector are out of alignment with respect to one another relative to the transverse of the propagation direction. The out of aligned subsections provide not only a frequency component but also a time to the signal output signal. Frequency response characteristics are improved. An alternative embodiment provides that the transducers and/or reflectors are continuously tapered instead of having discrete frequency subsections.

  19. Incorporating routing into reservoir planning optimization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijewski, Nicholas; Wörman, Anders; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    To achieve the best overall operation result in a reservoir network, optimization models are used. For larger reservoir networks the computational cost increases, making simplification of the hydrodynamic description necessary. In-accuracy in flow prediction can be related to an incurred sub-optimality in production planning. Flow behavior in a management optimization model is often described using a constant time-lag model. A simplified hydraulic model was used, describing the stream flow in a reservoir network for short term production planning of a case-study reservoir network (Dalälven River). In this study, the importance of incorporating hydrodynamic wave diffusion for optimized hydropower production planning in a regulated water system was examined, comparing the kinematic-wave model to the constant time-lag. The receding horizon optimization procedure was applied, emulating the data-assimilation procedure present in modern operations. Power production was shown to deviate from the planned production while considering a single time-lag, as a function of the stream description. The simplification of using a constant time-lag could be considered acceptable for streams characterized by high Peclet number. Examining the effect of the effect of the length of the decision time-step demonstrated the importance of high frequency data assimilation for streams characterized by low Peclet numbers. Further, it was shown that the variability in flow becomes more ordered as a result of management and that the Peclet number contributes to that goal.

  20. Particle velocity non-uniformity and steady-wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshcheryakov, Yu. I.

    2017-03-01

    A constitutive equation grounded in dislocation dynamics is shown to be incapable of describing the propagation of shock fronts in solids. Shock wave experiments and theoretical investigations motivate an additional collective mechanism of stress relaxation that should be incorporated into the model through the standard deviation of the particle velocity, which is found to be proportional to the strain rate. In this case, the governing equation system results in a second-order differential equation of square non-linearity. Solution to this equation and calculations for D16 aluminum alloy show a more precise coincidence of the theoretical and experimental velocity profiles.

  1. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1-x O x ). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths.

  2. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  3. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  4. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  5. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  6. Making waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Traveling waves propagating along surfaces play an important role for intracellular organization. Such waves can appear spontaneously in reaction-diffusion systems, but only few general criteria for their existence are known. Analyzing the dynamics of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli, Levine and Kessler (2016 New J. Phys. 18 122001) now identified a new mechanism for the emergence of traveling waves that relies on conservation laws. From their analysis one can expect traveling waves to be a generic feature of systems made of proteins that have a cytoplasmic and a membrane-bound state.

  7. Do calcium buffers always slow down the propagation of calcium waves?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Je-Chiang

    2013-12-01

    Calcium buffers are large proteins that act as binding sites for free cytosolic calcium. Since a large fraction of cytosolic calcium is bound to calcium buffers, calcium waves are widely observed under the condition that free cytosolic calcium is heavily buffered. In addition, all physiological buffered excitable systems contain multiple buffers with different affinities. It is thus important to understand the properties of waves in excitable systems with the inclusion of buffers. There is an ongoing controversy about whether or not the addition of calcium buffers into the system always slows down the propagation of calcium waves. To solve this controversy, we incorporate the buffering effect into the generic excitable system, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, to get the buffered FitzHugh-Nagumo model, and then to study the effect of the added buffer with large diffusivity on traveling waves of such a model in one spatial dimension. We can find a critical dissociation constant (K = K(a)) characterized by system excitability parameter a such that calcium buffers can be classified into two types: weak buffers (K ∈ (K(a), ∞)) and strong buffers (K ∈ (0, K(a))). We analytically show that the addition of weak buffers or strong buffers but with its total concentration b(0)(1) below some critical total concentration b(0,c)(1) into the system can generate a traveling wave of the resulting system which propagates faster than that of the origin system, provided that the diffusivity D1 of the added buffers is sufficiently large. Further, the magnitude of the wave speed of traveling waves of the resulting system is proportional to √D1 as D1 --> ∞. In contrast, the addition of strong buffers with the total concentration b(0)(1) > b(0,c)(1) into the system may not be able to support the formation of a biologically acceptable wave provided that the diffusivity D1 of the added buffers is sufficiently large.

  8. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  9. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping

  10. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  11. Lamb Wave Response of Fatigued Composite Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, William H.; Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials are being more widely used today by aerospace, automotive, sports equipment, and a number of other commercial industries because of their advantages over conventional metals. Composites have a high strength-to-weight ratio and can be constructed to meet specific design needs. Composite structures are already in use in secondary parts of the Douglas MD-11 and are planned to be used in the new MD-12X. Plans also exist for their use in primary and secondary structures on the Boeing 777. Douglas proposed MD-XX may also incorporate composite materials into primary structures such as the wings and tail. Use of composites in these structures offers weight savings, corrosion resistance, and improved aerodynamics. Additionally, composites have been used to repair cracks in many B-1Bs where traditional repair techniques were not very effective. Plans have also been made to reinforce all of the remaining B-1s with composite materials. Verification of the structural integrity of composite components is needed to insure safe operation of these aerospace vehicles. One aspect of the use of these composites is their response to fatigue. To track this progression of fatigue in aerospace structures, a convenient method to nondestructively monitor this damage needs to be developed. Traditional NDE techniques used on metals are not easily adaptable to composites due to the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of these materials. Finding an effective means of nondestructively monitoring fatigue damage is extremely important to the safety and reliability of such structures. Lamb waves offer one method of evaluating these composite materials. As a material is fatigued, the modulus degrades. Since the Lamb wave velocity can be related to the modulus of the material, an effective tool can be developed to monitor fatigue damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. In this work, preliminary studies have been conducted which monitor fatigue damage in

  12. 17 CFR 260.7a-30 - Identification of material incorporated; form of incorporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated; form of incorporation. 260.7a-30 Section 260.7a-30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Incorporation by Reference § 260.7a-30 Identification of material incorporated; form of incorporation. In each case of incorporation by reference, the matter incorporated shall be clearly identified in...

  13. Ion temperature effects on magnetotail Alfvén wave propagation and electron energization: ION TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON ALFVÉN WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Chaston, C. C.

    2015-07-01

    A new 2-D self-consistent hybrid gyrofluid-kinetic electron model in dipolar coordinates is presented and used to simulate dispersive-scale Alfvén wave pulse propagation from the equator to the ionosphere along an L = 10 magnetic field line. The model is an extension of the hybrid MHD-kinetic electron model that incorporates ion Larmor radius corrections via the kinetic fluid model of Cheng and Johnson (1999). It is found that consideration of a realistic ion to electron temperature ratio decreases the propagation time of the wave from the plasma sheet to the ionosphere by several seconds relative to a ρi=0 case (which also implies shorter timing for a substorm onset signal) and leads to significant dispersion of wave energy perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Additionally, ion temperature effects reduce the parallel current and electron energization all along the field line for the same magnitude perpendicular electric field perturbation.

  14. Multi-heat addition turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C. (Inventor); Brabbs, Theodore A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multi-heat addition turbine engine (MHATE) incorporates a plurality of heat addition devices to transfer energy to air and a plurality of turbines to extract energy from the air while converting it to work. The MHATE provides dry power and lower fuel consumption or lower combustor exit temperatures.

  15. Nonlinear Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    following surprising situation. Namely associated with the integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equations are standard numerical schemes which exhibit at...36. An Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations , A.S. Fokas, Physica D March 1989. 37. Evolution Theory, Periodic... gravity waves and wave excitation phenomena related to moving pressure distributions; numerical approximation and computation; nonlinear optics; and

  16. Microfluidic waves

    PubMed Central

    Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R.; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of pressure waves in fluidic channels with elastic covers is discussed in view of applications to flow control in microfluidic devices. A theory is presented which describes pressure waves in the fluid that are coupled to bending waves in the elastic cover. At low frequencies, the lateral bending of the cover dominates over longitudinal bending, leading to propagating, non-dispersive longitudinal pressure waves in the channel. The theory addresses effects due to both the finite viscosity and compressibility of the fluid. The coupled waves propagate without dispersion, as long as the wave length is larger than the channel width. It is shown that in channels of typical microfluidic dimensions, wave velocities in the range of a few 10 m s−1 result if the channels are covered by films of a compliant material such as PDMS. The application of this principle to design microfluidic band pass filters based on standing waves is discussed. Characteristic frequencies in the range of a few kHz are readily achieved with quality factors above 30. PMID:21966667

  17. Thermal Effect of Gravity Waves in the Upper Atmosphere and its Parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmaev, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the importance of the vertical heat transport by dissipating gravity waves in addition to the momentum deposition commonly represented in gravity-wave parameterizations. This work has been initiated by the need to incorporate the heat transfer into the widely used Doppler-spread Parameterization (DSP) by C. O. Hines. The exact description of the effect, otherwise known as ``dynamical cooling," depends on partitioning of the total wave energy deposition rate between the thermal and frictional dissipation channels. Since the DSP does not explicitly distinguish between the two types of dissipation, certain assumptions have to be made. The resulting general expression relating the heat flux with the total wave energy deposition rate is then in general agreement with other studies using similar assumptions, and may be implemented within any suitable parameterization. It is noted that, as waves enter the thermosphere and become primarily dissipated by molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity, the partitioning ratio may actually change compared to that commonly assumed for the middle atmosphere. More generally, it is observed that the wave dissipation results in an increase of both the energy and entropy of the background stratification as is expected for a dissipative process. On balance, energy is deposited into the mean stratification and the familiar term ``dynamical cooling" may be somewhat misleading. The general relation may also be recommended for estimates of the net heating from available observations of wave heat fluxes in the upper atmosphere.

  18. Making and Propagating Elastic Waves: Overview of the new wave propagation code WPP

    SciTech Connect

    McCandless, K P; Petersson, N A; Nilsson, S; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Blair, S C

    2006-05-09

    We are developing a new parallel 3D wave propagation code at LLNL called WPP (Wave Propagation Program). WPP is being designed to incorporate the latest developments in embedded boundary and mesh refinement technology for finite difference methods, as well as having an efficient portable implementation to run on the latest supercomputers at LLNL. We are currently exploring seismic wave applications, including a recent effort to compute ground motions for the 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake. This paper will briefly describe the wave propagation problem, features of our numerical method to model it, implementation of the wave propagation code, and results from the 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake simulation.

  19. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  20. Multicomponent Body and Surface Wave Seismic Analysis using an Urban Land Streamer System: An Integrative Earthquake Hazards Assessment Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribler, G.; Liberty, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present earthquake site response results from a 48-channel multicomponent seismic land streamer and large weight drop system. We acquired data along a grid of city streets in western Idaho at a rate of a few km per day where we derived shear wave velocity profiles to a depth of 40-50 m by incorporating vertical and radial geophone signals to capture the complete elliptical Rayleigh wave motion. We also obtained robust p-wave reflection and refraction results by capturing the returned signals that arrive at non-vertical incidence angles that result from the high-velocity road surface layer. By integrating the derived shear wave velocity profiles with p-wave reflection results, we include depositional and tectonic boundaries from the upper few hundred meters into our analysis to help assess whether ground motions may be amplified by shallow bedrock. By including p-wave refraction information into the analysis, we can identify zones of high liquefaction potential by comparing shear wave and p-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) measurements relative to refraction-derived water table depths. The utilization of multicomponent land streamer data improves signal-noise levels over single component data with no additional field effort. The added multicomponent data processing step can be as simple as calculating the magnitude of the vector for surface wave and refraction arrivals or rotating the reflected signals to the maximum emergence angle based on near surface p-wave velocity information. We show example data from a number of Idaho communities where historical earthquakes have been recorded. We also present numerical models and systematic field tests that show the effects of a high velocity road surface layer in surface and body wave measurements. We conclude that multicomponent seismic information derived from seismic land streamers can provide a significant improvement in earthquake hazard assessment over a standard single component approach with only a small addition in

  1. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  2. Development of Surface Wave Dispersion and Attenuation Maps and Improved Methods for Measuring Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-30

    use a similar technique with a narrower kernel that they believe to be more representative of realistic surface waves. Spetzler et al. (2001, 2002...Nor and KNET. We measured surface wave spectral amplitudes from the calculations using the same techniques used to measure observed surface waves...The Born approximation techniques discussed in section 3 provide a straightforward, but approximate, way to incorporate scattering and diffraction

  3. Moreton Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    "Moreton waves," named for the observer who popularized them, are a solar phenomenon also known in scientific literature as "Moreton-Ramsey wave," "flare waves," "flare-associated waves," "MHD blast waves," "chromospheric shock fronts" and various other combinations of terms which connote violently propagating impulsive disturbances. It is unclear whether all of the observations to which these terms have been applied pertain to a single physical phenomenon: there has perhaps been some overlap between the observations and the assumed physical properties of the observed occurrence. Moreton waves are ideally observed in the wings of H alpha, and appear as semi-circular fronts propagating at speeds ranging from several hundred to over a thousand km/sec. They form an arc, or "brow shape" which can span up to 180 degrees. Extrapolating the speed and locations of the arc indicates that the phenomenon's origin intersects well with the impulsive phase of the associated H alpha flare (if the flare exhibits an impulsive phase). However, the arc may not form or may not be observable until it is tens of megameters from the flaring region, and subsequently can propagate to distances exceeding 100 megameters. The high speeds and distances of propagation, plus the associated radio and energetic particle observations, provided strong evidence of a coronal, rather than a chromospheric origin. The H alpha manifestation of the wave is assumed to be the "ground track" or "skirt" of a three-dimensional disturbance.

  4. Atmospheric Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the atmosphere are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the atmospheric layers below.

  5. Shear wave speed recovery in sonoelastography using crawling wave data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce; Renzi, Daniel; Thomas, Ashley

    2010-07-01

    The crawling wave experiment, in which two harmonic sources oscillate at different but nearby frequencies, is a development in sonoelastography that allows real-time imaging of propagating shear wave interference patterns. Previously the crawling wave speed was recovered and used as an indicator of shear stiffness; however, it is shown in this paper that the crawling wave speed image can have artifacts that do not represent a change in stiffness. In this paper, the locations and shapes of some of the artifacts are exhibited. In addition, a differential equation is established that enables imaging of the shear wave speed, which is a quantity strongly correlated with shear stiffness change. The full algorithm is as follows: (1) extract the crawling wave phase from the spectral variance data; (2) calculate the crawling wave phase wave speed; (3) solve a first-order PDE for the phase of the wave emanating from one of the sources; and (4) compute and image the shear wave speed on a grid in the image plane.

  6. Self-Incorporation of Coenzymes by Ribozymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, Ronald R.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1995-01-01

    RNA molecules that are assembled from the four standard nucleotides contain a limited number of chemical functional groups, a characteristic that is generally thought to restrict the potential for catalysis by ribozymes. Although polypeptides carry a wider range of functional groups, many contemporary protein-based enzymes employ coenzymes to augment their capabilities. The coenzymes possess additional chemical moieties that can participate directly in catalysis and thereby enhance catalytic function. In this work, we demonstrate a mechanism by which ribozymes can supplement their limited repertoire of functional groups through RNAcatalyzed incorporation of various coenzymes and coenzyme analogues. The group I ribozyme of Tetrahymena thermophila normally mediates a phosphoester transfer reaction that results in the covalent attachment of guanosine to the ribozyme. Here, a shortened version of the ribozyme is shown to catalyze the self-incorporation of coenzymes and coenzyme analogues, such as NAD+ and dephosphorylated CoA-SH. Similar ribozyme activities may have played an important role in the "RNA world," when RNA enzymes are thought to have maintained a complex metabolism in the absence of proteins and would have benefited from the inclusion of additional functional groups.

  7. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  8. Frequency hopping millimeter wave reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupido, L.; Sánchez, J.; Estrada, T.

    2004-10-01

    Reflectometry techniques are employed to study density fluctuations in fusion plasmas either using one channel or two channels with slightly different frequencies, to probe simultaneously closely spaced plasma layers (for radial correlation studies). The present article describes a novel system with increasing measuring capability utilizing only one single frequency that can be hopped during the discharge. This broadband fast hopping mm-wave reflectometer (BFHR) has been developed for both ASDEX upgrade (Max Plank Institute-Garching-Germany) and TJ-II stellarator (CIEMAT-Spain). The BFHR incorporates frequency synthesizers at microwave frequencies multiplied into the millimeter-wave range and uses heterodyne detection for sensitive phase and amplitude measurements.

  9. A global 3-D MHD model of the solar wind with Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usmanov, A. V.

    1995-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional solar wind model that incorporates momentum and heat addition from Alfven waves is developed. The proposed model upgrades the previous one by considering self-consistently the total system consisting of Alfven waves propagating outward from the Sun and the mean polytropic solar wind flow. The simulation region extends from the coronal base (1 R(sub s) out to beyond 1 AU. The fully 3-D MHD equations written in spherical coordinates are solved in the frame of reference corotating with the Sun. At the inner boundary, the photospheric magnetic field observations are taken as boundary condition and wave energy influx is prescribed to be proportional to the magnetic field strength. The results of the model application for several time intervals are presented.

  10. Identifying Heat Waves in Florida: Considerations of Missing Weather Data

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Emily; Young, Linda J.; DuClos, Chris; Jordan, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Using current climate models, regional-scale changes for Florida over the next 100 years are predicted to include warming over terrestrial areas and very likely increases in the number of high temperature extremes. No uniform definition of a heat wave exists. Most past research on heat waves has focused on evaluating the aftermath of known heat waves, with minimal consideration of missing exposure information. Objectives To identify and discuss methods of handling and imputing missing weather data and how those methods can affect identified periods of extreme heat in Florida. Methods In addition to ignoring missing data, temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal models are described and utilized to impute missing historical weather data from 1973 to 2012 from 43 Florida weather monitors. Calculated thresholds are used to define periods of extreme heat across Florida. Results Modeling of missing data and imputing missing values can affect the identified periods of extreme heat, through the missing data itself or through the computed thresholds. The differences observed are related to the amount of missingness during June, July, and August, the warmest months of the warm season (April through September). Conclusions Missing data considerations are important when defining periods of extreme heat. Spatio-temporal methods are recommended for data imputation. A heat wave definition that incorporates information from all monitors is advised. PMID:26619198

  11. Nonlinear lattice waves in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptyeva, T. V.; Ivanchenko, M. V.; Flach, S.

    2014-12-01

    We discuss recent advances in the understanding of the dynamics of nonlinear lattice waves in heterogeneous media, which enforce complete wave localization in the linear wave equation limit, especially Anderson localization for random potentials, and Aubry-André localization for quasiperiodic potentials. Additional nonlinear terms in the wave equations can either preserve the phase-coherent localization of waves, or destroy it through nonintegrability and deterministic chaos. Spreading wave packets are observed to show universal features in their dynamics which are related to properties of nonlinear diffusion equations.

  12. Reconfigurable heat-induced spin wave lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyapko, O.; Borisenko, I. V.; Demidov, V. E.; Pernice, W.; Demokritov, S. O.

    2016-12-01

    We study the control and manipulation of propagating spin waves in yttrium iron garnet films using a local laser-induced heating. We show that, due to the refraction of spin waves in the thermal gradients, the heated region acts as a defocusing lens for Damon-Eshbach spin waves and as a focusing lens for backward volume waves enabling collimation of spin-wave beams in the latter case. In addition to the focusing/defocusing functionality, the local heating allows one to manipulate the propagation direction of the spin-wave beams and to efficiently suppress their diffraction spreading by utilizing caustic effects.

  13. Modulation of short waves by long waves. [ocean wave interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, A. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Wave-tank experiments were performed to investigate the cyclic short-wave energy changes, related in phase to an underlying long wave, which occur during active generation of the short-wave field by wind. Measurements of time series of the short-wave slope were made by a laser-optical system, where the basic long-wave parameters were controlled and wind speeds were accurately reproducible. The short-wave slope variances were found to exhibit cyclic variations that are related to the phase of the long wave. The variations result from two combined effects: (1) the short wave frequency is varied by the long-wave orbital velocity; (2) the energy of the short waves is modulated by the actions of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic couplings that operate on the short waves in a manner related to the long-wave phase.

  14. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates incorporating site effects - An example from Indiana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasse, J.S.; Park, C.H.; Nowack, R.L.; Hill, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published probabilistic earthquake hazard maps for the United States based on current knowledge of past earthquake activity and geological constraints on earthquake potential. These maps for the central and eastern United States assume standard site conditions with Swave velocities of 760 m/s in the top 30 m. For urban and infrastructure planning and long-term budgeting, the public is interested in similar probabilistic seismic hazard maps that take into account near-surface geological materials. We have implemented a probabilistic method for incorporating site effects into the USGS seismic hazard analysis that takes into account the first-order effects of the surface geologic conditions. The thicknesses of sediments, which play a large role in amplification, were derived from a P-wave refraction database with over 13, 000 profiles, and a preliminary geology-based velocity model was constructed from available information on S-wave velocities. An interesting feature of the preliminary hazard maps incorporating site effects is the approximate factor of two increases in the 1-Hz spectral acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for parts of the greater Indianapolis metropolitan region and surrounding parts of central Indiana. This effect is primarily due to the relatively thick sequence of sediments infilling ancient bedrock topography that has been deposited since the Pleistocene Epoch. As expected, the Late Pleistocene and Holocene depositional systems of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers produce additional amplification in the southwestern part of Indiana. Ground motions decrease, as would be expected, toward the bedrock units in south-central Indiana, where motions are significantly lower than the values on the USGS maps.

  15. A study of the non-linear response of the upper atmosphere to episodic and stochastic acoustic-gravity wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. Y. T.; Deng, Y.; Sheng, C.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Waves of various spatial and temporal scales, including acoustic waves, gravity waves, tides, and planetary waves, modify the dynamics of the terrestrial atmosphere at all altitudes. Perturbations caused by the natural and mankind activities on the ground, such as volcano eruptions, earthquakes, explosions, propagate upward and impact the upper atmosphere. Among these waves, propagation of the atmospheric acoustic waves is particularly sensitive to the fine structure of the background atmosphere. However, the fine-structured gravity waves (smaller than 1° x 1°) are currently poorly measured especially at the altitudes above 100 km and are computationally too expensive for most models to incorporate properly. The Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) allows for non-hydrostatic solutions and has a flexible resolution. Thus, it is ideal for the study of vertical propagating waves. In this study, the ionospheric and thermospheric response to acoustic-gravity waves is first presented with an artificial source of various frequencies, followed by a case study of the 2014 Tohoku tsunami. Additionally a time-varying spectral gravity wavefield propagated from the ground is implemented into GITM to capture the statistical background structures that is crucial to the upper atmospheric models. Our results show the importance of consideration of background small-scale structures to interpretation of the observed ionospheric and thermospheric perturbations, such as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs).

  16. Complex seismic amplitude inversion for P-wave and S-wave quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-07-01

    Stratum quality factors (P-wave and S-wave quality factors, Qp and Qs) have gradually been utilized in the study of physical state of crust and uppermost mantle, tectonic evolution, hydrogeololgy, gas hydrates, petroleum exploration, etc. Different opinions of the seismic attenuation mechanism result in various approaches to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Considering the viscoelasticity of the underground medium, the constitutive matrix of the Earth medium is written as the superposition of homogeneous background medium, elastic perturbation medium and viscoelastic perturbation medium. Under the hypothesis of Born integral and stationary phase approximation, the seismic reflectivity is initially raised in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Furthermore, incorporating the complex seismic traces with the seismic wavelets at different offsets, a two-step inversion approach is proposed to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. The AVO/AVA Bayesian inversion approach is suggested to estimate the P-wave modulus and S-wave modulus with the real component of the pre-stack seismic data initially. Taking the estimated P-wave and S-wave moduli as prior information, the P-wave and S-wave quality factors are further estimated with the imaginary component of the complex pre-stack seismic data, which is the quadrature of the original data. Finally, synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to estimate P-wave and S-wave quality factors stably and properly, and two field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach may work as an efficient approach to fluid identification.

  17. Incorporating Spirituality in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2016-06-01

    Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians.

  18. Manganese incorporation into ferroelectric lead titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupin, Stanislav

    Substitution with 3d magnetic transition elements in ABO 3 ferroelectric perovskite host media is widely utilized to produce relaxor ferroelectrics. Many resulting solid solutions exhibit magnetoelectric properties affected by concentration levels of the introduced magnetic ions. For conventional material preparation techniques such as firing of mechanically mixed oxides, incorporation is often limited by 5 mol% concentration level. Doping at higher concentrations requires introduction of other substituents to compensate charge within the unit cell to promote formation of the perovskite phase. In contrast, molecular mixing of precursor materials at the initial phase of preparation procedure offers an advantage of achieving higher incorporation levels of the 3d elements without additional charge-compensating ions. Presented in this thesis is a new sol-gel procedure utilized for high level incorporation of 3d magnetic ions into ferroelectric lead titanate. The technique was applied to produce PbTi1-xMnxO 3 solid solution, a perovskite system promising for high degree of magnetoelectric coupling. Concentration dependent studies were performed to characterize structural, thermal, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the material. The solubility limit of Mn has been found to be 20 mol% and the material remains tetragonally distorted. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy confirms that local structural environment of Mn, Ti, and Pb is consistent with tetragonal symmetry of the unit cell. Increase in Mn concentration leads to reduction in melting point, broadening of the ferroelectric transition, reduction of the transition temperature and increase in dielectric constant of the material. At the solubility limit the system was found to be ferromagnetic below 50 K.

  19. On the use of wave parameterizations and a storm impact scaling model in National Weather Service Coastal Flood and decision support operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignone, Anthony; Stockdon, H.; Willis, M.; Cannon, J.W.; Thompson, R.

    2012-01-01

    National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) are responsible for issuing coastal flood watches, warnings, advisories, and local statements to alert decision makers and the general public when rising water levels may lead to coastal impacts such as inundation, erosion, and wave battery. Both extratropical and tropical cyclones can generate the prerequisite rise in water level to set the stage for a coastal impact event. Forecasters use a variety of tools including computer model guidance and local studies to help predict the potential severity of coastal flooding. However, a key missing component has been the incorporation of the effects of waves in the prediction of total water level and the associated coastal impacts. Several recent studies have demonstrated the importance of incorporating wave action into the NWS coastal flood program. To follow up on these studies, this paper looks at the potential of applying recently developed empirical parameterizations of wave setup, swash, and runup to the NWS forecast process. Additionally, the wave parameterizations are incorporated into a storm impact scaling model that compares extreme water levels to beach elevation data to determine the mode of coastal change at predetermined “hotspots” of interest. Specifically, the storm impact model compares the approximate storm-induced still water level, which includes contributions from tides, storm surge, and wave setup, to dune crest elevation to determine inundation potential. The model also compares the combined effects of tides, storm surge, and the 2 % exceedance level for vertical wave runup (including both wave setup and swash) to dune toe and crest elevations to determine if erosion and/or ocean overwash may occur. The wave parameterizations and storm impact model are applied to two cases in 2009 that led to significant coastal impacts and unique forecast challenges in North Carolina: the extratropical “Nor'Ida” event during 11-14 November and

  20. FORWARD MODELING OF PROPAGATING SLOW WAVES IN CORONAL LOOPS AND THEIR FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT DAMPING

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Sudip; Banerjee, Dipankar; Magyar, Norbert; Yuan, Ding; Doorsselaere, Tom Van

    2016-03-20

    Propagating slow waves in coronal loops exhibit a damping that depends upon the frequency of the waves. In this study we aim to investigate the relationship of the damping length (L{sub d}) with the frequency of the propagating wave. We present a 3D coronal loop model with uniform density and temperature and investigate the frequency-dependent damping mechanism for the four chosen wave periods. We include the thermal conduction to damp the waves as they propagate through the loop. The numerical model output has been forward modeled to generate synthetic images of SDO/AIA 171 and 193 Å channels. The use of forward modeling, which incorporates the atomic emission properties into the intensity images, allows us to directly compare our results with the real observations. The results show that the damping lengths vary linearly with the periods. We also measure the contributions of the emission properties on the damping lengths by using density values from the simulation. In addition to that we have also calculated the theoretical dependence of L{sub d} with wave periods and showed that it is consistent with the results we obtained from the numerical modeling and earlier observations.

  1. Optoelectronic devices incorporating fluoropolymer compositions for protection

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xuming; Chum, Pak-Wing S.; Howard, Kevin E.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Sumner, William C.; Wu, Shaofu

    2015-12-22

    The fluoropolymer compositions of the present invention generally incorporate ingredients comprising one or more fluoropolymers, an ultraviolet light protection component (hereinafter UV protection component), and optionally one or more additional ingredients if desired. The UV protection component includes a combination of at least one hindered tertiary amine (HTA) compound having a certain structure and a weight average molecular weight of at least 1000. This tertiary amine is used in combination with at least one organic, UV light absorbing compound (UVLA compound) having a weight average molecular weight greater than 500. When the HTA compound and the UVLA compound are selected according to principles of the present invention, the UV protection component provides fluoropolymer compositions with significantly improved weatherability characteristics for protecting underlying materials, features, structures, components, and/or the like. In particular, fluoropolymer compositions incorporating the UV protection component of the present invention have unexpectedly improved ability to resist blackening, coloration, or other de gradation that may be caused by UV exposure. As a consequence, devices protected by these compositions would be expected to have dramatically improved service life. The compositions have a wide range of uses but are particularly useful for forming protective layers in optoelectronic devices.

  2. Incorporating Geospatial Technology into Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproles, E. A.; Songer, L.

    2009-12-01

    The need for students to think spatially and use geospatial technologies is becoming more critical as these tools and concepts are increasingly incorporated into a broad range of occupations and academic disciplines. Geospatial Teaching Across the Curriculum (Geo-STAC) is a collaborative program that provides high school teachers with mentored professional development workshops in geospatial thought and technology. The seminars, led by community college faculty, give high school teachers the ability to incorporate geospatial technology into coursework across the curriculum — in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and non-STEM disciplines. Students participating in the hands-on lessons gain experience in web-based and desktop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The goals of the workshop are for teachers to: (1) understand the importance of geospatial thinking; (2) learn how to employ geospatial thinking in each discipline; (3) learn about geospatial technologies; (4) develop a Web-based GIS lesson; and, (5) implement a Web-based GIS lesson. Additionally, Geo-STAC works with high school students so that they: (1) understand the importance of geospatial technologies and careers in future job markets; (2) learn how to use Web-based GIS to solve problems; and, (3) visit the community college GIS lab and experience using desktop GIS. Geo-STAC actively disseminates this collaborative model to colleges to community colleges and high schools across the country.

  3. Efficient way to convert propagating waves into guided waves via gradient wire structures.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hong Chen; Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method for the design of gradient wire structures that are capable of converting propagating waves into guided waves along the wire. The conversion process is achieved by imposing an additional wave vector to the scattered waves via the gradient wire structure, such that the wave vector of scattered waves is beyond the wave number in the background medium. Thus, the scattered waves turn into evanescent waves. We demonstrate that two types of gradient wire structures, with either a gradient permittivity and a fixed radius, or a gradient radius and a fixed permittivity, can both be designed to realize such a wave conversion effect. The principle demonstrated in our work has potential applications in various areas including nanophotonics, silicone photonics, and plasmonics.

  4. Radiation shielding materials and containers incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound ("PYRUC") shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  5. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    DOEpatents

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  6. Determining wave direction using curvature parameters.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Eduardo Vitarelli; de Carvalho, João Luiz Baptista

    2016-01-01

    The curvature of the sea wave was tested as a parameter for estimating wave direction in the search for better results in estimates of wave direction in shallow waters, where waves of different sizes, frequencies and directions intersect and it is difficult to characterize. We used numerical simulations of the sea surface to determine wave direction calculated from the curvature of the waves. Using 1000 numerical simulations, the statistical variability of the wave direction was determined. The results showed good performance by the curvature parameter for estimating wave direction. Accuracy in the estimates was improved by including wave slope parameters in addition to curvature. The results indicate that the curvature is a promising technique to estimate wave directions.•In this study, the accuracy and precision of curvature parameters to measure wave direction are analyzed using a model simulation that generates 1000 wave records with directional resolution.•The model allows the simultaneous simulation of time-series wave properties such as sea surface elevation, slope and curvature and they were used to analyze the variability of estimated directions.•The simultaneous acquisition of slope and curvature parameters can contribute to estimates wave direction, thus increasing accuracy and precision of results.

  7. Droplet networks with incorporated protein diodes show collective properties.

    PubMed

    Maglia, Giovanni; Heron, Andrew J; Hwang, William L; Holden, Matthew A; Mikhailova, Ellina; Li, Qiuhong; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan

    2009-07-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that submicrolitre aqueous droplets submerged in an apolar liquid containing lipid can be tightly connected by means of lipid bilayers to form networks. Droplet interface bilayers have been used for rapid screening of membrane proteins and to form asymmetric bilayers with which to examine the fundamental properties of channels and pores. Networks, meanwhile, have been used to form microscale batteries and to detect light. Here, we develop an engineered protein pore with diode-like properties that can be incorporated into droplet interface bilayers in droplet networks to form devices with electrical properties including those of a current limiter, a half-wave rectifier and a full-wave rectifier. The droplet approach, which uses unsophisticated components (oil, lipid, salt water and a simple pore), can therefore be used to create multidroplet networks with collective properties that cannot be produced by droplet pairs.

  8. Wave Propagation in the Vicinities of Rock Fractures Under Obliquely Incident Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yang; Li, Jianchun; He, Lei; laloui, Lyesse; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Though obliquely incident plane wave across rock fractures has been extensively investigated by theoretical analysis, the quantitative identification of each wave emerged from fractures has not been achieved either in numerical simulation or laboratory experiment. On the other hand, there are no theoretical results describing the stress/velocity state of the rocks beside a fracture. The superposition of the multiple waves propagating in the media results in the variation of the stress/velocity state. To understand the superposition of the wave components in the adjacent rocks of a facture, based on the geometrical analysis of the wave paths, the lag times among passing waves at an arbitrary point are determined. The normalised critical distances from the fracture to the measuring locations where the corresponding harmonic waves depart from other waves for a certain duration are then derived. Discussion on the correction for an arbitrary incident wave is then carried out considering the changes of the duration of the reflected and transmitted waves. Under the guidance of the analysis, wave superposition is performed for theoretical results and separated waves are obtained from numerical model. They are demonstrated to be consistent with each other. The measurement and the data processing provide an approach for wave separation in a relatively unbounded media. In addition, based on the mechanical analysis on the wave front, an indirect wave separation method is proposed which provides a possibility for laboratory experiments of wave propagation with an arbitrary incident angle.

  9. Making WAVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindes, Victoria A.; Hom, Keri; Brookshaw, Keith

    About 46% of high school graduates enrolled in California State Universities need remedial courses in both math and English to prepare them for college level. These students typically earned B averages in their high school math and English classes. In order to address this issue, Shasta College launched Operation WAVES (Win by Achieving Valuable…

  10. Incorporation of heparin into biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of the incorporation of heparin into biomaterials with a focus on drug delivery and the use of heparin-based biomaterials for self-assembly of polymer networks. Heparin conjugation to biomaterials was originally explored to reduce the thrombogenicity of materials in contact with blood. Many of the conjugation strategies that were developed for these applications are still popular today for other applications. More recently heparin has been conjugated to biomaterials for drug delivery applications. Many of the delivery approaches have taken advantage of the ability of heparin to bind to a wide variety of growth factors, protecting them from degradation and potentiating interactions with cell surface receptors. More recently, the use of heparin as a base polymer for scaffold fabrication has also been explored, often utilizing non-covalent binding of heparin with peptides or proteins to promote self-assembly of hydrogel networks. This review will highlight recent advances in each of these areas.

  11. Resonance wave pumping with surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmigniani, Remi; Gharib, Morteza; Violeau, Damien; Caltech-ENPC Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The valveless impedance pump enables the production or amplification of a flow without the use of integrated mobile parts, thus delaying possible failures. It is usually composed of fluid-filled flexible tubing, closed by solid tubes. The flexible tube is pinched at an off-centered position relative to the tube ends. This generates a complex wave dynamic that results in a pumping phenomenon. It has been previously reported that pinching at intrinsic resonance frequencies of the system results in a strong pulsating flow. A case of a free surface wave pump is investigated. The resonance wave pump is composed of a rectangular tank with a submerged plate separating the water into a free surface and a recirculation rectangular section connected through two openings at each end of the tank. A paddle placed at an off-center position above the submerged plate is controlled in a heaving motion with different frequencies and amplitudes. Similar to the case of valveless impedance pump, we observed that near resonance frequencies strong pulsating flow is generated with almost no oscillations. A linear theory is developed to pseudo-analytically evaluate these frequencies. In addition, larger scale applications were simulated using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic codes.

  12. Imaging the Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity in the Earth's Mantle using Free Oscillations, Body Waves, Surface Waves and Long-period Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Ekstrom, G.

    2013-12-01

    We incorporate normal-mode splitting functions into a framework containing surface-wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body-wave travel times to investigate the three-dimensional structure of anisotropic shear-wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. In contrast with earlier studies, our modeling approach spans a wider spectrum (0.3-50 mHz) of seismological observables, jointly inverts for velocity and anisotropy apart from the discontinuity topographies, and incorporates new crustal corrections for the splitting functions that are consistent with the nonlinear corrections we employ for the waveforms. Our preferred anisotropic model, S362ANI+, an update to S362ANI, gives better fits to the recently measured splitting functions of spheroidal and toroidal modes that are modeled in this study. The splitting functions require additional isotropic variations in the transition zone and the mid mantle that are geographically distributed in the southern hemisphere. The level of agreement in the isotropic shear-velocity structure is higher between S362ANI+ and other recent studies than in the earlier generation of models. The anisotropic part of S362ANI+ is similar to S362ANI and is restricted to the upper 300 km in the mantle since only small improvements in fits are observed on adding anisotropy at depth. We also show that modeling the splitting functions reduces the tradeoffs between lateral variations in velocity and anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. Therefore, more data should be included to constrain any radial anisotropy in the transition zone and in the lower mantle.

  13. Platelet-derived growth factor stimulated mechanisms of glucosamine incorporation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, M.A.; Pledger, W.J. )

    1987-10-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) treatment of density-arrested BALB/c-3T3 cells results in increased ({sup 3}H)glucosamine (GlcN) incorporation into cellular material. The enhanced GlcN incorporation is not due to a preferential increase in proteoglycan synthesis as measured by ({sup 35}S)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} incorporation. Approximately 50% of the GlcN incorporated in PDGF or platelet-poor plasma (PPP)-treated cultures enters N-linked glycoproteins. Addition of dolichol-phosphate (dolichol-P), a required intermediate in N-linked glycosylation, did not alter ({sup 3}H)GlcN incorporation in PDGF-treated cells but did increase incorporation in PPP-treated cultures to a level comparable to that observed for PDGF-treated cultures. PDGF-treated cultures contained twofold greater quantities of ({sup 3}H)GlcN dolichol intermediates and lipid-free glycoprotein. Over a 12-h time course 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) activity was similar in cultures treated with PDGF or PPP. Results of these studies reveal that enhanced protein glycosylation in response to PDGF treatment is not the result of a direct effect on HMG CoA reductase.

  14. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part...

  15. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials are thereby made part of...

  16. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  17. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  18. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  19. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  20. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are hereby... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...

  1. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials are thereby made part of...

  2. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  3. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials are thereby made part of...

  4. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials are thereby made part of...

  5. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  6. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  7. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part...

  8. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials are thereby made part of...

  9. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  10. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physics scenarios is explained. Natural ideas of developing highly informative models of plasma kinetics are spelled out. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves in a weakly turbulent inhomogeneous plasma is developed with consideration of possible changes in wave polarization. In addition, a new formula for wave drift in spatial positions and wave vectors is derived. New scenarios of the respective wave drift and inelastic scattering are compared with the previous visions. The results indicate the need for further revision of the traditional understanding of nonlinear plasma phenomena.

  11. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves

    SciTech Connect

    Erofeev, V. I.

    2015-09-15

    The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physics scenarios is explained. Natural ideas of developing highly informative models of plasma kinetics are spelled out. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves in a weakly turbulent inhomogeneous plasma is developed with consideration of possible changes in wave polarization. In addition, a new formula for wave drift in spatial positions and wave vectors is derived. New scenarios of the respective wave drift and inelastic scattering are compared with the previous visions. The results indicate the need for further revision of the traditional understanding of nonlinear plasma phenomena.

  12. Incorporation of chlorogenic acids in coffee brew melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Bekedam, E Koen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-03-26

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the released QA and CA were quantified. For all melanoidin fractions, it was found that more QA than CA was released. QA levels correlated with melanoidin levels, indicating that QA is incorporated in melanoidins. The QA level was correlated with increasing ionic charge of the melanoidin populations, suggesting that QA may contribute to the negative charge and consequently is, most likely, not linked via its carboxyl group. The QA level correlated with the phenolic acid group level, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, indicating that QA was incorporated to a similar extent as the polyphenolic moiety from CGA. The QA and CA released from brew fractions by enzymes confirmed the incorporation of intact CGAs. Intact CGAs are proposed to be incorporated in melanoidins upon roasting via CA through mainly nonester linkages. This complex can be written as Mel=CA-QA, in which Mel represents the melanoidin backbone, =CA represents CA nonester-linked to the melanoidin backbone, and -QA represents QA ester-linked to CA. Additionally, a total of 12% of QA was identified in coffee brew, whereas only 6% was reported in the literature so far. The relevance of the additional QA on coffee brew stability is discussed.

  13. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  14. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha; Prudell, Joseph H.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe

    2013-07-29

    The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

  15. Diffusion approximation with polarization and resonance effects for the modelling of seismic waves in strongly scattering small-scale media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerin, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the multiple scattering of seismic waves by a collection of randomly distributed point scatterers. The theory assumes that the energy envelopes are smooth, but does not require perturbations to be small, thereby allowing the modelling of strong, resonant scattering. The correlation tensor of seismic coda waves recorded at a three-component sensor is decomposed into a sum of eigenmodes of the elastodynamic multiple scattering (Bethe-Salpeter) equation. For a general moment tensor excitation, a total number of four modes is necessary to describe the transport of seismic waves polarization. Their spatio-temporal dependence is given in closed analytical form. Two additional modes transporting exclusively shear polarizations may be excited by antisymmetric moment tensor sources only. The general solution converges towards an equipartition mixture of diffusing P and S waves which allows the retrieval of the local Green's function from coda waves. The equipartition time is obtained analytically and the impact of absorption on Green's function reconstruction is discussed. The process of depolarization of multiply scattered waves and the resulting loss of information is illustrated for various seismic sources. It is shown that coda waves may be used to characterize the source mechanism up to lapse times of the order of a few mean free times only. In the case of resonant scatterers, a formula for the diffusivity of seismic waves incorporating the effect of energy entrapment inside the scatterers is obtained. Application of the theory to high-contrast media demonstrates that coda waves are more sensitive to slow rather than fast velocity anomalies by several orders of magnitude. Resonant scattering appears as an attractive physical phenomenon to explain the small values of the diffusion constant of seismic waves reported in volcanic areas.

  16. On neutron surface waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatovich, V. K.

    2009-01-15

    It is shown that neutron surface waves do not exist. The difference between the neutron wave mechanics and the wave physics of electromagnetic and acoustic processes, which allows the existence of surface waves, is analyzed.

  17. Face Recognition Incorporating Ancillary Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Ki; Toh, Kar-Ann; Lee, Sangyoun

    2007-12-01

    Due to vast variations of extrinsic and intrinsic imaging conditions, face recognition remained to be a challenging computer vision problem even today. This is particularly true when the passive imaging approach is considered for robust applications. To advance existing recognition systems for face, numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to overcome the almost inevitable performance degradation due to external factors such as pose, expression, occlusion, and illumination. In particular, the recent part-based method has provided noticeable room for verification performance improvement based on the localized features which have good tolerance to variation of external conditions. The part-based method, however, does not really stretch the performance without incorporation of global information from the holistic method. In view of the need to fuse the local information and the global information in an adaptive manner for reliable recognition, in this paper we investigate whether such external factors can be explicitly estimated and be used to boost the verification performance during fusion of the holistic and part-based methods. Our empirical evaluations show noticeable performance improvement adopting the proposed method.

  18. Incorporating transgenerational testing and epigenetic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A number of environmental chemicals have been shown to alter markers of epigenetic change. Some published multi-generation rodent studies have identified effects on F2 and greater generations after chemical exposures solely to F0 dams, but were not focused on chemical safety. We were interested in how outcomes related to epigenetic changes could be identified and incorporated into chemical testing and risk assessment. To address this question, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify transgenerational (TG) epigenetic studies in rodents. These were analyzed to characterize the methods and observed outcomes, and to evaluate strengths, limitations, and biases. Our analysis found that test substances were administered to pregnant F0 dams; endpoints assessed in F1 to F4 generation offspring included growth, puberty timing, steroid hormone levels, abdominal adiposity, organ weights, histopathology, and epigenetic biomarkers. Biases were minimized through, e.g., randomization procedures, avoiding sibling or cousin matings, and independent multiple reviews of histopathology data. However, the numbers of litters assigned to control and test groups were not always transparently reported, nested statistical analyses of data was not always utilized to address litter effects, and “blind” testing was seldom performed. Many of these studies identified chemicals or combinations of chemicals that produced TG effects and/or adult-onset diseases, but there is a

  19. Characteristics of Kelvin waves and Mixed Rossby-Gravity waves in opposite QBO phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman Fathullah, Nur; Lubis, Sandro W.; Setiawan, Sonni

    2017-01-01

    A 35-year ERA-Interim dataset from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was used to study the characteristics of Kelvin waves and Mixed Rossby-gravity waves based on a Space-Time Spectral Analysis (STSA). The results show that Kelvin wave activity is stronger during easterly QBO phases, while Mixed Rossby-gravity waves are stronger during westerly QBO phases. Analysis on seasonal variations indicates that the Kelvin waves and Mixed Rossby-Gravity wave activities increase in JJA and SON, respectively. This is associated with a variation of basic mean flow in the lower stratosphere. In addition, the variations of Kelvin and Mixed Rossby-Gravity waves in the troposphere are not significantly affected by the QBO phases. In the troposphere, both Kelvin waves and Mixed Rossby-Gravity waves propagate with a lower phase speed compared to those observed in the stratosphere. This behavior is to be likely due to large.

  20. Stability of steady rotational water-waves of finite amplitude on arbitrary shear currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seez, William; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A versatile solver for the two-dimensional Euler equations with an unknown free-surface has been developed. This code offers the possibility to calculate two-dimensional, steady rotational water-waves of finite amplitude on an arbitrary shear current. Written in PYTHON the code incorporates both pseudo-spectral and finite-difference methods in the discretisation of the equations and thus allows the user to capture waves with large steepnesses. As such it has been possible to establish that, in a counter-flowing situation, the existence of wave solutions is not guaranteed and depends on a pair of parameters representing mass flux and vorticity. This result was predicted, for linear solutions, by Constantin. Furthermore, experimental comparisons, both with and without vorticity, have proven the precision of this code. Finally, waves propagating on top of highly realistic shear currents (exponential profiles under the surface) have been calculated following current profiles such as those used by Nwogu. In addition, a stability analysis routine has been developed to study the stability regimes of base waves calculated with the two-dimensional code. This linear stability analysis is based on three dimensional perturbations of the steady situation which lead to a generalised eigenvalue problem. Common instabilities of the first and second class have been detected, while a third class of wave-instability appears due to the presence of strong vorticity. {1} Adrian Constantin and Walter Strauss. {Exact steady periodic water waves with vorticity}. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 57(4):481-527, April 2004. Okey G. Nwogu. {Interaction of finite-amplitude waves with vertically sheared current fields}. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 627:179, May 2009.

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  3. Incorporating Yoga into College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Yoga has become increasingly popular in the United States, and college counselors should be familiar with this practice due to its popularity among college students. This article provides a brief overview of yoga and research on its benefits for mental health concerns often experienced by college students. Additionally, it addresses methods of…

  4. Electronically nonadiabatic wave packet propagation using frozen Gaussian scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kondorskiy, Alexey D.; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-09-21

    We present an approach, which allows to employ the adiabatic wave packet propagation technique and semiclassical theory to treat the nonadiabatic processes by using trajectory hopping. The approach developed generates a bunch of hopping trajectories and gives all additional information to incorporate the effect of nonadiabatic coupling into the wave packet dynamics. This provides an interface between a general adiabatic frozen Gaussian wave packet propagation method and the trajectory surface hopping technique. The basic idea suggested in [A. D. Kondorskiy and H. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8937 (2004)] is revisited and complemented in the present work by the elaboration of efficient numerical algorithms. We combine our approach with the adiabatic Herman-Kluk frozen Gaussian approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the resulting method is demonstrated by applying it to popular benchmark model systems including three Tully’s models and 24D model of pyrazine. It is shown that photoabsorption spectrum is successfully reproduced by using a few hundreds of trajectories. We employ the compact finite difference Hessian update scheme to consider feasibility of the ab initio “on-the-fly” simulations. It is found that this technique allows us to obtain the reliable final results using several Hessian matrix calculations per trajectory.

  5. RF Wave Simulation Using the MFEM Open Source FEM Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillerman, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.; Green, D. L.; Kolev, T.

    2016-10-01

    A new plasma wave simulation environment based on the finite element method is presented. MFEM, a scalable open-source FEM library, is used as the basis for this capability. MFEM allows for assembling an FEM matrix of arbitrarily high order in a parallel computing environment. A 3D frequency domain RF physics layer was implemented using a python wrapper for MFEM and a cold collisional plasma model was ported. This physics layer allows for defining the plasma RF wave simulation model without user knowledge of the FEM weak-form formulation. A graphical user interface is built on πScope, a python-based scientific workbench, such that a user can build a model definition file interactively. Benchmark cases have been ported to this new environment, with results being consistent with those obtained using COMSOL multiphysics, GENRAY, and TORIC/TORLH spectral solvers. This work is a first step in bringing to bear the sophisticated computational tool suite that MFEM provides (e.g., adaptive mesh refinement, solver suite, element types) to the linear plasma-wave interaction problem, and within more complicated integrated workflows, such as coupling with core spectral solver, or incorporating additional physics such as an RF sheath potential model or kinetic effects. USDoE Awards DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-FC02-01ER54648.

  6. Geofluid Discrimination Incorporating Poroelasticity and Seismic Reflection Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-09-01

    Geofluid discrimination plays an important role in the fields of hydrogeology, geothermics, and exploration geophysics. A geofluid discrimination approach incorporating linearized poroelasticity theory and pre-stack seismic reflection inversion with Bayesian inference is proposed in this study to identify the types of geofluid underground. Upon the review of the development of different geofluid indicators, the fluid modulus is defined as the geofluid indicator mainly affected by the fluid contained in reservoirs. A novel linearized P-wave reflectivity equation coupling the fluid modulus is derived to avoid the complicated nonlinear relationship between the fluid modulus and seismic data. Model examples illustrate the accuracy of the proposed linearized P-wave reflectivity equation comparing to the exact P-wave reflectivity equation even at moderate incident angle, which satisfies the requirements of the parameter estimations with P-wave pre-stack seismic data. Convoluting this linearized P-wave reflectivity equation with seismic wavelets as the forward solver, a pragmatic pre-stack Bayesian seismic inversion method is presented to estimate the fluid modulus directly. Cauchy and Gaussian probability distributions are utilized for prior information of the model parameters and the likelihood function, respectively, to enhance the inversion resolution. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method is coupled in the optimization of the objective function to weaken the strong degree of correlation among the four model parameters and enhance the stability of those parameter estimations simultaneously. The synthetic examples demonstrate the feasibility and stability of the proposed novel seismic coefficient equation and inversion approach. The real data set illustrates the efficiency and success of the proposed approach in differentiating the geofluid filled reservoirs.

  7. EnviroAtlas: Incorporation of Community-Scale Data for Additional Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    EnviroAtlas is ORD’s online spatial decision support tool for viewing and analyzing the supply, demand, and drivers of change related to natural and built infrastructure at multiple scales for the nation. Maps and text identify known relationships between the goods and services ...

  8. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  9. On the numerical solution of two-dimensional, laminar compressible flows with imbedded shock waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Lamb, J. P.; Bertin, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The complete, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are expressed in conservation form and solved by employing an explicit finite difference numerical technique which incorporates artificial viscosity terms of the form first suggested by Rusanov for numerical stability in the vicinity of shock waves. Surface boundary conditions are developed in a consistent and unique manner through the use of a physically oriented extrapolation procedure. From numerical experimentation an extended range for the explicit stability parameter is established. Also employed is an additional convergence parameter which relates incremental spatial steps. Convergence of the transient solution to a steady state flow was obtained after 400 to 500 time steps.

  10. Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    The nature and propagation of seismic waves are fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the exploration of Earth's interior structure and properties, plate tectonics, earthquakes, and seismic hazards. Investigating seismic waves is also an engaging approach to learning basic principles of the physics of waves and wave propagation. Several effective educational activities and demonstrations are available for teaching about seismic waves, including the stretching of a spring to demonstrate elasticity; slinky wave propagation activities for compressional, shear, Rayleigh and Love waves; the human wave activity to demonstrate P- and S- waves in solids and liquids; waves in water in a simple wave tank; seismic wave computer animations; simple shake table demonstrations of model building responses to seismic waves to illustrate earthquake damage to structures; processing and analysis of seismograms using free and easy to use software; and seismic wave simulation software for viewing wave propagation in a spherical Earth. The use of multiple methods for teaching about seismic waves is useful because it provides reinforcement of the fundamental concepts, is adaptable to variable classroom situations and diverse learning styles, and allows one or more methods to be used for authentic assessment. The methods described here have been used effectively with a broad range of audiences, including K-12 students and teachers, undergraduate students in introductory geosciences courses, and geosciences majors.

  11. Mesosphere Dynamics with Gravity Wave Forcing. 2; Planetary Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present results from a non-linear, 3D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NSM) which extends from the ground up into the thermosphere and incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). Our focal point is the mesosphere where wave interactions are playing a dominant role. We discuss planetary waves in the present paper and diurnal and semi-diurnal tides in the companion paper. Without external time dependent energy or momentum sources, planetary waves (PWs) are generated in the model for zonal wavenumbers 1 to 4, which have amplitudes in the mesosphere above 50 km as large as 30 m/s and periods between 2 and 50 days. The waves are generated primarily during solstice conditions, which indicates that the baroclinic instability (associated with the GW driven reversal in the latitudinal temperature gradient) is playing an important role. Results from a numerical experiment show that GWs are also involved directly in generating the PWs. For the zonal wavenumber m = 1, the predominant wave periods in summer are around 4 days and in winter between 6 and 10 days. For m = 2, the periods are in summer and close to 2.5 and 3.5 days respectively For m = 3, 4 the predominant wave periods are in both seasons close to two days. The latter waves have the characteristics of Rossby gravity waves with meridional winds at equatorial latitudes. A common feature of the PWs (m = 1 to 4) generated in summer and winter is that their vertical wavelengths throughout the mesosphere are large which indicates that the waves are not propagating freely but are generated throughout the region. Another common feature is that the PWs propagate preferentially westward in summer and eastward in winter, being launched from the westward and eastward zonal winds that prevail respectively in summer and winter altitudes below 80 km. During spring and fall, for m = 1 and 2 eastward propagating long period PWs are generated that are launched from the smaller

  12. Hurricane-induced waves and storm surge modeling for the Mexican coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Padilla, Rafael; Appendini, Christian M.; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the application of a third-generation wave model and a hydrodynamic model to determine extreme waves and water levels associated to the incidence of tropical cyclones along the Mexican coast. In addition to historical records and to overcome the limitation associated to data scarcity in Mexico, we employ information from 3100 synthetic events generated from a statistical/deterministic hurricane model. This enables the generation of a more robust database for the characterization of extreme water levels along the Mexican coast. The procedure incorporates a storm track modeling approach where, for each hurricane (historic and synthetic), the entire track is numerically reproduced as it crosses the ocean and makes landfall. Extreme values for both, waves and storm surge, are determined through an extreme value analysis at each mesh element, allowing for the identification of their spatial variability. Results for the Gulf of Mexico show that highest waves are expected along both the Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, while extreme water levels due to storm surge are identified in the northern part of the Yucatan Peninsula. On the other hand, along the Pacific coast, extreme values for waves are identified at the central mainland Mexico while storm surge is minimal. The methodology is proved to be a good alternative in the reproduction of continuously varying tropical cyclone climatology along the Mexican coastline, and it provides a rational approach for assessing the hurricane-induced risk in coastal areas.

  13. Anisotropic material model and wave propagation simulations for shocked pentaerythritol tetranitrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2010-05-01

    An anisotropic continuum material model was developed to describe the thermomechanical response of unreacted pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) single crystals to shock wave loading. Using this model, which incorporates nonlinear elasticity and crystal plasticity in a thermodynamically consistent tensor formulation, wave propagation simulations were performed to compare to experimental wave profiles [J. J. Dick and J. P. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2726 (1994)] for PETN crystals under plate impact loading to 1.2 GPa. Our simulations show that for shock propagation along the [100] orientation where deformation across shear planes is sterically unhindered, a dislocation-based model provides a good match to the wave profile data. For shock propagation along the [110] direction, where deformation across shear planes is sterically hindered, a dislocation-based model cannot account for the observed strain-softening behavior. Instead, a shear cracking model was developed, providing good agreement with the data for [110] and [001] shock orientations. These results show that inelastic deformation due to hindered and unhindered shear in PETN occurs through mechanisms that are physically different. In addition, results for shock propagation normal to the (101) crystal plane suggest that the primary slip system identified from quasistatic indentation tests is not activated under shock wave loading. Overall, results from our continuum simulations are consistent with a previously proposed molecular mechanism for shock-induced chemical reaction in PETN in which the formation of polar conformers, due to hindered shear, facilitates the development of ionic reaction pathways.

  14. Capillary rogue waves.

    PubMed

    Shats, M; Punzmann, H; Xia, H

    2010-03-12

    We report the first observation of extreme wave events (rogue waves) in parametrically driven capillary waves. Rogue waves are observed above a certain threshold in forcing. Above this threshold, frequency spectra broaden and develop exponential tails. For the first time we present evidence of strong four-wave coupling in nonlinear waves (high tricoherence), which points to modulation instability as the main mechanism in rogue waves. The generation of rogue waves is identified as the onset of a distinct tail in the probability density function of the wave heights. Their probability is higher than expected from the measured wave background.

  15. Misidentification caused by leaky surface wave in high-frequency surface wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lingli; Xia, Jianghai; Pan, Yudi

    2014-12-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method analyses high-frequency surface waves to determine shear (S)-wave velocities of near-surface materials, which are usually unconsolidated and possess higher Poisson's ratios. One of key steps using the MASW method to obtain the near-surface S-wave velocities is to pick correct phase velocities in dispersive images. A high-frequency seismic survey conducted over near-surface materials with a higher Poisson's ratio will often result in data that contains non-geometric wave, which will raise an additional energy in the dispersion image. Failure to identify it may result in misidentification. In this paper, we have presented a description about leaky surface wave and the influence caused by the existence of leaky waves in a high-frequency seismic record. We first introduce leaky wave and non-geometric wave. Next, we use two synthetic tests to demonstrate that non-geometric wave is leaky wave and show the properties about leaky surface wave by eigenfunctions using Chen's algorithm. We show that misidentification may occur in picking the dispersion curves of normal Rayleigh wave modes because the leaky-wave energy normally connects energy of fundamental and/or higher modes. Meanwhile, we use a real-world example to demonstrate the influence of leaky wave. We also propose that muting and filtering should been applied to raw seismic records prior to generating dispersive images to prevent misidentifying leaky surface waves as modal surface waves by a real-world example. Finally, we use a three-layer model with a low-velocity half-space to illustrate that leaky surface waves appear on condition that the phase velocities are higher than maximum S-wave velocity of the earth model when solving the Rayleigh equation.

  16. Retroviral env glycoprotein trafficking and incorporation into virions.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Together with the Gag protein, the Env glycoprotein is a major retroviral structural protein and is essential for forming infectious virus particles. Env is synthesized, processed, and transported to certain microdomains at the plasma membrane and takes advantage of the same host machinery for its trafficking as that used by cellular glycoproteins. Incorporation of Env into progeny virions is probably mediated by the interaction between Env and Gag, in some cases with the additional involvement of certain host factors. Although several general models have been proposed to explain the incorporation of retroviral Env glycoproteins into virions, the actual mechanism for this process is still unclear, partly because structural data on the Env protein cytoplasmic tail is lacking. This paper presents the current understanding of the synthesis, trafficking, and virion incorporation of retroviral Env proteins.

  17. Incorporation of pyrene in polypyrrole/polystyrene magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Głowala, Paulina; Budniak, Adam; Krug, Pamela; Wysocka, Barbara; Berbeć, Sylwia; Dec, Robert; Dołęga, Izabela; Kacprzak, Kamil; Wojciechowski, Jarosław; Kawałko, Jakub; Kępka, Paweł; Kępińska, Daria; Kijewska, Krystyna; Mazur, Maciej

    2014-10-15

    Pyrene, a fluorescent dye, was incorporated into polystyrene particles coated with polypyrrole. The incorporation was achieved by treating the polypyrrole/polystyrene (PPy/PS) beads in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of the pyrene fluorophore followed by rinsing with methanol. The polystyrene cores of the beads swell in THF, allowing penetration of pyrene molecules into the polystyrene structure. The addition of methanol causes contraction of the swollen polystyrene, which encapsulates the dye molecules inside the beads. It is shown that the polypyrrole coating is permeable with respect to both the dye and the solvent, allowing the transport of molecules between the polystyrene cores and the contacting solution. The polypyrrole adlayer can be used as a matrix for the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles. Embedded particles provide magnetic functionality to the PPy/PS beads. It is demonstrated that the pyrene-loaded beads can be manipulated with an external magnetic field.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Dopant Incorporation in CdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrey, Harvey; Moseley, John; Colegrove, Eric; Burst, James; Albin, David; Metzger, Wyatt; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

    2016-11-21

    In this work we use state-of-the-art cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum imaging that provides spectrum-per-pixel mapping of the CL emission to examine how dopant elements are incorporated into CdTe. Emission spectra and intensity are used to monitor the spatial distribution of additional charge carriers through characteristic variations in the CL emission based on theoretical modeling. Our results show that grain boundaries play a role in the incorporation of dopants in CdTe, whether intrinsic or extrinsic. This type of analysis is crucial for providing feedback to design different processing schedules that optimize dopant incorporation in CdTe photovoltaic material, which has struggled to reach high carrier concentration values. Here, we present results on CdTe films exposed to copper, phosphorus, and intrinsic doping treatments.

  19. Nonlinear Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-27

    con- €"" straints:’. *’Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica . Universita di Roma 1. 00185 u 11lia. tr(a U(x)) = 0. (7a. 2469 1. Math,. PyS. 26 (10...Tenenblat Universidade de Brasilia Departamento de Matematica Brasilia, Brasil September 1985 , - . Abstract The generalized wave equation and generalized...Permanent addrems: Dipartimento di Fisica . Universita di Roma t3 U, 0. Roma. Italy The linear limit of i3) provides the most general solution ot 2614 J. MatM

  20. Wave Dissipation and Balance - NOPP Wave Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    processes that affect wind-generated ocean gravity waves. The various dissipative processes that contribute to the spectral wave evolution are isolated...over mature ocean surface wave spectra. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34:3345–2358, 2004. K. Hasselmann. On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity wave...P. Giovanangeli. Air flow structure over short- gravity breaking water waves. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 126:477–705, 2008. doi: 10.1007/s10546-007

  1. Breaking of waves in deep water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    The breaking of waves is a nonlinear phenomenon during which a fraction of the energy is dissipated. In the previous stage the wave undergoes a growth of its amplitude and the wave pattern is modified in the sense that the crests become more pronounced than the troughs. The breaking has been extensively studied in the case of waves approaching the shore. However, the wave breaking in deep water remains an open problem in fluid dynamics. In this work we study the wave breaking due to focusing of an initially parabolic wave front. To this end the evolution of wave is numerically investigated using a meshless code (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics). We present some results about the evolution of waves excited by a parabolic wave maker, among others, the growth induced by the focusing, the behavior around the Huygens' cusp and the process of wave breaking. Then, we compare the numerical results with the criteria given in the literature about the onset of breaking and we discuss how the energy dissipates, for example by the rise of short waves. In addition we compare the numerical results with data obtained in two different experiments made by our team. Author acknowledges DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN116312, ``Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos.''

  2. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  3. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  4. CMS-Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CMS -Wave 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward-marching, finite...difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection

  5. How Forgetful are Seismic Waves ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkereit, B.

    2005-05-01

    3D surface seismic and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) techniques can be employed to image crustal structures in complex geological settings. The effects of heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation can be described in terms of different propagation regimes (Wu, 1989): quasi-homogeneous for heterogeneities too small to be seen by seismic waves, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering and small-angle scattering. These scattering regimes cause characteristic amplitude, phase and travel time fluctuation, which can be used to obtain estimates of scale length. Horizontal resolution of exploration seismic data is often discussed in terms of Fresnel zone. For surface and VSP data, the Fresnel radius increases with increasing depth of investigation. In addition, the lateral resolution is limited by the effective frequency content of the seismic signal. Based on strong contrast in petrophysical data, crustal exploration targets (such as gas-hydrates, permafrost or massive sulfide ores) should make strong P-wave, S-wave and converted wave reflectors against most background velocity models. In the context of realistic geological models, 3D numerical simulations are required to better assess elastic wave interactions with high acoustic impedance targets. In addition, it is important to study the influence of composition and shape of high acoustic impedance targets on the full scattered wavefield through a series of numerical modeling experiments based on the 3D elastic finite-difference (FD) method. Massive sulfide ores consisting of the end-member sulfide minerals pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, which span the full range of observed P- and S- wave velocities and densities in ore rocks, as well as gabbro inclusions, are investigated for different shapes which represent the complex morphologies often observed for ore deposits. 3D FD modeling reveals that large ore deposits lead to a strong and complex scattering response that is often dominated by shear-wave events (Bohlen et al

  6. Emergent cosmological constant from colliding electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Gurtug, O. E-mail: habib.mazhari@emu.edu.tr

    2014-11-01

    In this study we advocate the view that the cosmological constant is of electromagnetic (em) origin, which can be generated from the collision of em shock waves coupled with gravitational shock waves. The wave profiles that participate in the collision have different amplitudes. It is shown that, circular polarization with equal amplitude waves does not generate cosmological constant. We also prove that the generation of the cosmological constant is related to the linear polarization. The addition of cross polarization generates no cosmological constant. Depending on the value of the wave amplitudes, the generated cosmological constant can be positive or negative. We show additionally that, the collision of nonlinear em waves in a particular class of Born-Infeld theory also yields a cosmological constant.

  7. Wave chaotic experiments and models for complicated wave scattering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao

    Wave scattering in a complicated environment is a common challenge in many engineering fields because the complexity makes exact solutions impractical to find, and the sensitivity to detail in the short-wavelength limit makes a numerical solution relevant only to a specific realization. On the other hand, wave chaos offers a statistical approach to understand the properties of complicated wave systems through the use of random matrix theory (RMT). A bridge between the theory and practical applications is the random coupling model (RCM) which connects the universal features predicted by RMT and the specific details of a real wave scattering system. The RCM gives a complete model for many wave properties and is beneficial for many physical and engineering fields that involve complicated wave scattering systems. One major contribution of this dissertation is that I have utilized three microwave systems to thoroughly test the RCM in complicated wave systems with varied loss, including a cryogenic system with a superconducting microwave cavity for testing the extremely-low-loss case. I have also experimentally tested an extension of the RCM that includes short-orbit corrections. Another novel result is development of a complete model based on the RCM for the fading phenomenon extensively studied in the wireless communication fields. This fading model encompasses the traditional fading models as its high-loss limit case and further predicts the fading statistics in the low-loss limit. This model provides the first physical explanation for the fitting parameters used in fading models. I have also applied the RCM to additional experimental wave properties of a complicated wave system, such as the impedance matrix, the scattering matrix, the variance ratio, and the thermopower. These predictions are significant for nuclear scattering, atomic physics, quantum transport in condensed matter systems, electromagnetics, acoustics, geophysics, etc.

  8. Refraction of coastal ocean waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kasischke, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    Refraction of gravity waves in the coastal area off Cape Hatteras, NC as documented by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from Seasat orbit 974 (collected on September 3, 1978) is discussed. An analysis of optical Fourier transforms (OFTs) from more than 70 geographical positions yields estimates of wavelength and wave direction for each position. In addition, independent estimates of the same two quantities are calculated using two simple theoretical wave-refraction models. The OFT results are then compared with the theoretical results. A statistical analysis shows a significant degree of linear correlation between the data sets. This is considered to indicate that the Seasat SAR produces imagery whose clarity is sufficient to show the refraction of gravity waves in shallow water.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Two-wave propagation in in vitro swine distal ulna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic transmitted waves were obtained in an in vitro swine distal ulna specimen, which mimics a human distal radius, that consists of interconnected cortical bone and cancellous bone. The transmitted waveforms appeared similar to the fast waves, slow waves, and overlapping fast and slow waves measured in the specimen after removing the surface cortical bone (only cancellous bone). In addition, the circumferential waves in the cortical bone and water did not affect the fast and slow waves. This suggests that the fast-and-slow-wave phenomenon can be observed in an in vivo human distal radius.

  12. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-10-20

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group.

  13. Nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves in a finite beta plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Som, B.K. ); Dasgupta, B.; Patel, V.L. ); Gupta, M.R. )

    1989-12-01

    A general form of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation, describing the nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, is derived by using two-fluid equations with electron and ion pressure tensors obtained from Braginskii (in {ital Reviews} {ital of} {ital Plasma Physics} (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 218). This equation is a mixed version of the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation and the DNLS, as it contains an additional cubic nonlinear term that is of the same order as the derivative of the nonlinear terms, a term containing the product of a quadratic term, and a first-order derivative. It incorporates the effects of finite beta, which is an important characteristic of space and laboratory plasmas.

  14. On a class of nonlocal wave equations from applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Horst Reinhard; Aksoylu, Burak; Celiker, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    We study equations from the area of peridynamics, which is a nonlocal extension of elasticity. The governing equations form a system of nonlocal wave equations. We take a novel approach by applying operator theory methods in a systematic way. On the unbounded domain ℝn, we present three main results. As main result 1, we find that the governing operator is a bounded function of the governing operator of classical elasticity. As main result 2, a consequence of main result 1, we prove that the peridynamic solutions strongly converge to the classical solutions by utilizing, for the first time, strong resolvent convergence. In addition, main result 1 allows us to incorporate local boundary conditions, in particular, into peridynamics. This avenue of research is developed in companion papers, providing a remedy for boundary effects. As main result 3, employing spherical Bessel functions, we give a new practical series representation of the solution which allows straightforward numerical treatment with symbolic computation.

  15. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  16. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  17. Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of systematic conservation planning are now widely used by governments and non-government organizations alike to develop biodiversity conservation plans for countries, states, regions, and ecoregions. Many of the species and ecosystems these plans were designed to conserve are now being affected by climate change, and there is a critical need to incorporate new and complementary approaches into these plans that will aid species and ecosystems in adjusting to potential climate change impacts. We propose five approaches to climate change adaptation that can be integrated into existing or new biodiversity conservation plans: (1) conserving the geophysical stage, (2) protecting climatic refugia, (3) enhancing regional connectivity, (4) sustaining ecosystem process and function, and (5) capitalizing on opportunities emerging in response to climate change. We discuss both key assumptions behind each approach and the trade-offs involved in using the approach for conservation planning. We also summarize additional data beyond those typically used in systematic conservation plans required to implement these approaches. A major strength of these approaches is that they are largely robust to the uncertainty in how climate impacts may manifest in any given region.

  18. Waves at Navigation Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    upgrades the Coastal Modeling System’s ( CMS ) wave model CMS -Wave, a phase-averaged spectral wave model, and BOUSS-2D, a Boussinesq-type nonlinear wave...provided by this work unit address these critical needs of the Corps’ navigation mission. Description Issue Addressed CMS -Wave application at Braddock...Bay, NY WaveNet application in Gulf of Mexico CMS -Wave and BOUSS-2D are two numerical wave models, and WaveNet and TideNet are two web-based

  19. ASTER Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The pattern on the right half of this image of the Bay of Bengal is the result of two opposing wave trains colliding. This ASTER sub-scene, acquired on March 29, 2000, covers an area 18 kilometers (13 miles) wide and 15 kilometers (9 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The visible and near-infrared bands highlight surface waves due to specular reflection of sunlight off of the wave faces.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels

  20. Stochastic modeling of inhomogeneous ocean waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Herbers, T. H. C.

    2015-12-01

    Refraction of swell waves in coastal waters can result in fast-scale variations of wave statistics due to wave interference. These variations cannot be resolved by wave models based on the radiative transport equation. More advanced models based on quasi-coherent theory, a generalization of the radiative transfer equation, can be coupled or nested into larger-scale models to resolve such local inhomogeneous effects. However, source terms for quasi-coherent models to account for non-conservative and nonlinear effects are not available, which hampers their operational use. In the present work we revisit the derivation of quasi-coherent theory to consistently include a source term for dissipation associated with depth-induced wave breaking. We demonstrate how general source terms can be incorporated in this class of models and compare model simulations with the new dissipation term to laboratory observations of focusing and breaking waves over a submerged shoal. The results show that a consistent derivation of source terms is essential to accurately capture coherent effects in coastal areas. Specifically, our results show that if coherent effects are ignored in the dissipation term, interference effects are strongly exaggerated. With the development of source terms for quasi-coherent models they can be effectively nested inside or otherwise coupled to larger-scale wave models to efficiently improve operational predictive capability of wave models near the coast.

  1. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR < 0.27. Tskin simulation results were within 0.37 °C of the measured mean skin temperature. This study shows that (1) thermal reception and neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control can be captured in a mathematical model, and (2) human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  2. Waves and Tsunami Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frashure, K. M.; Chen, R. F.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Micozzi, N.; Cramer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Demonstrating wave processes quantitatively in the classroom using standard classroom tools (such as Slinkys and wave tanks) can be difficult. For example, waves often travel too fast for students to actually measure amplitude or wavelength. Also, when teaching propagating waves, reflections from the ends set up standing waves, which can confuse…

  3. Holographic charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with nonzero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  4. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  5. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  6. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  7. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  8. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  9. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  10. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  11. An active one-particle microrheometer: incorporating magnetic tweezers to total internal reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiangjun; Hua, Li; Wu, Chi; Ngai, To

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel microrheometer by incorporating magnetic tweezers in the total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) that enables measuring of viscoelastic properties of materials near solid surface. An evanescent wave generated by a solid∕liquid interface in the TIRM is used as the incident light source in the microrheometer. When a probe particle (of a few micrometers diameter) moves near the interface, it can interact with the evanescent field and reflect its position with respect to the interface by the scattered light intensity. The exponential distance dependence of the evanescent field, on the one hand, makes this technique extremely sensitive to small changes from z-fluctuations of the probe (with a resolution of several nanometers), and on the other, it does not require imaging of the probe with high lateral resolution. Another distinct advantage is the high sensitivity in determining the z position of the probe in the absence of any labeling. The incorporated magnetic tweezers enable us to effectively manipulate the distance of the embedded particle from the interface either by a constant or an oscillatory force. The force ramp is easy to implement through a coil current ramp. In this way, the local viscous and elastic properties of a given system under different confinements can therefore be measured by resolving the near-surface particle motion. To test the feasibility of applying this microrheology to soft materials, we measured the viscoelastic properties of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) solutions and compared the results to bulk rheometry. In addition, we applied this technique in monitoring the structure and properties of deformable microgel particles near the flat surface.

  12. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  13. Liquid-bubble Interaction under Surf Zone Breaking Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhti, M.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Liquid-bubble interaction, especially in complex two-phase bubbly flow under breaking waves, is still poorly understood. Derakhti and Kirby (2014a,b) have recently studied bubble entrainment and turbulence modulation by dispersed bubbles under isolated unsteady breaking waves along with extensive model verifications and convergence tests. In this presentation, we continue this examination with attention turned to the simulation of periodic surf zone breaking waves. In addition, the relative importance of preferential accumulation of dispersed bubbles in coherent vortex cores is investigated. Heavier-than-liquid particles, i.e. sediment, tend to accumulate in regions of high strain rate and avoid regions of intense vorticity. In contrast, lighter-than-liquid particles such as bubbles tend to congregate in vortical regions. We perform a three dimensional (3D) large-eddy simulation (LES) using a Navier-Stokes solver extended to incorporate entrained bubble populations, using an Eulerian-Eulerian formulation for the polydisperse bubble phase. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used for free surface tracking. The model accounts for momentum exchange between dispersed bubbles and liquid phase as well as bubble-induced dissipation. We investigate the formation and evolution of breaking-induced turbulent coherent structures (BTCS) under both plunging and spilling periodic breaking waves as well as BTCS's role on the intermittent 3D distributions of bubble void fraction in the surf zone. We particularly examine the correlation between bubble void fractions and Q-criterion values to quantify this interaction. Also, the vertical transport of dispersed bubbles by downburst type coherent structures in the transition region is compared to that by obliquely descending eddies. All the results are summarized at different zones from outer to inner surf zone.

  14. WAVDRAG- ZERO-LIFT WAVE DRAG OF COMPLEX AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craidon, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    WAVDRAG calculates the supersonic zero-lift wave drag of complex aircraft configurations. The numerical model of an aircraft is used throughout the design process from concept to manufacturing. WAVDRAG incorporates extended geometric input capabilities to permit use of a more accurate mathematical model. With WAVDRAG, the engineer can define aircraft components as fusiform or nonfusiform in terms of non-intersecting contours in any direction or more traditional parallel contours. In addition, laterally asymmetric configurations can be simulated. The calculations in WAVDRAG are based on Whitcomb's area-rule computation of equivalent-bodies, with modifications for supersonic speed. Instead of using a single equivalent-body, WAVDRAG calculates a series of equivalent-bodies, one for each roll angle. The total aircraft configuration wave drag is the integrated average of the equivalent-body wave drags through the full roll range of 360 degrees. WAVDRAG currently accepts up to 30 user-defined components containing a maximum of 50 contours as geometric input. Each contour contains a maximum of 50 points. The Mach number, angle-of-attack, and coordinates of angle-of-attack rotation are also input. The program warns of any fusiform-body line segments having a slope larger than the Mach angle. WAVDRAG calculates total drag and the wave-drag coefficient of the specified aircraft configuration. WAVDRAG is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 63K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1983.

  15. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  16. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  17. Surface wave tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Vertically polarized shear wave velocity (VSV), determined primarily from fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, and the difference between the velocity of horizontally polarized shear waves (VSH) and VSV, therefore a measure of anisotropy, are shown.

  18. Incorporation of Nicotine into Silicone Coatings for Marine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Sandy Tuyet

    PDMS-based marine coatings presently used are limited by their inability to mitigate microfouling which limits their application to high speed vessels. PDMS coatings are favored when viable, due to their foul release properties of macrofouling organisms. Natural products have been investigated for antifouling properties for potential use in these marine antifouling coatings but few have incorporated natural products into coatings or coating systems. The purpose of the research was to establish the corrosion inhibiting properties of nicotine and to incorporate nicotine, a biodegradable and readily available natural product, into a PDMS coating to demonstrate the use of a natural product in a coating for marine applications. The corrosion inhibiting properties of nicotine was examined using potentiodynamic polarization scans, material characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, quartz crystal microbalance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Nicotine was determined to be an anodic corrosion inhibitor for mild steel immersed in simulated seawater with the ability to precipitate a protective calcium carbonate film. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the performance of the developed nicotine incorporated coatings on mild steel immersed in simulated seawater over 21 days of immersion. The coatings with 2 wt.% of nicotine incorporated in the coating with a ratio of 1:30 of additional platinum catalyst to nicotine exhibited the best performance for intact coatings. This coating had the most favorable balance of the amount of nicotine and platinum catalyst of all the coatings evaluated. Overall, all nicotine incorporated coatings had a performance improvement when compared to the control PDMS coating. Of the nicotine incorporated coatings that were tested with an artificial pin-hole defect, the 2PDMS coating also exhibited the best performance with significant

  19. Energy exchange and wave action conservation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a general, slowly varying medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the solar wind and magnetosphere are propagated in a medium whose velocity is comparable to or greater than the wave velocity and which varies in both space and time. In the approximation where the scales of the time and space variation are long compared with the period and wavelength, the ray-tracing equations can be generalized and then include an additional first-order differential equation that determines the variation of frequency. In such circumstances the wave can exchange energy with the background: wave energy is not conserved. In such processes the wave action theorem shows that the wave action, defined as the ratio of the wave energy to the frequency in the local rest frame, is conserved. In this paper we discuss ray-tracing techniques and the energy exchange relation for MHD waves. We then provide a unified account of how to deal with energy transport by MHD waves in non-uniform media. The wave action theorem is derived directly from the basic MHD equations for sound waves, transverse Alfvén waves, and the fast and slow magnetosonic waves. The techniques described are applied to a number of illustrative cases. These include a sound wave in a medium undergoing a uniform compression, an isotropic Alfvén wave in a steady-state shear layer, and a transverse Alfvén wave in a simple model of the magnetotail undergoing compression. In each case the nature and magnitude of the energy exchange between wave and background is found.

  20. Incorporating agricultural land cover in conceptual rainfall runoff models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Incorporating spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi) distributed conceptual rainfall runoff models. One of the methods to do this is by using these spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. This study tests whether the incorporation of an additional agricultural HRU in a conceptual hydrological model can better reflect the spatial differences in runoff generation and therefore improve the simulation of the wetting phase in autumn. The study area is the meso-scale Ourthe catchment in Belgium. A previous study in this area showed that spatial patterns in runoff generation were already better represented by incorporation of a wetland and a hillslope HRU, compared to a lumped model structure. The influences which are considered by including an agriculture HRU are increased drainage speed due to roads, plough pans and increased infiltration excess overland flow (drainage pipes area only limited present), and variable vegetation patterns due to sowing and harvesting. In addition, the vegetation is not modelled as a static resistance towards evaporation, but the Jarvis stress functions are used to increase the realism of the modelled transpiration; in land-surface models the Jarvis stress functions are already often used for modelling transpiration. The results show that an agricultural conceptualisation in addition to wetland and hillslope conceptualisations leads to small improvements in the modelled discharge. However, the influence is larger on the representation of spatial patterns and the modelled contributions of different HRUs to the total discharge.

  1. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  2. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  3. A numerical study on the effects of wave-current-surge interactions on the height and propagation of sea surface waves in Charleston Harbor during Hurricane Hugo 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiqing; Xie, Lian

    2009-06-01

    The effects of wave-current interactions on ocean surface waves induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal waters are examined by using a three-dimensional (3D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3D storm surge modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), the wave modeling component is based on the third generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the inundation model is adopted from [Xie, L., Pietrafesa, L. J., Peng, M., 2004. Incorporation of a mass-conserving inundation scheme into a three-dimensional storm surge model. J. Coastal Res., 20, 1209-1223]. The results indicate that the change of water level associated with the storm surge is the primary cause for wave height changes due to wave-surge interaction. Meanwhile, waves propagating on top of surge cause a feedback effect on the surge height by modulating the surface wind stress and bottom stress. This effect is significant in shallow coastal waters, but relatively small in offshore deep waters. The influence of wave-current interaction on wave propagation is relatively insignificant, since waves generally propagate in the direction of the surface currents driven by winds. Wave-current interactions also affect the surface waves as a result of inundation and drying induced by the storm. Waves break as waters retreat in regions of drying, whereas waves are generated in flooded regions where no waves would have occurred without the flood water.

  4. Auroral plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    A review is given of auroral plasma wave phenomena, starting with the earliest ground-based observations and ending with the most recent satellite observations. Two types of waves are considered, electromagnetic and electrostatic. Electromagnetic waves include auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, ELF noise bands, and low-frequency electric and magnetic noise. Electrostatic waves include upper hybrid resonance emissions, electron cyclotron waves, lower hybrid waves, ion cyclotron waves and broadband electrostatic noise. In each case, a brief overview is given describing the observations, the origin of the instability, and the role of the waves in the physics of the auroral acceleration region.

  5. Dispersive wave emission from wave breaking.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Matteo; Trillo, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    We show that pulses undergoing wave breaking in nonlinear weakly dispersive fibers radiate, owing to phase-matching (assisted by higher-order dispersion) of linear dispersive waves with the shock-wave front. Our theoretical results perfectly explain the radiation observed recently from pulses propagating in the normal dispersion (i.e., nonsolitonic) regime.

  6. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1994-01-01

    The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the physics of collisionless shocks. Collisionless shocks in plasmas are capable of 'reflecting' a fraction of the incoming thermal particle distribution and directing the resulting energetic particle motion back into the upstream region. Once within the upstream region, the backward streaming energetic particles convey information of the approaching shock to the supersonic flow. This particle population is responsible for the generation of upstream magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations known as 'upstream waves', for slowing the incoming wind prior to the formation of the shock ramp, and for heating of the upstream plasma. The waves produced at Uranus not only differed in several regards from the observations at other planetary bow shocks, but also gave new information regarding the nature of the reflected particle populations which were largely unmeasurable by the particle instruments. Four distinct magnetic field wave types were observed upstream of the Uranian bow shock: low-frequency Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves excited by energetic protons originating at or behind the bow shock; whistler wave bursts driven by gyrating ion distributions within the shock ramp; and two whistler wave types simultaneously observed upstream of the flanks of the shock and argued to arise from resonance with energetic electrons. In addition, observations of energetic particle distributions by the LECP experiment, thermal particle populations observed by the PLS experiment, and electron plasma oscillations recorded by the PWS experiment proved instrumental to this study and are included to some degree in the papers and presentations supported by this grant.

  7. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  8. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  9. GDP-tubulin incorporation into growing microtubules modulates polymer stability.

    PubMed

    Valiron, Odile; Arnal, Isabelle; Caudron, Nicolas; Job, Didier

    2010-06-04

    Microtubule growth proceeds through the endwise addition of nucleotide-bound tubulin dimers. The microtubule wall is composed of GDP-tubulin subunits, which are thought to come exclusively from the incorporation of GTP-tubulin complexes at microtubule ends followed by GTP hydrolysis within the polymer. The possibility of a direct GDP-tubulin incorporation into growing polymers is regarded as hardly compatible with recent structural data. Here, we have examined GTP-tubulin and GDP-tubulin incorporation into polymerizing microtubules using a minimal assembly system comprised of nucleotide-bound tubulin dimers, in the absence of free nucleotide. We find that GDP-tubulin complexes can efficiently co-polymerize with GTP-tubulin complexes during microtubule assembly. GDP-tubulin incorporation into microtubules occurs with similar efficiency during bulk microtubule assembly as during microtubule growth from seeds or centrosomes. Microtubules formed from GTP-tubulin/GDP-tubulin mixtures display altered microtubule dynamics, in particular a decreased shrinkage rate, apparently due to intrinsic modifications of the polymer disassembly properties. Thus, although microtubules polymerized from GTP-tubulin/GDP-tubulin mixtures or from homogeneous GTP-tubulin solutions are both composed of GDP-tubulin subunits, they have different dynamic properties, and this may reveal a novel form of microtubule "structural plasticity."

  10. In vitro incorporation of the phage Phi29 connector complex

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Chiyu; Prevelige, Peter E.

    2009-11-10

    The incorporation of the DNA packaging connector complex during lambdoid phage assembly in vivo is strictly controlled-one and only one of the twelve identical icosahedral vertices is differentiated by the inclusion of a portal or connector dodecamer. Proposed control mechanisms include obligate nucleation from a connector containing complex, addition of the connector as the final step during assembly, and a connector-mediated increase in the growth rate. The inability to recapitulate connector incorporation in vitro has made it difficult to obtain direct biochemical evidence in support of one model over another. Here we report the development an in vitro assembly system for the well characterized dsDNA phage Phi29 which results in the co-assembly of connector with capsid and scaffolding proteins to form procapsid-like particles (PLPs). Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrates the specific incorporation of connector vertex in PLPs. The connector protein increases both the yield and the rate of capsid assembly suggesting that the incorporation of the connector in Phi29 likely promotes nucleation of assembly.

  11. Optofluidics incorporating actively controlled micro- and nano-particles

    PubMed Central

    Kayani, Aminuddin A.; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ward, Stephanie A.; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    The advent of optofluidic systems incorporating suspended particles has resulted in the emergence of novel applications. Such systems operate based on the fact that suspended particles can be manipulated using well-appointed active forces, and their motions, locations and local concentrations can be controlled. These forces can be exerted on both individual and clusters of particles. Having the capability to manipulate suspended particles gives users the ability for tuning the physical and, to some extent, the chemical properties of the suspension media, which addresses the needs of various advanced optofluidic systems. Additionally, the incorporation of particles results in the realization of novel optofluidic solutions used for creating optical components and sensing platforms. In this review, we present different types of active forces that are used for particle manipulations and the resulting optofluidic systems incorporating them. These systems include optical components, optofluidic detection and analysis platforms, plasmonics and Raman systems, thermal and energy related systems, and platforms specifically incorporating biological particles. We conclude the review with a discussion of future perspectives, which are expected to further advance this rapidly growing field. PMID:23864925

  12. P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhtia, Anand

    2012-01-01

    A variational wave function incorporating short range correlations via Hylleraas type functions plus long-range polarization terms of the polarized orbital type but with smooth cut-off factors has been used to calculate P-wave phase shifts for electron-hydrogen scattering. This approach gives the direct r(exp -4) potential and a non-local optical potential which is definite. The resulting phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the convergence is much faster than those obtained without the modification of the target function. Final results will be presented at the conference.

  13. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM STELLAR COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. FRYER

    2001-01-01

    Stellar core-collapse plays an important role in nearly all facets of astronomy: cosmology (as standard candles), formation of compact objects, nucleosynthesis and energy deposition in galaxies. In addition, they release energy in powerful explosions of light over a range of energies, neutrinos, and the subject of this meeting, gravitational waves. Because of this broad range of importance, astronomers have discovered a number of constraints which can be used to help them understand the importance of stellar core-collapse as gravitational wave sources.

  14. GNSS seismometer: Seismic phase recognition of real-time high-rate GNSS deformation waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhaosheng; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Gang; Jia, Zhige; Wang, Dijin; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Mu

    2016-12-01

    High-rate global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) can potentially be used as seismometers to capture short-period instantaneous dynamic deformation waves from earthquakes. However, the performance and seismic phase recognition of the GNSS seismometer in the real-time mode, which plays an important role in GNSS seismology, are still uncertain. By comparing the results of accuracy and precision of the real-time solution using a shake table test, we found real-time solutions to be consistent with post-processing solutions and independent of sampling rate. In addition, we analyzed the time series of real-time solutions for shake table tests and recent large earthquakes. The results demonstrated that high-rate GNSS have the ability to retrieve most types of seismic waves, including P-, S-, Love, and Rayleigh waves. The main factor limiting its performance in recording seismic phases is the widely used 1-Hz sampling rate. The noise floor also makes recognition of some weak seismic phases difficult. We concluded that the propagation velocities and path of seismic waves, macro characteristics of the high-rate GNSS array, spatial traces of seismic phases, and incorporation of seismographs are all useful in helping to retrieve seismic phases from the high-rate GNSS time series.

  15. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Rivera Drew, Julia A

    2011-02-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

  16. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  17. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  18. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  19. Finsler p p -waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, Andrea; Pabst, Cornelia

    2016-11-01

    In this work we present Finsler gravitational waves. These are a Finslerian version of the well-known p p -waves, generalizing the very special relativity line element. Our Finsler p p -waves are an exact solution of Finslerian Einstein's equations in vacuum and describe gravitational waves propagating in an anisotropic background.

  20. Phonons, Atoms, and Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed are how the thermal vibrations of a solid are described in terms of lattice waves, how these waves interact with other waves, or with themselves, and how one is led from such a description in terms of waves to the concept of a phonon. (Author/MA)

  1. Wave-Action Balance Equation Diffraction (WABED) Model: Tests of Wave Diffraction and Reflection at Inlets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    model M2D . Future technical notes in this series will describe the interface and report additional validation and enhancements of WABED...circulation model M2D (Militello et al. 2004) is operated with WABED for calculation of the wave-induced current. A background flood current was supplied as...input to the wave model. To calculate the wave-induced current, M2D was forced by radiation stresses (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart 1964) computed by

  2. Planetary plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary types of plasma waves observed in the vicinity of the planets Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are described. The observations are organized according to the various types of plasma waves observed, ordered according to decreasing distance from the planet, starting from the sunward side of the planet, and ending in the region near the closest approach. The plasma waves observed include: electron plasma oscillations and ion acoustic waves; trapped continuum radiation; electron cyclotron and upper hybrid waves; whistler-mode emissions; electrostatic ion cyclotron waves; and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  3. Teleseismic S wave microseisms.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota

    2016-08-26

    Although observations of microseisms excited by ocean swells were firmly established in the 1940s, the source locations remain difficult to track. Delineation of the source locations and energy partition of the seismic wave components are key to understanding the excitation mechanisms. Using a seismic array in Japan, we observed both P and S wave microseisms excited by a severe distant storm in the Atlantic Ocean. Although nonlinear forcing of an ocean swell with a one-dimensional Earth model can explain P waves and vertically polarized S waves (SV waves), it cannot explain horizontally polarized S waves (SH waves). The precise source locations may provide a new catalog for exploring Earth's interior.

  4. Trend analysis of the wave storminess: the wave direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.; Mösso, C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2009-09-01

    directionality. It is based on 44 year hindcast model data (1958-2001) of the HIPOCAS project, enabling to work with a longer time series compared to the existing measured ones. 41 nodes of this database are used, containing 3 hourly simulated data of significant wave height and wave direction, among other parameters. For storm definition, the Peak Over Threshold (POT) method is used with some additional duration requirements in order to analyse statistically independent events (Mendoza & Jiménez, 2006). Including both wave height and storm duration, the wave storminess is characterised by the energy content (Mendoza & Jiménez, 2004), being in turn log-transformed because of its positive scale. Separately, the wave directionality itself is analysed in terms of different sectors and approaching their probability of occurrence by counting events and using Bayesian inference (Agresti, 2002). Therefore, the original data is transformed into compositional data and, before performing the trend analysis, the isometric logratio (ilr) transformation (Egozcue et al., 2003) is done. In general, the trend analysis methodology consists in two steps: 1) trend detection and 2) trend quantification. For 1) the Mann Kendall test is used in order to identify the nodes with significant trend. For these selected nodes, the trend quantification is done, comparing two methods: 1) a simple linear regression analysis complemented with the bootstrap technique and 2) a Bayesian analysis, assuming normally distributed data with linearly increasing mean. Preliminary results show no significant trend for both annual mean and maximum energy content except for some nodes located to the Northern Catalan coast. Regarding the wave direction (but not only considering stormy conditions) there is a tendency of North direction to decrease whereas South and Southeast direction seems to increase.

  5. Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere.

    PubMed

    Claudepierre, S G; Toffoletto, F R; Wiltberger, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.

  6. Spectral-element Seismic Wave Propagation on CUDA/OpenCL Hardware Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D. B.; Videau, B.; Pouget, K.; Komatitsch, D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation codes are essential tools to investigate a variety of wave phenomena in the Earth. Furthermore, they can now be used for seismic full-waveform inversions in regional- and global-scale adjoint tomography. Although these seismic wave propagation solvers are crucial ingredients to improve the resolution of tomographic images to answer important questions about the nature of Earth's internal processes and subsurface structure, their practical application is often limited due to high computational costs. They thus need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities to improving the current state of knowledge. At present, numerous large HPC systems embed many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) to enhance numerical performance. Such hardware accelerators can be programmed using either the CUDA programming environment or the OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted by additional hardware accelerators, like e.g. AMD graphic cards, ARM-based processors as well as Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. For seismic wave propagation simulations using the open-source spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, we incorporated an automatic source-to-source code generation tool (BOAST) which allows us to use meta-programming of all computational kernels for forward and adjoint runs. Using our BOAST kernels, we generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages within the source code package. Thus, seismic wave simulations are able now to fully utilize CUDA and OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show benchmarks of forward seismic wave propagation simulations using SPECFEM3D_GLOBE on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

  7. Wave Correlation Effects in Active Microwave Remote Sensing of the Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadr, Nagi Mahmoud

    This study examines the wave correlation effects that arise in active microwave remote sensing of the environment. These correlation effects, or coherent interference effects, are not accounted for by the regular phenomenological transport and radar equations, in which intensities, as a rule, are added incoherently. In particular, two types of correlation effects are examined: those associated with the medium and those associated with the source. The study method is the analytical wave approach to propagation and scattering from random media. This entails using Maxwell's equations to arrive at expressions for the first and second moments of the field. Unlike previous studies, however, in which plane wave incidence is assumed, here the radar is directly incorporated into the analytical wave formulation, and the antenna fields replaced via their plane wave representations. In this way, analysis of both the medium and source correlation effects on a per plane wave basis becomes a straightforward matter. The medium correlation effects are responsible for backscatter enhancement. Although the enhancement effect has been studied before on numerous occasions, careful characterization of the enhancement for microwave scattering from environmental scenes, such as vegetation canopies, has been lacking. The study at hand therefore fills this void and, in addition, quantifies the influence of this enhancement on phase difference statistics, a new and potentially important environmental remote sensing tool. The source correlation effects arise as a result of both the nature of the source and the geometry of the particular problem. By including these effects, a more general expression than the radar equation is obtained analytically. Quantitative examples show that, under certain circumstances, the results of this general expression deviate substantially from the results provided by the radar equation. This finding verifies the importance of considering source correlation

  8. Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wiltberger, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.

  9. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  10. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  11. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  12. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  13. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  14. Discrete wave mechanics: Multidimensional systems

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Frederick T.

    1987-01-01

    Discrete wave mechanics is pursued further by extending the one-dimensional treatment to two (or more) dimensions in the light of explicit momentum considerations. Cognizance is taken of the effect of particle motion on mass and hence on the interactions between components of motion in different directions. The overall energy parameter turns out to be a product instead of a sum of parameters identified with each of several orthogonal axes. Accordingly, the separation of variables is most directly accomplished by factoring the principal energy parameter in conjunction with factoring the wave vector expression itself. Wave vector energies, on the other hand, remain additive. Finally, group velocity components are discussed for higher-dimensional systems. PMID:16593833

  15. Quality of rusks prepared by incorporation of concentrated whey.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Jarita; Kulkarni, Satish

    2010-06-01

    Concentrated paneer whey was utilized in place of water in the production of rusks. The studies indicated that paneer whey concentrated to 30% total solids can be used without adversely affecting the sensory attributes. The production time cycle can be reduced by incorporating ammonium phosphate at 2500 ppm which served as a nutritional supplement for the growth of yeasts and thus catalyzing fermentation process. The modified process required additional sugar incorporation to maintain the sweetness to that of market samples. The rusks prepared by the modified process had 2.5% moisture, 12.1% fat, 9.4% total protein, 1.9% ash and 74.1% total carbohydrate. Rusks with and without whey concentrate stored at 37°C for 9 days remained in good condition without significant variation in sensory attributes.

  16. Effects of simulated heat waves on ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunling; Zhang, Shuyu; Tian, Ying; Wang, Baojian; Shen, Shuanghe

    2014-01-28

    The effects of simulated heat waves on body weight, body temperature, and biomarkers of cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice were investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a meteorological environment simulation chamber according to data from a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen ApoE-/- mice were divided into control group, heat wave group, and heat wave BH4 group. Mice in the heat wave and BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. Mice in BH4 group were treated with gastric lavage with BH4 2 h prior to heat wave exposure. Results showed that the heat waves did not significantly affect body weight or ET-1 levels. However, mice in the heat wave group had significantly higher rectal temperature and NO level and lower SOD activity compared with mice in the control group (p < 0.01), indicating that heat wave had negative effects on cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice. Gastric lavage with BH4 prior to heat wave exposure significantly reduced heat wave-induced increases in rectal temperature and decreases in SOD activity. Additionally, pretreatment with BH4 further increased NO level in plasma. Collectively, these beneficial effects demonstrate that BH4 may potentially mitigate the risk of coronary heart disease in mice under heat wave exposure. These results may be useful when studying the effects of heat waves on humans.

  17. P-SV-wave propagation in heterogeneous media: grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianfeng, Zhang; Tielin, Liu

    1999-02-01

    We present a new numerical modelling algorithm for P-SV-wave propagation in heterogeneous media, which is named the grid method in this paper. Similar to the finite-element method in the discretization of a numerical mesh, the grid method is flexible in incorporating surface topography and curved interfaces. The grid method, in the same way as the staggered-grid finite-difference scheme, is developed from the first-order velocity-stress hyperbolic system of elastic wave equations. The free-surface conditions are satisfied naturally for the grid method. The method, with its small numerical dispersion and good stability, is of high accuracy and low computational cost. Each time step needs 34M+N multiplication operations and 26M+N addition operations for N nodes and M triangular grids. In this paper, the triangular grid method is discussed in detail, and the numerical dispersion, stability criterion and numerical simulations are presented. The grid method based on triangular grids and quadrangular grids is also studied here.

  18. Numerical Study of Stratified Charge Combustion in Wave Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1997-01-01

    A wave rotor may be used as a pressure-gain combustor effecting non-steady flow, and intermittent, confined combustion to enhance gas turbine engine performance. It will be more compact and probably lighter than an equivalent pressure-exchange wave rotor, yet will have similar thermodynamic and mechanical characteristics. Because the allowable turbine blade temperature limits overall fuel/air ratio to sub-flammable values, premixed stratification techniques are necessary to burn hydrocarbon fuels in small engines with compressor discharge temperature well below autoignition conditions. One-dimensional, unsteady numerical simulations of stratified-charge combustion are performed using an eddy-diffusivity turbulence model and a simple reaction model incorporating a flammability limit temperature. For good combustion efficiency, a stratification strategy is developed which concentrates fuel at the leading and trailing edges of the inlet port. Rotor and exhaust temperature profiles and performance predictions are presented at three representative operating conditions of the engine: full design load, 40% load, and idle. The results indicate that peak local gas temperatures will result in excessive temperatures within the rotor housing unless additional cooling methods are used. The rotor itself will have acceptable temperatures, but the pattern factor presented to the turbine may be of concern, depending on exhaust duct design and duct-rotor interaction.

  19. Particle current on flexible surfaces excited by harmonic waves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neeta; DasGupta, Anirvan

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a study on the directed particle current on flexible surfaces excited by a harmonic wave is reported. The proposed theory considers three different models for the kinematics of the surface, namely the Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko, and Rayleigh surface wave models. The particle-surface interaction terms in the theory incorporate Coulomb friction and inelastic collision between the particle and the surface. Three possible phases of motion, namely sticking, sliding, and jumping, are considered, and the phase transition boundaries are estimated analytically for a general surface model. The effect of various parameters on the particle current and certain statistical features of the particle motion are then studied numerically. Remarkably, the particle current spectra exhibit, in addition to resonance modes, antiresonance and secondary resonance modes and transversal zero crossings. These features have interesting implications for the particle dynamics in terms of dynamic jamming states and particle eddies, which are pointed out. Under certain restricted conditions, averaging calculations are also performed and compared with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  20. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth; Lamb, Bradford; Prudell, Joseph; Hammagren, Erik; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  1. Glycerol esters as fuel economy additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, P.W.; Smith, C.R.; Gowland, F.W.

    1987-07-28

    A lubricating oil composition formulated is described for use as a crankcase lubricating oil composition for gasoline or diesel engines consisting essentially of a major amount of a mineral oil of a lubricating viscosity which has incorporated about 0.20 weight percent of a glycerol partial ester. The partial ester is a mixture of glycerol monooleate and glycerol dioleate. The mixture has a weight ratio of 3 parts of glycerol monooleate to 2 parts of glycerol dioleate the ester providing a fuel economy improvement of about 1 to 3 percent when the lubricating oil composition is employed in the crankcase of the engine. An ashless dispersant, a metal detergent additive, a zinc dihdyrocarbyl dithiophosphate anti-wear additive and an antioxidant. The dispersant, detergent, anti-wear additive and antioxidant are present in conventional amounts to provide their normal attendant functions.

  2. Wave-propagation formulation of seismic response of multistory buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a discrete-time wave-propagation method to calculate the seismic response of multistory buildings, founded on layered soil media and subjected to vertically propagating shear waves. Buildings are modeled as an extension of the layered soil media by considering each story as another layer in the wave-propagation path. The seismic response is expressed in terms of wave travel times between the layers and wave reflection and transmission coefficients at layer interfaces. The method accounts for the filtering effects of the concentrated foundation and floor masses. Compared with commonly used vibration formulation, the wave-propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplicity, improved accuracy, better representation of damping, the ability to incorporate the soil layers under the foundation, and providing better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples are presented to show the versatility and the superiority of the method.

  3. Observations and Simulations of Whistler Waves in Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. L.; Bengtson, M.; Rosborough, S.; Streltsov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    In late 2014, a cluster of whistler waves localized within prominent density enhancements was observed by the Van Allen Probes in the nightside magnetosphere. The most powerful waves lasted approximately thirteen minutes, occurred thirty minutes apart, and were accompanied by increased particle acceleration throughout the region. In order to properly simulate the waves we first establish their characteristics using data from the Van Allen Probes, primarily from the EMFISIS instrument. Next, we incorporate the conditions and location in which the waves occurred into a mathematical model, that in turn is used to provide an accurate simulation. Such simulations will allow a closer and more analytical study of how whistler waves become trapped in density ducts. This research will also advance our understanding of how we can use these waves to remove energetic particles from Earth's radiation belts.

  4. Weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic wave interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.M.; Brio, M.; Kruse, M.T.; Zank, G.P.

    1999-06-01

    Equations describing weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave interactions in one Cartesian space dimension are discussed. For wave propagation in uniform media, the wave interactions of interest consist of: (a) three-wave resonant interactions in which high frequency waves, may evolve on long space and time scales if the wave phases satisfy the resonance conditions; (b) Burgers self-wave steepening for the magnetoacoustic waves, and (c) mean wave field effects, in which a particular wave interacts with the mean wave field of the other waves. For wave propagation in non-uniform media, further linear wave mixing terms appear in the equations. The equations describe four types of resonant triads: slow-fast magnetosonic wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-entropy wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-magnetosonic wave interaction; and magnetosonic-entropy wave interaction. The formalism is restricted to coherent wave interactions. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Waves, Bubbles, Noise, and Underwater Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    model for the collapsing neck is incorporated into the linearized Rayleigh - Plesset equation, it is able to account for the observed amplitude of the...sonars. The objective is to understand and model the intensity, phase , and Doppler shift of the focal regions. Efforts over the past 12 months have...a nozzle. The results of this experiment are detailed below. 2. Surface Gravity Wave Focusing. Two experiments were performed to support this

  6. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW`s low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much_lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW`s that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW`s can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  7. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki.

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW's low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW's that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW's can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  8. Bayesian statistical modeling of disinfection byproduct (DBP) bromine incorporation in the ICR database.

    PubMed

    Francis, Royce A; Vanbriesen, Jeanne M; Small, Mitchell J

    2010-02-15

    Statistical models are developed for bromine incorporation in the trihalomethane (THM), trihaloacetic acids (THAA), dihaloacetic acid (DHAA), and dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN) subclasses of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) using distribution system samples from plants applying only free chlorine as a primary or residual disinfectant in the Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of water quality conditions before, during, and post-treatment on distribution system bromine incorporation into DBP mixtures. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to model individual DBP concentrations and estimate the coefficients of the linear models used to predict the bromine incorporation fraction for distribution system DBP mixtures in each of the four priority DBP classes. The bromine incorporation models achieve good agreement with the data. The most important predictors of bromine incorporation fraction across DBP classes are alkalinity, specific UV absorption (SUVA), and the bromide to total organic carbon ratio (Br:TOC) at the first point of chlorine addition. Free chlorine residual in the distribution system, distribution system residence time, distribution system pH, turbidity, and temperature only slightly influence bromine incorporation. The bromide to applied chlorine (Br:Cl) ratio is not a significant predictor of the bromine incorporation fraction (BIF) in any of the four classes studied. These results indicate that removal of natural organic matter and the location of chlorine addition are important treatment decisions that have substantial implications for bromine incorporation into disinfection byproduct in drinking waters.

  9. Van Allen Probes observations of cross-scale coupling between electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and higher-frequency wave modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpitts, C. A.; Cattell, C. A.; Engebretson, M.; Broughton, M.; Tian, S.; Wygant, J.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present observations of higher-frequency ( 50-2500 Hz, 0.1-0.7 fce) wave modes modulated at the frequency of colocated lower frequency (0.5-2 Hz, on the order of fci) waves. These observations come from the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves instrument's burst mode data and represent the first observations of coupling between waves in these frequency ranges. The higher-frequency wave modes, typically whistler mode hiss and chorus or magnetosonic waves, last for a few to a few tens of seconds but are in some cases observed repeatedly over several hours. The higher-frequency waves are observed to be unmodulated before and after the presence of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, but when the EMIC waves are present, the amplitude of the higher-frequency waves drops to the instrument noise level once every EMIC wave cycle. Such modulation could significantly impact wave-particle interactions such as acceleration and pitch angle scattering, which are crucial in the formation and depletion of the radiation belts. We present one case study with broadband, high-frequency waves observed to be modulated by EMIC waves repeatedly over a 2 h time span on both spacecraft. Finally, we show two additional case studies where other high-frequency wave modes exhibit similar modulation.

  10. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  11. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  12. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  13. Longitudinal nonlinear wave propagation through soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Valdez, M; Balachandran, B

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, wave propagation through soft tissue is investigated. A primary aim of this investigation is to gain a fundamental understanding of the influence of soft tissue nonlinear material properties on the propagation characteristics of stress waves generated by transient loadings. Here, for computational modeling purposes, the soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear visco-hyperelastic material, the geometry is assumed to be one-dimensional rod geometry, and uniaxial propagation of longitudinal waves is considered. By using the linearized model, a basic understanding of the characteristics of wave propagation is developed through the dispersion relation and in terms of the propagation speed and attenuation. In addition, it is illustrated as to how the linear system can be used to predict brain tissue material parameters through the use of available experimental ultrasonic attenuation curves. Furthermore, frequency thresholds for wave propagation along internal structures, such as axons in the white matter of the brain, are obtained through the linear analysis. With the nonlinear material model, the authors analyze cases in which one of the ends of the rods is fixed and the other end is subjected to a loading. Two variants of the nonlinear model are analyzed and the associated predictions are compared with the predictions of the corresponding linear model. The numerical results illustrate that one of the imprints of the nonlinearity on the wave propagation phenomenon is the steepening of the wave front, leading to jump-like variations in the stress wave profiles. This phenomenon is a consequence of the dependence of the local wave speed on the local deformation of the material. As per the predictions of the nonlinear material model, compressive waves in the structure travel faster than tensile waves. Furthermore, it is found that wave pulses with large amplitudes and small elapsed times are attenuated over shorter spans. This feature is due to the elevated

  14. Wave Dissipation and Balance - NOPP Wave Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    ocean with the atmosphere, land and solid Earth. Waves also define in many ways the appearance of the ocean seen by remote- sensing instruments. Beyond...waves, sediments and remote sensing systems, and to improve our forecasting and hindcasting capacity of these phenomena from the global ocean to the...feedback on the wave model quality APPROACH AND WORK PLAN By combining theoretical advances with numerical models, remote sensing and field

  15. Pressure waves in a supersaturated bubbly magma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurzon, I.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Navon, O.; Chouet, B.

    2011-01-01

    We study the interaction of acoustic pressure waves with an expanding bubbly magma. The expansion of magma is the result of bubble growth during or following magma decompression and leads to two competing processes that affect pressure waves. On the one hand, growth in vesicularity leads to increased damping and decreased wave amplitudes, and on the other hand, a decrease in the effective bulk modulus of the bubbly mixture reduces wave velocity, which in turn, reduces damping and may lead to wave amplification. The additional acoustic energy originates from the chemical energy released during bubble growth. We examine this phenomenon analytically to identify conditions under which amplification of pressure waves is possible. These conditions are further examined numerically to shed light on the frequency and phase dependencies in relation to the interaction of waves and growing bubbles. Amplification is possible at low frequencies and when the growth rate of bubbles reaches an optimum value for which the wave velocity decreases sufficiently to overcome the increased damping of the vesicular material. We examine two amplification phase-dependent effects: (1) a tensile-phase effect in which the inserted wave adds to the process of bubble growth, utilizing the energy associated with the gas overpressure in the bubble and therefore converting a large proportion of this energy into additional acoustic energy, and (2) a compressive-phase effect in which the pressure wave works against the growing bubbles and a large amount of its acoustic energy is dissipated during the first cycle, but later enough energy is gained to amplify the second cycle. These two effects provide additional new possible mechanisms for the amplification phase seen in Long-Period (LP) and Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic signals originating in magma-filled cracks.

  16. PDII- Additional discussion of the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Norman M. Gelfand

    2002-07-23

    This note is in the nature of an addition to the dynamic aperture calculations found in the report on the Proton Driver, FERMILAB-TM-2169. A extensive discussion of the Proton Driver lattice, as well as the nomenclature used to describe it can be found in TM-2169. Basically the proposed lattice is a racetrack design with the two arcs joined by two long straight sections. The straight sections are dispersion free. Tracking studies were undertaken with the objective of computing the dynamic aperture for the lattice and some of the results have been incorporated into TM-2169. This note is a more extensive report of those calculations.

  17. Rust inhibiting additive compositions for oils

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, H.

    1980-09-23

    Compositions which include mixtures of a calcium hydroxide overbased oil-soluble calcium sulfonate, hexylene glycol and a surfactant consisting of an ethoxylated aliphatic amine, particularly, diethoxylated cocoamine or diethoxylated soyamine, are useful as rust inhibiting additives for oils and the like. By incorporating these compositions in petroleum based oils such as petroleum based oils of lubricating oil quality which come into contact with metal surfaces under conditions such that the metal surfaces tend to rust or otherwise be subject to deterioration it is possible to inhibit rust formation on such metal surfaces.

  18. ULF Waves at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.-H.; Boardsen, S. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Slavin, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the observed characteristics of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at Mercury. It shows how field-aligned propagating ULF waves at Mercury can be generated by externally driven fast compressional waves (FWs) via mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Then, the chapter reviews the interpretation that the strong magnetic compressional waves near and its harmonics observed with 20 of Mercury's magnetic equator could be the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) mode. A recent statistical study of ULF waves at Mercury based on MESSENGER data reported the occurrence and polarization of the detected waves. The chapter further introduces the field line resonance and the electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves to explain such waves, and shows that both theories can partially explain the observations.

  19. Fracture channel waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  20. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  1. Converted-waves Imaging Condition for Elastic Reverse-Time Migration with Decomposed Wavefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Choi, H.; Seol, S. J.; Byun, J.

    2015-12-01

    To successfully deal with responses from the elastic earth, imaging techniques need to incorporate the elastic wave equation. Elastic Reverse-Time Migration (ERTM) with separating-while-imaging approach is capable of yielding physically meaningful PP, PS, SP, and SS images from multicomponent data. Even in PP images, ERTM has brought enhancements comparing to those from acoustic RTM because ERTM can handle converted waves. Converted-wave images, core results of ERTM, however, have two major problems related to characteristics of S-waves. First, polarity reversals according to propagation directions of S-waves cause destructive effect to final PS and SP images while each migrated result is stacked over the shots. In addition, non-existent spurious events which are produced by crosscorrelating downgoing S-waves in source wavefields and reflections associated with downgoing P-waves in receiver wavefields lead masking effects over true reflection events in SP and SS images. In this study, we adopt a wavefield decomposition method to solve the polarity problems and derive a new converted-wave imaging condition for SP and SS images to alleviate the generation of spurious events. The acceleration vector wavefield decomposition method used in our ERTM has advantages over the conventional wavefield separation method based on the Helmholtz decomposition because the wavefield decomposition can automatically compensate polarity changes in PS and SP images when the zero-lag crosscorrelation for vector wavefields is applied. To suppress spurious events in SP and SS images, our imaging condition is designed to make images only where S- and converted P-waves from source wavefields are coexisted with decomposed wavefields from receiver wavefields at reflection boundaries. To verify our new imaging condition, we tested our algorithm with OBC (Ocean Bottom Cable) data from elastic Marmousi-II model and compared the migrated images with those from ERTM with the zero

  2. High field side launch of RF waves: A new approach to reactor actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, G. M.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Faust, I. C.; LaBombard, B. L.; Lin, Y.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Vieira, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launching radio frequency (RF) waves from the high field side (HFS) of a tokamak offers significant advantages over low field side (LFS) launch with respect to both wave physics and plasma material interactions (PMI). For lower hybrid (LH) waves, the higher magnetic field opens the window between wave accessibility (n∥≡c k∥/ω >√{1 -ωpi 2/ω2+ωpe 2/ωce 2 }+ωp e/|ωc e| ) and the condition for strong electron Landau damping (n∥˜√{30 /Te } with Te in keV), allowing LH waves from the HFS to penetrate into the core of a burning plasma, while waves launched from the LFS are restricted to the periphery of the plasma. The lower n∥ of waves absorbed at higher Te yields a higher current drive efficiency as well. In the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), HFS launch allows for direct access to the mode conversion layer where mode converted waves absorb strongly on thermal electrons and ions, thus avoiding the generation of energetic minority ion tails. The absence of turbulent heat and particle fluxes on the HFS, particularly in double null configuration, makes it the ideal location to minimize PMI damage to the antenna structure. The quiescent SOL also eliminates the need to couple LH waves across a long distance to the separatrix, as the antenna can be located close to plasma without risking damage to the structure. Improved impurity screening on the HFS will help eliminate the long-standing issues of high Z impurity accumulation with ICRF. Looking toward a fusion reactor, the HFS is the only possible location for a plasma-facing RF antenna that will survive long-term. By integrating the antenna into the blanket module it is possible to improve the tritium breeding ratio compared with an antenna occupying an equatorial port plug. Blanket modules will require remote handling of numerous cooling pipes and electrical connections, and the addition of transmission lines will not substantially increase the level of complexity. The obvious engineering

  3. Internal waves interacting with particles in suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micard, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Internal waves are produced as a consequence of the dynamic balance between buoy- ancy and gravity forces when a particle of fluid is vertically displaced in a stable stratified environment. Geophysical systems such as ocean and atmosphere are naturally stratified and therefore suitable for internal waves to propagate. Furthermore, these two environ- ments stock a vast amount of particles in suspension, which present a large spectrum of physical properties (size, density, shape), and can be organic, mineral or pollutant agents. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that internal waves will have an active effect over the dynamics of these particles. In order to study the interaction of internal waves and suspended particles, an ide- alized experimental setup has been implemented. A linear stratification is produced in a 80×40×17 cm3 tank, in which two dimensional plane waves are created thanks to the inno- vative wave generator GOAL. In addition, a particle injector has been developed to produce a vertical column of particles within the fluid, displaying the same two-dimensional sym- metry as the waves. The particle injector allows to control the volumic fraction of particles and the size of the column. The presence of internal waves passing through the column of particles allowed to observe two main effects: The column oscillates around an equilibrium position (which is observed in both, the contours an the interior of the column), and the column is displaced as a whole. The column is displaced depending on the characteristics of the column, the gradient of the density, and the intensity and frequency of the wave. When displaced, the particles within the column are sucked towards the source of waves. The direction of the displacement of the column is explained by computing the effect of the Lagrangian drift generated by the wave over the time the particles stay in the wave beam before settling.

  4. Interfacial wave theory for dendritic structure of a growing needle crystal. I - Local instability mechanism. II - Wave-emission mechanism at the turning point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jian-Jun

    1989-01-01

    The complicated dendritic structure of a growing needle crystal is studied on the basis of global interfacial wave theory. The local dispersion relation for normal modes is derived in a paraboloidal coordinate system using the multiple-variable-expansion method. It is shown that the global solution in a dendrite growth process incorporates the morphological instability factor and the traveling wave factor.

  5. The US Navy Coupled Ocean-Wave Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Stokes drift to be the dominant wave effect and that it increased surface drift speeds by 35% and veered the current in the direction of the wind...important for the prediction of the dispersion of contaminants as well as the projected path of a drifting mine field. Several regional modeling systems...ocean model has been modified to incorporate the effect of the Stokes drift current, wave radiation stresses due to horizontal gradients of the momentum

  6. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  7. Reasons for the formation of incoherent additional microwaves in fresh ice under plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordonskiy, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    It is supposed that incoherent additional waves that appear in fresh ice in the microwave range are associated with the spontaneous decomposition of an unstable phase. This decomposition produces periodic phases. The unstable phase may result from the plastic deformation of the ice, from vapor condensation on a cold substrate, or from other effects causing spinodals. Experimental data obtained for millimeter and centimeter waves have been presented that support the above supposition regarding the formation of the incoherent additional waves.

  8. The ''phase velocity'' of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, W.L.

    1985-04-01

    A calculational scheme for beat-wave accelerators is introduced that includes all orders in velocity and in plasma density, and additionally accounts for the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which it is possible to sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. It is found that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity, but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local ''effective phase velocity'' function. A time-space domain approach is followed. (LEW)

  9. Wave Propagation in Bimodular Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Maria; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    Observations and laboratory experiments show that fragmented or layered geomaterials have the mechanical response dependent on the sign of the load. The most adequate model accounting for this effect is the theory of bimodular (bilinear) elasticity - a hyperelastic model with different elastic moduli for tension and compression. For most of geo- and structural materials (cohesionless soils, rocks, concrete, etc.) the difference between elastic moduli is such that their modulus in compression is considerably higher than that in tension. This feature has a profound effect on oscillations [1]; however, its effect on wave propagation has not been comprehensively investigated. It is believed that incorporation of bilinear elastic constitutive equations within theory of wave dynamics will bring a deeper insight to the study of mechanical behaviour of many geomaterials. The aim of this paper is to construct a mathematical model and develop analytical methods and numerical algorithms for analysing wave propagation in bimodular materials. Geophysical and exploration applications and applications in structural engineering are envisaged. The FEM modelling of wave propagation in a 1D semi-infinite bimodular material has been performed with the use of Marlow potential [2]. In the case of the initial load expressed by a harmonic pulse loading strong dependence on the pulse sign is observed: when tension is applied before compression, the phenomenon of disappearance of negative (compressive) strains takes place. References 1. Dyskin, A., Pasternak, E., & Pelinovsky, E. (2012). Periodic motions and resonances of impact oscillators. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(12), 2856-2873. 2. Marlow, R. S. (2008). A Second-Invariant Extension of the Marlow Model: Representing Tension and Compression Data Exactly. In ABAQUS Users' Conference.

  10. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers.

    PubMed

    de Haan, V; Santbergen, R; Tijssen, M; Zeman, M

    2011-10-10

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach-Zehnder and Michelson-Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac interferometer. However, the Sagnac interferometer is much harder to study because of the fact that one input port and output port coincide. Further, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer has the advantage that the output ports are symmetric, reducing the systematic effects. Examples of standing wave light absorption in several simple objects are given. Attention is drawn to the influence of standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers with weak-absorbing layers incorporated. A method is described for how these can be theoretically analyzed and experimentally measured. Further experiments are needed for a thorough comparison between theory and experiment.

  11. Development of Germano-Silicate Optical Fiber Incorporated with Germanium Nanoparticles and Its Optical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seongmook; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Youngwoong; Jeong, Hyejeong; Boo, Seongjae; Han, Won-Taek

    2016-06-01

    The germano-silicate optical fiber incorporated with Ge nanoparticles with enhanced optical nonlinearity was developed by using modified chemical vapor deposition and drawing processes. A broad photoluminescence band obtained by pumping with the 404 nm superluminescent diode was found to appear from 540 nm to 1,000 nm. The non-resonant nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the fiber measured by the continuous wave self-phase modulation method was 4.95 x 10(-20) m2/W due to the incorporated Ge nanoparticles in the fiber core. The enhancement of the non-resonant optical non-linearity may be due to the creation of the NBOs and other defects from the incorporated Ge-NPs in the fiber core.

  12. Incorporating Target Priorities in the Sensor Tasking Reward Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehly, S.; Bennett, J.

    2016-09-01

    Orbital debris tracking poses many challenges, most fundamentally the need to track a large number of objects from a limited number of sensors. The use of information theoretic sensor allocation provides a means to efficiently collect data on the multitarget system. An additional need of the community is the ability to specify target priorities, driven both by user needs and environmental factors such as collision warnings. This research develops a method to incorporate target priorities in the sensor tasking reward function, allowing for several applications in different tasking modes such as catalog maintenance, calibration, and collision monitoring. A set of numerical studies is included to demonstrate the functionality of the method.

  13. Bioactivity of 2′-deoxyinosine-incorporated aptamer AS1411

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xinmeng; Sun, Lidan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Lihe; Yang, Zhenjun

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers can be chemically modified to enhance nuclease resistance and increase target affinity. In this study, we performed chemical modification of 2′-deoxyinosine in AS1411, an anti-proliferative G-rich oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer, which binds selectively to the nucleolin protein. Its function was augmented when 2′-deoxyinosine was incorporated at positions 12, 13, 15, and 24 of AS1411, respectively. In addition, double incorporation of 2′-deoxyinosine at positions 12 and 24 (FAN-1224dI), 13 and 24 (FAN-1324dI), and 15 and 24 (FAN-1524dI) promoted G-quartet formation, as well as inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell growth, and induced S-phase cell cycle arrest. In further animal experiments, FAN-1224dI, FAN-1324dI and FAN-1524dI resulted in enhanced treatment effects than AS1411 alone. These results suggested that the position and number of modification substituents in AS1411 are critical parameters to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic function of the aptamer. Structural investigations of the FAN-1524dI/nucleolin complex structure, using molecular dynamics simulation, revealed the critical interactions involving nucleolin and 2′-dI incorporated AS1411 compared with AS1411 alone. These findings augment understanding of the role of 2′-deoxyinosine moieties in interactive binding processes. PMID:27194215

  14. Modifications To a Propagation Model for the Combinded Refraction-Diffraction of Stokes Waves; Shallow Water, Large Angle and Breaking Wave Effects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    ulting equation is in the form of a cubic Schrodinger equation for wave ow lmti n in the x-directi n. This formulation has been extended to the case of...1982) using the modified dispersion relation. The dispersion relation is incorporated directly in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation for complex...28 Chapter III. Large Angle Formulation for the Wave-Current Model .......... 33 3.1 The Parabolic Equation for Waves on

  15. Inertio Gravity Waves in the Upper Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. L.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.

    2003-01-01

    In the polar region of the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10 hours (Hernandez et al., 1992). Such waves are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) and appear to be inertio gravity waves (IGW). Like the planetary waves (PW) in the model, the IGWs are generated by instabilities that arise in the mean zonal circulation. In addition to stationary waves for m = 0, eastward and westward propagating waves for m = 1 to 4 appear above 70 km that grow in magnitude up to about 110 km, having periods between 9 and 11 hours. The m = 1 westward propagating IGWs have the largest amplitudes, which can reach at the poles 30 m/s. Like PWs, the IGWs are intermittent but reveal systematic seasonal variations, with the largest amplitudes occurring generally in winter and spring. The IGWs propagate upward with a vertical wavelength of about 20 km.

  16. Numerical investigation of oblique detonation waves for a shcramjet combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusina, Giovanni

    Research in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion strives to provide an efficient, cost-effective alternative to rocket propulsion for space transportation systems. The supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) is one of the most common hypersonic airbreathing propulsion concepts, but its massive combustor could have detrimental effects on its efficiency. The shock-induced combustion ramjet (shcramjet) overcomes this drawback by using standing oblique detonation waves (coupled shock-combustion fronts) as a means of nearly instantaneous heat addition. A numerical investigation of standing oblique detonation waves for their use in shcramjet propulsion is the main purpose of this investigation. The laminar, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with non-equilibrium hydrogen/air combustion models based on chemical kinetics are used to represent the physical system. The combustion models are incorporated into an in-house computational fluid dynamics solver based on a shock-capturing scheme by Yee scheme and an approximate factorization algorithm with a dual-time stepping technique to regain time-accuracy. The solver is validated with experimental data found in the literature. A time accurate simulation of the formation of a standing oblique detonation wave (ODW) near the Chapman Jouguet (minimum entropy) condition yields a non-oscillatory, stable structure. The stability of the ODW to inhomogeneities in the oncoming fuel/air mixture is assessed through other time-accurate simulations by artificially introducing small disturbances consisting of pure air just upstream of the ODW structure. The ODW is shown to be resilient to these disturbances: an upstream displacement is observed followed by the return of the ODW to its original position. Steady-state simulations are carried out to determine the effect of laminar boundary layers on ODW structures and properties above and below the Chapman-Jouguet point. A comparison with analogous inviscid simulations shows that the

  17. Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere. III - Nonlinear waves on open flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.; Jackson, S.; Galloway, D.

    1982-01-01

    Consideration is given the nonlinear propagation of Alfven waves on solar magnetic flux tubes, where the tubes are taken to be vertical, axisymmetric and initially untwisted and the Alfven waves are time-dependent axisymmetric twists. The propagation of the waves into the chromosphere and corona is investigated through the numerical solution of a set of nonlinear, time-dependent equations coupling the Alfven waves into motions that are parallel to the initial magnetic field. It is concluded that Alfven waves can steepen into fast shocks in the chromosphere, pass through the transition region to produce high-velocity pulses, and then enter the corona, which they heat. The transition region pulses have amplitudes of about 60 km/sec, and durations of a few tens of seconds. In addition, the Alfven waves exhibit a tendency to drive upward flows, with many of the properties of spicules.

  18. The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO): A Portal to Heliophysics Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2010-01-01

    The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) is one of the discipline-oriented virtual observatories that help form the nascent NASA Heliophysics Data environment to support heliophysics research. It focuses on supporting the searching and accessing of distributed heliophysics wave data and information that are available online. Since the occurrence of a natural wave phenomenon often depends on the underlying geophysical -- i.e., context -- conditions under which the waves are generated and propagate, and the observed wave characteristics can also depend on the location of observation, VWO will implement wave-data search-by-context conditions and location, in addition to searching by time and observing platforms (both space-based and ground-based). This paper describes the VWO goals, the basic design objectives, and the key VWO functionality to be expected. Members of the heliophysics community are invited to participate in VWO development in order to ensure its usefulness and success.

  19. Rogue waves of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation in a chaotic wave field.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we study the properties of the chaotic wave fields generated in the frame of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation (KEE). Modulation instability results in a chaotic wave field which exhibits small-scale filaments with a free propagation constant, k. The average velocity of the filaments is approximately given by the average group velocity calculated from the dispersion relation for the plane-wave solution; however, direction of propagation is controlled by the β parameter, the constant in front of the Raman-effect term. We have also calculated the probabilities of the rogue wave occurrence for various values of propagation constant k and showed that the probability of rogue wave occurrence depends on k. Additionally, we have showed that the probability of rogue wave occurrence significantly depends on the quintic and the Raman-effect nonlinear terms of the KEE. Statistical comparisons between the KEE and the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation have also been presented.

  20. Incorporating the National Standards in Performance Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Jody L.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses how the National Standards can be incorporated into band rehearsals using the music piece, "Balladair" (Frank Erickson), as an example when teaching techniques and musical concepts. Provides ideas such as using material from "Balladair" to create warm-ups or relating the piece to other arts. (CMK)

  1. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  2. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Impact Crash Test Dummy, July 1, 2008,” incorporated by reference in § 572.191; (4) SAE Recommended...) SAE J1733 of 1994-12, “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing.” (b) The Director of the Federal... 20879, (301) 670-0090. (2) The SAE materials referred to in paragraphs (a)(4) and (a)(5) of this...

  3. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Impact Crash Test Dummy, July 1, 2008,” incorporated by reference in § 572.191; (4) SAE Recommended...) SAE J1733 of 1994-12, “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing.” (b) The Director of the Federal... 20879, (301) 670-0090. (2) The SAE materials referred to in paragraphs (a)(4) and (a)(5) of this...

  4. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Dummy...

  5. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  6. The Incorporation and Abjection of Official Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearl, Benjamin Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, the author analyzes two theoretical perspectives--incorporation and abjection--that inform official knowledge generally and high school American history textbooks specifically. While contemporary textbooks increasingly depict the experiences of historically marginalized groups such as women, African Americans, Latinos, American…

  7. 77 FR 16761 - Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...; ] OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER 1 CFR Part 51 Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Office of the Federal... Register (OFR or we) received a petition to revise our regulations at 1 CFR part 51 on February 13, 2012... 11414. You can view the petition and its suggested revisions to the regulations 1 CFR part 51 on...

  8. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Side Impact Moving...

  9. Incorporating Technology into a Hawaiian Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'awa, Makalapua; Hawkins, Emily

    This paper describes Hawaiian language courses that incorporate computer technology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. In the past decade, enrollments in all types of Hawaiian language programs have increased rapidly. The University of Hawaii is committed to extending Hawaiian language education, especially the full development of Hawaiian…

  10. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...,” incorporated by reference in §§ 572.180(a)(2), and 572.181(a); (4) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Recommended Practice J211, Rev. Mar 95 “Instrumentation for Impact Tests—Part 1—Electronic Instrumentation... the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and in electronic format through...

  11. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  12. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  13. Design of Schools to Incorporate Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folley, Milo D.

    Means are suggested by which a school district may incorporate low-cost fallout protection in a school construction program, through construction of an underground shelter beneath the concrete slab foundation. Ways of controlling distribution and filtering air are discussed. The author also suggests consideration of a completely underground…

  14. Incorporating Mobile Learning into Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and present techniques for incorporating mobile learning into athletic training education. Background: The matriculation of digital natives into college has stimulated the identification and development of new teaching and learning strategies. Electronic learning (e-learning), including the use of learning management…

  15. Incorporating the Aesthetic Dimension into Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott; Wolfe, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study that was undertaken to discover not only the belief and intent behind the everyday opportunities that four exemplary teachers offered their high performing students but what activities they incorporated into their everyday lessons in an attempt to make sense of how aesthetic experiences may enhance learning. The…

  16. Incorporation of labeled small molecules into rubratoxin.

    PubMed

    Emeh, C O; Marth, E H

    1978-07-01

    A sterile glucose-mineral salts broth was inoculated with conidia of Penicillium rubrum P-13 and P-3290. Radiolabeled compounds were added to some cultures, these being incubated quiescently at 28 degrees C for 14 days. Other stationary cultures were grown for 21 days, received labeled compounds, and were then grown for 5 more days. The remaining cultures were inoculated with 72-h-old mycelial pellets, received labeled materials and were incubated with shaking for 60 h. Rubratoxin was resolved by thin-layer chromatography. Labeled [1(14)C]acetate, [1,5(14)C]citrate, [2(14)C]malonate, [1(14)C]glucose, [U14C]glucose or [1(14)C]hexanoate were incorporated into rubratoxins A and B by P. rubrum 3290 and into rubratoxin B by P. rubrum 13. Incorporation of [1(14)C]acetate and [2(14)C]malonate increased when exogenous unlabeled acetate, malonate, pyruvate, or phosphoenol-pyruvate was added. Acetate incorporation was influenced by cultural conditions, attaining maximum amounts in quiescent cultures which received labeled acetate after 21 days of incubation. Acetate incorporation in shake cultures was enhanced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and by unlabeled exogenous citrate.

  17. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy §...

  18. Incorporating Social Media in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeans, April

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating social media into the classroom will provide a positive, upbeat learning environment that students are engaged in on a regular basis. In doing this, educators will be ensuring discussion, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity amongst their students. Social media is a knowledgeable topic for our students, and it is an…

  19. Identification, Introjection, Incorporation, Internalization: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Identification, introjection, incorporation, and internalization dealt with the same basic process according to S. Freud. The process has been discussed and researched in many and varied personal-social contexts. There have been two general areas of concern: identification for positive reasons (often called developmental) and identification for…

  20. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  1. Heat waves in the United States: definitions, patterns and trends.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tiffany T; Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Gohlke, Julia M

    2013-06-01

    High temperatures and heat waves are related but not synonymous concepts. Heat waves, generally understood to be acute periods of extreme warmth, are relevant to a wide range of stakeholders because of the impacts that these events have on human health and activities and on natural environments. Perhaps because of the diversity of communities engaged in heat wave monitoring and research, there is no single, standard definition of a heat wave. Experts differ in which threshold values (absolute versus relative), duration and ancillary variables to incorporate into heat wave definitions. While there is value in this diversity of perspectives, the lack of a unified index can cause confusion when discussing patterns, trends, and impacts. Here, we use data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System to examine patterns and trends in 15 previously published heat wave indices for the period 1979-2011 across the Continental United States. Over this period the Southeast region saw the highest number of heat wave days for the majority of indices considered. Positive trends (increases in number of heat wave days per year) were greatest in the Southeast and Great Plains regions, where more than 12 % of the land area experienced significant increases in the number of heat wave days per year for the majority of heat wave indices. Significant negative trends were relatively rare, but were found in portions of the Southwest, Northwest, and Great Plains.

  2. Self-organizing actin waves that simulate phagocytic cup structures.

    PubMed

    Gerisch, Günther

    2010-03-18

    This report deals with actin waves that are spontaneously generated on the planar, substrate-attached surface of Dictyostelium cells. These waves have the following characteristics. (1) They are circular structures of varying shape, capable of changing the direction of propagation. (2) The waves propagate by treadmilling with a recovery of actin incorporation after photobleaching of less than 10 seconds. (3) The waves are associated with actin-binding proteins in an ordered 3-dimensional organization: with myosin-IB at the front and close to the membrane, the Arp2/3 complex throughout the wave, and coronin at the cytoplasmic face and back of the wave. Coronin is a marker of disassembling actin structures. (4) The waves separate two areas of the cell cortex that differ in actin structure and phosphoinositide composition of the membrane. The waves arise at the border of membrane areas rich in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate (PIP3). The inhibition of PIP3 synthesis reversibly inhibits wave formation. (5) The actin wave and PIP3 patterns resemble 2-dimensional projections of phagocytic cups, suggesting that they are involved in the scanning of surfaces for particles to be taken up.PACS Codes: 87.16.Ln, 87.19.lp, 89.75.Fb.

  3. Heat waves in the United States: definitions, patterns and trends

    PubMed Central

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    High temperatures and heat waves are related but not synonymous concepts. Heat waves, generally understood to be acute periods of extreme warmth, are relevant to a wide range of stakeholders because of the impacts that these events have on human health and activities and on natural environments. Perhaps because of the diversity of communities engaged in heat wave monitoring and research, there is no single, standard definition of a heat wave. Experts differ in which threshold values (absolute versus relative), duration and ancillary variables to incorporate into heat wave definitions. While there is value in this diversity of perspectives, the lack of a unified index can cause confusion when discussing patterns, trends, and impacts. Here, we use data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System to examine patterns and trends in 15 previously published heat wave indices for the period 1979–2011 across the Continental United States. Over this period the Southeast region saw the highest number of heat wave days for the majority of indices considered. Positive trends (increases in number of heat wave days per year) were greatest in the Southeast and Great Plains regions, where more than 12 % of the land area experienced significant increases in the number of heat wave days per year for the majority of heat wave indices. Significant negative trends were relatively rare, but were found in portions of the Southwest, Northwest, and Great Plains. PMID:23869115

  4. Detonation Wave Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  5. Enhanced sensitive love wave surface acoustic wave sensor designed for immunoassay formats.

    PubMed

    Puiu, Mihaela; Gurban, Ana-Maria; Rotariu, Lucian; Brajnicov, Simona; Viespe, Cristian; Bala, Camelia

    2015-05-05

    We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW) immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications.

  6. Wave climatology of Lake Erie based on an unstructured-grid wave model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Qianru; Xia, Meng

    2016-10-01

    Hindcast of wave dynamics in Lake Erie during 2002 to 2012 was conducted using a state-of-art finite-volume coastal ocean surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE). After model calibration, the surface gravity wave dynamics were examined from the aspects of wave climate and seasonality, inter-basin wave interactions, as well as its potential susceptibility to regional climate change. Compared to the Central and Eastern Basins, the Western Basin has relatively gentle wave climate. The Western Basin and the nearshore areas are most susceptible to the wave-induced bottom orbital oscillations on the seasonal mean scale, and the offshore Central Basin is sensitive to them as well during episodic events. Profound seasonality was found in both mean and extreme wave dynamics during ice-free cycles. Mean significant wave height (SWH) is highest during fall with more occurrences of extreme events (SWH > 3.1 m) and is lowest during summer, which is controlled by wind speed and direction collectively. Besides, swells generated in the Central and Eastern Basins could interact with each other under various wind directions, whereas wave generated in the Central Basin could hardly propagate into the Western Basin. In addition, the regression analysis of surrounding meteorological stations indicates increasing SWH in the Western Basin and decreasing SWH in the Eastern Basin.

  7. Incorporating Hydroepidemiology into the Epidemia Malaria Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Henebry, G. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning of the timing and locations of malaria epidemics can facilitate the targeting of resources for prevention and emergency response. In response to this need, we are developing the Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) computer system. EPIDEMIA incorporates software for capturing, processing, and integrating environmental and epidemiological data from multiple sources; data assimilation techniques that continually update models and forecasts; and a web-based interface that makes the resulting information available to public health decision makers. The system will enable forecasts that incorporate lagged responses to environmental risk factors as well as information about recent trends in malaria cases. Because the egg, larval, and pupal stages of mosquito development occur in aquatic habitats, information about the spatial and temporal distributions of stagnant water bodies is critical for modeling malaria risk. Potential sources of hydrological data include satellite-derived rainfall estimates, evapotranspiration (ET) calculated using a simplified surface energy balance model, and estimates of soil moisture and fractional water cover from passive microwave radiometry. We used partial least squares regression to analyze and visualize seasonal patterns of these variables in relation to malaria cases using data from 49 districts in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Seasonal patterns of rainfall were strongly associated with the incidence and seasonality of malaria across the region, and model fit was improved by the addition of remotely-sensed ET and soil moisture variables. The results highlight the importance of remotely-sensed hydrological data for modeling malaria risk in this region and emphasize the value of an ensemble approach that utilizes multiple sources of information about precipitation and land surface wetness. These variables will be incorporated into the forecasting models at

  8. Many-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the past few years, we developed many-body variational wave functions that allow one to treat pairing and particle-hole two-body interactions on an equal footing. The complexity of these wave functions depends on the number of levels included in the valence space, but does not depend on the number of nucleons in the system. By using residual interaction strengths (e.g. the quadrupole interaction strength or pairing interaction strength) as generator coordinates, one gets many different wave functions, each having a different expectation value for the relevant interaction mode. These wave functions are particularly useful when one is dealing with a situation in which the mean-field approximation is inadequate. Because the same basis states are used in the construction of the many-body wave functions, it is possible to calculate overlaps and interaction matrix elements for the many-body wave functions (which are not in general orthogonal) easily. The valence space can contain a large number of single-particle basis states, when there are constants of motion that can be used to break the levels up into groups. We added a cranking term to the many-body Hamiltonian and modified the projection procedure to get states of good signature before variation. In our present implementation, each group is limited to eight pairs of single-particle levels. We are working on ways of increasing the number of levels that can be included in each group. We are also working on including particle-particle residual interaction modes, in addition to pairing, in our Hamiltonian.

  9. Elastic reverse-time migration based on amplitude-preserving P- and S-wave separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia-Jia; Luan, Xi-Wu; Fang, Gang; Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Imaging the PP- and PS-wave for the elastic vector wave reverse-time migration requires separating the P- and S-waves during the wave field extrapolation. The amplitude and phase of the P- and S-waves are distorted when divergence and curl operators are used to separate the P- and S-waves. We present a P- and S-wave amplitude-preserving separation algorithm for the elastic wavefield extrapolation. First, we add the P-wave pressure and P-wave vibration velocity equation to the conventional elastic wave equation to decompose the P- and S-wave vectors. Then, we synthesize the scalar P- and S-wave from the vector Pand S-wave to obtain the scalar P- and S-wave. The amplitude-preserved separated P- and S-waves are imaged based on the vector wave reverse-time migration (RTM). This method ensures that the amplitude and phase of the separated P- and S-wave remain unchanged compared with the divergence and curl operators. In addition, after decomposition, the P-wave pressure and vibration velocity can be used to suppress the interlayer reflection noise and to correct the S-wave polarity. This improves the image quality of P- and S-wave in multicomponent seismic data and the true-amplitude elastic reverse time migration used in prestack inversion.

  10. The Iowa wave machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John D.; Greenslade, Thomas B.; Stille, Dale

    2010-03-01

    Wave machines are a staple of demonstration lectures, and a good pair of wave machines can make the idea of transverse and longitudinal waves clearly evident to students. The demonstration apparatus collection of the University of Iowa contains examples of transverse and longitudinal wave machines that will be of interest to readers of The Physics Teacher. These machines probably date from about 1925 and may have been locally produced. You too can build them.

  11. WaveNet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    modeling and planning missions which require metocean data ( winds , waves, tides, water levels). It allows users to access, process, and analyze wave...and wind data from different data sources (Figure 1), and provides a combination of analysis and graphical capabilities to minimize the complexity and...employs techniques to minimize complexity and uncertainty of data processing. WaveNet is a decision-support tool that provides wave and wind data

  12. Oceanic wave measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, J. F.; Miles, R. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An oceanic wave measured system is disclosed wherein wave height is sensed by a barometer mounted on a buoy. The distance between the trough and crest of a wave is monitored by sequentially detecting positive and negative peaks of the output of the barometer and by combining (adding) each set of two successive half cycle peaks. The timing of this measurement is achieved by detecting the period of a half cycle of wave motion.

  13. Multiple-frequency tomography with shear waves and Love waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue

    In this thesis I study the velocity and attenuation structure of the North American mantle using multiple-frequency shear-wave and Love-wave measurements, together with finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. The software for dynamic ray tracing and fast computation of body-wave finite-frequency sensitivity kernels is described and extensively validated and tested for accuracy. The program works for arbitrarily defined phases and one-dimensional background models. In kinematic and dynamic ray tracing, an integration step size of about 20 km is needed to produce travel-time errors under 0.1 s for the most common seismic phases. In kernel computation, a minimum integration step size of 10--30 km is sufficient to obtain numerical errors of the kernel's spatial quadrature below observational uncertainties. Larger errors may occur for long-period minimax phases such as SS . The paraxial approximation fails and errors become intolerable at epicentral distances larger than 140°. A global data set is built to contain multiple-frequency SH-wave travel-time and amplitude anomalies and SS-wave differential delays, estimated by band-pass filtering and cross-correlation. Most of the data are recorded at USArray stations. Frequency dependence is observed for all three types of data, and is strongest for amplitudes. The shallow structure is constrained by the addition of Love-wave phase delays. Velocity and attenuation heterogeneities are simultaneously estimated by allowing for focusing. The velocity model shows evidence of heavy fragmentation of the Farallon slab, including two separate subduction systems under western and eastern North America respectively, trench-perpendicular slab tears, and blob-like slab fragments in the lower mantle. The velocity model reveals a lower-mantle plume originating at about 1500 km depth beneath the Yellowstone area and tilting about 40° from vertical. Complex interaction between the plume and slab fragments is observed. High correlation

  14. Coronal heating by waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    Alfven waves or Alfvenic surface waves carry enough energy into the corona to provide the coronal energy requirements. Coronal loop resonances are an appealing means by which large energy fluxes enter active region loops. The wave dissipation mechanism still needs to be elucidated, but a Kolmogoroff turbulent cascade is fully consistent with the heating requirements in coronal holes and active region loops.

  15. Waves of Hanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Guillermo

    2003-03-01

    A spatially extended model of the hantavirus infection in deer mice is analyzed. Traveling waves solutions of the infected and susceptible populations are studied in different regimes, controlled by an environmental parameter. The wave of infection is shown to lag behind the wave of susceptible population, and the delay between the two is analyzed numerically and through a piecewise linearization.

  16. Phase-shifting interferometry by wave amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Rivera-Ortega, Uriel

    2011-07-01

    A new method for phase-shifting interferometry based on wave amplitude modulation is proposed and discussed. This proposal is based on the interference of three waves, where two waves attend as two reference waves and the other wave attends as a probe wave. Thereby, three interference terms are obtained, but because a phase difference of π/2 between the two references is kept constant, one of the three terms will be dropped, while the two remaining will be put in quadrature. Under these conditions, the resulting pattern is mathematically modeled by an interferogram of two waves, where an additional phase is given by the amplitude variations of the reference waves. In this Letter, both a theoretical model and some numerical simulations are presented.

  17. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-29

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  18. Pyrophosphorolysis of CCA addition: implication for fidelity.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takao; Liu, Cuiping; Morinaga, Hironobu; Kim, Sangbumn; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2011-11-18

    In nucleic acid polymerization reaction, pyrophosphorolysis is the reversal of nucleotide addition, in which the terminal nucleotide is excised in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). The CCA enzymes are unusual RNA polymerases, which catalyze CCA addition to positions 74-76 at the tRNA 3' end without using a nucleic acid template. To better understand the reaction mechanism of CCA addition, we tested pyrophosphorolysis of CCA enzymes, which are divided into two structurally distinct classes. Here, we show that only class II CCA enzymes catalyze pyrophosphorolysis and that the reaction can initiate from all three CCA positions and proceed processively until the removal of nucleotide C74. Pyrophosphorolysis of class II enzymes establishes a fundamental difference from class I enzymes, and it is achieved only with the tRNA structure and with specific divalent metal ions. Importantly, pyrophosphorolysis enables class II enzymes to efficiently remove an incorrect A75 nucleotide from the 3' end, at a rate much faster than the rate of A75 incorporation, suggesting the ability to perform a previously unexpected quality control mechanism for CCA synthesis. Measurement of kinetic parameters of the class II Escherichia coli CCA enzyme reveals that the enzyme catalyzes pyrophosphorolysis slowly relative to the forward nucleotide addition and that it exhibits weak binding affinity to PPi relative to NTP, suggesting a mechanism in which PPi is rapidly released after each nucleotide addition as a driving force to promote the forward synthesis of CCA.

  19. 46 CFR 105.01-3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Administration § 105.01-3 Incorporation by reference..., Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method), incorporation by...

  20. Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, Mike; Downie, Bruce

    2013-10-21

    Ocean wave power can be a significant source of large‐scale, renewable energy for the US electrical grid. The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) conservatively estimated that 20% of all US electricity could be generated by wave energy. Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. (OPT), with funding from private sources and the US Navy, developed the PowerBuoy to generate renewable energy from the readily available power in ocean waves. OPT's PowerBuoy converts the energy in ocean waves to electricity using the rise and fall of waves to move the buoy up and down (mechanical stroking) which drives an electric generator. This electricity is then conditioned and transmitted ashore as high‐voltage power via underwater cable. OPT's wave power generation system includes sophisticated techniques to automatically tune the system for efficient conversion of random wave energy into low cost green electricity, for disconnecting the system in large waves for hardware safety and protection, and for automatically restoring operation when wave conditions normalize. As the first utility scale wave power project in the US, the Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, OR, will consist of 10 PowerBuoys located 2.5 miles off the coast. This U.S. Department of Energy Grant funding along with funding from PNGC Power, an Oregon‐based electric power cooperative, was utilized for the design completion, fabrication, assembly and factory testing of the first PowerBuoy for the Reedsport project. At this time, the design and fabrication of this first PowerBuoy and factory testing of the power take‐off subsystem are complete; additionally the power take‐off subsystem has been successfully integrated into the spar.

  1. Shock Wave Technology and Application: An Update☆

    PubMed Central

    Rassweiler, Jens J.; Knoll, Thomas; Köhrmann, Kai-Uwe; McAteer, James A.; Lingeman, James E.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Bailey, Michael R.; Chaussy, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Context The introduction of new lithotripters has increased problems associated with shock wave application. Recent studies concerning mechanisms of stone disintegration, shock wave focusing, coupling, and application have appeared that may address some of these problems. Objective To present a consensus with respect to the physics and techniques used by urologists, physicists, and representatives of European lithotripter companies. Evidence acquisition We reviewed recent literature (PubMed, Embase, Medline) that focused on the physics of shock waves, theories of stone disintegration, and studies on optimising shock wave application. In addition, we used relevant information from a consensus meeting of the German Society of Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Evidence synthesis Besides established mechanisms describing initial fragmentation (tear and shear forces, spallation, cavitation, quasi-static squeezing), the model of dynamic squeezing offers new insight in stone comminution. Manufacturers have modified sources to either enlarge the focal zone or offer different focal sizes. The efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) can be increased by lowering the pulse rate to 60–80 shock waves/min and by ramping the shock wave energy. With the water cushion, the quality of coupling has become a critical factor that depends on the amount, viscosity, and temperature of the gel. Fluoroscopy time can be reduced by automated localisation or the use of optical and acoustic tracking systems. There is a trend towards larger focal zones and lower shock wave pressures. Conclusions New theories for stone disintegration favour the use of shock wave sources with larger focal zones. Use of slower pulse rates, ramping strategies, and adequate coupling of the shock wave head can significantly increase the efficacy and safety of ESWL. PMID:21354696

  2. High-efficiency, 200 watt, 12-gigahertz traveling wave tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Mcnary, B. D.; Sauseng, O.

    1974-01-01

    Design and performance of a highly efficient experimental 200-watt traveling wave tube for space communications are described. The tube uses a coupled cavity slow wave structure with periodic permanent magnet focusing. A two-step velocity taper is incorporated in the slow wave structure for velocity resynchronization with the modulated beam. The spent beam is reconditioned in a refocusing section before it is collected in a novel multistage depressed collector. The collector is radiation cooled and heat insulated from the tube body. At saturation the tube provides peak output power of 240 watts with a 35-db gain and an overall maximum efficiency of 56 percent.

  3. Partial Wave Dispersion Relations: Application to Electron-Atom Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temkin, A.; Drachman, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    In this Letter we propose the use of partial wave dispersion relations (DR's) as the way of solving the long-standing problem of correctly incorporating exchange in a valid DR for electron-atom scattering. In particular a method is given for effectively calculating the contribution of the discontinuity and/or poles of the partial wave amplitude which occur in the negative E plane. The method is successfully tested in three cases: (i) the analytically solvable exponential potential, (ii) the Hartree potential, and (iii) the S-wave exchange approximation for electron-hydrogen scattering.

  4. Observation of gravity-capillary wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Falcon, Eric; Laroche, Claude; Fauve, Stéphan

    2007-03-02

    We report the observation of the crossover between gravity and capillary wave turbulence on the surface of mercury. The probability density functions of the turbulent wave height are found to be asymmetric and thus non-Gaussian. The surface wave height displays power-law spectra in both regimes. In the capillary region, the exponent is in fair agreement with weak turbulence theory. In the gravity region, it depends on the forcing parameters. This can be related to the finite size of the container. In addition, the scaling of those spectra with the mean energy flux is found in disagreement with weak turbulence theory for both regimes.

  5. Interaction of turbulence with a detonation wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Ribner, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses a specific reactive-flow configuration, namely, the interaction of a detonation wave with convected homogeneous isotropic weak turbulence (which can be constructed by a Fourier synthesis of small-amplitude vorticity waves). The effect of chemical heat release on the rms fluctuations downstream of the detonation is presented as a function of Mach number. In addition, for the particular case of the von Karman spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectra of these flow quantities are given.

  6. Mucosal Wave Measurement and Visualization Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Olszewski, Aleksandra E.; Taylor, Lindsay N.; McMurray, James S.; Dailey, Seth H.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Organized vibration of the vocal folds is critical to high quality voice production. When the vocal folds oscillate, the superficial tissue of the vocal fold is displaced in a wave-like fashion, creating the so called “mucosal wave”. Because the mucosal wave is dependent on vocal fold structure, physical alterations of that structure cause mucosal wave abnormalities. Visualization and quantification of mucosal wave properties have become useful parameters in diagnosing and managing vocal fold pathology. Mucosal wave measurement provides information about vocal fold characteristics that cannot be determined with other assessment techniques. Here, we discuss the benefits, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of the different mucosal wave measurement techniques, such as electroglottography (EGG), photoglottography (PGG), and ultrasound and visualization techniques that include videokymography (VKG), stroboscopy, and high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). The various techniques and their specific uses are reviewed with the intention of helping researchers and clinicians choose a method for a given situation and understand its limitations as well as its potential applications. Recent applications of these techniques for quantitative assessment demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of these tools. Evaluations of existing research and recommendations for future research are given to promote both the quantitative study of the mucosal wave through accurate and standardized measurement of mucosal wave parameters and the development of reliable methods with which physicians can diagnose vocal disorders. PMID:20471798

  7. Spiral waves in a model of myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, John J.; Keener, James P.

    1987-11-01

    Myocardial tissue is an excitable medium through which propagate waves of electrical stimulation and muscular contraction. In addition to radially expanding waves of neuromuscular activity characterizing the normal heartbeat, myocardial tissue may also support high frequency, rotating spiral waves of activity which are associated with cardiac pathologies (flutter and fibrillation). Recently Pertsov, Ermakova and Panfilov have presented a numerical study of rotating spiral waves in a two-dimensional excitable medium modeled on the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations, suitably modified to reflect the electrical properties of myocardium. We show that some of their principal numerical results can be reproduced in quantitative detail by a general theory of rotating spiral waves in excitable media. The critical ingredients of our theory are the dispersion of nonlinear plane waves and the effects of curvature on the propagation of wave fronts in two-dimensional media. The close comparison of our analytical results with numerical simulations of the full reaction-diffusion equations lends credence to our theoretical description of spiral waves in excitable media.

  8. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  9. On Hokusai's Great wave off Kanagawa: localization, linearity and a rogue wave in sub-Antarctic waters.

    PubMed

    Dudley, J M; Sarano, V; Dias, F

    2013-06-20

    The Hokusai woodcut entitled The great wave off Kanagawa has been interpreted as an unusually large storm wave, likely to be classed as a rogue wave, and possibly generated from nonlinear wave dynamics (J. H. E. Cartwright and H. Nakamura, Notes Rec. R. Soc.63, 119-135 (2009)). In this paper, we present a complementary discussion of this hypothesis, discussing in particular how linear and nonlinear mechanisms can both contribute to the emergence of rogue wave events. By making reference to the Great wave's simultaneous transverse and longitudinal localization, we show that the purely linear mechanism of directional focusing also predicts characteristics consistent with those of the Great wave. In addition, we discuss the properties of a particular rogue wave photographed on the open ocean in sub-Antarctic waters, which shows two-dimensional localization and breaking dynamics remarkably similar to Hokusai's depiction in the woodcut.

  10. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  11. A Reaction-Diffusion Model of Cholinergic Retinal Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lansdell, Benjamin; Ford, Kevin; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Prior to receiving visual stimuli, spontaneous, correlated activity in the retina, called retinal waves, drives activity-dependent developmental programs. Early-stage waves mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) manifest as slow, spreading bursts of action potentials. They are believed to be initiated by the spontaneous firing of Starburst Amacrine Cells (SACs), whose dense, recurrent connectivity then propagates this activity laterally. Their inter-wave interval and shifting wave boundaries are the result of the slow after-hyperpolarization of the SACs creating an evolving mosaic of recruitable and refractory cells, which can and cannot participate in waves, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that cholinergic waves may be modulated by the extracellular concentration of ACh. Here, we construct a simplified, biophysically consistent, reaction-diffusion model of cholinergic retinal waves capable of recapitulating wave dynamics observed in mice retina recordings. The dense, recurrent connectivity of SACs is modeled through local, excitatory coupling occurring via the volume release and diffusion of ACh. In addition to simulation, we are thus able to use non-linear wave theory to connect wave features to underlying physiological parameters, making the model useful in determining appropriate pharmacological manipulations to experimentally produce waves of a prescribed spatiotemporal character. The model is used to determine how ACh mediated connectivity may modulate wave activity, and how parameters such as the spontaneous activation rate and sAHP refractory period contribute to critical wave size variability. PMID:25474327

  12. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  13. Spectra of Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-22

    with a wave follower during Marsen. J. Gophysical Res. 88, 9844-9849. 11. Hughes, B.A., 1978. The effects on internal waves on surface waves : 2...Spectra of Surface Waves K. Watson March 1989 JSR-88-130 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DTIC SELECTE JUN0 11989 0 JASONE The...Arlington, VA 22209 8503Z 11. TITLE (hlde Secvfty Cof.kaftn) SPECTRA OF SURFACE WAVES (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOfRS) K. Watson 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME

  14. Incorporating Active Runway Crossings in Airport Departure Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer linear program is presented for deterministically scheduling departure and ar rival aircraft at airport runways. This method addresses different schemes of managing the departure queuing area by treating it as first-in-first-out queues or as a simple par king area where any available aircraft can take-off ir respective of its relative sequence with others. In addition, this method explicitly considers separation criteria between successive aircraft and also incorporates an optional prioritization scheme using time windows. Multiple objectives pertaining to throughput and system delay are used independently. Results indicate improvement over a basic first-come-first-serve rule in both system delay and throughput. Minimizing system delay results in small deviations from optimal throughput, whereas minimizing throughput results in large deviations in system delay. Enhancements for computational efficiency are also presented in the form of reformulating certain constraints and defining additional inequalities for better bounds.

  15. Incorporation of continuous student assessment into lectures in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllymäki, S.

    2013-08-01

    A continuous student assessment system was incorporated into an advanced microelectronic course. This study investigated the relationship between the continuous assessment system based on home exams and individual student achievement. The perspective was based on the learning frameworks of the social constructivist theory. Six fourth-year engineering students participated in the study, which covered 13 lectures and 5 home exams. Feedback sessions concerning the particular exam were held after every exam. Correlations between the exams, the feedback, and individual student achievement were computed. The results indicated a positive correlation between continuous assessment and student achievement. Rather than being improved a lot, student achievement stabilised statistically at a higher level. Additionally, student's absence was very low (5%) despite the voluntary participation in the course. Continuous assessment realised with home exams induced two-way discussions between the teacher and the students. Unprompted, the students learned additional material and discussed it in the exam essays, confirming the principles of social constructivist theory.

  16. Unsteady evolution of localized unidirectional deep-water wave groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Will; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.

    2015-06-01

    We study the evolution of localized wave groups in unidirectional water wave envelope equations [the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLSE) and the modified NLSE (MNLSE)]. These localizations of energy can lead to disastrous extreme responses (rogue waves). We analytically quantify the role of such spatial localization, introducing a technique to reduce the underlying partial differential equation dynamics to a simple ordinary differential equation for the wave packet amplitude. We use this reduced model to show how the scale-invariant symmetries of the NLSE break down when the additional terms in the MNLSE are included, inducing a critical scale for the occurrence of extreme waves.

  17. Unsteady evolution of localized unidirectional deep-water wave groups.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Will; Sapsis, Themistoklis P

    2015-06-01

    We study the evolution of localized wave groups in unidirectional water wave envelope equations [the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLSE) and the modified NLSE (MNLSE)]. These localizations of energy can lead to disastrous extreme responses (rogue waves). We analytically quantify the role of such spatial localization, introducing a technique to reduce the underlying partial differential equation dynamics to a simple ordinary differential equation for the wave packet amplitude. We use this reduced model to show how the scale-invariant symmetries of the NLSE break down when the additional terms in the MNLSE are included, inducing a critical scale for the occurrence of extreme waves.

  18. Toxicity of sediment-incorporated drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calculate EC50s at the same times that LC50s were determined. Observations of the burrowing behavior allowed quantitation of effects after 24-h exposures to each of the drilling fluids whereas lancelet mortality was sufficient to calculate 24-h LC50s for only one drilling fluid. Drilling fluids were less toxic to lancelets when incorporated into sediments than to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) or benthic invertebrate communities in water-column exposures.

  19. Design of the NASA Lewis 4-Port Wave Rotor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Pressure exchange wave rotors, used in a topping stage, are currently being considered as a possible means of increasing the specific power, and reducing the specific fuel consumption of gas turbine engines. Despite this interest, there is very little information on the performance of a wave rotor operating on the cycle (i.e., set of waves) appropriate for use in a topping stage. One such cycle, which has the advantage of being relatively easy to incorporate into an engine, is the four-port cycle. Consequently, an experiment to measure the performance of a four-port wave rotor for temperature ratios relevant to application as a topping cycle for a gas turbine engine has been designed and built at NASA Lewis. The design of the wave rotor is described, together with the constraints on the experiment.

  20. Incident Wave Removal for Defect Enhancement in Acoustic Wavefield Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Zubin M.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2007-03-01

    The method of Acoustic Wavefield Imaging (AWI) offers many advantages over conventional ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive evaluation, and also provides a means of incorporating fixed ultrasonic sensors used for structural health monitoring into subsequent inspections. AWI utilizes these fixed sensors as wave sources and an externally scanned ultrasonic transducer (or laser interferometer) as a receiver to acquire complete waveform data over the surface. When displayed as time-dependent images, these signals show the propagation of acoustic waves through a structure and subsequent interactions of these waves with both defects and structural geometry. Defect areas appear as stationary scattering sources on these images, but such scattered wave energy is often obscured by the stronger incident acoustic wavefield. The objective of the work presented here is to develop multidimensional signal processing algorithms to enhance the appearance of structural defects on wavefield images via removal of the incident wave. Results are presented for analysis of images from aluminum plate and solid laminate composite specimens.

  1. Waves of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-06-01

    Possible means for harnessing the energy contained in ocean waves are considered. Problems associated with the low-grade nature of wave energy and the rate at which wave crests approach are pointed out, and simple devices already in use for the supply of energy to bell buoys, whistle buoys and lighted buoys are noted. Attention is then given to wave energy conversion systems based on the focusing of waves onto a narrow ramp leading to a reservoir from which water is released to power a turbine generator; a slightly submerged circular shell which directs waves into its center cavity where waves act to turn a turbine (the Dam-Atoll); a long vertical pipe with an internal valve allowing water to move in an upward direction (the Isaacs wave-energy pump); a turbine located at the bottom of an open-topped pipe (the Masuda buoy); a completely submerged closed air chamber from which runs a large pipe open to the sea; a wave piston which acts by the compression of air to drive a turbine; a massive structure with upper and lower reservoirs (the Russel rectifier); and devices which consist of floating or submerged objects which transfer wave energy to pumps (the Salter duck and Cockerell raft.) It is concluded that although wave-powered generators are not likely to become competitive in the near future or provide more than a small portion of world demand, they may be found useful under special conditions.

  2. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-11-20

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR.

  3. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR. PMID:26585690

  4. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...,” incorporated by reference in §§ 572.180(a)(2), and 572.181(a); (4) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE...”; and, (5) SAE J1733 of 1994-12 “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing.” (b) The Director of the... Woodfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20879, telephone (301) 670-0090. (2) The SAE materials referred to...

  5. [F-waves].

    PubMed

    Wang, F C; Massart, N; Kaux, J-F; Bouquiaux, O

    2011-12-01

    F-waves result from the discharge of the motoneurons following their antidromic activation. The F-wave appears, as an indirect (the F-wave latency decreases when the stimulation site moves away from the muscular detection) and late response (occurring after the M response). In practice, the most useful parameter is the F-wave minimal latency, provided that at least seven distinct F-waves are evoked. When the analysis is relative either to the controlateral side, or to a former examination, this parameter is one of most sensitive in electroneuromyography. F-wave evocation implies conduction along the entire peripheral nervous system, and particularly its proximal part, which is not investigated by nervous trunks conduction velocity studies. Thus, F wave study is the most useful in plexopathies and polyradiculonevritis. In the early phase of Guillain-Barré syndrome, their absence may be the unique sign indicative of proximal conduction blocks.

  6. Structural incorporation of As5+ into hematite.

    PubMed

    Bolanz, Ralph M; Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Mária; Čaplovičová, Mária; Uhlík, Peter; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Majzlan, Juraj

    2013-08-20

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is one of the most common iron oxides and a sink for the toxic metalloid arsenic. Arsenic can be immobilized by adsorption to the hematite surface; however, the incorporation of As in hematite was never seriously considered. In our study we present evidence that, besides adsorption, the incorporation of As into the hematite crystals can be of great relevance for As immobilization. With the coupling of nanoresolution techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy the presence of As (up to 1.9 wt %) within the hematite crystals could be demonstrated. The incorporated As(5+) displays a short-range order similar to angelellite-like clusters, epitaxially intergrown with hematite. Angelellite (Fe4As2O11), a triclinic iron arsenate with structural relations to hematite, can epitaxially intergrow along the (210) plane with the (0001) plane of hematite. This structural composite of hematite and angelellite-like clusters represents a new immobilization mechanism and potentially long-lasting storage facility for As(5+) by iron oxides.

  7. Incorporating numerical modelling into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.

    2011-12-01

    To monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a dedicated International Monitoring System (IMS) is being deployed. Recent global scale observations recorded by this network confirm that its detection capability is highly variable in space and time. Previous studies estimated the radiated source energy from remote observations using empirical yield-scaling relations which account for the along-path stratospheric winds. Although the empirical wind correction reduces the variance in the explosive energy versus pressure relationship, strong variability remains in the yield estimate. Today, numerical modelling techniques provide a basis to better understand the role of different factors describing the source and the atmosphere that influence propagation predictions. In this study, the effects of the source frequency and the stratospheric wind speed are simulated. In order to characterize fine-scale atmospheric structures which are excluded from the current atmospheric specifications, model predictions are further enhanced by the addition of perturbation terms. Thus, a theoretical attenuation relation is developed from massive numerical simulations using the Parabolic Equation method. Compared with previous studies, our approach provides a more realistic physical description of infrasound propagation. We obtain a new relation combining a near-field and far-field term which account for the effects of both geometrical spreading and dissipation on the pressure wave attenuation. By incorporating real ambient infrasound noise at the receivers which significantly limits the ability to detect and identify signals of interest, the minimum detectable source amplitude can be derived in a broad frequency range. Empirical relations between the source spectrum and the yield of explosions are used to infer detection thresholds in tons of TNT equivalent. In the context of the future verification of the CTBT, the obtained attenuation relation quantifies

  8. A waved journal bearing concept with improved steady-state and dynamic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the waved journal bearing concept featuring a waved inner bearing diameter for use with a compressible lubricant (gas) is presented. A three wave, waved journal bearing geometry is used to show the geometry of this concept. The performance of generic waved bearings having either three, four, six, or eight waves is predicted for air lubricated bearings. Steady-state performance is discussed in terms of bearing load capacity, while the dynamic performance is discussed in terms of dynamic coefficients and fluid film stability. It was found that the bearing wave amplitude has an important influence on both steady-state and dynamic performance of the waved journal bearing. For a fixed eccentricity ratio, the bearing steady-state load capacity and direct dynamic stiffness coefficient increase as the wave amplitude increases. Also, the waved bearing becomes more stable as the wave amplitude increases. In addition, increasing the number of waves reduces the waved bearing's sensitivity to the direction of the applied load relative to the wave. However, the range in which the bearing performance can be varied decreases as the number of waves increases. Therefore, both the number and the amplitude of the waves must be properly selected to optimize the waved bearing design for a specific application. It is concluded that the stiffness of an air bearing, due to the hydrodynamic effect, could be doubled and made to run stably by using a six or eight wave geometry with a wave amplitude approximately half of the bearing radial clearance.

  9. Understanding the variation in the millimeter-wave emission of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahd, Antoine K.; Steffes, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations of the millimeter-wave emission from Venus at 112 GHz (2.6 mm) have shown significant variations in the continuum flux emission that may be attributed to the variability in the abundances of absorbing constituents in the Venus atmosphere. Such constituents include gaseous H2SO4, SO2, and liquid sulfuric acid (cloud condensates). Recently, Fahd and Steffes have shown that the effects of liquid H, SO4, and gaseous SO2 cannot completely account for this measured variability in the millimeter-wave emission of Venus. Thus, it is necessary to study the effect of gaseous H2SO4 on the millimeter-wave emission of Venus. This requires knowledge of the millimeter-wavelength (MMW) opacity of gaseous H2SO4, which unfortunately has never been determined for Venus-like conditions. We have measured the opacity of gaseous H2SO4 in a CO2 atmosphere at 550, 570, and 590 K, at 1 and 2 atm total pressure, and at a frequency of 94.1 GHz. Our results, in addition to previous centimeter-wavelength results are used to verify a modeling formalism for calculating the expected opacity of this gaseous mixture at other frequencies. This formalism is incorporated into a radiative transfer model to study the effect of gaseous H2SO4 on the MMW emission of Venus.

  10. Nonlinear Whistler Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Wave particle interactions between electrons and whistler waves are a dominant mechanism for controlling the dynamics of energetic electrons in the radiation belts. They are responsible for loss, via pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the loss cone, and energization to millions of electron volts. It has previously been theorized that large amplitude waves on the whistler branch may scatter their wave-vector nonlinearly via nonlinear Landau damping leading to important consequences for the global distribution of whistler wave energy density and hence the energetic electrons. It can dramatically reduce the lifetime of energetic electrons in the radiation belts by increasing the pitch angle scattering rate. The fundamental building block of this theory has now been confirmed through laboratory experiments. Here we report on in situ observations of wave electro-magnetic fields from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes that show the signatures of nonlinear scattering of whistler waves in the inner radiation belts. In the outer radiation belts, whistler mode chorus is believed to be responsible for the energization of electrons from 10s of Kev to MeV energies. Chorus is characterized by bursty large amplitude whistler mode waves with frequencies that change as a function of time on timescales corresponding to their growth. Theories explaining the chirping have been developed for decades based on electron trapping dynamics in a coherent wave. New high time resolution wave data from the Van Allen probes and advanced spectral techniques are revealing that the wave dynamics is highly structured, with sub-elements consisting of multiple chirping waves with discrete frequency hops between sub-elements. Laboratory experiments with energetic electron beams are currently reproducing the complex frequency vs time dynamics of whistler waves and in addition revealing signatures of wave-wave and beat-wave nonlinear wave-particle interactions. These new data

  11. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-03-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.

  12. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-01-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units—i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)—may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the ‘added-mass’ matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called ‘fundamental theorem for wave power’. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies. PMID:26064612

  13. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented.

  14. Application of chitosan-incorporated LDPE film to sliced fresh red meats for shelf life extension.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-il; Marsh, Kenneth S; Dawson, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Chitosan lactate was impregnated as an antimicrobial additive into low density polyethylene (LDPE) with different concentrations. The antimicrobial effectiveness was tested with three pathogenic bacteria, specifically Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. Also, these chitosan incorporated films were applied on red meat surfaces to determine the effectiveness of chitosan on color shelf life extension and microbial growth inhibition. Chitosan was exposed to 0.1% peptone water containing the three pathogens in separate tests and inhibited microbial growth a higher levels with increasing concentration of chitosan in the film matrix. Oxygen permeability was not affected by the incorporation of chitosan, while the water vapor permeability increased with the addition of chitosan. Film elongation decreased with the addition of chitosan. When chitosan incorporated films were applied on fresh red meat, microorganisms on the meat surface were not inhibited but significant extension of red color shelf life were observed in refrigerated, sliced red meats.

  15. Ion acoustic wave collapse via two-ion wave decay: 2D Vlasov simulation and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    The decay of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) via two-ion wave decay may transfer energy from the electric field of the IAWs to the particles, resulting in a significant heating of resonant particles. This process has previously been shown in numerical simulations to decrease the plasma reflectivity due to stimulated Brillouin scattering. Two-ion wave decay is a fundamental property of ion acoustic waves that occurs over most if not all of the parameter space of relevance to inertial confinement fusion experiments, and can lead to a sudden collapse of IAWs. The treatment of all species kinetically, and in particular the electrons, is required to describe the decay process correctly. We present fully kinetic 2D+2V Vlasov simulations of IAWs undergoing decay to a highly nonlinear turbulent state using the code LOKI. The scaling of the decay rate with characteristic plasma parameters and wave amplitude is shown. A new theory describing two-ion wave decay in 2D, that incorporates key kinetic properties of the electrons, is presented and used to explain quantitatively for the first time the observed decay of IAWs. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734. Funded by LDRD 15-ERD-038 and supported by LLNL Grand Challenge allocation.

  16. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  17. Evaluation of an Approximate Method for Incorporating Floating Docks in Harbor Wave Prediction Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-25

    quais flottants , que l’on rencontre souvent en modélisation, rendent le problème tridimensionnel localement et sont donc difficiles à incor- porer...publiée, mais uniquement pour certains cas. Mots clés : vague, modèle, pente douce, équation, brise-lames flottant , quai, marina, port. [Traduit par...US Army Engineer R &D Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199, USA. J. Ramsden. Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas Inc., Ports & Marine, 400 SW 6th Ave

  18. Theoretical analysis of a Love wave biosensor in liquid with a viscoelastic wave guiding layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huiyan; Xiong, Xiangming; Zu, Hongfei; Wang, James H.-C.; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2017-02-01

    The Love mode surface acoustic wave biosensor is considered as one of the most promising probing methods in biomedical research and diagnosis, which has been applied to detect the mechano-biological behaviors of cells attached to the surface of the device. Recent studies have reported the structural and functional optimization of Love wave biosensors for reducing propagation loss and improving sensitivity; however, the relevant device performance needs to be analyzed in depth in terms of device structure, electromechanical properties of piezoelectric crystal substrates, viscoelastic properties of wave guiding layers, and the effect of liquid loading. In this study, a 36° YX-LiTaO3 based Love wave sensor with a parylene-C wave guiding layer is considered as a cell-based biosensor. A theoretical model is proposed to describe the Love wave propagation in the wave guiding layer and penetration in the liquid medium. Decay length δ for the Love wave penetration in liquid is found to be in the order of ˜50 nm, which agrees well with experimental observations. In addition, the effects of the viscoelastic wave guiding layer and liquid medium on the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient K2 of the sensor, the propagation loss PL, and sensor response to mass loading (mass sensitivity) are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the maximum propagation velocity is found at h/λ = 0, where h is the thickness of the wave guiding layer and λ is the wavelength; and the optimal coupling coefficient and mass sensitivity can be obtained at h/λ = 0.045 and h/λ = ˜0.06 in a vacuum or ˜0.058 in water, respectively. For a good combination of these device performance parameters, it is suggested that the optimal wave guiding layer thickness in a Love wave biosensor is at the vicinity of h/λ = ˜0.05 in a vacuum and ˜0.048 in liquid (water).

  19. Secondary Waves in Ribbing Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Marta; Vazquez, Mariano

    2007-05-01

    Many natural and technological processes involve phenomena dominated by interfacial mechanics, i.e., occurring within regions of intersection between several fluid and/or solid phases. In addition to capillary and gravitational effects, interfacial phenomena typically involve the interplay of complex processes such as dynamic contact lines, surface active materials, adhesion, temperature and/or compositional gradients, evaporation, etc. The aim of this work is to analyze the answer of the coating system with one cylinder, when viscoelastic polymers are used. We report new experimental results concerning different dynamical regimes, including traveling waves, obtained in that simple configuration and with free boundary conditions. In the experiments with a non-Newtonian fluid (viscoelastic) with high molecular weight polymer (PIB_H), propagative modes have been observed for Ca > Ca*. In this case, as the distance to the threshold increases, the digitations standard, initially stationary, presents propagative modes only in some of the regions over the cylinder, and finally the traveling wave is established throughout the whole cylinder without showing any preferential direction. Propagative states have already been observed in the case of two rigid cylinders rotating with opposed surface speeds. However, in that case, the presence of defects does not produce a well-defined traveling wave and the system shows a rapid transition to chaos. Analyzing the space-temporal diagrams, the wave phase velocity could be measured with a methodology that allows calculating systematically this value, and we find a linear correlation between the capillary number Ca and the phase velocity Vf. Besides, a detailed description of bifurcations has been made until reaching a chaotic state where it is possible observes the coexistence of traveling wave zones.

  20. Nonlinear waves: Dynamics and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponov-Grekhov, A. V.; Rabinovich, M. I.

    Papers on nonlinear waves are presented, covering topics such as the history of studies on nonlinear dynamics since Poincare, attractors, pattern formation and the dynamics of two-dimensional structures in nonequilibirum dissipative media, the onset of spatial chaos in one-dimensional systems, and self-organization phenomena in laser thermochemistry. Additional topics include criteria for the existence of moving structures in two-component reaction-diffusion systems, space-time structures in optoelectronic devices, stimulated scattering and surface structures, and distributed wave collapse in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Consideration is also given to dimensions and entropies in multidimensional systems, measurement methods for correlation dimensions, quantum localization and dynamic chaos, self-organization in bacterial cells and populations, nonlinear phenomena in condensed matter, and the origin and evolutionary dynamics of Uranian rings.

  1. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition, other collaborations have been formed with investigators granted UDAP funds for similar studies and with investigators affiliated with other Voyager experiments. These investigations and the corresponding collaborations are included in the report. The proposed effort as originally conceived included an examination of waves downstream from the shock within the magnetosheath. However, the observations of unexpected complexity and diversity within the upstream region have necessitated that we confine our efforts to those observations recorded upstream of the bow shock on the inbound and outbound legs of the encounter by the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  2. Incorporating Patient Perspectives into the Personal Health Record: Implications for Care and Caring

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Peggy J; Howard, Shalon M; Bentley, Douglas R; Seol, Yoon-Ho; Sodomka, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Electronic personal health records (ePHRs) can potentially maximize access and coordination of health information and improve patient/clinician collaboration, patient self-management, and health outcomes. Most ePHRs are designed by vendors, physicians, and other proprietary partners and have neglected the patient perspective. This study sought to incorporate patient feedback into an existing ePHR system. Patients participated in a semistructured interview after one to two weeks of using an ePHR. Interviews addressed strengths and weaknesses of the PHR. Two iterations of interviews, referred to as Wave 1 and Wave 2, occurred sequentially. An iterative process of theme identification was used, and three theme categories (User, System Acceptance, and Technology) were identified in the two waves. Seven technology themes with 40 specific questions were identified and were rank ordered by importance and feasibility, and 20 suggestions were subsequently implemented into the ePHR. Thus, incorporating patient feedback on specific utilities and functionality into an existing ePHR is possible. PMID:21063546

  3. A new macro model of traffic flow by incorporating both timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan; Qing, Li

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a novel macro model is derived from car-following model by applying the relationship between the micro and macro variables by incorporating the timid and aggressive effects of optimal velocity on a single lane. Numerical simulation shows that the timid and aggressive macro model of traffic flow can correctly reproduce common evolution of shock, rarefaction waves and local cluster effects under small perturbation. Also, the results uncover that the aggressive effect can smoothen the front of the shock wave and the timid effect results in local press peak, which means that the timid effect hastens the process of congregation in the shock wave. The more timid traffic behaviors are, the smaller is the stable range. Furthermore, the research shows that the advantage of the aggressive effect over the timid one lies in the fact that the aggressive traffic behaviors can improve the stability of traffic flow with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors at the same time.

  4. High-frequency Plasma Waves Associated with Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Activities of high-frequency plasma waves associated with magnetic reconnection in the solar wind observed by Time Domain Sampler (TDS) experiments on STEREO/WAVES are preliminarily analyzed. The TDS instrument can provide burst mode electric fields data with as long as 16384 sample points at 250 kHz sampling rate. In all 1120 suspected reconnection events, it is found that the most commonly occurred waves are neither ion acoustic waves, electrostatic solitary waves, nor Langmuir/upper hybrid waves, but Bernstein-like waves with harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency. In addition, to each type of waves, Langmuir/upper hybrid waves reveal the largest occurrence rate in the reconnection region than in the ambient solar wind. These results indicate that Bernstein-like waves and Langmuir/upper hybrid waves might play important roles in the reconnection associated particle heating processes and they might also influence the dissipation of magnetic reconnection.

  5. Influence of and additives on acetylene detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakon, A.; Emelianov, A.; Eremin, A.

    2014-03-01

    The influence of and admixtures (known as detonation suppressors for combustible mixtures) on the development of acetylene detonation was experimentally investigated in a shock tube. The time-resolved images of detonation wave development and propagation were registered using a high-speed streak camera. Shock wave velocity and pressure profiles were measured by five calibrated piezoelectric gauges and the formation of condensed particles was detected by laser light extinction. The induction time of detonation development was determined as the moment of a pressure rise at the end plate of the shock tube. It was shown that additive had no influence on the induction time. For , a significant promoting effect was observed. A simplified kinetic model was suggested and characteristic rates of diacetylene formation were estimated as the limiting stage of acetylene polymerisation. An analysis of the obtained data indicated that the promoting species is atomic chlorine formed by pyrolysis, which interacts with acetylene and produces radical, initiating a chain mechanism of acetylene decomposition. The results of kinetic modelling agree well with the experimental data.

  6. Wave data processing toolbox manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Charlene M.; Warner, John C.; Martini, Marinna A.; Lightsom, Frances S.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers routinely deploy oceanographic equipment in estuaries, coastal nearshore environments, and shelf settings. These deployments usually include tripod-mounted instruments to measure a suite of physical parameters such as currents, waves, and pressure. Instruments such as the RD Instruments Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP(tm)), the Sontek Argonaut, and the Nortek Aquadopp(tm) Profiler (AP) can measure these parameters. The data from these instruments must be processed using proprietary software unique to each instrument to convert measurements to real physical values. These processed files are then available for dissemination and scientific evaluation. For example, the proprietary processing program used to process data from the RD Instruments ADCP for wave information is called WavesMon. Depending on the length of the deployment, WavesMon will typically produce thousands of processed data files. These files are difficult to archive and further analysis of the data becomes cumbersome. More imperative is that these files alone do not include sufficient information pertinent to that deployment (metadata), which could hinder future scientific interpretation. This open-file report describes a toolbox developed to compile, archive, and disseminate the processed wave measurement data from an RD Instruments ADCP, a Sontek Argonaut, or a Nortek AP. This toolbox will be referred to as the Wave Data Processing Toolbox. The Wave Data Processing Toolbox congregates the processed files output from the proprietary software into two NetCDF files: one file contains the statistics of the burst data and the other file contains the raw burst data (additional details described below). One important advantage of this toolbox is that it converts the data into NetCDF format. Data in NetCDF format is easy to disseminate, is portable to any computer platform, and is viewable with public-domain freely-available software. Another important advantage is that a metadata

  7. Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Hansenová Maňásková, Silvie; Nazmi, Kamran; van ‘t Hof, Wim; van Belkum, Alex; Martin, Nathaniel I.; Bikker, Floris J.; van Wamel, Willem J. B.; Veerman, Enno C. I.

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA) transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA) proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG) into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITC)LPETG-amide) into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i) by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii) Substituting aspartic acid (E) for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITC)LPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii) conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITC)LPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITC)LPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall. PMID:26799839

  8. Linear Elastic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revenough, Justin

    Elastic waves propagating in simple media manifest a surprisingly rich collection of phenomena. Although some can't withstand the complexities of Earth's structure, the majority only grow more interesting and more important as remote sensing probes for seismologists studying the planet's interior. To fully mine the information carried to the surface by seismic waves, seismologists must produce accurate models of the waves. Great strides have been made in this regard. Problems that were entirely intractable a decade ago are now routinely solved on inexpensive workstations. The mathematical representations of waves coded into algorithms have grown vastly more sophisticated and are troubled by many fewer approximations, enforced symmetries, and limitations. They are far from straightforward, and seismologists using them need a firm grasp on wave propagation in simple media. Linear Elastic Waves, by applied mathematician John G. Harris, responds to this need.

  9. RADIATION WAVE DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1960-08-30

    Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

  10. Temporal succession in carbon incorporation from macromolecules by particle-attached bacteria in marine microcosms.

    PubMed

    Mayali, Xavier; Stewart, Benjamin; Mabery, Shalini; Weber, Peter K

    2016-02-01

    We investigated bacterial carbon assimilation from stable isotope-labelled macromolecular substrates (proteins; lipids; and two types of polysaccharides, starch and cellobiose) while attached to killed diatom detrital particles during laboratory microcosms incubated for 17 days. Using Chip-SIP (secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of RNA microarrays), we identified generalist operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Colwellia, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Rheinheimera, and from the Bacteroidetes, genera Owenweeksia and Maribacter, that incorporated the four tested substrates throughout the incubation period. Many of these OTUs exhibited the highest isotope incorporation relative to the others, indicating that they were likely the most active. Additional OTUs from the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria exhibited generally (but not always) lower activity and did not incorporate all tested substrates at all times, showing species succession in organic carbon incorporation. We also found evidence to suggest that both generalist and specialist OTUs changed their relative substrate incorporation over time, presumably in response to changing substrate availability as the particles aged. This pattern was demonstrated by temporal succession from relatively higher starch incorporation early in the incubations, eventually switching to higher cellobiose incorporation after 2 weeks.

  11. Cell-free unnatural amino acid incorporation with alternative energy systems and linear expression templates.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prashanta; Smith, Mark Thomas; Bundy, Bradley Charles

    2014-01-25

    Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (uAAs) during protein synthesis expands the proteomic code through the addition of unique residue chemistry. This field provides a unique tool to improve pharmacokinetics, cancer treatments, vaccine development, proteomics and protein engineering. The limited ability to predict the characteristics of proteins with uAA-incorporation creates a need for a low-cost system with the potential for rapid screening. Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis is a compelling platform for uAA incorporation due to the open and accessible nature of the reaction environment. However, typical cell-free systems can be expensive due to the high cost of energizing reagents. By employing alternative energy sources, we reduce the cost of uAA-incorporation in CFPS by 55%. While alternative energy systems reduce cost, the time investment to develop gene libraries can remain cumbersome. Cell-free systems allow the direct use of PCR products known as linear expression templates, thus alleviating tedious plasmid library preparations steps. We report the specific costs of CFPS with uAA incorporation, demonstrate that LETs are suitable expression templates with uAA-incorporation, and consider the substantial reduction in labor intensity using LET-based expression for CFPS uAA incorporation.

  12. Parameters influencing zeolite incorporation in PDMS membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vankelecom, I.F.J.; Scheppers, E.; Heus, R.; Uytterhoeven, J.B. )

    1994-11-24

    The incorporation of several types of zeolite in PDMS membranes is studied, by measuring the tensile strength, xylene sorption, and density of the membranes. The zeolite is shown to be involved in the cross-linking of the membrane. The interaction between the PDMS matrix and the zeolites results in reinforced membranes in the case of zeolite Y. The parameters influencing the dispersion of the zeolite in the membrane are investigated, as well as several aspects of the preparation method. Finally, the idea of cross-linking is applied to explain the results of water/ethanol pervaporation. 25 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  14. Incorporation of noble metals into aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Hair, L.M.; Sanner, R.D.; Coronado, P.R.

    1998-12-22

    Aerogels or xerogels containing atomically dispersed noble metals for applications such as environmental remediation are disclosed. New noble metal precursors, such as Pt--Si or Pd(Si--P){sub 2}, have been created to bridge the incompatibility between noble metals and oxygen, followed by their incorporation into the aerogel or xerogel through sol-gel chemistry and processing. Applications include oxidation of hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxide species, complete oxidation of volatile organic carbon species, oxidative membranes for photocatalysis and partial oxidation for synthetic applications.

  15. Incorporation of noble metals into aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Hair, Lucy M.; Sanner, Robert D.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Aerogels or xerogels containing atomically dispersed noble metals for applications such environmental remediation. New noble metal precursors, such as Pt--Si or Pd(Si--P).sub.2, have been created to bridge the incompatibility between noble metals and oxygen, followed by their incorporation into the aerogel or xerogel through sol-gel chemistry and processing. Applications include oxidation of hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxide species, complete oxidation of volatile organic carbon species, oxidative membranes for photocatalysis and partial oxidation for synthetic applications.

  16. Radiation collimator and systems incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Daren R.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Jones, James L.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Bennett, Brion D.; Tschaggeny, Charles W.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-09-13

    A collimator including a housing having disposed therein a shield element surrounding a converter core in which a photon beam is generated from electrons emanating from a linear accelerator. A beam channeler longitudinally adjacent the shield element has a beam aperture therethrough coaxially aligned with, and of the same diameter as, an exit bore of the converter core. A larger entry bore in the converter core is coaxial with, and longitudinally separated from, the exit bore thereof. Systems incorporating the collimator are also disclosed.

  17. Incorporation of Nanosensors into Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional sensors are too big and heavy for installation in space vehicles, including the Space Shuttle Orbiter as well as future manned and unmanned vehicles currently in the early design phase. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Multiple and redundant nanosensors can be used to conduct more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. Early planning can lead to the relatively easy incorporation of miniature sensors sharing power and communication lines, thus reducing the requirement for large amount of electrical and/or optical cabling.

  18. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  19. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  20. Accurate and efficient modeling of global seismic wave propagation for an attenuative Earth model including the center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic

  1. Nonlinear noise waves in soft biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Gurbatov, S. N.; Demin, I. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    The study of intense waves in soft biological tissues is necessary both for diagnostics and therapeutic aims. Tissue represents an inherited medium with frequency-dependent dissipative properties, in which waves are described by nonlinear integro-differential equations. The equations for such waves are well known. Their group analysis has been performed, and a number of exact solutions have been found. However, statistical problems for nonlinear waves in tissues have hardly been studied. As well, for medical applications, both intense noise waves and waves with fluctuating parameters can be used. In addition, statistical solutions are simpler in structure than regular solutions; they are useful for understanding the physics of processes. Below a general approach is described for solving nonlinear statistical problems applied to the considered mathematical models of biological tissues. We have calculated the dependences of the intensities of the narrowband noise harmonics on distance. For wideband noise, we have calculated the dependence of the spectral integral intensity on distance. In all cases, wave attenuation is determined both by the specific dissipative properties of the tissue and the nonlinearity of the medium.

  2. Hydrodynamic waves in an anomalous charged fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali; Hejazi, Kasra; Rezaei, Zahra

    2016-11-01

    We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous U (1) current. In 3 + 1 dimensions at zero chemical potential, in addition to ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field. The first one which is a transverse degenerate mode, propagates with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gravitational anomaly; this is in fact the Chiral Alfvén wave recently found in [1]. Another one is a wave of density perturbation, namely a chiral magnetic wave (CMW). The velocity dependence of CMW on the chiral anomaly coefficient is well known. We compute the dependence of CMW's velocity on the coefficient of gravitational anomaly as well. We also show that the dissipation splits the degeneracy of CAW. At finite chiral charge density we show that in general there may exist five chiral hydrodynamic waves. Of these five waves, one is the CMW while the other four are mixed Modified Sound-Alfvén waves. It turns out that in propagation transverse to the magnetic field no anomaly effect appears while in parallel to the magnetic field we find sound waves become dispersive due to anomaly.

  3. Geometric focusing of internal waves: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakova, Natalia; Ermanyuk, Evgeny; Voisin, Bruno; Flór, Jan-Bert

    2015-11-01

    Mixing of the abyssal ocean plays a decisive role in large-scale ocean circulation and is believed to be caused by the nonlinear breaking of internal tides. Previous studies of two- and three-dimensional cases considered the generation of diverging waves by simple oscillating bodies such as a cylinder (e.g. Mowbray and Rarity 1967) or a sphere (e.g. King et al. 2009, Ermanyuk et al. 2011). We here consider converging waves as generated by a horizontally oscillating torus. The energy focuses and therefore the waves are more susceptible to overturning and breaking. LIF and PIV techniques are used to measure respectively the isopycnal displacement and the velocity. We have considered linear and nonlinear wave generation as a function of the Keulegan-Carpenter number, here adapted to the focusing waves. For small oscillation amplitude strong velocity amplification is observed in the focal zone, consistent with linear theory. Increasing the oscillation amplitude causes nonlinear effects and in particular the generation of higher harmonics and overturning in the focal zone. In addition, the focal zone acts as a wave source. Increase of the Stokes and Reynolds numbers leads to wave turbulence in the focal zone. Supported by LabEx Osug@2020 (Investissements d'avenir - ANR10LABX56).

  4. Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Radzievsky, A A; Logani, M K; Ziskin, M C

    2008-01-01

    To identify the mechanisms of biological effects of mm waves it is important to develop accurate methods for evaluating absorption and penetration depth of mm waves in the epidermis and dermis. The main characteristics of mm wave skin dosimetry were calculated using a homogeneous unilayer model and two multilayer models of skin. These characteristics included reflection, power density (PD), penetration depth (delta), and specific absorption rate (SAR). The parameters of the models were found from fitting the models to the experimental data obtained from measurements of mm wave reflection from human skin. The forearm and palm data were used to model the skin with thin and thick stratum corneum (SC), respectively. The thin SC produced little influence on the interaction of mm waves with skin. On the contrary, the thick SC in the palm played the role of a matching layer and significantly reduced reflection. In addition, the palmar skin manifested a broad peak in reflection within the 83-277 GHz range. The viable epidermis plus dermis, containing a large amount of free water, greatly attenuated mm wave energy. Therefore, the deeper fat layer had little effect on the PD and SAR profiles. We observed the appearance of a moderate SAR peak in the therapeutic frequency range (42-62 GHz) within the skin at a depth of 0.3-0.4 mm. Millimeter waves penetrate into the human skin deep enough (delta = 0.65 mm at 42 GHz) to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.

  5. Prospect of Nonlinear Freak Tsunami Waves from Stochastic Earthquake Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    The prospect of freak (or rogue) tsunami edge waves from continental subduction zone earthquakes is examined. Although the hydrodynamics that govern tsunamis are formulated from the shallow-water wave equations, the dispersion relation for edge waves is similar to that for deep-water waves. As a result, freak waves can result from many of the same mechanisms as for deep-water waves: spatial focusing, dispersive (temporal) focusing, modulation instability, and mode coupling from resonant interaction. The focus of this study is on determining the likelihood of freak edge waves from the two nonlinear mechanisms: modulation instability and mode coupling. The initial conditions are provided by coseismic vertical displacement from a subduction thrust earthquake. A two-dimensional stochastic slip model is used to generate a range of coseismic displacement realizations. The slip model is defined by a power-law wavenumber spectrum and Lévy-law distributed random variables. Tsunami edge waves produced by this source model have a broader spectrum with energy distributed across many more modes compared to edge waves derived from the simplified earthquake sources used in the past. To characterize modulation instability, methods developed for a random sea are modified for seismogenic edge waves. The Benjamin-Feir parameter constrains how many unstable wave packets are possible in a time series of finite length. In addition, because seismogenic tsunami edge wave energy is distributed across a number of modes, nonlinear mode coupling can result both in the collinear case and in the counter-propagating case where edge waves are reflected by coastline irregularities. Mode coupling results in the appearance of a third edge wave mode that can greatly increase the variability in wave heights. Determination of possible freak tsunami edge waves is important for assessing the tsunami hazard at longshore locations distant from the rupture zone of continental subduction zone earthquakes.

  6. Millimeter Wave Ocular Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-20

    illustrates the rabbit head in holder by photography (a), thermography (b) and thermographic profile (c). The temperature of the cornea was measured using an...and graphs of profiles of the 40 temperatures difference (final-initial) of the rabbit cornea heated by the focused beam of millimeter waves from the...antenna. 5. Cooling of the cornea by air flow. 43 6. Temperature as a function of power applied using 45 continuous wave millimeter waves of

  7. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  8. Dispersion of waves in porous cylinders with patchy saturation Part I. Formulaton and torsional waves

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G; Pride, S R

    2004-07-28

    Laboratory experiments on wave propagation through saturated and partially saturated porous media have often been conducted on porous cylinders that were initially fully saturated and then allowed to dry while continuing to acquire data on the wave behavior. Since it is known that drying typically progresses from outside to inside, a sensible physical model of this process is concentric cylinders having different saturation levels--the simplest example being a fully dry outer cylindrical shell together with a fully wet inner cylinder. We use this model to formulate the equations for wave dispersion in porous cylinders for patchy saturation (i.e. drainage) conditions. In addition to multiple modes of propagation obtained numerically from these dispersion relations, we find two distinct analytical expressions for torsional wave modes. We solve the dispersion relation for torsional waves for two examples: Massillon sandstone and Sierra White granite. The drainage analysis appears to give improved agreement with the data for both these materials.

  9. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  10. Extreme waves generated by modulational instability on adverse currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuxiang; Ma, Xiaozhou; Perlin, Marc; Dong, Guohai

    2013-11-01

    Physical experiments focusing on the propagation of gravity waves of finite depth on adverse currents were implemented to examine their effect on the development of the modulational instability and to study the geometric characteristics of extreme waves. A series of wave trains with varying initial steepness, perturbation frequency, and initial perturbed strength were mechanically generated in a wave-current flume. The present results show that opposing currents can speed the growth of the modulational instability, verifying the previous theory qualitatively. A current-modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation can predict the measured sideband growth rates well for wave trains with lower perturbation frequencies, but overestimated those with higher perturbation frequencies. On the other hand, the limiting steepness of extreme waves measured in the presence of opposing currents was smaller than that measured in quiescent water. Additionally, current strength was found to have limited influence on the geometric properties of extreme waves as well as on their limiting steepness.

  11. Wave-climate assessment by satellite remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Barstow, S.; Krogstad, H.E.

    1995-10-01

    Satellite remote sensing based on radar altimetry and the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be used for accurate ocean-wave climatology globally. The altimeter provides significant wave height and wind speed whereas SAR in principle gives the full wave spectrum. Over the next few years, altimeter-derived wave heights will become the basic data sources for open-ocean statistics and SAR, in combination with results from global wave models, will provide the corresponding directional statistics. In addition, SAR may be used for studying wave conditions in near coastal areas. In the Norwegian Sea and elsewhere, real-time SAT and altimeter data are now being used operationally for forecasting and assimilation into numerical wave models.

  12. Thermal-Wave Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

    1989-01-01

    Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

  13. Optical rogue waves.

    PubMed

    Solli, D R; Ropers, C; Koonath, P; Jalali, B

    2007-12-13

    Recent observations show that the probability of encountering an extremely large rogue wave in the open ocean is much larger than expected from ordinary wave-amplitude statistics. Although considerable effort has been directed towards understanding the physics behind these mysterious and potentially destructive events, the complete picture remains uncertain. Furthermore, rogue waves have not yet been observed in other physical systems. Here, we introduce the concept of optical rogue waves, a counterpart of the infamous rare water waves. Using a new real-time detection technique, we study a system that exposes extremely steep, large waves as rare outcomes from an almost identically prepared initial population of waves. Specifically, we report the observation of rogue waves in an optical system, based on a microstructured optical fibre, near the threshold of soliton-fission supercontinuum generation--a noise-sensitive nonlinear process in which extremely broadband radiation is generated from a narrowband input. We model the generation of these rogue waves using the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and demonstrate that they arise infrequently from initially smooth pulses owing to power transfer seeded by a small noise perturbation.

  14. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  15. Localization of Waves in Merged Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a new two–dimensional physical topology–merged lattice, that allows dense number of wave localization states. Merged lattices are obtained as a result of merging two lattices of scatters of the same space group, but with slightly different spatial resonances. Such merging creates two–dimensional scattering “beats” which are perfectly periodic on the longer spatial scale. On the shorter spatial scale, the systematic breakage of the translational symmetry leads to strong wave scattering, and this causes the occurrences of wave localization states. Merged Lattices promises variety of localization states including tightly confined, and ring type annular modes. The longer scale perfect periodicity of the merged lattice, enables complete prediction and full control over the density of the localization states and its’ quality factors. In addition, the longer scale periodicity, also allows design of integrated slow wave components. Merged lattices, thus, can be engineered easily to create technologically beneficial applications. PMID:27535096

  16. Localization of Waves in Merged Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a new two–dimensional physical topology–merged lattice, that allows dense number of wave localization states. Merged lattices are obtained as a result of merging two lattices of scatters of the same space group, but with slightly different spatial resonances. Such merging creates two–dimensional scattering “beats” which are perfectly periodic on the longer spatial scale. On the shorter spatial scale, the systematic breakage of the translational symmetry leads to strong wave scattering, and this causes the occurrences of wave localization states. Merged Lattices promises variety of localization states including tightly confined, and ring type annular modes. The longer scale perfect periodicity of the merged lattice, enables complete prediction and full control over the density of the localization states and its’ quality factors. In addition, the longer scale periodicity, also allows design of integrated slow wave components. Merged lattices, thus, can be engineered easily to create technologically beneficial applications.

  17. Intersecting circuits generate precisely patterned retinal waves.

    PubMed

    Akrouh, Alejandro; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2013-07-24

    The developing retina generates spontaneous glutamatergic (stage III) waves of activity that sequentially recruit neighboring ganglion cells with opposite light responses (ON and OFF RGCs). This activity pattern is thought to help establish parallel ON and OFF pathways in downstream visual areas. The circuits that produce stage III waves and desynchronize ON and OFF RGC firing remain obscure. Using dual patch-clamp recordings, we find that ON and OFF RGCs receive sequential excitatory input from ON and OFF cone bipolar cells (CBCs), respectively. This input sequence is generated by crossover circuits, in which ON CBCs control glutamate release from OFF CBCs via diffusely stratified inhibitory amacrine cells. In addition, neighboring ON CBCs communicate directly and indirectly through lateral glutamatergic transmission and gap junctions, both of which are required for wave initiation and propagation. Thus, intersecting lateral excitatory and vertical inhibitory circuits give rise to precisely patterned stage III retinal waves.

  18. Incorporated of tritiated water in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sprous, D.G.; Fox, J.E.; Jackson, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Tritiated water {sup 3}H{sub 2}O is routinely discharged into the environment near nuclear power plants and reactors. The radioactive water is rapidly equilibriated with cell water in the aquatic life forms. The purpose of this study was to determine the uptake of the radioactive hydrogen into the various lipid classes. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been discharging tritiated water into White Oak Lake. Blue gill and mosquito fish from White Oak Lake were analyzed. An experimental fish tank with water having a specific activity of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm of {sup 3}H/mL was set up. Mosquito fish were exposed to this level of radioactivity for thirty days. After this time the fish were lypolyzed an the lipids were extracted. The phospholipid fraction incorporated the greatest percentage of the radioactivity. Significant incorporation of activity was also seen in the triglyceride and cholesterol fractions. Phospholipids and cholesterol are important structural components of the cell, insuring persistence of the radioactivity in the organism. The long term effects are not known.

  19. Incorporating intelligence into structured radiology reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Charles E.

    2014-03-01

    The new standard for radiology reporting templates being developed through the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and DICOM organizations defines the storage and exchange of reporting templates as Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5) documents. The use of HTML5 enables the incorporation of "dynamic HTML," in which documents can be altered in response to their content. HTML5 documents can employ JavaScript, the HTML Document Object Model (DOM), and external web services to create intelligent reporting templates. Several reporting templates were created to demonstrate the use of scripts to perform in-template calculations and decision support. For example, a template for adrenal CT was created to compute contrast washout percentage from input values of precontrast, dynamic postcontrast, and delayed adrenal nodule attenuation values; the washout value can used to classify an adrenal nodule as a benign cortical adenoma. Dynamic templates were developed to compute volumes and apply diagnostic criteria, such as those for determination of internal carotid artery stenosis. Although reporting systems need not use a web browser to render the templates or their contents, the use of JavaScript creates innumerable opportunities to construct highly sophisticated HTML5 reporting templates. This report demonstrates the ability to incorporate dynamic content to enhance the use of radiology reporting templates.

  20. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  1. Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the existence of Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu piezoelectric surface acoustic waves in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal (zinc oxide, ZnO, and cadmium-sulfide, CdS) using the plane wave expansion method. In the configuration of ZnO (100)/CdS(100) phononic crystal, the calculated results show that this type of surface waves has higher acoustic wave velocities, high electromechanical coupling coefficients, and larger band gap width than those of the Rayleigh surface waves and pseudosurface waves. In addition, we find that the folded modes of the Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface waves have higher coupling coefficients.

  2. Full-wave and half-wave rectification in second-order motion perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1994-01-01

    Microbalanced stimuli are dynamic displays which do not stimulate motion mechanisms that apply standard (Fourier-energy or autocorrelational) motion analysis directly to the visual signal. In order to extract motion information from microbalanced stimuli, Chubb and Sperling [(1988) Journal of the Optical Society of America, 5, 1986-2006] proposed that the human visual system performs a rectifying transformation on the visual signal prior to standard motion analysis. The current research employs two novel types of microbalanced stimuli: half-wave stimuli preserve motion information following half-wave rectification (with a threshold) but lose motion information following full-wave rectification; full-wave stimuli preserve motion information following full-wave rectification but lose motion information following half-wave rectification. Additionally, Fourier stimuli, ordinary square-wave gratings, were used to stimulate standard motion mechanisms. Psychometric functions (direction discrimination vs stimulus contrast) were obtained for each type of stimulus when presented alone, and when masked by each of the other stimuli (presented as moving masks and also as nonmoving, counterphase-flickering masks). RESULTS: given sufficient contrast, all three types of stimulus convey motion. However, only one-third of the population can perceive the motion of the half-wave stimulus. Observers are able to process the motion information contained in the Fourier stimulus slightly more efficiently than the information in the full-wave stimulus but are much less efficient in processing half-wave motion information. Moving masks are more effective than counterphase masks at hampering direction discrimination, indicating that some of the masking effect is interference between motion mechanisms, and some occurs at earlier stages. When either full-wave and Fourier or half-wave and Fourier gratings are presented simultaneously, there is a wide range of relative contrasts within which the

  3. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  4. Incorporating qualitative knowledge in enzyme kinetic models using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Lee, B; Yen, J; Yang, L; Liao, J C

    1999-03-20

    Modeling of metabolic pathway dynamics requires detailed kinetic equations at the enzyme level. In particular, the kinetic equations must account for metabolite effectors that contribute significantly to the pathway regulation in vivo. Unfortunately, most kinetic rate laws available in the literature do not consider all the effectors simultaneously, and much kinetic information exists in a qualitative or semiquantitative form. In this article, we present a strategy to incorporate such information into the kinetic equation. This strategy uses fuzzy logic-based factors to modify algebraic rate laws that account for partial kinetic characteristics. The parameters introduced by the fuzzy factors are then optimized by use of a hybrid of simplex and genetic algorithms. The resulting model provides a flexible form that can simulate various kinetic behaviors. Such kinetic models are suitable for pathway modeling without complete enzyme mechanisms. Three enzymes in Escherichia coli central metabolism are used as examples: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; and pyruvate kinase I. Results show that, with fuzzy logic-augmented models, the kinetic data can be much better described. In particular, complex behavior, such as allosteric inhibition, can be captured using fuzzy rules. The resulting models, even though they do not provide additional physical meaning in enzyme mechanisms, allow the model to incorporate semiquantitative information in metabolic pathway models.

  5. Non-local crime density estimation incorporating housing information

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, J. T.; Mohler, G. O.; Bertozzi, A. L.; Brantingham, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Given a discrete sample of event locations, we wish to produce a probability density that models the relative probability of events occurring in a spatial domain. Standard density estimation techniques do not incorporate priors informed by spatial data. Such methods can result in assigning significant positive probability to locations where events cannot realistically occur. In particular, when modelling residential burglaries, standard density estimation can predict residential burglaries occurring where there are no residences. Incorporating the spatial data can inform the valid region for the density. When modelling very few events, additional priors can help to correctly fill in the gaps. Learning and enforcing correlation between spatial data and event data can yield better estimates from fewer events. We propose a non-local version of maximum penalized likelihood estimation based on the H1 Sobolev seminorm regularizer that computes non-local weights from spatial data to obtain more spatially accurate density estimates. We evaluate this method in application to a residential burglary dataset from San Fernando Valley with the non-local weights informed by housing data or a satellite image. PMID:25288817

  6. Effects of MMP inhibitors incorporated within dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Almahdy, A; Koller, G; Sauro, S; Bartsch, J W; Sherriff, M; Watson, T F; Banerjee, A

    2012-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition has been shown to reduce adhesive bond degradation when applied as a pre-conditioner, adding to clinical steps in the placement of adhesives, but their incorporation within dental adhesives has not been fully explored. This study examined the effect of including 2 MMP inhibitors (BB94 and GM6001) within the primers of 3 commercially available adhesives. Fluorometric assay and zymography showed that adhesives with MMP inhibitors had high affinity toward both synthetic fluorogenic FRET peptides (95%) and dentin powder substrates, respectively. The immediate microtensile bond strength was enhanced for 2 types of adhesives following the addition of both inhibitors. However, no changes were detected between the control and the inhibitor groups following 3-month storage. The modified two-step etch-and-rinse and single-step systems showed less Rhodamine B penetration to the "hybrid layer" and to the "adhesive", respectively. The incorporation of BB94 and GM6001 within the primers resulted in the inhibition of dentin MMPs with improved initial bond strength and enhanced sealing ability.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of fluoride-incorporated polyoxovanadates.

    PubMed

    Kikukawa, Yuji; Yokoyama, Taiga; Kashio, Sanae; Hayashi, Yoshihito

    2015-06-01

    The speciation studies of oxovanadates are essential to clarify their biological activities. We surveyed the distribution of oxovanadate species in the presence of halide anions with various acid concentrations in an aqueous mixed-solvent system. The presence of chloride, bromide, and iodide anions has no effects on the appearance of polyoxovanadate species observed in (51)V NMR. Those are the precedent formation of metavanadate species and decavanadates. The presence of fluoride anion during the addition of acids exhibits strong intervention in the polyoxovanadate equilibria and we found the subsequent formation of two polyoxovanadate species by (51)V NMR observation. From the estimated experimental condition, we isolated fluoride-incorporated polyoxovanadates {Et4N}4[V7O19F] and {Et4N}4[HV11O29F2], successfully. Polyanion [V7O19F](4-) is the fluoride-incorporated all V(V) state polyoxovanadate which has two different coordination environments of tetrahedral and square pyramidal vanadium units within the one anionic structural integrity. The structural gap between tetrahedral-unit-based metavanadate and octahedral-unit-based decavanadate structures may be linked by this hybrid complex.

  8. Incorporating computational resources in a cancer research program

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Nicholas T.; Jhuraney, Ankita; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances have transformed cancer genetics research. These advances have served as the basis for the generation of a number of richly annotated datasets relevant to the cancer geneticist. In addition, many of these technologies are now within reach of smaller laboratories to answer specific biological questions. Thus, one of the most pressing issues facing an experimental cancer biology research program in genetics is incorporating data from multiple sources to annotate, visualize, and analyze the system under study. Fortunately, there are several computational resources to aid in this process. However, a significant effort is required to adapt a molecular biology-based research program to take advantage of these datasets. Here, we discuss the lessons learned in our laboratory and share several recommendations to make this transition effectively. This article is not meant to be a comprehensive evaluation of all the available resources, but rather highlight those that we have incorporated into our laboratory and how to choose the most appropriate ones for your research program. PMID:25324189

  9. Effects of MMP Inhibitors Incorporated within Dental Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Almahdy, A.; Koller, G.; Sauro, S.; Bartsch, J.W.; Sherriff, M.; Watson, T.F.; Banerjee, A.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition has been shown to reduce adhesive bond degradation when applied as a pre-conditioner, adding to clinical steps in the placement of adhesives, but their incorporation within dental adhesives has not been fully explored. This study examined the effect of including 2 MMP inhibitors (BB94 and GM6001) within the primers of 3 commercially available adhesives. Fluorometric assay and zymography showed that adhesives with MMP inhibitors had high affinity toward both synthetic fluorogenic FRET peptides (95%) and dentin powder substrates, respectively. The immediate microtensile bond strength was enhanced for 2 types of adhesives following the addition of both inhibitors. However, no changes were detected between the control and the inhibitor groups following 3-month storage. The modified two-step etch-and-rinse and single-step systems showed less Rhodamine B penetration to the “hybrid layer” and to the “adhesive”, respectively. The incorporation of BB94 and GM6001 within the primers resulted in the inhibition of dentin MMPs with improved initial bond strength and enhanced sealing ability. PMID:22518030

  10. Non-local crime density estimation incorporating housing information.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, J T; Mohler, G O; Bertozzi, A L; Brantingham, P J

    2014-11-13

    Given a discrete sample of event locations, we wish to produce a probability density that models the relative probability of events occurring in a spatial domain. Standard density estimation techniques do not incorporate priors informed by spatial data. Such methods can result in assigning significant positive probability to locations where events cannot realistically occur. In particular, when modelling residential burglaries, standard density estimation can predict residential burglaries occurring where there are no residences. Incorporating the spatial data can inform the valid region for the density. When modelling very few events, additional priors can help to correctly fill in the gaps. Learning and enforcing correlation between spatial data and event data can yield better estimates from fewer events. We propose a non-local version of maximum penalized likelihood estimation based on the H(1) Sobolev seminorm regularizer that computes non-local weights from spatial data to obtain more spatially accurate density estimates. We evaluate this method in application to a residential burglary dataset from San Fernando Valley with the non-local weights informed by housing data or a satellite image.

  11. Singular Perturbation Methods for Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Korteweg -de Vries equation [10] 2. Structure of two-dimensional diffusive shock waves [1] In addition, preliminary work began on two problems: 1...oscillatory waves. 3. Korteweg -de Vries equation . In [41 these ideas were applied to oscillatory single-phase solutions of the Korteweg -de Vries (KdV...nonlinear oscillatory waves of the Korteweg - deVries type, Stud. Appl. Math., 78 (1988), pp. 73-90. [5] F. J. Bourland and R. Haberman, The slowly varying

  12. Measurements of the nonlinear beat wave produced by the interaction of counterpropagating Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, D. J.; Howes, G. G.; Rhudy, J. D.; Terry, S. K.; Carter, T. A.; Kletzing, C. A.; Schroeder, J. W. R.; Skiff, F.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma turbulence has been shown to play a critical role in many astrophysical and space environments. In the solar corona and solar wind, this turbulence involves the nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfvén waves. In the Earth's magnetosphere, the turbulence is dominated by inertial Alfvén wave collisions. Observations of these wave-wave interactions in space and in laboratory plasma environments have shown that, in addition to the nonlinear cascade of energy to small scales, the interaction also produces nonlinear beat waves that have a frequency defined by f3±=|f1±f2| . Although the temporal behavior of the beat wave has been well documented, this paper presents the first detailed analysis of the spatial structure of the nonlinearly generated beat wave.

  13. Sunspot waves and flare energy release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, R.; Karlický, M.; Altyntsev, A.; Dudík, J.; Kashapova, L.

    2015-05-01

    flare. The flare occurred because of this amplified flux, however, and because a sufficient amount of free magnetic energy was accumulated in close vicinity to the magnetic channel prior to the flare. Furthermore, because of loop heating, the wave velocity (sound velocity) increased with the penetration of waves into the energy release site. The heating is shown to be able to proceed after the flare main peak owing to a further energy pumping in the form of waves from the sunspot and additional reconnection episodes in the flare region.

  14. Leading Wave Amplitude of a Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    Okal and Synolakis (EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts-Vol. 17-7622) recently discussed that why the maximum amplitude of a tsunami might not occur for the first wave. Okal and Synolakis list observations from 2011 Japan tsunami, which reached to Papeete, Tahiti with a fourth wave being largest and 72 min later after the first wave; 1960 Chilean tsunami reached Hilo, Hawaii with a maximum wave arriving 1 hour later with a height of 5m, first wave being only 1.2m. Largest later waves is a problem not only for local authorities both in terms of warning to the public and rescue efforts but also mislead the public thinking that it is safe to return shoreline or evacuated site after arrival of the first wave. Okal and Synolakis considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) linear dispersive analytical solution with a tsunami generation through an uplifting of a circular plug on the ocean floor. They performed parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean since these are the independent scaling lengths in the problem. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, regarding the parameters of the problem. Here, we extend their analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave as presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112). We compare our results with non-dispersive linear shallow water wave results as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015), investigating focusing feature. We discuss the results both in terms of leading wave amplitude and tsunami focusing. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk

  15. Structure of velocity distributions in shock waves in granular gases with extension to molecular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilquin, A.; Boudet, J. F.; Kellay, H.

    2016-08-01

    Velocity distributions in normal shock waves obtained in dilute granular flows are studied. These distributions cannot be described by a simple functional shape and are believed to be bimodal. Our results show that these distributions are not strictly bimodal but a trimodal distribution is shown to be sufficient. The usual Mott-Smith bimodal description of these distributions, developed for molecular gases, and based on the coexistence of two subpopulations (a supersonic and a subsonic population) in the shock front, can be modified by adding a third subpopulation. Our experiments show that this additional population results from collisions between the supersonic and subsonic subpopulations. We propose a simple approach incorporating the role of this third intermediate population to model the measured probability distributions and apply it to granular shocks as well as shocks in molecular gases.

  16. Low coefficient of thermal expansion polyimides containing metal ion additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Polyimides have become widely used as high performance polymers as a result of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, lowering their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) would increase their usefulness for aerospace and electronic applications where dimensional stability is a requirement. The incorporation of metal ion-containing additives into polyimides, resulting in significantly lowered CTE's, has been studied. Various metal ion additives have been added to both polyamic acid resins and soluble polyimide solutions in the concentration range of 4-23 weight percent. The incorporation of these metal ions has resulted in reductions in the CTE's of the control polyimides of 12 percent to over 100 percent depending on the choice of additive and its concentration.

  17. Gravitational-wave phasing for low-eccentricity inspiralling compact binaries to 3PN order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Blake; Favata, Marc; Arun, K. G.; Mishra, Chandra Kant

    2016-06-01

    Although gravitational radiation causes inspiralling compact binaries to circularize, a variety of astrophysical scenarios suggest that binaries might have small but non-negligible orbital eccentricities when they enter the low-frequency bands of ground- and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If not accounted for, even a small orbital eccentricity can cause a potentially significant systematic error in the mass parameters of an inspiralling binary [M. Favata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 101101 (2014)]. Gravitational-wave search templates typically rely on the quasicircular approximation, which provides relatively simple expressions for the gravitational-wave phase to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. Damour, Gopakumar, Iyer, and others have developed an elegant but complex quasi-Keplerian formalism for describing the post-Newtonian corrections to the orbits and waveforms of inspiralling binaries with any eccentricity. Here, we specialize the quasi-Keplerian formalism to binaries with low eccentricity. In this limit, the nonperiodic contribution to the gravitational-wave phasing can be expressed explicitly as simple functions of frequency or time, with little additional complexity beyond the well-known formulas for circular binaries. These eccentric phase corrections are computed to 3PN order and to leading order in the eccentricity for the standard PN approximants. For a variety of systems, these eccentricity corrections cause significant corrections to the number of gravitational-wave cycles that sweep through a detector's frequency band. This is evaluated using several measures, including a modification of the useful cycles. By comparing to numerical solutions valid for any eccentricity, we find that our analytic solutions are valid up to e0≲0.1 for comparable-mass systems, where e0 is the eccentricity when the source enters the detector band. We also evaluate the role of periodic terms that enter the phasing and discuss how they can be incorporated into some of

  18. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  19. Slow Waves in Fractures Filled with Viscous Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri

    2008-01-08

    Stoneley guided waves in a fluid-filled fracture generally have larger amplitudes than other waves, and therefore, their properties need to be incorporated in more realistic models. In this study, a fracture is modeled as an infinite layer of viscous fluid bounded by two elastic half-spaces with identical parameters. For small fracture thickness, I obtain a simple dispersion equation for wave-propagation velocity. This velocity is much smaller than the velocity of a fluid wave in a Biot-type solution, in which fracture walls are assumed to be rigid. At seismic prospecting frequencies and realistic fracture thicknesses, the Stoneley guided wave has wavelengths on the order of several meters and an attenuation Q factor exceeding 10, which indicates the possibility of resonance excitation in fluid-bearing rocks. The velocity and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves are distinctly different at low frequencies for water and oil. The predominant role of fractures in fluid flow at field scales is supported by permeability data showing an increase of several orders of magnitude when compared to values obtained at laboratory scales. These data suggest that Stoneley guided waves should be taken into account in theories describing seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated rocks.

  20. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  1. Oceanic-wave-measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, J. F.; Miles, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Barometer mounted on bouy senses wave heights. As wave motion raises and lowers barometer, pressure differential is proportional to wave height. Monitoring circuit samples barometer output every half cycle of wave motion and adds magnitudes of adjacent positive and negative peaks. Resulting output signals, proportional to wave height, are transmitted to central monitoring station.

  2. A mesoscale gravity wave event observed during CCOPE. III - Wave environment and probable source mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Dorian, Paul B.

    1988-01-01

    The multiscale environment of gravity wave events and the probable mechanisms of their origin are examined on the basis of observations taken during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment in extreme eastern Montana, during the period from 1200 UTC July 11, 1981, to 0500 UTC July 12. During this time, two distinct gravity wave episodes were diagnosed. The results of the analysis of the evolving structures in the subsynoptic-scale and mesoscale environments indicate that the observed mesoscale gravity waves were generated by geostrophic adjustment processes, with additional energy supplied through interaction with the critical level; their coherence was maintained through a ducting mechanism.

  3. Watch-hand-like optical rogue waves in three-wave interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Soto-Crespo, Jose M; Grelu, Philippe

    2015-01-12

    We investigate the resonant interaction of three optical pulses of different group velocity in quadratic media and report on the novel watch-hand-like super rogue wave patterns. In addition to having a giant wall-like hump, each rogue-wave hand involves a peak amplitude more than five times its background height. We attribute such peculiar structures to the nonlinear superposition of six Peregrine-type solitons. The robustness has been confirmed by numerical simulations. This stability along with the non-overlapping distribution property may facilitate the experimental diagnostics and observation of these super rogue waves.

  4. Thermal waves in an extended hydrodynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Áurea R.; Luzzi, Roberto; Jou, David; Casas-Vazquez, José

    1994-12-01

    A study of the question of heat propagation in an extended quantum hydrodynamic approach is presented. We consider a fluid of Fermi particles in interaction with a thermal bath of bosons. The equation of evolution for the flux of energy, which is incorporated as a basic thermodynamic variable thus extending the space of variables of linear thermodynamics, is derived via the nonequilibrium statistical operator method. We obtain an equation of propagation of thermal waves with damping. This hyperbolic equation, which replaces Fourier's heat law removing associated inconsistencies, depends on several thermodynamic forces that include the space variation of the flux itself. The equation allows for the propagation of damped thermal excitations that are of the type of a second sound. The dispersion relation is derived with the transport coefficients given at a microscopic (mechano-statistical)level. The limiting conditions that allow to go from the damped-wave regime of propagation to the diffusive regime are discussed.

  5. Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links

    SciTech Connect

    Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C.; Agoris, D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

  6. Incorporating CCSDS telemetry standards and philosophy on Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Elson, Anne B.

    1995-01-01

    The Cassini project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is implementing a spacecraft telemetry system based on the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packet telemetry standards. Resolving the CCSDS concepts with a Ground Data System designed to handle time-division-multiplexed telemetry and also handling constraints unique to a deep-space planetary spacecraft (such as fixed downlink opportunities, small downlink rates and requirements for on-board data storage) have resulted in spacecraft and ground system design challenges. Solving these design challenges involved adapting and extending the CCSDS telemetry standards as well as changes to the spacecraft and ground system designs. The resulting spacecraft/ground system design is an example of how new ideas and philosophies can be incorporated into existing systems and design approaches without requiring significant rework. In addition, it shows that the CCSDS telemetry standards can be successfully applied to deep-space planetary spacecraft.

  7. NASA Soil Moisture Data Products and Their Incorporation in DREAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Holland, Donald; Henderson, Vaneshette

    2005-01-01

    NASA provides soil moisture data products that include observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System Aqua satellite, field measurements from the Soil Moisture Experiment campaigns, and model predictions from the Land Information System and the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System. Incorporation of the NASA soil moisture products in the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model is possible through use of the satellite observations of soil moisture to set initial conditions for the dust simulations. An additional comparison of satellite soil moisture observations with mesoscale atmospheric dynamics modeling is recommended. Such a comparison would validate the use of NASA soil moisture data in applications and support acceptance of satellite soil moisture data assimilation in weather and climate modeling.

  8. Optimized Equivalent Staggered-grid FD Method for Elastic Wave Modeling Based on Plane Wave Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Peng; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun; Liao, Wenyuan; Qu, Luping; Li, Qingyang; Liu, Peijun

    2016-12-01

    In finite difference (FD) method, numerical dispersion is the dominant factor influencing the accuracy of seismic modeling. Various optimized FD schemes for scalar wave modeling have been proposed to reduce grid dispersion, while the optimized time-space domain FD schemes for elastic wave modeling have not been fully investigated yet. In this paper, an optimized FD scheme with Equivalent Staggered Grid (ESG) for elastic modelling has been developed. We start from the constant P- and S-wave speed elastic wave equations and then deduce analytical plane wave solutions in the wavenumber domain with eigenvalue decomposition method. Based on the elastic plane wave solutions, three new time-space domain dispersion relations of ESG elastic modeling are obtained, which are represented by three equations corresponding to P-, S- and converted wave terms in the elastic equations, respectively. By using these new relations, we can study the dispersion errors of different spatial FD terms independently. The dispersion analysis showed that different spatial FD terms have different errors. It is therefore suggested that different FD coefficients to be used to approximate the three spatial derivative terms. In addition, the relative dispersion error in L2-norm is minimized through optimizing FD coefficients using Newton's method. Synthetic examples have demonstrated that this new optimal FD schemes have superior accuracy for elastic wave modeling compared to Taylor-series expansion and optimized space domain FD schemes.

  9. A full-wave Helmholtz model for continuous-wave ultrasound transmission.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Tomi; Malinen, Matti; Kaipio, Jari P; White, Phillip Jason; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2005-03-01

    A full-wave Helmholtz model of continuous-wave (CW) ultrasound fields may offer several attractive features over widely used partial-wave approximations. For example, many full-wave techniques can be easily adjusted for complex geometries, and multiple reflections of sound are automatically taken into account in the model. To date, however, the full-wave modeling of CW fields in general 3D geometries has been avoided due to the large computational cost associated with the numerical approximation of the Helmholtz equation. Recent developments in computing capacity together with improvements in finite element type modeling techniques are making possible wave simulations in 3D geometries which reach over tens of wavelengths. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a full-wave solution of the 3D Helmholtz equation for modeling of continuous-wave ultrasound fields in an inhomogeneous medium. The numerical approximation of the Helmholtz equation is computed using the ultraweak variational formulation (UWVF) method. In addition, an inverse problem technique is utilized to reconstruct the velocity distribution on the transducer which is used to model the sound source in the UWVF scheme. The modeling method is verified by comparing simulated and measured fields in the case of transmission of 531 kHz CW fields through layered plastic plates. The comparison shows a reasonable agreement between simulations and measurements at low angles of incidence but, due to mode conversion, the Helmholtz model becomes insufficient for simulating ultrasound fields in plates at large angles of incidence.

  10. Optimized equivalent staggered-grid FD method for elastic wave modelling based on plane wave solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Peng; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun; Liao, Wenyuan; Qu, Luping; Li, Qingyang; Liu, Peijun

    2017-02-01

    In finite-difference (FD) method, numerical dispersion is the dominant factor influencing the accuracy of seismic modelling. Various optimized FD schemes for scalar wave modelling have been proposed to reduce grid dispersion, while the optimized time-space domain FD schemes for elastic wave modelling have not been fully investigated yet. In this paper, an optimized FD scheme with Equivalent Staggered Grid (ESG) for elastic modelling has been developed. We start from the constant P- and S-wave speed elastic wave equations and then deduce analytical plane wave solutions in the wavenumber domain with eigenvalue decomposition method. Based on the elastic plane wave solutions, three new time-space domain dispersion relations of ESG elastic modelling are obtained, which are represented by three equations corresponding to P-, S- and converted-wave terms in the elastic equations, respectively. By using these new relations, we can study the dispersion errors of different spatial FD terms independently. The dispersion analysis showed that different spatial FD terms have different errors. It is therefore suggested that different FD coefficients to be used to approximate the three spatial derivative terms. In addition, the relative dispersion error in L2-norm is minimized through optimizing FD coefficients using Newton's method. Synthetic examples have demonstrated that this new optimal FD schemes have superior accuracy for elastic wave modelling compared to Taylor-series expansion and optimized space domain FD schemes.

  11. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  12. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  13. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  14. Arguments for fundamental emission by the parametric process L yields T + S in interplanetary type III bursts. [langmuir, electromagnetic, ion acoustic waves (L, T, S)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of low frequency ion acoustic-like waves associated with Langmuir waves present during interplanetary Type 3 bursts are used to study plasma emission mechanisms and wave processes involving ion acoustic waves. It is shown that the observed wave frequency characteristics are consistent with the processes L yields T + S (where L = Langmuir waves, T = electromagnetic waves, S = ion acoustic waves) and L yields L' + S proceeding. The usual incoherent (random phase) version of the process L yields T + S cannot explain the observed wave production time scale. The clumpy nature of the observed Langmuir waves is vital to the theory of IP Type 3 bursts. The incoherent process L yields T + S may encounter difficulties explaining the observed Type 3 brightness temperatures when Langmuir wave clumps are incorporated into the theory. The parametric process L yields T + S may be the important emission process for the fundamental radiation of interplanetary Type 3 bursts.

  15. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  16. Those Elusive Gravitational Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)

  17. Mask Waves Benchmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    24 . Measured frequency vs. set frequency for all data .............................................. 23 25. Benchmark Probe#1 wave amplitude variation...4 8 A- 24 . Wave amplitude by probe, blower speed, lip setting for 0.768 Hz on the short I b an k...frequency and wavemaker bank .................................... 24 B- 1. Coefficient of variation as percentage for all conditions for long bank and bridge

  18. Gravitational waves from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, M. C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-09-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index nT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  19. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  20. The Relativistic Wave Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2009-01-01

    The Lorentz transformation applies directly to the kinematics of moving particles viewed as geometric points. Wave propagation, on the other hand, involves moving planes which are extended objects defined by simultaneity. By treating a plane wave as a geometric object moving at the phase velocity, novel results are obtained that illustrate the…